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Sample records for phenolic rye secale

  1. Content of phenolic acids and ferulic acid dehydrodimers in 17 rye (Secale cereale L.) varieties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, M. F.; Christensen, L. P.; Meyer, Anne Boye Strunge

    2000-01-01

    of the analyzed components were observed among the different rye varieties and also between different harvest years. However, the content of phenolic acids in the analyzed rye varieties was narrow compared to cereals such as wheat and barley. The concentration of ferulic acid, the most abundant phenolic acid...

  2. Allelochemicals in rye (Secale cereale L.): cultivar and tissue differences in the production of benzoxazinoids and phenolic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsen, Sandra C K; Kudsk, Per; Laursen, Bente; Mathiassen, Solvejg K; Mortensen, Anne G; Fomsgaard, Inge S

    2009-02-01

    In the present study, a range of benzoxazinoid compounds and phenolic acids, all known to be allelochemicals of rye, were identified and quantified in 13 rye cultivars grown at three different localities. Plant samples were collected in the spring at the time when an autumn-sown rye cover crop would be incorporated into the soil. Significant variations in content among shoots and roots were seen for all of the secondary metabolites, with non-methoxy-substituted benzoxazinoids (BX) dominating the shoots, whereas comparable levels were found in the concentrations of BX and methoxy-substituted benzoxazinoids (MBX) in the roots. This distribution of compounds may indicate different biosynthetic pathways and/or different mechanisms of action of these compounds. Concentrations not only depended on plant part, but also on the geographical location--with differences in contents of up to a factor of 5. These differences can probably be attributed to differences in growing conditions. The variation among cultivars was similar to that among geographical localities, with differences within localities of up to a factor of 7 in the shoots and a factor of 14 in the roots. In roots, the contents of the four phenolic acids and the benzoxazinoid 6-methoxybenzoxazolin-2-one (MBOA) were correlated. In shoots, the contents of the two benzoic acids were correlated with each other, whereas the two cinnamic acids were correlated with MBOA and several other benzoxazinoids. The lack of correlation between MBOA and all other benzoxazinoids in the roots of rye might indicate that a hitherto unknown synthetic pathway exists for MBOA. The genes responsible for the synthesis of some of the benzoxazinoids have never been identified, and further gene expression studies are required to assess the observed correlation between the concentration of these compounds and other benzoxazