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Sample records for phenological development leading

  1. The phenological development of Themeda triandra, Elyonurus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The phenological development of Themeda triandra, Elyonurus argenteus and ... fire or drought may have a detrimental effect on leaf, shoot and seed production. ... Keywords: afrikaans; botany; carbohydrate; crude protein content; cutting; ...

  2. Global warming leads to more uniform spring phenology across elevations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitasse, Yann; Signarbieux, Constant; Fu, Yongshuo H

    2018-01-30

    One hundred years ago, Andrew D. Hopkins estimated the progressive delay in tree leaf-out with increasing latitude, longitude, and elevation, referred to as "Hopkins' bioclimatic law." What if global warming is altering this well-known law? Here, based on ∼20,000 observations of the leaf-out date of four common temperate tree species located in 128 sites at various elevations in the European Alps, we found that the elevation-induced phenological shift (EPS) has significantly declined from 34 d⋅1,000 m -1 conforming to Hopkins' bioclimatic law in 1960, to 22 d⋅1,000 m -1 in 2016, i.e., -35%. The stronger phenological advance at higher elevations, responsible for the reduction in EPS, is most likely to be connected to stronger warming during late spring as well as to warmer winter temperatures. Indeed, under similar spring temperatures, we found that the EPS was substantially reduced in years when the previous winter was warmer. Our results provide empirical evidence for a declining EPS over the last six decades. Future climate warming may further reduce the EPS with consequences for the structure and function of mountain forest ecosystems, in particular through changes in plant-animal interactions, but the actual impact of such ongoing change is today largely unknown.

  3. Phenology of the reproductive development of Elaeis oleifera (Kunth Cortes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leidy Paola Moreno

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The phenological stages of oil palm can be coded using the BBCH scale, which has three digits due to the inclusion of intermediate stages between the principal and secondary stages in order to provide greater detail on each developmental stage. For the phenological description of the reproductive development of Elaeis oleifera, the principal stages used were emergence of inflorescence, flowering, fruit growth and development, and fruit ripening. The observations were made in Colombia over a 12 month-period on E. oleifera palms planted in 1991; the observations were made on the daily course or depending on the development stage. The duration of each phenological stage was measured in days. Thus, the appearance of new leaves took 20.1±2.8 days, reaching preanthesis I (601 took 145.09±19.61 days, from this stage to preanthesis II (602 took 7.50±1.50 days, then to preanthesis III (603 took 7.39±1.56 days and finally to anthesis (607 took 5.74±1.32 days. At the population level, it was found that the phenology cycle of inflorescence is annual and that the production of flowers and the opening of inflorescences with pistils is asynchronous.

  4. Phenological cycle and floral development of Chloraea crispa (Orchidaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Steinfort, Ursula; Cisternas, Mauricio A; García, Rolando; Vogel, Hermine; Verdugo, Gabriela

    2012-01-01

    Chloraea crispa Lindl. is a terrestrial orchid endemic to Chile that has potential to be a novel alternative for the cut flower industry. The objectives of this study were to describe the phenological cycle and floral bud development of C. crispa to determine the timing of initiation and differentiation of the spike. During the summer, plants are dormant. The renewal buds are located at the top of the rhizome, next to the buds from which the shoot of the previous season originated. From the e...

  5. Networked web-cameras monitor congruent seasonal development of birches with phenological field observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltoniemi, Mikko; Aurela, Mika; Böttcher, Kristin; Kolari, Pasi; Loehr, John; Karhu, Jouni; Kubin, Eero; Linkosalmi, Maiju; Melih Tanis, Cemal; Nadir Arslan, Ali

    2017-04-01

    Ecosystems' potential to provide services, e.g. to sequester carbon is largely driven by the phenological cycle of vegetation. Timing of phenological events is required for understanding and predicting the influence of climate change on ecosystems and to support various analyses of ecosystem functioning. We established a network of cameras for automated monitoring of phenological activity of vegetation in boreal ecosystems of Finland. Cameras were mounted on 14 sites, each site having 1-3 cameras. In this study, we used cameras at 11 of these sites to investigate how well networked cameras detect phenological development of birches (Betula spp.) along the latitudinal gradient. Birches are interesting focal species for the analyses as they are common throughout Finland. In our cameras they often appear in smaller quantities within dominant species in the images. Here, we tested whether small scattered birch image elements allow reliable extraction of color indices and changes therein. We compared automatically derived phenological dates from these birch image elements to visually determined dates from the same image time series, and to independent observations recorded in the phenological monitoring network from the same region. Automatically extracted season start dates based on the change of green color fraction in the spring corresponded well with the visually interpreted start of season, and field observed budburst dates. During the declining season, red color fraction turned out to be superior over green color based indices in predicting leaf yellowing and fall. The latitudinal gradients derived using automated phenological date extraction corresponded well with gradients based on phenological field observations from the same region. We conclude that already small and scattered birch image elements allow reliable extraction of key phenological dates for birch species. Devising cameras for species specific analyses of phenological timing will be useful for

  6. Phenology MMS: a program to simulate crop phenological responses to water stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crop phenology is fundamental for understanding crop growth and development, and increasingly influences many agricultural management practices. Water deficits are one environmental factor that can influence crop phenology through shortening or lengthening the developmental phase, yet the phenologic...

  7. Simulating crop phenological responses to water stress using the phenology mms software component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crop phenology is fundamental for understanding crop growth and development, and increasingly influences many agricultural management practices. Water deficits are one environmental factor that can influence crop phenology through shortening or lengthening the developmental phase, yet the phenologic...

  8. Deriving phenological metrics from NDVI through an open source tool developed in QGIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Lia; Teodoro, A. C.; Gonçalves, Hernãni

    2014-10-01

    Vegetation indices have been commonly used over the past 30 years for studying vegetation characteristics using images collected by remote sensing satellites. One of the most commonly used is the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). The various stages that green vegetation undergoes during a complete growing season can be summarized through time-series analysis of NDVI data. The analysis of such time-series allow for extracting key phenological variables or metrics of a particular season. These characteristics may not necessarily correspond directly to conventional, ground-based phenological events, but do provide indications of ecosystem dynamics. A complete list of the phenological metrics that can be extracted from smoothed, time-series NDVI data is available in the USGS online resources (http://phenology.cr.usgs.gov/methods_deriving.php).This work aims to develop an open source application to automatically extract these phenological metrics from a set of satellite input data. The main advantage of QGIS for this specific application relies on the easiness and quickness in developing new plug-ins, using Python language, based on the experience of the research group in other related works. QGIS has its own application programming interface (API) with functionalities and programs to develop new features. The toolbar developed for this application was implemented using the plug-in NDVIToolbar.py. The user introduces the raster files as input and obtains a plot and a report with the metrics. The report includes the following eight metrics: SOST (Start Of Season - Time) corresponding to the day of the year identified as having a consistent upward trend in the NDVI time series; SOSN (Start Of Season - NDVI) corresponding to the NDVI value associated with SOST; EOST (End of Season - Time) which corresponds to the day of year identified at the end of a consistent downward trend in the NDVI time series; EOSN (End of Season - NDVI) corresponding to the NDVI value

  9. Assessing climate change effects on long-term forest development: adjusting growth, phenology, and seed production in a gap model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meer, van der P.J.; Jorritsma, I.T.M.; Kramer, K.

    2002-01-01

    The sensitivity of forest development to climate change is assessed using a gap model. Process descriptions in the gap model of growth, phenology, and seed production were adjusted for climate change effects using a detailed process-based growth modeland a regression analysis. Simulation runs over

  10. Survival and phenology of Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) reared on a newly developed artificial diet free of host material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melody A. Keena; Hannah Nadel; Juli. Gould

    2015-01-01

    The final phase in the development of an artificial diet that contains no ash host material and the phenology of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Bupresidae) on that diet are documented. A diet containing powdered ash phloem exists, but host material introduces potential variability and contamination, and the cost and...

  11. Influence of sowing dates on phenological development and yield of dual purpose wheat cultivars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munsif, F.; Arif, M.; Ali, K.

    2015-01-01

    Dual-purpose wheat is getting recognition among community in diverse farming systems. Success of the system depends on management decisions regarding appropriate sowing dates, choice of cultivars, harvesting time and stage. A comprehensive understanding of how these factors influence the growth and phenology of dual purpose wheat is needed for comparison of grain only wheat to dual purpose system to feed the ever increasing population under this system. The existing higher yielding varieties (Saleem-2000, Bathoor-2007, Fakhre Sarhad-99, Uqab-2000, Siran-2008, and Ghaznavi-98) of wheat were sown on various planting dates from early to normal (15th, 30th October and 14th November) and were given cut after 70 days of sowing. The experiment was arranged in randomized complete block design having split plot arrangement with three replications. Results of the study indicated that booting, heading and physiological maturity were significantly influenced by planting dates, among the cultivars and cutting imposed 70 days after sowing. Mid October sowing prolonged booting, heading, anthesis, maturity and had long stature plants and higher grain yield than sowing in mid November. Uqab-2000 booted, headed and reached to anthesis and maturity earlier followed by Ghaznavi-98, Bathoor-2007 and Saleem-2000. Uqab-2000 and Siran-2008 had higher grain yield than other cultivars. Booting, heading, anthesis and maturity were significantly delayed in cutting as compared to no cut plots. Wheat varieties Bathoor-2007, Uqab-2000 and Fakhre Sarhad-99 produced taller plants compared to Saleem-2000. It is concluded that early sowing on mid October had prolonged phenological traits and higher yield of wheat with long stature plants than later sowing (15th November) and variety Fakhre Sarhad-99 unlike Uqab-2000 was late with respect to phenological development. Cutting prior to stem elongation had not delayed the maturity from three days without substantial yield reduction which revealed that

  12. Phenological Records

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Phenology is the scientific study of periodic biological phenomena, such as flowering, breeding, and migration, in relation to climatic conditions. The few records...

  13. Temporal coherence of phenological and climatic rhythmicity in Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaoqiu; Zhang, Weiqi; Ren, Shilong; Lang, Weiguang; Liang, Boyi; Liu, Guohua

    2017-10-01

    Using woody plant phenological data in the Beijing Botanical Garden from 1979 to 2013, we revealed three levels of phenology rhythms and examined their coherence with temperature rhythms. First, the sequential and correlative rhythm shows that occurrence dates of various phenological events obey a certain time sequence within a year and synchronously advance or postpone among years. The positive correlation between spring phenophase dates is much stronger than that between autumn phenophase dates and attenuates as the time interval between two spring phenophases increases. This phenological rhythm can be explained by positive correlation between above 0 °C mean temperatures corresponding to different phenophase dates. Second, the circannual rhythm indicates that recurrence interval of a phenophase in the same species in two adjacent years is about 365 days, which can be explained by the 365-day recurrence interval in the first and last dates of threshold temperatures. Moreover, an earlier phenophase date in the current year may lead to a later phenophase date in the next year through extending recurrence interval. Thus, the plant phenology sequential and correlative rhythm and circannual rhythm are interacted, which mirrors the interaction between seasonal variation and annual periodicity of temperature. Finally, the multi-year rhythm implies that phenophase dates display quasi-periodicity more than 1 year. The same 12-year periodicity in phenophase and threshold temperature dates confirmed temperature controls of the phenology multi-year rhythm. Our findings provide new perspectives for examining phenological response to climate change and developing comprehensive phenology models considering temporal coherence of phenological and climatic rhythmicity.

  14. Determining the water use of rambutan and longkong during phenological development by heat-pulse method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sdoodee, S.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The water use of two species of tropical fruit trees: rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum and longkong (Aglaia dookkoo Griff. were investigated by heat-pulse method. The sapflow rate of both species were determined during phenological development. An experiment was established at Prince of Songkla University, Songkhla Province. Characteristics of sapwood in each species and optimum depth for probe implanting on the trunk were investigated. During the measurement period, diurnal changes of photon flux density, leaf water potential and stomatal conductance were recorded. It was found that sapwood of rambutan and longkong were homogeneous. An appropriate probe depth to implant on the trunk was 25 mm from bark. It was found that diurnal changes of sapflow rates of each species varied with the changes of radiation, leaf water potential and stomata conductance. The results of measurement showed that water use decreased at pre-flowering stage, and fruit maturity stage. In rambutan, water use increased during vegetative growth stage followed by flowering stage. The marked increase of water use in rambutan was during fruit development. In longkong, water use increased at the flowering stage followed by vegetative growth stage, and the peak of water use was during fruit development.

  15. Phenology prediction component of GypsES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesse A. Logan; Lukas P. Schaub; F. William Ravlin

    1991-01-01

    Prediction of phenology is an important component of most pest management programs, and considerable research effort has been expended toward development of predictive tools for gypsy moth phenology. Although phenological prediction is potentially valuable for timing of spray applications (e.g. Bt, or Gypcheck) and other management activities (e.g. placement and...

  16. How Resource Phenology Affects Consumer Population Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bewick, Sharon; Cantrell, R Stephen; Cosner, Chris; Fagan, William F

    2016-02-01

    Climate change drives uneven phenology shifts across taxa, and this can result in changes to the phenological match between interacting species. Shifts in the relative phenology of partner species are well documented, but few studies have addressed the effects of such changes on population dynamics. To explore this, we develop a phenologically explicit model describing consumer-resource interactions. Focusing on scenarios for univoltine insects, we show how changes in resource phenology can be reinterpreted as transformations in the year-to-year recursion relationships defining consumer population dynamics. This perspective provides a straightforward path for interpreting the long-term population consequences of phenology change. Specifically, by relating the outcome of phenological shifts to species traits governing recursion relationships (e.g., consumer fecundity or competitive scenario), we demonstrate how changes in relative phenology can force systems into different dynamical regimes, with major implications for resource management, conservation, and other areas of applied dynamics.

  17. Model Development to Predict Phenological scale of Table Grapes (cvs. Thompson, Crimson and Superior Seedless and Red Globe using Growing Degree Days

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Verdugo-Vásquez

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Phenological models have been made mainly for winegrape cultivars, despite the economic importance of table grapes. The aim of this work was to develop and validate models for predicting phenological scales of table grapes (cvs. Thompson, Crimson and Superior Seedless and Red Globe grown under semi-arid conditions. Measurements of phenology were carried out weekly from budburst to harvest during four growing seasons (2009-2013. Phenology models were developed using the Mitscherlich monomolecular equation where the dependent and independent variables were the Eichhorn and Lorenz phenological (ELP scale modified by Coombe and the growing degree days (GDD, respectively. Results indicated that there were strong non-linear correlations between the ELP scale and GDD for the four cultivars with coefficient of determinations (R2 ranging between 0.97-0.99. Also, validation indicated that the models were able to predict ELP scale with a root mean square (RMSE and mean absolute error (MAE ranging between 2.1-2.4 and 1.35-1.69, respectively. The prediction variability (expressed in days was between 4.4-19.4 days, obtaining the best results for the flowering period. This study suggested that the phenological models based on GDD could be useful planning tools for farming, especially from budburst to veraison of table grape cultivars.

  18. Development of Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) Related to the Phenology of Blueberry, Blackberry, Strawberry Guava, and Surinam Cherry Fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisognin, M; Nava, D E; Diez-Rodríguez, G I; Valgas, R A; Garcia, M S; Krolow, A C R; Antunes, L E C

    2015-02-01

    Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann, 1830) is the main pest of temperate climate orcharding. The study investigated the development of A. fraterculus related to phenological stage of blueberry, blackberry, strawberry guava, and Surinam cherry trees. The phenological stages I (green fruits), II (intermediate ripening stage of fruits), and III (fruits close to harvesting) were determined, and they are from 8th, 10th, and 11th week; 6th, 8th, and 9th week; 8th, 13th, and 16th week; and 5th, 6th, and 7th week after the first flowering of blueberry, blackberry, strawberry guava, and Surinam cherry trees, respectively. We collected fruits from orchards to determine the infestation index using the formula: number of pupa/fruit weight. To investigate the development of A. fraterculus, we determined the following biological parameters: egg-to-adult period, weight of pupae, oviposition period, fecundity, number of pupae, and number of infested fruits. The infestation index for the fruits collected in the field was greater in strawberry guava and Surinam cherry fruits. In the laboratory, the development of A. fraterculus occurred in stage III of blueberry. In blackberry, besides stage III, we also observed the development in stage II, however, at lower infestation. In strawberry guava, the development of A. fraterulus occurred in stages II and III, and the development in both stages was similar. For Surinam cherry, the development occurred in the three phenological stages with similar values for biological parameters. Overall, of the four hosts studied, the strawberry guava and Surinam cherry fruits allowed a better biological development of A. fraterculus, corroborating its preference for fruits native to Brazil. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Developing A Model for Lake Ice Phenology Using Satellite Remote Sensing Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoglund, S. K.; Weathers, K. C.; Norouzi, H.; Prakash, S.; Ewing, H. A.

    2017-12-01

    Many northern temperate freshwater lakes are freezing over later and thawing earlier. This shift in timing, and the resulting shorter duration of seasonal ice cover, is expected to impact ecological processes, negatively affecting aquatic species and the quality of water we drink. Long-term, direct observations have been used to analyze changes in ice phenology, but those data are sparse relative to the number of lakes affected. Here we develop a model to utilize remote sensing data in approximating the dates of ice-on and ice-off for many years over a variety of lakes. Day and night surface temperatures from MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) Aqua and Terra (MYD11A1 and MOD11A1 data products) for 2002-2017 were utilized in combination with observed ice-on and ice-off dates of Lake Auburn, Maine, to determine the ability of MODIS data to match ground-based observations. A moving average served to interpolate MODIS temperature data to fill data gaps from cloudy days. The nighttime data were used for ice-off, and the daytime measurements were used for ice-on predictions to avoid fluctuations between day and night ice/water status. The 0˚C intercepts of those data were used to mark approximate days of ice-on or ice-off. This revealed that approximations for ice-off dates were satisfactory (average ±8.2 days) for Lake Auburn as well as for Lake Sunapee, New Hampshire (average ±8.1 days), while approximations for Lake Auburn ice-on were less accurate and showed consistently earlier-than-observed ice-on dates (average -33.8 days). The comparison of observed and remotely sensed Lake Auburn ice cover duration showed relative agreement with a correlation coefficient of 0.46. Other remote sensing observations, such as the new GOES-R satellite, and further exploration of the ice formation process can improve ice-on approximation methods. The model shows promise for estimating ice-on, ice-off, and ice cover duration for northern temperate lakes.

  20. Intraspecific priority effects modify compensatory responses to changes in hatching phenology in an amphibian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murillo-Rincón, Andrea P; Kolter, Nora A; Laurila, Anssi; Orizaola, Germán

    2017-01-01

    In seasonal environments, modifications in the phenology of life-history events can alter the strength of time constraints experienced by organisms. Offspring can compensate for a change in timing of hatching by modifying their growth and development trajectories. However, intra- and interspecific interactions may affect these compensatory responses, in particular if differences in phenology between cohorts lead to significant priority effects (i.e. the competitive advantage that early-hatching individuals have over late-hatching ones). Here, we conducted a factorial experiment to determine whether intraspecific priority effects can alter compensatory phenotypic responses to hatching delay in a synchronic breeder by rearing moor frog (Rana arvalis) tadpoles in different combinations of phenological delay and food abundance. Tadpoles compensated for the hatching delay by speeding up their development, but only when reared in groups of individuals with identical hatching phenology. In mixed phenology groups, strong competitive effects by non-delayed tadpoles prevented the compensatory responses and delayed larvae metamorphosed later than in single phenology treatments. Non-delayed individuals gained advantage from developing with delayed larvae by increasing their developmental and growth rates as compared to single phenology groups. Food shortage prolonged larval period and reduced mass at metamorphosis in all treatments, but it did not prevent compensatory developmental responses in larvae reared in single phenology groups. This study demonstrates that strong intraspecific priority effects can constrain the compensatory growth and developmental responses to phenological change, and that priority effects can be an important factor explaining the maintenance of synchronic life histories (i.e. explosive breeding) in seasonal environments. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2016 British Ecological Society.

  1. Leading and Managing Continuing Professional Development: Developing People, Developing Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earley, Peter; Bubb, Sara

    2004-01-01

    This book has been written for those who lead and manage continuing professional development (CPD). Continuing professional development co-coordinators hold a key role and one that needs to be developed further in many schools. This book is intended to help people think more deeply about the professional development and training of staff--all…

  2. Interpreting canopy development and physiology using a European phenology camera network at flux sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wingate, L.; Ogeé, J.; Cremonese, E.

    2015-01-01

    ). We also investigated whether the seasonal patterns of red, green and blue colour fractions derived from digital images could be modelled mechanistically using the PROSAIL model parameterised with information of seasonal changes in canopy leaf area and leaf chlorophyll and carotenoid concentrations...... cameras installed on towers across Europe above deciduous and evergreen forests, grasslands and croplands, where vegetation and atmosphere CO2 fluxes are measured continuously. Using colour indices from digital images and using piecewise regression analysis of time series, we explored whether key changes...... in canopy phenology could be detected automatically across different land use types in the network. The piecewise regression approach could capture the start and end of the growing season, in addition to identifying striking changes in colour signals caused by flowering and management practices...

  3. Phenology and egg production of the cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum(Lepidoptera: Pyralidae): comparison of field census data and life stage development in the field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natural phenology and development of the cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) was studied under field conditions in St. Marks National Wildlife Refuge, St. Marks, FL. from July 2006 to September 2007. Cactus pads (Opuntia stricta Haw. [Cactaceae]) were visually surveyed...

  4. Experimental drought and heat can delay phenological development and reduce foliar and shoot growth in semiarid trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Henry D; Collins, Adam D; Briggs, Samuel P; Vennetier, Michel; Dickman, L Turin; Sevanto, Sanna A; Garcia-Forner, Núria; Powers, Heath H; McDowell, Nate G

    2015-11-01

    Higher temperatures associated with climate change are anticipated to trigger an earlier start to the growing season, which could increase the terrestrial C sink strength. Greater variability in the amount and timing of precipitation is also expected with higher temperatures, bringing increased drought stress to many ecosystems. We experimentally assessed the effects of higher temperature and drought on the foliar phenology and shoot growth of mature trees of two semiarid conifer species. We exposed field-grown trees to a ~45% reduction in precipitation with a rain-out structure ('drought'), a ~4.8 °C temperature increase with open-top chambers ('heat'), and a combination of both simultaneously ('drought + heat'). Over the 2013 growing season, drought, heat, and drought + heat treatments reduced shoot and needle growth in piñon pine (Pinus edulis) by ≥39%, while juniper (Juniperus monosperma) had low growth and little response to these treatments. Needle emergence on primary axis branches of piñon pine was delayed in heat, drought, and drought + heat treatments by 19-57 days, while secondary axis branches were less likely to produce needles in the heat treatment, and produced no needles at all in the drought + heat treatment. Growth of shoots and needles, and the timing of needle emergence correlated inversely with xylem water tension and positively with nonstructural carbohydrate concentrations. Our findings demonstrate the potential for delayed phenological development and reduced growth with higher temperatures and drought in tree species that are vulnerable to drought and reveal potential mechanistic links to physiological stress responses. Climate change projections of an earlier and longer growing season with higher temperatures, and consequent increases in terrestrial C sink strength, may be incorrect for regions where plants will face increased drought stress with climate change. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Heritability and combining ability of vegetative growth and phenological development of diallel crosses of rapeseed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naheed Hafsa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To estimate combining ability and heritability of F2 populations of 4 x 4 full diallel crosses and parents, an experiment was carried out at The University of Agriculture, during 2012-2013. Four parental lines and F2 populations of six direct and six reciprocal crosses were planted in the experiment using RCB design. Data were recorded on phenological and vegetative growth traits: Days to flowering, plant height, main stem length, main raceme length, primary branches, and days to maturity. Analysis of variance revealed significant variation among genotypes for all the parameters studied. The results of combining ability analysis showed that general combining ability (GCA was highly significant for primary branches plant-1, significant for plant height and days to physiological maturity and non-significant for the remaining traits. Specific combining ability (SCA and reciprocal effects (RE were significant for plant height, days to flowering, main raceme length and days to physiological maturity. Genotype AUP-401 was best general combiner for main raceme length, primary branches plant-1 and days to physiological maturity. Among the crosses, AUP-404 x AUP-402 was best specific combiner for plant height, days to flowering and main stem length. Broad sense heritability was high (>70% for plant height, main stem length and primary branches. Moderate heritability was observed for main raceme length, days to 50% flowering and days to physiological maturity. The variance components of SCA were greater than respective GCA components of all the characters signifying the presence of non- additive genetic effects in transfer of these traits and selection in the later generations should be practiced for improvement of these traits.

  6. Leading Practice Development: Voices from the Middle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grootenboer, Peter; Edwards-Groves, Christine; Rönnerman, Karin

    2015-01-01

    Leadership has long been acknowledged as a significant dimension in effective school functioning and, indeed, school leaders can play a substantial role in professional development of staff. Here we have centred on the "practices of leading" as opposed to the qualities or characteristics of leaders, and this is emphasised by our use of…

  7. Developing a phenological model for grapevine to assess future frost risk in Luxembourg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caffarra, A.; Molitor, D.; Pertot, I.; Sinigoy, P.; Junk, J.

    2012-04-01

    Late frost damage represents a significant hazard to grape production in cool climate viticulture regions such as Luxembourg. The main aim of our study is to analyze the frequency of these events for the Luxembourg's winegrowing region in the future. Spring frost injuries on grape may occur when young green parts are exposed to air temperature below 0°C. The potential risk is determined by: (i) minimum air temperature conditions and the (ii) the timing of bud burst. Therefore, we developed and validated a model for budburst of the grapevine (*Vitis vinifera)* cultivar Rivaner, the most grown local variety, based on multi-annual data from 7 different sites across Europe and the US. An advantage of this approach is, that it could be applied to a wide range of climate conditions. Higher spring temperatures were projected for the future and could lead to earlier dates of budburst as well as earlier dates of last frost events in the season. However, so far it is unknown if this will increase or decrease the risk of severe late frost damages for Luxembourg's winegrowing region. To address this question results of 10 regional climate change projections from the FP6 ENSEMBLES project (spatial resolution = 25km; A1B emission scenario) were combined with the new bud burst model. The use of a multi model ensemble of climate change projections allows for a better quantification of the uncertainties. A bias corrections scheme, based on local observations, was applied to the model output. Projected daily minimum air temperatures, up to 2098, were compared to the projected date of bud burst in order to quantify the future frost risk for Luxembourg.

  8. Automated processing of webcam images for phenological classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bothmann, Ludwig; Menzel, Annette; Menze, Bjoern H; Schunk, Christian; Kauermann, Göran

    2017-01-01

    Along with the global climate change, there is an increasing interest for its effect on phenological patterns such as start and end of the growing season. Scientific digital webcams are used for this purpose taking every day one or more images from the same natural motive showing for example trees or grassland sites. To derive phenological patterns from the webcam images, regions of interest are manually defined on these images by an expert and subsequently a time series of percentage greenness is derived and analyzed with respect to structural changes. While this standard approach leads to satisfying results and allows to determine dates of phenological change points, it is associated with a considerable amount of manual work and is therefore constrained to a limited number of webcams only. In particular, this forbids to apply the phenological analysis to a large network of publicly accessible webcams in order to capture spatial phenological variation. In order to be able to scale up the analysis to several hundreds or thousands of webcams, we propose and evaluate two automated alternatives for the definition of regions of interest, allowing for efficient analyses of webcam images. A semi-supervised approach selects pixels based on the correlation of the pixels' time series of percentage greenness with a few prototype pixels. An unsupervised approach clusters pixels based on scores of a singular value decomposition. We show for a scientific webcam that the resulting regions of interest are at least as informative as those chosen by an expert with the advantage that no manual action is required. Additionally, we show that the methods can even be applied to publicly available webcams accessed via the internet yielding interesting partitions of the analyzed images. Finally, we show that the methods are suitable for the intended big data applications by analyzing 13988 webcams from the AMOS database. All developed methods are implemented in the statistical software

  9. Phenology of Lymantria monacha (Lepidoptera:Lymantriidae) laboratory reared on spruce foliage or a newly developed artificial diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melody A. Keena; Alice Vandel; Oldrich. Pultar

    2010-01-01

    Lymantria monacha (L.) (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) is a Eurasian pest of conifers that has potential for accidental introduction into North America. The phenology over the entire life cycle for L. monacha individuals from the Czech Republic was compared on Picea glauca (Moench) Voss (white spruce) and a newly...

  10. Exploring how lead users develop radical innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lettl, Christopher; Gemuenden, Hans Georg; Hienerth, C.

    2008-01-01

    in order to transform their radically new solutions into functional prototypes and then to convince established manufacturers of the technological and market potential of their innovations. Using a comparative case study design in the high-tech field of medical equipment technology, we find that individual...... the supply of diversified knowledge, the development and coordination of a network for further development of the innovation, and initial tests of technical or market feasibility. Our findings have implications for manufacturing firms that wish to design radical innovation projects with (individual) lead...

  11. Leading sector development in Muaro Jambi District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Safri

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Efforts to improve economic development and economic growth of Muaro Jambi Regency is a must. Efforts to increase economic development and economic growth can occur, if local governments are able to determine or identify priority sectors or become a base sector. Given the importance of determining and defining the right and correct strategy in the development of leading economic sectors/bases, it is necessary to conduct further study related to the development of leading sector policy in Muaro Jambi Regency. Analysis tools that are used are LQ (Location Quotient and SWOT analysis. The results of the analysis found that of there are three sectors that are the main sector or base in Muaro Jambi Regency, namely agriculture, livestock, plantation, fishery and forestry sector, mining and quarrying sector and manufacturing industry sector. Strategies that can be done in order to maintain and develop the sector and sub-sectors/recommended base there are several alternative strategies that combine internal environmental conditions and external environment Muaro Jambi Regency is S - O (power against opportunities, S - T (power against threats W - O (weakness to opportunity and W - T (weakness to threat. Keywords: Location Quotient, SWOT Analysis, Base Sector

  12. The European Phenology Network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, van A.J.H.; Groot, de R.S.; Bellens, Y.; Braun, P.; Bruegger, R.; Bruns, E.; Clevers, J.G.P.W.; Estreguil, C.; Flechsig, M.; Jeanneret, F.; Maggi, M.; Martens, P.; Menne, B.; Menzel, A.; Sparks, T.

    2003-01-01

    The analysis of changes in the timing of life cycle-events of organisms (phenology) has been able to contribute significantly to the assessment of potential impacts of climate change on ecology. These phenological responses of species to changes in climate are likely to have significant relevance

  13. Can phenological models predict tree phenology accurately under climate change conditions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuine, Isabelle; Bonhomme, Marc; Legave, Jean Michel; García de Cortázar-Atauri, Inaki; Charrier, Guillaume; Lacointe, André; Améglio, Thierry

    2014-05-01

    The onset of the growing season of trees has been globally earlier by 2.3 days/decade during the last 50 years because of global warming and this trend is predicted to continue according to climate forecast. The effect of temperature on plant phenology is however not linear because temperature has a dual effect on bud development. On one hand, low temperatures are necessary to break bud dormancy, and on the other hand higher temperatures are necessary to promote bud cells growth afterwards. Increasing phenological changes in temperate woody species have strong impacts on forest trees distribution and productivity, as well as crops cultivation areas. Accurate predictions of trees phenology are therefore a prerequisite to understand and foresee the impacts of climate change on forests and agrosystems. Different process-based models have been developed in the last two decades to predict the date of budburst or flowering of woody species. They are two main families: (1) one-phase models which consider only the ecodormancy phase and make the assumption that endodormancy is always broken before adequate climatic conditions for cell growth occur; and (2) two-phase models which consider both the endodormancy and ecodormancy phases and predict a date of dormancy break which varies from year to year. So far, one-phase models have been able to predict accurately tree bud break and flowering under historical climate. However, because they do not consider what happens prior to ecodormancy, and especially the possible negative effect of winter temperature warming on dormancy break, it seems unlikely that they can provide accurate predictions in future climate conditions. It is indeed well known that a lack of low temperature results in abnormal pattern of bud break and development in temperate fruit trees. An accurate modelling of the dormancy break date has thus become a major issue in phenology modelling. Two-phases phenological models predict that global warming should delay

  14. Biotic and abiotic factors impacting development, behavior, phenology, and reproductive biology of Drosophila suzukii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii, quickly emerged as a devastating invasive pest of small and stone fruits in the Americas and Europe. To better understand the population dynamics of D. suzukii, we reviewed recent work on juvenile development, adult reproduction, and seasonal variation in...

  15. PEP725 Pan European Phenological Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, E.; Adler, S.; Lipa, W.; Ungersböck, M.; Zach-Hermann, S.

    2010-09-01

    Europe is in the fortunate situation that it has a long tradition in phenological networking: the history of collecting phenological data and using them in climatology has its starting point in 1751 when Carl von Linné outlined in his work Philosophia Botanica methods for compiling annual plant calendars of leaf opening, flowering, fruiting and leaf fall together with climatological observations "so as to show how areas differ". Recently in most European countries, phenological observations have been carried out routinely for more than 50 years by different governmental and non governmental organisations and following different observation guidelines, the data stored at different places in different formats. This has been really hampering pan European studies as one has to address many network operators to get access to the data before one can start to bring them in a uniform style. From 2004 to 2009 the COST-action 725 established a European wide data set of phenological observations. But the deliverables of this COST action was not only the common phenological database and common observation guidelines - COST725 helped to trigger a revival of some old networks and to establish new ones as for instance in Sweden. At the end of 2009 the COST action the database comprised about 8 million data in total from 15 European countries plus the data from the International Phenological Gardens IPG. In January 2010 PEP725 began its work as follow up project with funding from EUMETNET the network of European meteorological services and of ZAMG the Austrian national meteorological service. PEP725 not only will take over the part of maintaining, updating the COST725 database, but also to bring in phenological data from the time before 1951, developing better quality checking procedures and ensuring an open access to the database. An attractive webpage will make phenology and climate impacts on vegetation more visible in the public enabling a monitoring of vegetation development.

  16. e-phenology: monitoring leaf phenology and tracking climate changes in the tropics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morellato, Patrícia; Alberton, Bruna; Almeida, Jurandy; Alex, Jefersson; Mariano, Greice; Torres, Ricardo

    2014-05-01

    channel. We analyzed a daily sequence of images (6:00 to 18:00 h). Our results are innovative and indicate the great variation in color change response for tropical trees. We validate the camera phenology with our on the ground direct observation in the core cerrado site 1. We are developing a Image processing software to authomatic process the digital images and to generate the time series for further analyses. New techniques and image features have been used to extract seasonal features from data and for data processing, such as machine learning and visual rhythms. Machine learning was successful applied to identify similar species within the image. Visual rhythms show up as a new analytic tool for phenological interpretation. Next research steps include the analyses of longer data series, correlation with local climatic data, analyses and comparison of patterns among different vegetation sites, prepare a compressive protocol for digital camera phenology and develop new technologies to access vegetation changes using digital cameras. Support: FAPESP-Micorsoft Research, CNPq, CAPES.

  17. Developing a workflow to identify inconsistencies in volunteered geographic information: a phenological case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehdipoor, Hamed; Zurita-Milla, Raul; Rosemartin, Alyssa; Gerst, Katharine L.; Weltzin, Jake F.

    2015-01-01

    Recent improvements in online information communication and mobile location-aware technologies have led to the production of large volumes of volunteered geographic information. Widespread, large-scale efforts by volunteers to collect data can inform and drive scientific advances in diverse fields, including ecology and climatology. Traditional workflows to check the quality of such volunteered information can be costly and time consuming as they heavily rely on human interventions. However, identifying factors that can influence data quality, such as inconsistency, is crucial when these data are used in modeling and decision-making frameworks. Recently developed workflows use simple statistical approaches that assume that the majority of the information is consistent. However, this assumption is not generalizable, and ignores underlying geographic and environmental contextual variability that may explain apparent inconsistencies. Here we describe an automated workflow to check inconsistency based on the availability of contextual environmental information for sampling locations. The workflow consists of three steps: (1) dimensionality reduction to facilitate further analysis and interpretation of results, (2) model-based clustering to group observations according to their contextual conditions, and (3) identification of inconsistent observations within each cluster. The workflow was applied to volunteered observations of flowering in common and cloned lilac plants (Syringa vulgaris and Syringa x chinensis) in the United States for the period 1980 to 2013. About 97% of the observations for both common and cloned lilacs were flagged as consistent, indicating that volunteers provided reliable information for this case study. Relative to the original dataset, the exclusion of inconsistent observations changed the apparent rate of change in lilac bloom dates by two days per decade, indicating the importance of inconsistency checking as a key step in data quality

  18. Developing a Workflow to Identify Inconsistencies in Volunteered Geographic Information: A Phenological Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehdipoor, Hamed; Zurita-Milla, Raul; Rosemartin, Alyssa; Gerst, Katharine L; Weltzin, Jake F

    2015-01-01

    Recent improvements in online information communication and mobile location-aware technologies have led to the production of large volumes of volunteered geographic information. Widespread, large-scale efforts by volunteers to collect data can inform and drive scientific advances in diverse fields, including ecology and climatology. Traditional workflows to check the quality of such volunteered information can be costly and time consuming as they heavily rely on human interventions. However, identifying factors that can influence data quality, such as inconsistency, is crucial when these data are used in modeling and decision-making frameworks. Recently developed workflows use simple statistical approaches that assume that the majority of the information is consistent. However, this assumption is not generalizable, and ignores underlying geographic and environmental contextual variability that may explain apparent inconsistencies. Here we describe an automated workflow to check inconsistency based on the availability of contextual environmental information for sampling locations. The workflow consists of three steps: (1) dimensionality reduction to facilitate further analysis and interpretation of results, (2) model-based clustering to group observations according to their contextual conditions, and (3) identification of inconsistent observations within each cluster. The workflow was applied to volunteered observations of flowering in common and cloned lilac plants (Syringa vulgaris and Syringa x chinensis) in the United States for the period 1980 to 2013. About 97% of the observations for both common and cloned lilacs were flagged as consistent, indicating that volunteers provided reliable information for this case study. Relative to the original dataset, the exclusion of inconsistent observations changed the apparent rate of change in lilac bloom dates by two days per decade, indicating the importance of inconsistency checking as a key step in data quality

  19. Investigating the impact of climate change on crop phenological events in Europe with a phenology model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Shaoxiu; Churkina, Galina; Trusilova, Kristina

    2012-07-01

    Predicting regional and global carbon and water dynamics requires a realistic representation of vegetation phenology. Vegetation models including cropland models exist (e.g. LPJmL, Daycent, SIBcrop, ORCHIDEE-STICS, PIXGRO) but they have various limitations in predicting cropland phenological events and their responses to climate change. Here, we investigate how leaf onset and offset days of major European croplands responded to changes in climate from 1971 to 2000 using a newly developed phenological model, which solely relies on climate data. Net ecosystem exchange (NEE) data measured with eddy covariance technique at seven sites in Europe were used to adjust model parameters for wheat, barley, and rapeseed. Observational data from the International Phenology Gardens were used to corroborate modeled phenological responses to changes in climate. Enhanced vegetation index (EVI) and a crop calendar were explored as alternative predictors of leaf onset and harvest days, respectively, over a large spatial scale. In each spatial model simulation, we assumed that all European croplands were covered by only one crop type. Given this assumption, the model estimated that the leaf onset days for wheat, barley, and rapeseed in Germany advanced by 1.6, 3.4, and 3.4 days per decade, respectively, during 1961-2000. The majority of European croplands (71.4%) had an advanced mean leaf onset day for wheat, barley, and rapeseed (7.0% significant), whereas 28.6% of European croplands had a delayed leaf onset day (0.9% significant) during 1971-2000. The trend of advanced onset days estimated by the model is similar to observations from the International Phenology Gardens in Europe. The developed phenological model can be integrated into a large-scale ecosystem model to simulate the dynamics of phenological events at different temporal and spatial scales. Crop calendars and enhanced vegetation index have substantial uncertainties in predicting phenological events of croplands. Caution

  20. The Plant Phenology Ontology: A New Informatics Resource for Large-Scale Integration of Plant Phenology Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stucky, Brian J; Guralnick, Rob; Deck, John; Denny, Ellen G; Bolmgren, Kjell; Walls, Ramona

    2018-01-01

    Plant phenology - the timing of plant life-cycle events, such as flowering or leafing out - plays a fundamental role in the functioning of terrestrial ecosystems, including human agricultural systems. Because plant phenology is often linked with climatic variables, there is widespread interest in developing a deeper understanding of global plant phenology patterns and trends. Although phenology data from around the world are currently available, truly global analyses of plant phenology have so far been difficult because the organizations producing large-scale phenology data are using non-standardized terminologies and metrics during data collection and data processing. To address this problem, we have developed the Plant Phenology Ontology (PPO). The PPO provides the standardized vocabulary and semantic framework that is needed for large-scale integration of heterogeneous plant phenology data. Here, we describe the PPO, and we also report preliminary results of using the PPO and a new data processing pipeline to build a large dataset of phenology information from North America and Europe.

  1. Development and release of phenological data products—A case study in compliance with federal open data policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosemartin, Alyssa H.; Langseth, Madison L.; Crimmins, Theresa M.; Weltzin, Jake F.

    2018-01-31

    In Autumn 2015, USA National Phenology Network (USA-NPN) staff implemented new U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) data-management policies intended to ensure that the results of Federally funded research are made available to the public. The effort aimed both to improve USA-NPN data releases and to provide a model for similar programs within the USGS. This report provides an overview of the steps taken to ensure compliance, following the USGS Science Data Lifecycle, and provides lessons learned about the data-release process for USGS program leaders and data managers.

  2. Phenological Stages of Development of Tribulus terrestris L. (Zygophyllaceae R. Br.) Under the Conditions of the Thracian Lowland Floristic Region of Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    SEMERDJIEVA, Ivanka; TAHSINT, Nuretin; YANKOVATSVETKOVA, Elina

    2015-01-01

    The phenological stages of Tribulus terrestris L. in the Thracian Lowland floristic region of Bulgaria were studied. Growth characteristics of the species, the length of the vegetation period and the duration of each phenological stage were studied in three consecutive years. A detailed phonological spectrum was presented. A direct relation was established between the duration of the phenological stages, the calendar periods and the climatic features of the respective year

  3. Phenology, dichogamy, and floral synchronization in a northern red oak (Quercus rubra) seed orchard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisa W. Alexander; Keith E. Woeste

    2016-01-01

    We developed a novel scoring system to assess spring phenology in a northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) clonal seed orchard. The system was used to score from 304 to 364 ramets for three reproductive seasons and to place clones into early, intermediate, and late phenology classes. Although the absolute number of clones in each phenological class...

  4. Nature's Notebook Provides Phenology Observations for NASA Juniper Phenology and Pollen Transport Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luval, J. C.; Crimmins, T. M.; Sprigg, W. A.; Levetin, E.; Huete, A.; Nickovic, S.; Prasad, A.; Vukovic, A.; VandeWater, P. K.; Budge, A. M.; hide

    2014-01-01

    Phenology Network has been established to provide national wide observations of vegetation phenology. However, as the Network is still in the early phases of establishment and growth, the density of observers is not yet adequate to sufficiently document the phenology variability over large regions. Hence a combination of satellite data and ground observations can provide optimal information regarding juniperus spp. pollen phenology. MODIS data was to observe Juniperus supp. pollen phenology. The MODIS surface reflectance product provided information on the Juniper supp. cone formation and cone density. Ground based observational records of pollen release timing and quantities were used as verification. Approximately 10, 818 records of juniper phenology for male cone formation Juniperus ashei., J. monosperma, J. scopulorum, and J. pinchotti were reported by Nature's Notebook observers in 2013 These observations provided valuable information for the analysis of satellite images for developing the pollen concentration masks for input into the PREAM (Pollen REgional Atmospheric Model) pollen transport model. The combination of satellite data and ground observations allowed us to improve our confidence in predicting pollen release and spread, thereby improving asthma and allergy alerts.

  5. Effect of winter cold duration on spring phenology of the orange tip butterfly, Anthocharis cardamines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stålhandske, Sandra; Lehmann, Philipp; Pruisscher, Peter; Leimar, Olof

    2015-12-01

    The effect of spring temperature on spring phenology is well understood in a wide range of taxa. However, studies on how winter conditions may affect spring phenology are underrepresented. Previous work on Anthocharis cardamines (orange tip butterfly) has shown population-specific reaction norms of spring development in relation to spring temperature and a speeding up of post-winter development with longer winter durations. In this experiment, we examined the effects of a greater and ecologically relevant range of winter durations on post-winter pupal development of A. cardamines of two populations from the United Kingdom and two from Sweden. By analyzing pupal weight loss and metabolic rate, we were able to separate the overall post-winter pupal development into diapause duration and post-diapause development. We found differences in the duration of cold needed to break diapause among populations, with the southern UK population requiring a shorter duration than the other populations. We also found that the overall post-winter pupal development time, following removal from winter cold, was negatively related to cold duration, through a combined effect of cold duration on diapause duration and on post-diapause development time. Longer cold durations also lead to higher population synchrony in hatching. For current winter durations in the field, the A. cardamines population of southern UK could have a reduced development rate and lower synchrony in emergence because of short winters. With future climate change, this might become an issue also for other populations. Differences in winter conditions in the field among these four populations are large enough to have driven local adaptation of characteristics controlling spring phenology in response to winter duration. The observed phenology of these populations depends on a combination of winter and spring temperatures; thus, both must be taken into account for accurate predictions of phenology.

  6. Developments in lead-salt diode lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Partin, D.L.

    1985-01-01

    Lead-chalcogenide diode lasers are useful as mid-infrared sources (2-1/2 <λ<30 μm), but have generally operated CW below 100K. A new materials system, PbEuSeTe, has been used to fabricate diode lasers operating from 10K (at 6.5 μm wavelength) up to 174K CW (at 4.4 μm) and up to 280K pulsed (at 3.8 μm). These are large optical cavity single quantum well devices grown by molecular beam epitaxy. These are currently the highest diode laser operating temperatures ever achieved at these wavelengths to our knowledge. Single ended output powers as high as 1 mW single mode (5 mW multimode) have been attained from mesa stripe diodes. These characteristics make these devices attractive for long wavelength fiber optic sensor/communications systems. The performance limits of these devices are discussed

  7. Stucture and development of the secondary lead capacity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baack, T [Metallgesellschaft A.G., Frankfurt am Main (Germany, F.R.)

    1978-05-01

    Lead is considered to be one of the 'finite' raw materials, but in the form it is normally used, it can almost be infinitely recycled. Lead wastes and lead scrap are in a way secondary sources which continuously regenerate. The regeneration power of lead has a leading position among non-precious metals. The reasons behind the capability to regenerate lead and future developments are discussed.

  8. Leading Staff Development for School Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubb, Sara; Earley, Peter

    2009-01-01

    As part of a CfBT Education Trust funded study, we investigated the practical steps school leaders can take to ensure that self-evaluation of school performance led, through the effective staff development, to genuine school improvement. On the journey from self-evaluation to school improvement our research identified what schools did that worked,…

  9. Leading Change: Faculty Development through Structured Collaboration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Painter

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available There are relentless calls for innovation in higher education programs in response to media and policy-makers attention to such concerns as instructional quality, relevance to employment, costs, and time-to-degree. At the same time, the individual course remains the primary unit of instruction and there is little evidence of faculty development strategies to assist with changing core instructional practices. We faced that dilemma when we led an innovative doctoral program in educational leadership. Soon after beginning, we implemented a regular meeting of all faculty members teaching and advising in the program to address upcoming events and review student progress. Our retrospective analysis indicates that these meetings evolved as a practical and sustainable framework for faculty development in support of deep change for instructional practices. Here we describe the challenge of faculty development for change and draw lessons learned from our four years of leadership centered on experiential learning and community sense-making. We hope that program leaders who aspire to promote faculty development in conjunction with graduate program implementation will find these lessons useful.

  10. Phenology Data Products to Support Assessment and Forecasting of Phenology on Multiple Spatiotemporal Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerst, K.; Enquist, C.; Rosemartin, A.; Denny, E. G.; Marsh, L.; Moore, D. J.; Weltzin, J. F.

    2014-12-01

    The USA National Phenology Network (USA-NPN; www.usanpn.org) serves science and society by promoting a broad understanding of plant and animal phenology and the relationships among phenological patterns and environmental change. The National Phenology Database maintained by USA-NPN now has over 3.7 million records for plants and animals for the period 1954-2014, with the majority of these observations collected since 2008 as part of a broad, national contributory science strategy. These data have been used in a number of science, conservation and resource management applications, including national assessments of historical and potential future trends in phenology, regional assessments of spatio-temporal variation in organismal activity, and local monitoring for invasive species detection. Customizable data downloads are freely available, and data are accompanied by FGDC-compliant metadata, data-use and data-attribution policies, vetted and documented methodologies and protocols, and version control. While users are free to develop custom algorithms for data cleaning, winnowing and summarization prior to analysis, the National Coordinating Office of USA-NPN is developing a suite of standard data products to facilitate use and application by a diverse set of data users. This presentation provides a progress report on data product development, including: (1) Quality controlled raw phenophase status data; (2) Derived phenometrics (e.g. onset, duration) at multiple scales; (3) Data visualization tools; (4) Tools to support assessment of species interactions and overlap; (5) Species responsiveness to environmental drivers; (6) Spatially gridded phenoclimatological products; and (7) Algorithms for modeling and forecasting future phenological responses. The prioritization of these data products is a direct response to stakeholder needs related to informing management and policy decisions. We anticipate that these products will contribute to broad understanding of plant

  11. Automated processing of webcam images for phenological classification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludwig Bothmann

    Full Text Available Along with the global climate change, there is an increasing interest for its effect on phenological patterns such as start and end of the growing season. Scientific digital webcams are used for this purpose taking every day one or more images from the same natural motive showing for example trees or grassland sites. To derive phenological patterns from the webcam images, regions of interest are manually defined on these images by an expert and subsequently a time series of percentage greenness is derived and analyzed with respect to structural changes. While this standard approach leads to satisfying results and allows to determine dates of phenological change points, it is associated with a considerable amount of manual work and is therefore constrained to a limited number of webcams only. In particular, this forbids to apply the phenological analysis to a large network of publicly accessible webcams in order to capture spatial phenological variation. In order to be able to scale up the analysis to several hundreds or thousands of webcams, we propose and evaluate two automated alternatives for the definition of regions of interest, allowing for efficient analyses of webcam images. A semi-supervised approach selects pixels based on the correlation of the pixels' time series of percentage greenness with a few prototype pixels. An unsupervised approach clusters pixels based on scores of a singular value decomposition. We show for a scientific webcam that the resulting regions of interest are at least as informative as those chosen by an expert with the advantage that no manual action is required. Additionally, we show that the methods can even be applied to publicly available webcams accessed via the internet yielding interesting partitions of the analyzed images. Finally, we show that the methods are suitable for the intended big data applications by analyzing 13988 webcams from the AMOS database. All developed methods are implemented in the

  12. Atmospheric circulation patterns and phenological anomalies of grapevine in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cola, Gabriele; Alilla, Roberta; Dal Monte, Giovanni; Epifani, Chiara; Mariani, Luigi; Parisi, Simone Gabriele

    2014-05-01

    Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) is a fundamental crop for Italian agriculture as testified by the first place of Italy in the world producers ranking. This justify the importance of quantitative analyses referred to this crucial crop and aimed to quantify meteorological resources and limitations to development and production. Phenological rhythms of grapevine are strongly affected by surface fields of air temperature which in their turn are affected by synoptic circulation. This evidence highlights the importance of an approach based on dynamic climatology in order to detect and explain phenological anomalies that can have relevant effects on quantity and quality of grapevine production. In this context, this research is aimed to study the existing relation among the 850 hPa circulation patterns over the Euro-Mediterranean area from NOAA Ncep dataset and grapevine phenological fields for Italy over the period 2006-2013, highlighting the main phenological anomalies and analyzing synoptic determinants. This work is based on phenological fields with a standard pixel of 2 km routinely produced from 2006 by the Iphen project (Italian Phenological network) on the base of phenological observations spatialized by means of a specific algorithm based on cumulated thermal resources expressed as Normal Heat Hours (NHH). Anomalies have been evaluated with reference to phenological normal fields defined for the Italian area on the base of phenological observations and Iphen model. Results show that relevant phenological anomalies observed over the reference period are primarily associated with long lasting blocking systems driving cold air masses (Arctic or Polar-Continental) or hot ones (Sub-Tropical) towards the Italian area. Specific cases are presented for some years like 2007 and 2011.

  13. Standardized phenology monitoring methods to track plant and animal activity for science and resource management applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denny, Ellen G.; Gerst, Katharine L.; Miller-Rushing, Abraham J.; Tierney, Geraldine L.; Crimmins, Theresa M.; Enquist, Carolyn A.F.; Guertin, Patricia; Rosemartin, Alyssa H.; Schwartz, Mark D.; Thomas, Kathryn A.; Weltzin, Jake F.

    2014-01-01

    Phenology offers critical insights into the responses of species to climate change; shifts in species’ phenologies can result in disruptions to the ecosystem processes and services upon which human livelihood depends. To better detect such shifts, scientists need long-term phenological records covering many taxa and across a broad geographic distribution. To date, phenological observation efforts across the USA have been geographically limited and have used different methods, making comparisons across sites and species difficult. To facilitate coordinated cross-site, cross-species, and geographically extensive phenological monitoring across the nation, the USA National Phenology Network has developed in situ monitoring protocols standardized across taxonomic groups and ecosystem types for terrestrial, freshwater, and marine plant and animal taxa. The protocols include elements that allow enhanced detection and description of phenological responses, including assessment of phenological “status”, or the ability to track presence–absence of a particular phenophase, as well as standards for documenting the degree to which phenological activity is expressed in terms of intensity or abundance. Data collected by this method can be integrated with historical phenology data sets, enabling the development of databases for spatial and temporal assessment of changes in status and trends of disparate organisms. To build a common, spatially, and temporally extensive multi-taxa phenological data set available for a variety of research and science applications, we encourage scientists, resources managers, and others conducting ecological monitoring or research to consider utilization of these standardized protocols for tracking the seasonal activity of plants and animals.

  14. Application of Near-Surface Remote Sensing and computer algorithms in evaluating impacts of agroecosystem management on Zea mays (corn) phenological development in the Platte River - High Plains Aquifer Long Term Agroecosystem Research Network field sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okalebo, J. A.; Das Choudhury, S.; Awada, T.; Suyker, A.; LeBauer, D.; Newcomb, M.; Ward, R.

    2017-12-01

    The Long-term Agroecosystem Research (LTAR) network is a USDA-ARS effort that focuses on conducting research that addresses current and emerging issues in agriculture related to sustainability and profitability of agroecosystems in the face of climate change and population growth. There are 18 sites across the USA covering key agricultural production regions. In Nebraska, a partnership between the University of Nebraska - Lincoln and ARD/USDA resulted in the establishment of the Platte River - High Plains Aquifer LTAR site in 2014. The site conducts research to sustain multiple ecosystem services focusing specifically on Nebraska's main agronomic production agroecosystems that comprise of abundant corn, soybeans, managed grasslands and beef production. As part of the national LTAR network, PR-HPA participates and contributes near-surface remotely sensed imagery of corn, soybean and grassland canopy phenology to the PhenoCam Network through high-resolution digital cameras. This poster highlights the application, advantages and usefulness of near-surface remotely sensed imagery in agroecosystem studies and management. It demonstrates how both Infrared and Red-Green-Blue imagery may be applied to monitor phenological events as well as crop abiotic stresses. Computer-based algorithms and analytic techniques proved very instrumental in revealing crop phenological changes such as green-up and tasseling in corn. This poster also reports the suitability and applicability of corn-derived computer based algorithms for evaluating phenological development of sorghum since both crops have similarities in their phenology; with sorghum panicles being similar to corn tassels. This later assessment was carried out using a sorghum dataset obtained from the Transportation Energy Resources from Renewable Agriculture Phenotyping Reference Platform project, Maricopa Agricultural Center, Arizona.

  15. Comparative responses of phenology and reproductive development to simulated environmental change in sub-arctic and high arctic plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wookey, P A; Welker, J M; Callaghan, T V [Inst. of Terrestrial Ecology, Merlewood Research Station, Grange-over-Sands, Cumbria (United Kingdom); Parsons, A N; Potter, J A; Lee, J A; Press, M C [Dept. of Environmental Biology, Univ. of Manchester, Manchester (United Kingdom)

    1993-01-01

    The effects of temperature, precipitation and nutrient perturbations, and their interactions, are being assessed on two contrasting arctic ecosystems to simulate impacts of climate change. One, a high arctic polar semi-desert community, is characterized by a sparse, low and aggregated vegetation cover where plant proliferation is by seedlings, whereas the other, a sub-arctic dwarf shrub health, is characterized by a complete, vegetation cover of erect, clonal dwarf shrubs which spread vegetatively. The developmental processes of seed production were shown to be highly sensitive, even within one growing season to specific environmental perturbations which differed between sites. At the polar semi-desert site, there was a striking effect of the temperature enhancement treatments on phenology and seed-setting of Dryas octopetala ssp. octopetala, with almost no seed-setting occurring in plots experiencing ambient temperatures. By contrast, there were no significant effects of temperature enhancement alone on fruit production of Empetrum hermaphroditum at the sub-Arctic dwarf shrub heath site, although fruit production was significantly influenced by the application of nutrients and/or water. The response of dominant high arctic dwarf shrub to increased temperature suggests that any climate warming may stimulate seed-set. This could be particularly important in the high Arctic where colonization can proceed in areas dominated by bare ground and where genetic recombination may be needed to generate tolerance to predicted changes of great magnitude. In the sub-Arctic, however the closed vegetation is dominated by clonally-proliferating species. Plant fitness will increase here in response to any increased vegetative growth resulting from higher nutrient availability in warmer organic soils. (ua) (59 refs.)

  16. The USA-NPN Information Management System: A tool in support of phenological assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosemartin, A.; Vazquez, R.; Wilson, B. E.; Denny, E. G.

    2009-12-01

    The USA National Phenology Network (USA-NPN) serves science and society by promoting a broad understanding of plant and animal phenology and the relationships among phenological patterns and all aspects of environmental change. Data management and information sharing are central to the USA-NPN mission. The USA-NPN develops, implements, and maintains a comprehensive Information Management System (IMS) to serve the needs of the network, including the collection, storage and dissemination of phenology data, access to phenology-related information, tools for data interpretation, and communication among partners of the USA-NPN. The IMS includes components for data storage, such as the National Phenology Database (NPD), and several online user interfaces to accommodate data entry, data download, data visualization and catalog searches for phenology-related information. The IMS is governed by a set of standards to ensure security, privacy, data access, and data quality. The National Phenology Database is designed to efficiently accommodate large quantities of phenology data, to be flexible to the changing needs of the network, and to provide for quality control. The database stores phenology data from multiple sources (e.g., partner organizations, researchers and citizen observers), and provides for integration with legacy datasets. Several services will be created to provide access to the data, including reports, visualization interfaces, and web services. These services will provide integrated access to phenology and related information for scientists, decision-makers and general audiences. Phenological assessments at any scale will rely on secure and flexible information management systems for the organization and analysis of phenology data. The USA-NPN’s IMS can serve phenology assessments directly, through data management and indirectly as a model for large-scale integrated data management.

  17. The USA National Phenology Network: A national science and monitoring program for understanding climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weltzin, J.

    2009-04-01

    our national land surface phenology program, continue the development of regional phenology networks, and improve tools for data entry, download and visualization.

  18. Building a Shared Understanding of Phenology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosemartin, A.; Posthumus, E.; Gerst, K.

    2017-12-01

    The USA National Phenology Network (USA-NPN) seeks to advance the science of phenology and support the use of phenology information in decision-making. We envision that natural resource, human health, recreation and land-use decisions, in the context of a variable and changing climate, will be supported by USA-NPN products and tools. To achieve this vision we developed a logic model, breaking down the necessary inputs (e.g., IT infrastructure), participants, activities and the short- to long-term goals (e.g., use of phenological information in adaptive management). Here we compare the ongoing activities and outcomes of three recent collaborations to our logic model, in order to improve the model and inform future collaborations. At Midway Atoll National Wildlife Refuge, resource managers use the USA-NPN's phenology monitoring program to pinpoint the minimum number of days between initial growth and seed set in an invasive species. The data output and calendar visualizations that USA-NPN provides are sufficient to identify the appropriate treatment window. In contrast to a direct relationship with a natural resource manager using USA-NPN tools and products, some collaborations require substantive iterative work between partners. USA-NPN and National Park Service staff, along with academic researchers, assessed advancement in the timing of spring, and delivered the work in a format appropriate for park managers. Lastly, collaborations with indigenous communities reveal a requirement to reconsider the relationship between Western science and indigenous knowledge systems, as well as address ethical considerations and develop trust, before Western science can be meaningfully incorporated into decision-making. While the USA-NPN is a boundary organization, working in between federal agencies, states and universities, and is mandated to support decision-making, we still face challenges in generating usable science. We share lessons learned based on our experience with

  19. Phylogenetic Conservatism in Plant Phenology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, T. Jonathan; Wolkovich, Elizabeth M.; Kraft, Nathan J. B.; Salamin, Nicolas; Allen, Jenica M.; Ault, Toby R.; Betancourt, Julio L.; Bolmgren, Kjell; Cleland, Elsa E.; Cook, Benjamin I.; hide

    2013-01-01

    Phenological events defined points in the life cycle of a plant or animal have been regarded as highly plastic traits, reflecting flexible responses to various environmental cues. The ability of a species to track, via shifts in phenological events, the abiotic environment through time might dictate its vulnerability to future climate change. Understanding the predictors and drivers of phenological change is therefore critical. Here, we evaluated evidence for phylogenetic conservatism the tendency for closely related species to share similar ecological and biological attributes in phenological traits across flowering plants. We aggregated published and unpublished data on timing of first flower and first leaf, encompassing 4000 species at 23 sites across the Northern Hemisphere. We reconstructed the phylogeny for the set of included species, first, using the software program Phylomatic, and second, from DNA data. We then quantified phylogenetic conservatism in plant phenology within and across sites. We show that more closely related species tend to flower and leaf at similar times. By contrasting mean flowering times within and across sites, however, we illustrate that it is not the time of year that is conserved, but rather the phenological responses to a common set of abiotic cues. Our findings suggest that species cannot be treated as statistically independent when modelling phenological responses.Closely related species tend to resemble each other in the timing of their life-history events, a likely product of evolutionarily conserved responses to environmental cues. The search for the underlying drivers of phenology must therefore account for species' shared evolutionary histories.

  20. Evaluating Gridded Spring Indices Using the USA National Phenology Network's Observational Phenology Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crimmins, T. M.; Gerst, K.

    2017-12-01

    The USA National Phenology Network (USA-NPN; www.usanpn.org) produces and freely delivers daily and short-term forecast maps of spring onset dates at fine spatial scale for the conterminous United States and Alaska using the Spring Indices. These models, which represent the start of biological activity in the spring season, were developed using a long-term observational record of four species of lilacs and honeysuckles contributed by volunteer observers. Three of the four species continue to be tracked through the USA-NPN's phenology observation program, Nature's Notebook. The gridded Spring Index maps have utility for a wide range of natural resource planning and management applications, including scheduling invasive species and pest detection and control activities, anticipating allergy outbreaks and planning agricultural harvest dates. However, to date, there has not been a comprehensive assessment of how well the gridded Spring Index maps accurately reflect phenological activity in lilacs and honeysuckles or other species of plants. In this study, we used observational plant phenology data maintained by the USA-NPN to evaluate how well the gridded Spring Index maps match leaf and flowering onset dates in a) the lilac and honeysuckle species used to construct the models and b) in several species of deciduous trees. The Spring Index performed strongly at predicting the timing of leaf-out and flowering in lilacs and honeysuckles. The average error between predicted and observed date of onset ranged from 5.9 to 11.4 days. Flowering models performed slightly better than leaf-out models. The degree to which the Spring Indices predicted native deciduous tree leaf and flower phenology varied by year, species, and region. Generally, the models were better predictors of leaf and flowering onset dates in the Northeastern and Midwestern US. These results reveal when and where the Spring Indices are a meaningful proxy of phenological activity across the United States.

  1. Changes in phenology and frost risks of

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Kartschall

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available For a retrospective period of 110 years between 1901 and 2010 (observed data, and for the subsequent future period between 2011 and 2100 we calculated the phenological development (bud burst, harvest ripeness, and in particular the spring frost risk (frost after bud burst, as one important derived variable for grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. cv Riesling for the whole of Germany. For the future climate we included two different scenarios (RCP8.5, RCP2.6 each of them containing a triple set with minimum, medium and maximum temperature increase. The time period between 1981 and 2010 as the last three decades in the observed data was chosen as reference. In general we found an acceleration of the phenological development (all main phases mainly beginning in the late 1980s. For the three-decade period between 2031 and 2060 this acceleration will reach 11±3$11\\pm3$ days in the RCP8.5-scenario. The acceleration for the other stages behaved similarly and results in an earlier harvest ripeness of 13±1$13\\pm1$ days. Since a warmer spring in general leads to earlier bud burst, but does not reduce the risk of frost events during this period in the same manner, changes in the risk of spring frost damage were relatively small. For the coming decades this risk will not decrease for all traditional German viticultural regions in the RCP8.5-scenarios; on the contrary, our results suggest it is likely to increase. The results showed an increasing spring frost risk not only for the debated “upcoming” potential viticultural areas in eastern Germany, an effect which will partly also reach the southernmost viticultural areas. This effect in northern and eastern Germany is due to earlier bud burst together with the stronger continental influence, but for the southern and western regions of Germany is mainly due to the even earlier bud burst. This could modify the regionally nuanced character of German wines.

  2. Toxic effects of lead on neuronal development and function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freedman, R.; Olson, L.; Hoffer, B.J.

    1990-01-01

    The effects of lead on the development of the nervous system are of immediate concern to human health. While it is clear that lead can affect neuronal development at levels of exposure within the range found in the environment, the particular mechanism of the disruption is not readily ascertained. The goal of the authors research is to develop a model system in which the effects of lead on central nervous system development can be demonstrated. To study neuronal development in a system that minimizes such difficulties, the authors have grafted discrete brain regions derived from rat fetuses into the anterior chamber of the eye of adult hosts. The brain pieces continue organotypic development in the eye, but are isolated from possible secondary changes due to alterations in the development of the endocrine and other somatic systems because the adult host has these systems already fully developed. Using this system, they have discovered that lead induces a hypernoradrenergic innervation of central nervous system tissue. The increased innervation is observed not only structurally, but also functionally. Since norepinephrine is an inhibitory neurotransmitter, this ingrowth may explain the profound slowing of discharge of cerebellar neurons recorded in grafts of lead-treated animals. Studies in other tissues suggest that increased axonal ingrowth may be a general problem of lead intoxication that encompasses many brain areas, as well as peripheral sympathetic systems

  3. Effect of lead acetate on neurobehavioral development of rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mello C.F.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effects of lead exposure during the pre- and postnatal period on the neurobehavioral development of female Wistar rats (70-75 days of age, 120-150 g using a protocol of lead intoxication that does not affect weight gain. Wistar rats were submitted to lead acetate intoxication by giving their dams 1.0 mM lead acetate. Control dams received deionized water. Growth and neuromotor development were assessed by monitoring daily the following parameters in 20 litters: body weight, ear unfolding, incisor eruption, eye opening, righting, palmar grasp, negative geotaxis, cliff avoidance and startle reflex. Spontaneous alternation was assessed on postnatal day 17 using a T maze. The animals' ability to equilibrate on a beaker rim was measured on postnatal day 19. Lead intoxication was confirmed by measuring renal, hepatic and cerebral lead concentration in dams and litters. Lead treatment hastened the day of appearance of the following parameters: eye opening (control: 13.5 ± 0.6, N = 88; lead: 12.9 ± 0.6, N = 72; P<0.05, startle reflex (control: 13.0 ± 0.8, N = 88; lead: 12.0 ± 0.7, N = 72; P<0.05 and negative geotaxis. On the other hand, spontaneous alternation performance was hindered in lead-exposed animals (control: 37.6 ± 19.7; lead: 57.5 ± 28.3% of alternating animals; P<0.05. These results suggest that lead exposure without concomitant undernutrition alters rat development, affecting specific subsets of motor skills.

  4. Phenology for science, resource management, decision making, and education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, V.P.; Weltzin, J.F.

    2011-01-01

    Fourth USA National Phenology Network (USA-NPN) Research Coordination Network (RCN) Annual Meeting and Stakeholders Workshop; Milwaukee, Wisconsin, 21-22 September 2010; Phenology, the study of recurring plant and animal life cycle events, is rapidly emerging as a fundamental approach for understanding how ecological systems respond to environmental variation and climate change. The USA National Phenology Network (USA-NPN; http://www.usanpn.org) is a large-scale network of governmental and nongovernmental organizations, academic institutions, resource management agencies, and tribes. The network is dedicated to conducting and promoting repeated and integrated plant and animal phenological observations, identifying linkages with other relevant biological and physical data sources, and developing and distributing the tools to analyze these data at local to national scales. The primary goal of the USA-NPN is to improve the ability of decision makers to design strategies for climate adaptation.

  5. Climate change, phenology, and butterfly host plant utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Cano, Jose A; Karlsson, Bengt; Posledovich, Diana; Toftegaard, Tenna; Wiklund, Christer; Ehrlén, Johan; Gotthard, Karl

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of how species interactions are influenced by climate warming is paramount to understand current biodiversity changes. We review phenological changes of Swedish butterflies during the latest decades and explore potential climate effects on butterfly-host plant interactions using the Orange tip butterfly Anthocharis cardamines and its host plants as a model system. This butterfly has advanced its appearance dates substantially, and its mean flight date shows a positive correlation with latitude. We show that there is a large latitudinal variation in host use and that butterfly populations select plant individuals based on their flowering phenology. We conclude that A. cardamines is a phenological specialist but a host species generalist. This implies that thermal plasticity for spring development influences host utilization of the butterfly through effects on the phenological matching with its host plants. However, the host utilization strategy of A. cardamines appears to render it resilient to relatively large variation in climate.

  6. Citizen Science in Grand Teton National Park Reveals Phenological Response of Wildlife to Climate Change and Increases Public Involvement in Earth Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, T. D. S.; Riginos, C.

    2017-12-01

    Around the world, phenology —or the timing of ecological events — is shifting as the climate warms. This can lead to a variety of consequences for individual species and for ecological communities as a whole, most notably through asynchronies that can develop between plants and animals that depend upon each other (e.g. nectar-consuming pollinators). Within the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE) and Grand Teton National Park (GTNP), there is little understanding of how climate change is affecting plant and animal phenology, yet through detailed scientific and citizen science observation there is tremendous potential to further our knowledge of this topic and increase public awareness. Detailed historic data are rare, but in GTNP we have the opportunity to capitalize on phenology data gathered by Dr. Frank Craighead, Jr. in the 1970s, before significant warming had occurred. We have already gathered, digitized, and quality-controlled Craighead's observations of plant first flowering dates. First flowering date for 87% of a 72-species data set correlate significantly with spring temperatures in the 1970s, suggesting that these plants are now flowering earlier and will continue to flower earlier in the future. Our multi-year project has project has 3 primary goals: (1) initiate a citizen science project, Wildflower Watch GTNP, to train volunteer scientists to collect contemporary phenology data on these species (2) gather further historical records of plant phenology in the region, and (3) model continued phenological changes under future climate change scenarios using satellite derived climate data and on the ground observations. This project simultaneously increases public involvement in climate research, collaborates with the National Park Service to inform management strategies for at-risk species, and furthers scientific understanding of phenological response to climate change in the Rocky Mountains.

  7. Development of an airborne lead analysis kit and its application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kongtip, Pornpimol; Borisut, Pornchulee; Yoosook, Witaya; Osiri, Pramuk; Rojanavipart, Piangchan

    2010-11-01

    We developed a method to analyze airborne lead concentrations in the field. It was a modification of the colorimetric method using the reaction between 4(2-pyridylazo)-resorcinol (PAR) and lead with cyanex302 in an acid medium to reduce interfering metals. The lead concentration was detected with a photometer made in Thailand. The developed method uses an impinger containing 1% nitric acid solution as an absorbing agent to collect airborne lead at a flow rate of less than or equal to one liter/minute. Cyanex302 solution in toluene was used to extract metals from the samples and 0.1M nitric acid was used to extract just lead. The lead solution was reacted in 0.5 ml of 0.03% PAR solution, with 1 ml ammonium chloride buffer; the absorption of this solution was measured by a photometer. The results show the limit of detection (LOD) was 0.01 mg/l. The limit of quantification (LOQ) was 0.03 mg/l. The percent recovery of the lead concentrations of 0.05 - 3.0 mg/l was 94.0 to 103.5%. The precision presented as %CV ranged from 0.65 to 10.27%. Lead concentration in a lead smelting factory detected by this method was not significantly different from that detected by the NIOSH method: 7,303 at a 95% confidence level.

  8. Leading Change: An Organizational Development Role for Educational Developers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weston, Cynthia; Ferris, Jennie; Finkelstein, Adam

    2017-01-01

    While educational development has long been aligned with organizational development in the literature (Berquist & Phillips, 1975; Gaffe, 1975), in practice this link has faded with time. Schroeder (2011) has recently asserted that given the broad-based changes in teaching and learning that are taking place at universities, it is important that…

  9. Development of lead-bismuth coolant technology for nuclear device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamata, Kin-ya; Kitano, Teruaki; Ono, Mikinori

    2004-01-01

    Liquid lead-bismuth is a promising material as a future fast reactor coolant or an intensive neutron source material for accelerator driven transmutation system (ADS). To develop nuclear plants and their installations using lead-bismuth coolant for practical use, both coolant technologies, inhabitation process of steels and quality control of coolant, and total operation system for liquid lead-bismuth plants are required. Based on the experience of liquid metal coolant, Mitsui Engineering and Shipbuilding Co., Ltd. (MES) has completed the liquid lead-bismuth forced circulation loop and has acquired various engineering data on main components including economizer. As a result of tis operation, MES has developed key technologies of lead-bismuth coolant such as controlling of oxygen content in lead-bismuth and a purification of lead-bismuth coolant. MES participated in the national project, ''The Development of Accelerator Driven Transmutation System'', together with JAERI (Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute) and started corrosion test for beam window of ADS. (author)

  10. Improving models to predict phenological responses to global change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richardson, Andrew D. [Harvard College, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2015-11-25

    The term phenology describes both the seasonal rhythms of plants and animals, and the study of these rhythms. Plant phenological processes, including, for example, when leaves emerge in the spring and change color in the autumn, are highly responsive to variation in weather (e.g. a warm vs. cold spring) as well as longer-term changes in climate (e.g. warming trends and changes in the timing and amount of rainfall). We conducted a study to investigate the phenological response of northern peatland communities to global change. Field work was conducted at the SPRUCE experiment in northern Minnesota, where we installed 10 digital cameras. Imagery from the cameras is being used to track shifts in plant phenology driven by elevated carbon dioxide and elevated temperature in the different SPRUCE experimental treatments. Camera imagery and derived products (“greenness”) is being posted in near-real time on a publicly available web page (http://phenocam.sr.unh.edu/webcam/gallery/). The images will provide a permanent visual record of the progression of the experiment over the next 10 years. Integrated with other measurements collected as part of the SPRUCE program, this study is providing insight into the degree to which phenology may mediate future shifts in carbon uptake and storage by peatland ecosystems. In the future, these data will be used to develop improved models of vegetation phenology, which will be tested against ground observations collected by a local collaborator.

  11. Predicting phenology by integrating ecology, evolution and climate science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pau, Stephanie; Wolkovich, Elizabeth M.; Cook, Benjamin I.; Davies, T. Jonathan; Kraft, Nathan J.B.; Bolmgren, Kjell; Betancourt, Julio L.; Cleland, Elsa E.

    2011-01-01

    Forecasting how species and ecosystems will respond to climate change has been a major aim of ecology in recent years. Much of this research has focused on phenology — the timing of life-history events. Phenology has well-demonstrated links to climate, from genetic to landscape scales; yet our ability to explain and predict variation in phenology across species, habitats and time remains poor. Here, we outline how merging approaches from ecology, climate science and evolutionary biology can advance research on phenological responses to climate variability. Using insight into seasonal and interannual climate variability combined with niche theory and community phylogenetics, we develop a predictive approach for species' reponses to changing climate. Our approach predicts that species occupying higher latitudes or the early growing season should be most sensitive to climate and have the most phylogenetically conserved phenologies. We further predict that temperate species will respond to climate change by shifting in time, while tropical species will respond by shifting space, or by evolving. Although we focus here on plant phenology, our approach is broadly applicable to ecological research of plant responses to climate variability.

  12. The Challenges of Developing Research Resources for Leading Vietnamese Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thi Lan Huong

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the challenges of developing research resources for leading Vietnamese universities. The first part of the paper presents the background to the study, including literature review on the challenges to research resources development, and describes the research questions and research methods. The next part provides empirical…

  13. PERPHECLIM ACCAF Project - Perennial fruit crops and forest phenology evolution facing climatic changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia de Cortazar-Atauri, Iñaki; Audergon, Jean Marc; Bertuzzi, Patrick; Anger, Christel; Bonhomme, Marc; Chuine, Isabelle; Davi, Hendrik; Delzon, Sylvain; Duchêne, Eric; Legave, Jean Michel; Raynal, Hélène; Pichot, Christian; Van Leeuwen, Cornelis; Perpheclim Team

    2015-04-01

    Phenology is a bio-indicator of climate evolutions. Measurements of phenological stages on perennial species provide actually significant illustrations and assessments of the impact of climate change. Phenology is also one of the main key characteristics of the capacity of adaptation of perennial species, generating questions about their consequences on plant growth and development or on fruit quality. Predicting phenology evolution and adaptative capacities of perennial species need to override three main methodological limitations: 1) existing observations and associated databases are scattered and sometimes incomplete, rendering difficult implementation of multi-site study of genotype-environment interaction analyses; 2) there are not common protocols to observe phenological stages; 3) access to generic phenological models platforms is still very limited. In this context, the PERPHECLIM project, which is funded by the Adapting Agriculture and Forestry to Climate Change Meta-Program (ACCAF) from INRA (French National Institute of Agronomic Research), has the objective to develop the necessary infrastructure at INRA level (observatories, information system, modeling tools) to enable partners to study the phenology of various perennial species (grapevine, fruit trees and forest trees). Currently the PERPHECLIM project involves 27 research units in France. The main activities currently developed are: define protocols and observation forms to observe phenology for various species of interest for the project; organizing observation training; develop generic modeling solutions to simulate phenology (Phenological Modelling Platform and modelling platform solutions); support in building research projects at national and international level; develop environment/genotype observation networks for fruit trees species; develop an information system managing data and documentation concerning phenology. Finally, PERPHECLIM project aims to build strong collaborations with public

  14. Improving carbon model phenology using data assimilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exrayat, Jean-François; Smallman, T. Luke; Bloom, A. Anthony; Williams, Mathew

    2015-04-01

    Carbon cycle dynamics is significantly impacted by ecosystem phenology, leading to substantial seasonal and inter-annual variation in the global carbon balance. Representing inter-annual variability is key for predicting the response of the terrestrial ecosystem to climate change and disturbance. Existing terrestrial ecosystem models (TEMs) often struggle to accurately simulate observed inter-annual variability. TEMs often use different phenological models based on plant functional type (PFT) assumptions. Moreover, due to a high level of computational overhead in TEMs they are unable to take advantage of globally available datasets to calibrate their models. Here we describe the novel CARbon DAta MOdel fraMework (CARDAMOM) for data assimilation. CARDAMOM is used to calibrate the Data Assimilation Linked Ecosystem Carbon version 2 (DALEC2) model using Bayes' Theorem within a Metropolis Hastings - Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MH-MCMC). CARDAMOM provides a framework which combines knowledge from observations, such as remotely sensed LAI, and heuristic information in the form of Ecological and Dynamical Constraints (EDCs). The EDCs are representative of real world processes and constrain parameter interdependencies and constrain carbon dynamics. We used CARDAMOM to bring together globally spanning datasets of LAI and the DALEC2 and DALEC2-GSI models. These analyses allow us to investigate the sensitivity ecosystem processes to the representation of phenology. DALEC2 uses an analytically solved model of phenology which is invariant between years. In contrast DALEC2-GSI uses a growing season index (GSI) calculated as a function of temperature, vapour pressure deficit (VPD) and photoperiod to calculate bud-burst and leaf senescence, allowing the model to simulate inter-annual variability in response to climate. Neither model makes any PFT assumptions about the phenological controls of a given ecosystem, allowing the data alone to determine the impact of the meteorological

  15. Remote sensing of land surface phenology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, G.A.; Brown, Jesslyn F.

    2014-01-01

    Remote sensing of land-surface phenology is an important method for studying the patterns of plant and animal growth cycles. Phenological events are sensitive to climate variation; therefore phenology data provide important baseline information documenting trends in ecology and detecting the impacts of climate change on multiple scales. The USGS Remote sensing of land surface phenology program produces annually, nine phenology indicator variables at 250 m and 1,000 m resolution for the contiguous U.S. The 12 year archive is available at http://phenology.cr.usgs.gov/index.php.

  16. Using Linear and Non-Linear Temporal Adjustments to Align Multiple Phenology Curves, Making Vegetation Status and Health Directly Comparable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargrove, W. W.; Norman, S. P.; Kumar, J.; Hoffman, F. M.

    2017-12-01

    National-scale polar analysis of MODIS NDVI allows quantification of degree of seasonality expressed by local vegetation, and also selects the most optimum start/end of a local "phenological year" that is empirically customized for the vegetation that is growing at each location. Interannual differences in timing of phenology make direct comparisons of vegetation health and performance between years difficult, whether at the same or different locations. By "sliding" the two phenologies in time using a Procrustean linear time shift, any particular phenological event or "completion milestone" can be synchronized, allowing direct comparison of differences in timing of other remaining milestones. Going beyond a simple linear translation, time can be "rubber-sheeted," compressed or dilated. Considering one phenology curve to be a reference, the second phenology can be "rubber-sheeted" to fit that baseline as well as possible by stretching or shrinking time to match multiple control points, which can be any recognizable phenological events. Similar to "rubber sheeting" to georectify a map inside a GIS, rubber sheeting a phenology curve also yields a warping signature that shows at every time and every location how many days the adjusted phenology is ahead or behind the phenological development of the reference vegetation. Using such temporal methods to "adjust" phenologies may help to quantify vegetation impacts from frost, drought, wildfire, insects and diseases by permitting the most commensurate quantitative comparisons with unaffected vegetation.

  17. Reconceptualizing the state as the leading agent of development in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reconceptualizing the state as the leading agent of development in the context of Globalization in Africa. Tukumbi Lumumba-Kasongo. Abstract. (Af. J. Political Science: 2001 7(1): 79-108). Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  18. Q&A: Lead Pipe on Professional Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial Board

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This week, In the Library with Lead Pipe fields professional development and career questions from library school students at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. The questions they asked ranged from committee work to composing cover letters to conference attendance. Here is the complete list (so you can jump around if you like: [...

  19. Alteration of Hormonal Levels in a Rootless Epiphytic Bromeliad in Different Phenological Phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercier; Endres

    1999-11-01

    Major changes in indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and cytokinin (CK) levels occur at different phenological phases of Tillandsia recurvata shoots. This epiphytic rootless bromeliad was chosen as suitable material for hormonal analysis because CK synthesis is restricted to the shoots, thus avoiding problems in the interpretation of results caused by translocation and interconversion of CK forms between roots and leaves encountered in plants with both organs. Young plants of T. recurvata have weak apical dominance because side shoots appeared early in development, and branch growth was correlated with a strong increase in the level of zeatin. The flowering phase was characterized by a significant increase in free base CKs, zeatin, and isopentenyladenine compared with the levels found in adult vegetative shoots. In contrast, both free-base CKs declined in the fruiting phenological phase, and the IAA level increased dramatically. It was concluded that in phases characterized by intense organ formation, such as in the juvenile and flowering stages, there was an enhancement of CK content, mainly caused by zeatin, leading to a lower IAA/CK ratio. Higher ratios were correlated with phases that showed no organogenesis, such as adult and fruiting phenologies.

  20. Assessing the impact of extreme air temperature on fruit trees by modeling weather dependent phenology with variety-specific thermal requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfieri, Silvia Maria; De Lorenzi, Francesca; Missere, Daniele; Buscaroli, Claudio; Menenti, Massimo

    2013-04-01

    Extremely high and extremely low temperature may have a terminal impact on the productivity of fruit tree if occurring at critical phases of development. Notorious examples are frost during flowering or extremely high temperature during fruit setting. The dates of occurrence of such critical phenological stages depend on the weather history from the start of the yearly development cycle in late autumn, thus the impact of climate extremes can only be evaluated correctly if the phenological development is modeled taking into account the weather history of the specific year being evaluated. Climate change impact may lead to a shift in timing of phenological stages and change in the duration of vegetative and reproductive phases. A changing climate can also exhibit a greater climatic variability producing quite large changes in the frequency of extreme climatic events. We propose a two-stage approach to evaluate the impact of predicted future climate on the productivity of fruit trees. The phenological development is modeled using phase - specific thermal times and variety specific thermal requirements for several cultivars of pear, apricot and peach. These requirements were estimated using phenological observations over several years in Emilia Romagna region and scientific literature. We calculated the dates of start and end of rest completion, bud swell, flowering, fruit setting and ripening stages , from late autumn through late summer. Then phase-specific minimum and maximum cardinal temperature were evaluated for present and future climate to estimate how frequently they occur during any critically sensitive phenological phase. This analysis has been done for past climate (1961 - 1990) and fifty realizations of a year representative of future climate (2021 - 2050). A delay in rest completion of about 10-20 days has been predicted for future climate for most of the cultivars. On the other hand the predicted rise in air temperature causes an earlier development of

  1. Progress and challenges in bipolar lead-acid battery development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullock, Kathryn R.

    1995-05-01

    Bipolar lead-acid batteries have higher power densities than any other aqueous battery system. Predicted specific powers based on models and prototypes range from 800 kW/kg for 100 ms discharge times to 1.6 kW/kg for 10 s. A 48 V automotive bipolar battery could have 2 1/2 times the cold cranking rate of a monopolar 12 V design in the same size. Problems which have precluded the development of commercial bipolar designs include the instability of substrate materials and enhanced side reactions. Design approaches include pseudo-bipolar configurations, as well as true bipolar designs in planar and tubular configurations. Substrate materials used include lead and lead alloys, carbons, conductive ceramics, and tin-oxide-coated glass fibers. These approaches are reviewed and evaluated.

  2. Developing the Competence to Lead in Everyday Situations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Anja Overgaard; Rasmussen, Jørgen Gulddahl

    2015-01-01

    This chapter discusses how leaders help one another develop their ability to lead in everyday situations through collaborative work in learning groups, focusing on the interaction between theory and practice. The theme is how the understanding of course assignments and approaches changes during...... leaders’ participation in a module on personal leadership development, which is part of a master’s degree in public governance. The analytic framework concentrates on the work in learning groups as an integrated part of this module, and particularly on the development of learning relationships by viewing...

  3. Early pest development and loss of biological control are associated with urban warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meineke, Emily K; Dunn, Robert R; Frank, Steven D

    2014-11-01

    Climate warming is predicted to cause many changes in ectotherm communities, one of which is phenological mismatch, wherein one species' development advances relative to an associated species or community. Phenological mismatches already lead to loss of pollination services, and we predict that they also cause loss of biological control. Here, we provide evidence that a pest develops earlier due to urban warming but that phenology of its parasitoid community does not similarly advance. This mismatch is associated with greater egg production that likely leads to more pests on trees. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  4. Does flower phenology mirror the slowdown of global warming?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jochner, Susanne; Menzel, Annette

    2015-01-01

    ) lead to distinctly different results and most recent data should be integrated in order not to over- or underestimate future phenological changes. PMID:26078862

  5. Responses of rubber leaf phenology to climatic variations in Southwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, De-Li; Yu, Haiying; Chen, Si-Chong; Ranjitkar, Sailesh; Xu, Jianchu

    2017-11-01

    The phenology of rubber trees (Hevea brasiliensis) could be influenced by meteorological factors and exhibits significant changes under different geoclimates. In the sub-optimal environment in Xishuangbanna, rubber trees undergo lengthy periods of defoliation and refoliation. The timing of refoliation from budburst to leaf aging could be affected by powdery mildew disease (Oidium heveae), which negatively impacts seed and latex production. Rubber trees are most susceptible to powdery mildew disease at the copper and leaf changing stages. Understanding and predicting leaf phenology of rubber trees are helpful to develop effective means of controlling the disease. This research investigated the effect of several meteorological factors on different leaf phenological stages in a sub-optimal environment for rubber cultivation in Jinghong, Yunnan in Southwest China. Partial least square regression was used to quantify the relationship between meteorological factors and recorded rubber phenologies from 2003 to 2011. Minimum temperature in December was found to be the critical factor for the leaf phenology development of rubber trees. Comparing the delayed effects of minimum temperature, the maximum temperature, diurnal temperature range, and sunshine hours were found to advancing leaf phenologies. A comparatively lower minimum temperature in December would facilitate the advancing of leaf phenologies of rubber trees. Higher levels of precipitation in February delayed the light green and the entire process of leaf aging. Delayed leaf phenology was found to be related to severe rubber powdery mildew disease. These results were used to build predictive models that could be applied to early warning systems of rubber powdery mildew disease.

  6. Urban phenological studies – Past, present, future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jochner, Susanne; Menzel, Annette

    2015-01-01

    Phenology is believed to be a suitable bio-indicator to track climate change. Based on the strong statistical association between phenology and temperature phenological observations provide an inexpensive means for the temporal and spatial analysis of the urban heat island. However, other environmental factors might also weaken this relationship. In addition, the investigation of urban phenology allows an estimation of future phenology from current information since cities with their amplified temperatures may serve as a proxy for future conditions. Nevertheless, the design of spatial compared to long-term studies might be influenced by different factors which should be taken into consideration when interpreting results from a specific study. In general, plants located in urban areas tend to flush and bloom earlier than in the countryside. What are the consequences of these urban–rural differences? This review will document existing findings on urban phenology and will highlight areas in which further research is needed. - Highlights: • Urban phenology can be used for the estimation of the urban heat island effect. • Confounding factors weaken the phenology–temperature relationship. • Urban phenology is useful as a proxy for climate change impacts on phenology. • Differences in the study design hinder the generalisation of one specific method. • Urban–rural variations in phenology affect vegetation, meteorology, human health. - Studies on urban phenology can be used to detect urban heat islands and to assess climate change impacts but it still remains important to adequately link spatial and long-term data

  7. COMPETITIVENESS OF LEADING COMMODITIES TO SUPPORT DEVELOPING REGION OF AGROTOURISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murwatiningsih Murwatiningsih

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe aim of the research is to seek the competitiveness of the leading commodity in Semarang city which supports the development of centre commodity in agrotourism area. The method of analysis is leading sector, scoring analysis and capacity asessment through FGD. The result of the research reveals that leading commodities are Durian, Longan, Water Apple, and Rambutan. It is found that subdistrict Gunungpati and Mangunsari are ready to be the centre of horticulture commodity because its strategic location. It is located nearby Jatibarang reservoir (potential to be a tourism village, its cultivation is relatively successful, accessable transportation, and good management. Hence, it can be the pilot project area.Key words: competitiveness, centre, commodity, horticultureJEL Classification: O20, Q10AbstrakKesejahteraan petani tidak meningkat karena daya saingnya rendah dan pengelolannya tidak optimal. Tujuan penelitian, untuk melihat daya saing komoditas unggulan Kota Semarang untuk mendukung pengembangan sentra komoditas di kawasan agrowisata. Metode analisis yaitu sektor basis, analisis scoring serta capacity assessment melalui FGD. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan komoditas yang diunggulkan di Gunungpati adalah durian, klengkeng, jambu air dan rambutan. Kelurahan Gunungpati dan Mangunsari siap dijadikan sentra komoditas hortikultura di Kecamatan Gunungpati karena letaknya strategis- dekat dengan waduk Jatibarang (dapat menjadi desa wisata, budidaya relatif lebih berhasil, transportasi dan akseptibilitas lebih mudah, pengelolaannya bagus sehingga sudah menjadi daerah percontohan.Kata Kunci: daya saing, sentra, komoditas, hortikulturJEL Classification: O20, Q10

  8. Medical School Hotline: Developing communication skills for leading family meetings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inaba, Michiko; Bell, Christina; Tamura, Bruce; Kasuya, Richard; Masaki, Kamal

    2011-06-01

    Good clinician-family communication is essential for the provision of high-quality patient care. Families rate the communication skills of clinicians as critical clinical skills. However, there has been no structured training of fellow communication skills while leading family meetings in the University of Hawai'i Geriatric Medicine Fellowship Program. Effective training to develop communication skills with families will better prepare Geriatric Medicine fellows for this important task, and ultimately improve the quality of care they provide to these patients and patients' families.

  9. Historical Phenological Observations: Past Climate Impact Analyses and Climate Reconstructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutishauser, T.; Luterbacher, J.; Meier, N.; Jeanneret, F.; Pfister, C.; Wanner, H.

    2007-12-01

    Plant phenological observations have been found an important indicator of climate change impacts on seasonal and interannual vegetation development for the late 20th/early 21st century. Our contribution contains three parts that are essential for the understanding (part 1), the analysis (part 2) and the application (part 3) of historical phenological observations in global change research. First, we propose a definition for historical phenonolgy (Rutishauser, 2007). We shortly portray the first appearance of phenological observations in Medieval philosophical and literature sources, the usage and application of this method in the Age of Enlightenment (Carl von Linné, Charles Morren), as well as the development in the 20th century (Schnelle, Lieth) to present-day networks (COST725, USA-NPN) Second, we introduce a methodological approach to estimate 'Statistical plants' from historical phenological observations (Rutishauser et al., JGR-Biogeoscience, in press). We combine spatial averaging methods and regression transfer modeling to estimate 'statistical plant' dates from historical observations that often contain gaps, changing observers and changing locations. We apply the concept to reconstruct a statistical 'Spring plant' as the weighted mean of the flowering date of cherry and apple tree and beech budburst of Switzerland 1702- 2005. Including dating total data uncertainty we estimate 10 at interannual and 3.4 days at decadal time scales. Third, we apply two long-term phenological records to describe plant phenological response to spring temperature and reconstruct warm-season temperatures from grape harvest dates (Rutishauser et al, submitted; Meier et al, GRL, in press).

  10. Power Relationships that Lead to the Development of Feral Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.V Kerr

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available This research identifies factors affecting the operation of a supply chain in a large, asset rich transport utility, and how a recent Enterprise Resource Planning System (ERP implementation was perceived with respect to its usability for the task. A lack of trust in the ERP, ineffective training methods and complexity in extracting the data from the ERP were identified as a problem which lead to the development of “Feral Systems” (systems outside the accepted ERP or corporation condoned information systems – sometimes called skunkworks. This research uses an interpretative case study approach to gain insights into the human sense-making within the study organisation. The research argues that power relationships between operational managers and financial managers and processual power relationships between operational managers led to the development of these systems.

  11. Climate change impacts on corn phenology and productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Climate is changing around the world and will impact future production of all food and feed crops. Corn is no exception to these impacts and to ensure a future supply of this vital crop we must begin to understand how climate impacts both the phenological development of corn and the productivity. Te...

  12. Dispersal, phenology and predicted abundance of the larger grain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The phenology and dispersal of the larger grain borer (LGB) in Africa is described, and comparisons are made between prediction of LGB numbers from laboratory studies and predictions from multiple linear models derived from trapping data in the field. The models were developed in Mexico and Kenya, using ...

  13. Translational Partnership Development Lead | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    PROGRAM DESCRIPTION The Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research (FNLCR) is a Federally Funded Research and Development Center operated by Leidos Biomedical Research, Inc on behalf of the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The staff of FNLCR support the NCI’s mission in the fight against cancer and HIV/AIDS. Currently we are seeking a Translational Partnership Development Lead (TPDL) who will work closely with the Office of Translational Resources (OTR) within the Office of the Director (OD) of NCI’s Center for Cancer Research (CCR) to facilitate the successful translation of CCR’s basic and preclinical research advances into new therapeutics and diagnostics. The TPDL with be strategically aligned within FNLCR’s Partnership Development Office (PDO), to maximally leverage the critical mass of expertise available within the PDO. CCR comprises the basic and clinical components of the NCI’s Intramural Research Program (IRP) and consists of ~230 basic and clinical Investigators located at either the NIH main campus in Bethesda or the NCI-Frederick campus. CCR Investigators are focused primarily on cancer and HIV/AIDS, with special emphasis on the most challenging and important high-risk/high-reward problems driving the fields. (See https://ccr.cancer.gov for a full delineation of CCR Investigators and their research activities.) The process of developing research findings into new clinical applications is high risk, complex, variable, and requires multiple areas of expertise seldom available within the confines of a single Investigator’s laboratory. To accelerate this process, OTR serves as a unifying force within CCR for all aspects of translational activities required to achieve success and maintain timely progress. A key aspect of OTR’s function is to develop and strengthen essential communications and collaborations within NIH, with extramural partners and with industry to bring together experts in chemistry, human subjects research

  14. Communicating Research Through Student Involvement in Phenological Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparrow, E. B.; Kopplin, M.; Gazal, R. M.; Robin, J. H.; Boger, R. A.

    2011-12-01

    Phenology plays a key role in the environment and ecosystem. Primary and secondary students around the world have been collecting vegetation phenology data and contributing to ongoing scientific investigations. They have increased research capacity by increasing spatial coverage of ground observations that can be useful for validation of remotely sensed data. The green-up and green-down phenology measurement protocols developed at the University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAF) as part of the Global Learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment (GLOBE) program, have been used in more than 250 schools in over 20 countries. In addition to contributing their data, students have conducted their own investigations and presented them at science fairs and symposiums, and international conferences. An elementary school student in Alaska conducted a comprehensive study on the green-down rates of native and introduced trees and shrubs. Her project earned her a one-year college scholarship at UAF. Students from the Model Secondary School for the Deaf in Washington, D. C. and from the Indiana School for the Deaf collaborated on a comparative green-up study, and were chosen to present at an international conference where students from more than 20 countries participated. Similarly, students in Thailand presented at national conferences, their studies such as "The Relationship between Environmental Conditions and Green-down of Teak Trees (Tectona grandis L.)" at Roong Aroon School, Bangkok and "The Comparison of Budburst and Green-up of Leab Trees (Ficus infectoria Roxb.) at Rob Wiang and Mae Khao Tom Sub-district in Chiang Rai Province". Some challenges in engaging students in phenological studies include the mismatch in timing of the start and end of the plant growing season with that of the school year in northern latitudes and the need for scientists and teachers to work with students to ensure accurate measurements. However these are outweighed by benefits to the scientists

  15. Development of lead slowing down spectrometer for isotopic fissile assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yong Deok; Park, Chang Je; Ahn, Sang Joon; Kim, Ho Dong

    2014-01-01

    A lead slowing down spectrometer (LSDS) is under development for analysis of isotopic fissile material contents in pyro-processed material, or spent fuel. Many current commercial fissile assay technologies have a limitation in accurate and direct assay of fissile content. However, LSDS is very sensitive in distinguishing fissile fission signals from each isotope. A neutron spectrum analysis was conducted in the spectrometer and the energy resolution was investigated from 0.1eV to 100keV. The spectrum was well shaped in the slowing down energy. The resolution was enough to obtain each fissile from 0.2eV to 1keV. The detector existence in the lead will disturb the source neutron spectrum. It causes a change in resolution and peak amplitude. The intense source neutron production was designed for ∼E12 n's/sec to overcome spent fuel background. The detection sensitivity of U238 and Th232 fission chamber was investigated. The first and second layer detectors increase detection efficiency. Thorium also has a threshold property to detect the fast fission neutrons from fissile fission. However, the detection of Th232 is about 76% of that of U238. A linear detection model was set up over the slowing down neutron energy to obtain each fissile material content. The isotopic fissile assay using LSDS is applicable for the optimum design of spent fuel storage to maximize burnup credit and quality assurance of the recycled nuclear material for safety and economics. LSDS technology will contribute to the transparency and credibility of pyro-process using spent fuel, as internationally demanded.

  16. Lead exposure in US worksites: A literature review and development of an occupational lead exposure database from the published literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Dong-Hee; Locke, Sarah J.; Chen, Yu-Cheng; Purdue, Mark P.; Friesen, Melissa C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Retrospective exposure assessment of occupational lead exposure in population-based studies requires historical exposure information from many occupations and industries. Methods We reviewed published US exposure monitoring studies to identify lead exposure measurement data. We developed an occupational lead exposure database from the 175 identified papers containing 1,111 sets of lead concentration summary statistics (21% area air, 47% personal air, 32% blood). We also extracted ancillary exposure-related information, including job, industry, task/location, year collected, sampling strategy, control measures in place, and sampling and analytical methods. Results Measurements were published between 1940 and 2010 and represented 27 2-digit standardized industry classification codes. The majority of the measurements were related to lead-based paint work, joining or cutting metal using heat, primary and secondary metal manufacturing, and lead acid battery manufacturing. Conclusions This database can be used in future statistical analyses to characterize differences in lead exposure across time, jobs, and industries. PMID:25968240

  17. Update on Plans to Establish a National Phenology Network in the U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancourt, J.; Schwartz, M.; Breshears, D.; Cayan, D.; Dettinger, M.; Inouye, D.; Post, E.; Reed, B.; Gray, S.

    2005-12-01

    The passing of the seasons is the most pervasive source of climatic and biological variability on Earth, yet phenological monitoring has been spotty worldwide. Formal phenological networks were recently established in Europe and Canada, and we are now following their lead in organizing a National Phenology Network (NPN) for the U.S.A. With support from federal agencies (NSF, USGS, NPS, USDA-FS, EPA, NOAA, NASA), on Aug. 22-26 we organized a workshop in Tucson, Arizona to begin planning a national-scale, multi-tiered phenological network. A prototype for a web-based NPN and preliminary workshop results are available at http://www.npn.uwm.edu. The main goals of NPN will be to: (1) facilitate thorough understanding of phenological phenomena, including causes and effects; (2) provide ground truthing to make the most of heavy public investment in remote sensing data; (3) allow detection and prediction of environmental change for a wide of variety of applications; (4) harness the power of mass participation and engage tens of thousands of "citizen scientists" in meeting national needs in Education, Health, Commerce, Natural Resources and Agriculture; (5) develop a model system for substantive collaboration across different levels of government, academia and the private sector. Just as the national networks of weather stations and stream gauges are critical for providing weather, climate and water-related information, NPN will help safeguard and procure goods and services that ecosystems provide. We expect that NPN will consist of a four-tiered, expandable structure: 1) a backbone network linked to existing weather stations, run by recruited public observers; 2) A smaller, second tier of intensive observations, run by scientists at established research sites; 3) a much larger network of observations made by citizen scientists; and 4) remote sensing observations that can be validated with surface observations, thereby providing wall-to-wall coverage for the U.S.A. Key to

  18. Can Growing Degree Days and Photoperiod Predict Spring Wheat Phenology?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad A. Aslam

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Wheat (Triticum aestivum production in the rainfed area of Pothwar Pakistan is extremely vulnerable to high temperature. The expected increase in temperature due to global warming should result in shorter crop life cycles, and thus lower biomass and grain yield. Two major factors control wheat phenological development: temperature and photoperiod. To evaluate wheat development in response to these factors, we conducted experiments that created diverse temperature and daylength conditions by adjusting the crop sowing time. The study was conducted during 2013–14 and 2014–15 using five spring wheat genotypes, four sowing times, at three sites under rainfed management in Pothwar, Pakistan. Wheat crops experienced more cold days with early sowing, but later sowing dates resulted in higher temperatures, especially from anthesis to maturity. These treatments produced large differences in phenology, biomass production, and yield. To investigate whether growing degree days (GDD and photoperiod algorithms could predict wheat phenology under these changing conditions, GDD was calculated based on the method proposed by Wang and Engel while photoperiod followed the approach introduced in the APSIM crop growth model. GDD was calculated separately and in combination with photoperiod from germination to anthesis. For the grain filling period, only GDD was calculated. The observed and predicted number of days to anthesis and maturity were in good agreement, showing that the combination of GDD and photoperiod algorithms provided good estimations of spring wheat phenology under variable temperature and daylength conditions.

  19. A lead isotope perspective on urban development in ancient Naples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delile, Hugo; Keenan-Jones, Duncan; Blichert-Toft, Janne; Goiran, Jean-Philippe; Arnaud-Godet, Florent; Romano, Paola; Albarède, Francis

    2016-05-31

    The influence of a sophisticated water distribution system on urban development in Roman times is tested against the impact of Vesuvius volcanic activity, in particular the great eruption of AD 79, on all of the ancient cities of the Bay of Naples (Neapolis). Written accounts on urbanization outside of Rome are scarce and the archaeological record sketchy, especially during the tumultuous fifth and sixth centuries AD when Neapolis became the dominant city in the region. Here we show that isotopic ratios of lead measured on a well-dated sedimentary sequence from Neapolis' harbor covering the first six centuries CE have recorded how the AD 79 eruption was followed by a complete overhaul of Neapolis' water supply network. The Pb isotopic signatures of the sediments further reveal that the previously steady growth of Neapolis' water distribution system ceased during the collapse of the fifth century AD, although vital repairs to this critical infrastructure were still carried out in the aftermath of invasions and volcanic eruptions.

  20. Effects of recent warm and cold spells on European plant phenology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzel, A.; Estrella, N.; Seifert, H.

    2009-04-01

    Europe or the percentages of crossing 3sd were greater than 1%, respectively. For spring phases, e.g., we analysed the warm spring spells of March, April and spring 1989, February and March 1990, March 2001, February 2002, and the cold spells of February 1952, spring 1955, February 1956, and March 1996. Due to the restrictions of the COST database, we used as phenological reference 1930-1939 average data from European maps published by SCHNELLE in 1965. They comprise mean starting dates of five phenological seasons from spring to autumn include beginning of (1) sowing of summer cereals for the season of earliest to early spring, (2) flowering of apple in full spring, (3) formation of ears of winter wheat in the middle of early summer, (4) harvest of winter wheat at the end of full summer, and (5) sowing of winter wheat in the later part of full autumn. The maps were scanned in two pieces on a A3 scanner. A highly novel semi-automatic procedure for classification and digitalisation in ArcGIS and Definiens Developer was set up to orthorectify the map, to eliminate all background artefacts, redundant mapping, such as the grid, altitudinal shading, rivers, annotations, and to digitise the isoline information as shape files. Finally, the mean onset dates were re-assembled on a 0.5° grid. Phenological extremes were calculated as deviations of the actual onset dates in the COST725 database from the corresponding seasonal mean by SCHNELLE seasons at the nearest grid point. The results highlight that cold and warm spells are in general very well mirrored by phenology. Apparent spatial differences might result from different chilling conditions in winter leading to non linear responses of warming in spring. Warm spells may result in spatially heterogeneous acceleration of plant development, the impact of cold spells should be more homogenous in space.

  1. Budburst phenology of white birch in industrially polluted areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlov, Mikhail V.; Eraenen, Janne K.; Zverev, Vitali E.

    2007-01-01

    Effects of environmental contamination on plant seasonal development have only rarely been properly documented. Monitoring of leaf growth in mountain birch, Betula pubescens subsp. czerepanovii, around a nickel-copper smelter at Monchegorsk hinted advanced budburst phenology in most polluted sites. However, under laboratory conditions budburst of birch twigs cut in late winter from trees naturally growing around three point polluters (nickel-copper smelter at Monchegorsk, aluminium factory at Kandalaksha, and iron pellet plant at Kostomuksha) showed no relationship with distance from the emission source. In a greenhouse experiment, budburst phenology of mountain birch seedlings grown in unpolluted soil did not depend on seedling origin (from heavily polluted vs. clean sites), whereas seedlings in metal-contaminated soil demonstrated delayed budburst. These results allow to attribute advanced budburst phenology of white birch in severely polluted sites to modified microclimate, rather than to pollution impact on plant physiology or genetics. - Advanced budburst phenology in white birch in severely polluted sites is explained by modified microclimate, not by pollution impact on plant physiology

  2. Organization of marine phenology data in support of planning and conservation in ocean and coastal ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Kathryn A.; Fornwall, Mark D.; Weltzin, Jake F.; Griffis, R.B.

    2014-01-01

    Among the many effects of climate change is its influence on the phenology of biota. In marine and coastal ecosystems, phenological shifts have been documented for multiple life forms; however, biological data related to marine species' phenology remain difficult to access and is under-used. We conducted an assessment of potential sources of biological data for marine species and their availability for use in phenological analyses and assessments. Our evaluations showed that data potentially related to understanding marine species' phenology are available through online resources of governmental, academic, and non-governmental organizations, but appropriate datasets are often difficult to discover and access, presenting opportunities for scientific infrastructure improvement. The developing Federal Marine Data Architecture when fully implemented will improve data flow and standardization for marine data within major federal repositories and provide an archival repository for collaborating academic and public data contributors. Another opportunity, largely untapped, is the engagement of citizen scientists in standardized collection of marine phenology data and contribution of these data to established data flows. Use of metadata with marine phenology related keywords could improve discovery and access to appropriate datasets. When data originators choose to self-publish, publication of research datasets with a digital object identifier, linked to metadata, will also improve subsequent discovery and access. Phenological changes in the marine environment will affect human economics, food systems, and recreation. No one source of data will be sufficient to understand these changes. The collective attention of marine data collectors is needed—whether with an agency, an educational institution, or a citizen scientist group—toward adopting the data management processes and standards needed to ensure availability of sufficient and useable marine data to understand

  3. Review: advances in in situ and satellite phenological observations in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Shin; Nasahara, Kenlo Nishida; Inoue, Tomoharu; Saitoh, Taku M.; Suzuki, Rikie

    2016-04-01

    To accurately evaluate the responses of spatial and temporal variation of ecosystem functioning (evapotranspiration and photosynthesis) and services (regulating and cultural services) to the rapid changes caused by global warming, we depend on long-term, continuous, near-surface, and satellite remote sensing of phenology over wide areas. Here, we review such phenological studies in Japan and discuss our current knowledge, problems, and future developments. In contrast with North America and Europe, Japan has been able to evaluate plant phenology along vertical and horizontal gradients within a narrow area because of the country's high topographic relief. Phenological observation networks that support scientific studies and outreach activities have used near-surface tools such as digital cameras and spectral radiometers. Differences in phenology among ecosystems and tree species have been detected by analyzing the seasonal variation of red, green, and blue digital numbers (RGB values) extracted from phenological images, as well as spectral reflectance and vegetation indices. The relationships between seasonal variations in RGB-derived indices or spectral characteristics and the ecological and CO2 flux measurement data have been well validated. In contrast, insufficient satellite remote-sensing observations have been conducted because of the coarse spatial resolution of previous datasets, which could not detect the heterogeneous plant phenology that results from Japan's complex topography and vegetation. To improve Japanese phenological observations, multidisciplinary analysis and evaluation will be needed to link traditional phenological observations with "index trees," near-surface and satellite remote-sensing observations, "citizen science" (observations by citizens), and results published on the Internet.

  4. Incorporating genetic variation into a model of budburst phenology of coast Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter J. Gould; Constance A. Harrington; Bradley J. St Clair

    2011-01-01

    Models to predict budburst and other phenological events in plants are needed to forecast how climate change may impact ecosystems and for the development of mitigation strategies. Differences among genotypes are important to predicting phenological events in species that show strong clinal variation in adaptive traits. We present a model that incorporates the effects...

  5. Integrating models to investigate critical phenological overlaps in complex ecological interactions: The mountain pine beetle-fungus symbiosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audrey Addison; James A. Powell; Barbara J. Bentz; Diana L. Six

    2015-01-01

    The fates of individual species are often tied to synchronization of phenology, however, few methods have been developed for integrating phenological models involving linked species. In this paper, we focus on mountain pine beetle (MPB, Dendroctonus ponderosae) and its two obligate mutualistic fungi, Grosmannia clavigera and Ophiostoma montium. Growth rates of...

  6. The impact of an extreme climatic disturbance and different fertilization treatments on plant development, phenology, and yield of two cultivar groups of Solanum betaceum Cav.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joffre V Tandazo-Yunga

    Full Text Available Changing climatic conditions impose a challenge both to biodiversity and food security. The effects of climate change affect different aspects of the plant or crop, such as morphological and phenological aspects, as well as yield. The effects of greenhouse conditions might be comparable in some cases to a permanent extreme disturbance in climate and weather, thus, contributing to our knowledge on climate change impacts on plant species. We have investigated the differences for 23 traits in two cultivar groups of an Andean traditional crop, Solanum betaceum, under two different environmental conditions that correspond to the traditional practices in the open field and three cultural managements under greenhouse conditions (no fertilization or control, organic, and mineral. We found that traditional practices in the open field are the less productive. Moreover, in warmer and drier conditions the treatment with organic fertilization was the most productive. Greenhouse conditions, however, delay production. We further identified traits that differentiate both cultivar groups and traits that are linked to either the new climate conditions or the fertilization treatments. Fruit characteristics were quite homogeneous between the two cultivar groups. Overall, our results provide insight on the consequences that climate change effects might exert on crops such as tree tomato, reveal that greenhouses can be a robust alternative for tree tomato production, and highlight the need to understand how different managements are linked to different solutions to fulfil the farmers' demands.

  7. Long-Term Phenological Shifts in Raptor Migration and Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffré, Mikaël; Beaugrand, Grégory; Goberville, Éric; Jiguet, Frédéric; Kjellén, Nils; Troost, Gerard; Dubois, Philippe J.; Leprêtre, Alain; Luczak, Christophe

    2013-01-01

    Climate change is having a discernible effect on many biological and ecological processes. Among observed changes, modifications in bird phenology have been widely documented. However, most studies have interpreted phenological shifts as gradual biological adjustments in response to the alteration of the thermal regime. Here we analysed a long-term dataset (1980-2010) of short-distance migratory raptors in five European regions. We revealed that the responses of these birds to climate-induced changes in autumn temperatures are abrupt and synchronous at a continental scale. We found that when the temperatures increased, birds delayed their mean passage date of autumn migration. Such delay, in addition to an earlier spring migration, suggests that a significant warming may induce an extension of the breeding-area residence time of migratory raptors, which may eventually lead to residency. PMID:24223888

  8. Long-term phenological shifts in raptor migration and climate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikaël Jaffré

    Full Text Available Climate change is having a discernible effect on many biological and ecological processes. Among observed changes, modifications in bird phenology have been widely documented. However, most studies have interpreted phenological shifts as gradual biological adjustments in response to the alteration of the thermal regime. Here we analysed a long-term dataset (1980-2010 of short-distance migratory raptors in five European regions. We revealed that the responses of these birds to climate-induced changes in autumn temperatures are abrupt and synchronous at a continental scale. We found that when the temperatures increased, birds delayed their mean passage date of autumn migration. Such delay, in addition to an earlier spring migration, suggests that a significant warming may induce an extension of the breeding-area residence time of migratory raptors, which may eventually lead to residency.

  9. Synchronisms and correlations of spring phenology between apical and lateral meristems in two boreal conifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonucci, Serena; Rossi, Sergio; Deslauriers, Annie; Lombardi, Fabio; Marchetti, Marco; Tognetti, Roberto

    2015-10-01

    Phenological synchronisms between apical and lateral meristems could clarify some aspects related to the physiological relationships among the different organs of trees. This study correlated the phenological phases of bud development and xylem differentiation during spring 2010-14 in balsam fir (Abies balsamea Mill.) and black spruce [(Picea mariana Mill. (BSP)] of the Monts-Valin National Park (Quebec, Canada) by testing the hypothesis that bud development occurs after the reactivation of xylem growth. From May to September, we conducted weekly monitoring of xylem differentiation using microcores and bud development with direct observations on terminal branches. Synchronism between the beginning of bud development and xylem differentiation was found in both species with significant correlations between the phases of bud and xylem phenology. Degree-day sum was more appropriate in assessing the date of bud growth resumption, while thermal thresholds were more suitable for cambium phenology. Our results provide new knowledge on the dynamics of spring phenology and novel information on the synchronisms between two meristems in coniferous trees. The study demonstrates the importance of precisely defining the phases of bud development in order to correctly analyse the relationships with xylem phenology. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Lead Polluted Hotspot: Environmental Implication of Unplanned Industrial Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rikta Sharmin Yousuf

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In Rayer Bazaar, different industries like tannery, plastic, textile, battery recycling industry etc. are increasing rapidly without considering the environmental issues and deterioration. Since chromium (Cr pollution of this area has been widely investigated due to the presence of tannery industries, this study was focused on examining other environmental factors. Field visits and analytical results of semi-quantitative and quantitative analysis as well as three dimensional excitation emission matrix spectroscopy (3DEEM of water, soil and vegetative tissues indicated that, the area is highly polluted in term of different environmental parameters and metal content. The extremely high lead (Pb content of the soil (1171.7 mg/kg in summer, 2157.1 mg/kg in winter and blackish materials of vegetative tissues (6585.6 mg/kg in summer, 1974.1 mg/kg in winter indicates excessive lead deposition of this area that makes it a lead polluted hotspot. One of the possible sources of the extremely high lead concentration is adjacent battery recycling industry and/or other industries surrounding this area. So it is urgent to take necessary steps to find out immediate options for possible mitigation.

  11. Divergent phenological response to hydroclimate variability in forested mountain watersheds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Taehee; Band, Lawrence E; Miniat, Chelcy F; Song, Conghe; Bolstad, Paul V; Vose, James M; Love, Jason P

    2014-08-01

    Mountain watersheds are primary sources of freshwater, carbon sequestration, and other ecosystem services. There is significant interest in the effects of climate change and variability on these processes over short to long time scales. Much of the impact of hydroclimate variability in forest ecosystems is manifested in vegetation dynamics in space and time. In steep terrain, leaf phenology responds to topoclimate in complex ways, and can produce specific and measurable shifts in landscape forest patterns. The onset of spring is usually delayed at a specific rate with increasing elevation (often called Hopkins' Law; Hopkins, 1918), reflecting the dominant controls of temperature on greenup timing. Contrary with greenup, leaf senescence shows inconsistent trends along elevation gradients. Here, we present mechanisms and an explanation for this variability and its significance for ecosystem patterns and services in response to climate. We use moderate-resolution imaging spectro-radiometer (MODIS) Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data to derive landscape-induced phenological patterns over topoclimate gradients in a humid temperate broadleaf forest in southern Appalachians. These phenological patterns are validated with different sets of field observations. Our data demonstrate that divergent behavior of leaf senescence with elevation is closely related to late growing season hydroclimate variability in temperature and water balance patterns. Specifically, a drier late growing season is associated with earlier leaf senescence at low elevation than at middle elevation. The effect of drought stress on vegetation senescence timing also leads to tighter coupling between growing season length and ecosystem water use estimated from observed precipitation and runoff generation. This study indicates increased late growing season drought may be leading to divergent ecosystem response between high and low elevation forests. Landscape-induced phenological patterns

  12. What motivates occasional faculty developers to lead faculty development workshops? A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Patricia S; Irby, David M

    2015-11-01

    The demand for faculty development is ongoing, and many medical schools will need to expand their pool of faculty developers to include physicians and scientists whose primary expertise is not education. Insight into what motivates occasional faculty developers can guide recruitment and retention strategies. This study was designed to understand the motivations of faculty developers who occasionally (one to three times each year) lead faculty development workshops. Qualitative data were collected in March and April 2012 from interviews with faculty developers who occasionally taught workshops from 2007 to 2012 in the University of California, San Francisco, School of Medicine's faculty development program. The interviews were audiotaped and transcribed. The authors thematically analyzed the transcripts using a general inductive approach and developed codes sensitized by motivation theories. The authors interviewed 29/30 (97%) occasional faculty developers and identified five themes: mastery (desire to learn and develop professionally), relatedness (enjoyment of working with and learning from others), duty (sense of obligation to give back and be a good academic citizen), purpose (commitment to improving local teaching and ultimately patient care), and satisfaction (fun and enjoyment). Four of the themes the authors found are well addressed in motivation theory literature: mastery, relatedness, duty, and purpose. Whereas these four are motivators for occasional faculty developers, it is the fifth theme-satisfaction-that the authors feel is foundational and links the others together. Armed with this understanding, individuals leading faculty development programs can develop strategies to recruit and retain occasional faculty developers.

  13. MODIS phenology image service ArcMap toolbox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbert, Colin; Kern, Tim J.; Morisette, Jeff; Brown, Don; James, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    Seasonal change is important to consider when managing conservation areas at landscape scales. The study of such patterns throughout the year is referred to as phenology. Recurring life-cycle events that are initiated and driven by environmental factors include animal migration and plant flowering. Phenological events capture public attention, such as fall color change in deciduous forests, the first flowering in spring, and for those with allergies, the start of the pollen season. These events can affect our daily lives, provide clues to help understand and manage ecosystems, and provide evidence of how climate variability can affect the natural cycle of plants and animals. Phenological observations can be gathered at a range of scales, from plots smaller than an acre to landscapes of hundreds to thousands of acres. Linking these observations to diverse disciplines such as evolutionary biology or climate sciences can help further research in species and ecosystem responses to climate change scenarios at appropriate scales. A cooperative study between the National Park Service (NPS), the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has been exploring how satellite information can be used to summarize phenological patterns observed at the park or landscape scale and how those summaries can be presented to both park managers and visitors. This study specifically addressed seasonal changes in plants, including the onset of growth, photosynthesis in the spring, and the senescence of deciduous vegetation in the fall. The primary objective of the work is to demonstrate that seasonality even in protected areas changes considerably across years. A major challenge is to decouple natural variability from possible trends—directional change that can lead to a permanent and radically different ecosystem state. Trends can be either a gradual degradation of the landscape (often from external influences) or steady improvement (by

  14. Response of vegetation phenology to urbanization in the conterminous United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xuecao [Department of Geological and Atmospheric Sciences, Iowa State University, Ames IA 50011 USA; Zhou, Yuyu [Department of Geological and Atmospheric Sciences, Iowa State University, Ames IA 50011 USA; Asrar, Ghassem R. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Joint Global Change Research Institute, College Park MD 20740 USA; Mao, Jiafu [Climate Change Science Institute, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge TN 37831 USA; Li, Xiaoma [Department of Geological and Atmospheric Sciences, Iowa State University, Ames IA 50011 USA; Li, Wenyu [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for Earth System Modeling, Center for Earth System Science, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 China

    2016-12-18

    The influence of urbanization on vegetation phenology is gaining considerable attention due to its implications for human health, cycling of carbon and other nutrients in Earth system. In this study, we examined the relationship between change in vegetation phenology and urban size, an indicator of urbanization, for the conterminous United States. We studied more than 4500 urban clusters of varying size to determine the impact of urbanization on plant phenology, with the aids of remotely sensed observations since 2003–2012. We found that phenology cycle (changes in vegetation greenness) in rural areas starts earlier (start of season, SOS) and ends later (end of season, EOS), resulting in a longer growing season length (GSL), when compared to the respective surrounding urban areas. The average difference of GSL between urban and rural areas over all vegetation types, considered in this study, is about 9 days. Also, the extended GSL in urban area is consistent among different climate zones in the United States, whereas their magnitudes are varying across regions. We found that a tenfold increase in urban size could result in an earlier SOS of about 1.3 days and a later EOS of around 2.4 days. As a result, the GSL could be extended by approximately 3.6 days with a range of 1.6–6.5 days for 25th ~ 75th quantiles, with a median value of about 2.1 days. For different vegetation types, the phenology response to urbanization, as defined by GSL, ranges from 1 to 4 days. The quantitative relationship between phenology and urbanization is of great use for developing improved models of vegetation phenology dynamics under future urbanization, and for developing change indicators to assess the impacts of urbanization on vegetation phenology.

  15. The USA National Phenology Network; taking the pulse of our planet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weltzin, Jake F.

    2011-01-01

    People have tracked phenology for centuries and for the most practical reasons: it helped them know when to hunt and fish, when to plant and harvest crops, and when to navigate waterways. Now phenology is being used as a tool to assess climate change and its effects on both natural and modified ecosystems. How is the timing of events in plant and animal life cycles, like flowering or migration, responding to climate change? And how are those responses, in turn, affecting people and ecosystems? The USA National Phenology Network (the Network) is working to answer these questions for science and society by promoting a broad understanding of plant and animal phenology and their relationship to environmental change. The Network is a consortium of organizations and individuals that collect, share, and use phenology data, models, and related information to enable scientists, resource managers, and the public to adapt in response to changing climates and environments. In addition, the Network encourages people of all ages and backgrounds to observe and record phenology as a way to discover and explore the nature and pace of our dynamic world. The National Coordinating Office (NCO) of the Network is a resource center that facilitates and encourages widespread collection, integration, and sharing of phenology data and related information (for example, meteorological and hydrological data). The NCO develops and promotes standardized methods for field data collection and maintains several online user interfaces for data upload and download, as well as data exploration, visualization, and analysis. The NCO also facilitates basic and applied research related to phenology, the development of decision-support tools for resource managers and planners, and the design of educational and outreach materials

  16. Phenological and ecological consequences of changes in winter snowpack in the Colorado Rocky Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inouye, D. W.; McKinney, A. M.

    2012-12-01

    The date the snowpack disappears in spring is an important seasonal event at high altitudes because it determines the beginning of the growing season, which in turn influences the phenology of plant growth and flowering, and thus the availability of these resources for animal consumers. At our study site at 2,900m in the Colorado Rocky Mountains, the Rocky Mountain Biological Laboratory, snowmelt now averages two weeks earlier than in 1975. Earlier snowmelt results from a combination of lower snowfall (38 cm less since 1975), dust storms (increasing in frequency, which reduces the snowpack albedo), and warmer spring temperatures (April minimum temperature has increased 3.1°C since 1973; 2012 April mean temperature was 3.4°C above the 38-year mean). There is also a trend of increasing annual precipitation falling as rain instead of snow. We have monitored flowering phenology and abundance for about 100 species of plants in permanent plots since 1973, and use this record to look at how the change in timing of snowmelt has affected flowering. There is significant variation among years in flowering phenology (e.g., about six weeks difference between 2011 and 2012), with a mid-season decline in flowering abundance becoming apparent as the growing season starts earlier. The date of the last hard frost has not been changing in concert with the earlier growing season, with the consequence that many species now have flower buds developed that are then damaged or killed by frost. In 2012, snowmelt date was 23 April, and frost events on 27 May (-11.7°C) and 11 June (-5.6°C) did significant damage to vegetation of some species and to flower buds of many species. For example, flower abundance of the aspen sunflower Helianthella quinquenervis was 0.002% of 2011's flowering. In the absence of seed production, the demography of some plant species is likely being affected. Some animal species are also being affected by the changes in length and temperature of winter. New

  17. Vegetation coupling to global climate: Trajectories of vegetation change and phenology modeling from satellite observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Jeremy Isaac

    Important systematic shifts in ecosystem function are often masked by natural variability. The rich legacy of over two decades of continuous satellite observations provides an important database for distinguishing climatological and anthropogenic ecosystem changes. Examples from semi-arid Sudanian West Africa and New England (USA) illustrate the response of vegetation to climate and land-use. In Burkina Faso, West Africa, pastoral and agricultural practices compete for land area, while degradation may follow intensification. The Nouhao Valley is a natural experiment in which pastoral and agricultural land uses were allocated separate, coherent reserves. Trajectories of annual net primary productivity were derived from 18 years of coarse-grain (AVHRR) satellite data. Trends suggested that pastoral lands had responded rigorously to increasing rainfall after the 1980's droughts. A detailed analysis at Landsat resolution (30m) indicated that the increased vegetative cover was concentrated in the river basins of the pastoral region, implying a riparian wood expansion. In comparison, riparian cover was reduced in agricultural regions. We suggest that broad-scale patterns of increasing semi-arid West African greenness may be indicative of climate variability, whereas local losses may be anthropogenic in nature. The contiguous deciduous forests, ocean proximity, topography, and dense urban developments of New England provide an ideal landscape to examine influences of climate variability and the impact of urban development vegetation response. Spatial and temporal patterns of interannual climate variability were examined via green leaf phenology. Phenology, or seasonal growth and senescence, is driven by deficits of light, temperature, and water. In temperate environments, phenology variability is driven by interannual temperature and precipitation shifts. Average and interannual phenology analyses across southern New England were conducted at resolutions of 30m (Landsat

  18. USA National Phenology Network observational data documentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosemartin, Alyssa H.; Denny, Ellen G.; Gerst, Katharine L.; Marsh, R. Lee; Posthumus, Erin E.; Crimmins, Theresa M.; Weltzin, Jake F.

    2018-04-25

    The goals of the USA National Phenology Network (USA-NPN, www.usanpn.org) are to advance science, inform decisions, and communicate and connect with the public regarding phenology and species’ responses to environmental variation and climate change. The USA-NPN seeks to advance the science of phenology and facilitate ecosystem stewardship by providing phenological information freely and openly. To accomplish these goals, the USA-NPN National Coordinating Office (NCO) delivers observational data on plant and animal phenology in several formats, including minimally processed status and intensity datasets and derived phenometrics for individual plants, sites, and regions. This document describes the suite of observational data products delivered by the USA National Phenology Network, covering the period 2009–present for the United States and accessible via the Phenology Observation Portal (http://dx.doi.org/10.5066/F78S4N1V) and via an Application Programming Interface. The data described here have been used in diverse research and management applications, including over 30 publications in fields such as remote sensing, plant evolution, and resource management.

  19. Pan European Phenological database (PEP725): a single point of access for European data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templ, Barbara; Koch, Elisabeth; Bolmgren, Kjell; Ungersböck, Markus; Paul, Anita; Scheifinger, Helfried; Rutishauser, This; Busto, Montserrat; Chmielewski, Frank-M.; Hájková, Lenka; Hodzić, Sabina; Kaspar, Frank; Pietragalla, Barbara; Romero-Fresneda, Ramiro; Tolvanen, Anne; Vučetič, Višnja; Zimmermann, Kirsten; Zust, Ana

    2018-02-01

    The Pan European Phenology (PEP) project is a European infrastructure to promote and facilitate phenological research, education, and environmental monitoring. The main objective is to maintain and develop a Pan European Phenological database (PEP725) with an open, unrestricted data access for science and education. PEP725 is the successor of the database developed through the COST action 725 "Establishing a European phenological data platform for climatological applications" working as a single access point for European-wide plant phenological data. So far, 32 European meteorological services and project partners from across Europe have joined and supplied data collected by volunteers from 1868 to the present for the PEP725 database. Most of the partners actively provide data on a regular basis. The database presently holds almost 12 million records, about 46 growing stages and 265 plant species (including cultivars), and can be accessed via http://www.pep725.eu/. Users of the PEP725 database have studied a diversity of topics ranging from climate change impact, plant physiological question, phenological modeling, and remote sensing of vegetation to ecosystem productivity.

  20. Pan European Phenological database (PEP725): a single point of access for European data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templ, Barbara; Koch, Elisabeth; Bolmgren, Kjell; Ungersböck, Markus; Paul, Anita; Scheifinger, Helfried; Rutishauser, This; Busto, Montserrat; Chmielewski, Frank-M.; Hájková, Lenka; Hodzić, Sabina; Kaspar, Frank; Pietragalla, Barbara; Romero-Fresneda, Ramiro; Tolvanen, Anne; Vučetič, Višnja; Zimmermann, Kirsten; Zust, Ana

    2018-06-01

    The Pan European Phenology (PEP) project is a European infrastructure to promote and facilitate phenological research, education, and environmental monitoring. The main objective is to maintain and develop a Pan European Phenological database (PEP725) with an open, unrestricted data access for science and education. PEP725 is the successor of the database developed through the COST action 725 "Establishing a European phenological data platform for climatological applications" working as a single access point for European-wide plant phenological data. So far, 32 European meteorological services and project partners from across Europe have joined and supplied data collected by volunteers from 1868 to the present for the PEP725 database. Most of the partners actively provide data on a regular basis. The database presently holds almost 12 million records, about 46 growing stages and 265 plant species (including cultivars), and can be accessed via http://www.pep725.eu/ . Users of the PEP725 database have studied a diversity of topics ranging from climate change impact, plant physiological question, phenological modeling, and remote sensing of vegetation to ecosystem productivity.

  1. Host-race formation: promoted by phenology, constrained by heritability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whipple, A V; Abrahamson, W G; Khamiss, M A; Heinrich, P L; Urian, A G; Northridge, E M

    2009-04-01

    Host-race formation is promoted by genetic trade-offs in the ability of herbivores to use alternate hosts, including trade-offs due to differential timing of host-plant availability. We examined the role of phenology in limiting host-plant use in the goldenrod gall fly (Eurosta solidaginis) by determining: (1) whether phenology limits alternate host use, leading to a trade-off that could cause divergent selection on Eurosta emergence time and (2) whether Eurosta has the genetic capacity to respond to such selection in the face of existing environmental variation. Experiments demonstrated that oviposition and gall induction on the alternate host, Solidago canadensis, were the highest on young plants, whereas the highest levels of gall induction on the normal host, Solidago gigantea, occurred on intermediate-age plants. These findings indicate a phenological trade-off for host-plant use that sets up the possibility of divergent selection on emergence time. Heritability, estimated by parent-offspring regression, indicated that host-race formation is impeded by the amount of genetic variation, relative to environmental, for emergence time.

  2. Leading Our World Forward: An Examination of Student Leadership Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunwell, Stewart G.

    2015-01-01

    This study seeks to examine the processes through which leadership is fostered and developed within student leadership development programs. While there has been some scholarly literature written in this area, a dearth in the literature exists with respect to providing a detailed chronicle and examination of the complete processes employed within…

  3. Leading an Effective Improvement and Development Programme for Children's Centres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weston, Gill; Tyler, Mary

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews the process and achievements of leadership of an improvement and development programme for children's centres in the context of public value and Ofsted inspection. It analyses how the capacity has been developed of children's centre managers to work more strategically and collectively. Distributed leadership theory is applied…

  4. Development of leading technology using reactor produced radioisotope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, S. J.; Hong, Y. D.; Choi, K. H.

    2011-01-01

    This project aimed to develop radioimmunotherapeutic candidates for cancer targeting, and production technology for high valued RI(Lu-177) and sealed source for medical application. Major scope and contents are as followed. The development of radiotherapeutic candidates for cancer targeting: Screaning of cancer targeting bioactive materials, Synthesis and radiolabeling of cancer targeting bioactive materials, - Preparation of BFCAs - Highly effective radiolabeling with RI: Validation of therapeutic efficacy of candidate radiopharmaceuticals: in vivo visualization, Development of production technology for RI(Lu-177) and sealed source for medical/industrial application: Separation of Lu-177 using by enriched target: Fabrication of radioactive core for P-32 ophthalmic applicator

  5. Enabling adaptive system leadership: teachers leading professional development

    OpenAIRE

    Boylan, Mark

    2018-01-01

    Internationally, there is increasing emphasis on teacher leadership of professional development. This provides opportunities for teachers to initiate and facilitate professional learning activities beyond their own schools. There is a need for theoretical tools to analyse their leadership activity and how to support it. Constructs from complexity leadership theory and the concept of teacher system leadership are used to develop a framework to analyse the purposes and practices of teacher prof...

  6. Improvement of Alternative Crop Phenology Detection Algorithms using MODIS NDVI Time Series Data in US Corn Belt Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J.; Kang, S.; Seo, B.; Lee, K.

    2017-12-01

    Predicting crop phenology is important for understanding of crop development and growth processes and improving the accuracy of crop model. Remote sensing offers a feasible tool for monitoring spatio-temporal patterns of crop phenology in region and continental scales. Various methods have been developed to determine the timing of crop phenological stages using spectral vegetation indices (i.e. NDVI and EVI) derived from satellite data. In our study, it was compared four alternative detection methods to identify crop phenological stages (i.e. the emergence and harvesting date) using high quality NDVI time series data derived from MODIS. Also we investigated factors associated with crop development rate. Temperature and photoperiod are the two main factors which would influence the crop's growth pattern expressed in the VI data. Only the effect of temperature on crop development rate was considered. The temperature response function in the Wang-Engel (WE) model was used, which simulates crop development using nonlinear models with response functions that range from zero to one. It has attempted at the state level over 14 years (2003-2016) in Iowa and Illinois state of USA, where the estimated phenology date by using four methods for both corn and soybean. Weekly crop progress reports produced by the USDA NASS were used to validate phenology detection algorithms effected by temperature. All methods showed substantial uncertainty but the threshold method showed relatively better agreement with the State-level data for soybean phenology.

  7. Leading for Urban School Reform and Community Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Terrance L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Improving urban schools of color and the communities where they are located requires leadership that spans school and community boundaries. The purpose of this study is to understand how principal and community leader actions support urban school reform along with community development at two community schools in the urban Midwest and…

  8. Enabling Adaptive System Leadership: Teachers Leading Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boylan, Mark

    2018-01-01

    Internationally, there is increasing emphasis on teacher leadership of professional development. This provides opportunities for teachers to initiate and facilitate professional learning activities beyond their own schools. There is a need for theoretical tools to analyse their leadership activity and how to support it. Constructs from complexity…

  9. Leading nurses: emotional intelligence and leadership development effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowne, Kerri Anne; Young, Thomas M; Goldman, Beryl; Patterson, Barbara; Krouse, Anne M; Proenca, Jose

    2017-07-03

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine the effectiveness of an emotional intelligence (EI) and leadership development education program involving 20 nurse leaders at nursing homes. Also, it investigates the relationship between EI and transformational leadership. Design/methodology/approach Three research questions are posed. Correlation analysis and t-tests were conducted to answer the questions posed. Findings The findings of this paper indicate that the EI educational development was effective, while the personal leadership development was not. The data also showed a positive significant relationship between EI and transformational leadership. Research limitations/implications This paper is limited by the small sample size; thus, a causal relationship between EI and leadership could not be investigated. Additionally, the sample was not randomly selected because of the commitment needed from the participants. Furthermore, the paper was focused on nurse leaders in nursing homes, so it may not be generalizable to other populations. Practical implications With the increasing need for nursing home facilities and the limited training generally provided to nurses who move into managerial roles in these facilities, it is critical for organizations to understand the effectiveness of educational programs that exist. Moreover, the findings of this paper may provide information that would be useful to others who wish to develop EI and/or leadership education for nurses. Originality/value While much research exists on EI and transformational leadership, little of this research focuses on nurses in nursing home facilities. Thus, this paper fills a gap in the literature.

  10. The development in leading e-government articles 2001- 2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard Madsen, Christian; Bull Berger, Jesper; Phythian, Mick

    2014-01-01

    most cited papers from each year are analyzed according to themes such as perspectives on the impact and impact causes of e-government, methods used, underlying research philosophies and recommendations. Findings indicate that the papers are still somewhat optimistic regarding the impact of e....... There is little development in the discussions of generalization of results and recommendations offered....

  11. Translational Partnership Development Lead | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    PROGRAM DESCRIPTION The Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research (FNLCR) is a Federally Funded Research and Development Center operated by Leidos Biomedical Research, Inc on behalf of the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The staff of FNLCR support the NCI’s mission in the fight against cancer and HIV/AIDS. Currently we are seeking a Translational Partnership

  12. Effective Schedule and Cost Management as a Product Development Lead

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Cynthia

    2015-01-01

    The presentation will be given at the 26th Annual Thermal Fluids Analysis Workshop (TFAWS 2015) hosted by the Goddard SpaceFlight Center (GSFC) Thermal Engineering Branch (Code 545). This course provides best practices, helpful tools and lessons learned for staying on plan and day-to-day management of Subsystem flight development after getting Project approval for your Subsystem schedule and budget baseline.

  13. Global Lake and River Ice Phenology Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Global Lake and River Ice Phenology Database contains freeze and thaw/breakup dates as well as other descriptive ice cover data for 865 lakes and rivers in the...

  14. Development of oil for lead shielded glass windows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antony, M.P.; Subramaniam, S.; Vasudeva Rao, P.R.

    1997-01-01

    Oil filled glass windows are used in Hot Cells for viewing purposes. Absorption of moisture and radiation can cause degradation of the oil and the degradation products will make the oil cloudy. Hence, it is necessary to replace the oil at least once in two years. The requirements of the oil were met so far by importing it from USA, Germany and France. An attempt has been made to make the oil indigenously with a view to replenish the oil in future, and also as an alternate source for oil import. The details of the development of a radiation resistant oil, its specifications and the test procedures are discussed in this report. (author)

  15. K-12 Phenology Lessons for the Phenocam Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, K. F.

    2013-12-01

    Phenology is defined as periodic [or annual] life cycles of plants and animals driven by seasonal environmental changes. Climate change impinges a strong effect on phenology, potentially altering the structure and functioning of ecosystems. In the fall of 2011, the Ashburnham-Westminster Regional School District became the first of five schools to join Harvard University's Phenocam Network with the installation of a webcam to monitor phenology (or 'phenocam') at Overlook Middle School in Ashburnham, Massachusetts. Our school district is now part of a network of near-surface remote sensing phenocams that capture and send images of forest, shrub, and grassland vegetation cover at more than 130 diverse sites in North America. Our phenocam provides a digital image every half hour of the mixed forest canopy north from the school, enabling the detection of changes in canopy development, quantified as canopy 'greenness'. As a part of the Phenocam project, students at the K-12 level have expanded the scope of phenological monitoring protocol that is part of the Harvard Forest Schoolyard Ecology Program, Buds, Leaves, and Global Warming. In this protocol, students work with ecologists at Harvard Forest to monitor buds and leaves on schoolyard trees to determine the length of the growing season, giving them the opportunity to be a part of real and important research concerning the critical environmental issue of climate change. Students involved in the Buds, Leaves, and Global Warming study have the opportunity to compare their ground data on budburst, color change, and leaf drop to the phenocam images, as well as to similar forested sites in locations throughout the United States. Lessons have been developed for comparing student data to phenocam images, canopy greenness time series graphs extracted from the images, and satellite data. Lessons addressing map scale and the Urban Heat Island effect will also be available for teachers. This project will greatly enhance the

  16. Simulating phenological shifts in French temperate forests under two climatic change scenarios and four driving global circulation models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebourgeois, François; Pierrat, Jean-Claude; Perez, Vincent; Piedallu, Christian; Cecchini, Sébastien; Ulrich, Erwin

    2010-09-01

    After modeling the large-scale climate response patterns of leaf unfolding, leaf coloring and growing season length of evergreen and deciduous French temperate trees, we predicted the effects of eight future climate scenarios on phenological events. We used the ground observations from 103 temperate forests (10 species and 3,708 trees) from the French Renecofor Network and for the period 1997-2006. We applied RandomForest algorithms to predict phenological events from climatic and ecological variables. With the resulting models, we drew maps of phenological events throughout France under present climate and under two climatic change scenarios (A2, B2) and four global circulation models (HadCM3, CGCM2, CSIRO2 and PCM). We compared current observations and predicted values for the periods 2041-2070 and 2071-2100. On average, spring development of oaks precedes that of beech, which precedes that of conifers. Annual cycles in budburst and leaf coloring are highly correlated with January, March-April and October-November weather conditions through temperature, global solar radiation or potential evapotranspiration depending on species. At the end of the twenty-first century, each model predicts earlier budburst (mean: 7 days) and later leaf coloring (mean: 13 days) leading to an average increase in the growing season of about 20 days (for oaks and beech stands). The A2-HadCM3 hypothesis leads to an increase of up to 30 days in many areas. As a consequence of higher predicted warming during autumn than during winter or spring, shifts in leaf coloring dates appear greater than trends in leaf unfolding. At a regional scale, highly differing climatic response patterns were observed.

  17. Development of proposed free release criteria for Idaho National Engineering Laboratory lead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Losinski, S.J.

    1994-01-01

    The INEL Lead Management Project (LMP) performed an investigation of the origin of lead used as shielding at the INEL and developed radiological profile information that was then used to establish a baseline for the DOE ''no-rad-added'' standard. Primary findings of the investigation include the following: (a) Much of the lead at the INEL was obtained from a DOE lead bank; (b) Lead inventory at the DOE lead bank was derived primarily from recycled sources and was most likely in the form of pure lead; (c) Secondary lead (lead from recycled sources), available in today's market, is expected to have radiological characteristics similar to those of the DOE lead bank; (d) Highly sensitive radiological testing of 20 samples of lead from secondary sources revealed the lead to be radiologically pristine. Beta-, gamma-, and alpha-emitting radionuclide concentrations were all found to be less than detectable, except for a very small quantity of lead-210 (an alpha emitter), which is a naturally occurring isotope of lead. Based on the pristine nature of lead, a proposed free release criterion for lead was developed based on a statistical null hypothesis approach. The free release criterion compares the natural background count of a clean lead standard with the natural background count of a sample. When the sample background count cannot be distinguished as different from the standard background count at the 95% confidence level, then the sample is considered radiologically clean

  18. Disaggregating tree and grass phenology in tropical savannas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qiang

    Savannas are mixed tree-grass systems and as one of the world's largest biomes represent an important component of the Earth system affecting water and energy balances, carbon sequestration and biodiversity as well as supporting large human populations. Savanna vegetation structure and its distribution, however, may change because of major anthropogenic disturbances from climate change, wildfire, agriculture, and livestock production. The overstory and understory may have different water use strategies, different nutrient requirements and have different responses to fire and climate variation. The accurate measurement of the spatial distribution and structure of the overstory and understory are essential for understanding the savanna ecosystem. This project developed a workflow for separating the dynamics of the overstory and understory fractional cover in savannas at the continental scale (Australia, South America, and Africa). Previous studies have successfully separated the phenology of Australian savanna vegetation into persistent and seasonal greenness using time series decomposition, and into fractions of photosynthetic vegetation (PV), non-photosynthetic vegetation (NPV) and bare soil (BS) using linear unmixing. This study combined these methods to separate the understory and overstory signal in both the green and senescent phenological stages using remotely sensed imagery from the MODIS (MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) sensor. The methods and parameters were adjusted based on the vegetation variation. The workflow was first tested at the Australian site. Here the PV estimates for overstory and understory showed best performance, however NPV estimates exhibited spatial variation in validation relationships. At the South American site (Cerrado), an additional method based on frequency unmixing was developed to separate green vegetation components with similar phenology. When the decomposition and frequency methods were compared, the frequency

  19. Development and characterization of the lead iodide semiconductor detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Icimone Braga de

    2001-01-01

    A methodology for purification and growth of PbI 2 crystal as well as for its characterization as a room temperature radiation detector was developed in this work. Commercial salts were purified using the zone refining method and, for the purified material growth, the Bridgman method was used. To calculate the purification efficiency, studies of the decrease impurities concentrations were made in the salts and in three sections of the materials purified, using the neutron activation analysis technique. The results showed that the impurities segregate preferentially in the ingot final section. A significant decrease of the impurities concentration in function of the purification pass number was observed. The grown crystals presented good crystalline quality according to the results of the X-ray diffraction analysis. To evaluate the crystal as a semiconductor detector, measurements of dark leakage current, resistivity and the response of ( 241 Am) alpha particle and ( 241 Am, 57 Co, 133 Ba and 137 Cs) gamma rays were carried out. The radiation response is strongly dependent on the crystals purity. The crystals purified with 500 passes exhibited energy resolution of 10% for 241 Am alpha particle and the gamma rays resolution was compatible with the literature. The photosensibility of the PbI 2 crystal found in the wavelength from 400 to 600 nm range suggests an another application at this crystal as a photodetector to be coupled to scintillators. (author)

  20. Remote Sensing of Lake Ice Phenology in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, S.; Pavelsky, T.

    2017-12-01

    Lake ice phenology (e.g. ice break-up and freeze-up timing) in Alaska is potentially sensitive to climate change. However, there are few current lake ice records in this region, which hinders the comprehensive understanding of interactions between climate change and lake processes. To provide a lake ice database with over a comparatively long time period (2000 - 2017) and large spatial coverage (4000+ lakes) in Alaska, we have developed an algorithm to detect the timing of lake ice using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite data. This approach generally consists of three major steps. First, we use a cloud mask (MOD09GA) to filter out satellite images with heavy cloud contamination. Second, daily MODIS reflectance values (MOD09GQ) of lake surface are used to extract ice pixels from water pixels. The ice status of lakes can be further identified based on the fraction of ice pixels. Third, to improve the accuracy of ice phenology detection, we execute post-processing quality control to reduce false ice events caused by outliers. We validate the proposed algorithm over six lakes by comparing with Landsat-based reference data. Validation results indicate a high correlation between the MODIS results and reference data, with normalized root mean square error (NRMSE) ranging from 1.7% to 4.6%. The time series of this lake ice product is then examined to analyze the spatial and temporal patterns of lake ice phenology.

  1. Phenology and growth in four annual species grown in ambient and elevated CO2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reekie, E.G. (Acadia Univ., Wolfville, NS (Canada)); Bazzaz, F.A. (Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (USA))

    1991-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to test the hypothesis that changes in phenology with CO{sub 2} are a function of the effect of CO{sub 2} upon growth and to determine if CO{sub 2}-induced changes in phenology can influence competitive outcome. The effect of 350, 525, and 700{mu}l/l CO{sub 2} on Guara brachycarpa, Gailardia pulchella, Oenothera laciniata, and Lupinus texenis was examined. Plants were grown as individuals in 150-, 500-, or 1000-ml pots and in competition in 1000-ml pots. Growth and development were monitored at twice-weekly intervals by recording the number of leaves and noting the presence or absence of stem elongation, branching, flower buds, and open flowers. Elevated CO{sub 2} affected both growth and phenology, but the direction and magnitude of effects varied with species and soil volume. Elevated CO{sub 2} did not appear to affect development through its effect on growth. Those treatments in which there were significant effects of CO{sub 2} did not appear to affect development through its effect on growth. Those treatments in which there were significant effects of CO{sub 2} on growth were generally different from those treatments in which CO{sub 2} affected phenology. Rather than affecting phenology by changing plant size, CO{sub 2} appeared to affect phenology by modifying the size at which plants switched from one stage to the next. The level of CO{sub 2} changed competitive outcome; the importance of Lupinus increased whereas that of Oenothera decreased with increased CO{sub 2}. These changes were more closely related to the effect of CO{sub 2} on growth than its effect on phenology. 19 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  2. Species- and community-level responses combine to drive phenology of lake phytoplankton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Annika; Sagrario, María de los Ángeles González; Schindler, Daniel E.

    2013-01-01

    Global change is leading to shifts in the seasonal timing of growth and maturation for primary producers. Remote sensing is increasingly used to measure the timing of primary production in both aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems, but there is often a poor correlation between these results and direct observations of life-history responses of individual species. One explanation may be that in addition to phenological shifts, global change is also causing shifts in community composition among species with different seasonal timing of growth and maturation. We quantified how shifts in species phenology and in community composition translated into phenological change in a diverse phytoplankton community from 1962-2000. During this time the aggregate community spring-summer phytoplankton peak has shifted 63 days earlier. The mean taxon shift was only 3 days earlier and shifts in taxa phenology explained only 40% of the observed community phenological shift. The remaining community shift was attributed to dominant early season taxa increasing in abundance while a dominant late season taxon decreased in abundance. In diverse producer communities experiencing multiple stressors, changes in species composition must be considered to fully understand and predict shifts in the seasonal timing of primary production.

  3. Germination phenology determines the propensity for facilitation and competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leverett, Lindsay D

    2017-09-01

    A single plant can interact both positively and negatively with its neighbors through the processes of facilitation and competition, respectively. Much of the variation in the balance of facilitation and competition that individuals experience can be explained by the degree of physical stress and the sizes or ages of plants during the interaction. Germination phenology partly controls both of these factors, but its role in defining the facilitation-competition balance has not been explicitly considered. I performed an experiment in a population of the winter annual Arabidopsis thaliana (Brassicaceae) to test whether germinating during physically stressful periods leads to facilitation while germinating during periods that promote growth and reproduction leads to competition. I manipulated germination and neighbor presence across two years in order to quantify the effects of the local plant community on survival, fecundity, and total fitness as a function of germination phenology. Neighbors increased survival when germination occurred under conditions that were unsuitable for survival, but they reduced fecundity in germinants that were otherwise the most fecund. Later germination was associated with facilitation in the first year but competition in the second year. These episodes of facilitation and competition opposed each other, leading to no net effect of neighbors when averaged over all cohorts. These results indicate that variation in germination timing can explain some of the variation in the facilitation-competition balance in plant communities. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  4. Phenological Changes in the Southern Hemisphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Lynda E.; Altwegg, Res; Barbraud, Christophe; Barnard, Phoebe; Beaumont, Linda J.; Crawford, Robert J. M.; Durant, Joel M.; Hughes, Lesley; Keatley, Marie R.; Low, Matt; Morellato, Patricia C.; Poloczanska, Elvira S.; Ruoppolo, Valeria; Vanstreels, Ralph E. T.; Woehler, Eric J.; Wolfaardt, Anton C.

    2013-01-01

    Current evidence of phenological responses to recent climate change is substantially biased towards northern hemisphere temperate regions. Given regional differences in climate change, shifts in phenology will not be uniform across the globe, and conclusions drawn from temperate systems in the northern hemisphere might not be applicable to other regions on the planet. We conduct the largest meta-analysis to date of phenological drivers and trends among southern hemisphere species, assessing 1208 long-term datasets from 89 studies on 347 species. Data were mostly from Australasia (Australia and New Zealand), South America and the Antarctic/subantarctic, and focused primarily on plants and birds. This meta-analysis shows an advance in the timing of spring events (with a strong Australian data bias), although substantial differences in trends were apparent among taxonomic groups and regions. When only statistically significant trends were considered, 82% of terrestrial datasets and 42% of marine datasets demonstrated an advance in phenology. Temperature was most frequently identified as the primary driver of phenological changes; however, in many studies it was the only climate variable considered. When precipitation was examined, it often played a key role but, in contrast with temperature, the direction of phenological shifts in response to precipitation variation was difficult to predict a priori. We discuss how phenological information can inform the adaptive capacity of species, their resilience, and constraints on autonomous adaptation. We also highlight serious weaknesses in past and current data collection and analyses at large regional scales (with very few studies in the tropics or from Africa) and dramatic taxonomic biases. If accurate predictions regarding the general effects of climate change on the biology of organisms are to be made, data collection policies focussing on targeting data-deficient regions and taxa need to be financially and logistically

  5. Phenological changes in the southern hemisphere.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynda E Chambers

    Full Text Available Current evidence of phenological responses to recent climate change is substantially biased towards northern hemisphere temperate regions. Given regional differences in climate change, shifts in phenology will not be uniform across the globe, and conclusions drawn from temperate systems in the northern hemisphere might not be applicable to other regions on the planet. We conduct the largest meta-analysis to date of phenological drivers and trends among southern hemisphere species, assessing 1208 long-term datasets from 89 studies on 347 species. Data were mostly from Australasia (Australia and New Zealand, South America and the Antarctic/subantarctic, and focused primarily on plants and birds. This meta-analysis shows an advance in the timing of spring events (with a strong Australian data bias, although substantial differences in trends were apparent among taxonomic groups and regions. When only statistically significant trends were considered, 82% of terrestrial datasets and 42% of marine datasets demonstrated an advance in phenology. Temperature was most frequently identified as the primary driver of phenological changes; however, in many studies it was the only climate variable considered. When precipitation was examined, it often played a key role but, in contrast with temperature, the direction of phenological shifts in response to precipitation variation was difficult to predict a priori. We discuss how phenological information can inform the adaptive capacity of species, their resilience, and constraints on autonomous adaptation. We also highlight serious weaknesses in past and current data collection and analyses at large regional scales (with very few studies in the tropics or from Africa and dramatic taxonomic biases. If accurate predictions regarding the general effects of climate change on the biology of organisms are to be made, data collection policies focussing on targeting data-deficient regions and taxa need to be financially

  6. First Plant Phenological Records in the Carpathians and their Possible Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekusova, M.; Horecká, V.; Mikulová, K.

    2009-04-01

    Phenological observations have a long history. The long time series come from Korea and some other parts of Asia, while wine harvest dates form the oldest phenological data sets in Europe. One of them started as early as 1457 year in Vienna, i.e. on the border of the Carpathian region. However, the first systematic phenological observations started in the south Carpathians almost four hundred years later following the establishment of the phenological network in Austria and later in the Hungarian Kingdom. A medical doctor P. Wierbitzky did first phenological observations in the Carpathian region in the beginning of thirties of the nineteenth century in Orawicza. The first systematic observations and records of plant development in this region are connected with the establishment of Austrian Institute for Meteorology and Geomagnetism since 1851. Although the historical significance of these observations is high, the data recorded are of lower quality, frequently interrupted and fragmented. Further development of phenological observations came with the introduction of the methodology of the observations introduced by Karl Fritsch in the beginning of the sixties of the nineteenth century mainly with the establishment of Hungarian Meteorological Service in 1871. These historical data were recorded and published in the yearbooks and, despite of the fragmentary character of the records, they are usable for some evaluations. This article brings the description of the data sets of systematic phenological network in the Carpathian region and considers some possible phenological evaluations. The phenological observations were done in some cases at the same localities as the climatologic observations but the number of phenological stations was quite lower in several years. The historical plant phenological records were based in many cases on the observation of four phenological phases: leafing, flowering, ripening and fall of leaves. Both the volume and the quality of the

  7. An Enhanced TIMESAT Algorithm for Estimating Vegetation Phenology Metrics from MODIS Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Bin; Morisette, Jeffrey T.; Wolfe, Robert E.; Gao, Feng; Ederer, Gregory A.; Nightingale, Joanne; Pedelty, Jeffrey A.

    2012-01-01

    An enhanced TIMESAT algorithm was developed for retrieving vegetation phenology metrics from 250 m and 500 m spatial resolution Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) vegetation indexes (VI) over North America. MODIS VI data were pre-processed using snow-cover and land surface temperature data, and temporally smoothed with the enhanced TIMESAT algorithm. An objective third derivative test was applied to define key phenology dates and retrieve a set of phenology metrics. This algorithm has been applied to two MODIS VIs: Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI). In this paper, we describe the algorithm and use EVI as an example to compare three sets of TIMESAT algorithm/MODIS VI combinations: a) original TIMESAT algorithm with original MODIS VI, b) original TIMESAT algorithm with pre-processed MODIS VI, and c) enhanced TIMESAT and pre-processed MODIS VI. All retrievals were compared with ground phenology observations, some made available through the National Phenology Network. Our results show that for MODIS data in middle to high latitude regions, snow and land surface temperature information is critical in retrieving phenology metrics from satellite observations. The results also show that the enhanced TIMESAT algorithm can better accommodate growing season start and end dates that vary significantly from year to year. The TIMESAT algorithm improvements contribute to more spatial coverage and more accurate retrievals of the phenology metrics. Among three sets of TIMESAT/MODIS VI combinations, the start of the growing season metric predicted by the enhanced TIMESAT algorithm using pre-processed MODIS VIs has the best associations with ground observed vegetation greenup dates.

  8. Long-term phenology and variability of Southern Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Steenkamp, K

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available and classification of vegetation, (ii) studying the impact of climate change, and influence of rainfall variability (iii) monitoring Satellite-derived phenology and (iv) detecting changes in land use/ land cover. This study analyzed vegetation phenology across...

  9. Pituophis ruthveni (Louisiana pinesnake) Reproduction/breeding phenology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josh B. Pierce; Craig Rudolph; Christopher A. Melder; Beau B. Gregory

    2016-01-01

    Determing the reproductive phenology of snakes is important since it marks a time period where snakes are particularly vulnerable to predation. In addition, knowledge of reproductive phenology may help captive breeding programs specify appropriate times to pair snakes for reproduction.

  10. Dosimetric evaluation of indigenously developed non-lead bilayered radiation protective aprons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senthilkumar, S.

    2018-01-01

    Radiation shielding garments are commonly used to protect medical patients and radiation workers from X-radiation exposure during diagnostic imaging in hospitals. Originally, protective aprons consisted of lead-impregnated vinyl with a shielding equivalent given in millimeters of lead. All contained up to 2 mm of lead. While lead has long been used to shield patients from X-rays, its toxicity poses a health threat if the protective apron containing the metal wear out or the lead gets damaged. However, lead garments must be treated as hazardous waste for disposal and are heavy, causing back strain and other orthopedic problems for those who must wear them for long periods of time. The main purpose of this work was to indigenously develop light weight non lead based bilayered radiation protective aprons and evaluate dosimetrically with different combination of fabricated non lead materials and commercially available lead based aprons

  11. USA National Phenology Network’s volunteer-contributed observations yield predictive models of phenological transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crimmins, Theresa M.; Crimmins, Michael A.; Gerst, Katherine L.; Rosemartin, Alyssa H.; Weltzin, Jake

    2017-01-01

    In support of science and society, the USA National Phenology Network (USA-NPN) maintains a rapidly growing, continental-scale, species-rich dataset of plant and animal phenology observations that with over 10 million records is the largest such database in the United States. Contributed voluntarily by professional and citizen scientists, these opportunistically collected observations are characterized by spatial clustering, inconsistent spatial and temporal sampling, and short temporal depth. We explore the potential for developing models of phenophase transitions suitable for use at the continental scale, which could be applied to a wide range of resource management contexts. We constructed predictive models of the onset of breaking leaf buds, leaves, open flowers, and ripe fruits – phenophases that are the most abundant in the database and also relevant to management applications – for all species with available data, regardless of plant growth habit, location, geographic extent, or temporal depth of the observations. We implemented a very basic model formulation - thermal time models with a fixed start date. Sufficient data were available to construct 107 individual species × phenophase models. Of these, fifteen models (14%) met our criteria for model fit and error and were suitable for use across the majority of the species’ geographic ranges. These findings indicate that the USA-NPN dataset holds promise for further and more refined modeling efforts. Further, the candidate models that emerged could be used to produce real-time and short-term forecast maps of the timing of such transitions to directly support natural resource management.

  12. Examining spring phenology of forest understory using digital photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang Liang; Mark D. Schwartz; Songlin Fei

    2011-01-01

    Phenology is an important indicator of forest health in relation to energy/nutrient cycles and species interactions. Accurate characterization of forest understory phenology is a crucial part of forest phenology observation. In this study, ground plots set up in a temperate mixed forest in Wisconsin were observed with a visible-light digital camera during spring 2007....

  13. Satellite time-series data for vegetation phenology detection and environmental assessment in Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suepa, Tanita

    The relationship between temporal and spatial data is considered the major advantage of remote sensing in research related to biophysical characteristics. With temporally formatted remote sensing products, it is possible to monitor environmental changes as well as global climate change through time and space by analyzing vegetation phenology. Although a number of different methods have been developed to determine the seasonal cycle using time series of vegetation indices, these methods were not designed to explore and monitor changes and trends of vegetation phenology in Southeast Asia (SEA). SEA is adversely affected by impacts of climate change, which causes considerable environmental problems, and the increase in agricultural land conversion and intensification also adds to those problems. Consequently, exploring and monitoring phenological change and environmental impacts are necessary for a better understanding of the ecosystem dynamics and environmental change in this region. This research aimed to investigate inter-annual variability of vegetation phenology and rainfall seasonality, analyze the possible drivers of phenological changes from both climatic and anthropogenic factors, assess the environmental impacts in agricultural areas, and develop an enhanced visualization method for phenological information dissemination. In this research, spatio-temporal patterns of vegetation phenology were analyzed by using MODIS-EVI time series data over the period of 2001-2010. Rainfall seasonality was derived from TRMM daily rainfall rate. Additionally, this research assessed environmental impacts of GHG emissions by using the environmental model (DNDC) to quantify emissions from rice fields in Thailand. Furthermore, a web mapping application was developed to present the output of phenological and environmental analysis with interactive functions. The results revealed that satellite time-series data provided a great opportunity to study regional vegetation variability

  14. Influences of spawning timing, water temperature, and climatic warming on early life history phenology in western Alaska sockeye salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, Morgan M.; Falke, Jeffrey A.; Quinn, Thomas P.; Adkison, Milo D.; Schindler, Daniel E.; Bartz, Krista K.; Young, Daniel B.; Westley, Peter A. H.

    2018-01-01

    We applied an empirical model to predict hatching and emergence timing for 25 western Alaska sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) populations in four lake-nursery systems to explore current patterns and potential responses of early life history phenology to warming water temperatures. Given experienced temperature regimes during development, we predicted hatching to occur in as few as 58 d to as many as 260 d depending on spawning timing and temperature. For a focal lake spawning population, our climate-lake temperature model predicted a water temperature increase of 0.7 to 1.4 °C from 2015 to 2099 during the incubation period, which translated to a 16 d to 30 d earlier hatching timing. The most extreme scenarios of warming advanced development by approximately a week earlier than historical minima and thus climatic warming may lead to only modest shifts in phenology during the early life history stage of this population. The marked variation in the predicted timing of hatching and emergence among populations in close proximity on the landscape may serve to buffer this metapopulation from climate change.

  15. Development Plan and R and D Status of China Lead-based Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Yican; Bai, Yunqing; Song, Yong; Li, Yazhou; Team, FDS [Institute of Nuclear Energy Safety Technology, Beijing (Switzerland)

    2013-07-01

    Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) launched an engineering project to develop ADS system and lead-based reactors named China LEAd-based Reactor (CLEAR) series. The Institute of Nuclear Energy Safety Technology (INEST) will be responsible for the CLEAR design and R and D. In this project, CAS plans to develop the lead-based reactors through 3 phases which are 10MWth lead based research reactor (CLEAR-I), 100MWth lead-based experimental reactor (CLEAR-II), 1000MWth lead-based demonstration reactor (CLEAR-III). As a pre-testing facility, a lead-based zero-power reactor (CLEAR-0) is required to be built before CLEAR-I construction and operation. The new conceptual design of lead-based reactors, including hydrogen production, tritium production for fusion energy and thorium utilization, is also on-going. Lead-lithium cooled fusion reactor blanket design and lead-lithium experimental loops have been developed more than 10 years. CLEAR series reactor conceptual design has been finished and detailed engineering design for CLEAR-I is underway. The R and D activities for CLEAR reactor including design and safety software, key components, structural materials, lead-based experimental loops and neutronics experimental platform are developing. Series of liquid lead-based experimental loops named DRAGON (Lead-Lithium) and KYLIN (Lead-Bismuth) have already been built or on constructing to performed experiments investigating the structure material corrosion issues and the thermal-hydraulic properties of lead-based coolant. The Highly Intensified D-T Neutron Generator HINEG for neutron experiment and software validation will be constructed. Series advanced reactor design software and nuclear library have been developed for lead-alloy cooled reactor, including CAD based Multi-Functional 4D Neutronics Simulation System (Visual Bus), Monte Carlo Automatic Modeling Program for Radiation Transport Simulation (MCAM), Super Monte Carlo Simulation Program (SuperMC), Nuclear Radiation

  16. Development Plan and R and D Status of China Lead-based Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Yican; Bai, Yunqing; Song, Yong; Li, Yazhou; Team, FDS

    2013-01-01

    Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) launched an engineering project to develop ADS system and lead-based reactors named China LEAd-based Reactor (CLEAR) series. The Institute of Nuclear Energy Safety Technology (INEST) will be responsible for the CLEAR design and R and D. In this project, CAS plans to develop the lead-based reactors through 3 phases which are 10MWth lead based research reactor (CLEAR-I), 100MWth lead-based experimental reactor (CLEAR-II), 1000MWth lead-based demonstration reactor (CLEAR-III). As a pre-testing facility, a lead-based zero-power reactor (CLEAR-0) is required to be built before CLEAR-I construction and operation. The new conceptual design of lead-based reactors, including hydrogen production, tritium production for fusion energy and thorium utilization, is also on-going. Lead-lithium cooled fusion reactor blanket design and lead-lithium experimental loops have been developed more than 10 years. CLEAR series reactor conceptual design has been finished and detailed engineering design for CLEAR-I is underway. The R and D activities for CLEAR reactor including design and safety software, key components, structural materials, lead-based experimental loops and neutronics experimental platform are developing. Series of liquid lead-based experimental loops named DRAGON (Lead-Lithium) and KYLIN (Lead-Bismuth) have already been built or on constructing to performed experiments investigating the structure material corrosion issues and the thermal-hydraulic properties of lead-based coolant. The Highly Intensified D-T Neutron Generator HINEG for neutron experiment and software validation will be constructed. Series advanced reactor design software and nuclear library have been developed for lead-alloy cooled reactor, including CAD based Multi-Functional 4D Neutronics Simulation System (Visual Bus), Monte Carlo Automatic Modeling Program for Radiation Transport Simulation (MCAM), Super Monte Carlo Simulation Program (SuperMC), Nuclear Radiation

  17. Atmospheric teleconnection influence on North American land surface phenology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dannenberg, Matthew P.; Wise, Erika K.; Janko, Mark; Hwang, Taehee; Kolby Smith, W.

    2018-03-01

    Short-term forecasts of vegetation activity are currently not well constrained due largely to our lack of understanding of coupled climate-vegetation dynamics mediated by complex interactions between atmospheric teleconnection patterns. Using ecoregion-scale estimates of North American vegetation activity inferred from remote sensing (1982-2015), we examined seasonal and spatial relationships between land surface phenology and the atmospheric components of five teleconnection patterns over the tropical Pacific, north Pacific, and north Atlantic. Using a set of regression experiments, we also tested for interactions among these teleconnection patterns and assessed predictability of vegetation activity solely based on knowledge of atmospheric teleconnection indices. Autumn-to-winter composites of the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) were strongly correlated with start of growing season timing, especially in the Pacific Northwest. The two leading modes of north Pacific variability (the Pacific-North American, PNA, and West Pacific patterns) were significantly correlated with start of growing season timing across much of southern Canada and the upper Great Lakes. Regression models based on these Pacific teleconnections were skillful predictors of spring phenology across an east-west swath of temperate and boreal North America, between 40°N-60°N. While the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) was not strongly correlated with start of growing season timing on its own, we found compelling evidence of widespread NAO-SOI and NAO-PNA interaction effects. These results suggest that knowledge of atmospheric conditions over the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans increases the predictability of North American spring phenology. A more robust consideration of the complexity of the atmospheric circulation system, including interactions across multiple ocean basins, is an important step towards accurate forecasts of vegetation activity.

  18. Development and validation of a lead emission inventory for the Greater Cairo area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeinab Safar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Studies that investigate the environmental health risks to Cairo residents invariably conclude that lead is one of the area’s major health hazards. The Cairo Air Improvement Project (CAIP, which was implemented by a team led by Chemonics International, funded by USAID in partnership with the Egyptian Environmental Affairs Agency (EEAA, started developing a lead emission inventory for the greater Cairo (GC area in 1998. The inventory contains a list by major source of the annual lead emissions in the GC area. Uses of the inventory and associated database include developing effective regulatory and control strategies, assessing emissions trends, and conducting modeling exercises. This paper describes the development of the current lead emissions inventory (1999–2010, along with an approach to develop site specific emission factors and measurements to validate the inventory. This paper discusses the major sources of lead in the GC area, which include lead smelters, Mazout (heavy fuel oil combustion, lead manufacturing batteries factories, copper foundries, and cement factories. Included will be the trend in the lead emissions inventory with regard to the production capacity of each source category. In addition, the lead ambient measurements from 1999 through 2010 are described and compared with the results of Source Attribution Studies (SAS conducted in 1999, 2002, and 2010. Due to EEAA/CAIP efforts, a remarkable decrease in more than 90% in lead emissions was attained for 2007.

  19. Morphological constraints on changing avian migration phenology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Møller, A P; Rubolini, D; Saino, N

    2017-06-01

    Many organisms at northern latitudes have responded to climate warming by advancing their spring phenology. Birds are known to show earlier timing of spring migration and reproduction in response to warmer springs. However, species show heterogeneous phenological responses to climate warming, with those that have not advanced or have delayed migration phenology experiencing population declines. Although some traits (such as migration distance) partly explain heterogeneity in phenological responses, the factors affecting interspecies differences in the responsiveness to climate warming have yet to be fully explored. In this comparative study, we investigate whether variation in wing aspect ratio (reflecting relative wing narrowness), an ecomorphological trait that is strongly associated with flight efficiency and migratory behaviour, affects the ability to advance timing of spring migration during 1960-2006 in a set of 80 European migratory bird species. Species with larger aspect ratio (longer and narrower wings) showed smaller advancement of timing of spring migration compared to species with smaller aspect ratio (shorter and wider wings) while controlling for phylogeny, migration distance and other life-history traits. In turn, migration distance positively predicted aspect ratio across species. Hence, species that are better adapted to migration appear to be more constrained in responding phenologically to rapid climate warming by advancing timing of spring migration. Our findings corroborate the idea that aspect ratio is a major evolutionary correlate of migration, and suggest that selection for energetically efficient flights, as reflected by high aspect ratio, may hinder phenotypically plastic/microevolutionary adjustments of migration phenology to ongoing climatic changes. © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  20. Improved Satellite-based Crop Yield Mapping by Spatially Explicit Parameterization of Crop Phenology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Z.; Azzari, G.; Lobell, D. B.

    2016-12-01

    Field-scale mapping of crop yields with satellite data often relies on the use of crop simulation models. However, these approaches can be hampered by inaccuracies in the simulation of crop phenology. Here we present and test an approach to use dense time series of Landsat 7 and 8 acquisitions data to calibrate various parameters related to crop phenology simulation, such as leaf number and leaf appearance rates. These parameters are then mapped across the Midwestern United States for maize and soybean, and for two different simulation models. We then implement our recently developed Scalable satellite-based Crop Yield Mapper (SCYM) with simulations reflecting the improved phenology parameterizations, and compare to prior estimates based on default phenology routines. Our preliminary results show that the proposed method can effectively alleviate the underestimation of early-season LAI by the default Agricultural Production Systems sIMulator (APSIM), and that spatially explicit parameterization for the phenology model substantially improves the SCYM performance in capturing the spatiotemporal variation in maize and soybean yield. The scheme presented in our study thus preserves the scalability of SCYM, while significantly reducing its uncertainty.

  1. How training citizen scientists affects the accuracy and precision of phenological data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Richard E.; Žemaitė, Irma; Miller-Rushing, Abraham J.

    2018-05-01

    Monitoring plant and animal phenology is a critical step to anticipating and predicting changes in species interactions and biodiversity. Because phenology necessarily involves frequent and repeated observations over time, citizen scientists have become a vital part of collecting phenological data. However, there is still concern over the accuracy and precision of citizen science data. It is possible that training citizen scientists can improve data quality though there are few comparisons of trained and untrained citizen scientists in the ability of each to accurately and precisely measure phenology. We assessed how three types of observers—experts, trained citizen scientists that make repeated observations, and untrained citizen scientists making once-per-year observations—differ in quantifying temporal change in flower and fruit abundance of American mountain ash trees (Sorbus americana Marsh.) and arthropods in Acadia National Park, Maine, USA. We found that trained more so than untrained citizen science observers over- or under-estimated abundances leading to precise but inaccurate characterizations of phenological patterns. Our results suggest a new type of bias induced by repeated observations: A type of learning takes place that reduces the independence of observations taken on different trees or different dates. Thus, in this and many other cases, having individuals make one-off observations of marked plants may produce data as good if not better than individuals making repeated observations. For citizen science programs related to phenology, our results underscore the importance of (a) attracting the most number of observers possible even if they only make one observation, (b) producing easy-to-use and informative data sheets, and (c) carefully planning effective training programs that are, perhaps, repeated at different points during the data collection period.

  2. Development of a multiple HTS current lead assembly for corrector magnets application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, J.L.; Dederer, J.T.; Singh, S.K.

    1994-01-01

    Vapor-cooled current leads used for transmitting power to superconducting power equipment such as the corrector magnets in the SSC spools can introduce a significant heat leak into the cryostat which results in cryogen boil-off. Replenishing the boil-off or refrigerating and liquefying the vapors associated with the cooling of these leads may constitute a significant portion of the operating cost and/or the capital investment of the power equipment. Theoretical studies and experiments have demonstrated that the heat leak introduced by a current lead can be significantly reduced by using ceramic high temperature superconductor (HTSC) as part of the conductor in the current leads. A HTSC reduces heat leak in a current lead by being superconducting in the temperature range below its critical temperature and by having a low temperature thermal conductivity which is generally orders of magnitude lower than the copper alloys commonly used as the current lead conductors. This combination reduces Joule heating and heat conduction, resulting in lower heat leak to the cryostat. To demonstrate the advantages and large scale application of this technology, Westinghouse Science ampersand Technology Center has continued its efforts in High Temperature Superconducting (HTS) current lead development. The efforts include qualification testing and selection of commercial sources of HTSC for current leads and the successful development of a 12 x 100 A multiple HTS current lead assembly prototype for SSC Corrector Element Power Lead application. The efforts on the design, fabrication and testing of the multiple HTS lead assembly is reported below

  3. Spring weather conditions influence breeding phenology and reproductive success in sympatric bat populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linton, Danielle M; Macdonald, David W

    2018-04-10

    Climate is known to influence breeding phenology and reproductive success in temperate-zone bats, but long-term population level studies and interspecific comparisons are rare. Investigating the extent to which intrinsic (i.e. age), and extrinsic (i.e. spring weather conditions), factors influence such key demographic parameters as the proportion of females becoming pregnant, or completing lactation, each breeding season, is vital to understanding of bat population ecology and life-history traits. Using data from 12 breeding seasons (2006-2017), encompassing the reproductive histories of 623 Myotis daubentonii and 436 Myotis nattereri adult females, we compare rates of recruitment to the breeding population and show that these species differ in their relative sensitivity to environmental conditions and climatic variation, affecting annual reproductive success at the population level. We demonstrate that (1) spring weather conditions influence breeding phenology, with warm, dry and calm conditions leading to earlier parturition dates and advanced juvenile development, whilst cold, wet and windy weather delays birth timing and juvenile growth; (2) reproductive rates in first-year females are influenced by spring weather conditions in that breeding season and in the preceding breeding season when each cohort was born. Pregnancy and lactation rates were both higher when favourable spring foraging conditions were more prevalent; (3) reproductive success increases with age in both species, but at different rates; (4) reproductive rates were consistently higher, and showed less interannual variation, in second-year and older M. daubentonii (mean 91.55% ± 0.05 SD) than M. nattereri (mean 72.74% ± 0.15 SD); (5) estimates of reproductive success at the population level were highly correlated with the size of the juvenile cohort recorded each breeding season. Improving understanding of the influence of environmental conditions, especially extreme climatic

  4. The plant phenological online database (PPODB): an online database for long-term phenological data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dierenbach, Jonas; Badeck, Franz-W.; Schaber, Jörg

    2013-09-01

    We present an online database that provides unrestricted and free access to over 16 million plant phenological observations from over 8,000 stations in Central Europe between the years 1880 and 2009. Unique features are (1) a flexible and unrestricted access to a full-fledged database, allowing for a wide range of individual queries and data retrieval, (2) historical data for Germany before 1951 ranging back to 1880, and (3) more than 480 curated long-term time series covering more than 100 years for individual phenological phases and plants combined over Natural Regions in Germany. Time series for single stations or Natural Regions can be accessed through a user-friendly graphical geo-referenced interface. The joint databases made available with the plant phenological database PPODB render accessible an important data source for further analyses of long-term changes in phenology. The database can be accessed via www.ppodb.de .

  5. Estimating and Analyzing Savannah Phenology with a Lagged Time Series Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boke-Olen, Niklas; Lehsten, Veiko; Ardo, Jonas

    2016-01-01

    cycle due to their areal coverage and can have an effect on the food security in regions that depend on subsistence farming. In this study we investigate how soil moisture, mean annual precipitation, and day length control savannah phenology by developing a lagged time series model. The model uses...... climate data for 15 flux tower sites across four continents, and normalized difference vegetation index from satellite to optimize a statistical phenological model. We show that all three variables can be used to estimate savannah phenology on a global scale. However, it was not possible to create...... a simplified savannah model that works equally well for all sites on the global scale without inclusion of more site specific parameters. The simplified model showed no bias towards tree cover or between continents and resulted in a cross-validated r2 of 0.6 and root mean squared error of 0.1. We therefore...

  6. Mapping Rubber Plantations and Natural Forests in Xishuangbanna (Southwest China Using Multi-Spectral Phenological Metrics from MODIS Time Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian van der Linden

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available We developed and evaluated a new approach for mapping rubber plantations and natural forests in one of Southeast Asia’s biodiversity hot spots, Xishuangbanna in China. We used a one-year annual time series of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS, Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI and short-wave infrared (SWIR reflectance data to develop phenological metrics. These phenological metrics were used to classify rubber plantations and forests with the Random Forest classification algorithm. We evaluated which key phenological characteristics were important to discriminate rubber plantations and natural forests by estimating the influence of each metric on the classification accuracy. As a benchmark, we compared the best classification with a classification based on the full, fitted time series data. Overall classification accuracies derived from EVI and SWIR time series alone were 64.4% and 67.9%, respectively. Combining the phenological metrics from EVI and SWIR time series improved the accuracy to 73.5%. Using the full, smoothed time series data instead of metrics derived from the time series improved the overall accuracy only slightly (1.3%, indicating that the phenological metrics were sufficient to explain the seasonal changes captured by the MODIS time series. The results demonstrate a promising utility of phenological metrics for mapping and monitoring rubber expansion with MODIS.

  7. An optical sensor network for vegetation phenology monitoring and satellite data calibration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eklundh, L.; Jin, H.; Schubert, P.

    2011-01-01

    -board Aqua and Terra satellite platforms. PAR fluxes are partitioned into reflected and absorbed components for the ground and canopy. The measurements demonstrate that the instrumentation provides detailed information about the vegetation phenology and variations in reflectance due to snow cover variations......We present a network of sites across Fennoscandia for optical sampling of vegetation properties relevant for phenology monitoring and satellite data calibration. The network currently consists of five sites, distributed along an N-S gradient through Sweden and Finland. Two sites are located...... and vegetation development. Valuable information about PAR absorption of ground and canopy is obtained that may be linked to vegetation productivity....

  8. Modeling winter moth Operophtera brumata egg phenology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salis, Lucia; Lof, Marjolein; Asch, van Margriet; Visser, Marcel E.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the relationship between an insect's developmental rate and temperature is crucial to forecast insect phenology under climate change. In the winter moth Operophtera brumata timing of egg-hatching has severe fitness consequences on growth and reproduction as egg-hatching has to match

  9. Acute exposure to lead increases myocardial contractility independent of hypertension development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fioresi, M.; Furieri, L.B.; Simões, M.R.; Ribeiro, R.F. Junior; Meira, E.F.; Fernandes, A.A.; Stefanon, I.; Vassallo, D.V.

    2013-01-01

    We studied the effects of the acute administration of small doses of lead over time on hemodynamic parameters in anesthetized rats to determine if myocardial contractility changes are dependent or not on the development of hypertension. Male Wistar rats received 320 µg/kg lead acetate iv once, and their hemodynamic parameters were measured for 2 h. Cardiac contractility was evaluated in vitro using left ventricular papillary muscles as were Na + ,K + -ATPase and myosin Ca 2+ -ATPase activities. Lead increased left- (control: 112 ± 3.7 vs lead: 129 ± 3.2 mmHg) and right-ventricular systolic pressures (control: 28 ± 1.2 vs lead: 34 ± 1.2 mmHg) significantly without modifying heart rate. Papillary muscles were exposed to 8 µM lead acetate and evaluated 60 min later. Isometric contractions increased (control: 0.546 ± 0.07 vs lead: 0.608 ± 0.06 g/mg) and time to peak tension decreased (control: 268 ± 13 vs lead: 227 ± 5.58 ms), but relaxation time was unchanged. Post-pause potentiation was similar between groups (n = 6 per group), suggesting no change in sarcoplasmic reticulum activity, evaluated indirectly by this protocol. After 1-h exposure to lead acetate, the papillary muscles became hyperactive in response to a β-adrenergic agonist (10 µM isoproterenol). In addition, post-rest contractions decreased, suggesting a reduction in sarcolemmal calcium influx. The heart samples treated with 8 µM lead acetate presented increased Na + ,K + -ATPase (approximately 140%, P < 0.05 for control vs lead) and myosin ATPase (approximately 30%, P < 0.05 for control vs lead) activity. Our results indicated that acute exposure to low lead concentrations produces direct positive inotropic and lusitropic effects on myocardial contractility and increases the right and left ventricular systolic pressure, thus potentially contributing to the early development of hypertension

  10. Uncommon sources and some unsual manifestations of lead poisoning in a tropical developing country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolston, David D K

    2011-12-01

    Lead-containing cooking utensils, sometimes used in South Indian homes, and indigenous medications, widely used in India and increasingly in developed countries, may be responsible for lead intoxication in adults. We report chronic lead poisoning in five adult patients. Not all patients had abdominal colic, while dramatic weight loss, depression and encephalopathy were seen. Once recognized, lead poisoning is treatable and sometimes preventable. Response to chelation therapy with agents such as calcium ethylenediaminetetraacetate (CaEDTA) is impressive, although several courses of therapy may be necessary.

  11. Does University Campus Experience Develop Motivation to Lead or Readiness to Lead among Undergraduate Students? "A Malaysian Perspective"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamid, Jamaliah Abdul; Krauss, Steven E.

    2013-01-01

    Do students' experiences on university campuses cultivate motivation to lead or a sense of readiness to lead that does not necessarily translate to active leadership? To address this question, a study was conducted with 369 undergraduates from Malaysia. Campus experience was more predictive of leadership readiness than motivation. Student…

  12. Development of Advanced High Lift Leading Edge Technology for Laminar Flow Wings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright, Michelle M.; Korntheuer, Andrea; Komadina, Steve; Lin, John C.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the Advanced High Lift Leading Edge (AHLLE) task performed by Northrop Grumman Systems Corporation, Aerospace Systems (NGAS) for the NASA Subsonic Fixed Wing project in an effort to develop enabling high-lift technology for laminar flow wings. Based on a known laminar cruise airfoil that incorporated an NGAS-developed integrated slot design, this effort involved using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis and quality function deployment (QFD) analysis on several leading edge concepts, and subsequently down-selected to two blown leading-edge concepts for testing. A 7-foot-span AHLLE airfoil model was designed and fabricated at NGAS and then tested at the NGAS 7 x 10 Low Speed Wind Tunnel in Hawthorne, CA. The model configurations tested included: baseline, deflected trailing edge, blown deflected trailing edge, blown leading edge, morphed leading edge, and blown/morphed leading edge. A successful demonstration of high lift leading edge technology was achieved, and the target goals for improved lift were exceeded by 30% with a maximum section lift coefficient (Cl) of 5.2. Maximum incremental section lift coefficients ( Cl) of 3.5 and 3.1 were achieved for a blown drooped (morphed) leading edge concept and a non-drooped leading edge blowing concept, respectively. The most effective AHLLE design yielded an estimated 94% lift improvement over the conventional high lift Krueger flap configurations while providing laminar flow capability on the cruise configuration.

  13. Are We Appropriately Developing Leaders to Fight and Lead in the Future Full Spectrum of Conflict?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pricone, Bob

    2002-01-01

    The thesis of this SRP is to examine whether we are appropriately training and developing our junior leaders to serve and lead in the future full spectrum environment and organizations, both Interim and Objective...

  14. Synergistic Use of Citizen Science and Remote Sensing for Continental-Scale Measurements of Forest Tree Phenology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J. Elmore

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available There is great potential value in linking geographically dispersed multitemporal observations collected by lay volunteers (or “citizen scientists” with remotely-sensed observations of plant phenology, which are recognized as useful indicators of climate change. However, challenges include a large mismatch in spatial scale and diverse sources of uncertainty in the two measurement types. These challenges must be overcome if the data from each source are to be compared and jointly used to understand spatial and temporal variation in phenology, or if remote observations are to be used to predict ground-based observations. We investigated the correlation between land surface phenology derived from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS data and citizen scientists’ phenology observations from the USA National Phenology Network (NPN. The volunteer observations spanned 2004 to 2013 and represented 25 plant species and nine phenophases. We developed quality control procedures that removed observations outside of an a priori determined acceptable period and observations that were made more than 10 days after a preceding observation. We found that these two quality control steps improved the correlation between ground- and remote-observations, but the largest improvement was achieved when the analysis was restricted to forested MODIS pixels. These results demonstrate a high degree of correlation between the phenology of individual trees (particularly dominant forest trees such as quaking aspen, white oak, and American beech and the phenology of the surrounding forested landscape. These results provide helpful guidelines for the joint use of citizen scientists’ observations and remote sensing phenology in work aimed at understanding continental scale variation and temporal trends.

  15. Adaptation of reproductive phenology to climate change with ecological feedback via dominance hierarchies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Jacob; Smith, Henrik G; Jonzén, Niclas

    2014-03-01

    Phenological shifts belong to the most commonly observed biological responses to recent climate change. It is, however, often unclear how these shifts are linked to demography and competitive interactions. We develop an eco-evolutionary model to study adaptation of timing of reproduction in organisms with social dominance hierarchies. We focus on residential birds with winter flocks, where success in competition for territories among offspring depends on ranking given by prior residence. We study the effects of environmental change on breeding population densities, ensuing selection pressures and long-term evolutionary equilibria. We consider changes in food peak date, in winter survival, in total reproductive output and in the width of the food distribution. We show that the evolutionarily stable hatching date will advance with increasing winter survival and reproductive output since these parameters increase habitat saturation and post-fledging competition. Increasing the length of the breeding season also selects for earlier hatching date due to the reduced costs for producing offspring with high ranking. Our analysis shows that there is little correlation between short-term and long-term population responses across different scenarios of environmental change. However, short-term population growth consistently predicts selection for earlier reproduction. Hence, the model identifies changed breeding population density as a key factor to understanding phenological adaptation in systems with prior residence advantages. While selection for change in reproductive phenology is often explained by changed seasonal variation in environmental variables, such as food abundance, we show that environmental change without apparent effects on seasonality can critically affect phenological adaptation. Such factors can mask or even override influences of changed seasonality on phenology. The model thus offers a conceptually new set of explanations for understanding phenological

  16. Reconstructing patterns of temperature, phenology, and frost damage over 124 years: spring damage risk is increasing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augspurger, Carol K

    2013-01-01

    Climate change, with both warmer spring temperatures and greater temperature fluctuations, has altered phenologies, possibly leading to greater risk of spring frost damage to temperate deciduous woody plants. Phenological observations of 20 woody species from 1993 to 2012 in Trelease Woods, Champaign County, Illinois, USA, were used to identify years with frost damage to vegetative and reproductive phases. Local temperature records were used in combination with the phenological observations to determine what combinations of the two were associated with damage. Finally, a long-term temperature record (1889-1992) was evaluated to determine if the frequency of frost damage has risen in recent decades. Frost Frost damage occurred in five years in the interior and in three additional years at only the forest edge. The degree of damage varied with species, life stage, tissue (vegetative or reproductive), and phenological phase. Common features associated with the occurrence of damage to interior plants were (1) a period of unusual warm temperatures in March, followed by (2) a frost event in April with a minimum temperature frost damage increased significantly, from 0.03 during 1889-1979 to 0.21 during 1980-2012. When the criteria were "softened" to frost damage events more common.

  17. Correlation between temperature and phenology prediction error in rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oort, van P.A.J.; Zhang, T.; Vries, de M.E.; Heinemann, A.B.; Meinke, H.B.

    2011-01-01

    For rice (Oryza sativa L.), simulation models like ORYZA2000 and CERES-Rice have been used to explore adaptation options to climate change and weather-related stresses (drought, heat). Output of these models is very sensitive to accurate modelling of crop development, i.e. phenology. What has to

  18. Comparing MODIS and near-surface vegetation indexes for monitoring tropical dry forest phenology along a successional gradient using optical phenology towers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankine, C.; Sánchez-Azofeifa, G. A.; Guzmán, J. Antonio; Espirito-Santo, M. M.; Sharp, Iain

    2017-10-01

    Tropical dry forests (TDFs) present strong seasonal greenness signals ideal for tracking phenology and primary productivity using remote sensing techniques. The tightly synchronized relationship these ecosystems have with water availability offer a valuable natural experiment for observing the complex interactions between the atmosphere and the biosphere in the tropics. To investigate how well the MODIS vegetation indices (normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and the enhanced vegetation index (EVI)) represented the phenology of different successional stages of naturally regenerating TDFs, within a widely conserved forest fragment in the semi-arid southeast of Brazil, we installed several canopy towers with radiometric sensors to produce high temporal resolution near-surface vegetation greenness indices. Direct comparison of several years of ground measurements with a combined Aqua/Terra 8 day satellite product showed similar broad temporal trends, but MODIS often suffered from cloud contamination during the onset of the growing season and occasionally during the peak growing season. The strength of the in-situ and MODIS linear relationship was greater for NDVI than for EVI across sites but varied with forest stand age. Furthermore, we describe the onset dates and duration of canopy development phases for three years of in-situ monitoring. A seasonality analysis revealed significant discrepancies between tower and MODIS phenology transitions dates, with up to five weeks differences in growing season length estimation. Our results indicate that 8 and 16 day MODIS satellite vegetation monitoring products are suitable for tracking general patterns of tropical dry forest phenology in this region but are not temporally sufficient to characterize inter-annual differences in phenology phase onset dates or changes in productivity due to mid-season droughts. Such rapid transitions in canopy greenness are important indicators of climate change sensitivity of these

  19. Land Surface Phenology from MODIS: Characterization of the Collection 5 Global Land Cover Dynamics Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganguly, Sangram; Friedl, Mark A.; Tan, Bin; Zhang, Xiaoyang; Verma, Manish

    2010-01-01

    Information related to land surface phenology is important for a variety of applications. For example, phenology is widely used as a diagnostic of ecosystem response to global change. In addition, phenology influences seasonal scale fluxes of water, energy, and carbon between the land surface and atmosphere. Increasingly, the importance of phenology for studies of habitat and biodiversity is also being recognized. While many data sets related to plant phenology have been collected at specific sites or in networks focused on individual plants or plant species, remote sensing provides the only way to observe and monitor phenology over large scales and at regular intervals. The MODIS Global Land Cover Dynamics Product was developed to support investigations that require regional to global scale information related to spatiotemporal dynamics in land surface phenology. Here we describe the Collection 5 version of this product, which represents a substantial refinement relative to the Collection 4 product. This new version provides information related to land surface phenology at higher spatial resolution than Collection 4 (500-m vs. 1-km), and is based on 8-day instead of 16-day input data. The paper presents a brief overview of the algorithm, followed by an assessment of the product. To this end, we present (1) a comparison of results from Collection 5 versus Collection 4 for selected MODIS tiles that span a range of climate and ecological conditions, (2) a characterization of interannual variation in Collections 4 and 5 data for North America from 2001 to 2006, and (3) a comparison of Collection 5 results against ground observations for two forest sites in the northeastern United States. Results show that the Collection 5 product is qualitatively similar to Collection 4. However, Collection 5 has fewer missing values outside of regions with persistent cloud cover and atmospheric aerosols. Interannual variability in Collection 5 is consistent with expected ranges of

  20. RICE CROP MAPPING USING SENTINEL-1A PHENOLOGICAL METRICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. F. Chen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Rice is the most important food crop in Vietnam, providing food more than 90 million people and is considered as an essential source of income for majority of rural populations. Monitoring rice-growing areas is thus important to developing successful strategies for food security in the country. This paper aims to develop an approach for crop acreage estimation from multi-temporal Sentinel-1A data. We processed the data for two main cropping seasons (e.g., winter–spring, summer–autumn in the Mekong River Delta (MRD, Vietnam through three main steps: (1 data pre-processing, (3 rice classification based on crop phenological metrics, and (4 accuracy assessment of the mapping results. The classification results compared with the ground reference data indicated the overall accuracy of 86.2% and Kappa coefficient of 0.72. These results were reaffirmed by close correlation between the government’s rice area statistics for such crops (R2 > 0.95. The values of relative error in area obtained for the winter–spring and summer–autumn were -3.6% and 6.7%, respectively. This study demonstrates the potential application of multi-temporal Sentinel-1A data for rice crop mapping using information of crop phenology in the study region.

  1. Design and development of a lead jar for oral administration of radioiodine In hyperthyroid patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, M.S.; Paul, A.K.; Rahman, H.A.; Begum, F.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Nuclear Medicine practices involve use of radioisotopes for diagnosis and treatment of diseases. Radioiodine is one of such radioisotopes, being used in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases since 1942. Handling of radioiodine involves radiation hazards both for the patients as well as for the technologists. Though radioiodine is supplied in a lead container, for treatment purpose, it is administered after dispensing into a glass jar that does not adequately protect radiation hazards. For this reason, we designed and developed a lead jar and radioiodine is dispensed into that lead jar to minimize radiation hazards. For oral administration of radioiodine to hyperthyroid patients, a lead jar was designed and developed with lead in Centre for Nuclear Medicine and Ultrasound, Khulna in December 2004 by own expertise and technologies in such a way that a glass jar could be introduced into that lead jar. The thickness of lead was 4.04 mm and the thickness of glass jar was 0.7 mm and thus the whole thickness of lead jar became 4.74 mm. The desired dose of radioiodine (8 mCi) that should be given to the patients were dispensed into that lead jar and administered orally to the patients. Radiation levels in 10 such cases were measured by Mini-Rad Series-1000 survey meter at 0.5 meter, 1 meter and 3 meters distances both lead jar and glass jar. The mean radiation level of lead jar and glass jar during oral administration of 8 mCi of Na 131 I solution in 10 cases at 0.5 meter, 1 meter and 3 meters distances were 62.4 ± 1.96 microSv/h, 17.7 ±1.95 microSv/h, 3.39 ± .12 microSv/h and 20.3± 2.16 microSv/h, 79.8 ± 0.79 microSv/h, 1.97 ± 0.23 microSv/h respectively. We have found that radiation level reduced by 67.47%, 61.58%, and 41.89% with lead jar at 0.5 meter, 1 meter and 3 meters distances. In conclusion, the locally designed and developed lead jar is safe, easy to handle and reduces radiation burden significantly in oral administration of radioiodine to

  2. Development strategy and conceptual design of China Lead-based Research Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Yican; Bai, Yunqing; Song, Yong; Huang, Qunying; Zhao, Zhumin; Hu, Liqin

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • China LEAd-based Reactor (CLEAR) proposed by Institute of Nuclear Energy Safety Technology (INEST) is selected as the ADS reference reactor. • The Chinese ADS development program consists of three stages, and during the first stage, a 10 MW th lead-based research reactor named CLEAR-I will be built with subcritical and critical dual-mode operation capability for validation of ADS transmutation system and lead cooled fast reactor technology. • Major design principles of CLEAR-I are oriented at technology feasibility, safety reliability, experiment flexibility and technology continuity. Followed by the development strategy and design principles, CLEAR-I design options and conceptual design scenarios are presented. - Abstract: Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) launched an engineering project to develop an Accelerator Driven System (ADS) for nuclear waste transmutation since 2011, and China LEAd-based Reactor (CLEAR) proposed by Institute of Nuclear Energy Safety Technology (INEST) is selected as the ADS reference reactor. In this paper, the development strategy and conceptual design of China Lead-based Research Reactor are proposed. The Chinese ADS development program consists of three stages, and during the first stage, a 10 MW th lead-based research reactor named CLEAR-I will be built with subcritical and critical dual-mode operation capability for validation of ADS transmutation system and lead cooled fast reactor technology. Major design principles of CLEAR-I are oriented at technology feasibility, safety reliability, experiment flexibility and technology continuity. Followed by the development strategy and design principles, CLEAR-I design options and conceptual design scenarios are presented.

  3. Development and implementation of the Saskatchewan Leadership Program: Leading for healthcare transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutwiri, Betty; Witt, Christine; Denysek, Christina; Halferdahl, Susan; McLeod, Katherine M

    2016-01-01

    The Saskatchewan Leadership Program (SLP) was developed based on the LEADS framework and aligned with Lean management to build leadership renewal and sustainability conducive to transformational change in the Saskatchewan health system. This article describes the development, implementation, and evaluation of the SLP, including experiences and lessons learned. © 2015 The Canadian College of Health Leaders.

  4. Old Plants, New Tricks: Phenological Research Using Herbarium Specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Charles G; Ellwood, Elizabeth R; Primack, Richard B; Davis, Charles C; Pearson, Katelin D; Gallinat, Amanda S; Yost, Jenn M; Nelson, Gil; Mazer, Susan J; Rossington, Natalie L; Sparks, Tim H; Soltis, Pamela S

    2017-07-01

    The timing of phenological events, such as leaf-out and flowering, strongly influence plant success and their study is vital to understanding how plants will respond to climate change. Phenological research, however, is often limited by the temporal, geographic, or phylogenetic scope of available data. Hundreds of millions of plant specimens in herbaria worldwide offer a potential solution to this problem, especially as digitization efforts drastically improve access to collections. Herbarium specimens represent snapshots of phenological events and have been reliably used to characterize phenological responses to climate. We review the current state of herbarium-based phenological research, identify potential biases and limitations in the collection, digitization, and interpretation of specimen data, and discuss future opportunities for phenological investigations using herbarium specimens. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Phenological change detection while accounting for abrupt and gradual trends in satellite image time series

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbesselt, J.; Hyndman, R.; Zeileis, A.; Culvenor, D.

    2010-01-01

    A challenge in phenology studies is understanding what constitutes phenological change amidst background variation. The majority of phenological studies have focused on extracting critical points in the seasonal growth cycle, without exploiting the full temporal detail. The high degree of

  6. Using a phenological network to assess weather influences on first appearance of butterflies in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolk, Van Der Henk Jan; Wallis de Vries, Michiel; Vliet, Van Arnold J.H.

    2016-01-01

    Phenological responses of butterflies to temperature have been demonstrated in several European countries by using data from standardized butterfly monitoring schemes. Recently, phenological networks have enabled volunteers to record phenological observations at project websites. In this study,

  7. Decadal declines in avian herbivore reproduction: density-dependent nutrition and phenological mismatch in the Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Megan V; Alisauskas, Ray T; Douglas, David C; Kellett, Dana K

    2017-07-01

    A full understanding of population dynamics depends not only on estimation of mechanistic contributions of recruitment and survival, but also knowledge about the ecological processes that drive each of these vital rates. The process of recruitment in particular may be protracted over several years, and can depend on numerous ecological complexities until sexually mature adulthood is attained. We addressed long-term declines (23 breeding seasons, 1992-2014) in the per capita production of young by both Ross's Geese (Chen rossii) and Lesser Snow Geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens) nesting at Karrak Lake in Canada's central Arctic. During this period, there was a contemporaneous increase from 0.4 to 1.1 million adults nesting at this colony. We evaluated whether (1) density-dependent nutritional deficiencies of pre-breeding females or (2) phenological mismatch between peak gosling hatch and peak forage quality, inferred from NDVI on the brood-rearing areas, may have been behind decadal declines in the per capita production of goslings. We found that, in years when pre-breeding females arrived to the nesting grounds with diminished nutrient reserves, the proportional composition of young during brood-rearing was reduced for both species. Furthermore, increased mismatch between peak gosling hatch and peak forage quality contributed additively to further declines in gosling production, in addition to declines caused by delayed nesting with associated subsequent negative effects on clutch size and nest success. The degree of mismatch increased over the course of our study because of advanced vegetation phenology without a corresponding advance in Goose nesting phenology. Vegetation phenology was significantly earlier in years with warm surface air temperatures measured in spring (i.e., 25 May-30 June). We suggest that both increased phenological mismatch and reduced nutritional condition of arriving females were behind declines in population-level recruitment, leading

  8. Decadal declines in avian herbivore reproduction: density-dependent nutrition and phenological mismatch in the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Megan V.; Alisaukas, Ray T.; Douglas, David C.; Kellett, Dana K.

    2017-01-01

    A full understanding of population dynamics depends not only on estimation of mechanistic contributions of recruitment and survival, but also knowledge about the ecological processes that drive each of these vital rates. The process of recruitment in particular may be protracted over several years, and can depend on numerous ecological complexities until sexually mature adulthood is attained. We addressed long-term declines (23 breeding seasons, 1992–2014) in the per capita production of young by both Ross's Geese (Chen rossii) and Lesser Snow Geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens) nesting at Karrak Lake in Canada's central Arctic. During this period, there was a contemporaneous increase from 0.4 to 1.1 million adults nesting at this colony. We evaluated whether (1) density-dependent nutritional deficiencies of pre-breeding females or (2) phenological mismatch between peak gosling hatch and peak forage quality, inferred from NDVI on the brood-rearing areas, may have been behind decadal declines in the per capita production of goslings. We found that, in years when pre-breeding females arrived to the nesting grounds with diminished nutrient reserves, the proportional composition of young during brood-rearing was reduced for both species. Furthermore, increased mismatch between peak gosling hatch and peak forage quality contributed additively to further declines in gosling production, in addition to declines caused by delayed nesting with associated subsequent negative effects on clutch size and nest success. The degree of mismatch increased over the course of our study because of advanced vegetation phenology without a corresponding advance in Goose nesting phenology. Vegetation phenology was significantly earlier in years with warm surface air temperatures measured in spring (i.e., 25 May–30 June). We suggest that both increased phenological mismatch and reduced nutritional condition of arriving females were behind declines in population-level recruitment

  9. Acute exposure to lead increases myocardial contractility independent of hypertension development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fioresi, M. [Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Fisiológicas, Centro de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Vitória, ES (Brazil); Departamento de Enfermagem, Centro de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Vitória, ES (Brazil); Furieri, L.B.; Simões, M.R.; Ribeiro, R.F. Junior; Meira, E.F.; Fernandes, A.A.; Stefanon, I. [Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Fisiológicas, Centro de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Vitória, ES (Brazil); Vassallo, D.V. [Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Fisiológicas, Centro de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Vitória, ES (Brazil); Centro de Ciências da Saúde de Vitória, Escola Superior de Ciências da Santa Casa de Misericórdia de Vitória, Vitória, ES (Brazil)

    2013-02-01

    We studied the effects of the acute administration of small doses of lead over time on hemodynamic parameters in anesthetized rats to determine if myocardial contractility changes are dependent or not on the development of hypertension. Male Wistar rats received 320 µg/kg lead acetate iv once, and their hemodynamic parameters were measured for 2 h. Cardiac contractility was evaluated in vitro using left ventricular papillary muscles as were Na{sup +},K{sup +}-ATPase and myosin Ca{sup 2+}-ATPase activities. Lead increased left- (control: 112 ± 3.7 vs lead: 129 ± 3.2 mmHg) and right-ventricular systolic pressures (control: 28 ± 1.2 vs lead: 34 ± 1.2 mmHg) significantly without modifying heart rate. Papillary muscles were exposed to 8 µM lead acetate and evaluated 60 min later. Isometric contractions increased (control: 0.546 ± 0.07 vs lead: 0.608 ± 0.06 g/mg) and time to peak tension decreased (control: 268 ± 13 vs lead: 227 ± 5.58 ms), but relaxation time was unchanged. Post-pause potentiation was similar between groups (n = 6 per group), suggesting no change in sarcoplasmic reticulum activity, evaluated indirectly by this protocol. After 1-h exposure to lead acetate, the papillary muscles became hyperactive in response to a β-adrenergic agonist (10 µM isoproterenol). In addition, post-rest contractions decreased, suggesting a reduction in sarcolemmal calcium influx. The heart samples treated with 8 µM lead acetate presented increased Na{sup +},K{sup +}-ATPase (approximately 140%, P < 0.05 for control vs lead) and myosin ATPase (approximately 30%, P < 0.05 for control vs lead) activity. Our results indicated that acute exposure to low lead concentrations produces direct positive inotropic and lusitropic effects on myocardial contractility and increases the right and left ventricular systolic pressure, thus potentially contributing to the early development of hypertension.

  10. Climatic effects on the phenology of geophytes

    OpenAIRE

    Eppich, Boglárka; Dede, Lilla; Ferenczy, Antal; Garamvölgyi , Ágnes; Horváth , Levente; Isépy , István; Priszter , Szaniszló; Hufnagel, Levente

    2009-01-01

    Nowadays, the scientific and social significance of the research of climatic effects has become outstanding. In order to be able to predict the ecological effects of the global climate change, it is necessary to study monitoring databases of the past and explore connections. For the case study mentioned in the title, historical weather data series from the Hungarian Meteorological Service and Szaniszló Priszter’s monitoring data on the phenology of geophytes have been used. These ...

  11. Space-Derived Phenology, Retrieval and Use for Drought and Food Security Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meroni, M.; Kayitakire, F.; Rembold, F.; Urbano, F.; Schucknecht, A.; LEO, O.

    2014-12-01

    Monitoring vegetation conditions is a critical activity for assessing food security in Africa. Rural populations relying on rain-fed agriculture and livestock grazing are highly exposed to large seasonal and inter-annual fluctuations in water availability. Monitoring the state, evolution, and productivity of vegetation, crops and pastures in particular, is important to conduct food emergency responses and plan for a long-term, resilient, development strategy in this area. The timing of onset, the duration, and the intensity of vegetation growth can be retrieved from space observations and used for food security monitoring to assess seasonal vegetation development and forecast the likely seasonal outcome when the season is ongoing. In this contribution we present a set of phenology-based remote sensing studies in support to food security analysis. Key phenological indicators are retrieved using a model-fit approach applied to SOPT-VEGETATION FAPAR time series. Remote-sensing phenology is first used to estimate i) the impact of the drought in the Horn of Africa, ii) crop yield in Tunisia and, iii) rangeland biomass production in Niger. Then the impact of the start and length of vegetation growing period on the total biomass production is assessed over the Sahel. Finally, a probabilistic approach using phenological information to forecast the occurrence of an end-of-season biomass production deficit is applied over the Sahel to map hot-spots of drought-related risk.

  12. An observation-based progression modeling approach to spring and autumn deciduous tree phenology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Rong; Schwartz, Mark D.; Donnelly, Alison; Liang, Liang

    2016-03-01

    It is important to accurately determine the response of spring and autumn phenology to climate change in forest ecosystems, as phenological variations affect carbon balance, forest productivity, and biodiversity. We observed phenology intensively throughout spring and autumn in a temperate deciduous woodlot at Milwaukee, WI, USA, during 2007-2012. Twenty-four phenophase levels in spring and eight in autumn were recorded for 106 trees, including white ash, basswood, white oak, boxelder, red oak, and hophornbeam. Our phenological progression models revealed that accumulated degree-days and day length explained 87.9-93.4 % of the variation in spring canopy development and 75.8-89.1 % of the variation in autumn senescence. In addition, the timing of community-level spring and autumn phenophases and the length of the growing season from 1871 to 2012 were reconstructed with the models developed. All simulated spring phenophases significantly advanced at a rate from 0.24 to 0.48 days/decade ( p ≤ 0.001) during the 1871-2012 period and from 1.58 to 2.00 days/decade ( p coloration) and 0.50 (full-leaf coloration) days/decade ( p coloration and leaf fall, and suggested accelerating simulated ecosystem responses to climate warming over the last four decades in comparison to the past 142 years.

  13. Disturbed sensorimotor and electrophysiological patterns in lead intoxicated rats during development are restored by curcumin I.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hind Benammi

    Full Text Available Lead poisoning is one of the most significant health problem of environmental origin. It is known to cause different damages in the central and peripheral nervous system which could be represented by several neurophysiological and behavioral symptoms. In this study we firstly investigated the effect of lead prenatal exposure in rats to (3g/L, from neonatal to young age, on the motor/sensory performances, excitability of the spinal cord and gaits during development. Then we evaluated neuroprotective effects of curcumin I (Cur I against lead neurotoxicity, by means of grasping and cliff avoidance tests to reveal the impairment of the sensorimotor functions in neonatal rats exposed prenatally to lead. In addition, extracellular recordings of motor output in spinal cord revealed an hyper-excitability of spinal networks in lead treated rats. The frequency of induced fictive locomotion was also increased in treated rats. At the young age, rats exhibited an impaired locomotor gait. All those abnormalities were attenuated by Cur I treatment at a dose of 16g/kg. Based on our finding, Cur I has shown features of a potent chemical compound able to restore the neuronal and the relative locomotor behaviors disturbances induced by lead intoxication. Therefore, this chemical can be recommended as a new therapeutic trial against lead induced neurotoxicity.

  14. Will changes in phenology track climate change? A study of growth initiation timing in coast Douglas-fir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin Ford; Connie Harrington; Sheel Bansal; Peter J. Gould; Brad St. Clair

    2016-01-01

    Under climate change, the reduction of frost risk, onset of warm temperatures and depletion of soil moisture are all likely to occur earlier in the year in many temperate regions. The resilience of tree species will depend on their ability to track these changes in climate with shifts in phenology that lead to earlier growth initiation in the spring. Exposure to warm...

  15. Development of small, fast reactor core designs using lead-based coolant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cahalan, J. E.; Hill, R. N.; Khalil, H. S.; Wade, D. C.

    1999-01-01

    A variety of small (100 MWe) fast reactor core designs are developed, these include compact configurations, long-lived (15-year fuel lifetime) cores, and derated, natural circulation designs. Trade studies are described which identify key core design issues for lead-based coolant systems. Performance parameters and reactivity feedback coefficients are compared for lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) and sodium-cooled cores of consistent design. The results of these studies indicate that the superior neutron reflection capability of lead alloys reduces the enrichment and burnup swing compared to conventional sodium-cooled systems; however, the discharge fluence is significantly increased. The size requirement for long-lived systems is constrained by reactivity loss considerations, not fuel burnup or fluence limits. The derated lead-alloy cooled natural circulation cores require a core volume roughly eight times greater than conventional compact systems. In general, reactivity coefficients important for passive safety performance are less favorable for the larger, derated configurations

  16. Phenology of Succession: Tracking the Recovery of Dryland Forests after Wildfire Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, J.; Brown, J. F.; Sankey, J. B.; Wallace, C.; Weltzin, J. F.

    2016-12-01

    The frequency, size, and intensity of forest wildfires in the U.S. Southwest have increased over the past 30 years. In the coming decades, burn effects and altered climatic conditions may increasingly divert vegetation recovery trajectories from pre-disturbance forested ecosystems toward grassland or shrub woodlands. Dryland herbaceous and woody vegetation species exhibit different phenological responses to precipitation, resulting in temporal and spatial shifts in landscape phenology patterns as the proportions of plant functional groups change over time. We have developed time series of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Soil-Adjusted Vegetation Index (SAVI) greenness measures derived from satellite imagery from 1984 - 2015 to record the phenological signatures that characterize recovery trajectories towards predominantly grassland, shrubland, or forest land cover types. We leveraged the data and computational resources available through the Google Earth Engine cloud-based platform to analyze time series of Landsat Thematic Mapper and Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus imagery collected over maturing (40 years or more post-fire) dryland forests in Arizona and New Mexico, USA. These time series provided the basis for long-term comparisons of phenology behavior in different successional trajectories and enabled the assessment of climatic influence on the eventual outcomes.

  17. A phenological timetable of oak growth under experimental drought and air warming.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas M Kuster

    Full Text Available Climate change is expected to increase temperature and decrease summer precipitation in Central Europe. Little is known about how warming and drought will affect phenological patterns of oaks, which are considered to possess excellent adaptability to these climatic changes. Here, we investigated bud burst and intra-annual shoot growth of Quercus robur, Q. petraea and Q. pubescens grown on two different forest soils and exposed to air warming and drought. Phenological development was assessed over the course of three growing seasons. Warming advanced bud burst by 1-3 days °C⁻¹ and led to an earlier start of intra-annual shoot growth. Despite this phenological shift, total time span of annual growth and shoot biomass were not affected. Drought changed the frequency and intensity of intra-annual shoot growth and advanced bud burst in the subsequent spring of a severe summer drought by 1-2 days. After re-wetting, shoot growth recovered within a few days, demonstrating the superior drought tolerance of this tree genus. Our findings show that phenological patterns of oaks are modified by warming and drought but also suggest that ontogenetic factors and/or limitations of water and nutrients counteract warming effects on the biomass and the entire span of annual shoot growth.

  18. Tracking vegetation phenology across diverse North American biomes using PhenoCam imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Andrew D.; Hufkens, Koen; Milliman, Tom; Aubrecht, Donald M.; Chen, Min; Gray, Josh M.; Johnston, Miriam R.; Keenan, Trevor F.; Klosterman, Stephen T.; Kosmala, Margaret; Melaas, Eli K.; Friedl, Mark A.; Frolking, Steve

    2018-03-01

    Vegetation phenology controls the seasonality of many ecosystem processes, as well as numerous biosphere-atmosphere feedbacks. Phenology is also highly sensitive to climate change and variability. Here we present a series of datasets, together consisting of almost 750 years of observations, characterizing vegetation phenology in diverse ecosystems across North America. Our data are derived from conventional, visible-wavelength, automated digital camera imagery collected through the PhenoCam network. For each archived image, we extracted RGB (red, green, blue) colour channel information, with means and other statistics calculated across a region-of-interest (ROI) delineating a specific vegetation type. From the high-frequency (typically, 30 min) imagery, we derived time series characterizing vegetation colour, including “canopy greenness”, processed to 1- and 3-day intervals. For ecosystems with one or more annual cycles of vegetation activity, we provide estimates, with uncertainties, for the start of the “greenness rising” and end of the “greenness falling” stages. The database can be used for phenological model validation and development, evaluation of satellite remote sensing data products, benchmarking earth system models, and studies of climate change impacts on terrestrial ecosystems.

  19. Lead-based Fast Reactor Development Plan and R&D Status in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Yican

    2013-01-01

    Lead-based fast reactors have good potential for waste transmutation, fuel breeding and energy production, which has been selected by CAS as the advanced reactor development emphasis with the support of ADS program and MFE program. Sharing of technologies R&D is possible among GIF/ADS/Fusion. • The concepts and test strategy of series China lead-based fast reactors (CLEAR) have been developed. The preliminary engineering design and safety analysis of CLEAR-I are underway. • Technology R&D on CLEAR with series lead alloy loops and accelerator-based neutron generator have been constructed or under construction. • CLEAR series reactor design and construction have big challenges, widely international cooperation on reactor design and technology R&D is welcome

  20. Do External or Internal Factors Lead to Tumor Development? It Is Still Unknown.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manskikh, V N

    2017-01-01

    Arguments supporting the "bad luck" hypothesis presented by C. Tomasetti and B. Vogelstein ((2015) Science, 347, 78-81) and A. V. Lichtenstein ((2017) Biochemistry (Moscow), 82, 75-80) are critically discussed. Those arguments are not sufficient for recognition of the "bad luck" hypothesis and the leading role of internal factors in spontaneous tumor development.

  1. Lead mobility within the xylem of red spruce seedlings: Implications for the development of pollution histories

    Science.gov (United States)

    John R. Donnelly; John B. Shane; Paul G. Schaberg

    1990-01-01

    Development of Pb pollution histories using tree ring analyses has been troubled by possible mobility of Pb within stem xylem. In a 2-yr study, we exposed red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) seedlings to Pb during one growing season, with Pb excluded in either the previous or following growing season. Lead levels within xylem rings and bark were...

  2. Development of modular thermostatic vapour-cooled current leads for cryogenic service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blessing, H.; Lebrun, P.

    1983-01-01

    Cryogenic current leads cooled by helium vapour have been developed, built and tested. Their construction, based on standard electrolytic copper braids crimped at the ends, is such as to provide flexible cold terminations and make possible a modular design. The warm terminations combine electrical insulation, leak-tightness and integrated thermostatic valves controlling lead temperature and avoiding thermal run-away or ice build-up. After giving a detailed description of their construction, this report presents results of performance and reliability tests made on prototype units. (orig.)

  3. High Arctic plant phenology is determined by snowmelt patterns but duration of phenological periods is fixed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Semenchuk, Philipp R.; Gillespie, Mark A K; Rumpf, Sabine B.

    2016-01-01

    The duration of specific periods within a plant's life cycle are critical for plant growth and performance. In the High Arctic, the start of many of these phenological periods is determined by snowmelt date, which may change in a changing climate. It has been suggested that the end of these periods...

  4. A global synthesis of animal phenological responses to climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Jeremy M.; Lajeunesse, Marc J.; Rohr, Jason R.

    2018-03-01

    Shifts in phenology are already resulting in disruptions to the timing of migration and breeding, and asynchronies between interacting species1-5. Recent syntheses have concluded that trophic level1, latitude6 and how phenological responses are measured7 are key to determining the strength of phenological responses to climate change. However, researchers still lack a comprehensive framework that can predict responses to climate change globally and across diverse taxa. Here, we synthesize hundreds of published time series of animal phenology from across the planet to show that temperature primarily drives phenological responses at mid-latitudes, with precipitation becoming important at lower latitudes, probably reflecting factors that drive seasonality in each region. Phylogeny and body size are associated with the strength of phenological shifts, suggesting emerging asynchronies between interacting species that differ in body size, such as hosts and parasites and predators and prey. Finally, although there are many compelling biological explanations for spring phenological delays, some examples of delays are associated with short annual records that are prone to sampling error. Our findings arm biologists with predictions concerning which climatic variables and organismal traits drive phenological shifts.

  5. Greater temperature sensitivity of plant phenology at colder sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prevey, Janet; Vellend, Mark; Ruger, Nadja

    2017-01-01

    Warmer temperatures are accelerating the phenology of organisms around the world. Temperature sensitivity of phenology might be greater in colder, higher latitude sites than in warmer regions, in part because small changes in temperature constitute greater relative changes in thermal balance...

  6. Impact of some climatic and phenological parameters on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the first year, in control clones,climatic and phenological parameters explain 52.80% callogenesis variations, against 31.50% for SE. Therefore,climate and phenology significantly influence callogenesis, but not SE. For further industrial production of secondary metabolites such as butter, the obromin and chocolate aroma ...

  7. Phenology and interspecific association of Forficula auricularia and Forficula pubescens in apple orchards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaume Lordan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The European earwig Forficula auricularia L. (Dermaptera: Forficulidae has been widely studied as a key predator of pests in temperate regions, but its phenology and behavior may differ in warmer areas such as the Mediterranean. Here we assessed the phenology, aggregation, and interspecific association of F. auricularia and Forficula pubescens Gené, the only two species found consistently in both ground and canopy shelters in Mediterranean apple orchards. In addition to F. auricularia and F. pubescens, three other earwig species, namely Labidura riparia Pallas, Nala lividipes Dufour and Euborellia moesta Gené, were found occasionally. The mature stages of F. auricularia were observed mainly from May to November in tree shelters and immature ones from October to June in ground shelters. Adult individuals of F. pubescens were observed year-round and nymph instars were detected from April to June in ground as well as in tree shelters. The suitability of the current degree-days models for temperate regions was evaluated for the prediction of European earwig phenology in a Mediterranean climate. Regarding interspecific association, F. auricularia and F. pubescens co-occurred in canopies without apparent competition. This study provides useful weekly data about the phenology of the two earwig species throughout the year that can be used to detect the key periods during which to enhance their populations in pip fruit orchards or to control them in stone fruit crops. Furthermore, our results are of relevance for the development of new phenological models of earwigs in Mediterranean areas where nymphs hibernate, a feature that makes current models inaccurate.

  8. Phenology and interspecific association of Forficula auricularia and Forficula pubescens in apple orchards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lordan, J.; Alegre, S.; Moerkens, R.; Sarasúa, M.J.; Alins, G.

    2015-07-01

    The European earwig Forficula auricularia L. (Dermaptera: Forficulidae) has been widely studied as a key predator of pests in temperate regions, but its phenology and behavior may differ in warmer areas such as the Mediterranean. Here we assessed the phenology, aggregation, and interspecific association of F. auricularia and Forficula pubescens Gené, the only two species found consistently in both ground and canopy shelters in Mediterranean apple orchards. In addition to F. auricularia and F. pubescens, three other earwig species, namely Labidura riparia Pallas, Nala lividipes Dufour and Euborellia moesta Gené, were found occasionally. The mature stages of F. auricularia were observed mainly from May to November in tree shelters and immature ones from October to June in ground shelters. Adult individuals of F. pubescens were observed year-round and nymph instars were detected from April to June in ground as well as in tree shelters. The suitability of the current degree-days models for temperate regions was evaluated for the prediction of European earwig phenology in a Mediterranean climate. Regarding interspecific association, F. auricularia and F. pubescens co-occurred in canopies without apparent competition. This study provides useful weekly data about the phenology of the two earwig species throughout the year that can be used to detect the key periods during which to enhance their populations in pip fruit orchards or to control them in stone fruit crops. Furthermore, our results are of relevance for the development of new phenological models of earwigs in Mediterranean areas where nymphs hibernate, a feature that makes current models inaccurate. (Author)

  9. Statistical rice yield modeling using blended MODIS-Landsat based crop phenology metrics in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C. R.; Chen, C. F.; Nguyen, S. T.; Lau, K. V.

    2015-12-01

    Taiwan is a populated island with a majority of residents settled in the western plains where soils are suitable for rice cultivation. Rice is not only the most important commodity, but also plays a critical role for agricultural and food marketing. Information of rice production is thus important for policymakers to devise timely plans for ensuring sustainably socioeconomic development. Because rice fields in Taiwan are generally small and yet crop monitoring requires information of crop phenology associating with the spatiotemporal resolution of satellite data, this study used Landsat-MODIS fusion data for rice yield modeling in Taiwan. We processed the data for the first crop (Feb-Mar to Jun-Jul) and the second (Aug-Sep to Nov-Dec) in 2014 through five main steps: (1) data pre-processing to account for geometric and radiometric errors of Landsat data, (2) Landsat-MODIS data fusion using using the spatial-temporal adaptive reflectance fusion model, (3) construction of the smooth time-series enhanced vegetation index 2 (EVI2), (4) rice yield modeling using EVI2-based crop phenology metrics, and (5) error verification. The fusion results by a comparison bewteen EVI2 derived from the fusion image and that from the reference Landsat image indicated close agreement between the two datasets (R2 > 0.8). We analysed smooth EVI2 curves to extract phenology metrics or phenological variables for establishment of rice yield models. The results indicated that the established yield models significantly explained more than 70% variability in the data (p-value 0.8), in both cases. The root mean square error (RMSE) and mean absolute error (MAE) used to measure the model accuracy revealed the consistency between the estimated yields and the government's yield statistics. This study demonstrates advantages of using EVI2-based phenology metrics (derived from Landsat-MODIS fusion data) for rice yield estimation in Taiwan prior to the harvest period.

  10. A remotely sensed pigment index reveals photosynthetic phenology in evergreen conifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamon, John A; Huemmrich, K Fred; Wong, Christopher Y S; Ensminger, Ingo; Garrity, Steven; Hollinger, David Y; Noormets, Asko; Peñuelas, Josep

    2016-11-15

    In evergreen conifers, where the foliage amount changes little with season, accurate detection of the underlying "photosynthetic phenology" from satellite remote sensing has been difficult, presenting challenges for global models of ecosystem carbon uptake. Here, we report a close correspondence between seasonally changing foliar pigment levels, expressed as chlorophyll/carotenoid ratios, and evergreen photosynthetic activity, leading to a "chlorophyll/carotenoid index" (CCI) that tracks evergreen photosynthesis at multiple spatial scales. When calculated from NASA's Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer satellite sensor, the CCI closely follows the seasonal patterns of daily gross primary productivity of evergreen conifer stands measured by eddy covariance. This discovery provides a way of monitoring evergreen photosynthetic activity from optical remote sensing, and indicates an important regulatory role for carotenoid pigments in evergreen photosynthesis. Improved methods of monitoring photosynthesis from space can improve our understanding of the global carbon budget in a warming world of changing vegetation phenology.

  11. Prenatal maternal stress in relation to the effects of prenatal lead exposure on toddler cognitive development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Leilei; Xu, Jian; Zhang, Jinsong; Yan, Chonghuai; Lin, Yanfen; Jia, Yinan; Hu, Wenjing

    2017-03-01

    To evaluate the effects of maternal lead exposure during pregnancy on toddler cognitive development and the potential effect modification by maternal stress. We conducted a prospective birth-cohort study in Shanghai from 2010 to 2012 and investigated 225 mother-infant pairs. The mothers were recruited in mid-to-late pregnancy and children were followed up until 24-36 months old. A self-administered Symptom Checklist-90-Revised Scale (SCL-90-R) was used to assess maternal emotional stress during pregnancy. Maternal whole blood lead levels were measured during gestational weeks 28-36. The toddlers' cognitive levels were assessed using the Gesell Development Scale. Multiple linear regression models were established to explore the main effects of prenatal lead exposure on toddlers' cognitive abilities and the modifying effects of maternal stress. Covariate information was collected through interviews, questionnaires and medical records. The mean maternal blood lead concentration was 3.30 (95%CI: 3.05, 3.57) μg/dL. After adjusting for relevant confounders, no significant associations of maternal blood lead concentrations with toddlers' cognitive levels were observed in all five domains of the Gesell scale (P>0.05). However, the interaction between prenatal maternal blood lead and stress was significant in the domains of adaptive behavior, language and social behavior. When stratified by maternal stress levels, compared with non-significant associations (P>0.05) among low (P1-P75) prenatal stress group, adverse associations between maternal blood lead concentrations (log10-transformed) and toddlers' cognitive levels were observed among high (P75-P100) prenatal stress group in the domains of language (β=-33.82, 95%CI: -60.04, -7.59), social behavior (β=-41.00, 95%CI: -63.11, -18.89) and adaptive behavior (β=-17.93, 95%CI: -35.83, -0.03). Prenatal maternal stress may exacerbate the deleterious effects of prenatal exposure to lead on toddler cognitive development

  12. Development and implementation of a science training course for breast cancer activists: Project LEAD (leadership, education and advocacy development).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickersin, K; Braun, L; Mead, M; Millikan, R; Wu, A M; Pietenpol, J; Troyan, S; Anderson, B; Visco, F

    2001-12-01

    To develop and implement Project LEAD (leadership, education, and advocacy development), a science course for breast cancer activists. Students were breast cancer activists and other consumers, mainly affiliated with advocacy organizations in the United States of America. Project LEAD is offered by the National Breast Cancer Coalition; the course takes place over 5 days and is offered 4 times a year, in various cities in the United States of America. The Project LEAD curriculum has developed over 5 years to include lectures, problem-based study groups, case studies, interactive critical appraisal sessions, a seminar by an 'expert' scientist, role play, and homework components. A core faculty has been valuable for evaluating and revising the course and has proved necessary to provide consistent high quality teaching. Course evaluations indicated that students gained critical appraisal skills, enhanced their knowledge and developed confidence in selected areas of basic science and epidemiology. Project LEAD comprises a unique curriculum for training breast cancer activists in science and critical appraisal. Course evaluations indicate that students gain confidence and skills from the course.

  13. Root phenology at Harvard Forest and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramoff, R. Z.; Finzi, A.

    2013-12-01

    Roots are hidden from view and heterogeneously distributed making them difficult to study in situ. As a result, the causes and timing of root production are not well understood. Researchers have long assumed that above and belowground phenology is synchronous; for example, most parameterizations of belowground carbon allocation in terrestrial biosphere models are based on allometry and represent a fixed fraction of net C uptake. However, using results from metaanalysis as well as empirical data from oak and hemlock stands at Harvard Forest, we show that synchronous root and shoot growth is the exception rather than the rule. We collected root and shoot phenology measurements from studies across four biomes (boreal, temperate, Mediterranean, and subtropical). General patterns of root phenology varied widely with 1-5 production peaks in a growing season. Surprisingly, in 9 out of the 15 studies, the first root production peak was not the largest peak. In the majority of cases maximum shoot production occurred before root production (Offset>0 in 32 out of 47 plant sample means). The number of days offset between maximum root and shoot growth was negatively correlated with median annual temperature and therefore differs significantly across biomes (ANOVA, F3,43=9.47, pGrowth form (woody or herbaceous) also influenced the relative timing of root and shoot growth. Woody plants had a larger range of days between root and shoot growth peaks as well as a greater number of growth peaks. To explore the range of phenological relationships within woody plants in the temperate biome, we focused on above and belowground phenology in two common northeastern tree species, Quercus rubra and Tsuga canadensis. Greenness index, rate of stem growth, root production and nonstructural carbohydrate content were measured beginning in April 2012 through August 2013 at the Harvard Forest in Petersham, MA, USA. Greenness and stem growth were highest in late May and early June with one clear

  14. Cellular and molecular events leading to the development of skin cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melnikova, Vladislava O.; Ananthaswamy, Honnavara N.

    2005-01-01

    The transition from a normal cell to a neoplastic cell is a complex process and involves both genetic and epigenetic changes. The process of carcinogenesis begins when the DNA is damaged, which then leads to a cascade of events leading to the development of a tumor. Ultraviolet (UV) radiation causes DNA damage, inflammation, erythema, sunburn, immunosuppression, photoaging, gene mutations, and skin cancer. Upon DNA damage, the p53 tumor suppressor protein undergoes phosphorylation and translocation to the nucleus and aids in DNA repair or causes apoptosis. Excessive UV exposure overwhelms DNA repair mechanisms leading to induction of p53 mutations and loss of Fas-FasL interaction. Keratinocytes carrying p53 mutations acquire a growth advantage by virtue of their increased resistance to apoptosis. Thus, resistance to cell death is a key event in photocarcinogenesis and conversely, elimination of cells containing excessive UV-induced DNA damage is a key step in protecting against skin cancer development. Apoptosis-resistant keratinocytes undergo clonal expansion that eventually leads to formation of actinic keratoses and squamous cell carcinomas. In this article, we will review some of the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in initiation and progression of UV-induced skin cancer

  15. Cellular and molecular events leading to the development of skin cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melnikova, Vladislava O. [Department of Immunology, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, P.O. Box 301402, Unit 902, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Ananthaswamy, Honnavara N. [Department of Immunology, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, P.O. Box 301402, Unit 902, Houston, TX 77030 (United States)]. E-mail: hanantha@mdanderson.org

    2005-04-01

    The transition from a normal cell to a neoplastic cell is a complex process and involves both genetic and epigenetic changes. The process of carcinogenesis begins when the DNA is damaged, which then leads to a cascade of events leading to the development of a tumor. Ultraviolet (UV) radiation causes DNA damage, inflammation, erythema, sunburn, immunosuppression, photoaging, gene mutations, and skin cancer. Upon DNA damage, the p53 tumor suppressor protein undergoes phosphorylation and translocation to the nucleus and aids in DNA repair or causes apoptosis. Excessive UV exposure overwhelms DNA repair mechanisms leading to induction of p53 mutations and loss of Fas-FasL interaction. Keratinocytes carrying p53 mutations acquire a growth advantage by virtue of their increased resistance to apoptosis. Thus, resistance to cell death is a key event in photocarcinogenesis and conversely, elimination of cells containing excessive UV-induced DNA damage is a key step in protecting against skin cancer development. Apoptosis-resistant keratinocytes undergo clonal expansion that eventually leads to formation of actinic keratoses and squamous cell carcinomas. In this article, we will review some of the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in initiation and progression of UV-induced skin cancer.

  16. Plant phenology, growth and nutritive quality of Briza maxima: Responses induced by enhanced ozone atmospheric levels and nitrogen enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanz, J.; Bermejo, V.; Muntifering, R.; Gonzalez-Fernandez, I.; Gimeno, B.S.; Elvira, S.; Alonso, R.

    2011-01-01

    An assessment of the effects of tropospheric ozone (O 3 ) levels and substrate nitrogen (N) supplementation, singly and in combination, on phenology, growth and nutritive quality of Briza maxima was carried out. Two serial experiments were developed in Open-Top Chambers (OTC) using three O 3 and three N levels. Increased O 3 exposure did not affect the biomass-related parameters, but enhanced senescence, increased fiber foliar content (especially lignin concentration) and reduced plant life span; these effects were related to senescence acceleration induced by the pollutant. Added N increased plant biomass production and improved nutritive quality by decreasing foliar fiber concentration. Interestingly, the effects of N supplementation depended on meteorological conditions and plant physiological activity. N supplementation counteracted the O 3 -induced senescence but did not modifiy the effects on nutritive quality. Nutritive quality and phenology should be considered in new definitions of the O 3 limits for the protection of herbaceous vegetation. - Research highlights: → Forage quality (foliar protein and fiber content) and phenology are more O 3 -sensitive than growth parameters in the Mediterranean annual grass Briza maxima. → The effects of N supplementation depended on meteorological conditions and plant physiological activity. → Increase in nitrogen supplementation counterbalanced the O 3 -induced increase in senescence biomass. → Nutritive quality and phenology should be considered in new definitions of the O 3 limits for the protection of natural herbaceous vegetation. - Forage quality and phenology are more O 3 -sensitive than growth parameters in the Mediterranean annual grass Briza maxima.

  17. Phenological behavior of the grapevine (vitis vinifera l., cv cabernet sauvignon in Sutamarchán - Boyacá.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Carolina Vargas Herrera

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In tropical cold weather, the grapevine presents phenological disorders, difficult agronomic disfavoring vintage quality. With the purpose of establishing phenological cycles determined the duration of the different phases of the development cycle of the grapevine, cv "Cabernet Sauvignon" (Vitis vinifera L. in the vineyard Ain-Karim (5º39` N, 73º95' W, 2110 masl. We determined the average duration of sprouting (SP, flowering (FL, veraison (VE and vintage (VI periods from pruning, and the total cycle of growth, according to the phenological scale Biologische Bundesanstalt Bundessortenamt Chemise (BBCH. To set the average of the process was considered when the plants reached 50% of each event. Determining growing degree days (GDD support the temperature record by a datalogger. Phenological data were subjected to a descriptive analysis as means and standard deviation. The duration of the period between pruning (PR and vintage (VI, with average temperature of 17.87 ° C, had a duration of 183 days after pruning (DAP, accumulating growing degree days 1458.1 (GDD. Flowering occurred at 50 days after pruning (DAP, accumulating 397.7 GDD. Veraison 122 was presented to the accumulation of 578.2 DAP with GDD. While from veraison to maturity 478.9 GDD accumulated in 62 days. Under Sutamarchán agro-climatic conditions, during the investigation, collects, on average, 7.98 degrees daily growth, which implies that for the Cabernet Sauvignon, the total duration of the phenological cycle is 184 days, accumulating 1458.1 GDD.

  18. Phenological Indicators of Vegetation Recovery in Wetland Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taddeo, S.; Dronova, I.

    2017-12-01

    Landscape phenology is increasingly used to measure the impacts of climatic and environmental disturbances on plant communities. As plants show rapid phenological responses to environmental changes, variation in site phenology can help characterize vegetation recovery following restoration treatments and qualify their resistance to environmental fluctuations. By leveraging free remote sensing datasets, a phenology-based analysis of vegetation dynamics could offer a cost-effective assessment of restoration progress in wetland ecosystems. To fulfill this objective, we analyze 20 years of free remote sensing data from NASA's Landsat archive to offer a landscape-scale synthesis of wetland restoration efforts in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta of California, USA. Through an analysis of spatio-temporal changes in plant phenology and greenness, we assess how 25 restored wetlands across the Delta have responded to restoration treatments, time, and landscape context. We use a spline smoothing approach to generate both site-wide and pixel-specific phenological curves and identify key phenological events. Preliminary results reveal a greater variability in greenness and growing season length during the initial post-restoration years and a significant impact of landscape context in the time needed to reach phenological stability. Well-connected sites seem to benefit from an increased availability of propagules enabling them to reach peak greenness and maximum growing season length more rapidly. These results demonstrate the potential of phenological analyses to measure restoration progress and detect factors promoting wetland recovery. A thorough understanding of wetland phenology is key to the quantification of ecosystem processes including carbon sequestration and habitat provisioning.

  19. Detecting mismatches in the phenology of cotton bollworm larvae and cotton flowering in response to climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jian; Hao, HongFei

    2018-05-01

    Current evidence suggests that climate change has directly affected the phenology of many invertebrate species associated with agriculture. Such changes in phenology have the potential to cause temporal mismatches between predators and prey and may lead to a disruption in natural pest control ecosystem. Understanding the synchrony between pest insects and host plant responses to climate change is a key step to improve integrated pest management strategies. Cotton bollworm larvae damage cotton, and thus, data from Magaiti County, China, collected during the period of 1990-2015 were analyzed to assess the effects of climate change on cotton bollworm larvae and cotton flowering. The results showed that a warming climate advanced the phenology of cotton bollworm larvae and cotton flowering. However, the phenological rate of change was faster in cotton bollworm larvae than that in cotton flowering, and the larval period was prolonged, resulting in a great increase of the larval population. The abrupt phenological changes in cotton bollworm larvae occurred earlier than that in cotton, and the abrupt phenological changes in cotton flowering occurred earlier than that in larval abundance. However, the timing of abrupt changes in larval abundance all occurred later than that in temperature. Thus, the abrupt changes that occurred in larvae, cotton flowering and climate were asynchronous. The interval days between the cotton flowering date (CFD) and the half-amount larvae date (HLD) expanded by 3.41 and 4.41 days with a 1 °C increase of T mean in May and June, respectively. The asynchrony between cotton bollworm larvae and cotton flowering will likely broaden as the climate changes. The effective temperature in March and April and the end date of larvae (ED) were the primary factors affecting asynchrony.

  20. Detecting mismatches in the phenology of cotton bollworm larvae and cotton flowering in response to climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jian; Hao, HongFei

    2018-05-11

    Current evidence suggests that climate change has directly affected the phenology of many invertebrate species associated with agriculture. Such changes in phenology have the potential to cause temporal mismatches between predators and prey and may lead to a disruption in natural pest control ecosystem. Understanding the synchrony between pest insects and host plant responses to climate change is a key step to improve integrated pest management strategies. Cotton bollworm larvae damage cotton, and thus, data from Magaiti County, China, collected during the period of 1990-2015 were analyzed to assess the effects of climate change on cotton bollworm larvae and cotton flowering. The results showed that a warming climate advanced the phenology of cotton bollworm larvae and cotton flowering. However, the phenological rate of change was faster in cotton bollworm larvae than that in cotton flowering, and the larval period was prolonged, resulting in a great increase of the larval population. The abrupt phenological changes in cotton bollworm larvae occurred earlier than that in cotton, and the abrupt phenological changes in cotton flowering occurred earlier than that in larval abundance. However, the timing of abrupt changes in larval abundance all occurred later than that in temperature. Thus, the abrupt changes that occurred in larvae, cotton flowering and climate were asynchronous. The interval days between the cotton flowering date (CFD) and the half-amount larvae date (HLD) expanded by 3.41 and 4.41 days with a 1 °C increase of T mean in May and June, respectively. The asynchrony between cotton bollworm larvae and cotton flowering will likely broaden as the climate changes. The effective temperature in March and April and the end date of larvae (ED) were the primary factors affecting asynchrony.

  1. Herbarium records are reliable sources of phenological change driven by climate and provide novel insights into species' phenological cueing mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Charles C; Willis, Charles G; Connolly, Bryan; Kelly, Courtland; Ellison, Aaron M

    2015-10-01

    Climate change has resulted in major changes in the phenology of some species but not others. Long-term field observational records provide the best assessment of these changes, but geographic and taxonomic biases limit their utility. Plant specimens in herbaria have been hypothesized to provide a wealth of additional data for studying phenological responses to climatic change. However, no study to our knowledge has comprehensively addressed whether herbarium data are accurate measures of phenological response and thus applicable to addressing such questions. We compared flowering phenology determined from field observations (years 1852-1858, 1875, 1878-1908, 2003-2006, 2011-2013) and herbarium records (1852-2013) of 20 species from New England, United States. Earliest flowering date estimated from herbarium records faithfully reflected field observations of first flowering date and substantially increased the sampling range across climatic conditions. Additionally, although most species demonstrated a response to interannual temperature variation, long-term temporal changes in phenological response were not detectable. Our findings support the use of herbarium records for understanding plant phenological responses to changes in temperature, and also importantly establish a new use of herbarium collections: inferring primary phenological cueing mechanisms of individual species (e.g., temperature, winter chilling, photoperiod). These latter data are lacking from most investigations of phenological change, but are vital for understanding differential responses of individual species to ongoing climate change. © 2015 Botanical Society of America.

  2. Interannual variability of plant phenology in tussock tundra: modelling interactions of plant productivity, plant phenology, snowmelt and soil thaw

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, van M.T.; Williams, M.; Laundre, J.A.; Shaver, G.R.

    2003-01-01

    We present a linked model of plant productivity, plant phenology, snowmelt and soil thaw in order to estimate interannual variability of arctic plant phenology and its effects on plant productivity. The model is tested using 8 years of soil temperature data, and three years of bud break data of

  3. Automated mapping of soybean and corn using phenology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Liheng; Hu, Lina; Yu, Le; Gong, Peng; Biging, Gregory S.

    2016-09-01

    For the two of the most important agricultural commodities, soybean and corn, remote sensing plays a substantial role in delivering timely information on the crop area for economic, environmental and policy studies. Traditional long-term mapping of soybean and corn is challenging as a result of the high cost of repeated training data collection, the inconsistency in image process and interpretation, and the difficulty of handling the inter-annual variability of weather and crop progress. In this study, we developed an automated approach to map soybean and corn in the state of Paraná, Brazil for crop years 2010-2015. The core of the approach is a decision tree classifier with rules manually built based on expert interaction for repeated use. The automated approach is advantageous for its capacity of multi-year mapping without the need to re-train or re-calibrate the classifier. Time series MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) reflectance product (MCD43A4) were employed to derive vegetation phenology to identify soybean and corn based on crop calendar. To deal with the phenological similarity between soybean and corn, the surface reflectance of the shortwave infrared band scaled to a phenological stage was used to fully separate the two crops. Results suggested that the mapped areas of soybean and corn agreed with official statistics at the municipal level. The resultant map in the crop year 2012 was evaluated using an independent reference data set, and the overall accuracy and Kappa coefficient were 87.2% and 0.804 respectively. As a result of mixed pixel effect at the 500 m resolution, classification results were biased depending on topography. In the flat, broad and highly-cropped areas, uncultivated lands were likely to be identified as soybean or corn, causing over-estimation of cropland area. By contrast, scattered crop fields in mountainous regions with dense natural vegetation tend to be overlooked. For future mapping efforts, it has great

  4. Use of MODIS Satellite Images and an Atmospheric Dust Transport Model to Evaluate Juniperus spp. Pollen Phenology and Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luvall, J. C.; Sprigg, W. A.; Levetin, E.; Huete, A.; Nickovic, S.; Pejanovic, G. A.; Vukovic, A.; Van de Water, P. K.; Myers, O. B.; Budge, A. M.; hide

    2011-01-01

    over large regions. Hence the use of satellite data is critical to observe Juniperus spp. pollen phenology. MODIS data was used to observe Juniperus spp. pollen phenology. The MODIS surface reflectance product(MOD09) provided information on the Juniper spp. cone formation and cone density (Fig 1). Ground based observational records of pollen release timing and quantities were used as verification. Techniques developed using MOD09 surface reflectance products will be directly applicable to the next generation sensors such as VIIRS.

  5. Research, development and demonstration of lead-acid batteries for electric vehicle propulsion. Annual report, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-06-01

    This report describes work performed from October 1, 1978 to September 30, 1979. The approach for development of both the Improved State-of-the-Art (ISOA) and Advanced lead-acid batteries is three pronged. This approach concentrates on simultaneous optimization of battery design, materials, and manufacturing processing. The 1979 fiscal year saw the achievement of significant progress in the program. Some of the major accomplishments of the year are outlined. 33 figures, 13 tables. (RWR)

  6. HTGR technology development in Japan advances so much. Leading world technology to global standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Masuro; Hino, Ryutaro; Kunitomi, Kazuhiko; Onuki, Kaoru; Inagaki, Yoshiyuki; Takeda, Tetsuaki; Sawa, Kazuhiro

    2007-01-01

    The JAEA has conducted research and development of HTGR for hydrogen production since 1969 and attained the operation of 950degC at reactor coolant outlet of the HTTR in 2004. This article describes present status and future plan of R and D in the area of HTGR technology and high temperature heat utilization and also introduces the design of the commercial HTGR cogeneration system based on R and D results leading to world standards. (T. Tanaka)

  7. Development and characterisation of disposable gold electrodes, and their use for lead(II) analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noh, Mohd F. M. [Cranfield University, Cranfield Health, Silsoe (United Kingdom); Institute for Medical Research, Toxicology and Pharmacology Unit, Herbal Medicine Research Centre, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Tothill, Ibtisam E. [Cranfield University, Cranfield Health, Silsoe (United Kingdom)

    2006-12-15

    There is an increasing need to assess the harmful effects of heavy-metal-ion pollution on the environment. The ability to detect and measure toxic contaminants on site using simple, cost effective, and field-portable sensors is an important aspect of environmental protection and facilitating rapid decision making. A screen-printed gold sensor in a three-electrode configuration has been developed for analysis of lead(II) by square-wave stripping voltammetry (SWSV). The working electrode was fabricated with gold ink deposited by use of thick-film technology. Conditions affecting the lead stripping response were characterised and optimized. Experimental data indicated that chloride ions are important in lead deposition and subsequent analysis with this type of sensor. A linear concentration range of 10-50 {mu}g L{sup -1} and 25-300 {mu}g L{sup -1} with detection limits of 2 {mu}g L{sup -1} and 5.8 {mu}g L{sup -1} were obtained for lead(II) for measurement times of four and two minutes, respectively. The electrodes can be reused up to 20 times after cleaning with 0.5 mol L{sup -1} sulfuric acid. Interference of other metals with the response to lead were also examined to optimize the sensor response for analysis of environmental samples. The analytical utility of the sensor was demonstrated by applying the system to a variety of wastewater and soil sample extracts from polluted sites. The results are sufficient evidence of the feasibility of using these screen-printed gold electrodes for the determination of lead(II) in wastewater and soil extracts. For comparison purposes a mercury-film electrode and ICP-MS were used for validation. (orig.)

  8. Development of alginate gel beads with a potential use in the treatment against acute lead poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahtat, Djamel; Bouaicha, Malika Nawel; Benamer, Samah; Nacer-Khodja, Assia; Mahlous, Mohamed

    2017-12-01

    The objective was to develop alginate beads that could adsorb lead ions in gastric pH, in view to preconize their use in gastric lavage following lead poisoning. The swelling measurements of both, dry and hydrated beads, were carried out in simulated gastric fluid (SGF). The sorption kinetics was examined at lead concentrations ranging from 50 to 200mg/l. Calcium released during the sorption process was investigated. The swelling rate of the dry beads increased considerably with time increase and reached the equilibrium at 736% after 240min; concerning the hydrated beads, the equilibrium swelling reached 139% after 180min. The adsorption of Pb (II) in SGF by dry beads increased with the increase of time and initial lead concentration. The adsorption kinetics of Pb ions by hydrated alginate beads indicated a rapid binding of Pb ions to the sorbent during the first 15min for all the concentrations, followed by a slow increase until the equilibrium was reached after 90min. The adsorption capacity of Pb ions increased with the increase of the storage time in water at 4°C and with the weight. The amount of Ca 2+ released by the beads increased with the increase of Pb ions a rate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Development of bone-lead reference materials for validating in vivo XRF measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parsons, P.J.; Zong, Y.Y.; Matthews, M. R.

    1995-01-01

    A number of biological reference materials (RM) have been prepared in our laboratory specifically for validating analytical methods for the determination of Pb in biological matrices (e.g. blood, urine, liver, and bone). The RM's were developed using animal (goats and cows) that are routinely dosed with lead acetate to produce proficiency test samples for blood lead (and erythrocyte protoporphyrin). In cases where an animal becomes injured or infirm, the veterinarian in charge may recommend that the animal be euthanized. In such cases, samples of bone, brain, liver, and other tissues containing lead are removed at autopsy. Currently, we have collected bone samples from nine goats and one cow that were dosed with lead over periods ranging from 1 to 10 years. During the autopsy, the epiphyses (bone joints) are separated from each long bone. Skin, muscle, and other adhering tissues are dissected or scraped from each bone. Bone marrow is also removed. All bare bones are currently stored at -70 degrees C until analyses for Pb are conducted

  10. Progress in design and development of series liquid lithium-lead expeirmental loops in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Yican; Huang Qunying; Zhu Zhiqiang; Gao Sheng; Song Yong; Li Chunjing; Peng Lei; Liu Shaojun; Wu qingsheng; Liu Songlin; Chen Hongli; Bai Yunqing; Jin Ming; Lv Ruojun; Wang Weihua; Guo Zhihui; Chen Yaping; Ling Xinzhen; Zhang Maolian; Wang Yongliang; Wu Zhaoyang; Wang Hongyan

    2009-01-01

    Liquid LiPb (lithium-lead) experimental loops are the important platforms to investigate the key technologies of liquid LiPb breeder blankets for fusion reactors. Based on the development strategy for liquid LiPb breeder blankets, the technologies development of liquid LiPb experimental loops have been explored by the FDS Team for years, and a series of LiPb experimental loops named DRAGON have been designed and developed, which have independence intellectual property and multi-functional parameters. In this paper, the development route suggestion of Chinese LiPb experimental loops was elaborated, and some information for the senes experimental loops were introduced, such as the design principles, structural features, functions and related experimental researches, etc. (authors)

  11. Perspectivs and challenges of phenology research on South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrícia Morellato, Leonor

    2017-04-01

    Detecting plant responses to environmental changes across the Southern Hemisphere is an important question in the global agenda, as there is still a shortage of studies addressing phenological trends related to global warming. Here I bring a fresh perspective on the current knowledge of South America's phenology, and discusss the challenges and future research agendas for one of the most diverse regions of the world. I will syntethize: (i) What is the current focus of contemporany phenological research in South America? (ii) Is phenology contributing to the detection of trends and shifts related to climate or antropogenic changes? (iii) How has phenology been integrated to conservation, restoration, and management of natural vegetation and endangered species? (iv) What would be the main challenges and new avenues for South American phenological research in the 21st century? (v) Can we move towards phenology monitoring networks, linked to citizen science and education? My perspective is based on recent reviews addressing the Southeastern Hemisphere, South America, and Neotropical phenology; and on reviews and essays on the contribution of phenological research to biodiversity conservation, management, and ecological restoration, emphasizing tropical, species-rich ecosystems. Phenological research has grown at an unprecedented rate in the last 20 years, surpassing 100 articles per year after 2010. There is still a predominance of short-term studies (2-3 years) describing patterns and drivers for reproduction and leaf exchange. Only 10 long-term studies were found, based on direct observations or plant traps, and this number did not add much to the previous surveys. Therefore, we remain in need of more long-term studies to enhance the contribution of phenology to climate change research in South America. It is also mandatory to bring conservation issues to phenology research. The effects of climatic and antropogenic changes on plant phenology have been addressed

  12. IGF-1 receptor haploinsufficiency leads to age-dependent development of metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Sachin; Garg, Neha; Zhang, Ning; Hussey, Sophie E; Musi, Nicolas; Adamo, Martin L

    2017-05-13

    Individuals born small for gestational age (SGA) are at a higher risk of developing the metabolic syndrome later in life. IGF-1 resistance has been reported in placentae from SGA births and mutations in the Igf1 receptor gene have been reported in several cohorts of SGA subjects. We have used the Igf1r heterozygous (Igf1r +/- ) male mouse as a model to investigate the mechanisms by which Igf1r haploinsufficiency leads to insulin resistance. Despite exhibiting IGF-1 resistance, insulin signaling is enhanced in young Igf1r +/- mice but is attenuated in the muscle of old Igf1r +/- mice. Although smaller than WT (wild type) mice, old-aged Igf1r +/- had increased adiposity and exhibit increased lipogenesis. We hypothesize that IGF-1 resistance initially causes a transient increase in insulin signaling thereby promoting a lipogenic phenotype, which subsequently leads to insulin resistance. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Hit and lead criteria in drug discovery for infectious diseases of the developing world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsuno, Kei; Burrows, Jeremy N; Duncan, Ken; Hooft van Huijsduijnen, Rob; Kaneko, Takushi; Kita, Kiyoshi; Mowbray, Charles E; Schmatz, Dennis; Warner, Peter; Slingsby, B T

    2015-11-01

    Reducing the burden of infectious diseases that affect people in the developing world requires sustained collaborative drug discovery efforts. The quality of the chemical starting points for such projects is a key factor in improving the likelihood of clinical success, and so it is important to set clear go/no-go criteria for the progression of hit and lead compounds. With this in mind, the Japanese Global Health Innovative Technology (GHIT) Fund convened with experts from the Medicines for Malaria Venture, the Drugs for Neglected Diseases initiative and the TB Alliance, together with representatives from the Bill &Melinda Gates Foundation, to set disease-specific criteria for hits and leads for malaria, tuberculosis, visceral leishmaniasis and Chagas disease. Here, we present the agreed criteria and discuss the underlying rationale.

  14. Toward a U.S. National Phenological Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henebry, Geoffrey M.; Betancourt, Julio L.

    2010-01-01

    Third USA National Phenology Network (USA-NPN) and Research Coordination Network (RCN) Annual Meeting; Milwaukee, Wisconsin, 5-9 October 2009; Directional climate change will have profound and lasting effects throughout society that are best understood through fundamental physical and biological processes. One such process is phenology: how the timing of recurring biological events is affected by biotic and abiotic forces. Phenology is an early and integrative indicator of climate change readily understood by nonspecialists. Phenology affects the planting, maturation, and harvesting of food and fiber; pollination; timing and magnitude of allergies and disease; recreation and tourism; water quantity and quality; and ecosystem function and resilience. Thus, phenology is the gateway to climatic effects on both managed and unmanaged ecosystems. Adaptation to climatic variability and change will require integration of phenological data and models with climatic forecasts at seasonal to decadal time scales. Changes in phenologies have already manifested myriad effects of directional climate change. As these changes continue, it is critical to establish a comprehensive suite of benchmarks that can be tracked and mapped at local to continental scales with observations and climate models.

  15. Development, Characterization and Piezoelectric Fatigue Behavior of Lead-Free Perovskite Piezoelectric Ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Eric Andrew

    Much recent research has focused on the development lead-free perovskite piezoelectrics as environmentally compatible alternatives to lead zirconate titanate (PZT). Two main categories of lead free perovskite piezoelectric ceramic systems were investigated as potential replacements to lead zirconate titanate (PZT) for actuator devices. First, solid solutions based on Li, Ta, and Sb modified (K0.5Na0.5)NbO3 (KNN) lead-free perovskite systems were created using standard solid state methods. Secondly, Bi-based materials a variety of compositions were explored for (1-x)(Bi 0.5Na0.5)TiO3-xBi(Zn0.5Ti0.5)O 3 (BNT-BZT) and Bi(Zn0.5Ti0.5)O3-(Bi 0.5K0.5)TiO3-(Bi0.5Na0.5)TiO 3 (BZT-BKT-BNT). It was shown that when BNT-BKT is combined with increasing concentrations of Bi(Zn1/2i1/2)O3 (BZT), a transition from normal ferroelectric behavior to a material with large electric field induced strains was observed. The higher BZT containing compositions are characterized by large hysteretic strains(> 0.3%) with no negative strains that might indicate domain switching. This work summarizes and analyzes the fatigue behavior of the new generation of Pb-free piezoelectric materials. In piezoelectric materials, fatigue is observed as a degradation in the electromechanical properties under the application of a bipolar or unipolar cyclic electrical load. In Pb-based materials such as lead zirconate titanate (PZT), fatigue has been studied in great depth for both bulk and thin film applications. In PZT, fatigue can result from microcracking or electrode effects (especially in thin films). Ultimately, however, it is electronic and ionic point defects that are the most influential mechanism. Therefore, this work also analyzes the fatigue characteristics of bulk polycrystalline ceramics of the modified-KNN and BNT-BKT-BZT compositions developed. The defect chemistry that underpins the fatigue behavior will be examined and the results will be compared to the existing body of work on PZT. It will

  16. Tendencies of development of defensive-industrial complex of lead nations of the world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. F. Salnikova

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In the article the analysis of development of defensive-industrial complex of lead nations of the world is conducted , namely the United States of America and countries-participants of European Union and NATO. Also in the the article control system of the defensive-industrial policy of the USA is schematically represented. The analysed materials gave an opportunity to draw conclusion, that guidance of military industrial concerns of the USA managed clearly to define acceptable strategies of restructuring and successfully to realize them, integrating new enterprises with the use of front-rank methods of organizational management that became the basic engine of development of defensive industry of the USA. To the number of basic progress of defensive-industrial complex of lead nations-participants of NATO and EU trends it is possible to take the following: creation of the large defensive-industrial integrated structures on development and production of modern armament and military technique on national, transnational and transatlantic levels; rapprochement of military and civil sectors of economy; large corporations go across from mass to the «flexible» production, due to what it is possible to arrive at high efficiency of production of weapons and military equipment even at small series; through diminishing of volumes of assignations on the purchase of defensive products and considerable complication of the modern systems of armament, some leading defensive firms-contractors began to work from the production of armament and military technique to scientific research-and-developments.

  17. Lead reduces tension development and the myosin ATPase activity of the rat right ventricular myocardium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.V. Vassallo

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Lead (Pb2+ poisoning causes hypertension, but little is known regarding its acute effects on cardiac contractility. To evaluate these effects, force was measured in right ventricular strips that were contracting isometrically in 45 male Wistar rats (250-300 g before and after the addition of increasing concentrations of lead acetate (3, 7, 10, 30, 70, 100, and 300 µM to the bath. Changes in rate of stimulation (0.1-1.5 Hz, relative potentiation after pauses of 15, 30, and 60 s, effect of Ca2+ concentration (0.62, 1.25, and 2.5 mM, and the effect of isoproterenol (20 ng/mL were determined before and after the addition of 100 µM Pb2+. Effects on contractile proteins were evaluated after caffeine treatment using tetanic stimulation (10 Hz and measuring the activity of the myosin ATPase. Pb2+ produced concentration-dependent force reduction, significant at concentrations greater than 30 µM. The force developed in response to increasing rates of stimulation became smaller at 0.5 and 0.8 Hz. Relative potentiation increased after 100 µM Pb2+ treatment. Extracellular Ca2+ increment and isoproterenol administration increased force development but after 100 µM Pb2+ treatment the force was significantly reduced suggesting an effect of the metal on the sarcolemmal Ca2+ influx. Concentration of 100 µM Pb2+ also reduced the peak and plateau force of tetanic contractions and reduced the activity of the myosin ATPase. Results showed that acute Pb2+ administration, although not affecting the sarcoplasmic reticulum activity, produces a concentration-dependent negative inotropic effect and reduces myosin ATPase activity. Results suggest that acute lead administration reduced myocardial contractility by reducing sarcolemmal calcium influx and the myosin ATPase activity. These results also suggest that lead exposure is hazardous and has toxicological consequences affecting cardiac muscle.

  18. Pain leads the way: the development of evidence-based medicine for pain relief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiffen, Phil; Moore, Andrew

    2016-07-01

    This paper describes the development of evidence based methods in pain medicine since the 1980s at the Pain Research Department of the Nuffield Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Oxford University. Pain medicine can be said to have led the way in terms of developing registers of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and in developing appropriate methodology for assessing clinical trials and developing metanalytical techniques. This paper tells the story of that development which occurred in conjunction with the development of the Cochrane Collaboration. Pain has a larger body of evidence than many medical specialties with more than 30,000 RCTs and over 2,500 published systematic reviews. Our work continues to raise methodological challenges and a number of key ones are described: Size: We have added to the existing literature to show that small studies overestimate treatment effects. We consider studies with less than 50 participants per treatment group to be at high risk of bias. Mean pain scores: We have shown these to be unhelpful and misleading. We illustrate that response to analgesics is a U-shaped curve with a larger proportion of participants having either a poor response or a good response. Imputation: We discuss the problems of current methods. Tiers of evidence: We propose a way to assess evidence for pain studies. Duplicate publication of data can lead to inflated benefits in systematic reviews. In addition we touch on fraud, pharmaceutical company funding. The final sections cover developments in several areas of pain medicine, and suggest some developments going forward.

  19. Tracking Climate Effects on Plant-Pollinator Interaction Phenology with Satellites and Honey Bee Hives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esaias, Wayne E.; Nickeson, Jaime E.; Tan, Bin; Ma, Peter L.; Nightingale, Joanne M.; Wolfe, Robert E.

    2011-01-01

    Background/Question/Methods: The complexity of plant-pollinator interactions, the large number of species involved, and the lack of species response functions present challenges to understanding how these critical interactions may be impacted by climate and land cover change on large scales. Given the importance of this interaction for terrestrial ecosystems, it is desirable to develop new approaches. We monitor the daily weight change of honey bee (Apis mellifera) colonies to record the phenology of the Honey Bee Nectar Flow (HBNF) in a volunteer network (honeybeenet.gsfc.nasa.gov). The records document the successful interaction of a generalist pollinator with a variety of plant resources. We extract useful HBNF phenology metrics for three seasons. Sites currently exist in 35 states/provinces in North America, with a concentration in the Mid-Atlantic region. HBNF metrics are compared to standard phenology metrics derived from remotely sensed vegetation indices from NASA's MODIS sensor and published results from NOAA's A VHRR. At any given time the percentage of plants producing nectar is usually a sma11 fraction of the total satellite sensor signal. We are interested in determining how well the 'bulk' satellite vegetation parameters relate to the phenology of the HBNF, and how it varies spatially on landscape to continental scales. Results/Conclusions: We found the median and peak seasonal HBNF dates to be robust, with variation between replicate scale hives of only a few days. We developed quality assessment protocols to identify abnormal colony artifacts. Temporally, the peak and median of the HBNF in the Mid-Atlantic show a significant advance of 0.58 d/y beginning about 1970, very similar to that observed by the A VHRR since 1982 (0.57 d/y). Spatially, the HBNF metrics are highly correlated with elevation and winter minimum temperature distribution, and exhibit significant but regionally coherent inter-annual variation. The relationship between median of the

  20. Influence of physiological phenology on the seasonal pattern of ecosystem respiration in deciduous forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migliavacca, Mirco; Reichstein, Markus; Richardson, Andrew D; Mahecha, Miguel D; Cremonese, Edoardo; Delpierre, Nicolas; Galvagno, Marta; Law, Beverly E; Wohlfahrt, Georg; Black, T Andrew; Carvalhais, Nuno; Ceccherini, Guido; Chen, Jiquan; Gobron, Nadine; Koffi, Ernest; Munger, J William; Perez-Priego, Oscar; Robustelli, Monica; Tomelleri, Enrico; Cescatti, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the environmental and biotic drivers of respiration at the ecosystem level is a prerequisite to further improve scenarios of the global carbon cycle. In this study we investigated the relevance of physiological phenology, defined as seasonal changes in plant physiological properties, for explaining the temporal dynamics of ecosystem respiration (RECO) in deciduous forests. Previous studies showed that empirical RECO models can be substantially improved by considering the biotic dependency of RECO on the short-term productivity (e.g., daily gross primary production, GPP) in addition to the well-known environmental controls of temperature and water availability. Here, we use a model-data integration approach to investigate the added value of physiological phenology, represented by the first temporal derivative of GPP, or alternatively of the fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation, for modeling RECO at 19 deciduous broadleaved forests in the FLUXNET La Thuile database. The new data-oriented semiempirical model leads to an 8% decrease in root mean square error (RMSE) and a 6% increase in the modeling efficiency (EF) of modeled RECO when compared to a version of the model that does not consider the physiological phenology. The reduction of the model-observation bias occurred mainly at the monthly time scale, and in spring and summer, while a smaller reduction was observed at the annual time scale. The proposed approach did not improve the model performance at several sites, and we identified as potential causes the plant canopy heterogeneity and the use of air temperature as a driver of ecosystem respiration instead of soil temperature. However, in the majority of sites the model-error remained unchanged regardless of the driving temperature. Overall, our results point toward the potential for improving current approaches for modeling RECO in deciduous forests by including the phenological cycle of the canopy. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons

  1. Spring phenology at different altitudes is becoming more uniform under global warming in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lei; Huang, Jian-Guo; Ma, Qianqian; Hänninen, Heikki; Rossi, Sergio; Piao, Shilong; Bergeron, Yves

    2018-04-26

    Under current global warming, high-elevation regions are expected to experience faster warming than low-elevation regions. However, due to the lack of studies based on long-term large-scale data, the relationship between tree spring phenology and the elevation-dependent warming is unclear. Using 652k records of leaf unfolding of five temperate tree species monitored during 1951-2013 in situ in Europe, we discovered a nonlinear trend in the altitudinal sensitivity (S A , shifted days per 100 m in altitude) in spring phenology. A delayed leaf unfolding (2.7 ± 0.6 days per decade) was observed at high elevations possibly due to decreased spring forcing between 1951 and 1980. The delayed leaf unfolding at high-elevation regions was companied by a simultaneous advancing of leaf unfolding at low elevations. These divergent trends contributed to a significant increase in the S A (0.36 ± 0.07 days 100/m per decade) during 1951-1980. Since 1980, the S A started to decline with a rate of -0.32 ± 0.07 days 100/m per decade, possibly due to reduced chilling at low elevations and improved efficiency of spring forcing in advancing the leaf unfolding at high elevations, the latter being caused by increased chilling. Our results suggest that due to both different temperature changes at the different altitudes, and the different tree responses to these changes, the tree phenology has shifted at different rates leading to a more uniform phenology at different altitudes during recent decades. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Brain-specific Crmp2 deletion leads to neuronal development deficits and behavioural impairments in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongsheng; Kang, Eunchai; Wang, Yaqing; Yang, Chaojuan; Yu, Hui; Wang, Qin; Chen, Zheyu; Zhang, Chen; Christian, Kimberly M; Song, Hongjun; Ming, Guo-Li; Xu, Zhiheng

    2016-06-01

    Several genome- and proteome-wide studies have associated transcription and translation changes of CRMP2 (collapsing response mediator protein 2) with psychiatric disorders, yet little is known about its function in the developing or adult mammalian brain in vivo. Here we show that brain-specific Crmp2 knockout (cKO) mice display molecular, cellular, structural and behavioural deficits, many of which are reminiscent of neural features and symptoms associated with schizophrenia. cKO mice exhibit enlarged ventricles and impaired social behaviour, locomotor activity, and learning and memory. Loss of Crmp2 in the hippocampus leads to reduced long-term potentiation, abnormal NMDA receptor composition, aberrant dendrite development and defective synapse formation in CA1 neurons. Furthermore, knockdown of crmp2 specifically in newborn neurons results in stage-dependent defects in their development during adult hippocampal neurogenesis. Our findings reveal a critical role for CRMP2 in neuronal plasticity, neural function and behavioural modulation in mice.

  3. Epigenetics of early-life lead exposure and effects on brain development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senut, Marie-Claude; Cingolani, Pablo; Sen, Arko; Kruger, Adele; Shaik, Asra; Hirsch, Helmut; Suhr, Steven T; Ruden, Douglas

    2012-12-01

    The epigenetic machinery plays a pivotal role in the control of many of the body's key cellular functions. It modulates an array of pliable mechanisms that are readily and durably modified by intracellular or extracellular factors. In the fast-moving field of neuroepigenetics, it is emerging that faulty epigenetic gene regulation can have dramatic consequences on the developing CNS that can last a lifetime and perhaps even affect future generations. Mounting evidence suggests that environmental factors can impact the developing brain through these epigenetic mechanisms and this report reviews and examines the epigenetic effects of one of the most common neurotoxic pollutants of our environment, which is believed to have no safe level of exposure during human development: lead.

  4. Loss of ATF2 function leads to cranial motoneuron degeneration during embryonic mouse development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Ackermann

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The AP-1 family transcription factor ATF2 is essential for development and tissue maintenance in mammals. In particular, ATF2 is highly expressed and activated in the brain and previous studies using mouse knockouts have confirmed its requirement in the cerebellum as well as in vestibular sense organs. Here we present the analysis of the requirement for ATF2 in CNS development in mouse embryos, specifically in the brainstem. We discovered that neuron-specific inactivation of ATF2 leads to significant loss of motoneurons of the hypoglossal, abducens and facial nuclei. While the generation of ATF2 mutant motoneurons appears normal during early development, they undergo caspase-dependent and independent cell death during later embryonic and foetal stages. The loss of these motoneurons correlates with increased levels of stress activated MAP kinases, JNK and p38, as well as aberrant accumulation of phosphorylated neurofilament proteins, NF-H and NF-M, known substrates for these kinases. This, together with other neuropathological phenotypes, including aberrant vacuolisation and lipid accumulation, indicates that deficiency in ATF2 leads to neurodegeneration of subsets of somatic and visceral motoneurons of the brainstem. It also confirms that ATF2 has a critical role in limiting the activities of stress kinases JNK and p38 which are potent inducers of cell death in the CNS.

  5. Lead/tin resonator development at the Stony Brook heavy-ion linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sikora, J.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Brennan, J.M.; Cole, M.; Noe, J.W.

    1988-01-01

    The Stony Brook Nuclear Structure Laboratory (NSL) has operated a superconducting heavy-ion booster linac since April 1983. The 40 copper split-loop resonators were developed and fabricated at Cal-Tech and plated with lead at Stony Brook. These original lead surfaces have given stable performance for the last 4 years, at an average accelerating gradient of about 2.5 MV/m in the high-β section. The low-β resonators however have never run reliably on-line much better than 2.0 MV/m, due to excessive vibration of their rather soft loop arms in the working accelerator environment. For the last 2-3 years the efforts of the Stony Brook accelerator development group have been focused on (1) a retrofit of the low-beta section of the linac with new QWRs and (2) the further development of plated superconducting surfaces. In particular a Sn/Pb alloy has been shown to give resonator performance at least comparable to that obtained with pure Pb but with a greatly simplified plating technique, as discussed below. Recently a possible heavy-ion injector based on superconducting RF quadrupole (RFQ) structures has also been studied. 13 references, 3 figures, 1 table

  6. The phenology of Rubus fruticosus in Ireland: herbarium specimens provide evidence for the response of phenophases to temperature, with implications for climate warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diskin, E.; Proctor, H.; Jebb, M.; Sparks, T.; Donnelly, A.

    2012-11-01

    To date, phenological research has provided evidence that climate warming is impacting both animals and plants, evidenced by the altered timing of phenophases. Much of the evidence supporting these findings has been provided by analysis of historic records and present-day fieldwork; herbaria have been identified recently as an alternative source of phenological data. Here, we used Rubus specimens to evaluate herbaria as potential sources of phenological data for use in climate change research and to develop the methodology for using herbaria specimens in phenological studies. Data relevant to phenology (collection date) were recorded from the information cards of over 600 herbarium specimens at Ireland's National Herbarium in Dublin. Each specimen was assigned a score (0-5) corresponding to its phenophase. Temperature data for the study period (1852 - 2007) were obtained from the University of East Anglia's Climate Research Unit (CRU); relationships between temperature and the dates of first flower, full flower, first fruit and full fruit were assessed using weighted linear regression. Of the five species of Rubus examined in this study, specimens of only one ( R. fruticosus) were sufficiently abundant to yield statistically significant relationships with temperature. The results revealed a trend towards earlier dates of first flower, full flower and first fruit phenophases with increasing temperature. Through its multi-phenophase approach, this research serves to extend the most recent work—which validated the use of herbaria through use of a single phenophase—to confirm herbarium-based research as a robust methodology for use in future phenological studies.

  7. Comparing growth phenology of co-occurring deciduous and evergreen conifers exposed to drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swidrak, Irene; Schuster, Roman; Oberhuber, Walter

    2013-12-01

    Plant phenological events are influenced by climate factors such as temperature and rainfall. To evaluate phenological responses to water availability in a Spring Heath-Pine wood (Erico-Pinetum typicum), the focus of this study was to determine intra-annual dynamics of apical and lateral growth of co-occurring early successional Larix decidua and Pinus sylvestris and late successional Picea abies exposed to drought. The effect of reduced plant water availability on growth phenology was investigated by conducting a rainfall exclusion experiment. Timing of key phenological dates (onset, maximum rate, end, duration) of growth processes were compared among species at the rain-sheltered and control plot during 2011 and 2012. Shoot and needle elongation were monitored on lateral branches in the canopy at c . 16 m height and radial growth was recorded by automatic dendrometers at c . 1.3 m height of > 120 yr old trees. Different sequences in aboveground growth phenology were detected among the three species under the same growing conditions. While onset of radial growth in April through early May was considerably preceded by onset of needle growth in Larix decidua (5 - 6 weeks) and shoot growth in Pinus sylvestris ( c . 3 weeks), it occurred quite simultaneously with onset of shoot growth in Picea abies . Low water availability had a minor impact on onset of aboveground growth, which is related to utilization of stored water, but caused premature cessation of aboveground growth. At the control plot mean growing season length was 130 days in Pinus sylvestris , 95 days in Larix decidua and 73 days in Picea abies supporting the hypothesis that early successional species are resource expenders, while late successional species are more efficient in utilizing resources and develop safer life strategies. High synchronicity found in culmination of radial growth in late spring (mid-May through early June) prior to occurrence of more favourable environmental conditions in summer

  8. Hot spot analysis for driving the development of hits into leads in fragment based drug discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, David R.; Ngan, Chi Ho; Zerbe, Brandon S.; Kozakov, Dima; Vajda, Sandor

    2011-01-01

    Fragment based drug design (FBDD) starts with finding fragment-sized compounds that are highly ligand efficient and can serve as a core moiety for developing high affinity leads. Although the core-bound structure of a protein facilitates the construction of leads, effective design is far from straightforward. We show that protein mapping, a computational method developed to find binding hot spots and implemented as the FTMap server, provides information that complements the fragment screening results and can drive the evolution of core fragments into larger leads with a minimal loss or, in some cases, even a gain in ligand efficiency. The method places small molecular probes, the size of organic solvents, on a dense grid around the protein, and identifies the hot spots as consensus clusters formed by clusters of several probes. The hot spots are ranked based on the number of probe clusters, which predicts the binding propensity of the subsites and hence their importance for drug design. Accordingly, with a single exception the main hot spot identified by FTMap binds the core compound found by fragment screening. The most useful information is provided by the neighboring secondary hot spots, indicating the regions where the core can be extended to increase its affinity. To quantify this information, we calculate the density of probes from mapping, which describes the binding propensity at each point, and show that the change in the correlation between a ligand position and the probe density upon extending or repositioning the core moiety predicts the expected change in ligand efficiency. PMID:22145575

  9. Advancing electric-vehicle development with pure-lead-tin battery technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, W. A.; Stickel, R. B.; May, G. J.

    Electric-vehicle (EV) development continues to make solid progress towards extending vehicle range, reliability and ease of use, aided significantly by technological advances in vehicle systems. There is, however, a widespread misconception that current battery technologies are not capable of meeting even the minimum user requirements that would launch EVs into daily use. Existing pure-lead-tin technology is moving EVs out of research laboratories and onto the streets, in daily side-by-side operation with vehicles powered by conventional gasoline and alternative fuels. This commercially available battery technology can provide traffic-compatible performance in a reliable and affordable manner, and can be used for either pure EVs or hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). Independent results obtained when applying lead-tin batteries in highly abusive conditions, both electrically and environmentally, are presented. The test fleet of EVs is owned and operated by Arizona Public Service (APS), an electric utility in Phoenix, AZ, USA. System, charger and battery development will be described. This gives a single charge range of up to 184 km at a constant speed of 72 km h -1, and with suitable opportunity charging, a 320 km range in a normal 8 h working day.

  10. Oxygen sensor development and low temperature corrosion study in lead-alloy coolant loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Il Soon; Bahn, Chi Bum; Lee, Seung Gi; Jeong, Seung Ho; Nam, Hyo On; Lim, Jun

    2007-07-01

    Oxygen sensor to measure dissolved oxygen concentration at liquid lead-bismuth eutectic environments have been developed. Developed oxygen sensor for application in lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) system was based on the oxygen ion conductor made of YSZ ceramic having Bi/Bi2O3 reference joined by electro-magnetic swaging. Leakage problem, which was major problem of existing sensors, can be solved by using electro-magnetic swaging method. A new calibration strategy combining the oxygen titration with electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was performed to increase the reliability of sensor. Another calibration was also conducted by controlling the oxygen concentration using OCS (oxygen control system). Materials corrosion tests of various metals (SS316, EP823, T91 and HT9) were conducted for up to 1,000 hours with specimen inspection after every 333hours at 450 .deg. C in HELIOS. Oxygen concentration was controlled at 10 -6 wt% by using the direct gas bubbling of Ar+4%H 2 , Ar+5%O 2 and pure Ar. The dissolved oxygen concentration in LBE was also monitored by two calibrated YSZ oxygen sensors located at different places under different temperatures within HELIOS. It shows a good performance during 1000 hours. Liquid metal embrittlement (LME) test of SS316L specimen in the LBE was performed at various temperature and strain rate. The result shows that the liquid metal embrittlement effect is not crucial at tested conditions

  11. Development for fissile assay in recycled fuel using lead slowing down spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yong Deok; Je Park, C.; Kim, Ho-Dong; Song, Kee Chan

    2013-01-01

    A future nuclear energy system is under development to turn spent fuels produced by PWRs into fuels for a SFR (Sodium Fast Reactor) through the pyrochemical process. The knowledge of the isotopic fissile content of the new fuel is very important for fuel safety. A lead slowing down spectrometer (LSDS) is under development to analyze the fissile material content (Pu 239 , Pu 241 and U 235 ) of the fuel. The LSDS requires a neutron source, the neutrons will be slowed down through their passage in a lead medium and will finally enter the fuel and will induce fission reactions that will be analysed and the isotopic content of the fuel will be then determined. The issue is that the spent fuel emits intense gamma rays and neutrons by spontaneous fission. The threshold fission detector screens the prompt fast fission neutrons and as a result the LSDS is not influenced by the high level radiation background. The energy resolution of LSDS is good in the range 0.1 eV to 1 keV. It is also the range in which the fission reaction is the most discriminating for the considered fissile isotopes. An electron accelerator has been chosen to produce neutrons with an adequate target through (e - ,γ)(γ,n) reactions

  12. Recovery and enhancement plan development for the Leading Creek watershed, Meigs County, Ohio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Currie, R.J.; Cherry, D.S.; Latimer, H.A.; Babendreier, J.E.; Van Hassel, J.H.

    1998-01-01

    Following the flooding of the Meigs No. 31 coal mine in Meigs County, Ohio, a proactive plan was developed to evaluate initial dewatering effects, recovery and development of a watershed enhancement plan. Approximately half of the 31-mile Leading Creek mainstem received ∼one billion gallons of coal mine discharge, including sludge and slurry. Damage to the stream system resulted from high conductivity (∼6,000 micromhos/cm), low pH (2.5--3.5), high metals (aluminum, cadmium, copper, iron and iron floc, lead, manganese, nickel and zinc) and total suspended solids. Most forms of aquatic life were depleted in the impacted areas. Four years after the incident, many forms of benthic macroinvertebrates and fish have recovered in the creek, with sediments purged of metals by stormwater events. The enhancement plan involves a reconnaissance of the creek and tributaries pinpointing areas of agricultural sedimentation and abandoned minedland discharges (AMD). Seventeen tributary and ten mainstem stations were addressed as point source discharges with water/sediment toxicity and in-situ testing of Asian clams. One-third of the stations were intermittently toxic from rainfall runoff and the degree of AMD input. Benthic macroinvertebrates in many tributaries were stressed and comprised 1--5 taxa. Erosion/sedimentation was addressed by the USEPA 1-Dimensional Hydrologic Simulation Program Fortran (HSPF) model, as well as incorporating land use management/habitat assessment, and data management by Geographical Information Systems

  13.  Economic growth leads to increase of obesity and associated hepatocellular carcinoma in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyda Seydel, G; Kucukoglu, Ozlem; Altinbasv, Akif; Demir, O Oguz; Yilmaz, Sezai; Akkiz, Hikmet; Otan, Emrah; Sowa, Jan-Peter; Canbay, Ali

    2016-01-01

     Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common type of primary liver cancer and the third leading cause of cancer related death worldwide. In recent years, the prevalence of HCC has increased in both developing and developed countries. Most HCC cases develop in the presence of advanced chronic liver disease related to viral hepatitis. In particular hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus infections are considered as major HCC risk factors worldwide. However, current studies provide strong evidence for increasing numbers of HCC in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). NAFLD represents the hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome which is based on obesity and insulin resistance. Epidemiologic data clearly demonstrates that NAFLD and obesity-related disorders are significant risk factors for tumor development in general and HCC in particular. As a consequence of life style changes towards higher calorie intake and less exercise, obesity and metabolic syndrome are spreading all over the world. Due to this increase in obesity and metabolic syndrome NAFLD-related HCC will become a major health care problem in the future. In conclusion, better understanding of the impact of NAFLD and obesity in the development of HCC will improve our treatment strategies of HCC and allow preventive measures.

  14. Epigenetic regulation leading to induced pluripotency drives cancer development in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohnishi, Kotaro [Center for iPS Cell Research and Application (CiRA), Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Department of Medicine, Gifu University Graduate School of Medicine, Gifu 501-1194 (Japan); Semi, Katsunori [Center for iPS Cell Research and Application (CiRA), Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Institute for Integrated Cell-Material Sciences (WPI-iCeMS), Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Yamada, Yasuhiro, E-mail: y-yamada@cira.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Center for iPS Cell Research and Application (CiRA), Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Institute for Integrated Cell-Material Sciences (WPI-iCeMS), Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan)

    2014-12-05

    Highlights: • Epigenetic regulation of failed reprogramming-associated cancer cells is discussed. • Similarity between pediatric cancer and reprogramming-associated cancer is discussed. • Concept for epigenetic cancer is discussed. - Abstract: Somatic cells can be reprogrammed into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) by the transient expression of reprogramming factors. During the reprogramming process, somatic cells acquire the ability to undergo unlimited proliferation, which is also an important characteristic of cancer cells, while their underlying DNA sequence remains unchanged. Based on the characteristics shared between pluripotent stem cells and cancer cells, the potential involvement of the factors leading to reprogramming toward pluripotency in cancer development has been discussed. Recent in vivo reprogramming studies provided some clues to understanding the role of reprogramming-related epigenetic regulation in cancer development. It was shown that premature termination of the in vivo reprogramming result in the development of tumors that resemble pediatric cancers. Given that epigenetic modifications play a central role during reprogramming, failed reprogramming-associated cancer development may have provided a proof of concept for epigenetics-driven cancer development in vivo.

  15. Epigenetic regulation leading to induced pluripotency drives cancer development in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnishi, Kotaro; Semi, Katsunori; Yamada, Yasuhiro

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Epigenetic regulation of failed reprogramming-associated cancer cells is discussed. • Similarity between pediatric cancer and reprogramming-associated cancer is discussed. • Concept for epigenetic cancer is discussed. - Abstract: Somatic cells can be reprogrammed into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) by the transient expression of reprogramming factors. During the reprogramming process, somatic cells acquire the ability to undergo unlimited proliferation, which is also an important characteristic of cancer cells, while their underlying DNA sequence remains unchanged. Based on the characteristics shared between pluripotent stem cells and cancer cells, the potential involvement of the factors leading to reprogramming toward pluripotency in cancer development has been discussed. Recent in vivo reprogramming studies provided some clues to understanding the role of reprogramming-related epigenetic regulation in cancer development. It was shown that premature termination of the in vivo reprogramming result in the development of tumors that resemble pediatric cancers. Given that epigenetic modifications play a central role during reprogramming, failed reprogramming-associated cancer development may have provided a proof of concept for epigenetics-driven cancer development in vivo

  16. Development of stable solidification methods for toxic lead oxide in radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hitoshi Mimura; Shingo Ikeda; Yuichi Niibori

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study is to develop the advanced solidification methods for the toxic lead oxide contained in radioactive wastes and to examine their chemical durability in terms of leachability and surface alteration; the solidification characteristics and leachability for the following three kinds of solidified products immobilizing lead were examined, and the experimental results were summarized as follows. (a) Mineral solidified products: A-zeolite or fly ash (FA) was used as a binder, and NaAlO 2 and Na 2 SiO 3 were mixed as additives. The leachability of lead ions in pure water was considerably lowered by the heat treatment at higher temperature (1,000 degree C), and the concentration of lead ions leached was under criterion value of 0.3 mg/l. The products prepared by mixing A-zeolite and fly ash also had low leachability under 0.3 mg/l even in the saturated Ca(OH)2 solution. (b) Melted solidified products: A-zeolite or fly ash was used as a binder and glass-forming reagents of B 2 O 3 and NaH 2 PO 4 were used as additives. The XRD peaks assigned PbO were not observed in all products. The products for the mixtures of FA:NaH 2 PO 4 :PbO (2:2:1 and 3:1:1) had low leachability under criterion value in both leachants of deionized water and saturated Ca(OH) 2 solution. (c) Phosphate ceramics products: the chemically bonded phosphate ceramics were produced by using MgKPO 4 , MgHPO 4 , Zr(HPO 4 ) 2 , potassium iron phosphate and sodium iron phosphate, and FA was used as additives. In particular, by using MgHPO 4 , the leachability of the products was lowered less than 0.3 mg/l in both leachants. The phosphate ceramics products and melted solidified products are favorable as the waste solid forms immobilizing lead. In particular, novel ceramics products have advantages in the simple solidification procedure similarly to the cement products. As for mineral solidification, natural zeolites and FA as binder also useful from the viewpoint of cost efficiency

  17. Phenology Atlas of Czechia in preparation - aim & content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajkova, L.; Nekovar, J.; Novak, M.; Richterova, D.

    2009-09-01

    The main task is to create Phenology Atlas of Czechia for the period 1991 - 2010 by using geographic information systems. The general outputs will be maps (average phenophase onset at different altitudes), graphs (evaluation of phenophase onset in time) and tables (statistical results) with text, picture and botanical specification. The publication will be divided into 6 main chapters (Introduction, Phenology in Czechia & Europe, Methodology of observation, Field crops & Fruit trees & Wild plants, Phenology regionalisation, Temporal and Spatial variability). The essantial emphasis will be enforced on wild plants especially allergology important plants and phenophases. CHMI phenological and meteorological data will be used as an input data. This publication will be allocated for general public, supposed size B4, 270 - 300 pages. The research project is proposed for 3 years (2009 - 2011). In the presentation will be given several examples of Atlas content (Norway Spruce and Birch phenophases from Transaction of CHMI Nr.50, 2007).

  18. Accuracy and precision in the calculation of phenology metrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferreira, Ana Sofia; Visser, Andre; MacKenzie, Brian

    2014-01-01

    a phenology metric is first determined from a noise- and gap-free time series, and again once it has been modified. We show that precision is a greater concern than accuracy for many of these metrics, an important point that has been hereto overlooked in the literature. The variability in precision between...... phenology metrics is substantial, but it can be improved by the use of preprocessing techniques (e.g., gap-filling or smoothing). Furthermore, there are important differences in the inherent variability of the metrics that may be crucial in the interpretation of studies based upon them. Of the considered......Phytoplankton phenology (the timing of seasonal events) is a commonly used indicator for evaluating responses of marine ecosystems to climate change. However, phenological metrics are vulnerable to observation-(bloom amplitude, missing data, and observational noise) and analysis-related (temporal...

  19. The Phenological Network of Catalonia: an historical perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busto, Montserrat; Cunillera, Jordi; de Yzaguirre, Xavier

    2017-04-01

    The Meteorological Service of Catalonia (SMC) began systematic phenological observation in 1932. Forty-four observers registered the phenophases of 45 plant species, the first or last sighting of six bird species and the first sighting of one species of butterfly. The study First results of phenological observation in Catalonia was published in 1936, showing the different behaviour of the vegetal species and birds according to geographical location. The SMC worked against the military fascist uprising during the Spanish Civil War (1936-1939). Therefore, once the war was finished, the organisation was quickly closed by the Franco dictatorship and the National Meteorological Service became the official institution in Spain. This organization created the Spanish Phenological Network in 1943 following similar standards to the former Catalan network. The reintroduction of democracy and the return of the Catalan self-government structures (1977) allowed the re-foundation of the SMC in 1996. The Climatology Department needed phenological data to complement the study of climatic indicators and realised the fragile situation of phenology observations in Catalonia, with very few operational series. Following a preliminary analysis of the different systems of recording and saving data, the Phenological network of Catalonia (Fenocat) was re-established in 2013. Fenocat is an active partner of the Pan European Phenology Database (PEP725) that uses BBCH-scale coding and the USA National Phenology Network observation system. It is an example of citizen science. As at December 2016, Fenocat had recorded more than 450,000 data. The extension of summer climatic conditions in the Western Mediterranean region has resulted in repetition of phenopases in the same year, such as the second flowering of the holm oak (Quercus ilex), almond tree (Prunus dulcis) and sweet cherry tree (Prunus avium), or the delay in the departure data of the swallow (Hirundo rustica) and hoopoe (Upupa epops

  20. Phenology of Guarea macrophylla Vahl (Meliaceae in subtropical riparian forest in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Müller

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Climate is one of the main factors that affect plant behavior. The phenology of Guarea macrophylla Vahl, which is a small tree used for reforestation of degraded areas, was monitored for 18 months in a riparian forest at the Schmidt Stream, Campo Bom, in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil. Vegetative (leaf fall and leaf flushing and reproductive events were observed, with the latter divided into flowering (flower buds and anthesis and fruiting (unripe, ripening and ripe fruit. Phenological events were related to temperature, photoperiod and precipitation and their seasonality was verified by circular statistical analysis. Vegetative phenophases were continuous; they were not related to climate factors and presented low intensity, emphasizing the perennial aspect of the species. Flowering occurred during spring and summer. Both flower buds and anthesis were related to temperature and photoperiod. Fruiting was constant and went through all stages of development. Unripe fruits developed during the months with the lowest photoperiod and ripen more intensely in winter, on colder days. Ripe fruit became available for dispersal in spring, in times of longer photoperiod and higher temperatures. Except for leaf fall, all other phenological events showed seasonality in their manifestation. The one-month difference between the onsets of the flowering phases observed in this study indicated that local climate changes induced the early occurrence of this phenophase.

  1. Fifteen-year phenological plant species and meteorological trends in central Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlandi, F.; Ruga, L.; Bonofiglio, T.; Romano, B.; Fornaciari, M.

    2014-07-01

    The present study was carried out in a phenological garden in central Italy that contains vegetative clones of shrubs and trees common to several international phenological gardens, such as Cornus sanguinea L.; Corylus avellana L.; Ligustrum vulgare L.; Robinia pseudoacacia L.; Salix acutifolia Willd. and Sambucus nigra L. Vegetative plant growth monitoring was carried out weekly using common international keys: BBCH07, bud break and leaf unfolding; BBCH19, young unfolded leaf; BBCH91, adult leaves; BBCH93, beginning of leaf colouring. The phenological dates thus obtained provide a model of the development for these different species in relation to the 15-year period of observation (1997-2011). From a meteorological point of view, temperature and precipitation trends were studied, with the highest anomalies during the study period recorded during the first 2 months of the year (January, February). There was relative invariance in the manifestation of the open bud phase and the contemporary advance of the young open leaves phase, particularly from 2006. This was accompanied by shortening of the leaf opening period, which appeared due to more rapid spring temperature increases over the last few years. The advance tendency of the BBCH91 phase showed adult leaves from the first summer weeks with fully green foliage monitored for a long time. Generally, the autumn leaf colouring phase tended to remain constant, with the exception of Salix acutifolia and Sambucus nigra, for which, on the other hand, the first leaf development phases appeared to be most likely influenced by the photoperiod.

  2. Small-molecule inhibitor leads of ribosome-inactivating proteins developed using the doorstop approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-Ping Pang

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs are toxic because they bind to 28S rRNA and depurinate a specific adenine residue from the α-sarcin/ricin loop (SRL, thereby inhibiting protein synthesis. Shiga-like toxins (Stx1 and Stx2, produced by Escherichia coli, are RIPs that cause outbreaks of foodborne diseases with significant morbidity and mortality. Ricin, produced by the castor bean plant, is another RIP lethal to mammals. Currently, no US Food and Drug Administration-approved vaccines nor therapeutics exist to protect against ricin, Shiga-like toxins, or other RIPs. Development of effective small-molecule RIP inhibitors as therapeutics is challenging because strong electrostatic interactions at the RIP•SRL interface make drug-like molecules ineffective in competing with the rRNA for binding to RIPs. Herein, we report small molecules that show up to 20% cell protection against ricin or Stx2 at a drug concentration of 300 nM. These molecules were discovered using the doorstop approach, a new approach to protein•polynucleotide inhibitors that identifies small molecules as doorstops to prevent an active-site residue of an RIP (e.g., Tyr80 of ricin or Tyr77 of Stx2 from adopting an active conformation thereby blocking the function of the protein rather than contenders in the competition for binding to the RIP. This work offers promising leads for developing RIP therapeutics. The results suggest that the doorstop approach might also be applicable in the development of other protein•polynucleotide inhibitors as antiviral agents such as inhibitors of the Z-DNA binding proteins in poxviruses. This work also calls for careful chemical and biological characterization of drug leads obtained from chemical screens to avoid the identification of irrelevant chemical structures and to avoid the interference caused by direct interactions between the chemicals being screened and the luciferase reporter used in screening assays.

  3. "Leading Better Care": An evaluation of an accelerated coaching intervention for clinical nursing leadership development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cable, Stuart; Graham, Edith

    2018-03-30

    Outcomes of an accelerated co-active coaching intervention for senior clinical nursing leadership development. Co-active coaching is characterized by a whole person approach, commitment to deep learning and conscious action through supportive compassionate and courageous coach-coachee partnership. The national leadership capabilities framework, "Step into Leadership", was used for development and evaluation. 116 senior clinical nurse leaders attended one face-to-face induction day and received a total of 3 hours of one-to-one telephone coaching and two virtual peer group facilitated sessions. Evaluation used primarily qualitative descriptive methods with iterative review of emerging themes. Capability mapping indicated self-leadership development as the most frequently cited need. Improvements in self-confidence, capacity for reflection and bringing whole self into the work were reported to deliver enhancement in team and service performance. Co-active coaching supported deep analysis by individuals. Focus on self, rather than behaviours provoked reflection on perspectives, mindsets, beliefs and approaches which can lead to more sustainable behaviour and support service change. Investment in a co-active coaching approach offers bespoke support for clinical leaders to develop self-leadership capability, a precursor to delivering positive impacts on care. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Modeling winter wheat phenological responses to water deficits in the Unified Plant Growth Model (UPGM) component of the spatially distributed Agricultural Ecosystem Services (AgES) model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accurately predicting phenology in crop simulation models is critical for correctly simulating crop production. While extensive work in modeling phenology has focused on the temperature response function (resulting in robust phenology models), limited work on quantifying the phenological responses t...

  5. Research on the path of synergetic development between logistics industry and the leading industry in Fujian province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei Qiaoping

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Logistics industry is closely related to other industry, the synergetic development between logistics industry and leading industry is benefit for leading industry to reduce costs, improve efficiency and promote industrial upgrading. This book analyzes the association of logistics industry and leading industry on the basis of the input-output tables of Fujian and proposes advises to promote their synergetic development based on the calculation.

  6. Forests and Phenology: Designing the Early Warning System to Understand Forest Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, T.; Phillips, M. B.; Hargrove, W. W.; Dobson, G.; Hicks, J.; Hutchins, M.; Lichtenstein, K.

    2010-12-01

    Vegetative phenology is the study of plant development and changes with the seasons, such as the greening-up and browning-down of forests, and how these events are influenced by variations in climate. A National Phenology Data Set, based on Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer satellite images covering 2002 through 2009, is now available from work by NASA, the US Forest Service, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory. This new data set provides an easily interpretable product useful for detecting changes to the landscape due to long-term factors such as climate change, as well as finding areas affected by short-term forest threats such as insects or disease. The Early Warning System (EWS) is a toolset being developed by the US Forest Service and the University of North Carolina-Asheville to support distribution and use of the National Phenology Data Set. The Early Warning System will help research scientists, US Forest Service personnel, forest and natural resources managers, decision makers, and the public in the use of phenology data to better understand unexpected change within our nation’s forests. These changes could have multiple natural sources such as insects, disease, or storm damage, or may be due to human-induced events, like thinning, harvest, forest conversion to agriculture, or residential and commercial use. The primary goal of the Early Warning System is to provide a seamless integration between monitoring, detection, early warning and prediction of these forest disturbances as observed through phenological data. The system consists of PC and web-based components that are structured to support four user stages of increasing knowledge and data sophistication. Building Literacy: This stage of the Early Warning System educates potential users about the system, why the system should be used, and the fundamentals about the data the system uses. The channels for this education include a website, interactive tutorials, pamphlets, and other technology

  7. Detecting inter-annual variability in the phenological characteristics of southern Africa’s vegetation using satellite imagery

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wessels, Konrad J

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available provides consistent measurements of vegetation greenness which captures phenological cycles and vegetation function. Understanding the inter-annual variability in phenology is imperative, as phenological changes will be one of the first signs of the impact...

  8. Plant Phenology Site Phenometrics + Accumulated Growing Degree Day Calculations for the continental United States (2009-2016)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — This datafile consists of a subset of plant phenology observations drawn from the USA National Phenology Network’s National Phenology Database (www.usanpn.org). The...

  9. Development and clinical study of mobile 12-lead electrocardiography based on cloud computing for cardiac emergency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Hideo; Uchimura, Yuji; Waki, Kayo; Omae, Koji; Takeuchi, Ichiro; Ohe, Kazuhiko

    2013-01-01

    To improve emergency services for accurate diagnosis of cardiac emergency, we developed a low-cost new mobile electrocardiography system "Cloud Cardiology®" based upon cloud computing for prehospital diagnosis. This comprises a compact 12-lead ECG unit equipped with Bluetooth and Android Smartphone with an application for transmission. Cloud server enables us to share ECG simultaneously inside and outside the hospital. We evaluated the clinical effectiveness by conducting a clinical trial with historical comparison to evaluate this system in a rapid response car in the real emergency service settings. We found that this system has an ability to shorten the onset to balloon time of patients with acute myocardial infarction, resulting in better clinical outcome. Here we propose that cloud-computing based simultaneous data sharing could be powerful solution for emergency service for cardiology, along with its significant clinical outcome.

  10. Leading Communities: Community-led Development in England’s Small Towns: the Market Towns Initiative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon Morris

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The Market Towns Initiative (MTI, a UK community-led development programme, operated throughout rural England from 2000 until 2005/6. It was designed to help local people, with professional support, identify – and then capitalize on – the economic, environmental and social strengths and weaknesses of small country towns. This paper explains the origins and ways of working of the MTI. Examples of the topics explored and participants’ views are given, and conclusions drawn. The opportunity is also taken to explain how interest in the roles of England’s small country towns grew in the years following the Second World War, and how this led to the development of the MTI. Evidence suggests that the programme worked well. It demonstrated that local people have the enthusiasm, skills and knowledge to take a lead in the development of the places in which they live; something which, until local government reforms changed roles and structures, was largely taken for granted.

  11. Phenological mismatch in coastal western Alaska may increase summer season greenhouse gas uptake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelsey, Katharine C.; Leffler, A. Joshua; Beard, Karen H.; Choi, Ryan T.; Schmutz, Joel A.; Welker, Jeffery M.

    2018-04-01

    High latitude ecosystems are prone to phenological mismatches due to climate change- driven advances in the growing season and changing arrival times of migratory herbivores. These changes have the potential to alter biogeochemical cycling and contribute to feedbacks on climate change by altering greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) through large regions of the Arctic. Yet the effects of phenological mismatches on gas fluxes are currently unexplored. We used a three-year field experiment that altered the start of the growing season and timing of grazing to investigate how phenological mismatch affects GHG exchange. We found early grazing increased mean GHG emission to the atmosphere despite lower CH4 emissions due to grazing-induced changes in vegetation structure that increased uptake of CO2. In contrast, late grazing reduced GHG emissions because greater plant productivity led to an increase in CO2 uptake that overcame the increase in CH4 emission. Timing of grazing was an important control on both CO2 and CH4 emissions, and net GHG exchange was the result of opposing fluxes of CO2 and CH4. N2O played a negligible role in GHG flux. Advancing the growing season had a smaller effect on GHG emissions than changes to timing of grazing in this study. Our results suggest that a phenological mismatch that delays timing of grazing relative to the growing season, a change which is already developing along in western coastal Alaska, will reduce GHG emissions to the atmosphere through increased CO2 uptake despite greater CH4 emissions.

  12. Phenological mismatch in coastal western Alaska may increase summer season greenhouse gas uptake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelsey, Katharine C.; Leffler, A. Joshua; Beard, Karen H.; Choi, Ryan T.; Schmutz, Joel A.; Welker, Jeffery M.

    2018-01-01

    High latitude ecosystems are prone to phenological mismatches due to climate change- driven advances in the growing season and changing arrival times of migratory herbivores. These changes have the potential to alter biogeochemical cycling and contribute to feedbacks on climate change by altering greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) through large regions of the Arctic. Yet the effects of phenological mismatches on gas fluxes are currently unexplored. We used a three-year field experiment that altered the start of the growing season and timing of grazing to investigate how phenological mismatch affects GHG exchange. We found early grazing increased mean GHG emission to the atmosphere despite lower CH4 emissions due to grazing-induced changes in vegetation structure that increased uptake of CO2. In contrast, late grazing reduced GHG emissions because greater plant productivity led to an increase in CO2 uptake that overcame the increase in CH4 emission. Timing of grazing was an important control on both CO2 and CH4 emissions, and net GHG exchange was the result of opposing fluxes of CO2 and CH4. N2O played a negligible role in GHG flux. Advancing the growing season had a smaller effect on GHG emissions than changes to timing of grazing in this study. Our results suggest that a phenological mismatch that delays timing of grazing relative to the growing season, a change which is already developing along in western coastal Alaska, will reduce GHG emissions to the atmosphere through increased CO2 uptake despite greater CH4 emissions.

  13. Phenological synchrony and seasonality of understory Rubiaceae in the Atlantic Forest, Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heitor Scarpati Liuth

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In tropical forests with low seasonality, climatic variables generally exert a weak influence on the phenology of species. The seasonality of phenophases in closely related taxa can be controlled by phylogenetic constraints in such environments. In this study, our aim was to describe the phenology of Rubiaceae in the understory of the Atlantic Forest in the southern part of Bahia, Brazil, as well as to evaluate the seasonality and phenological synchrony of this family. For two years, we observed 90 individuals belonging to 13 species, in an area of 0.2 ha. Leaf flushing and leaf fall did not demonstrate any seasonality, were continuous for most species and correlated with few of the climatic variables. Flowering was seasonal and correlated positively with all climatic variables. Species exhibited seasonality for this phenophase with high flowering overlap among species of Psychotria, indicating an aggregated pattern for this genus. Fruiting was also seasonal and correlated with all the climatic variables, unripe fruit development peaking at the beginning of the season during which humidity is highest and fruit ripening peaking in the season during which humidity is slightly lower. The vegetative and flowering patterns observed in the study area are commonly seen in other tropical forests. The reproductive seasonality of this family can facilitate the attraction of biotic agents, as postulated in the facilitation hypothesis. Our results demonstrate that climatic variables influenced the phenological patterns observed here, although the high reproductive seasonality and interspecific synchrony, especially in congeneric species, raises the possibility that phylogenetic proximity plays a role in the pattern of the family Rubiaceae.

  14. Deleterious role of trace elements - Silica and lead in the development of chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascarenhas, Starlaine; Mutnuri, Srikanth; Ganguly, Anasuya

    2017-06-01

    Chronic-Kidney-Disease of Unknown-etiology (CKDu) has been reported in developing-countries like Sri-Lanka, India and Central-America without sparing the Indian sub-district (namely Canacona) located in south-Goa. The disease etiology is unlinked to common causes of diabetes and hypertension and assumed to be environmentally induced due to its asymptomatic-nature and occurrence in groundwater relying communities. This study aimed to understand environmental risk-factors underlying CKDu-etiology using Indian sub-district (Canacona) as case-study. Biochemical-analysis of CKDu-affected and non-affected individual's blood and detailed hydro-geochemical analyses of CKDu-affected and non-affected region's groundwater (drinking-water)were conducted. Trace geogenic-element-silica was highly dominant in affected-region's groundwater, thus its nephrotoxic-potential was analysed via in-vitro cytotoxicity-assays on human-kidney-cell-lines. All CKDu-affected-subjects showed increased-levels of serum-urea (52.85 mM),creatinine (941.5 μM),uric-acid (1384.5 μM), normal blood-glucose (4.65 mM), being distinct biomarkers of environmentally-induced CKD-'chronic-tubulo-interstitial-nephritis'. Affected-subjects reported high blood-lead levels (1.48 μM)suggesting direct-nephrotoxicity resulting in impaired blood-clearance and also exhibits indirect-nephrotoxicity by disrupting calcium-homeostasis causing skeletal-disorders and prolonged-consumption of NSAID's (pain-alleviation), indirectly causing renal-damage. Affected-region's groundwater was acidic (pH-5.6), resulting in borderline-lead (9.98 μgL -1 ) and high-silica (115.5 mgL -1 )contamination. Silica's bio-availability (determining its nephrotoxicity) was enhanced at groundwater's acidic-pH and Ca-Mg-deficient-composition (since these cations complex with silica reducing bioavailability). Silica exhibited renal-proximal-tubular-cytotoxicity on long-term exposure comparable with affected-region's groundwater silica

  15. Bud burst and flowering phenology in a mixed oak forest from Eastern Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ecaterina Nicoleta Chesnoiu

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Bud burst and flowering phenology have been observed in year 2008 in a natural white oak species complex situated in eastern Romania. A total of 300 mature individuals was mapped and identified based on leaf morphology. The community consists of four oak species: Quercus pedunculiflora, Q. robur, Q. pubescens and Q. petraea. A set of 28 individuals could not be unambiguously classified to one or another species. Data on bud burst showed a normal distribution and the differences among species were small. The "very late" flushing was recorded on 15th of April, three weeks later when compared to early flushing individuals. The time period between the bud burst and the complete development of leaves was nearly the same in all oak species, varying on average, between 18.4 and 20.6 days. The spatial distribution of phenological groups within the complex appears to be non-randomly, because in many parts of the study plot exist groups in which most of the trees belong to the same phenological category. Our results indicate an overlap in flowering time for all oak species which occur in the area. The data support the hypothesis that interspecific gene flow is possible between closely related oak species.

  16. Bud burst and flowering phenology in a mixed oak forest from Eastern Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ecaterina Nicoleta Chesnoiu

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Bud burst and flowering phenology have been observed in year 2008 ina natural white oak species complex situated in eastern Romania. A total of 300 mature individuals was mapped and identified based on leaf morphology. The community consists of four oak species: Quercus pedunculiflora, Q. robur, Q. pubescens and Q. petraea. A set of 28 individuals could not be unambiguously classified to one or another species. Data on bud burst showed a normal distribution and the differences among species were small. The "very late" flushing was recorded on 15th of April, three weeks later when compared to early flushing individuals. The time period between the bud burst and the complete development of leaves was nearly the same in all oak species, varying on average, between 18.4 and 20.6 days. The spatialdistribution of phenological groups within the complex appears to be non-randomly, because in many parts of the study plot exist groups in which most of the trees belong to the same phenological category. Our results indicate an overlap in flowering time for all oak species which occur in the area. The data support the hypothesis that interspecific gene flow is possible between closely related oak species.

  17. Combining satellite derived phenology with climate data for climate change impact assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivits, E.; Cherlet, M.; Tóth, G.; Sommer, S.; Mehl, W.; Vogt, J.; Micale, F.

    2012-05-01

    The projected influence of climate change on the timing and volume of phytomass production is expected to affect a number of ecosystem services. In order to develop coherent and locally effective adaptation and mitigation strategies, spatially explicit information on the observed changes is needed. Long-term variations of the vegetative growing season in different environmental zones of Europe for 1982-2006 have been derived by analysing time series of GIMMS NDVI data. The associations of phenologically homogenous spatial clusters to time series of temperature and precipitation data were evaluated. North-east Europe showed a trend to an earlier and longer growing season, particularly in the northern Baltic areas. Despite the earlier greening up large areas of Europe exhibited rather stable season length indicating the shift of the entire growing season to an earlier period. The northern Mediterranean displayed a growing season shift towards later dates while some agglomerations of earlier and shorter growing season were also seen. The correlation of phenological time series with climate data shows a cause-and-effect relationship over the semi natural areas consistent with results in literature. Managed ecosystems however appear to have heterogeneous change pattern with less or no correlation to climatic trends. Over these areas climatic trends seemed to overlap in a complex manner with more pronounced effects of local biophysical conditions and/or land management practices. Our results underline the importance of satellite derived phenological observations to explain local nonconformities to climatic trends for climate change impact assessment.

  18. Ecophysiological and phenological strategies in seasonally-dry ecosystems: an ecohydrological approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vico, Giulia; Manzoni, Stefano; Thompson, Sally; Molini, Annalisa; Porporato, Amilcare

    2015-04-01

    Seasonally-dry climates are particularly challenging for vegetation, as they are characterized by prolonged dry periods and often marked inter-annual variability. During the dry season plants face predictable physiological stress due to lack of water, whereas the inter-annual variability in rainfall timing and amounts requires plants to develop flexible adaptation strategies. The variety of strategies observed across seasonally-dry (Mediterranean and tropical) ecosystems is indeed wide - ranging from near-isohydric species that adjust stomatal conductance to avoid drought, to anisohydric species that maintain gas exchange during the dry season. A suite of phenological strategies are hypothesized to be associated to ecophysiological strategies. Here we synthetize current knowledge on ecophysiological and phenological adaptations through a comprehensive ecohydrological model linking a soil water balance to a vegetation carbon balance. Climatic regimes are found to select for different phenological strategies that maximize the long-term plant carbon uptake. Inter-annual variability of the duration of the wet season allows coexistence of different drought-deciduous strategies. In contrast, short dry seasons or access to groundwater favour evergreen species. Climatic changes causing more intermittent rainfall and/or shorter wet seasons are predicted to favour drought-deciduous species with opportunistic water use.

  19. Snowmelt Pattern and Lake Ice Phenology around Tibetan Plateau Estimated from Enhanced Resolution Passive Microwave Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, C.; Shi, J.; Wang, T.

    2017-12-01

    Snow and ice is very sensitive to the climate change. Rising air temperature will cause the snowmelt time change. In contrast, the change in snow state will have feedback on climate through snow albedo. The snow melt timing is also correlated with the associated runoff. Ice phenology describes the seasonal cycle of lake ice cover and includes freeze-up and breakup periods and ice cover duration, which is an important weather and climate indicator. It is also important for lake-atmosphere interactions and hydrological and ecological processes. The enhanced resolution (up to 3.125 km) passive microwave data is used to estimate the snowmelt pattern and lake ice phenology on and around Tibetan Plateau. The enhanced resolution makes the estimation of snowmelt and lake ice phenology in more spatial detail compared to previous 25 km gridded passive microwave data. New algorithm based on smooth filters and change point detection was developed to estimate the snowmelt and lake ice freeze-up and break-up timing. Spatial and temporal pattern of snowmelt and lake ice phonology are estimated. This study provides an objective evidence of climate change impact on the cryospheric system on Tibetan Plateau. The results show significant earlier snowmelt and lake ice break-up in some regions.

  20. Energetic Physiology Mediates Individual Optimization of Breeding Phenology in a Migratory Arctic Seabird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennin, Holly L; Bêty, Jöel; Legagneux, Pierre; Gilchrist, H Grant; Williams, Tony D; Love, Oliver P

    2016-10-01

    The influence of variation in individual state on key reproductive decisions impacting fitness is well appreciated in evolutionary ecology. Rowe et al. (1994) developed a condition-dependent individual optimization model predicting that three key factors impact the ability of migratory female birds to individually optimize breeding phenology to maximize fitness in seasonal environments: arrival condition, arrival date, and ability to gain in condition on the breeding grounds. While empirical studies have confirmed that greater arrival body mass and earlier arrival dates result in earlier laying, no study has assessed whether individual variation in energetic management of condition gain effects this key fitness-related decision. Using an 8-year data set from over 350 prebreeding female Arctic common eiders (Somateria mollissima), we tested this component of the model by examining whether individual variation in two physiological traits influencing energetic management (plasma triglycerides: physiological fattening rate; baseline corticosterone: energetic demand) predicted individual variation in breeding phenology after controlling for arrival date and body mass. As predicted by the optimization model, individuals with higher fattening rates and lower energetic demand had the earliest breeding phenology (shortest delays between arrival and laying; earliest laying dates). Our results are the first to empirically determine that individual flexibility in prebreeding energetic management influences key fitness-related reproductive decisions, suggesting that individuals have the capacity to optimally manage reproductive investment.

  1. Effects of heavy-metal-contaminated soil on growth, phenology and biomass turnover of Hieracium piloselloides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryser, Peter; Sauder, Wendy R.

    2006-01-01

    The effects of low levels of heavy metals on plant growth, biomass turnover and reproduction were investigated for Hieracium pilosella. Plants were grown for 12 weeks on substrates with different concentrations of heavy metals obtained by diluting contaminated soils with silica sand. To minimize effects of other soil factors, the substrates were limed, fertilized, and well watered. The more metal-contaminated soil the substrate contained, the lower the leaf production rate and the plant mass were, and the more the phenological development was delayed. Flowering phenology was very sensitive to metals. Leaf life span was reduced at the highest and the lowest metal levels, the latter being a result of advanced seed ripening. Even if the effect of low metal levels on plant growth may be small, the delayed and reduced reproduction may have large effects at population, community and ecosystem level, and contribute to rapid evolution of metal tolerance. - Flowering phenology shows a very sensitive response to heavy metal contamination of soils

  2. SPATIO-TEMPORAL CHANGES OF NET PRIMARY PRODUCTIVITY AND ITS RESPONSE TO PHENOLOGY IN NORTHEAST CHINA DURING 2000–2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Qiu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between net primary productivity (NPP and phenological changes is of great significance to the study of regional ecosystem processes. In this study, firstly, NPP was estimated with the remote sensing model based on the SPOT-VGT NDVI dataset (2000–2015, meteorological data and the vegetation map in Northeast China. Then, using NDVI time series data which was reconstructed by polynomial fitting, phenology was extracted with the dynamic threshold method. Finally, the relationship between NPP and phenology was analyzed. The results showed that NPP mainly increased in the cropland, grassland, forestland and shrubland; however, vegetation NPP decreased in the ecotone among cropland, grassland and forestland. Correlation analysis suggested that the relationships between NPP and phenological metrics (i.e., the start of the growing season (SOS, the end of the growing season (EOS, the length of the growing season (LOS were different due to geographical location. On the whole, there was a positive correlation between NPP and the LOS in the forestland, and negative in the cropland and grassland, indicating that extended LOS can promote the accumulation of forestland NPP. By analyzing the monthly NDVI data during the vigorous growth period, the increase of NPP in the grassland and cropland was mainly due to the better growth from June to August, and shortened LOS did not lead to reduce the NPP. Generally, the response of NPP to phenology in Northeast China were more complex, showing obvious difference of vegetation types and spatial variability, we need to consider topography, community structure and other factors in the further studies.

  3. Spatio-Temporal Changes of Net Primary Productivity and its Response to Phenology in Northeast China during 2000-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Y.; Zhang, L.; Fan, D.

    2018-04-01

    The relationship between net primary productivity (NPP) and phenological changes is of great significance to the study of regional ecosystem processes. In this study, firstly, NPP was estimated with the remote sensing model based on the SPOT-VGT NDVI dataset (2000-2015), meteorological data and the vegetation map in Northeast China. Then, using NDVI time series data which was reconstructed by polynomial fitting, phenology was extracted with the dynamic threshold method. Finally, the relationship between NPP and phenology was analyzed. The results showed that NPP mainly increased in the cropland, grassland, forestland and shrubland; however, vegetation NPP decreased in the ecotone among cropland, grassland and forestland. Correlation analysis suggested that the relationships between NPP and phenological metrics (i.e., the start of the growing season (SOS), the end of the growing season (EOS), the length of the growing season (LOS)) were different due to geographical location. On the whole, there was a positive correlation between NPP and the LOS in the forestland, and negative in the cropland and grassland, indicating that extended LOS can promote the accumulation of forestland NPP. By analyzing the monthly NDVI data during the vigorous growth period, the increase of NPP in the grassland and cropland was mainly due to the better growth from June to August, and shortened LOS did not lead to reduce the NPP. Generally, the response of NPP to phenology in Northeast China were more complex, showing obvious difference of vegetation types and spatial variability, we need to consider topography, community structure and other factors in the further studies.

  4. Engineering design and development of lead lithium loop for thermo-fluid MHD studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, M.; Patel, Anita; Jaiswal, A.; Ranjan, A.; Mohanta, D.; Sahu, S.; Saraswat, A.; Rao, T.S.; Mehta, V.; Bhattacharyay, R.; Rajendra Kumar, E.

    2017-01-01

    In the frame of the design and development of LLCB TBM, number of R and D activities is in progress in the area of Pb-Li technology development. Molten Pb-Li is used as a tritium breeder and also as a coolant for the internals of the TBM structure. In presence of strong plasma confining toroidal magnetic field, motion of electrically conducting Pb-Li leads to Magneto Hydro Dynamic (MHD) phenomena, as a consequence of which the flow profile of Pb-Li is significantly modified inside the Pb-Li channels of TBM. This causes additional pressure drop inside TBM and affects the heat transfer from internal structure. The detail studies of these MHD effects are of prime importance for successful design of LLCB TBM and its performance evaluation. Although, various numerical MHD codes have been developed, validated in simple flow configuration and are being used to study MHD phenomena in LLCB TBM, experimental validation of these codes in TBM relevant complex flow geometry is yet to be performed. A Pb-Li MHD experimental loop is, therefore, being developed at IPR to perform thermo-fluid MHD experiments in various LLCB TBM relevant flow configuration. MHD experiments are planned with different test sections instrumented with potential pins, thermo couples, etc. under a uniform magnetic field of ∼1.4 T. The obtained experimental data will be analyzed to understand the MHD phenomena in TBM like flow configuration and also for validation of MHD codes. This paper describes the detailed process as well as engineering design of the Pb-Li MHD loop and its major components along with the plan of MHD experiments in various test mock ups. (author)

  5. Development of a Leading Performance Indicator from Operational Experience and Resilience in a Nuclear Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela F. Nelson

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The development of operational performance indicators is of utmost importance for nuclear power plants, since they measure, track, and trend plant operation. Leading indicators are ideal for reducing the likelihood of consequential events. This paper describes the operational data analysis of the information contained in the Corrective Action Program. The methodology considers human error and organizational factors because of their large contribution to consequential events. The results include a tool developed from the data to be used for the identification, prediction, and reduction of the likelihood of significant consequential events. This tool is based on the resilience curve that was built from the plant's operational data. The stress is described by the number of unresolved condition reports. The strain is represented by the number of preventive maintenance tasks and other periodic work activities (i.e., baseline activities, as well as, closing open corrective actions assigned to different departments to resolve the condition reports (i.e., corrective action workload. Beyond the identified resilience threshold, the stress exceeds the station's ability to operate successfully and there is an increased likelihood that a consequential event will occur. A performance indicator is proposed to reduce the likelihood of consequential events at nuclear power plants.

  6. Does China and Africa South-South cooperation lead to economic development in Africa?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nonfodji, P.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Since a few decades now Chinese enterprises’ investments abroad have seen a continuous and steady ascension. At first cautious and just across the Chinese national borders, these investments, slowly but surely, spread like a sheet of water that seeps into the heart of each continent on the globe. This global infiltration of Chinese companies coincides with the popularity in the use of the expression “South-South Cooperation” to characterize a type of relations between countries categorized as being “developing”. Accordingly this paper seeks to examine the role of the use of this concept as a “channel to achieve common development” in the context of Chinese enterprises’ outward direct investments in Africa adopting insights from international business production theories combined with an historical analysis of the notion of South-South Cooperation. Drawing on primary data gathered during my fieldwork in China in the period stretching from December 2011 to February 2012 and secondary data sources, it is argued that these Chinese investments supported by the Chinese government rhetoric on South-South cooperation, cannot lead to significant economic development in Africa like it has happened in China in the eighties. Rather and at most Chinese investments in Africa show some “trickle-down” effects characterised by very limited economic development in scattered localities throughout the African continent.

  7. Development of a stress sensor based on the piezoelectric lead zirconate titanate for impact stress measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yiming; Xu, Bin; Li, Lifei; Li, Bing

    2012-04-01

    The measurement of stress of concrete structures under impact loading and other strong dynamic loadings is crucial for the monitoring of health and damage detection. Due to its main advantages including availability, extremely high rigidity, high natural frequency, wide measuring range, high stability, high reproducibility, high linearity and wide operating temperature range, piezoelectric (Lead Zirconate Titanate, PZT) ceramic materials has been a widely used smart material for both sensing and actuation for monitoring and control in engineering structures. In this paper, a kind of stress sensor based on piezoelectric ceramics for impact stress measuring of concrete structures is developed. Because the PZT is fragile, in order to employ it for the health monitoring of concrete structures, special handling and treatment should be taken to protect the PZT and to make it survive and work properly in concrete. The commercially available PZT patch with lead wires is first applied with an insulation coating to prevent water and moisture damage, and then is packaged by jacketing it by two small precasted cylinder concrete blocks with enough strength to form a smart aggregate (SA). The employed PZT patch has a dimension of 10mm x 10mm x 0.3mm. In order to calibrate the PZT based stress sensor for impact stress measuring, a dropping hammer was designed and calibration test on the sensitivity of the proposed transducer was carried out with an industry charge amplifier. The voltage output of the stress sensor and the impact force under different free falling heights and impact mass were recorded with a high sampling rate data acquisition system. Based on the test measurements, the sensibility of the PZT based stress sensor was determined. Results show that the output of the PZT based stress sensor is proportional to the stress level and the repeatability of the measurement is very good. The self-made piezoelectric stress sensor can be easily embedded in concrete and provide

  8. Population dynamics and flight phenology model of codling moth differ between commercial and abandoned apple orchard ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelendra K Joshi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Apple orchard management practices may affect development and phenology of arthropod pests, such as the codling moth (CM, Cydia pomonella (L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae, which is a serious internal fruit-feeding pest of apples worldwide. Estimating population dynamics and accurately predicting the timing of CM development and phenology events (for instance, adult flight and egg-hatch allows growers to understand and control local populations of CM. Studies were conducted to compare the CM flight phenology in commercial and abandoned apple orchard ecosystems using a logistic function model based on degree-days accumulation. The flight models for these orchards were derived from the cumulative percent moth capture using two types of commercially available CM lure baited traps. Models from both types of orchards were also compared to another model known as PETE (prediction extension timing estimator that was developed in 1970s to predict life cycle events for many fruit pests including CM across different fruit growing regions of the United States. We found that the flight phenology of CM was significantly different in commercial and abandoned orchards. CM male flight patterns for first and second generations as predicted by the constrained and unconstrained PCM (Pennsylvania Codling Moth models in commercial and abandoned orchards were different than the flight patterns predicted by the currently used CM model (i.e.,1970’s model. In commercial orchards, during the first and second generations, the PCM unconstrained model predicted delays in moth emergence compared to current model. In addition, the flight patterns of females were different between commercial and abandoned orchards. Such differences in CM flight phenology between commercial and abandoned orchard ecosystems suggest potential impact of orchard environment and crop management practices on CM biology.

  9. Effects of Environmental Temperature on Capnodis tenebrionis Adult Phenology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmelo Peter Bonsignore

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The phenology of Capnodis tenebrionis adults was presented with reference to two different climate conditions. In a temperate moderate-warm climate, adult density showed two separate peaks during the year: one in early summer of the overwintering generation and one with beetles emerging in the late summer. In a warmer semiarid climate, the overwintering adults and the new generation overlapped during summer with a continuous increase of adult density. The difference in the average annual temperature between areas during the study period was almost 3∘C, and, in the warmer area, the new generation of C. tenebrionis emerged at least one month earlier. To make a prediction of adult presence, a model utilizing degree-days was developed from data collected over a five-year period. Models obtained from equations (Logistic 4-parameter, y(x=yo+a/(1+(x/xob of each year were developed to describe the relationship between degree-day accumulation (with a minimal threshold activity temperature of 14.21∘C calculated in the laboratory and the cumulative percentage of adult presence. According to the overall model, the 50% of overwintering beetles occurred at 726 degree-days (Biofix: 1st March and the emerging beetles occurred at 801 degree-days (Biofix: 1st July. The results show that a change in temperature is an important aspect that highlights the adaptability of this species.

  10. Spring Bird Migration Phenology in Eilat, Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reuven Yosef

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of the mean date of first captures and median arrival dates of spring migration for 34 species of birds at Eilat, Israel, revealed that the earlier a species migrates through Eilat, the greater is the inter-annual variation in the total time of its passage. Birds arrive during spring migration in Eilat in four structured and independent waves. The annual fluctuation in the initial arrival dates (initial capture dates and median dates (median date of all captures, not including recaptures, did not depend on the length of the migratory route. This implies that migrants crossing the Sahara desert depart from their winter quarters on different Julian days in different years. We suggest that negative correlations between the median date of the spring migration of early and late migrants depends upon the easterly (Hamsin wind period. Moreover, we believe that the phenology of all birds during spring migration in Eilat is possibly also determined by external factors such as weather conditions on the African continent or global climatic processes in the Northern hemisphere. Orphean Warblers (Sylvia hortensis show a strong positive correlation (rs=-0.502 of initial capture date with calendar years, whereas other species such as Barred Warbler (S. nisoria; rs = -0.391 and Spotted Flycatcher (Muscicapa striata; rs = -0.398 display an insignificant trend. The Dead Sea Sparrow (Passer moabiticus and Red-Backed Shrike (Lanius collurio are positively correlated regarding initial arrival date and medians of spring migration.

  11. Potential and limitations of using digital repeat photography to track structural and physiological phenology in Mediterranean tree-grass ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yunpeng; EI-Madany, Tarek; Filippa, Gianluca; Carrara, Arnaud; Cremonese, Edoardo; Galvagno, Marta; Hammer, Tiana; Pérez-Priego, Oscar; Reichstein, Markus; Martín Isabel, Pilar; González Cascón, Rosario; Migliavacca, Mirco

    2017-04-01

    Tree-Grass ecosystems are global widely distributed (16-35% of the land surface). However, its phenology (especially in water-limited areas) has not yet been well characterized and modeled. By using commercial digital cameras, continuous and relatively vast phenology data becomes available, which provides a good opportunity to monitor and develop a robust method used to extract the important phenological events (phenophases). Here we aimed to assess the usability of digital repeat photography for three Tree-Grass Mediterranean ecosystems over two different growing seasons (Majadas del Tietar, Spain) to extract critical phenophases for grass and evergreen broadleaved trees (autumn regreening of grass- Start of growing season; resprouting of tree leaves; senescence of grass - End of growing season), assess their uncertainty, and to correlate them with physiological phenology (i.e. phenology of ecosystem scale fluxes such as Gross Primary Productivity, GPP). We extracted green chromatic coordinates (GCC) and camera based normalized difference vegetation index (Camera-NDVI) from an infrared enabled digital camera using the "Phenopix" R package. Then we developed a novel method to retrieve important phenophases from GCC and Camera-NDVI from various region of interests (ROIs) of the imagery (tree areas, grass, and both - ecosystem) as well as from GPP, which was derived from Eddy Covariance tower in the same experimental site. The results show that, at ecosystem level, phenophases derived from GCC and Camera-NDVI are strongly correlated (R2 = 0.979). Remarkably, we observed that at the end of growing season phenophases derived from GCC were systematically advanced (ca. 8 days) than phenophase from Camera-NDVI. By using the radiative transfer model Soil Canopy Observation Photochemistry and Energy (SCOPE) we demonstrated that this delay is related to the different sensitivity of GCC and NDVI to the fraction of green/dry grass in the canopy, resulting in a systematic

  12. Develop techniques for ion implantation of PLZT [lead-lanthanum-zirconate-titanate] for adaptive optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batishko, C.R.; Brimhall, J.L.; Pawlewicz, W.T.; Stahl, K.A.; Toburen, L.H.

    1987-09-01

    Research was conducted at Pacific Northwest Laboratory to develop high photosensitivity adaptive optical elements utilizing ion implanted lanthanum-doped lead-zirconate-titanate (PLZT). One centimeter square samples were prepared by implanting ferroelectric and anti-ferroelectric PLZT with a variety of species or combinations of species. These included Ne, O, Ni, Ne/Cr, Ne/Al, Ne/Ni, Ne/O, and Ni/O, at a variety of energies and fluences. An indium-tin oxide (ITO) electrode coating was designed to give a balance of high conductivity and optical transmission at near uv to near ir wavelengths. Samples were characterized for photosensitivity; implanted layer thickness, index of refraction, and density; electrode (ITO) conductivity; and in some cases, residual stress curvature. Thin film anti-ferroelectric PLZT was deposited in a preliminary experiment. The structure was amorphous with x-ray diffraction showing the beginnings of a structure at substrate temperatures of approximately 550 0 C. This report summarizes the research and provides a sampling of the data taken during the report period

  13. Development of a Flexible Lead-Free Piezoelectric Transducer for Health Monitoring in the Space Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Laurenti

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work we report on the fabrication process for the development of a flexible piezopolymeric transducer for health monitoring applications, based on lead-free, piezoelectric zinc oxide (ZnO thin films. All the selected materials are compatible with the space environment and were deposited by the RF magnetron sputtering technique at room temperature, in view of preserving the total flexibility of the structures, which is an important requirement to guarantee coupling with cylindrical fuel tanks whose integrity we want to monitor. The overall transducer architecture was made of a c-axis-oriented ZnO thin film coupled to a pair of flexible Polyimide foils coated with gold (Au electrodes. The fabrication process started with the deposition of the bottom electrode on Polyimide foils. The ZnO thin film and the top electrode were then deposited onto the Au/Polyimide substrates. Both the electrodes and ZnO layer were properly patterned by wet-chemical etching and optical lithography. The assembly of the final structure was then obtained by gluing the upper and lower Polyimide foils with an epoxy resin capable of guaranteeing low outgassing levels, as well as adequate thermal and electrical insulation of the transducers. The piezoelectric behavior of the prototypes was confirmed and evaluated by measuring the mechanical displacement induced from the application of an external voltage.

  14. PHENOALP: a new project on phenology in the Western Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremonese, E.

    2009-04-01

    PHENOALP is a new EU co-funded Interreg Project under the operational programme for cross-border cooperation "Italy-France (Alps-ALCOTRA)" 2007 - 2013, aiming to get a better understanding of phenological changes in the Alps. The major goals of the project are: 1- The implementation of an observation network in the involved territories (i.e. the Aosta Valley and the Savoies in the Western Alps); 2- The definition of a common observation strategy and common protocols; 3- The involvement of local community members (e.g. through schools) in the observation activities as a way to increase the awareness on the issue of the effects of climate change. Project leader is the Environmental Protection Agency of Aosta Valley (ARPA Valle d'Aosta - IT) and the partners are the Research Center on High Altitude Ecosystem (CREA - FR), Mont Avic Regional Parc (IT), Bauges Massif Regional Natural Parc (FR) and the Protected Area Service of Aosta Valley (IT). Project activities are: 1. Pheno-plantes: definition of common observation protocols (e.g. field observation and webcams) of different alpine species (trees and herbaceous) and implementation of the observation network; analysis of the relations between climate and phenological events; application and evaluation of phenological models. 2. Pheno-detection: remote sensing of European larch and high elevation pastures with MODIS data; multitemporal analysis (2000-2011) of phenological variations in the Western Alps. 3. Pheno-flux: analysis of the relation between the seasonal and interannual variability of plant phenology and productivity, assessed measuring CO2 fluxes (eddy-covariance technique), radiometric indexes and phenological events at specific (European larch stand and alpine pastures) monitoring site. 4. Pheno-zoo: definition of common observation protocols for the phenology of animal taxa (birds, mammals, amphibians and insects) along altitudinal gradients; implementation of the observation network. 5. Inter

  15. Knowledge and Professional Development for Principals Leading Linguistic Communities in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal-Butler, Stacey Lynn

    2017-01-01

    The role of the school principal is demanding in a variety of ways. School principals are faced with the daily challenge of balancing their roles of site manager and instructional leader. This study examined and identified the knowledge and learning opportunities school principals rely upon to lead schools, particularly those that lead schools…

  16. Trends and Variability in Temperature Sensitivity of Lilac Flowering Phenology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huanjiong; Dai, Junhu; Rutishauser, This; Gonsamo, Alemu; Wu, Chaoyang; Ge, Quansheng

    2018-03-01

    The responses of plant phenology to temperature variability have many consequences for ecological processes, agriculture, forestry, and human health. Temperature sensitivity (ST) of phenology could measure how and to what degree plant could phenologically track climate change. The long-term trends and spatial patterns in ST have been well studied for vegetative phenology such as leaf unfolding, but trends to be expected for reproductive phenology in the future remain unknown. Here we investigate trends and factors driving the temporal variation of ST of first bloom date (FBD). Using the long-term FBD records during 1963-2013 for common lilac (Syringa vulgaris) from 613 stations in Europe, we compared changes in ST from the beginning to the end of the study period. The Spearman partial correlations were used to assess the importance of four influencing factors. The results showed that the temporal changes in ST of FBD varied considerably among time scales. Mean ST decreased significantly by 0.92 days °C-1 from 1963-1972 to 2004-2013 (P plant species in other climates and environments using similar methods to our study.

  17. Engage the Public in Phenology Monitoring: Lessons Learned from the USA National Phenology Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crimmins, T. M.; Lebuhn, G.; Miller-Rushing, A. J.

    2009-12-01

    The USA National Phenology Network (USA-NPN) is a recently established network that brings together citizen scientists, government agencies, non-profit groups, educators and students of all ages to monitor the impacts of climate change on plants and animals in the United States. Though a handful of observers participated in the USA-NPN monitoring program in 2008, 2009 was the first truly operational year for the program. With a goal of 100,000 observers for this nationwide effort, we are working to engage participants both directly and through established organizations and agencies. The first year of operational monitoring and program advertisement has yielded many insights that are shaping how we move forward. In this presentation, we will highlight some of our most prominent “lessons learned” from our experience engaging participants, mainly through partnerships with organizations and agencies. One successful partnership that the USA-NPN established in 2009 was with the Great Sunflower Project, a citizen science effort focused on tracking bee activity. By piggy-backing on this established program, we were able to invite tens of thousands of self-selected individuals to learn about plant phenology and to contribute to the program. A benefit to the Great Sunflower Project was that monitoring phenology of their sunflowers gave observers something to do while waiting for the plant to attract bees. Observers’ experiences, data, and comments from the 2009 season are yielding insights into how this partnership can be strengthened and USA-NPN and GSP goals can more effectively be met. A second partnership initiated in 2009 was with the US National Park Service (NPS). Partnering with federal and state agencies offers great opportunities for data collection and education. In return, agencies stand to gain information that can directly influence management decisions. However, such efforts necessitate careful planning and execution. Together the USA-NPN and NPS drafted

  18. Development and performance test results of 50 kA vapor-cooled current lead for ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugimoto, Makoto; Isono, Takaaki; Hamada, Kazuya

    1998-01-01

    JAERI has developed 50 kA current leads for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). The Center Solenoid (CS) Model Coil program is under way by means of international collaboration in ITER-EDA. The CS model coil is being developed for ITER CS coil and is for demonstration for ITER construction. The performance test of the CS model coil will be carried out at the JAERI ITER common test facility (CTF). The current lead consists of the vertical lead and the connection lead. The vertical lead is a vapor-cooled type and has a cable-in-conduit geometry. The vertical lead was designed with a heat leak of 1.2 W/kA at a helium flow rate of 0.06 g/(s·kA). The measured heat leak satisfied the designed value. The connection lead was made from copper pipe soldered with NbTi superconducting wires. The pipe was stabilized by the superconducting wires and a cooling channel. The current lead was operated up to 60 kA. The design and the performance test results of 50 kA current leads are reported. The results meet the specifications for the CS model coil test and for the ITER real machine. (author)

  19. Development of Streamwise Counter-Rotating Vortices in Flat Plate Boundary Layer Pre-set by Leading Edge Patterns

    KAUST Repository

    Hasheminejad, S.M.; Mitsudharmadi, Hatsari; Winoto, S.H.; Low, H.T.; Lua, K.B.

    2017-01-01

    Development of streamwise counter-rotating vortices induced by leading edge patterns with different pattern shape is investigated using hot-wire anemometry in the boundary layer of a flat plate. A triangular, sinusoidal and notched patterns

  20. Bioprotective effect of zinc in macro- and nanoaquachelate form on embryonal development of rats in conditions of lead intoxication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beletskaya E.M.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents results of studied influence of low doses of lead and zinc (nanozinc on embryonal development in a la¬boratory experiment on rats. Negative influence of lead on pregnancy of laboratory animals, manifested in violation of the physiological dynamics of the rectal temperature and decrease in body weight gain was revealed. Embryotoxic effect of low doses of lead results in increased fetal mortality by 2.16 times compared to the control group of animals, de¬terioration of the morphometric indices of fetuses, violation of placentogenesis. Simultaneous injections of zinc on back¬ground of lead intoxication causes a protective effect on the body of pregnant rats and embryonal development of the offspring, more pronounced for zinc citrate, received by using aquananotehnology, as compared to zinc chloride. Thus, by morphometry indices, male fetuses were more sensitive to prenatal lead exposure in comparison to female fetuses.

  1. Effects of the urban heat island on the phenology of Odonata in London, UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalobos-Jiménez, Giovanna; Hassall, Christopher

    2017-07-01

    Urbanisation is one of the major drivers of ecosystem change and includes increased temperatures in cities leading to an urban heat island (UHI). This study quantified the phenological response of odonates across London, UK, from 1990 to 2012, using a database of 1,031,277 historical sightings. The ordinal flight dates of each species were used to calculate the leading edge, middle and trailing edge of the flight period (P5, P50 and P95, respectively). The results suggest that the phenology of odonates is affected by the UHI only at a community level: no significant changes in the P5 or P50 of the flight period were found, although the P95 shows a mean advance of 4.13 days compared to rural areas, thus suggesting a contraction of the flight period in urban areas. However, only one individual species ( Sympetrum striolatum) exhibited an advance in the P95 of the flight period in urban areas compared to rural areas. On the other hand, climate change (minimum temperature) had a much stronger impact on the phenology of odonates at the community level with a significant advance of 6.9 days °C-1 in the P5 of the flight period, 3.1 days °C-1 in the P50 and 3.3 days °C-1 in the P95 flight date. Similarly, a significant advance in P5 was found in 7 of the 15 species tested in response to minimum temperature, and 2 species showed a significant advance in P50 in response to minimum temperature, but no species showed a shift in the P95 flight date due to minimum temperature. As shown in previous studies, life history influences the phenological response of odonates, with spring species and those species lacking an egg diapause being the most responsive to increased temperatures, although summer species and species with obligate egg diapause also respond to the UHI by advancing the P95 by 3.8 and 4.5 days, respectively, compared to rural areas, thus contracting the flight period. The present study shows that the UHI has negligible impacts on emergence patterns of odonates

  2. Topography-mediated controls on local vegetation phenology estimated from MODIS vegetation index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taehee Hwang; Conghe Song; James Vose; Lawrence Band

    2011-01-01

    Forest canopy phenology is an important constraint on annual water and carbon budgets, and responds to regional interannual climate variation. In steep terrain, there are complex spatial variations in phenology due to topographic influences on microclimate, community composition, and available soil moisture. In this study, we investigate spatial patterns of phenology...

  3. Connecting phenological predictions with population growth rates for mountain pine beetle, an outbreak insect

    Science.gov (United States)

    James A. Powell; Barbara J. Bentz

    2009-01-01

    It is expected that a significant impact of global warming will be disruption of phenology as environmental cues become disassociated from their selective impacts. However there are few, if any, models directly connecting phenology with population growth rates. In this paper we discuss connecting a distributional model describing mountain pine beetle phenology with a...

  4. Predicting adaptation of phenology in response to climate change, an insect herbivore example

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Asch, M.; van Tienderen, P.H.; Holleman, L.J.M.; Visser, M.E.

    2007-01-01

    Climate change has led to an advance in phenology in many species. Synchrony in phenology between different species within a food chain may be disrupted if an increase in temperature affects the phenology of the different species differently, as is the case in the winter moth egg hatch–oak bud burst

  5. Predicting adaptation of phenology in response to climate change, an insect herbivore example

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Asch, M.; van Tienderen, P.H.; Holleman, L.J.M.; Visser, M.E.

    2007-01-01

    Climate change has led to an advance in phenology in many species. Synchrony in phenology between different species within a food chain may be disrupted if an increase in temperature affects the phenology of the different species differently, as is the case in the winter moth egg hatch - oak bud

  6. CO2, Temperature, and Soil Moisture Interactions Affect NDVI and Reproductive Phenology in Old-Field Plant Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, C.; Weltzin, J.; Norby, R.

    2004-12-01

    Plant community composition and ecosystem function may be altered by global atmospheric and climate change, including increased atmospheric [CO2], temperature, and varying precipitation regimes. We are conducting an experiment at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) utilizing open-top chambers to administer experimental treatments of elevated CO2 (+300 ppm), warming (+ 3 degrees Celsius), and varying soil moisture availability to experimental plant communities constructed of seven common old-field species, including C3 and C4 grasses, forbs, and legumes. During 2004 we monitored plant community phenology (NDVI) and plant reproductive phenology. Early in the year, NDVI was greater in wet treatment plots, and was unaffected by main effects of temperature or CO2. This result suggests that early in the season warming is insufficient to affect early canopy development. Differences in soil moisture sustained throughout the winter and into early spring may constitute an important control on early canopy greenup. Elevated CO2 alleviated detrimental effects of warming on NDVI, but only early in the season. As ambient temperatures increased, elevated temperatures negatively impacted NDVI only in the dry plots. Wetter conditions ameliorate the effects of warming on canopy greenness during the warmer seasons of the year. Warming increased rates of bolting, number of inflorescences, and time to reproductive maturity for Andropogon virginicus (a C4 bunchgrass). Solidago Canadensis (a C3 late-season forb) also produced flowers earlier in elevated temperatures. Conversely, none of the C3 grasses and forbs that bolt or flower in late spring or early summer responded to temperature or CO2. Results indicate that warming and drought may impact plant community phenology, and plant species reproductive phenology. Clearly community phenology is driven by complex interactions among temperature, water, and CO2 that change throughout the season. Our data stresses the importance of

  7. Modeling the Effects of the Urban Built-Up Environment on Plant Phenology Using Fused Satellite Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman Gervais

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the effects that the Urban Heat Island (UHI has on plant phenology is important in predicting ecological impacts of expanding cities and the impacts of the projected global warming. However, the underlying methods to monitor phenological events often limit this understanding. Generally, one can either have a small sample of in situ measurements or use satellite data to observe large areas of land surface phenology (LSP. In the latter, a tradeoff exists among platforms with some allowing better temporal resolution to pick up discrete events and others possessing the spatial resolution appropriate for observing heterogeneous landscapes, such as urban areas. To overcome these limitations, we applied the Spatial and Temporal Adaptive Reflectance Model (STARFM to fuse Landsat surface reflectance and MODIS nadir BRDF-adjusted reflectance (NBAR data with three separate selection conditions for input data across two versions of the software. From the fused images, we derived a time-series of high temporal and high spatial resolution synthetic Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI imagery to identify the dates of the start of the growing season (SOS, end of the season (EOS, and the length of the season (LOS. The results were compared between the urban and exurban developed areas within the vicinity of Ogden, UT and across all three data scenarios. The results generally show an earlier urban SOS, later urban EOS, and longer urban LOS, with variation across the results suggesting that phenological parameters are sensitive to input changes. Although there was strong evidence that STARFM has the potential to produce images capable of capturing the UHI effect on phenology, we recommend that future work refine the proposed methods and compare the results against ground events.

  8. Vegetative and reproductive phenological patterns in coastal dunes in S Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez-Gallego, Carmen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The phenology of Mediterranean plant species has been extensively studied in different types of ecosystems. However, very little research has been conducted on dune ecosystems. The aim of this research is the phenological characterization and comparison among phenological patterns in three coastal dunes areas in S Spain. For this purpose, we apply the methodology proposed by Orshan (1989 and NLPCA phenological indexes. Our results show that seasonality of species from coastal dunes in S Spain follows the pattern observed in dry and warm Mediterranean ecosystems. The maximum phenological activity occurs for a period of 7-9 months, mainly in spring and late winter, whereas summer is clearly the most inactive period of the year. Vegetative phenophases predominate over the reproductive. Flowering is mainly early (March-May, but it may extend to summer. Flowering duration has been identified as a key index in the differentiation among coastal dunes with different conditions of Mediterranean macroclimate, whereas the importance of the phenophase sequence index has been shown in order to discriminate sectors within dunes. Using the NLPCA analysis based on phenological indexes, four phenological groups of species have been determined. From a conservation perspective, the identification of these groups point out the utility of developing different strategies of management according to the high diversity of eco- and phenomorphological variability that characterize the coastal dunes.La fenología de las especies vegetales mediterráneas ha sido ampliamente estudiada en diferentes tipos de ecosistemas. Sin embargo, es poco lo que se conoce sobre fenología de dunas costeras. El objetivo del presente trabajo es la caracterización y comparación de patrones fenológicos en tres áreas de dunas costeras del Sur de España. Para ello, se ha aplicado la metodología propuesta por Orshan (1989 así como índices fenológicos NLPCA. Nuestros resultados muestran

  9. Response of alpine vegetation growth dynamics to snow cover phenology on the Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X.; Wu, C.

    2017-12-01

    Alpine vegetation plays a crucial role in global energy cycles with snow cover, an essential component of alpine land cover showing high sensitivity to climate change. The Tibetan Plateau (TP) has a typical alpine vegetation ecosystem and is rich of snow resources. With global warming, the snow of the TP has undergone significant changes that will inevitably affect the growth of alpine vegetation, but observed evidence of such interaction is limited. In particular, a comprehensive understanding of the responses of alpine vegetation growth to snow cover variability is still not well characterized on TP region. To investigate this, we calculated three indicators, the start (SOS) and length (LOS) of growing season, and the maximum of normalized difference vegetation index (NDVImax) as proxies of vegetation growth dynamics from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data for 2000-2015. Snow cover duration (SCD) and melt (SCM) dates were also extracted during the same time frame from the combination of MODIS and the Interactive Multi-sensor Snow and Ice Mapping System (IMS) data. We found that the snow cover phenology had a strong control on alpine vegetation growth dynamics. Furthermore, the responses of SOS, LOS and NDVImax to snow cover phenology varied among plant functional types, eco-geographical zones, and temperature and precipitation gradients. The alpine steppes showed a much stronger negative correlation between SOS and SCD, and also a more evidently positive relationship between LOS and SCD than other types, indicating a longer SCD would lead to an earlier SOS and longer LOS. Most areas showed positive correlation between SOS and SCM, while a contrary response was also found in the warm but drier areas. Both SCD and SCM showed positive correlations with NDVImax, but the relationship became weaker with the increase of precipitation. Our findings provided strong evidences between vegetation growth and snow cover phenology, and changes in

  10. Projecting the impact of climate change on phenology of winter wheat in northern Lithuania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juknys, Romualdas; Velička, Rimantas; Kanapickas, Arvydas; Kriaučiūnienė, Zita; Masilionytė, Laura; Vagusevičienė, Ilona; Pupalienė, Rita; Klepeckas, Martynas; Sujetovienė, Gintarė

    2017-10-01

    Climate warming and a shift in the timing of phenological phases, which lead to changes in the duration of the vegetation period may have an essential impact on the productivity of winter crops. The main purpose of this study is to examine climate change-related long-term (1961-2015) changes in the duration of both initial (pre-winter) and main (post-winter) winter wheat vegetation seasons and to present the projection of future phenological changes until the end of this century. Delay and shortening of pre-winter vegetation period, as well as the advancement and slight extension of the post-winter vegetation period, resulted in the reduction of whole winter wheat vegetation period by more than 1 week over the investigated 55 years. Projected changes in the timing of phenological phases which define limits of a main vegetation period differ essentially from the observed period. According to pessimistic (Representative Concentration Pathways 8.5) scenario, the advancement of winter wheat maturity phase by almost 30 days and the shortening of post-winter vegetation season by 15 days are foreseen for a far (2071-2100) projection. An increase in the available chilling amount is specific not only to the investigated historical period (1960-2015) but also to the projected period according to the climate change scenarios of climate warming for all three projection periods. Consequently, the projected climate warming does not pose a threat of plant vernalization shortage in the investigated geographical latitudes.

  11. Modelling climate change impacts on viticultural yield, phenology and stress conditions in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraga, Helder; García de Cortázar Atauri, Iñaki; Malheiro, Aureliano C; Santos, João A

    2016-11-01

    Viticulture is a key socio-economic sector in Europe. Owing to the strong sensitivity of grapevines to atmospheric factors, climate change may represent an important challenge for this sector. This study analyses viticultural suitability, yield, phenology, and water and nitrogen stress indices in Europe, for present climates (1980-2005) and future (2041-2070) climate change scenarios (RCP4.5 and 8.5). The STICS crop model is coupled with climate, soil and terrain databases, also taking into account CO 2 physiological effects, and simulations are validated against observational data sets. A clear agreement between simulated and observed phenology, leaf area index, yield and water and nitrogen stress indices, including the spatial differences throughout Europe, is shown. The projected changes highlight an extension of the climatic suitability for grapevines up to 55°N, which may represent the emergence of new winemaking regions. Despite strong regional heterogeneity, mean phenological timings (budburst, flowering, veraison and harvest) are projected to undergo significant advancements (e.g. budburst/harvest can be >1 month earlier), with implications also in the corresponding phenophase intervals. Enhanced dryness throughout Europe is also projected, with severe water stress over several regions in southern regions (e.g. southern Iberia and Italy), locally reducing yield and leaf area. Increased atmospheric CO 2 partially offsets dryness effects, promoting yield and leaf area index increases in central/northern Europe. Future biomass changes may lead to modifications in nitrogen demands, with higher stress in northern/central Europe and weaker stress in southern Europe. These findings are critical decision support systems for stakeholders from the European winemaking sector. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. European larch phenology in the Alps: can we grasp the role of ecological factors by combining field observations and inverse modelling?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migliavacca, M.; Cremonese, E.; Colombo, R.; Busetto, L.; Galvagno, M.; Ganis, L.; Meroni, M.; Pari, E.; Rossini, M.; Siniscalco, C.; Morra di Cella, U.

    2008-09-01

    Vegetation phenology is strongly influenced by climatic factors. Climate changes may cause phenological variations, especially in the Alps which are considered to be extremely vulnerable to global warming. The main goal of our study is to analyze European larch ( Larix decidua Mill.) phenology in alpine environments and the role of the ecological factors involved, using an integrated approach based on accurate field observations and modelling techniques. We present 2 years of field-collected larch phenological data, obtained following a specifically designed observation protocol. We observed that both spring and autumn larch phenology is strongly influenced by altitude. We propose an approach for the optimization of a spring warming model (SW) and the growing season index model (GSI) consisting of a model inversion technique, based on simulated look-up tables (LUTs), that provides robust parameter estimates. The optimized models showed excellent agreement between modelled and observed data: the SW model predicts the beginning of the growing season (BGS) with a mean RMSE of 4 days, while GSI gives a prediction of the growing season length (LGS) with a RMSE of 5 days. Moreover, we showed that the original GSI parameters led to consistent errors, while the optimized ones significantly increased model accuracy. Finally, we used GSI to investigate interactions of ecological factors during springtime development and autumn senescence. We found that temperature is the most effective factor during spring recovery while photoperiod plays an important role during autumn senescence: photoperiod shows a contrasting effect with altitude decreasing its influence with increasing altitude.

  13. Development and testing of an algorithm to detect implantable cardioverter-defibrillator lead failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunderson, Bruce D; Gillberg, Jeffrey M; Wood, Mark A; Vijayaraman, Pugazhendhi; Shepard, Richard K; Ellenbogen, Kenneth A

    2006-02-01

    Implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) lead failures often present as inappropriate shock therapy. An algorithm that can reliably discriminate between ventricular tachyarrhythmias and noise due to lead failure may prevent patient discomfort and anxiety and avoid device-induced proarrhythmia by preventing inappropriate ICD shocks. The goal of this analysis was to test an ICD tachycardia detection algorithm that differentiates noise due to lead failure from ventricular tachyarrhythmias. We tested an algorithm that uses a measure of the ventricular intracardiac electrogram baseline to discriminate the sinus rhythm isoelectric line from the right ventricular coil-can (i.e., far-field) electrogram during oversensing of noise caused by a lead failure. The baseline measure was defined as the product of the sum (mV) and standard deviation (mV) of the voltage samples for a 188-ms window centered on each sensed electrogram. If the minimum baseline measure of the last 12 beats was algorithm to detect lead failures. The minimum baseline measure for the 24 lead failure episodes (0.28 +/- 0.34 mV-mV) was smaller than the 135 ventricular tachycardia (40.8 +/- 43.0 mV-mV, P <.0001) and 55 ventricular fibrillation episodes (19.1 +/- 22.8 mV-mV, P <.05). A minimum baseline <0.35 mV-mV threshold had a sensitivity of 83% (20/24) with a 100% (190/190) specificity. A baseline measure of the far-field electrogram had a high sensitivity and specificity to detect lead failure noise compared with ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation.

  14. An overview of the development of lead/acid traction batteries for electric vehicles in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivaramaiah, G.; Subramanian, V. R.

    Electric vehicles (EVs) made an entry into the Indian scene quite recently in the area of passenger transportation, milk floats and other similar applications. The industrial EV market, with various models of fork-lift trucks and platform trucks already in wide use all over India, is a better understood application of EV batteries. The lead/acid traction batteries available in India are not of high-energy density. The best available indigenous lead/acid traction battery has an energy density ( C/5 rate) of 30 W h kg -1 as against 39 W h kg -1 available abroad. This paper reviews the developmental efforts relating to lead/acid traction batteries for electric vehicle applications in India, such as prototype road vehicles, commercial vehicles, rail cars, and locomotives. Due to the need for environmental protection and recognition of exhaustible, finite supplies of petroleum fuel, the Indian government is presently taking active interest in EV projects.

  15. Development of Lead Free Energy Absorber for Space Shuttle Blast Container

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balles, Donald; Ingram, Thomas; Novak, Howard; Schricker, Albert

    1999-01-01

    The Space Shuttle is connected to the mobile launch platform (MLP) by four aft skirt hold down studs on each solid rocket booster (SRB). Prior to lift-off, the frangible nuts inside the aft skirt blast containers are severed into two nut halves by two pyrotechnic booster cartridges. This action releases the Space Shuttle and allows the hold down studs to eject through the aft skirt bore and then down into the MLP. USBI has been tasked to upgrade the blast container for two specific reasons: (1) To eliminate lead for environmental concerns, and (2) To reduce the chance of nut recontact with the holddown stud. Nut recontact with the stud has been identified as a likely contributor to stud hang-ups. This upgrade will replace the lead liner with a unique open cell aluminum foam material, that has commercial and military uses. The aluminum foam used as an energy absorber is a proven design in many other aerospace/defense applications. Additional benefits of using the open cell, energy absorbent aluminum foam in place of the solid lead liner are: (1) Lead handling / exposure and possible contamination, along with hazardous waste disposal, will be eliminated; (2) Approximately 200 lbs. weight savings will be contributed to each Space Shuttle flight by using aluminum foam instead of lead; (3) The new aluminum liner is designed to catch all shrapnel from frangible nuts, thus virtually eliminating chance of debris exiting the HDP and causing potential damage to the vehicle; (4) Using the lighter aluminum liner instead of lead, allows for easier assembly and disassembly of blast container elements, which also improves safety, operator handling, and the efficiency of operations.

  16. Development flight tests of JetStar LFC leading-edge flight test experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, David F.; Fischer, Michael C.

    1987-01-01

    The overall objective of the flight tests on the JetStar aircraft was to demonstrate the effectiveness and reliability of laminar flow control under representative flight conditions. One specific objective was to obtain laminar flow on the JetStar leading-edge test articles for the design and off-design conditions. Another specific objective was to obtain operational experience on a Laminar Flow Control (LFC) leading-edge system in a simulated airline service. This included operational experience with cleaning requirements, the effect of clogging, possible foreign object damage, erosion, and the effects of ice particle and cloud encounters. Results are summarized.

  17. Morphological and Phenological characterization of Mediterranean species in Northern Sardinia, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piga, Alessandra; Duce, Pierpaolo; Cesaraccio, Carla

    2016-04-01

    Monitoring of vegetation, in particular methodologies for phenological and biometrical monitoring, are widely implied for climate change studies and their importance for understanding the consequences of global environmental change on vegetation is highlighted in the most recent IPCC reports. It is very likely that, during the next decades, the Mediterranean Regions will cope to the very negative effects of climatic changes. Consequently, due to the climate change impacts and the effects of anthropogenic pressures upon natural resources, these regions are among the most vulnerable ecosystems to the effects of climate change. Therefore, appears to be of crucial importance to better understand the physiological strategies for cope to climate change adaptation for the Mediterranean maquis shrub species which are key information for developing adaptation strategies guidelines. In this work, the biological and reproductive cycle of some Mediterranean species growing in an experimental area located within a nature reserve in the peninsula of Capo Caccia, north-west Sardinia, Italy, was investigated for a period of two years. In particular, the research was focused on: (1) the study of the development processes and the description of phenological phases, and (2) the analysis of the growth processes performed through biometric and floristic composition measurements. Specific BBCH scales for each species were developed. Shoot growth and floristic composition analysis did not show a clear trend in the response of the different species to climatic manipulations but a downward trend in the number of species. The results obtained in this study add useful information on the phenological cycle and growth of the Mediterranean species, improving the knowledge on the mechanisms of adaptation to adverse environmental conditions of these species

  18. Contemporary Trends in Research and Development of Lead-Acid Batteries

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Micka, Karel

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 8, - (2004), s. 932-933 ISSN 1432-8488 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA102/02/0794 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4040901 Keywords : lead-acid batteries * electrical system * trends Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 0.984, year: 2004

  19. Development and testing of a bipolar lead-acid battery for hybrid electric vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saakes, M.; Kluiters, E.; Schmal, D.; Mourad, S.; Have, P.T.J.H. ten

    1999-01-01

    An 80 V bipolar lead-acid battery was constructed and tested using hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) drive cycles. Drive cycles with a peak power of 6.7 kW, equal to 1/5 of the total power profile required for the HEV studied, were run successfully. Model calculations showed that the 80 V module

  20. Flower power: tree flowering phenology as a settlement cue for migrating birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Laura J; van Riper, Charles; Fontaine, Joseph J

    2009-01-01

    1. Neotropical migrant birds show a clear preference for stopover habitats with ample food supplies; yet, the proximate cues underlying these decisions remain unclear. 2. For insectivorous migrants, cues associated with vegetative phenology (e.g. flowering, leaf flush, and leaf loss) may reliably predict the availability of herbivorous arthropods. Here we examined whether migrants use the phenology of five tree species to choose stopover locations, and whether phenology accurately predicts food availability. 3. Using a combination of experimental and observational evidence, we show migrant populations closely track tree phenology, particularly the flowering phenology of honey mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa), and preferentially forage in trees with more flowers. Furthermore, the flowering phenology of honey mesquite reliably predicts overall arthropod abundance as well as the arthropods preferred by migrants for food. 4. Together, these results suggest that honey mesquite flowering phenology is an important cue used by migrants to assess food availability quickly and reliably, while in transit during spring migration.

  1. [Prenatal lead exposure related to cord blood brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels and impaired neonatal neurobehavioral development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, L H; Mu, X Y; Chen, H Y; Yang, H L; Qi, W

    2016-06-01

    To explore the relationship between umbilical cord blood brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neonatal neurobehavioral development in lead exposure infants. All infants and their mother were randomly selected during 2011 to 2012, subjects were selected according to the umbilical cord blood lead concentrations, which contcentration of lead was higher than 0.48 μmol/L were taken into high lead exposure group, about 60 subjects included. Comparing to the high lead exposure group, according to gender, weight, pregnant week, length and head circumferenece, the level of cord blood lead concentration under 0.48 μmol/L were taken into control group, 60 cases included. Lead content was determined by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Neonatal behavioral neurological assessment (NBNA) was used to determine the development of neonatal neuronal behavior. The content of BDNF was detected by ELISA. Comparing the BDNF and the NBNA score between two groups, and linear correlation was given on analysis the correlation between lead concentration in cord blood and BDNF, BDNF and the NBNA score. Lead content in high exposure group was (0.613±0.139) μmol/L, and higher than (0.336±0.142) μmol/L in low exposure group (t=3.21, PBDNF content in high exposure group which was (3.538±1.203) ng/ml was higher than low exposure group (2.464±0.918) ng/ml (t=7.60, PBDNF content was negatively correlated with NBNA summary score, passive muscle tension and active muscle tone score (r was -0.27, -0.29, -0.30, respectively, P values were BDNF was negatively correlated with neonatal neurodevelopment, may serve as a useful biomarker.

  2. Variation of Bioactive Compounds in Hypericum perforatum Growing in Turkey During Its Phenological Cycle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cüneyt Cirak; Jolita Radusiěnё; Birsen (Sa(g)lam) Karabük; Valdimaras Janulis; Liudas Ivanauskas

    2007-01-01

    The present study was conducted to determine phenologic and morphogenetic variation of hypericin, chlorogenic acid and flavonoids, as rutin, hyperoside, apigenin-7-O-glucoside, quercltrin, quercetin content of Hypericum perforatum L. growing in Turkey. Wild growing plants were harvested at vegetative, floral budding, full flowering,fresh fruiting and mature fruiting stages and dissected into stem, leaf and reproductive tissues and assayed for bioactive compounds by the High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method. Hyperlcin concentration ranged between 0 and 2.73 mg/g DW, chlorogenic acid 0.00-3.64 mg/g DW, rutin 0.00-3.36 mg/g DW, hyperoside 0.04-22.42 mg/g DW, quercitrin 0.03-3.45 mg/g DW and quercetin 0.04-1.02 mg/g DW depending on ontogenetic and morphogenetic sampling. Leaves were found to be superior to stems and reproductive parts with regard to phenolic accumulation for all compounds tested while flowers accumulated the highest levels of hypericin. Quercitrin,quercetin and hypericin content in all tissues increased with advancing of developmental stages and reached their highest level during flower ontogenesis. Similarly, chlorogenic acid, hyperoside and apigenin-7-O-glucoside content in different plant parts increased during plant development, however, the highest level was observed at different stages of plant phenology for each tissue. Chlorogenic acid was not detected in stems, leaves and reproductive parts in several stages of plant phenology and its variation during plant growth showed inconsistent manner. In contrast to the other compounds examined, rutin content of stems and leaves decreased with advancing of plant development and the highest level for both tissues was observed at the vegetative stage. However,content of the same compound in reproductive parts was the highest at mature fruiting. The present findings might be useful to obtain increased concentration of these natural compounds.

  3. Incorporating Spatio-temporal Phenological Variation in Detecting Exotic Saltcedar Using Landsat Time Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diao, C.; Wang, L.

    2017-12-01

    The invasion of exotic species compromises ecosystem functions and causes substantial economic losses at the global scale. Over the past century, non-native saltcedar has expanded into most riparian zones in southwestern United States and posed significant threats to the native biotic communities. Repeated monitoring of saltcedar distribution is essential for conservation agencies to locate highly susceptible areas and develop corresponding control strategies. Throughout the phenological cycle, the leaf senescence stage has been found to be the most crucial in spectrally detecting saltcedar. However, due to climate variability and anthropogenic forcing, the timing of saltcedar leaf senescence may vary over space and time. This spatial and inter-annual variation need to be accommodated to pinpoint the appropriate remotely sensed imagery for saltcedar mapping. The objective of this study was to develop a Landsat-based Multiyear Spectral Angle Clustering (MSAC) model to monitor the inter-annual leaf senescence of exotic saltcedar. At the Landsat scale, the time series analysis of vegetation phenology is usually limited by the temporal resolution of images. The MSAC model can overcome this limit and take advantage of the Landsat images from multiple years to compensate the lack of images in a single year. Results indicated the MSAC model provided a Landsat-based solution to capture the inter-annual leaf senescence of saltcedar. Compared to traditional NDVI-based phenological approaches, the proposed model achieved a more accurate classification results of saltcedar across years. The MSAC model provides unique opportunities to guide the selection of appropriate remotely sensed image for repetitive saltcedar mapping.

  4. Research and development of an aimed magnetic lead current density-magnetic field diagnostic. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    A diagnostics survey was made to provide a clear definition of advanced diagnostic needs and the limitations of current approaches in addressing those needs. Special attention was given to the adequacy with which current diagnostics are interfaced to signal processing/data acquisition devices and systems. Critical evaluations of selected alternative diagnostic techniques for future R and D activities are presented. The conceptual basis of the Aimed Magnetic Lead Gradiometric system as a current density/magnetic field diagnostic is established

  5. Physicochemical Profiles of the Marketed Agrochemicals and Clues for Agrochemical Lead Discovery and Screening Library Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Hanbing; Huangfu, Changxin; Wang, Yanying; Wang, Xianxiang; Tang, Tiansheng; Zeng, Xianyin; Li, Zerong; Chen, Yuzong

    2015-05-01

    Combinatorial chemistry, high-throughput and virtual screening technologies have been extensively used for discovering agrochemical leads from chemical libraries. The knowledge of the physicochemical properties of the marketed agrochemicals is useful for guiding the design and selection of such libraries. Since the earlier profiling of marketed agrochemicals, the number and types of marketed agrochemicals have significantly increased. Recent studies have shown the change of some physicochemical properties of oral drugs with time. There is a need to also profile the physicochemical properties of the marketed agrochemicals. In this work, we analyzed the key physicochemical properties of 1751 marketed agrochemicals in comparison with the previously-analyzed herbicides and insecticides, 106 391 natural products and 57 548 diverse synthetic libraries compounds. Our study revealed the distribution profiles and evolution trend of different types of agrochemicals that in many respects are broadly similar to the reported profiles for oral drugs, with the most marked difference being that agrochemicals have a lower number of hydrogen bond donors. The derived distribution patterns provided the rule of thumb guidelines for selecting potential agrochemical leads and also provided clues for further improving the libraries for agrochemical lead discovery. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Phenological Characteristics of the Barred Chicken in Western ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Between May and June 2011, the growth performance and phenological characteristics of local barred chicken of the Western Highland Cameroon was carried out in the Teaching and Research Farm of the University of Dschang. The data on body weight, body measurements and carcass characteristics were collected on ...

  7. Frost hardiness of tree species is independent of phenology and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The differences in timing in bud burst between species have been interpreted as an adaptation to late frost events in spring. Thus, it has been suggested that the degree of frost susceptibility of leaves is species-specific and depends on the species' phenology and geographic distribution range. To test for relationships ...

  8. Consequences of Hatch Phenology on Stages of Fish Recruitment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M Bogner

    Full Text Available Little is known about how hatch phenology (e.g., the start, peak, and duration of hatching could influence subsequent recruitment of freshwater fishes into a population. We used two commonly sympatric fish species that exhibit different hatching phenologies to examine recruitment across multiple life stages. Nine yellow perch (Perca flavescens and bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus annual cohorts were sampled from 2004 through 2013 across larval, age-0, age-1, and age-2 life stages in a Nebraska (U.S.A. Sandhill lake. Yellow perch hatched earlier in the season and displayed a more truncated hatch duration compared to bluegill. The timing of hatch influenced recruitment dynamics for both species but important hatching metrics were not similar between species across life stages. A longer hatch duration resulted in greater larval yellow perch abundance but greater age-1 bluegill abundance. In contrast, bluegill larval and age-0 abundances were greater during years when hatching duration was shorter and commenced earlier, whereas age-0 yellow perch abundance was greater when hatching occurred earlier. As a result of hatch phenology, yellow perch recruitment variability was minimized sooner (age-0 life stage than bluegill (age-1 life stage. Collectively, hatch phenology influenced recruitment dynamics across multiple life stages but was unique for each species. Understanding the complexities of when progeny enter an environment and how this influences eventual recruitment into a population will be critical in the face of ongoing climate change.

  9. Relationships between phenological and yield traits of the plant crop ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Multiple correlation of phenological and yield traits of the plant crop (PC) with those of the first ratoon crop (RC) of 36 Musa genotypes was carried out. The genotypes were landraces (triploid) belonging to AAA, AAB and ABB Musa genomic groups and hybrids (mostly tetraploid) thereof. The plants were grown under four ...

  10. Phenological sensitivity to climate across taxa and trophic levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thackeray, Stephen J.; Henrys, Peter; Hemming, Deborah

    2016-01-01

    Differences in phenological responses to climate change among species can desynchronise ecological interactions and thereby threaten ecosystem function. To assess these threats, we must quantify the relative impact of climate change on species at different trophic levels. Here, we apply a Climate...

  11. Interactive Vegetation Phenology, Soil Moisture, and Monthly Temperature Forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koster, R. D.; Walker, G. K.

    2015-01-01

    The time scales that characterize the variations of vegetation phenology are generally much longer than those that characterize atmospheric processes. The explicit modeling of phenological processes in an atmospheric forecast system thus has the potential to provide skill to subseasonal or seasonal forecasts. We examine this possibility here using a forecast system fitted with a dynamic vegetation phenology model. We perform three experiments, each consisting of 128 independent warm-season monthly forecasts: 1) an experiment in which both soil moisture states and carbon states (e.g., those determining leaf area index) are initialized realistically, 2) an experiment in which the carbon states are prescribed to climatology throughout the forecasts, and 3) an experiment in which both the carbon and soil moisture states are prescribed to climatology throughout the forecasts. Evaluating the monthly forecasts of air temperature in each ensemble against observations, as well as quantifying the inherent predictability of temperature within each ensemble, shows that dynamic phenology can indeed contribute positively to subseasonal forecasts, though only to a small extent, with an impact dwarfed by that of soil moisture.

  12. Responses of phenological and physiological stages of spring ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to investigate impact of complementary irrigation on phenological stages, chlorophyll content, radiation absorption and extinction coefficient, as well as some aspects concerning the yield of spring safflower, a split-plot experiment based on randomized complete block design with three replication was conducted at ...

  13. Why climate change will invariably alter selection pressures on phenology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gienapp, Phillip; Reed, Thomas E.; Visser, Marcel E.

    2014-01-01

    The seasonal timing of lifecycle events is closely linked to individual fitness and hence, maladaptation in phenological traits may impact population dynamics. However, few studies have analysed whether and why climate change will alter selection pressures and hence possibly induce maladaptation in

  14. variability of in vitro and phenological behaviours of cocoa hybrids

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    analyse the variability of the in vitro and phenological behaviours of 6 cocoa ... The 4 aforementioned hybrids could be used to produce cocoa aroma, ... hybrids using a multivariate approach. .... 3 clusters and variables was assessed through ... function, and (iv) analysis of the representation quality. Thus, the number of ...

  15. Extreme warm temperatures alter forest phenology and productivity in Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Crabbe, Richard A.; Dash, J.; Rodriguez-Galiano, V. F.; Janouš, Dalibor; Pavelka, Marian; Marek, Michal V.

    563-564, sep (2016), s. 486-495 ISSN 0048-9697 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : land surface phenology * Envisat MTCI * anomalous temperature * climate variability * lagged effect * forest ecology Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 4.900, year: 2016

  16. Phenological Shifts in Animals Under Contemporary Climate Change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, M.E.; Roitberg, Bernard D.

    2017-01-01

    One of the best documented impacts of climate change has been on the seasonal timing, or phenology, of species. There are clear shifts in all taxonomic groups in terrestrial, aquatic, and marine environments. There is, however, ample variation in the rate at which species shift in response to warmer

  17. Phenological characters and genetic divergence in aromatic rices

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-07-20

    Jul 20, 2009 ... Phenological properties of a plant are measured in time duration between ... The time interval between sowing and flowering in rice (Oryza sativa L.) ... locally adapted genotypes of aromatic rices have evolved because of natural ... classification of genotypes based on suitable scale is quite imperative to ...

  18. Variability of in vitro and phenological behaviours of cocoa hybrids ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cultivated cocoa species (Theobroma cacao L.) is originated from tropical rainforests of South and Central America. Its fermented and dried seeds constitute the raw material for the chocolate manufacture. In order to analyse the variability of the in vitro and phenological behaviours of 6 cocoa hybrids, the typological and ...

  19. Spring plant phenology and false springs in the conterminous US during the 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allstadt, Andrew J.; Vavrus, Stephen J.; Heglund, Patricia J.; Pidgeon, Anna M.; Thogmartin, Wayne E.; Radeloff, Volker C.

    2015-01-01

    The onset of spring plant growth has shifted earlier in the year over the past several decades due to rising global temperatures. Earlier spring onset may cause phenological mismatches between the availability of plant resources and dependent animals, and potentially lead to more false springs, when subsequent freezing temperatures damage new plant growth. We used the extended spring indices to project changes in spring onset, defined by leaf out and by first bloom, and predicted false springs until 2100 in the conterminous United States (US) using statistically-downscaled climate projections from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 5 ensemble. Averaged over our study region, the median shift in spring onset was 23 days earlier in the Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5 scenario with particularly large shifts in the Western US and the Great Plains. Spatial variation in phenology was due to the influence of short-term temperature changes around the time of spring onset versus season long accumulation of warm temperatures. False spring risk increased in the Great Plains and portions of the Midwest, but remained constant or decreased elsewhere. We conclude that global climate change may have complex and spatially variable effects on spring onset and false springs, making local predictions of change difficult.

  20. Climate change effects on migration phenology may mismatch brood parasitic cuckoos and their hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saino, Nicola; Rubolini, Diego; Lehikoinen, Esa; Sokolov, Leonid V; Bonisoli-Alquati, Andrea; Ambrosini, Roberto; Boncoraglio, Giuseppe; Møller, Anders P

    2009-08-23

    Phenological responses to climate change vary among taxa and across trophic levels. This can lead to a mismatch between the life cycles of ecologically interrelated populations (e.g. predators and prey), with negative consequences for population dynamics of some of the interacting species. Here we provide, to our knowledge, the first evidence that climate change might disrupt the association between the life cycles of the common cuckoo (Cuculus canorus), a migratory brood parasitic bird, and its hosts. We investigated changes in timing of spring arrival of the cuckoo and its hosts throughout Europe over six decades, and found that short-distance, but not long-distance, migratory hosts have advanced their arrival more than the cuckoo. Hence, cuckoos may keep track of phenological changes of long-distance, but not short-distance migrant hosts, with potential consequences for breeding of both cuckoo and hosts. The mismatch to some of the important hosts may contribute to the decline of cuckoo populations and explain some of the observed local changes in parasitism rates of migratory hosts.

  1. Nano lead oxide and epdm composite for development of polymer based radiation shielding material: Gamma irradiation and attenuation tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özdemir, T.; Güngör, A.; Akbay, I. K.; Uzun, H.; Babucçuoglu, Y.

    2018-03-01

    It is important to have a shielding material that is not easily breaking in order to have a robust product that guarantee the radiation protection of the patients and radiation workers especially during the medical exposure. In this study, nano sized lead oxide (PbO) particles were used, for the first time, to obtain an elastomeric composite material in which lead oxide nanoparticles, after the surface modification with silane binding agent, was used as functional material for radiation shielding. In addition, the composite material including 1%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% weight percent nano sized lead oxide was irradiated with doses of 81, 100 and 120 kGy up to an irradiation period of 248 days in a gamma ray source with an initial dose rate of 21.1 Gy/h. Mechanical, thermal properties of the irradiated materials were investigated using DSC, DMA, TGA and tensile testing and modifications in thermal and mechanical properties of the nano lead oxide containing composite material via gamma irradiation were reported. Moreover, effect of bismuth-III oxide addition on radiation attenuation of the composite material was investigated. Nano lead oxide and bismuth-III oxide particles were mixed with different weight ratios. Attenuation tests have been conducted to determine lead equivalent values for the developed composite material. Lead equivalent thickness values from 0.07 to 0.65 (2-6 mm sample thickness) were obtained.

  2. Lead concentration in blood of school children from copper mining area and the level of somatic development at birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Sławińska-Ochla

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. The aim of the study was to assess the relations between lead intoxication in children at younger school age and the level of somatic development at birth. Materials and Methods. The research includes 717 children and adolescents 7–15 years old from LegnickoGłogowski copper mining region, which live in the vincity of „Głogów”, „Legnica” copper industrial plants and flotation tank reservoir „Żelazny most”. The analysis contained measures such as birth height, birth weight, Apgar score points, and blood lead level in 2007 and 2008. The whole blood lead level (Pb-B was indicated using atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS with electrothermic atomization by certified The Foundation for Children From The Copper Basin laboratory. Results.Rural childrenwere noted forsignificantly higher blood lead levelsthan urban peers. Also boysin comparison to girls had higher blood lead levels. Regardless of gender and place of residence there were no significant correlation between blood lead level and body mass at birth. Conclusion. The biological state of the organism at the moment of birth has no connection with the susceptibility to absorption of lead in the later phases of ontogenesis: the earlier school age and adlescence.

  3. A Role for Fragment-Based Drug Design in Developing Novel Lead Compounds for Central Nervous System Targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasko, Michael J; Pellegrene, Kendy A; Madura, Jeffry D; Surratt, Christopher K

    2015-01-01

    Hundreds of millions of U.S. dollars are invested in the research and development of a single drug. Lead compound development is an area ripe for new design strategies. Therapeutic lead candidates have been traditionally found using high-throughput in vitro pharmacological screening, a costly method for assaying thousands of compounds. This approach has recently been augmented by virtual screening (VS), which employs computer models of the target protein to narrow the search for possible leads. A variant of VS is fragment-based drug design (FBDD), an emerging in silico lead discovery method that introduces low-molecular weight fragments, rather than intact compounds, into the binding pocket of the receptor model. These fragments serve as starting points for "growing" the lead candidate. Current efforts in virtual FBDD within central nervous system (CNS) targets are reviewed, as is a recent rule-based optimization strategy in which new molecules are generated within a 3D receptor-binding pocket using the fragment as a scaffold. This process not only places special emphasis on creating synthesizable molecules but also exposes computational questions worth addressing. Fragment-based methods provide a viable, relatively low-cost alternative for therapeutic lead discovery and optimization that can be applied to CNS targets to augment current design strategies.

  4. A role for fragment-based drug design in developing novel lead compounds for central nervous system targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Wasko

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Hundreds of millions of U.S. dollars are invested in the research and development of a single drug. Lead compound development is an area ripe for new design strategies. Therapeutic lead candidates have been traditionally found using high-throughput in vitro pharmacologic screening, a costly method for assaying thousands of compounds. This approach has recently been augmented by virtual screening, which employs computer models of the target protein to narrow the search for possible leads. A variant of virtual screening is fragment-based drug design, an emerging in silico lead discovery method that introduces low molecular weight fragments, rather than intact compounds, into the binding pocket of the receptor model. These fragments serve as starting points for growing the lead candidate. Current efforts in virtual fragment-based drug design within central nervous system (CNS targets are reviewed, as is a recent rule-based optimization strategy in which new molecules are generated within a 3D receptor binding pocket using the fragment as a scaffold. This process places special emphasis on creating synthesizable molecules but also exposes computational questions worth addressing. Fragment-based methods provide a viable, relatively low-cost alternative for therapeutic lead discovery and optimization that can be applied to CNS targets to augment current design strategies.

  5. Mycorrhizal infection, phosphorus uptake, and phenology in Ranunculus adoneus: implications for the functioning of mycorrhizae in alpine systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullen, R B; Schmidt, S K

    1993-05-01

    Phosphorus levels, phenology of roots and shoots, and development of vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) fungi were monitored for two years in natural populations of the perennial alpine herb, Ranunculus adoneus. The purpose of this study was to understand how phosphorus uptake relates to the phenology of R. adoneus and to ascertain whether arbusculus, fungal structures used for nutrient transfer, were present when maximum phosphorus accumulation was occurring. Arbuscules were only present for a few weeks during the growing season of R. adoneus and their presence corresponded with increased phosphorus accumulation in both the roots and shoots of R. adoneus. In addition, phosphorus accumulation and peaks in mycorrhizal development occurred well after plant reproduction and most plant growth had occurred. The late season accumulation of phosphorus by mycorrhizal roots of R. adoneus is stored for use during early season growth and flowering the following spring. In this way R. adoneus can flower before soils thaw and root or mycorrhizal nutrient uptake can occur.

  6. Object-based Dimensionality Reduction in Land Surface Phenology Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian E. Bunker

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Unsupervised classification or clustering of multi-decadal land surface phenology provides a spatio-temporal synopsis of natural and agricultural vegetation response to environmental variability and anthropogenic activities. Notwithstanding the detailed temporal information available in calibrated bi-monthly normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI and comparable time series, typical pre-classification workflows average a pixel’s bi-monthly index within the larger multi-decadal time series. While this process is one practical way to reduce the dimensionality of time series with many hundreds of image epochs, it effectively dampens temporal variation from both intra and inter-annual observations related to land surface phenology. Through a novel application of object-based segmentation aimed at spatial (not temporal dimensionality reduction, all 294 image epochs from a Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS bi-monthly NDVI time series covering the northern Fertile Crescent were retained (in homogenous landscape units as unsupervised classification inputs. Given the inherent challenges of in situ or manual image interpretation of land surface phenology classes, a cluster validation approach based on transformed divergence enabled comparison between traditional and novel techniques. Improved intra-annual contrast was clearly manifest in rain-fed agriculture and inter-annual trajectories showed increased cluster cohesion, reducing the overall number of classes identified in the Fertile Crescent study area from 24 to 10. Given careful segmentation parameters, this spatial dimensionality reduction technique augments the value of unsupervised learning to generate homogeneous land surface phenology units. By combining recent scalable computational approaches to image segmentation, future work can pursue new global land surface phenology products based on the high temporal resolution signatures of vegetation index time series.

  7. Uncovering a Nuisance Influence of a Phenological Trait of Plants Using a Nonlinear Structural Equation: Application to Days to Heading and Culm Length in Asian Cultivated Rice (Oryza Sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onogi, Akio; Ideta, Osamu; Yoshioka, Takuma; Ebana, Kaworu; Yamasaki, Masanori; Iwata, Hiroyoshi

    2016-01-01

    Phenological traits of plants, such as flowering time, are linked to growth phase transition. Thus, phenological traits often influence other traits through the modification of the duration of growth period. This influence is a nuisance in plant breeding because it hampers genetic evaluation of the influenced traits. Genetic effects on the influenced traits have two components, one that directly affects the traits and one that indirectly affects the traits via the phenological trait. These cannot be distinguished by phenotypic evaluation and ordinary linear regression models. Consequently, if a phenological trait is modified by introgression or editing of the responsible genes, the phenotypes of the influenced traits can change unexpectedly. To uncover the influence of the phenological trait and evaluate the direct genetic effects on the influenced traits, we developed a nonlinear structural equation (NSE) incorporating a nonlinear influence of the phenological trait. We applied the NSE to real data for cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.): days to heading (DH) as a phenological trait and culm length (CL) as the influenced trait. This showed that CL of the cultivars that showed extremely early heading was shortened by the strong influence of DH. In a simulation study, it was shown that the NSE was able to infer the nonlinear influence and direct genetic effects with reasonable accuracy. However, the NSE failed to infer the linear influence in this study. When no influence was simulated, an ordinary bi-trait linear model (OLM) tended to infer the genetic effects more accurately. In such cases, however, by comparing the NSE and OLM using an information criterion, we could assess whether the nonlinear assumption of the NSE was appropriate for the data analyzed. This study demonstrates the usefulness of the NSE in revealing the phenotypic influence of phenological traits.

  8. Numerical simulation of lead devices for seismic isolation and vibration control on their damping characteristics. Development of lead material model under cyclic large deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Akihiro; Yabana, Shuichi; Borst, Rene de

    2004-01-01

    In order to predict the mechanical properties of lead devices for seismic isolation and vibration control, especially damping behavior under cyclic loading using numerical simulation, cyclic shear loading tests and uniaxial tensile loading tests were performed, and a new material model was proposed with the use of the both test results. Until now, it has been difficult to evaluate mechanical properties of lead material under cyclic loading by uniaxial tensile loading test because local deformations appeared with the small tensile strain. Our shear cyclic loading tests for lead material enabled practical evaluation of its mechanical properties under cyclic large strain which makes it difficult to apply uniaxial test. The proposed material model was implemented into a finite element program, and it was applied to numerical simulation of mechanical properties of lead dampers and rubber bearings with a lead plug. The numerical simulations and the corresponding laboratory loading tests showed good agreement, which proved the applicability of the proposed model. (author)

  9. Multiple Pathways of Genome Plasticity Leading to Development of Antibiotic Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didier Mazel

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of multi-resistant bacterial strains is a major source of concern and has been correlated with the widespread use of antibiotics. The origins of resistance are intensively studied and many mechanisms involved in resistance have been identified, such as exogenous gene acquisition by horizontal gene transfer (HGT, mutations in the targeted functions, and more recently, antibiotic tolerance through persistence. In this review, we focus on factors leading to integron rearrangements and gene capture facilitating antibiotic resistance acquisition, maintenance and spread. The role of stress responses, such as the SOS response, is discussed.

  10. Two-stage model of development of heterogeneous uranium-lead systems in zircon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mel'nikov, N.N.; Zevchenkov, O.A.

    1985-01-01

    Behaviour of isotope systems of multiphase zircons at their two-stage distortion is considered. The results of calculations testify to the fact that linear correlations on the diagram with concordance can be explained including two-stage discovery of U-Pb systems of cogenetic zircons if zircon is considered physically heterogeneous and losing in its different part different ratios of accumulated radiogenic lead. ''Metamorphism ages'' obtained by these two-stage opening zircons are intermediate, and they not have geochronological significance while ''crystallization ages'' remain rather close to real ones. Two-stage opening zircons in some cases can be diagnosed by discordance of their crystal component

  11. Best Practices in Talent Management How the World's Leading Corporations Manage, Develop, and Retain Top Talent

    CERN Document Server

    Goldsmith, Marshall

    2010-01-01

    Comprehensive in scope, this book features more than 15 case studies and dozens of competency models, tools, instruments, and training material from the world's best global talent management systems and campaigns that show how thy successfully implemented and maintained talent management programs. Each case study includes tools, templates, competency models, guidelines, and training materials that can easily transfer to the real-world work of HR professionals. In addition the book is written by leading-edge contributions from the top thinkers in the field.

  12. Evaluation of Different Phenological Information to Map Crop Rotation in Complex Irrigated Indus Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismaeel, A.; Zhou, Q.

    2018-04-01

    Accurate information of crop rotation in large basin is essential for policy decisions on land, water and nutrient resources around the world. Crop area estimation using low spatial resolution remote sensing data is challenging in a large heterogeneous basin having more than one cropping seasons. This study aims to evaluate the accuracy of two phenological datasets individually and in combined form to map crop rotations in complex irrigated Indus basin without image segmentation. Phenology information derived from Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Leaf Area Index (LAI) of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor, having 8-day temporal and 1000 m spatial resolution, was used in the analysis. An unsupervised (temporal space clustering) to supervised (area knowledge and phenology behavior) classification approach was adopted to identify 13 crop rotations. Estimated crop area was compared with reported area collected by field census. Results reveal that combined dataset (NDVI*LAI) performs better in mapping wheat-rice, wheat-cotton and wheat-fodder rotation by attaining root mean square error (RMSE) of 34.55, 16.84, 20.58 and mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) of 24.56 %, 36.82 %, 30.21 % for wheat, rice and cotton crop respectively. For sugarcane crop mapping, LAI produce good results by achieving RMSE of 8.60 and MAPE of 34.58 %, as compared to NDVI (10.08, 40.53 %) and NDVI*LAI (10.83, 39.45 %). The availability of major crop rotation statistics provides insight to develop better strategies for land, water and nutrient accounting frameworks to improve agriculture productivity.

  13. Attributing the effects of climate on phenology change suggests high sensitivity in coastal zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyednasrollah, B.; Clark, J. S.

    2015-12-01

    The impact of climate change on spring phenology depends on many variables that cannot be separated using current models. Phenology can influence carbon sequestration, plant nutrition, forest health, and species distributions. Leaf phenology is sensitive to changes of environmental factors, including climate, species composition, latitude, and solar radiation. The many variables and their interactions frustrate efforts to attribute variation to climate change. We developed a Bayesian framework to quantify the influence of environment on the speed of forest green-up. This study presents a state-space hierarchical model to infer and predict change in forest greenness over time using satellite observations and ground measurements. The framework accommodates both observation and process errors and it allows for main effects of variables and their interactions. We used daily spaceborne remotely sensed data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) to quantify temporal variability in the enhanced vegetation index (EVI) along a habitat gradient in the Southeastern United States. The ground measurements of meteorological parameters are obtained from study sites located in the Appalachian Mountains, the Piedmont and the Atlantic Coastal Plain between years 2000 and 2015. Results suggest that warming accelerates spring green-up in the Coastal Plain to a greater degree than in the Piedmont and Appalachian. In other words, regardless of variation in the timing of spring onset, the rate of greenness in non-coastal zones decreases with increasing temperature and hence with time over the spring transitional period. However, in coastal zones, as air temperature increases, leaf expansion becomes faster. This may indicate relative vulnerability to warming in non-coastal regions where moisture could be a limiting factor, whereas high temperatures in regions close to the coast enhance forest physiological activities. Model predictions agree with the remotely

  14. Phenology of the oil palm interspecific hybrid Elaeis oleifera × Elaeis guineensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Hormaza

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Oil palm is one of the most important oil crops in the world. Because of its high productivity and perennial nature, it has been expanding quickly. Commercial plantations consist mostly of the African palm E. guineensis Jacq. However, producers in Latin America are increasingly planting the O × G interspecific hybrid, a cross between African palm (E. guineensis and the American palm (E. oleifera (Kunth Cortés. This interspecific hybrid has emerged as a promising solution to diseases such as the bud rot of oil palm because of the apparent partial resistance of this genotype to the disease. This work studied and described the phenology of the O × G interspecific hybrid. The phenology stages were coded using the BBCH scale. The scale for the phenophases was defined using a three-digit code. Due to the nature of the palm, no descriptions were used for stage two (formation of side shoots/tillering and stage four (development of harvestable vegetative plant parts or vegetative reproductive organs because these stages do not apply to oil palm. The scale was constructed using germinating seeds, pre-nursery and nursery plants and five year-old palms. For the description of the stem elongation, different age palms of the same O × G hybrid were used. Observations were performed during an 18-month period. Additionally, the interval for the change from one phenology stage to another was determined both in days and degree-days (DD. The interspecific O × G hybrid required 6408 DD from when the spear leaf unfolds until the bunch was ripened and harvested, and 4427.6 DD from leaf unfolding to anthesis.

  15. EVALUATION OF DIFFERENT PHENOLOGICAL INFORMATION TO MAP CROP ROTATION IN COMPLEX IRRIGATED INDUS BASIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ismaeel

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Accurate information of crop rotation in large basin is essential for policy decisions on land, water and nutrient resources around the world. Crop area estimation using low spatial resolution remote sensing data is challenging in a large heterogeneous basin having more than one cropping seasons. This study aims to evaluate the accuracy of two phenological datasets individually and in combined form to map crop rotations in complex irrigated Indus basin without image segmentation. Phenology information derived from Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI and Leaf Area Index (LAI of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS sensor, having 8-day temporal and 1000 m spatial resolution, was used in the analysis. An unsupervised (temporal space clustering to supervised (area knowledge and phenology behavior classification approach was adopted to identify 13 crop rotations. Estimated crop area was compared with reported area collected by field census. Results reveal that combined dataset (NDVI*LAI performs better in mapping wheat-rice, wheat-cotton and wheat-fodder rotation by attaining root mean square error (RMSE of 34.55, 16.84, 20.58 and mean absolute percentage error (MAPE of 24.56 %, 36.82 %, 30.21 % for wheat, rice and cotton crop respectively. For sugarcane crop mapping, LAI produce good results by achieving RMSE of 8.60 and MAPE of 34.58 %, as compared to NDVI (10.08, 40.53 % and NDVI*LAI (10.83, 39.45 %. The availability of major crop rotation statistics provides insight to develop better strategies for land, water and nutrient accounting frameworks to improve agriculture productivity.

  16. Toward a Probabilistic Phenological Model for Wheat Growing Degree Days (GDD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmani, E.; Hense, A.

    2017-12-01

    Are there deterministic relations between phenological and climate parameters? The answer is surely `No'. This answer motivated us to solve the problem through probabilistic theories. Thus, we developed a probabilistic phenological model which has the advantage of giving additional information in terms of uncertainty. To that aim, we turned to a statistical analysis named survival analysis. Survival analysis deals with death in biological organisms and failure in mechanical systems. In survival analysis literature, death or failure is considered as an event. By event, in this research we mean ripening date of wheat. We will assume only one event in this special case. By time, we mean the growing duration from sowing to ripening as lifetime for wheat which is a function of GDD. To be more precise we will try to perform the probabilistic forecast for wheat ripening. The probability value will change between 0 and 1. Here, the survivor function gives the probability that the not ripened wheat survives longer than a specific time or will survive to the end of its lifetime as a ripened crop. The survival function at each station is determined by fitting a normal distribution to the GDD as the function of growth duration. Verification of the models obtained is done using CRPS skill score (CRPSS). The positive values of CRPSS indicate the large superiority of the probabilistic phonologic survival model to the deterministic models. These results demonstrate that considering uncertainties in modeling are beneficial, meaningful and necessary. We believe that probabilistic phenological models have the potential to help reduce the vulnerability of agricultural production systems to climate change thereby increasing food security.

  17. Time-lapse imaging of neural development: zebrafish lead the way into the fourth dimension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieger, Sandra; Wang, Fang; Sagasti, Alvaro

    2011-07-01

    Time-lapse imaging is often the only way to appreciate fully the many dynamic cell movements critical to neural development. Zebrafish possess many advantages that make them the best vertebrate model organism for live imaging of dynamic development events. This review will discuss technical considerations of time-lapse imaging experiments in zebrafish, describe selected examples of imaging studies in zebrafish that revealed new features or principles of neural development, and consider the promise and challenges of future time-lapse studies of neural development in zebrafish embryos and adults. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. Analysis and assessment of Shortwave Angle and Slope Index for monitoring rice phenology and hydroperiod.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tornos, Lucía; Moyano, María Carmen; Huesca, Margarita; Cicuendez, Victor; Recuero, Laura; Domínguez, Jose Antonio; Palacios-Orueta, Alicia

    2014-05-01

    According to the United Nations, more than 50 percent of the world population depends on rice for about 80 percent of its food requirements. Besides, rice fields are important aquatic ecosystems, hosting a great variety of aquatic species. However, environmental issues such as water consumption and the emission of greenhouse gases, as well as the effects of climate change in crops, may endanger their sustainability. In this context, the determination of rice hydroperiod and phenology is necessary for rice monitoring and impact management, and is expected to become more relevant in the near future. The present study has explored the potential of Shortwave Angle Slope Index (SASI), based on the spectral data contained in Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer, to monitoring rice paddy fields under different water management practices. SASI is a spectral shape index (SSI), based on the angle formed in SWIR1 vertex with NIR and SWIR2 in the spectrum, and the slope of the line linking NIR and SWIR2 vertices. This index was developed to distinguish between dry soil, wet soil, dry vegetation and green vegetation. It takes large, positive values for dry soil and large, negative values for green vegetation. Two case studies in Spain, the Ebro Delta and Orellana are presented. The behaviour of the index in each zone for the period 2001-2012 has been evaluated to characterize the response of SASI index to phenological and flooding events in rice. The average values and standard deviation of the index for the period 2001-2012 were calculated to identify the significant points of SASI in coincidence with phenological and flooding field data. An algorithm for the detection of significant points was also applied to determine phenological metrics, based on the information obtained. SASI presented similar values for both zones during the rice growing period. Differences arose during the non-growing period when the Delta was flooded for environmental reasons (i

  19. Multiseasonal-multispectral remote sensing of phenological change for natural vegetation inventory. Ph.D. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrumpf, B. J. (Principal Investigator)

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Variations in phenological development among plant species was noted, as well as the tendency for the seasonal appearance of some vegetation types to be dominated by the appearance of one or a few similarly developing species. Most of the common plants in the study area could be characterized by temporal aspects of their phenological development. There was a strong similarity among the spectral signatures of vegetation types in which the spectral return was dominated by green plant material. When the soil background dominated the spectral return from a vegetation stand, then the spectral radiance and the vegetation physiognomy were apparently related. When the deciduous shrubs lost their leaves, their spectral signature altered with a slight decrease of radiance in the visible wavelengths and a strong decrease in the near infrared. As the foliage of perennial grasses cured from August to November, its apparent green radiance remained unchanged, red radiance increased over 50 percent, and near infrared radiance decreased approximately 30 percent. A reflective mineral surface exhibited high radiance levels in all four bands, thus providing a marked contrast to the absorption characteristics of vegetation canopies.

  20. How does development lead time affect performance over the ramp-up lifecycle? : evidence from the consumer electronics industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pufall, A.A.; Fransoo, J.C.; Jong, de A.; Kok, de A.G.

    2012-01-01

    In the fast-paced world of consumer electronics, short development lead times and efficient product ramp-ups are invaluable. The sooner and faster a firm can ramp-up production of a new product, the faster it can start to earn revenues, profit from early market opportunities, establish technology

  1. Exploring the Relationship between Campus Leadership Development and Undergraduate Student Motivation to Lead among a Malaysian Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss, Steven Eric; Hamid, Jamaliah Abdul

    2015-01-01

    Despite the number of studies investigating the perceived effectiveness of campus-based leadership development programming among undergraduates, most have focused on programme outcomes and few have investigated the role of the campus environment in enhancing students' motivation to lead, particularly in non-Western contexts. To address these gaps,…

  2. Leading the Ongoing Development of Collaborative Data Practices: Advancing a Schema for Diagnosis and Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosner, Shelby

    2012-01-01

    Research suggests that school leaders play an important role in cultivating and developing collaborative data practices by teachers. Although diagnosis and intervention are critical facets of leaders' work to support collaborative data practice development, this work remains poorly understood. Missing from data-use literature is more explicit and…

  3. Transport Mechanisms Governing initial Leading-Edge Vortex Development on a Pitching Wing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wabick, Kevin; Berdon, Randall; Buchholz, James; Johnson, Kyle; Thurow, Brian

    2017-11-01

    The formation and evolution of Leading Edge Vortices (LEVs) are ubiquitous in natural fliers and maneuvering wings, and have a profound impact on aerodynamic loads. The formation of an LEV is experimentally investigated on a pitching flat-plate wing of aspect-ratio 2, and dimensionless pitch rates of k = Ωc / 2 U of 0.1, 0.2, and 0.5, at a Reynolds number of 104. The sources and sinks of vorticity that contribute to the growth and evolution of the LEV are investigated at spanwise regions of interest, and their relative balance is compared to other wing kinematics, and the case of a two-dimensional pitching wing. This work is supported by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research (Grant Number FA9550-16-1-0107, Dr. Douglas Smith, program manager).

  4. Does higher economic and financial development lead to environmental degradation: Evidence from BRIC countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamazian, Artur [Department of Financial Economics and Accounting, University of Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela (Spain)], E-mail: artur.tamazian@usc.es; Chousa, Juan Pineiro [Department of Financial Economics and Accounting, University of Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela (Spain)], E-mail: efjpch@usc.es; Vadlamannati, Krishna Chaitanya [Department of Financial Economics and Accounting, University of Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela (Spain)], E-mail: kc_dcm@yahoo.co.in

    2009-01-15

    A vast number of studies addressed the environmental degradation and economic development but not financial development. Moreover, as argued by Stern [2004. The rise and fall of the environmental Kuznets curve. World Development 32, 1419-1439] they present important econometric weaknesses. Using standard reduced-form modeling approach and controlling for country-specific unobserved heterogeneity, we investigate the linkage between not only economic development and environmental quality but also the financial development. Panel data over period 1992-2004 is used. We find that both economic and financial development are determinants of the environmental quality in BRIC economies. We show that higher degree of economic and financial development decreases the environmental degradation. Our analysis suggests that financial liberalization and openness are essential factors for the CO{sub 2} reduction. The adoption of policies directed to financial openness and liberalization to attract higher levels of R and D-related foreign direct investment might reduce the environmental degradation in countries under consideration. In addition, the robustness check trough the inclusion of US and Japan does not alter our main findings.

  5. Does higher economic and financial development lead to environmental degradation. Evidence from BRIC countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamazian, Artur; Chousa, Juan Pineiro; Vadlamannati, Krishna Chaitanya [Department of Financial Economics and Accounting, University of Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela (Spain)

    2009-01-15

    A vast number of studies addressed the environmental degradation and economic development but not financial development. Moreover, as argued by Stern [2004. The rise and fall of the environmental Kuznets curve. World Development 32, 1419-1439] they present important econometric weaknesses. Using standard reduced-form modeling approach and controlling for country-specific unobserved heterogeneity, we investigate the linkage between not only economic development and environmental quality but also the financial development. Panel data over period 1992-2004 is used. We find that both economic and financial development are determinants of the environmental quality in BRIC economies. We show that higher degree of economic and financial development decreases the environmental degradation. Our analysis suggests that financial liberalization and openness are essential factors for the CO{sub 2} reduction. The adoption of policies directed to financial openness and liberalization to attract higher levels of R and D-related foreign direct investment might reduce the environmental degradation in countries under consideration. In addition, the robustness check trough the inclusion of US and Japan does not alter our main findings. (author)

  6. Does higher economic and financial development lead to environmental degradation. Evidence from BRIC countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamazian, Artur; Chousa, Juan Pineiro; Vadlamannati, Krishna Chaitanya

    2009-01-01

    A vast number of studies addressed the environmental degradation and economic development but not financial development. Moreover, as argued by Stern [2004. The rise and fall of the environmental Kuznets curve. World Development 32, 1419-1439] they present important econometric weaknesses. Using standard reduced-form modeling approach and controlling for country-specific unobserved heterogeneity, we investigate the linkage between not only economic development and environmental quality but also the financial development. Panel data over period 1992-2004 is used. We find that both economic and financial development are determinants of the environmental quality in BRIC economies. We show that higher degree of economic and financial development decreases the environmental degradation. Our analysis suggests that financial liberalization and openness are essential factors for the CO 2 reduction. The adoption of policies directed to financial openness and liberalization to attract higher levels of R and D-related foreign direct investment might reduce the environmental degradation in countries under consideration. In addition, the robustness check trough the inclusion of US and Japan does not alter our main findings. (author)

  7. Reproductive phenology of coastal plain Atlantic forest vegetation: comparisons from seashore to foothills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staggemeier, Vanessa Graziele; Morellato, Leonor Patrícia Cerdeira

    2011-11-01

    The diversity of tropical forest plant phenology has called the attention of researchers for a long time. We continue investigating the factors that drive phenological diversity on a wide scale, but we are unaware of the variation of plant reproductive phenology at a fine spatial scale despite the high spatial variation in species composition and abundance in tropical rainforests. We addressed fine scale variability by investigating the reproductive phenology of three contiguous vegetations across the Atlantic rainforest coastal plain in Southeastern Brazil. We asked whether the vegetations differed in composition and abundance of species, the microenvironmental conditions and the reproductive phenology, and how their phenology is related to regional and local microenvironmental factors. The study was conducted from September 2007 to August 2009 at three contiguous sites: (1) seashore dominated by scrub vegetation, (2) intermediary covered by restinga forest and (3) foothills covered by restinga pre-montane transitional forest. We conducted the microenvironmental, plant and phenological survey within 30 transects of 25 m × 4 m (10 per site). We detected significant differences in floristic, microenvironment and reproductive phenology among the three vegetations. The microenvironment determines the spatial diversity observed in the structure and composition of the flora, which in turn determines the distinctive flowering and fruiting peaks of each vegetation (phenological diversity). There was an exchange of species providing flowers and fruits across the vegetation complex. We conclude that plant reproductive patterns as described in most phenological studies (without concern about the microenvironmental variation) may conceal the fine scale temporal phenological diversity of highly diverse tropical vegetation. This phenological diversity should be taken into account when generating sensor-derived phenologies and when trying to understand tropical vegetation

  8. A Modified Spatiotemporal Fusion Algorithm Using Phenological Information for Predicting Reflectance of Paddy Rice in Southern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengxue Liu

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Satellite data for studying surface dynamics in heterogeneous landscapes are missing due to frequent cloud contamination, low temporal resolution, and technological difficulties in developing satellites. A modified spatiotemporal fusion algorithm for predicting the reflectance of paddy rice is presented in this paper. The algorithm uses phenological information extracted from a moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer enhanced vegetation index time series to improve the enhanced spatial and temporal adaptive reflectance fusion model (ESTARFM. The algorithm is tested with satellite data on Yueyang City, China. The main contribution of the modified algorithm is the selection of similar neighborhood pixels by using phenological information to improve accuracy. Results show that the modified algorithm performs better than ESTARFM in visual inspection and quantitative metrics, especially for paddy rice. This modified algorithm provides not only new ideas for the improvement of spatiotemporal data fusion method, but also technical support for the generation of remote sensing data with high spatial and temporal resolution.

  9. Seasonality of weather and tree phenology in a tropical evergreen mountain rain forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendix, J; Homeier, J; Cueva, E Ortiz; Emck, P; Breckle, S-W; Richter, M; Beck, E

    2006-07-01

    Flowering and fruiting as phenological events of 12 tree species in an evergreen tropical mountain rain forest in southern Ecuador were examined over a period of 3-4 years. Leaf shedding of two species was observed for 12 months. Parallel to the phenological recordings, meteorological parameters were monitored in detail and related to the flowering and fruiting activity of the trees. In spite of the perhumid climate of that area, a high degree of intra- and inter-specific synchronisation of phenological traits was apparent. With the exception of one species that flowered more or less continuously, two groups of trees could be observed, one of which flowered during the less humid months (September to October) while the second group started to initiate flowers towards the end of that phase and flowered during the heavy rains (April to July). As reflected by correlation coefficients, the all-time series of meteorological parameters showed a distinct seasonality of 8-12 months, apparently following the quasi-periodic oscillation of precipitation and related cloudiness. As revealed by power spectrum analysis and Markov persistence, rainfall and minimum temperature appear to be the only parameters with a periodicity free of long-term variations. The phenological events of most of the plant species showed a similar periodicity of 8-12 months, which followed the annual oscillation of relatively less and more humid periods and thus was in phase or in counter-phase with the oscillations of the meteorological parameters. Periods of unusual cold or dryness, presumably resulting from underlying longer-term trends or oscillations (such as ENSO), affected the homogeneity of quasi-12-month flowering events, fruit maturation and also the production of germinable seeds. Some species show underlying quasi-2-year-oscillations, for example that synchronise with the development of air temperature; others reveal an underlying decrease or increase in flowering activity over the

  10. When similar beginnings lead to different ends: Constraints and diversity i cirripede larval development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høeg, Jens Thorvald; Møller, Ole Sten

    2006-01-01

    Cirripedes are fascinating models for studying both functional constraints and diversity in larval development. Adult cirripedes display an amazing variation in morphology from sessile suspension feeders that still retain many crustacean characters to parasites that have lost virtually all...

  11. Ecdysone receptor agonism leading to lethal molting disruption in arthropods: Review and adverse outcome pathway development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molting is a key biological process in growth, development, reproduction and survival in arthropods. Complex neuroendocrine pathways are involved in the regulation of molting and may potentially become targets of environmental endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs). For example, s...

  12. Development of quantitative analysis for cadmium, lead and chromium in aluminum alloys by using x-ray fluorescence spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, Satoshi; Kurusu, Kazuhiko; Kudou, Aiko

    2009-01-01

    A highly reliable quantitative analysis for cadmium, lead and chromium in aluminum alloys was developed. Standard samples were made by doping cadmium, lead and chromium into several aluminum alloys, and the composition of standard samples were determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry and gravimetric method. The calibration curves for these standard samples by using WD-XRF and ED-XRF exhibited linear correlation. Slope of calibration curves for Al-Cu alloy and Al-Zn-Mg alloy were smaller than other alloy's one, because of the effect by coexistent elements. Then, all calibration curves agreed with each other by performing correction with α-coefficient method. (author)

  13. Community health workers leading the charge on workforce development: lessons from New Orleans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wennerstrom, Ashley; Johnson, Liljana; Gibson, Kristina; Batta, Sarah E; Springgate, Benjamin F

    2014-12-01

    Academic institutions and community organizations engaged community health workers (CHWs) in creating a community-appropriate CHW workforce capacity-building program in an area without a previously established CHW professional group. From 2009 to 2010, we solicited New Orleans-based CHWs' opinions about CHW professional development through a survey, a community conference, and workgroup meetings. Throughout 2011 and 2012, we created and implemented a responsive 80-h workforce development program that used popular education techniques. We interviewed CHWs 6 months post-training to assess impressions of the course and application of skills and knowledge to practice. CHWs requested training to develop nationally-recognized core competencies including community advocacy, addresses issues unique to New Orleans, and mitigate common professional challenges. Thirty-five people completed the course. Among 25 interviewees, common themes included positive impressions of the course, application of skills and community-specific information to practice, understanding of CHWs' historical roles as community advocates, and ongoing professional challenges. Engaging CHW participation in workforce development programs is possible in areas lacking organized CHW groups. CHW insight supports development of training that addresses unique local concerns. Trained CHWs require ongoing professional support.

  14. Effects of changing climate and cultivar on the phenology and yield of winter wheat in the North China Plain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kenan; Yang, Xiaoguang; Tian, Hanqin; Pan, Shufen; Liu, Zhijuan; Lu, Shuo

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how changing climate and cultivars influence crop phenology and potential yield is essential for crop adaptation to future climate change. In this study, crop and daily weather data collected from six sites across the North China Plain were used to drive a crop model to analyze the impacts of climate change and cultivar development on the phenology and production of winter wheat from 1981 to 2005. Results showed that both the growth period (GP) and the vegetative growth period (VGP) decreased during the study period, whereas changes in the reproductive growth period (RGP) either increased slightly or had no significant trend. Although new cultivars could prolong the winter wheat phenology (0.3∼3.8 days per decade for GP), climate warming impacts were more significant and mainly accounted for the changes. The harvest index and kernel number per stem weight have significantly increased. Model simulation indicated that the yield of winter wheat exhibited increases (5.0∼19.4%) if new cultivars were applied. Climate change demonstrated a negative effect on winter wheat yield as suggested by the simulation driven by climate data only (-3.3 to -54.8 kg ha(-1) year(-1), except for Lushi). Results of this study also indicated that winter wheat cultivar development can compensate for the negative effects of future climatic change.

  15. DEVELOPMENT OF PROFESSIONAL AND SOFT SKILLS OF FUTURE IT SPECIALISTS IN COOPERATION WITH LEADING IT COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena G. Glazunova

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The problem of technological universities lagging behind the level of development of the IT-industry can be solved only on condition that technological IT companies actively participate in training of future IT-professionals. Only cooperation between IT-companies and IT-faculties can provide effective training of future IT-professionals. Universities require access to new technologies in order to support students and teachers of STEM-faculties, so that they would keep up with the level of technology development. The article analyzes the trends of cooperation between universities and IT companies. For example, the integration of Microsoft resources and services into the University e-learning environment identified the impact of using appropriate resources for the development of professional skills and “soft skills”. The present article suggests a model of integrating Microsoft resources and services into the e-learning environment.

  16. Agile Data Curation Case Studies Leading to the Identification and Development of Data Curation Design Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedict, K. K.; Lenhardt, W. C.; Young, J. W.; Gordon, L. C.; Hughes, S.; Santhana Vannan, S. K.

    2017-12-01

    The planning for and development of efficient workflows for the creation, reuse, sharing, documentation, publication and preservation of research data is a general challenge that research teams of all sizes face. In response to: requirements from funding agencies for full-lifecycle data management plans that will result in well documented, preserved, and shared research data products increasing requirements from publishers for shared data in conjunction with submitted papers interdisciplinary research team's needs for efficient data sharing within projects, and increasing reuse of research data for replication and new, unanticipated research, policy development, and public use alternative strategies to traditional data life cycle approaches must be developed and shared that enable research teams to meet these requirements while meeting the core science objectives of their projects within the available resources. In support of achieving these goals, the concept of Agile Data Curation has been developed in which there have been parallel activities in support of 1) identifying a set of shared values and principles that underlie the objectives of agile data curation, 2) soliciting case studies from the Earth science and other research communities that illustrate aspects of what the contributors consider agile data curation methods and practices, and 3) identifying or developing design patterns that are high-level abstractions from successful data curation practice that are related to common data curation problems for which common solution strategies may be employed. This paper provides a collection of case studies that have been contributed by the Earth science community, and an initial analysis of those case studies to map them to emerging shared data curation problems and their potential solutions. Following the initial analysis of these problems and potential solutions, existing design patterns from software engineering and related disciplines are identified as a

  17. FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT - A LEAD DRIVER FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN ROMANIA ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilen PIRTEA

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Beyond any doubt, FDI are an alternative source of capital for financing the national development of many developing countries. Global flows of FDI have grown phenomenally over the last years. În this article we tried to demonstrate, in an empirical way, the correlation between FDI and economic growth, as far as concerns Romanian economy. We also tried to analyse the current trend of FDI, their structure and dynamics over the last seven years, and to position Romanian economy in the range of South-Eastern Europe countries as far as concerns the volume of FDI attracted.

  18. INSTRUMENTS OF SUPPORT FOR RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT FUNDED BY LEADING DOMESTIC AND INTERNATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina E. Ilina

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: one of the key aspects of the knowledge economy development is the growing significance of the results of research and development. The education and basic research play a key role in this process. Funding for education and fundamental science is carried out mainly at the expense of the state resources, including a system of foundations for scientific, engineering and innovation activities in Russia. The purpose of this article is to present recommendations for improving the tools of domestic foundations in funding fundamental research and development, including education and training. The propositions are made with a comparative analysis of the domestic and foreign science foun dations’ activities. Materials and Methods: the authors used analysis, comparison, induction, deduction, graphical analysis, generalisation and other scientific methods during the study. Results: the lack of comparability between domestic and foreign scientific funds in the volume of funding allocated for basic research and development is revealed. This situation affects the scientific research. The foreign foundations have a wide range of instruments to support research projects at all stages of the life cycle of grants for education and training prior to release of an innovative product to market (the use of “innovation elevator” system. The Russian national scientific foundations have no such possibilities. The authors guess that the Russian organisations ignore some of the instruments for supporting research and development. Use of these tools could enhance the effectiveness of research projects. According to the study of domestic and foreign experience in supporting research and development, the authors proposed a matrix composed of instruments for support in the fields of basic scientific researches and education with such phases of the project life cycle as “research” and “development”. Discussion and Conclusions: the foreign science

  19. Research, development, and demonstration of lead-acid batteries for electric vehicle propulsion. Annual report, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-03-01

    The progress and status of Eltra's Electric Vehicle Battery Program during FY-80 are presented under five divisional headings: Research on Components and Processes; Development of Cells and Modules for Electric Vehicle Propulsion; Sub-Systems; Pilot Line Production of Electric Vehicle Battery Prototypes; and Program Management.

  20. Case Report: Valproic Acid and Risperidone Treatment Leading to Development of Hyperammonemia and Mania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Teri; Reynolds, Charles A.; Caplan, Rochelle

    2007-01-01

    This case report describes two children who developed hyperammonemia together with frank manic behavior during treatment with a combination of valproic acid and risperidone. One child had been maintained on valproic acid for years and risperidone was added. In the second case, valproic acid was introduced to a child who had been treated with…

  1. Lending, Learning, Leading: Developing Results-Based Leaders in Opportunity Finance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annie E. Casey Foundation, 2015

    2015-01-01

    This report tells the story of the CDFI Leadership Learning Network, a Casey Foundation initiative to equip leaders of community development finance institutions with the tools of results-based leadership (RBL). The Foundation shares lessons learned from the network, core RBL concepts and profiles of CDFI leaders as they apply RBL skills and tools…

  2. Leading Highly Performing Children's Centres: Supporting the Development of the "Accidental Leaders"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Andy; Sharp, Caroline; Handscomb, Graham

    2016-01-01

    There is wide recognition that early childhood experiences are critical to a child's development and their subsequent life chances. However, little research has been undertaken into leadership in early years settings, which is so influential in this regard. This article summarizes research into the leadership of Sure Start Children's Centres,…

  3. Iron supplement prevents lead-induced disruption of the blood-brain barrier during rat development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Qiang; Luo Wenjing; Zheng Wei; Liu Yiping; Xu Hui; Zheng Gang; Dai Zhongming; Zhang Wenbin; Chen Yaoming; Chen Jingyuan

    2007-01-01

    Children are known to be venerable to lead (Pb) toxicity. The blood-brain barrier (BBB) in immature brain is particularly vulnerable to Pb insults. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that Pb exposure damaged the integrity of the BBB in young animals and iron (Fe) supplement may prevent against Pb-induced BBB disruption. Male weanling Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups. Three groups of rats were exposed to Pb in drinking water containing 342 μg Pb/mL as Pb acetate, among which two groups were concurrently administered by oral gavage once every other day with 7 mg Fe/kg and 14 mg Fe/kg as FeSO 4 solution as the low and high Fe treatment group, respectively, for 6 weeks. The control group received sodium acetate in drinking water. Pb exposure significantly increased Pb concentrations in blood by 6.6-folds (p < 0.05) and brain tissues by 1.5-2.0-folds (p < 0.05) as compared to controls. Under the electron microscope, Pb exposure in young animals caused an extensive extravascular staining of lanthanum nitrate in brain parenchyma, suggesting a leakage of cerebral vasculature. Western blot showed that Pb treatment led to 29-68% reduction (p < 0.05) in the expression of occludin as compared to the controls. Fe supplement among Pb-exposed rats maintained the normal ultra-structure of the BBB and restored the expression of occludin to normal levels. Moreover, the low dose Fe supplement significantly reduced Pb levels in blood and brain tissues. These data suggest that Pb exposure disrupts the structure of the BBB in young animals. The increased BBB permeability may facilitate the accumulation of Pb. Fe supplement appears to protect the integrity of the BBB against Pb insults, a beneficial effect that may have significant clinical implications

  4. LEADING WITH LEADING INDICATORS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PREVETTE, S.S.

    2005-01-01

    This paper documents Fluor Hanford's use of Leading Indicators, management leadership, and statistical methodology in order to improve safe performance of work. By applying these methods, Fluor Hanford achieved a significant reduction in injury rates in 2003 and 2004, and the improvement continues today. The integration of data, leadership, and teamwork pays off with improved safety performance and credibility with the customer. The use of Statistical Process Control, Pareto Charts, and Systems Thinking and their effect on management decisions and employee involvement are discussed. Included are practical examples of choosing leading indicators. A statistically based color coded dashboard presentation system methodology is provided. These tools, management theories and methods, coupled with involved leadership and employee efforts, directly led to significant improvements in worker safety and health, and environmental protection and restoration at one of the nation's largest nuclear cleanup sites

  5. Nutritionally driven differential gene expression leads to heterochronic brain development in honeybee castes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia Maria Moda

    Full Text Available The differential feeding regimes experienced by the queen and worker larvae of the honeybee Apis mellifera shape a complex endocrine response cascade that ultimately gives rise to differences in brain morphologies. Brain development analyzed at the morphological level from the third (L3 through fifth (L5 larval instars revealed an asynchrony between queens and workers. In the feeding phase of the last larval instar (L5F, two well-formed structures, pedunculi and calyces, are identifiable in the mushroom bodies of queens, both of which are not present in workers until a later phase (spinning phase, L5S. Genome-wide expression analyses and normalized transcript expression experiments monitoring specific genes revealed that this differential brain development starts earlier, during L3. Analyzing brains from L3 through L5S1 larvae, we identified 21 genes with caste-specific transcription patterns (e.g., APC-4, GlcAT-P, fax, kr-h1 and shot, which encode proteins that are potentially involved in the development of brain tissues through controlling the cell proliferation rate (APC4, kr-h1 and fasciculation (GlcAT-P, fax, and shot. Shot, whose expression is known to be required for axon extension and cell proliferation, was found to be transcribed at significantly higher levels in L4 queens compared with worker larvae. Moreover, the protein encoded by this gene was immunolocalized to the cytoplasm of cells near the antennal lobe neuropiles and proximal to the Kenyon cells in the brains of L4 queens. In conclusion, during the larval period, the brains of queens are larger and develop more rapidly than workers' brains, which represents a developmental heterochrony reflecting the effect of the differential feeding regime of the two castes on nervous system development. Furthermore, this differential development is characterized by caste-specific transcriptional profiles of a set of genes, thus pointing to a link between differential nutrition and

  6. Nutritionally driven differential gene expression leads to heterochronic brain development in honeybee castes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moda, Lívia Maria; Vieira, Joseana; Guimarães Freire, Anna Cláudia; Bonatti, Vanessa; Bomtorin, Ana Durvalina; Barchuk, Angel Roberto; Simões, Zilá Luz Paulino

    2013-01-01

    The differential feeding regimes experienced by the queen and worker larvae of the honeybee Apis mellifera shape a complex endocrine response cascade that ultimately gives rise to differences in brain morphologies. Brain development analyzed at the morphological level from the third (L3) through fifth (L5) larval instars revealed an asynchrony between queens and workers. In the feeding phase of the last larval instar (L5F), two well-formed structures, pedunculi and calyces, are identifiable in the mushroom bodies of queens, both of which are not present in workers until a later phase (spinning phase, L5S). Genome-wide expression analyses and normalized transcript expression experiments monitoring specific genes revealed that this differential brain development starts earlier, during L3. Analyzing brains from L3 through L5S1 larvae, we identified 21 genes with caste-specific transcription patterns (e.g., APC-4, GlcAT-P, fax, kr-h1 and shot), which encode proteins that are potentially involved in the development of brain tissues through controlling the cell proliferation rate (APC4, kr-h1) and fasciculation (GlcAT-P, fax, and shot). Shot, whose expression is known to be required for axon extension and cell proliferation, was found to be transcribed at significantly higher levels in L4 queens compared with worker larvae. Moreover, the protein encoded by this gene was immunolocalized to the cytoplasm of cells near the antennal lobe neuropiles and proximal to the Kenyon cells in the brains of L4 queens. In conclusion, during the larval period, the brains of queens are larger and develop more rapidly than workers' brains, which represents a developmental heterochrony reflecting the effect of the differential feeding regime of the two castes on nervous system development. Furthermore, this differential development is characterized by caste-specific transcriptional profiles of a set of genes, thus pointing to a link between differential nutrition and differential

  7. Prototype development of educational program for production manager leading new perspectives on manufacturing technology

    OpenAIRE

    Ishii, Kazuyoshi; Ikeda, Hiroshi; Tsuchiya, Akinori; Shikida, Asami; Abe, Takehiko

    2006-01-01

    In this paper proposes the basic concept of an educational system and shows the result of educational program developed for manufacturing manager in leadership roles who wish to create new values in manufacturing technology. The basic concept combines an intelligent knowledge-based approach with the kaizen activity program in a framework of new value creation and comparative advantage models based on the ABC-G network (Academia, Business, Consultants, and Governmental officers). The education...

  8. Leading the Development of Concepts of Operations for Next-Generation Remotely Piloted Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    danced around the next-generation RPA CONOPS through technology demonstration for several years. Individual programs have developed key enabling...party system to take command of the aircraft and sensor payload. Aircraft equipped with Link 16 have the option of slaving their sensor payloads to...collection, shift transmission to theater nodes, and continue to slave the payloads to cues given by joint partners in-theater. Embracing Leadership in

  9. "One thing leads to anothercommodities" - linkages and industrial development: a conceptual overview

    OpenAIRE

    Morris, Mike; Kaplinsky, Raphael; Kaplan, David

    2011-01-01

    Sub-Sahara African commodity exporting economies have benefitted greatly from the commodities boom of the past decade. The conventional wisdom argues that resource extraction is corrosive of industrial development. This is due to a combination of the macroeconomic consequences of resource exploitation and the assumed enclave nature of capital- and technology-intensive mineral and energy extraction. The paper challenges this pessimistic �resource curse� argument and argues that there are u...

  10. Hox gene expression leads to differential hind leg development between honeybee castes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bomtorin, Ana Durvalina; Barchuk, Angel Roberto; Moda, Livia Maria; Simoes, Zila Luz Paulino

    2012-01-01

    Beyond the physiological and behavioural, differences in appendage morphology between the workers and queens of Apis mellifera are pre-eminent. The hind legs of workers, which are highly specialized pollinators, deserve special attention. The hind tibia of worker has an expanded bristle-free region used for carrying pollen and propolis, the corbicula. In queens this structure is absent. Although the morphological differences are well characterized, the genetic inputs driving the development of this alternative morphology remain unknown. Leg phenotype determination takes place between the fourth and fifth larval instar and herein we show that the morphogenesis is completed at brown-eyed pupa. Using results from the hybridization of whole genome-based oligonucleotide arrays with RNA samples from hind leg imaginal discs of pre-pupal honeybees of both castes we present a list of 200 differentially expressed genes. Notably, there are castes preferentially expressed cuticular protein genes and members of the P450 family. We also provide results of qPCR analyses determining the developmental transcription profiles of eight selected genes, including abdominal-A, distal-less and ultrabithorax (Ubx), whose roles in leg development have been previously demonstrated in other insect models. Ubx expression in workers hind leg is approximately 25 times higher than in queens. Finally, immunohistochemistry assays show that Ubx localization during hind leg development resembles the bristles localization in the tibia/basitarsus of the adult legs in both castes. Our data strongly indicate that the development of the hind legs diphenism characteristic of this corbiculate species is driven by a set of caste-preferentially expressed genes, such as those encoding cuticular protein genes, P450 and Hox proteins, in response to the naturally different diets offered to honeybees during the larval period.

  11. 94-1 Research and Development Project lead laboratory support: Fiscal year 1997. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKee, S.D.

    1996-12-01

    On May 26, 1994, the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) issued Recommendation 94-1, which expressed the board's concern about nuclear materials left in the manufacturing pipeline after the US halted its nuclear weapons production activities. The DNFSB emphasized the need for remediation of these materials. As part of Recommendation 94-1, the DNFSB defined research objectives as follows: that a research program be established to fill any gaps in the information base needed for choosing among the alternate processes to be used in safe conversion of various types of fissile materials to optimal forms for safe interim storage and the longer-term disposition. To achieve this objective a research and technology development program with two elements is needed: a technology-specific program that is focused on treating and storing materials safety, with concomitant development of storage criteria and surveillance requirements, centered around 3- and 8-year targets; and a core technology program to augment the knowledge base about general chemical and physical processing and storage behavior and to assure safe interim material storage until disposition policies are formulated. The paper reports the progress on the following: materials identification and surveillance; stabilization process development; surveillance and monitoring; core technologies; and project management

  12. Chronic Oral Capsaicin Exposure During Development Leads to Adult Rats with Reduced Taste Bud Volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omelian, Jacquelyn M; Samson, Kaeli K; Sollars, Suzanne I

    2016-09-01

    Cross-sensory interaction between gustatory and trigeminal nerves occurs in the anterior tongue. Surgical manipulations have demonstrated that the strength of this relationship varies across development. Capsaicin is a neurotoxin that affects fibers of the somatosensory lingual nerve surrounding taste buds, but not fibers of the gustatory chorda tympani nerve which synapse with taste receptor cells. Since capsaicin is commonly consumed by many species, including humans, experimental use of this neurotoxin provides a naturalistic perturbation of the lingual trigeminal system. Neonatal or adults rats consumed oral capsaicin for 40 days and we examined the cross-sensory effect on the morphology of taste buds across development. Rats received moderate doses of oral capsaicin, with chronic treatments occurring either before or after taste system maturation. Tongue morphology was examined either 2 or 50 days after treatment cessation. Edema, which has been previously suggested as a cause of changes in capsaicin-related gustatory function, was also assessed. Reductions in taste bud volume occurred 50 days, but not 2 days post-treatment for rats treated as neonates. Adult rats at either time post-treatment were unaffected. Edema was not found to occur with the 5 ppm concentration of capsaicin we used. Results further elucidate the cooperative relationship between these discrete sensory systems and highlight the developmentally mediated aspect of this interaction. Chronic exposure to even moderate levels of noxious stimuli during development has the ability to impact the orosensory environment, and these changes may not be evident until long after exposure has ceased.

  13. INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY IN THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY: WILL THE DEVELOPING COUNTRIES LEAD OR FOLLOW?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichman, Jerome H

    2009-01-31

    Developing countries, particularly the BRIC countries of Brazil, Russia, India, and China, should accommodate their national systems of innovation to the worldwide intellectual property (IP) regime emerging after the adoption of the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) in a way that maximizes global economic welfare in the foreseeable future. As many developed countries' experience demonstrates, badly configured, over-protectionist IP regimes stifle innovation by making inputs to future innovation too costly and too cumbersome to sustain over time. More carefully considered IP regimes, however, are an important way to protect innovative small- and medium-sized firms from predatory, larger competitors. The challenge is for emerging economies to capture the benefits of IP without importing the serious problems that developed countries have themselves failed to solve. Emerging economies can attain this balance by pursuing a policy of counter-harmonization in which they take advantage of existing exemptions in international agreements governing IP to establish regional, local, and international practices that promote more innovative, flexible uses of IP. Such practices include a research exemption for experimental uses of IP, government imposed nonexclusive licensing, anti-blocking provisions, an essential facilities doctrine, and compulsory licenses. Additional tools include an ex ante regime of compensatory liability rules for small scale innovation and sensible exceptions, particularly for science as well as general fair use provisions, to the exclusive rights of domestic copyright laws. Emerging economies will have to overcome strong economic pressure to accept more restrictive IP regimes as part of free trade agreements as well as a lack of technical expertise and internal government coordination. However, emerging economies have already accrued enough experience to be aware of the strengths and weaknesses of various IP

  14. Development and validation of a novel, simple, and accurate spectrophotometric method for the determination of lead in human serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shayesteh, Tavakol Heidari; Khajavi, Farzad; Khosroshahi, Abolfazl Ghafuri; Mahjub, Reza

    2016-01-01

    The determination of blood lead levels is the most useful indicator of the determination of the amount of lead that is absorbed by the human body. Various methods, like atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS), have already been used for the detection of lead in biological fluid, but most of these methods are based on complicated, expensive, and highly instructed instruments. In this study, a simple and accurate spectroscopic method for the determination of lead has been developed and applied for the investigation of lead concentration in biological samples. In this study, a silica gel column was used to extract lead and eliminate interfering agents in human serum samples. The column was washed with deionized water. The pH was adjusted to the value of 8.2 using phosphate buffer, and then tartrate and cyanide solutions were added as masking agents. The lead content was extracted into the organic phase containing dithizone as a complexion reagent and the dithizone-Pb(II) complex was formed and approved by visible spectrophotometry at 538 nm. The recovery was found to be 84.6 %. In order to validate the method, a calibration curve involving the use of various concentration levels was calculated and proven to be linear in the range of 0.01-1.5 μg/ml, with an R (2) regression coefficient of 0.9968 by statistical analysis of linear model validation. The largest error % values were found to be -5.80 and +11.6 % for intra-day and inter-day measurements, respectively. The largest RSD % values were calculated to be 6.54 and 12.32 % for intra-day and inter-day measurements, respectively. Further, the limit of detection (LOD) was calculated to be 0.002 μg/ml. The developed method was applied to determine the lead content in the human serum of voluntary miners, and it has been proven that there is no statistically significant difference between the data provided from this novel method and the data obtained from previously studied AAS.

  15. Development of the production of lead and precious metals in Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Branislav

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There were several rich deposits of polymetal ores of non-ferrous and precious metals in the region of Imperial Russia and the Soviet Union. Metallurgical production of these metals was developed even a thousand years ago and was in the top of the world at the beginning of the fourth quarter of the twentieth century. The disintegration of the Soviet Union and the change of government structures caused a reduction of metallurgical production, but there are all conditions to intensify and increase the production of non-ferrous and precious metals in Russia and other former Soviet republics, which are now middle-asian countries.

  16. Maternal antibody transfer can lead to suppression of humoral immunity in developing zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Loren; Grindstaff, Jennifer L

    2014-01-01

    Maternally transferred antibodies have been documented in a wide range of taxa and are thought to adaptively provide protection against parasites and pathogens while the offspring immune system is developing. In most birds, transfer occurs when females deposit immunoglobulin Y into the egg yolk, and it is proportional to the amount in the female's plasma. Maternal antibodies can provide short-term passive protection as well as specific and nonspecific immunological priming, but high levels of maternal antibody can result in suppression of the offspring's humoral immune response. We injected adult female zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) with one of two antigens (lipopolysaccharide [LPS] or keyhole limpet hemocyanin [KLH]) or a control and then injected offspring with LPS, KLH, or a control on days 5 and 28 posthatch to examine the impact of maternally transferred antibodies on the ontogeny of the offspring's humoral immune system. We found that offspring of females exposed to KLH had elevated levels of KLH-reactive antibody over the first 17-28 days posthatch but reduced KLH-specific antibody production between days 28 and 36. We also found that offspring exposed to either LPS or KLH exhibited reduced total antibody levels, compared to offspring that received a control injection. These results indicate that high levels of maternal antibodies or antigen exposure during development can have negative repercussions on short-term antibody production and may have long-term fitness repercussions for the offspring.

  17. Leading trends in environmental regulation that affect energy development. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steele, R V; Attaway, L D; Christerson, J A; Kikel, D A; Kuebler, J D; Lupatkin, B M; Liu, C S; Meyer, R; Peyton, T O; Sussin, M H

    1980-01-01

    Major environmental issues that are likely to affect the implementation of energy technologies between now and the year 2000 are identified and assessed. The energy technologies specifically addressed are: oil recovery and processing; gas recovery and processing; coal liquefaction; coal gasification (surface); in situ coal gasification; direct coal combustion; advanced power systems; magnetohydrodynamics; surface oil shale retorting; true and modified in situ oil shale retorting; geothermal energy; biomass energy conversion; and nuclear power (fission). Environmental analyses of these technologies included, in addition to the main processing steps, the complete fuel cycle from resource extraction to end use. A comprehensive survey of the environmental community (including environmental groups, researchers, and regulatory agencies) was carried out in parallel with an analysis of the technologies to identify important future environmental issues. Each of the final 20 issues selected by the project staff has the following common attributes: consensus of the environmental community that the issue is important; it is a likely candidate for future regulatory action; it deals with a major environmental aspect of energy development. The analyses of the 20 major issues address their environmental problem areas, current regulatory status, and the impact of future regulations. These analyses are followed by a quantitative assessment of the impact on energy costs and nationwide pollutant emissions of possible future regulations. This is accomplished by employing the Strategic Environmental Assessment System (SEAS) for a subset of the 20 major issues. The report concludes with a more general discussion of the impact of environmental regulatory action on energy development.

  18. Comparing growth phenology of co-occurring deciduous and evergreen conifers exposed to drought

    OpenAIRE

    Swidrak, Irene; Schuster, Roman; Oberhuber, Walter

    2013-01-01

    Plant phenological events are influenced by climate factors such as temperature and rainfall. To evaluate phenological responses to water availability in a Spring Heath-Pine wood (Erico-Pinetum typicum), the focus of this study was to determine intra-annual dynamics of apical and lateral growth of co-occurring early successional Larix decidua and Pinus sylvestris and late successional Picea abies exposed to drought. The effect of reduced plant water availability on growth phenology was invest...

  19. Anatomical and phenological implications of the relationship between Schinus polygama (Cav.) (Cabrera) and the galling insect Calophya rubra (Blanchard).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedes, L M; Aguilera, N; Ferreira, B G; Becerra, J; Hernández, V; Isaias, R M S

    2018-05-01

    The success of galling insects could be determined by synchronisation with host plant phenology and climate conditions, ensuring suitable oviposition sites for gall induction and food resources for their survival. The anatomical, histochemical and phenological synchronisation strategies between Calophya rubra (Blanchard) (Hemiptera: Psylloidea) and its host, the evergreen plant Schinus polygama (Cav.) (Cabrera) (Anacardiaceae), in the Mediterranean climate of southern Chile was evaluated and compared to that of the congeneric C. cf. duvauae (Scott) from Brazil and closely related host plant S. engleri in a subtropical climate. Anatomical, histometric, histochemical and vegetative phenology studies of the stem and galls were conducted from June 2015 to December 2016. Based on the anatomical, histometric and histochemical analysis, the conical stem gall traits imply gains over the non-galled stem toward the galling insect survival, but the maintenance of phellem, secretory ducts and pith indicate conservative developmental traits that cannot be manipulated by C. rubra. Our results indicate that the conditions of the Mediterranean climate zone limit C. rubra immature activity during unfavourable periods, probably determining a diapause period and a univoltine life cycle, which are peculiarities of the S. polygama- C. rubra system. The synchronisation between development and seasonality confers peculiarities to the S. polygama- C. rubra system in the Mediterranean climate zone. © 2018 German Society for Plant Sciences and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  20. Using Aoristic Analysis to Link Remote and Ground-Level Phenological Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henebry, G. M.

    2013-12-01

    Phenology is about observing events in time and space. With the advent of publically accessible geospatial datastreams and easy to use mapping software, specifying where an event occurs is much less of a challenge than it was just two decades ago. In contrast, specifying when an event occurs remains a nontrivial function of a population of organismal responses, sampling interval, compositing period, and reporting precision. I explore how aoristic analysis can be used to analyzing spatiotemporal events for which the location is known to acceptable levels of precision but for which temporal coordinates are poorly specified or only partially bounded. Aoristic analysis was developed in the late 1990s in the field of quantitative criminology to leverage temporally imprecise geospatial data of crime reports. Here I demonstrate how aoristic analysis can be used to link remotely sensed observations of land surface phenology to ground-level observations of organismal phenophase transitions. Explicit representation of the windows of temporal uncertainty with aoristic weights enables cross-validation exercises and forecasting efforts to avoid false precision.

  1. Phenology and Growth dynamics of Avicennia marina in the Central Red Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almahasheer, Hanan; Duarte, Carlos M.; Irigoien, Xabier

    2016-01-01

    The formation of nodes, stem elongation and the phenology of stunted Avicennia marina was examined in the Central Red Sea, where Avicennia marina is at the limit of its distribution range and submitted to extremely arid conditions with salinity above 38 psu and water temperature as high as 35° C. The annual node production was rather uniform among locations averaging 9.59 node y−1, which resulted in a plastocron interval, the interval in between production of two consecutive nodes along a stem, of 38 days. However, the internodal length varied significantly between locations, resulting in growth differences possibly reflecting the environmental conditions of locations. The reproductive cycle lasted for approximately 12 months, and was characterized by peak flowering and propagule development in November and January. These phenological observations provide a starting point for research and restoration programs on the ecology of mangroves in the Central Red Sea, while the plastochrone index reported here would allow calculations of the growth and production of the species from simple morphological measurements. PMID:27892956

  2. Grapevine tissues and phenology differentially affect soluble carbohydrates determination by capillary electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Daniela; Berli, Federico; Bottini, Rubén; Piccoli, Patricia N; Silva, María F

    2017-09-01

    Soluble carbohydrates distribution depends on plant physiology and, among other important factors, determines fruit yield and quality. In plant biology, the analysis of sugars is useful for many purposes, including metabolic studies. Capillary electrophoresis (CE) proved to be a powerful green separation technique with minimal sample preparation, even in complex plant tissues, that can provide high-resolution efficiency. Matrix effect refers to alterations in the analytical response caused by components of a sample other than the analyte of interest. Thus, the assessment and reduction of the matrix factor is fundamental for metabolic studies in different matrices. The present study evaluated the source and levels of matrix effects in the determination of most abundant sugars in grapevine tissues (mature and young leaves, berries and roots) at two phenological growth stages. Sucrose was the sugar that showed the least matrix effects, while fructose was the most affected analyte. Based on plant tissues, young leaves presented the smaller matrix effects, irrespectively of the phenology. These changes may be attributed to considerable differences at chemical composition of grapevine tissues with plant development. Therefore, matrix effect should be an important concern for plant metabolomics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Phenology and Growth dynamics of Avicennia marina in the Central Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Almahasheer, Hanan

    2016-11-28

    The formation of nodes, stem elongation and the phenology of stunted Avicennia marina was examined in the Central Red Sea, where Avicennia marina is at the limit of its distribution range and submitted to extremely arid conditions with salinity above 38 psu and water temperature as high as 35° C. The annual node production was rather uniform among locations averaging 9.59 node y−1, which resulted in a plastocron interval, the interval in between production of two consecutive nodes along a stem, of 38 days. However, the internodal length varied significantly between locations, resulting in growth differences possibly reflecting the environmental conditions of locations. The reproductive cycle lasted for approximately 12 months, and was characterized by peak flowering and propagule development in November and January. These phenological observations provide a starting point for research and restoration programs on the ecology of mangroves in the Central Red Sea, while the plastochrone index reported here would allow calculations of the growth and production of the species from simple morphological measurements.

  4. Climate-related variation in plant peak biomass and growth phenology across Pacific Northwest tidal marshes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffington, Kevin J.; Dugger, Bruce D.; Thorne, Karen M.

    2018-01-01

    The interannual variability of tidal marsh plant phenology is largely unknown and may have important ecological consequences. Marsh plants are critical to the biogeomorphic feedback processes that build estuarine soils, maintain marsh elevation relative to sea level, and sequester carbon. We calculated Tasseled Cap Greenness, a metric of plant biomass, using remotely sensed data available in the Landsat archive to assess how recent climate variation has affected biomass production and plant phenology across three maritime tidal marshes in the Pacific Northwest of the United States. First, we used clipped vegetation plots at one of our sites to confirm that tasseled cap greenness provided a useful measure of aboveground biomass (r2 = 0.72). We then used multiple measures of biomass each growing season over 20–25 years per study site and developed models to test how peak biomass and the date of peak biomass varied with 94 climate and sea-level metrics using generalized linear models and Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) model selection. Peak biomass was positively related to total annual precipitation, while the best predictor for date of peak biomass was average growing season temperature, with the peak 7.2 days earlier per degree C. Our study provides insight into how plants in maritime tidal marshes respond to interannual climate variation and demonstrates the utility of time-series remote sensing data to assess ecological responses to climate stressors.

  5. Improvement of Management of Rhagoletis Cerasi in Bosnia and Herzegovina Based on a Phenological Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nježić Branimir

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available European cherry fruit fly (Rhagoletis cerasi is the key pest of sweet and sour cherry throughout Europe. Pest management is usually based on pesticide application. The key of successful management is knowing the proper time of pesticide application, based on the phenological model. To develop a phenological model, a local population of the pest from the northern part of Bosnia and Herzegovina was studied. First adult appearance and population densities were monitored by yellow sticky traps. Soil and air temperatures were compared at two thermal thresholds, 5 °C and 7 °C. Air temperature was applied in the model since it is more suitable for farmers and is related to soil temperature. Both thermal thresholds can be used. The first adult flies were captured after 435 degree-days (dd and the first cumulative 5% of the catch after 605 dd. These two times should be considered for time of application of pesticides. Regarding time for first egg hatch, the first larva burrowed into fruits at 730 dd. Cultivars that can be harvested beginning on the 730 dd calculate from 1 March are considered to have low risk of cherry fruit fly damage.

  6. Morphological and phenological shoot plasticity in a Mediterranean evergreen oak facing long-term increased drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limousin, Jean-Marc; Rambal, Serge; Ourcival, Jean-Marc; Rodríguez-Calcerrada, Jesus; Pérez-Ramos, Ignacio M; Rodríguez-Cortina, Raquel; Misson, Laurent; Joffre, Richard

    2012-06-01

    Mediterranean trees must adjust their canopy leaf area to the unpredictable timing and severity of summer drought. The impact of increased drought on the canopy dynamics of the evergreen Quercus ilex was studied by measuring shoot growth, leaf production, litterfall, leafing phenology and leaf demography in a mature forest stand submitted to partial throughfall exclusion for 7 years. The leaf area index rapidly declined in the throughfall-exclusion plot and was 19% lower than in the control plot after 7 years of treatment. Consequently, leaf litterfall was significantly lower in the dry treatment. Such a decline in leaf area occurred through a change in branch allometry with a decreased number of ramifications produced and a reduction of the leaf area supported per unit sapwood area of the shoot (LA/SA). The leafing phenology was slightly delayed and the median leaf life span was slightly longer in the dry treatment. The canopy dynamics in both treatments were driven by water availability with a 1-year lag: leaf shedding and production were reduced following dry years; in contrast, leaf turnover was increased following wet years. The drought-induced decrease in leaf area, resulting from both plasticity in shoot development and slower leaf turnover, appeared to be a hydraulic adjustment to limit canopy transpiration and maintain leaf-specific hydraulic conductivity under drier conditions.

  7. Climate-related variation in plant peak biomass and growth phenology across Pacific Northwest tidal marshes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffington, Kevin J.; Dugger, Bruce D.; Thorne, Karen M.

    2018-03-01

    The interannual variability of tidal marsh plant phenology is largely unknown and may have important ecological consequences. Marsh plants are critical to the biogeomorphic feedback processes that build estuarine soils, maintain marsh elevation relative to sea level, and sequester carbon. We calculated Tasseled Cap Greenness, a metric of plant biomass, using remotely sensed data available in the Landsat archive to assess how recent climate variation has affected biomass production and plant phenology across three maritime tidal marshes in the Pacific Northwest of the United States. First, we used clipped vegetation plots at one of our sites to confirm that tasseled cap greenness provided a useful measure of aboveground biomass (r2 = 0.72). We then used multiple measures of biomass each growing season over 20-25 years per study site and developed models to test how peak biomass and the date of peak biomass varied with 94 climate and sea-level metrics using generalized linear models and Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) model selection. Peak biomass was positively related to total annual precipitation, while the best predictor for date of peak biomass was average growing season temperature, with the peak 7.2 days earlier per degree C. Our study provides insight into how plants in maritime tidal marshes respond to interannual climate variation and demonstrates the utility of time-series remote sensing data to assess ecological responses to climate stressors.

  8. Nesting biology and phenology of a population of Halictus farinosus Smith (Hymenoptera, Halictidae in northern Utah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Albert

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Nesting biology and phenology in an aggregation of the primitively eusocial ground-nesting bee Halictus farinosus were studied at Green Canyon, Utah from May to August, 2010. Nest architecture was typical of the genus. Nests were small with an average of 3.5 worker and 13.5 reproductive brood per colony. Most workers were mated (77.5% and had ovarian development (73.4%. The queen-worker size differential was moderate (8.8% for head width and 6.2% for wing length, indicating that sociality in this species is of intermediate strength compared to other social Halictus species. Results from 2010 were compared with those from 1977/1978 and 2002. Varying weather patterns in the years of study led to changes in phenological milestones: in the colder and wetter spring of 2010, nesting behavior was delayed by up to two weeks compared to the other years. While nest productivity was comparable among years, in 2010 the size difference between queens and workers was significantly larger than in 2002, indicating an effect of annual variation in weather conditions on social parameters in this species.

  9. Phenological observations on shrubs to predict weed emergence in turf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masin, Roberta; Zuin, Maria Clara; Zanin, Giuseppe

    2005-09-01

    Phenology is the study of periodic biological events. If we can find easily recognizable events in common plants that precede or coincide with weed emergences, these plants could be used as indicators. Weed seedlings are usually difficult to detect in turf, so the use of phenological indicators may provide an alternative approach to predict the time when a weed appears and consequently guide management decisions. A study was undertaken to determine whether the phenological phases of some plants could serve as reliable indicators of time of weed emergence in turf. The phenology of six shrubs (Crataegus monogyna Jacq., Forsythia viridissima Lindl., Sambucus nigra L., Syringa vulgaris L., Rosa multiflora Thunb., Ziziphus jujuba Miller) and a perennial herbaceous plant [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.] was observed and the emergence dynamics of four annual weed species [Digitaria sanguinalis (L.) Scop., Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertner, Setaria glauca (L.) Beauv., Setaria viridis (L.) Beauv.] were studied from 1999 to 2004 in northern Italy. A correlation between certain events and weed emergence was verified. S. vulgaris and F. viridissima appear to be the best indicators: there is a quite close correspondence between the appearance of D. sanguinalis and lilac flowering and between the beginning of emergence of E. indica and the end of lilac flowering; emergences of S. glauca and S. viridis were predicted well in relation to the end of forsythia flowering. Base temperatures and starting dates required to calculate the heat unit sums to reach and complete the flowering phase of the indicators were calculated using two different methods and the resultant cumulative growing degree days were compared.

  10. Phenological records as a complement to aerobiological data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tormo, Rafael; Silva, Inmaculada; Gonzalo, Ángela; Moreno, Alfonsa; Pérez, Remedios; Fernández, Santiago

    2011-01-01

    Phenological studies in combination with aerobiological studies enable one to observe the relationship between the release of pollen and its presence in the atmosphere. To obtain a suitable comparison between the daily variation of airborne pollen concentrations and flowering, it is necessary for the level of accuracy of both sets of data to be as similar as possible. To analyse the correlation between locally observed flowering data and pollen counts in pollen traps in order to set pollen information forecasts, pollen was sampled using a Burkard volumetric pollen trap working continuously from May 1993. For the phenological study we selected the main pollen sources of the six pollen types most abundant in our area: Cupressaceae, Platanus, Quercus, Plantago, Olea, and Poaceae with a total of 35 species. We selected seven sites to register flowering or pollination, two with semi-natural vegetation, the rest being urban sites. The sites were visited weekly from March to June in 2007, and from January to June in 2008 and 2009. Pollen shedding was checked at each visit, and recorded as the percentage of flowers or microsporangia in that state. There was an association between flowering phenology and airborne pollen records for some of the pollen types ( Platanus, Quercus, Olea and Plantago). Nevertheless, for the other types (Cupressaceae and Poaceae) the flowering and airborne pollen peaks did not coincide, with up to 1 week difference in phase. Some arguments are put forward in explanation of this phenomenon. Phenological studies have shown that airborne pollen results from both local and distant sources, although the pollen peaks usually appear when local sources are shedding the greatest amounts of pollen. Resuspension phenomena are probably more important than long-distance transport in explaining the presence of airborne pollen outside the flowering period. This information could be used to improve pollen forecasts.

  11. Development of new reference materials for the determination of cadmium, chromium, mercury and lead in polycarbonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kil Jae; Lee, Yeo Jin; Choi, Young Rak; Kim, Jeong Sook; Kim, Youn Sung; Heo, Soo Bong

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► RMs for the determination of Cd, Cr, Hg and Pb in polycarbonate were developed. ► Double ID-ICP-MS technique was used for characterization of candidate RMs. ► The certified values for the elements ranged from 51.7 to 1133 mg kg −1 . ► The relative expanded uncertainties were shown to be less than 5.4%. ► New RMs were found to be suitable for the RoHS compliant tests. - Abstract: Reference materials for quantitative determination of Cd, Cr, Hg and Pb in polycarbonate were developed. Reference materials with two concentration level of elements were prepared by adding appropriate amounts of chemicals to a blank polycarbonate base material. It was shown that ten bottles with triplicate analysis are enough to demonstrate the homogeneity of these candidate reference materials. The statistical results also showed no significant trends in both short-term stability test for four weeks and long-term stability test for twelve months. The certification of the four elements was carried out by isotope-dilution-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ID-ICP-MS) with microwave-assisted digestion. Certification of candidate reference materials in a single laboratory was confirmed with interlaboratory comparison participated by a certain number of well-recognized testing laboratories in Korea. The certified values and expanded uncertainties (k = 2) for the candidate reference material with low level and the one with high level were (51.7 ± 2.1) mg kg −1 Cd, (103.8 ± 2.9) mg kg −1 Cd, (98.8 ± 4.5) mg kg −1 Cr, (1004 ± 49.8) mg kg −1 Cr, (107.4 ± 4.6) mg kg −1 Hg, (1133 ± 50.7) mg kg −1 Hg, (94.8 ± 3.7) mg kg −1 Pb and (988.4 ± 53.6) mg kg −1 Pb, respectively. The reference materials developed in this study demonstrated their suitability for the quality assurance in Cd, Cr, Hg and Pb analysis for the implementation of RoHS Directive.

  12. 94-1 Research and Development Project Lead laboratory support. Status report, October 1--December 31, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dinehart, M. [comp.

    1996-05-01

    This is a quarterly progress report of the 94-1 Research and Development Lead Laboratory Support Technical Program Plan for the first quarter of FY 1996. The report provides details concerning descriptions, DOE-complex-wide material stabilization technology needs, scientific background and approach, progress, benefits to the DOE complex, and collaborations for selected subprojects. An executive summary and report on end-of-quarter spending is included.

  13. 94-1 Research and Development Project Lead laboratory support. Status report, October 1--December 31, 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinehart, M.

    1996-05-01

    This is a quarterly progress report of the 94-1 Research and Development Lead Laboratory Support Technical Program Plan for the first quarter of FY 1996. The report provides details concerning descriptions, DOE-complex-wide material stabilization technology needs, scientific background and approach, progress, benefits to the DOE complex, and collaborations for selected subprojects. An executive summary and report on end-of-quarter spending is included

  14. Will China’s Development lead to Mexico’s Underdevelopment?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen C. Schwartzman

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available China has become an important global actor in the arenas of production, trade, and foreign investment. In 1948, China contributed slightly less than 1 percent to global exports; by 2013, it had grown to almost 12 percent. Has China's vertiginous trade growth come at the expense of other exporters or does it represent an expansion of new consumer markets? For policy makers in the so-called "emerging markets," this is most relevant since many have adopted the export-led model as their engine of development. The goal of this article is to add to the current literature on the effect of China's growth on Mexico. Combining elements of world-systems, race-to-the-bottom, and global commodity chain frameworks, I analyze the consequences of China's export growth in garlic. The evidence strongly suggests that China's entrance into this global market has had deleterious consequences for Mexico's production and exports.

  15. Research, development, and demonstration of lead-acid batteries for electric vehicle propulsion. Annual report, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-06-01

    The initial phase of work comprises three factorial experiments to evaluate a variety of component combinations. Goals to be met by these batteries include the following: capacity at 3 h discharge, 20 to 30 kWh; specific energy, 40 Wh/kg; specific power, 1000 W/kg for 15 s; cycle life, 800 cycles to 80% depth; price, $50/kWh. The status of the factorial experiments is reviewed. The second phase of work, design of an advanced battery, has the following goals: 30 to 40 kWh; 60 Wh/kg; 150 W/kg for 15 s; 1000 cycles to 80% depth; $40/kWh. It is not yet possible to say whether these goals can be met. Numerous approaches are under study to increase the utilization of battery chemicals. A battery design with no live electrical connection above the battery is being developed. 52 figures, 52 tables. (RWR)

  16. Renewable Energy Feasibility Study Leading to Development of the Native Spirit Solar Energy Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carolyn Stewart; Tracey LeBeau

    2008-01-31

    DOE-funded renewable energy feasibility study conducted by Red Mountain Tribal Energy on behalf of the Southwest Tribal Energy Consortium (SWTEC). During the course of the study, SWTEC members considered multiple options for the organization structure, selected a proposed organization structure, and drafted a Memorandum of Understanding for the SWTEC organization. High-level resource assessments for SWTEC members were completed; surveys were developed and completed to determine each member’s interest in multiple participation options, including on-reservation projects. With the survey inputs in mind, multiple energy project options were identified and evaluated on a high-level basis. That process led to a narrowing of the field of technology options to solar generation, specifically, utility-scale Concentrating Solar-Powered Generation projects, with a specific, tentative project location identified at the Fort Mojave Indian Reservation -- the Native Spirit Solar Energy Facility.

  17. Package Technology for Manufacture of Caprolactam Developed by SINOPEC Commands Internationally Leading Position

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ In October one of SINOPEC's ten core projects to be tackled- "Development of package technology for the 140kt/a caprolactam unit" had passed the technical appraisal organized by the SINOPEC Group.This package technology integrates new techniques relating to the production of cyclohexanone via oxidation of ethylene oxide,the production of cyclohexanone-oxime through ammoximation of cyclohexanone,the triple rearrangement of cyclohexanoneoxime,and the purification ofcaprolactam.The overall package technology has reached the internationally advanced level with independent intellectual property rights,and has filed or has been granted a lot of Chinese and overseas patents.This package technology has been successfully adopted in commercial scale at the Baling Petrochemical Company.

  18. THERMAL TIME FOR REPRODUCTIVE PHENOLOGICAL STAGES OF PINEAPPLE GUAVA (Acca sellowiana (O. Berg Burret

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso PARRA-CORONADO

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Crop development of feijoa (Acca sellowiana (O. Berg Burret is mainly stimulated by temperature, but is also affected by other climatic factors. The determination of the development in terms of thermal time or growing degree days (GDD is more precise than calendar days. The aim of this study was to propose a phenological model for feijoa cv. Quimba, in which the base temperature (Tb for four different phenological stages and its duration in terms of GDD is estimated to predict the timing of anthesis, fruit setting and harvesting. During the years 2012 to 2014, in two localities of the department of Cundinamarca, Colombia, twenty trees per farm were labeled, dates of occurrence of phenological stages, starting from floral button were recorded. Tb was estimated using the method of minimum coefficient of variation, as well as duration of the four reproductive phenological stages in terms of GDD. The results showed that Tb and GDD vary depending on the stage of development of the crop; in general, an average of 2651 GDD and 189 days is required to reach the flower bud to the fruit harvest. The parameters of the regression analysis showed that the model successfully predicted phenological stages when estimated Tb for each of them was used, with high determination coefficient. Cross-validation showed good statistical fit between predicted and observed values; intercept was not significantly different from zero (p <0.05 and the slope was statistically equal to one TIEMPO TÉRMICO PARA ESTADOS FENOLÓGICOS REPRODUCTIVOS DE LA FEIJOA (Acca sellowiana (O. Berg Burret El desarrollo del cultivo de feijoa (Acca sellowiana (O. Berg Burret es principalmente estimulado por la temperatura, pero también es afectado por otros factores climáticos. La determinación del desarrollo en términos de tiempo térmico o grados día de crecimiento (GDC es más precisa que en días calendario. El objetivo de este estudio fue proponer un modelo fenológico para la feijoa

  19. Materials, Manufacturing, and Test Development of a Composite Fan Blade Leading Edge Subcomponent for Improved Impact Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Sandi G.; Handschuh, Katherine; Sinnott, Matthew J.; Kohlman, Lee W.; Roberts, Gary D.; Martin, Richard E.; Ruggeri, Charles R.; Pereira, J. Michael

    2015-01-01

    Application of polymer matrix composite materials for jet engine fan blades is becoming attractive as an alternative to metallic blades; particularly for large engines where significant weight savings are recognized on moving to a composite structure. However, the weight benefit of the composite is offset by a reduction of aerodynamic efficiency resulting from a necessary increase in blade thickness; relative to the titanium blades. Blade dimensions are largely driven by resistance to damage on bird strike. Further development of the composite material is necessary to allow composite blade designs to approximate the dimensions of a metallic fan blade. The reduction in thickness over the state of the art composite blades is expected to translate into structural weight reduction, improved aerodynamic efficiency, and therefore reduced fuel consumption. This paper presents test article design, subcomponent blade leading edge fabrication, test method development, and initial results from ballistic impact of a gelatin projectile on the leading edge of composite fan blades. The simplified test article geometry was developed to realistically simulate a blade leading edge while decreasing fabrication complexity. Impact data is presented on baseline composite blades and toughened blades; where a considerable improvement to impact resistance was recorded.

  20. From Ignoring to Leading Changes – What Role do Universities Play in Developing Countries? (Case of Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavica Singer

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Using the model of entrepreneurial university, the paper presents major blockages (university’s own institutional rigidity, fragmented organization, lack of mutual trust between the business sector and universities, no real benchmarks, legal framework not supportive of opening the university to new initiatives in Triple Helix interactions in Croatia. Comparing identified blockages with expectations (multidimensional campus, cooperation with the business sector and other stakeholders in designing new educational and research programs expressed by HEIs in developed countries around the world (2008 EIU survey indicates new challenges for universities in developing countries. With Triple Helix approach, not confined within national borders, but as an international networking opportunity, these challenges can be seen as opportunities, otherwise they are threats. On the scale of ignoring, observing, participating and leading positive changes in its surroundings, for the purpose of measuring vitality of Triple Helix interactions, Croatian universities are located more between ignoring and observing position. To move them towards a leading position, coordinated and consistent policies are needed in order to focus on eliminating identified blockages. Universities should take the lead in this process; otherwise they are losing credibility as desired partners in developing space for Triple Helix interactions.

  1. Variation of Main Phenophases in Phenological Calendar in East China and Their Response to Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengyi Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the phenological data from China Phenological Observation Network, we compiled the phenological calendars of 3 phenological observation stations (Shanghai, Nanjing, and Hefei in East China for 1987–1996 and 2003–2012 according to the sequences of mean phenophases. We calculated the correlated coefficient and the root mean square error (RMSE between phenophases and the beginning of meteorological seasons to determine the beginning date of phenological season. By comparing new phenological calendars with the old ones, we discussed the variation of phenophases and their responses to temperature. The conclusions are as follows. (1 The beginning dates of spring and summer advanced, while those of autumn and winter delayed. Thus, summers got longer and winters got shorter. (2 The beginning time of the four phenological seasons was advancing during 1987–1996, while it was delaying during 2003–2012. (3 Most spring and summer phenophases occur earlier and most autumn and winter phenophases occur later in 2003–2012 than in 1987–1996. (4 The beginning time of phenological seasons was significantly correlated with temperature. The phenological sensitivities to temperature ranged from −6.49 to −6.55 days/°C in spring, −3.65 to −5.02 days/°C in summer, 8.13 to 10.27 days/°C in autumn, and 4.76 to 10.00 days/°C in winter.

  2. Interannual variability of net ecosystem productivity in forests is explained by carbon flux phenology in autumn

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Chaoyang; Chen, Xi Jing; Black, T. Andrew

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the importance of autumn phenology in controlling interannual variability of forest net ecosystem productivity (NEP) and to derive new phenological metrics to explain the interannual variability of NEP. North America and Europe. Flux data from nine deciduous broadleaf forests (DBF......, soil water content and precipitation, were also used to explain the phenological variations. We found that interannual variability of NEP can be largely explained by autumn phenology, i.e. the autumn lag. While variation in neither annual gross primary productivity (GPP) nor in annual ecosystem...

  3. Space flight research leading to the development of enhanced plant products: Results from STS-94

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stodieck, Louis S.; Hoehn, Alex; Heyenga, A. Gerard

    1998-01-01

    Products derived from plants, such as foods, pharmaceuticals, lumber, paper, oils, etc., are pervasive in everyday life and generate revenues in the hundreds of billions of dollars. Research on space-grown plants has the potential to alter quantities, properties and types of plant-derived products in beneficial ways. Research on space grown plants may help expand the utilization of this resource for Earth based benefit to an even greater extent. The use of space flight conditions may help provide a greater understanding and ultimate manipulation of the metabolic and genetic control of commercially important plant products. Companies that derive and sell plant products could significantly benefit from investing in space research and development. A flight investigation was conducted on the Shuttle mission STS-94 to establish the initial experimental conditions necessary to test the hypothesis that the exposure of certain plant forms to an adequate period of microgravity may divert the cell metabolic expenditure on structural compounds such as lignin to alternative secondary metabolic compounds which are of commercial interest. Nine species of plants were grown for 16 days in the Astro/Plant Generic Bioprocessing Apparatus (Astro/PGBA) under well-controlled environmental conditions. Approximately half of the plant species exhibited significant growth comparable with synchronous ground controls. The other flight plant species were stunted and showed signs of stress with the cause still under investigation. For the plants that grew well, analyses are underway and are expected to demonstrate the potential for space flight biotechnology research.

  4. Meeting the Sustainable Development Goals leads to lower world population growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, Guy J; Barakat, Bilal; Kc, Samir; Lutz, Wolfgang

    2016-12-13

    Here we show the extent to which the expected world population growth could be lowered by successfully implementing the recently agreed-upon Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The SDGs include specific quantitative targets on mortality, reproductive health, and education for all girls by 2030, measures that will directly and indirectly affect future demographic trends. Based on a multidimensional model of population dynamics that stratifies national populations by age, sex, and level of education with educational fertility and mortality differentials, we translate these goals into SDG population scenarios, resulting in population sizes between 8.2 and 8.7 billion in 2100. Because these results lie outside the 95% prediction range given by the 2015 United Nations probabilistic population projections, we complement the study with sensitivity analyses of these projections that suggest that those prediction intervals are too narrow because of uncertainty in baseline data, conservative assumptions on correlations, and the possibility of new policies influencing these trends. Although the analysis presented here rests on several assumptions about the implementation of the SDGs and the persistence of educational, fertility, and mortality differentials, it quantitatively illustrates the view that demography is not destiny and that policies can make a decisive difference. In particular, advances in female education and reproductive health can contribute greatly to reducing world population growth.

  5. The cornucopia of meaningful leads: Applying deep adversarial autoencoders for new molecule development in oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadurin, Artur; Aliper, Alexander; Kazennov, Andrey; Mamoshina, Polina; Vanhaelen, Quentin; Khrabrov, Kuzma; Zhavoronkov, Alex

    2017-02-14

    Recent advances in deep learning and specifically in generative adversarial networks have demonstrated surprising results in generating new images and videos upon request even using natural language as input. In this paper we present the first application of generative adversarial autoencoders (AAE) for generating novel molecular fingerprints with a defined set of parameters. We developed a 7-layer AAE architecture with the latent middle layer serving as a discriminator. As an input and output the AAE uses a vector of binary fingerprints and concentration of the molecule. In the latent layer we also introduced a neuron responsible for growth inhibition percentage, which when negative indicates the reduction in the number of tumor cells after the treatment. To train the AAE we used the NCI-60 cell line assay data for 6252 compounds profiled on MCF-7 cell line. The output of the AAE was used to screen 72 million compounds in PubChem and select candidate molecules with potential anti-cancer properties. This approach is a proof of concept of an artificially-intelligent drug discovery engine, where AAEs are used to generate new molecular fingerprints with the desired molecular properties.

  6. PHENOLOGY AND REPRODUCTION OF CAMPOMANESIA ADAMANTIUM (CAMBESS. O. BERG (MYRTACEAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. F. L. Araújo

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The Campomanesia genus has several species with high diversity of uses. C. adamantium is one such species with high economic potential due to the varied potential uses of fruits and other plant parts. Like most native Cerrado species, there is a lack of agronomic information that will enable the start of commercial crops, in this regard the information on growth and development of plants and propagation of this species should be prioritized. Now, the information we have of the Campomanesia genus allows us to relate the reproductive period with high temperatures and the begining of rains, but could not find data in the literature about C. adamantium. For most species in this genus, the usual way propagation is via seeds is, therefore important to determine the period during which the embryos are more apt to produce a good seedling, period known how physiological maturity. The correlation of physiological maturity of seeds with fruits aspects are more practical and simple ways to guide the collection of seeds. For this species are correlated with the total soluble solids. For other species of the genus, as C. xanthocarpa is possible to correlate the maturity of seeds with the color of the epicarp. Existing assessments on the use of seeds in the spread of C. adamantium reporting low germination rates, unsatisfactory development of plants in the field beyond the sensitivity of drying and storage, characteristics of recalcitrant seeds. In literature data showed maintaining the viability of C. adamantium when seed water content is levels approaching 15% but with high sensitivity to storage. Biometrical characteristics of fruits and seeds are also important in the search for high-quality propagation material, in addition to providing important information about the genetic variability of populations and identification of species of the same genus. Just the high physiological quality of seeds is not guarantee for the success on seedling emergence, the

  7. Expression of truncated PITX3 in the developing lens leads to microphthalmia and aphakia in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenta Wada

    Full Text Available Microphthalmia is a severe ocular disorder, and this condition is typically caused by mutations in transcription factors that are involved in eye development. Mice carrying mutations in these transcription factors would be useful tools for defining the mechanisms underlying developmental eye disorders. We discovered a new spontaneous recessive microphthalmos mouse mutant in the Japanese wild-derived inbred strain KOR1/Stm. The homozygous mutant mice were histologically characterized as microphthalmic by the absence of crystallin in the lens, a condition referred to as aphakia. By positional cloning, we identified the nonsense mutation c.444C>A outside the genomic region that encodes the homeodomain of the paired-like homeodomain transcription factor 3 gene (Pitx3 as the mutation responsible for the microphthalmia and aphakia. We examined Pitx3 mRNA expression of mutant mice during embryonic stages using RT-PCR and found that the expression levels are higher than in wild-type mice. Pitx3 over-expression in the lens during developmental stages was also confirmed at the protein level in the microphthalmos mutants via immunohistochemical analyses. Although lens fiber differentiation was not observed in the mutants, strong PITX3 protein signals were observed in the lens vesicles of the mutant lens. Thus, we speculated that abnormal PITX3, which lacks the C-terminus (including the OAR domain as a result of the nonsense mutation, is expressed in mutant lenses. We showed that the expression of the downstream genes Foxe3, Prox1, and Mip was altered because of the Pitx3 mutation, with large reductions in the lens vesicles in the mutants. Similar profiles were observed by immunohistochemical analysis of these proteins. The expression profiles of crystallins were also altered in the mutants. Therefore, we speculated that the microphthalmos/aphakia in this mutant is caused by the expression of truncated PITX3, resulting in the abnormal expression of

  8. Analysis of morpho-agronomic and climatic variables in successive agricultural years provides novel information regarding the phenological cycle of Jatropha in conditions of the Brazilian cerrado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domiciano, Gisele P; Alves, Alexandre A; Laviola, Bruno G; Albrecht, Julio C

    2014-12-01

    Phenological studies can provide information that enables the understanding of the dynamics of plants and how these dynamics are related to the biotic and abiotic environment. In order to study the phenological phases of Jatropha during two agricultural years, agronomic and climatic variables, such as temperature and rainfall, were evaluated. Data for each variable in each year and each genotype were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the differences were tested at 5% probability by F test. In addition, the correlation of growth behavior and reproductive development of two Jatropha accessions (CNPAE-102 and CNPAE-169) as a function of time elapsed after the start of the phenological cycle with climatic variables were analyzed through Pearson's correlation. It was found that: (i) the resuming of plant growth by producing new branches and flowers of both genotypes coincides with the start of the rainy season, (ii) the flowering may be related to the increase in temperature and rainfall; (iii) the number of inflorescences per plant and number of female flowers determine the number of green fruits, (iv) the environmental changes are responsible for the delimitation of phenophases; and finally that (v) the responses to phenological changes are genotype-dependent.

  9. Analysis of morpho-agronomic and climatic variables in successive agricultural years provides novel information regarding the phenological cycle of Jatropha in conditions of the Brazilian cerrado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GISELE P. DOMICIANO

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Phenological studies can provide information that enables the understanding of the dynamics of plants and how these dynamics are related to the biotic and abiotic environment. In order to study the phenological phases of Jatropha during two agricultural years, agronomic and climatic variables, such as temperature and rainfall, were evaluated. Data for each variable in each year and each genotype were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA and the differences were tested at 5% probability by F test. In addition, the correlation of growth behavior and reproductive development of two Jatropha accessions (CNPAE-102 and CNPAE-169 as a function of time elapsed after the start of the phenological cycle with climatic variables were analyzed through Pearson's correlation. It was found that: (i the resuming of plant growth by producing new branches and flowers of both genotypes coincides with the start of the rainy season, (ii the flowering may be related to the increase in temperature and rainfall; (iii the number of inflorescences per plant and number of female flowers determine the number of green fruits, (iv the environmental changes are responsible for the delimitation of phenophases; and finally that (v the responses to phenological changes are genotype-dependent.

  10. Linking spring phenology with mechanistic models of host movement to predict disease transmission risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkle, Jerod A.; Cross, Paul C.; Scurlock, Brandon M.; Cole, Eric K.; Courtemanch, Alyson B.; Dewey, Sarah R.; Kauffman, Matthew J.

    2018-01-01

    Disease models typically focus on temporal dynamics of infection, while often neglecting environmental processes that determine host movement. In many systems, however, temporal disease dynamics may be slow compared to the scale at which environmental conditions alter host space-use and accelerate disease transmission.Using a mechanistic movement modelling approach, we made space-use predictions of a mobile host (elk [Cervus Canadensis] carrying the bacterial disease brucellosis) under environmental conditions that change daily and annually (e.g., plant phenology, snow depth), and we used these predictions to infer how spring phenology influences the risk of brucellosis transmission from elk (through aborted foetuses) to livestock in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem.Using data from 288 female elk monitored with GPS collars, we fit step selection functions (SSFs) during the spring abortion season and then implemented a master equation approach to translate SSFs into predictions of daily elk distribution for five plausible winter weather scenarios (from a heavy snow, to an extreme winter drought year). We predicted abortion events by combining elk distributions with empirical estimates of daily abortion rates, spatially varying elk seroprevelance and elk population counts.Our results reveal strong spatial variation in disease transmission risk at daily and annual scales that is strongly governed by variation in host movement in response to spring phenology. For example, in comparison with an average snow year, years with early snowmelt are predicted to have 64% of the abortions occurring on feedgrounds shift to occurring on mainly public lands, and to a lesser extent on private lands.Synthesis and applications. Linking mechanistic models of host movement with disease dynamics leads to a novel bridge between movement and disease ecology. Our analysis framework offers new avenues for predicting disease spread, while providing managers tools to proactively mitigate

  11. A Passive Microwave L-Band Boreal Forest Freeze/Thaw and Vegetation Phenology Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, A.; Sonnentag, O.; Pappas, C.; Mavrovic, A.; Royer, A.; Berg, A. A.; Rowlandson, T. L.; Lemay, J.; Helgason, W.; Barr, A.; Black, T. A.; Derksen, C.; Toose, P.

    2016-12-01

    characteristics including eddy-covariance measurements of carbon dioxide, water and energy exchanges, sap flux density measurements of tree-level water dynamics, L-Band tree permittivity and temperature. The study will lead to improved monitoring of soil F/T and vegetation phenology at the boreal forest-scale from satellite L-Band observations.

  12. Development of a technique for the determination of lead and bromine in atmospheric particles by X-ray fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturges, W. T.; Harrison, Roy M.; Dams, R.

    A methodology has been developed for determining the lead and bromine content of atmospheric particles collected on membrane filters. In a novel calibration procedure, standards were prepared by drying fine precipitates of lead molybdate and silver bromide on to filters. Such standards were evidently free from bromine loss during analysis and storage, and more accurately represent real samples than conventional solution-impregnated filters. Elemental loadings in the range 0.1-10μg could be measured. Inhomogeneous efficiency of detection across the surface of samples was noted, and was accounted for by applying correction factors obtained from an intercomparison of XRF and atomic absorption analyses. Good comparability between Br determinations by XRF and neutron activation analysis was found. Problems of noncomparability between standards and samples of low concentration were noted in some cases.

  13. Characterizing phenological vegetation dynamics amidst extreme climate variability in Australia with MODIS VI data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broich, M.; Huete, A. R.; Xuanlon, M.; Davies, K.; Restrepo-Coupe, N.; Ratana, P.

    2012-12-01

    Australia's climate is extremely variable with inter-annual rainfall at any given site varying by 5- or 6-fold or more, across the continent. In addition to such inter-annual variability, there can be significant intra-annual variability, especially in monsoonal Australia (e.g. the wet tropical savannas) and Mediterranean climates in SW Australia where prolonged dry seasons occur each year. This presents unique challenges to the characterization of seasonal dynamics with satellite datasets. In contrast to annual reoccurring temperature-driven phenology of northern hemisphere mid-latitudes, vegetation dynamics of the vast and dry Australian interior are poorly quantified by existing remote sensing products. For example, in the current global-based MODIS phenology product, central Australia is covered by ~30% fill values for any given year. Two challenges are specific to Australian landscapes: first, the difficulty of characterizing seasonality of rainfall-driven ecosystems in interior Australia where duration and magnitude of green-up and brown down cycles show high inter annual variability; second, modeling two phenologic layers, the trees and the grass in savannas were the trees are evergreen but the herbaceous understory varies with rainfall. Savannas cover >50% of Australia. Australia's vegetation and climate are different from other continents. A MODIS phenology product capable of characterizing vegetation dynamics across the continent is being developed in this research as part of the AusCover national expert network aiming to provide Australian biophysical remote sensing data time-series and continental-scale map products. These products aim to support the Terrestrial Ecosystem Research Network (TERN) serving ecosystem research in Australia. The MODIS land surface product for Australia first searches the entire time series of each Climate Modeling Grid pixel for low-high-low extreme point sequences. A double logistic function is then fit to each of these

  14. Transgenerational effects and impact of compensatory responses to changes in breeding phenology on antipredator defenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orizaola, Germán; Richter-Boix, Alex; Laurila, Anssi

    2016-09-01

    As organisms living in temperate environments often have only a short time window for growth and reproduction, their life-history strategies are expected to be influenced by these time constraints. Parents may alter the pace of offspring life-history as a response to changes in breeding phenology. However, the responses to changes in time constraints must be balanced with those against other stressors, such as predation, one of the strongest and more ubiquitous selective factors in nature. Here, after experimentally modifying the timing of breeding and hatching in the moor frog (Rana arvalis), we studied how compensatory responses to delayed breeding and hatching affect antipredator strategies in amphibian larvae. We examined the activity patterns, morphology and life-history responses in tadpoles exposed to different combinations of breeding and hatching delays in the presence and absence of predators. We found clear evidence of adaptive transgenerational effects since tadpoles from delayed breeding treatments increased growth and development independently of predation risk. The presence of predators reduced tadpole activity, tadpoles from delayed breeding treatments maintaining lower activity than non-delayed ones also in the absence of predators. Tadpoles reared with predators developed deeper tails and bodies, however, tadpoles from breeding delay treatments had reduced morphological defenses as compared to non-delayed individuals. No significant effects of hatching delay were detected in this study. Our study reveals that amphibian larvae exposed to breeding delay develop compensatory life-history responses even under predation risk, but these responses trade-off with the development of morphological antipredator defenses. These results suggest that under strong time constraints organisms are selected to develop fast growth and development responses, and rely on lower activity rates as their main antipredator defense. Examining how responses to changes in

  15. Comparison of phenology models for predicting the onset of growing season over the Northern Hemisphere.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Fu

    Full Text Available Vegetation phenology models are important for examining the impact of climate change on the length of the growing season and carbon cycles in terrestrial ecosystems. However, large uncertainties in present phenology models make accurate assessment of the beginning of the growing season (BGS a challenge. In this study, based on the satellite-based phenology product (i.e. the V005 MODIS Land Cover Dynamics (MCD12Q2 product, we calibrated four phenology models, compared their relative strength to predict vegetation phenology; and assessed the spatial pattern and interannual variability of BGS in the Northern Hemisphere. The results indicated that parameter calibration significantly influences the models' accuracy. All models showed good performance in cool regions but poor performance in warm regions. On average, they explained about 67% (the Growing Degree Day model, 79% (the Biome-BGC phenology model, 73% (the Number of Growing Days model and 68% (the Number of Chilling Days-Growing Degree Day model of the BGS variations over the Northern Hemisphere. There were substantial differences in BGS simulations among the four phenology models. Overall, the Biome-BGC phenology model performed best in predicting the BGS, and showed low biases in most boreal and cool regions. Compared with the other three models, the two-phase phenology model (NCD-GDD showed the lowest correlation and largest biases with the MODIS phenology product, although it could catch the interannual variations well for some vegetation types. Our study highlights the need for further improvements by integrating the effects of water availability, especially for plants growing in low latitudes, and the physiological adaptation of plants into phenology models.

  16. Comparison of phenology models for predicting the onset of growing season over the Northern Hemisphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yang; Zhang, Haicheng; Dong, Wenjie; Yuan, Wenping

    2014-01-01

    Vegetation phenology models are important for examining the impact of climate change on the length of the growing season and carbon cycles in terrestrial ecosystems. However, large uncertainties in present phenology models make accurate assessment of the beginning of the growing season (BGS) a challenge. In this study, based on the satellite-based phenology product (i.e. the V005 MODIS Land Cover Dynamics (MCD12Q2) product), we calibrated four phenology models, compared their relative strength to predict vegetation phenology; and assessed the spatial pattern and interannual variability of BGS in the Northern Hemisphere. The results indicated that parameter calibration significantly influences the models' accuracy. All models showed good performance in cool regions but poor performance in warm regions. On average, they explained about 67% (the Growing Degree Day model), 79% (the Biome-BGC phenology model), 73% (the Number of Growing Days model) and 68% (the Number of Chilling Days-Growing Degree Day model) of the BGS variations over the Northern Hemisphere. There were substantial differences in BGS simulations among the four phenology models. Overall, the Biome-BGC phenology model performed best in predicting the BGS, and showed low biases in most boreal and cool regions. Compared with the other three models, the two-phase phenology model (NCD-GDD) showed the lowest correlation and largest biases with the MODIS phenology product, although it could catch the interannual variations well for some vegetation types. Our study highlights the need for further improvements by integrating the effects of water availability, especially for plants growing in low latitudes, and the physiological adaptation of plants into phenology models.

  17. An integrated, indicator framework for assessing large-scale variations and change in seasonal timing and phenology (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancourt, J. L.; Weltzin, J. F.

    2013-12-01

    As part of an effort to develop an Indicator System for the National Climate Assessment (NCA), the Seasonality and Phenology Indicators Technical Team (SPITT) proposed an integrated, continental-scale framework for understanding and tracking seasonal timing in physical and biological systems. The framework shares several metrics with the EPA's National Climate Change Indicators. The SPITT framework includes a comprehensive suite of national indicators to track conditions, anticipate vulnerabilities, and facilitate intervention or adaptation to the extent possible. Observed, modeled, and forecasted seasonal timing metrics can inform a wide spectrum of decisions on federal, state, and private lands in the U.S., and will be pivotal for international efforts to mitigation and adaptation. Humans use calendars both to understand the natural world and to plan their lives. Although the seasons are familiar concepts, we lack a comprehensive understanding of how variability arises in the timing of seasonal transitions in the atmosphere, and how variability and change translate and propagate through hydrological, ecological and human systems. For example, the contributions of greenhouse warming and natural variability to secular trends in seasonal timing are difficult to disentangle, including earlier spring transitions from winter (strong westerlies) to summer (weak easterlies) patterns of atmospheric circulation; shifts in annual phasing of daily temperature means and extremes; advanced timing of snow and ice melt and soil thaw at higher latitudes and elevations; and earlier start and longer duration of the growing and fire seasons. The SPITT framework aims to relate spatiotemporal variability in surface climate to (1) large-scale modes of natural climate variability and greenhouse gas-driven climatic change, and (2) spatiotemporal variability in hydrological, ecological and human responses and impacts. The hierarchical framework relies on ground and satellite observations

  18. Potential Association of Lead Exposure During Early Development of Mice With Alteration of Hippocampus Nitric Oxide Levels and Learning Memory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI SUN; ZHENG-YAN ZHAO; JIAN HU; XIE-LAI ZHOU

    2005-01-01

    Objective Chronic lead (Pb) exposure during development is known to produce learning deficits. Nitric oxide participates in the synaptic mechanisms involved in certain forms of learning and memory. This study was designed to clarify whether Pb-induced impairment in learning and memory was associated with the changes of nitric oxide levels in mice brains.Methods Sixty Balb/c mice aged 10 days were chosen. A model of lead exposure was established by drinking 0.025%, 0.05%,0.075% lead acetate, respectively for 8 weeks. The controls were orally given distilled water. The ability to learn and memorize was examined by open field test, T-water maze test. In parallel with the behavioral data, NO level of hippocampus tissue was detected by biochemical assay. Results Compared with control groups, (1) the weight of 0.075% group was significantly reduced (P<0.05); (2) The number of times in mice attaining the required standards in T-water maze test was lower in 0.075%group (P<0.01). No significant difference was found between experimental and control groups in open field test (P>0.05); (3)NO level of mouse hippocampus tissue was decreased in 0.075% group (P<0.01). Conclusions The findings suggest that decreased hippocampus NO level may contribute to the Pb-induced deficits in learning and memory processes.

  19. Development of a Series of Kynurenine 3-Monooxygenase Inhibitors Leading to a Clinical Candidate for the Treatment of Acute Pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Ann L; Ancellin, Nicolas; Beaufils, Benjamin; Bergeal, Marylise; Binnie, Margaret; Bouillot, Anne; Clapham, David; Denis, Alexis; Haslam, Carl P; Holmes, Duncan S; Hutchinson, Jonathan P; Liddle, John; McBride, Andrew; Mirguet, Olivier; Mowat, Christopher G; Rowland, Paul; Tiberghien, Nathalie; Trottet, Lionel; Uings, Iain; Webster, Scott P; Zheng, Xiaozhong; Mole, Damian J

    2017-04-27

    Recently, we reported a novel role for KMO in the pathogenesis of acute pancreatitis (AP). A number of inhibitors of kynurenine 3-monooxygenase (KMO) have previously been described as potential treatments for neurodegenerative conditions and particularly for Huntington's disease. However, the inhibitors reported to date have insufficient aqueous solubility relative to their cellular potency to be compatible with the intravenous (iv) dosing route required in AP. We have identified and optimized a novel series of high affinity KMO inhibitors with favorable physicochemical properties. The leading example is exquisitely selective, has low clearance in two species, prevents lung and kidney damage in a rat model of acute pancreatitis, and is progressing into preclinical development.

  20. Refined shape model fitting methods for detecting various types of phenological information on major U.S. crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Toshihiro

    2018-04-01

    Crop phenological information is a critical variable in evaluating the influence of environmental stress on the final crop yield in spatio-temporal dimensions. Although the MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) Land Cover Dynamics product (MCD12Q2) is widely used in place of crop phenological information, the definitions of MCD12Q2-derived phenological events (e.g. green-up date, dormancy date) were not completely consistent with those of crop development stages used in statistical surveys (e.g. emerged date, harvested date). It has been necessary to devise an alternative method focused on detecting continental-scale crop developmental stages using a different approach. Therefore, this study aimed to refine the Shape Model Fitting (SMF) method to improve its applicability to multiple major U.S. crops. The newly-refined SMF methods could estimate the timing of 36 crop-development stages of major U.S. crops, including corn, soybeans, winter wheat, spring wheat, barley, sorghum, rice, and cotton. The newly-developed calibration process did not require any long-term field observation data, and could calibrate crop-specific phenological parameters, which were used as coefficients in estimated equation, by using only freely accessible public data. The calibration of phenological parameters was conducted in two steps. In the first step, the national common phenological parameters, referred to as X0[base], were calibrated by using the statistical data of 2008. The SMF method coupled using X0[base] was named the rSMF[base] method. The second step was a further calibration to gain regionally-adjusted phenological parameters for each state, referred to as X0[local], by using additional statistical data of 2015 and 2016. The rSMF method using the X0[local] was named the rSMF[local] method. This second calibration process improved the estimation accuracy for all tested crops. When applying the rSMF[base] method to the validation data set (2009-2014), the root

  1. Assessment of the phenology impact on SVAT modelling through a crop growth model over a Mediterranean crop site : Consequences on the water balance under climate change conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulin, S.; Garrigues, S.; Olioso, A.; Ruget, F.; Desfonds, V.; Bertrand, N.; Lecharpentier, P.; Ripoche, D.; Launay, M.; Brisson, N.

    2012-04-01

    In the coming years, water resources and vegetation production of Mediterranean areas will be drastically affected by climate changes as well as intense and rapid changes in the land use. The impact of climate and land-use changes on water balance and vegetation production can be analysed and predicted through land surface models, provided that the uncertainties associated to these models and to the data used to run them are evaluated. Vegetation phenology is generally poorly taken into account in land surface models and may be a substantial source of uncertainties for global change scenario studies. In this paper, we discuss the improvement obtained in Soil Vegetation Atmosphere Transfer (SVAT) modelling by taking into account the phenology using a crop growth model, focusing on the water budget, over a Mediterranean crop site. The STICS model (Brisson et al, 1998) is used to simulate crop processes (growth and development, taking into account water and nitrogen exchanges between the environment and the crop). STICS describes the vegetation phenology very accurately and was validated for many types of crop and various pedoclimatic conditions. The SVAT model being analyzed is the a-gs version (Calvet et al., 1998) of the ISBA model (Noilhan et al, 1989), which simulates the photosynthesis and calculates the plant biomass and the Leaf Area Index (LAI) using a simple growth model. In STICS, the phenology is driven by the sum of daily air temperatures, which is quite realistic, while in ISBA, the phenology is driven by the plant carbon assimilation. Measurements (vegetation characteristics, soil properties, agricultural practises, energy and water balance) performed in the lower Rhone valley experimental area (Avignon, France) are used as well as long series of climatic data (past records and future simulations). In a first step, by running STICS and ISBA for maize and wheat crops with long series of climatic data, including future scenarios of climate (CLIMATOR

  2. Effect of Different Nitrogen Levels on Phenology, Growth Indices and Yield of two Lentil Cultivars under Rainfed Conditions in Mashhad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Bannayan Aval

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Lentil (Lens Culinarris Medik. is an important pulse crop in Iran and is usually grown in rainfed areas. The average lentil yield in Iran is 1195 and 476 Kg.ha-1 in irrigated and rainfed farms, respectively. Low productivity occurs due to different factors. One of these factors is poor agronomic management practices that applied by the farmers, e.g. Limitation or inappropriate fertilizer distribution. Plant development occurs in a number of consecutive phases. These phases can be affected by temperature, moisture, photoperiod, cultivar and other factors. The amount of available nitrogen affects the distribution of assimilates between vegetative and reproductive organs and phenological stages of growth. Therefore, analysis of growth indices and its effective factors can be used as a suitable tool in evaluating the yield. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different nitrogen levels on phenology and growth indices of two lentil cultivars in rainfed conditions of Mashhad. Materials and Methods The experiment was conducted as split plot layout based on randomized complete blocks design with three replications at the Agricultural Research Station, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, during growth season 2016. Nitrogen fertilizer as urea (in three levels i.e. 0, 40 and 80 kg.ha-1 and cultivar (in two levels i.e. Birjand and Robat were in main plots and sub plots, respectively. To determine the leaf area and dry matter, sampling was done every two weeks during the growing season. Phenological stages timing for each plot were determined based on 50% of emergence, 50% of flowering, 50% of maturity. Final yield was estimated from three square meter from each plot. Data were analyzed with the SAS software; the means were compared with Duncan's multiple range tests at the 5% level of probability. The graphs were prepared by SigmaPlot software. Results and Discussion The results showed that the effect of urea fertilizer was

  3. Detecting mismatches of bird migration stopover and tree phenology in response to changing climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellermann, Jherime L.; van Riper, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Migratory birds exploit seasonal variation in resources across latitudes, timing migration to coincide with the phenology of food at stopover sites. Differential responses to climate in phenology across trophic levels can result in phenological mismatch; however, detecting mismatch is sensitive to methodology. We examined patterns of migrant abundance and tree flowering, phenological mismatch, and the influence of climate during spring migration from 2009 to 2011 across five habitat types of the Madrean Sky Islands in southeastern Arizona, USA. We used two metrics to assess phenological mismatch: synchrony and overlap. We also examined whether phenological overlap declined with increasing difference in mean event date of phenophases. Migrant abundance and tree flowering generally increased with minimum spring temperature but depended on annual climate by habitat interactions. Migrant abundance was lowest and flowering was highest under cold, snowy conditions in high elevation montane conifer habitat while bird abundance was greatest and flowering was lowest in low elevation riparian habitat under the driest conditions. Phenological synchrony and overlap were unique and complementary metrics and should both be used when assessing mismatch. Overlap declined due to asynchronous phenologies but also due to reduced migrant abundance or flowering when synchrony was actually maintained. Overlap declined with increasing difference in event date and this trend was strongest in riparian areas. Montane habitat specialists may be at greatest risk of mismatch while riparian habitat could provide refugia during dry years for phenotypically plastic species. Interannual climate patterns that we observed match climate change projections for the arid southwest, altering stopover habitat condition.

  4. Phenology of the Hemlock Woolly Adelgid (Hemiptera: Adelgidae) in Northern Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimar V. Joseph; Albert E. Mayfield; Mark J. Dalusky; Christopher Asaro; C. Wayne. Berisford

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the seasonal phenology of an insect pest in a specific geographic region is essential for optimizing the timing of management actions or research activities. We examined the phenology of hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae Annand, near the southern limit of the range of eastern hemlock, Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carriere, in the Appalachians of northern...

  5. Effect of understory management on phenological responses of eastern black walnut on an alluvial Arkansas soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black walnut (Juglans nigra L.) is commonly grown in agroforestry practices for nuts and/or timber with little knowledge of how understory herbage management might affect tree phenology. We compared black walnut plant type (variety and wild-type) for phenological response in date of budburst, leaf ...

  6. Remotely sensed vegetation phenology for describing and predicting the biomes of South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wessels, Konrad J

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available the distribution of the recently redefined biomes be predicted based on remotely sensed, phenology and productivity metrics? Ten-day, 1 km, NDVI AVHRR were analysed for the period 1985 to 2000. Phenological metrics such as start, end and length of the growing...

  7. Influence of spring phenology on seasonal and annual carbon balance in two contrasting New England forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew D. Richardson; David Y. Hollinger; D. Bryan Dail; John T. Lee; J. William Munger; John O' Keefe

    2009-01-01

    Spring phenology is thought to exert a major influence on the carbon (C) balance of temperate and boreal ecosystems. We investigated this hypothesis using four spring onset phenological indicators in conjunction with surface-atmosphere CO2 exchange data from the conifer-dominated Howland Forest and deciduous-dominated Harvard Forest AmeriFlux...

  8. Dysfunction of cortical synapse-specific mitochondria in developing rats exposed to lead and its amelioration by ascorbate supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad F

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Faraz Ahmad,1,2 Mohammad Salahuddin,3 Widyan Alamoudi,2 Sadananda Acharya1 1Department of Public Health, College of Public Health, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Dammam, Saudi Arabia; 2Neuroscience Department, Institute for Research and Medical Consultations, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Dammam, Saudi Arabia; 3Animal House Department, Institute for Research and Medical Consultations, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Dammam, Saudi Arabia Background: Lead (Pb is a widespread environmental neurotoxin and its exposure even in minute quantities can lead to compromised neuronal functions. A developing brain is particularly vulnerable to Pb mediated toxicity and early-life exposure leads to permanent alterations in brain development and neuronal signaling and plasticity, culminating into cognitive and behavioral dysfunctions and elevated risk of neuropsychiatric disorders later in life. Nevertheless, the underlying biochemical mechanisms have not been completely discerned. Methods: Because of their ability to fulfill high energy needs and to act as calcium buffers in events of high intensity neuronal activity as well as their adaptive regulatory capability to match the requirements of the dynamicity of synaptic signaling, synapse-specific or synaptic mitochondria (SM are critical for synaptic development, function and plasticity. Our aim for the present study hence was to characterize the effects of early-life Pb exposure on the functions of SM of prepubertal rats. For this purpose, employing a chronic model of Pb neurotoxicity, we exposed rat pups perinatally and postnatally to Pb and used a plethora of colorimetric and fluorometric assays for assessing redox and bioenergetic properties of SM. In addition, taking advantage of its ability as an antioxidant and as a metal chelator, we employed ascorbic acid (vitamin C supplementation as an ameliorative therapeutic strategy against Pb-induced neurotoxicity and dysfunction of SM

  9. First-year Progress and Future Directions of the USA National Phenology Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weltzin, J. F.; Losleben, M. V.

    2008-12-01

    Background Periodic plant and animal cycles driven by seasonal variations in climate (i.e., phenology) set the stage for dynamics of ecosystem processes, determine land surface properties, control biosphere-atmosphere interactions, and affect food production, health, conservation, and recreation. Phenological data and models have applications related to scientific research, education and outreach, as well as to stakeholders interested in agriculture, tourism and recreation, human health, and natural resource conservation and management. The predictive potential of phenology requires a new data resource-a national network of integrated phenological observations and the tools to access and analyze them at multiple scales. The USA National Phenology Network (USA-NPN) is an emerging and exciting partnership between federal agencies, the academic community, and the general public to monitor and understand the influence of seasonal cycles on the Nation's resources. The USA-NPN will establish a wall-to-wall science and monitoring initiative focused on phenology as a tool to understand how plants, animals and landscapes respond to climate variation, and as a tool to facilitate human adaptation to ongoing and potential future climate change. Results The National Coordinating Office of the USA-NPN began operation in August 2007 at the University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ. This first year of operation produced many new phenology products and venues for phenology research and citizen involvement, as well as identification of future directions for the USA NPN. Products include a new web-site (www.usanpn.org) that went live in June 2008; the web-site includes a tool for on-line data entry, and serves as a clearinghouse for products and information to facilitate research and communication related to phenology. The new core Plant Phenology Program includes profiles for 185 vetted local, regional, and national plant species with descriptions and monitoring protocols, as well as

  10. Progress in the Development of the Lead Tungstate Crystals for EM-Calorimetry in High-Energy Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novotny, R. W.; Brinkmann, K.-T.; Borisevich, A.; Dormenev, V.; Houzvicka, J.; Korjik, M.; Zaunick, H.-G.

    2017-11-01

    Even at present time there is a strong interest and demand for high quality lead tungstate crystals (PbWO4, PWO) for electromagnetic (EM) calorimetry. PWO is implemented into the EM calorimeter of the CMS-ECAL detector at LHC [1] and required for the completion of the PANDA EMC [2] and various ongoing detector projects at Jefferson Lab. The successful mass production of PWO using the Czochralski method was stopped after bankruptcy of the Bogoroditsk Technical Chemical Plant (BTCP) in Russia as major producer so far. The Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Science (China) was considered as an alternative producer using the modified Bridgman method. The company CRYTUR (Turnov, Czech Republic) with good experience in the development and production of different types of inorganic oxide crystals has restarted at the end of 2014 the development of lead tungstate for mass production based on the Czochralski method. An impressive progress was achieved since then. The growing technology was optimized to produce full size samples with the quality meeting the PANDA-EMC specifications for PWO-II. We will present a detailed progress report on the research program in collaboration with groups at Orsay and JLab. The full size crystals will be characterized with respect to optical performance, light yield, kinetics and radiation hardness.

  11. Effect of oxygen partial pressure on texture development in lead zirconate titanate thin films processed from metalorganic precursors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norton, Jarrod L.; Liedl, Gerald L.; Slamovich, Elliott B.

    1999-01-01

    Metalorganic liquid precursors were used to examine the effects of processing atmosphere on texture development in oriented Pb(Zr 0.60 Ti 0.40 )O 3 thin films. After removal of organic ligands via pyrolysis, the films were heated at 25 degree sign C/min in a 5% H 2 /Ar atmosphere until a switching temperature, after which the atmosphere was switched to pure oxygen. The films were heated to a maximum temperature of 650 degree sign C with switching temperatures ranging from 450 to 600 degree sign C. The degree of (111) orientation in the lead zirconate titanate (PZT) films increased with increasing switching temperature, resulting in highly textured (111) PZT films. These results suggest that atmosphere control plays a significant role in texture development during rapid thermal processing. (c) 1999 Materials Research Society

  12. Development of a low tritium partial pressure permeation system for mass transport measurement in lead lithium eutectic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pawelko, R.; Shimada, M.; Katayama, K.; Fukada, S.; Terai, T.

    2014-01-01

    A new experimental system designed to investigate tritium mass transfer properties in materials important to fusion technology is operational at the Safety and Tritium Applied Research (STAR) facility located at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The tritium permeation measurement system was developed as part of the Japan/US TITAN collaboration to investigate tritium mass transfer properties in liquid lead lithium eutectic (LLE) alloy. The system is similar to a hydrogen/deuterium permeation measurement system developed at Kyushu University and also incorporates lessons learned from previous tritium permeation experiments conducted at the STAR facility. This paper describes the experimental system that is configured specifically to measure tritium mass transfer properties at low tritium partial pressures. We present preliminary tritium permeation results for α-Fe and α-Fe/LLE samples at 600degC and at tritium partial pressures between 1.0E-3 and 2.4 Pain helium. The preliminary results are compared with literature data. (author)

  13. Towards an improved Land Surface Phenology mapping using a new MODIS product: A case study of Bavarian Forest National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Gourav; Buras, Allan; Asam, Sarah; Menzel, Annette

    2017-04-01

    Past work in remote sensing of land surface phenology have mapped vegetation cycles at multiple scales. Much has been discussed and debated about the uncertainties associated with the selection of data, data processing and the eventual conclusions drawn. Several studies do however provide evidence of strong links between different land surface phenology (LSP) metrics with specific ground phenology (GP) (Fisher and Mustard, 2007; Misra et al., 2016). Most importantly the use of high temporal and spatial resolution remote sensing data and ground truth information is critical for such studies. In this study, we use a higher temporal resolution 4 day MODIS NDVI product developed by EURAC (Asam et al., in prep) for the Bavarian Forest National Park during 2002-2015 period and extract various phenological metrics covering different phenophases of vegetation (start of season / sos and end of season / eos). We found the LSP-sos to be more strongly linked to the elevation of the area than LSP-eos which has been cited to be harder to detect (Stöckli et al., 2008). The LSP metrics were also correlated to GP information at 4 different stations covering elevations ranging from approx. 500 to 1500 metres. Results show that among the five dominant species in the area i.e. European ash, Norway spruce, European beech, Norway maple and orchard grass, only particular GP observations for some species show stronger correlations with LSP than others. Spatial variations in the LSP-GP correlations were also observed, with certain areas of the National Park showing positive correlations and others negative. An analysis of temporal trends of LSP also indicates the possibility to detect those areas in the National Park that were affected by extreme events. Further investigations are planned to explain the heterogeneity in the derived LSP metrics using high resolution ground truth data and multivariate statistical analyses. Acknowledgement: This research received funding from the Bavarian

  14. Winter chilling speeds spring development of temperate butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stålhandske, Sandra; Gotthard, Karl; Leimar, Olof

    2017-07-01

    Understanding and predicting phenology has become more important with ongoing climate change and has brought about great research efforts in the recent decades. The majority of studies examining spring phenology of insects have focussed on the effects of spring temperatures alone. Here we use citizen-collected observation data to show that winter cold duration, in addition to spring temperature, can affect the spring emergence of butterflies. Using spatial mixed models, we disentangle the effects of climate variables and reveal impacts of both spring and winter conditions for five butterfly species that overwinter as pupae across the UK, with data from 1976 to 2013 and one butterfly species in Sweden, with data from 2001 to 2013. Warmer springs lead to earlier emergence in all species and milder winters lead to statistically significant delays in three of the five investigated species. We also find that the delaying effect of winter warmth has become more pronounced in the last decade, during which time winter durations have become shorter. For one of the studied species, Anthocharis cardamines (orange tip butterfly), we also make use of parameters determined from previous experiments on pupal development to model the spring phenology. Using daily temperatures in the UK and Sweden, we show that recent variation in spring temperature corresponds to 10-15 day changes in emergence time over UK and Sweden, whereas variation in winter duration corresponds to 20 days variation in the south of the UK versus only 3 days in the south of Sweden. In summary, we show that short winters delay phenology. The effect is most prominent in areas with particularly mild winters, emphasising the importance of winter for the response of ectothermic animals to climate change. With climate change, these effects may become even stronger and apply also at higher latitudes. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2017 British Ecological Society.

  15. Tracking global change at local scales: Phenology for science, outreach, conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharron, Ed; Mitchell, Brian

    2011-06-01

    A Workshop Exploring the Use of Phenology Studies for Public Engagement; New Orleans, Louisiana, 14 March 2011 ; During a George Wright Society Conference session that was led by the USA National Phenology Network (USANPN; http://www.usanpn.org) and the National Park Service (NPS), professionals from government organizations, nonprofits, and higher-education institutions came together to explore the possibilities of using phenology monitoring to engage the public. One of the most visible effects of global change on ecosystems is shifts in phenology: the timing of biological events such as leafing and flowering, maturation of agricultural plants, emergence of insects, and migration of birds. These shifts are already occurring and reflect biological responses to climate change at local to regional scales. Changes in phenology have important implications for species ecology and resource management and, because they are place-based and tangible, serve as an ideal platform for education, outreach, and citizen science.

  16. Ecosystem Responses To Plant Phenology Across Scales And Trophic Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoner, D.; Sexton, J. O.; Nagol, J. R.; Ironside, K.; Choate, D.; Longshore, K.; Edwards, T., Jr.

    2015-12-01

    Plant phenology in arid and semi-arid ecoregions is constrained by water availability and governs the life history characteristics of primary and secondary consumers. We related the behavior, demography, and distribution of mammalian herbivores and their principal predator to remotely sensed vegetation and climatological indices across the western United States for the period 2000-2014. Across scales, terrain and topographic position moderates the effects of climatological drought on primary productivity, resulting in differential susceptibility among plant functional types to water stress. At broad scales, herbivores tie parturition to moist sites during the period of maximum increase in local forage production. Consequently, juvenile mortality is highest in regions of extreme phenological variability. Although decoupled from primary production by one or more trophic levels, carnivore home range size and density is negatively correlated to plant productivity and growing season length. At the finest scales, predation influences the behavior of herbivore prey through compromised habitat selection, in which maternal females trade nutritional benefits of high plant biomass for reduced mortality risk associated with increased visibility. Climate projections for the western United States predict warming combined with shifts in the timing and form of precipitation. Our analyses suggest that these changes will propagate through trophic levels as increased phenological variability and shifts in plant distributions, larger consumer home ranges, altered migration behavior, and generally higher volatility in wildlife populations. Combined with expansion and intensification of human land use across the region, these changes will likely have economic implications stemming from increased human-wildlife conflict (e.g., crop damage, vehicle collisions) and changes in wildlife-related tourism.

  17. Monitoring Phenology of Ailanthus altissima in North West Isfahan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Shahbazi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Major climate changes problems in the world have attracted attentions to the phenology and have improved studies in this field. Quantitative investigation of phenology, through recording the colour of different parts of plants can be a complement for quantitative method in determining exact appearance of the phenomena. In the present study the phenological characteristics of Ailanthus altissima has been identified, using two different methods including descriptive and digital repeated photography. In descriptive observations four trees in the campus of Isfahan University of Technology has been biweekly recorded for seven years and appearance of the phenomena has been registered. Digital photography of different parts of tree was accomplished for four years. The photo spectrum of the leaf and fruit of the tree were produced and the colors were analyzed in RGB system, with the resolution of eight bites (28 for each color. By determining the proportion of each primary color the tint was achieved, which can be easily interpreted. For determining the effect of temperature on colour changing in time, the 2G-RB Index was used. According to the descriptive observations of the flowering occurs from the beginning of May to the beginning of June and fruiting occurs in late June. In colour changing diagrams the intersection of green wavelength with red in late October exhibits a revolution in leaves colour. In the fruit colour diagrams, the first intersection takes place in coincidence with the appearance of green fruits and the second coincidence with the changing of colour from green to brown. Quantitative analysis indicates a significant correlation (P ≥ 0.05 between temperature and 2G-RB Index for both leaf and fruit.

  18. Ectopic expression of MPF2-like protein WSA206 leads to arrest in silique and seed development in heterologous host

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.R.

    2016-01-01

    MPF2-like genes belonging to STMADS11 clade of MADS-box transcription factors are mostly involved in calyx inflation, floral reversion and fertility. However their role in fertility remained enigmatic. In this study we transformed WSA206 gene paralog - originated through genome duplication in a Solanaceous plant Withaniasomnifera - ectopically in a heterologous host Arabidopsis thaliana. Interesting phenotypes in floral organs and fruits were observed. Overexpression of WSA206 leads to arrest in silique development. The siliques were compressed and size was drastically reduced from 34mm to 3mm. Along with siliques, the seed development was also suppressed as revealed by shriveling of seeds and reduction in seed number. In extreme cases the siliques were devoid of any seeds. In cases where seeds developed, these were impaired in viability. Besides, the transgenic Arabidopsis also exhibited exorbitant growth of calyx to an extent that it resembled inflated calyx in Solanaceae. The calyx remained persistent and encapsulated the under-developed siliques containing non-viable seeds inside. Thus, fertility and sepal development are tightly coupled traits that are controlled by WSA206 paralog in heterologous system. (author)

  19. Union of the potential academic science and leading specialized universities for provision of the underground space effective development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vartanov Aleksandr Zarairovich

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Subject of research: providing of enabling environment through the use of underground subsurface resources for the purposes of civil construction is the main trend of the modern development of society. Large-scale development of the megacities subsoils and urban-industrial agglomerations faces significant threats caused by the risks of the consequences of techno-genic impact on the rock massif of urbanized areas, which requires the use of special construction geotechnologies and construction specialists of appropriate qualifications. Objectives: for efficient development of underground space, it is necessary to solve problems at the junction of construction and mining sciences with the formation of a modern system of scientific and methodological support for the training of personnel in this field. It is necessary to use the scientific, educational, innovative and intellectual potential of academic science and national research universities most fully and effectively. Materials and methods: proceeding from the necessity of convergence of science and education, with the goal of integrating efforts and improving the efficiency of scientific research and educational activities aimed at the Russian mining and construction industry effective development providing, the Moscow State University of Civil Engineering and the Institute for Complex Development of Mineral Resources of the Russian Academy of Sciences created the basic department “Development of Underground Spaces”. Results and conclusions: the conducted complex of organizational and management measures, taking into account the potential of leading scientific and educational schools, has made it possible to form the basis for the development of the competencies of future engineers-constructors and highly qualified personnel (masters, candidates and doctors of sciences in the field of construction geo-technologies, which will be responsible for effective and safe development of megacities

  20. Planning the research and development necessary for accelerator transmutation of waste, leading to integrated proof of performance testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, D.R.; Pasamehmetoglu, K.; Finck, P.; Pitcher, E.; Khalil, H.; Todosow, M.; Hill, R.; Van Tuyle, G.; Laidler, J.; Crawford, D.; Thomas, K.

    2001-01-01

    The Research and Development (R and D) Plan for the Accelerator Transmutation of Waste (ATW) Program has been developed for the Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE/NE) to serve as a focus and progressional guide in developing critical transmutation technologies. It is intended that the Plan will serve as a logical reference considering all elements of an integrated accelerator-driven transmutation system, and will maximize the use of resources by identifying and prioritizing research, design, development and trade activities. The R and D Plan provides a structured framework for identifying and prioritizing activities leading to technically-justifiable integrated Proof of Performance testing within ten years and ultimate demonstration of Accelerator Transmutation of Waste (ATW). The Plan builds from the decision objectives specified for ATW, utilizes informational input from the ATW Roadmap and programmatic System Point Design efforts, and employs the knowledge and expertise provided by professionals familiar with ATW technologies. With the firm intent of understanding what, why and when information is needed, including critical interfaces, the Plan then develops a progressional strategy for developing ATW technologies with the use of a Technology Readiness Level (TRL) scale. The TRL approach is first used to develop a comprehensive, yet generic, listing of experimental, analytical and trade study activities critical to developing ATW technologies. Technology-specific and concept-specific aspects are then laid over the generic mapping to gage readiness levels. Prioritization criteria for reducing technical uncertainty, providing information to decision points, and levering off of international collaborations are then applied to focus analytical, experimental and trade activities. (author)

  1. Phenological models for the beginning of apple blossom in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chmielewski, Frank M.; Bluemel, Klaus; Henniges, Yvonne [Humboldt-Univ. of Berlin (Germany). Agricultural Climatology; Blanke, Michael [Univ. of Bonn (Germany). Dept. of Horticultural Science; Weber, Roland W.S. [Fruit Growing Research Institute Jork (Germany); Zoth, Michael [Competence Centre Fruit Growing Bodensee, Ravensburg-Bavendorf (Germany)

    2011-10-15

    Five phenological models (M1-M5) were examined with respect to their suitability to calculate the beginning of apple blossom in Germany, the most important fruit crop in Western Europe. Blossoming is the most sensitive period, e.g.to frost, and determines the fruit set of the apple trees. Phenological observations and temperature data from the German Weather Service in the period 1961-2005 were used to fit these five models. For the calculations data from, 5,630 phenological and 523 temperature stations were attributed to a 10 km x 10 km grid using second order universal kriging. Model parameters were optimised on 3,672 grid points for the nationwide approach for Germany and on 148 points for 11 fruit growing regions. Root mean square errors (RMSE) between modelled and observed apple blossom data varied from 4.2 to 5.0 days for the internal and from 4.6 to 5.6 days for the external verification on the basis of phenological records from three fruit growing research centres. The very simple statistical model approach M5 had the advantage of causing the least effort to calculate the bloom date, but it never performed better than any of the best mechanistic models M1-M4. Also, the 'thermal time model' M1 and the sequential model M2 were both easy to handle which makes them a preferable choice for predictions and management decisions in apple orchards. These two models M1 and M2 are also suitable to be implemented in yield models and water budget models in order to replace the use of fixed developmental stages by dynamical calculations. The two combined chilling/forcing models M2 - a sequential model - and M3 - a parallel model - exhibited the lowest average RMSE. Both models (M2 and M3) could preferably be used to project the impact of climate change on the beginning of apple blossom, since these models can compensate a possible lack of chilling by a higher demand for forcing. The present study showed that a) all five models were able to calculate the

  2. [Differences of vegetation phenology monitoring by remote sensing based on different spectral vegetation indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Lu; Wang, Huan Jiong; Liu, Rong Gao; Liu, Yang; Shang, Rong

    2018-02-01

    Vegetation phenology is a comprehensive indictor for the responses of terrestrial ecosystem to climatic and environmental changes. Remote sensing spectrum has been widely used in the extraction of vegetation phenology information. However, there are many differences between phenology extracted by remote sensing and site observations, with their physical meaning remaining unclear. We selected one tile of MODIS data in northeastern China (2000-2014) to examine the SOS and EOS differences derived from the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and the simple ratio vegetation index (SR) based on both the red and near-infrared bands. The results showed that there were significant differences between NDVI-phenology and SR-phenology. SOS derived from NDVI averaged 18.9 days earlier than that from SR. EOS derived from NDVI averaged 19.0 days later than from SR. NDVI-phenology had a longer growing season. There were significant differences in the inter-annual variation of phenology from NDVI and SR. More than 20% of the pixel SOS and EOS derived from NDVI and SR showed the opposite temporal trend. These results caused by the seasonal curve characteristics and noise resistance differences of NDVI and SR. The observed data source of NDVI and SR were completely consistent, only the mathematical expressions were different, but phenology results were significantly different. Our results indicated that vegetation phenology monitoring by remote sensing is highly dependent on the mathematical expression of vegetation index. How to establish a reliable method for extracting vegetation phenology by remote sensing needs further research.

  3. Phenology of species interactions in response to climate change: two case studies of plant-pollinator interactions using long-term data

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinney, A. M.; Inouye, D. W.

    2012-12-01

    Climate change may alter the temporal overlap among interacting taxa with potential demographic consequences. Evidence of mistimed interactions in response to climate change, especially between plants and pollinators, is mixed, and few long-term datasets exist to test for changes in synchrony. Furthermore, advancements in flowering driven by climate change are especially pronounced at higher latitudes, so that migratory pollinators from lower latitudes may increasingly arrive at breeding grounds after the appearance of floral resources. We explored long-term shifts in phenological synchrony in two plant-pollinator systems:1) syrphid fly and flowering phenology in the Colorado Rocky Mountains, USA (1992-2011) and 2) hummingbird arrival relative to onset of early-season nectar resources in the Colorado Rocky Mountains (1975-2011) and the Santa Catalina Mountains, Arizona, USA (1984-2010). We investigated the abiotic cues associated with the phenology of the activity period of syrphid flies and their floral resources, including degree days above freezing, precipitation, and timing of snowmelt as potential explanatory variables. Timing of snowmelt was the best predictor of the onset of flowering and syrphid emergence. Snowmelt was also the best predictor of the end of flowering, while temperature and precipitation best predicted the end of the syrphid period. Both the onset and end of flowering advanced more rapidly than syrphids in response to earlier snowmelt. These different rates of phenological advancement resulted in increased temporal overlap between the flower and syrphid community in years of early snowmelt, because of longer flowering and fly activity periods during these years. If snowmelt continues to advance, temporal overlap between syrphids and their floral resources is therefore likely to increase. This case study shows that the phenology of interacting taxa may respond differently to climate cues, but that this does not necessarily lead to phenological

  4. The Landsat Phenology Study (LaPS): Preliminary CONUS Results for 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henebry, Geoffrey M.; Roy, David P.; Ju, Junchang; Kovalskyy, Valeriy

    2010-05-01

    , (ii) the use of the NDII and GNDVI in conjunction with the NDVI improves identification of the onset both of canopy development and senescence, and (iii) the WELD compositing approach and the resulting mosaics provide a rich new data source for phenological investigations.

  5. Evolved Phenological Asynchrony as a Baseline for Climate-change Impacts. (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, M. C.; Parmesan, C.

    2010-12-01

    Changing climate can disrupt existing phenological relations between interacting species. We might expect the historical baseline for these effects to be precise synchrony between the season at which a consumer most requires food and the time when its resources are most available. When this is the case, change in any direction would be detrimental to the consumer. But is baseline synchrony the appropriate assumption? Here, we develop the theme that the starting point for climate change impacts may often have been asynchrony or mismatch between consumer and resource. To the extent that this has been true, assumptions of baseline synchrony risk mis-detection, mis-estimation, and mis-attribution of climate change impacts. Natural selection can result in asynchrony between exploiter and victim when victims successfully evolve to occupy enemy-free time. Asynchrony can also result from life-history tradedoffs. We illustrate asynchrony arising from tradeoffs for two species: Edith’s checkerspot butterfly and the winter moth. Initial observations of phenological mismatch in both systems were made prior to the onset of major impacts of anthropogenically-driven climate change. Neither species can detect the phenological stage of its host plants with precision. In both species, evolution of life history has involved compromise between maximizing fecundity and minimizing mortality, with the outcome being superficially maladaptive strategies in which many or even most individuals die of starvation through poor synchrony with their host plants. Both species have evolved high-risk life history strategies. While winter moth eggs gamble with their own lives by hatching early, bay checkerspots gamble with the lives of their offspring by growing large and eclosing late as adults. In both cases the result is the evolution of populations in which large numbers of individuals die because, as individuals, they fail to fit their life cycles into the available timespan. Because such a

  6. Cell wall structures leading to cultivar differences in softening rates develop early during apple (Malus x domestica) fruit growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Jovyn K T; Schröder, Roswitha; Sutherland, Paul W; Hallett, Ian C; Hall, Miriam I; Prakash, Roneel; Smith, Bronwen G; Melton, Laurence D; Johnston, Jason W

    2013-11-19

    There is a paucity of information regarding development of fruit tissue microstructure and changes in the cell walls during fruit growth, and how these developmental processes differ between cultivars with contrasting softening behaviour. In this study we compare two apple cultivars that show different softening rates during fruit development and ripening. We investigate whether these different softening behaviours manifest themselves late during ethylene-induced softening in the ripening phase, or early during fruit expansion and maturation. 'Scifresh' (slow softening) and 'Royal Gala' (rapid softening) apples show differences in cortical microstructure and cell adhesion as early as the cell expansion phase. 'Scifresh' apples showed reduced loss of firmness and greater dry matter accumulation compared with 'Royal Gala' during early fruit development, suggesting differences in resource allocation that influence tissue structural properties. Tricellular junctions in 'Scifresh' were rich in highly-esterified pectin, contributing to stronger cell adhesion and an increased resistance to the development of large airspaces during cell expansion. Consequently, mature fruit of 'Scifresh' showed larger, more angular shaped cells than 'Royal Gala', with less airspaces and denser tissue. Stronger cell adhesion in ripe 'Scifresh' resulted in tissue fracture by cell rupture rather than by cell-to-cell-separation as seen in 'Royal Gala'. CDTA-soluble pectin differed in both cultivars during development, implicating its involvement in cell adhesion. Low pectin methylesterase activity during early stages of fruit development coupled with the lack of immuno-detectable PG was associated with increased cell adhesion in 'Scifresh'. Our results indicate that cell wall structures leading to differences in softening rates of apple fruit develop early during fruit growth and well before the induction of the ripening process.

  7. Lead Research and Development Activity for DOE's High Temperature, Low Relative Humidity Membrane Program (Topic 2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James Fenton, PhD; Darlene Slattery, PhD; Nahid Mohajeri, PhD

    2012-09-05

    The Department of Energy’s High Temperature, Low Relative Humidity Membrane Program was begun in 2006 with the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) as the lead organization. During the first three years of the program, FSEC was tasked with developing non-Nafion® proton exchange membranes with improved conductivity for fuel cells. Additionally, FSEC was responsible for developing protocols for the measurement of in-plane conductivity, providing conductivity measurements for the other funded teams, developing a method for through-plane conductivity and organizing and holding semiannual meetings of the High Temperature Membrane Working Group (HTMWG). The FSEC membrane research focused on the development of supported poly[perfluorosulfonic acid] (PFSA) – Teflon membranes and a hydrocarbon membrane, sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone). The fourth generation of the PFSA membrane (designated FSEC-4) came close to, but did not meet, the Go/No-Go milestone of 0.1 S/cm at 50% relative humidity at 120 °C. In-plane conductivity of membranes provided by the funded teams was measured and reported to the teams and DOE. Late in the third year of the program, DOE used this data and other factors to decide upon the teams to continue in the program. The teams that continued provided promising membranes to FSEC for development of membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) that could be tested in an operating fuel cell. FSEC worked closely with each team to provide customized support. A logic flow chart was developed and discussed before MEA fabrication or any testing began. Of the five teams supported, by the end of the project, membranes from two of the teams were easily manufactured into MEAs and successfully characterized for performance. One of these teams exceeded performance targets, while the other requires further optimization. An additional team developed a membrane that shows great promise for significantly reducing membrane costs and increasing membrane lifetime.

  8. Microstructural Developments Leading to New Advanced High Strength Sheet Steels: A Historical Assessment of Critical Metallographic Observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matlock, David K [CSM/ASPPRC; Thomas, Larrin S [CSM/ASPPRC; Taylor, Mark D [CSM/ASPPRC; De Moor, Emmanuel [CSM/ASPPRC; Speer, John G [CSM/ASPPRC

    2015-08-03

    In the past 30+ years significant advancements have been made in the development of higher strength sheet steels with improved combinations of strength and ductility that have enabled important product improvements leading to safer, lighter weight, and more fuel efficient automobiles and in other applications. Properties of the primarily low carbon, low alloy steels are derived through careful control of time-temperature processing histories designed to produce multiphase ferritic based microstructures that include martensite and other constituents including retained austenite. The basis for these developments stems from the early work on dual-phase steels which was the subject of much interest. In response to industry needs, dual-phase steels have evolved as a unique class of advanced high strength sheet steels (AHSS) in which the thermal and mechanical processing histories have been specifically designed to produce constituent combinations for the purpose of simultaneously controlling strength and deformation behavior, i.e. stress-strain curve shapes. Improvements continue as enhanced dual-phase steels have recently been produced with finer microstructures, higher strengths, and better overall formability. Today, dual phase steels are the primary AHSS products used in vehicle manufacture, and several companies have indicated that the steels will remain as important design materials well into the future. In this presentation, fundamental results from the early work on dual-phase steels will be reviewed and assessed in light of recent steel developments. Specific contributions from industry/university cooperative research leading to product improvements will be highlighted. The historical perspective provided in the evolution of dual-phase steels represents a case-study that provides important framework and lessons to be incorporated in next generation AHSS products.

  9. Lead poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... drinking water in homes containing pipes that were connected with lead solder . Although new building codes require ... lead in their bodies when they put lead objects in their mouths, especially if they swallow those ...

  10. Lead Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lead is a metal that occurs naturally in the earth's crust. Lead can be found in all parts of our ... from human activities such as mining and manufacturing. Lead used to be in paint; older houses may ...

  11. Developing leading indicators from OHS management audit data: Determining the measurement properties of audit data from the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, Lynda S; Ibrahim, Selahadin; Hogg-Johnson, Sheilah; Steenstra, Ivan A; Van Eerd, Dwayne; Amick, Benjamin C

    2017-06-01

    OHS management audits are one means of obtaining data that may serve as leading indicators. The measurement properties of such data are therefore important. This study used data from Workwell audit program in Ontario, a Canadian province. The audit instrument consisted of 122 items related to 17 OHS management elements. The study sought answers regarding (a) the ability of audit-based scores to predict workers' compensation claims outcomes, (b) structural characteristics of the data in relation to the organization of the audit instrument, and (c) internal consistency of items within audit elements. The sample consisted of audit and claims data from 1240 unique firms that had completed one or two OHS management audits during 2007-2010. Predictors derived from the audit results were used in multivariable negative binomial regression modeling of workers' compensation claims outcomes. Confirmatory factor analyses were used to examine the instrument's structural characteristics. Kuder-Richardson coefficients of internal consistency were calculated for each audit element. The ability of audit scores to predict subsequent claims data could not be established. Factor analysis supported the audit instrument's element-based structure. KR-20 values were high (≥0.83). The Workwell audit data display structural validity and high internal consistency, but not, to date, construct validity, since the audit scores are generally not predictive of subsequent firm claim experience. Audit scores should not be treated as leading indicators of workplace OHS performance without supporting empirical data. Analyses of the measurement properties of audit data can inform decisionmakers about the operation of an audit program, possible future directions in audit instrument development, and the appropriate use of audit data. In particular, decision-makers should be cautious in their use of audit scores as leading indicators, in the absence of supporting empirical data. Copyright © 2017

  12. Effects of Maternal Lead Acetate Exposure during Lactation on Postnatal Development of Testis in Offspring Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehran Dorostghoal

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective(sDuring recent years, there has been an increasing interest in contribution of environmental pollutants as heavy metals to human male infertility. Present study was aimed to investigate the effects of maternal lead acetate exposure during lactation on postnatal development of testis in offspring rats.Materials and MethodsA total of 60 female rats randomly divided into four equal groups; control and three treatment groups received 20, 100 and 300 mg/kg/day lead acetate via drinking water from day 2 to day 21 of lactation. At 7, 14, 21, 28, 60, 90 and 120 days after birth, the testis weight and volume of offspring were measured and their epididymal semen analyzed. Following tissue processing, 5 μm sections were stained with haematoxylin-eosin and evaluated with quantitative techniques. Testicular parameters in different groups were compared by one-way ANOVA.ResultsTestis weight and volume of offspring decreased significantly in a dose-related manner in moderate (P< 0.05 and high (P< 0.01 doses groups. Dose-dependent significant reductions were seen in seminiferous tubules diameter and germinal epithelium height during neonatal, prepubertal and postpubertal periods in moderate (P< 0.05 and high (P< 0.01 doses groups until 90 and 120 days after birth, respectively. Significant decreases were observed in mean sperm density of offspring at puberty in moderate and high doses groups until 90 and 120 days after birth, respectively. Testosterone levels decreased significantly in a dose-related manner at puberty in moderate and high doses groups. ConclusionPresent study showed maternal lead acetate exposure during lactation caused dose-related and long-term alterations of testicular parameters in offspring rats.

  13. VIP Data Explorer: A Tool for Exploring 30 years of Vegetation Index and Phenology Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreto-munoz, A.; Didan, K.; Rivera-Camacho, J.; Yitayew, M.; Miura, T.; Tsend-Ayush, J.

    2011-12-01

    Continuous acquisition of global satellite imagery over the years has contributed to the creation of long term data records from AVHRR, MODIS, TM, SPOT-VGT and other sensors. These records account for 30+ years, as these archives grow, they become invaluable tools for environmental, resources management, and climate studies dealing with trends and changes from local, regional to global scale. In this project, the Vegetation Index and Phenology Lab (VIPLab) is processing 30 years of daily global surface reflectance data into an Earth Science Data Record of Vegetation Index and Phenology metrics. Data from AVHRR (N07,N09,N11 and N14) and MODIS (AQUA and TERRA collection 5) for the periods 1981-1999 and 2000-2010, at CMG resolution were processed into one seamless and sensor independent data record using various filtering, continuity and gap filling techniques (Tsend-Ayush et al., AGU 2011, Rivera-Camacho et al, AGU 2011). An interactive online tool (VIP Data Explorer) was developed to support the visualization, qualitative and quantitative exploration, distribution, and documentation of these records using a simple web 2.0 interface. The VIP Data explorer (http://vip.arizona.edu/viplab_data_explorer) can display any combination of multi temporal and multi source data, enable the quickly exploration and cross comparison of the various levels of processing of this data. It uses the Google Earth (GE) model and was developed using the GE API for images rendering, manipulation and geolocation. These ESDRs records can be quickly animated in this environment and explored for visual trends and anomalies detection. Additionally the tool enables extracting and visualizing any land pixel time series while showing the different levels of processing it went through. User can explore this ESDR database within this data explorer GUI environment, and any desired data can be placed into a dynamic "cart" to be ordered and downloaded later. More functionalities are planned and will be

  14. Development of a stable and sensitive semiconductor detector by using a mixture of lead(II) iodide and lead monoxide for NDT radiation dose detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Y. J.; Kim, K. T.; Han, M. J.; Moon, C. W.; Kim, J. E.; Park, J. K.; Park, S. K.

    2018-03-01

    Recently, high-energy radiation has been widely used in various industrial fields, including the medical industry, and increasing research efforts have been devoted to the development of radiation detectors to be used with high-energy radiation. In particular, nondestructive industrial applications use high-energy radiation for ships and multilayered objects for accurate inspection. Therefore, it is crucial to verify the accuracy of radiation dose measurements and evaluate the precision and reproducibility of the radiation output dose. Representative detectors currently used for detecting the dose in high-energy regions include Si diodes, diamond diodes, and ionization chambers. However, the process of preparing these detectors is complex in addition to the processes of conducting dosimetric measurements, analysis, and evaluation. Furthermore, the minimum size that can be prepared for a detector is limited. In the present study, the disadvantages of original detectors are compensated by the development of a detector made of a mixture of polycrystalline PbI2 and PbO powder, which are both excellent semiconducting materials suitable for detecting high-energy gamma rays and X-rays. The proposed detector shows characteristics of excellent reproducibility and stable signal detection in response to the changes in energy, and was analyzed for its applicability. Moreover, the detector was prepared through a simple process of particle-in-binder to gain control over the thickness and meet the specific value designated by the user. A mixture mass ratio with the highest reproducibility was determined through reproducibility testing with respect to changes in the photon energy. The proposed detector was evaluated for its detection response characteristics with respect to high-energy photon beam, in terms of dose-rate dependence, sensitivity, and linearity evaluation. In the reproducibility assessment, the detector made with 15 wt% PbO powder showed the best characteristics of 0

  15. Building capacity for in-situ phenological observation data to support integrated biodiversity information at local to national scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weltzin, J. F.

    2016-12-01

    Earth observations from a variety of platforms and across a range of scales are required to support research, natural resource management, and policy- and decision-making in a changing world. Integrated earth observation data provides multi-faceted information critical to decision support, vulnerability and change detection, risk assessments, early warning and modeling, simulation and forecasting in the natural resource societal benefit area. The USA National Phenology Network (USA-NPN; www.usanpn.org) is a national-scale science and monitoring initiative focused on phenology - the study of seasonal life-cycle events such as leafing, flowering, reproduction, and migration - as a tool to understand the response of biodiversity to environmental variation and change. USA-NPN provides a hierarchical, national monitoring framework that enables other organizations to leverage the capacity of the Network for their own applications - minimizing investment and duplication of effort - while promoting interoperability and sustainability. Over the last decade, the network has focused on the development of a centralized database for in-situ (ground based) observations of plants and animals, now with 8 M records for the period 1954-present. More recently, we have developed a workflow for the production and validation of spatially gridded phenology products based on models that couple the organismal data with climatological and meteorological data at daily time-steps and relatively fine spatial resolutions ( 2.5 km to 4 km). These gridded data are now ripe for integration with other modeled or earth observation gridded data, e.g., indices of drought impact or land surface reflectance. This greatly broadens capacity to scale organismal observational data to landscapes and regions, and enables novel investigations of biophysical interactions at unprecedented scales, e.g., continental-scale migrations. Sustainability emerges from identification of stakeholder needs, segmentation of

  16. Development of Streamwise Counter-Rotating Vortices in Flat Plate Boundary Layer Pre-set by Leading Edge Patterns

    KAUST Repository

    Hasheminejad, S.M.

    2017-04-03

    Development of streamwise counter-rotating vortices induced by leading edge patterns with different pattern shape is investigated using hot-wire anemometry in the boundary layer of a flat plate. A triangular, sinusoidal and notched patterns with the same pattern wavelength λ of 15mm and the same pattern amplitude A of 7.5mm were examined for free-stream velocity of 3m/s. The results show a good agreement with earlier studies. The inflection point on the velocity profile downstream of the trough of the patterns at the beginning of the vortex formation indicates that the vortices non-linearly propagate downstream. An additional vortex structure was also observed between the troughs of the notched pattern.

  17. Morpho-phenological and Antibacterial Characteristics of Aconitum spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoirentomba Meetei SINAM

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Aconitum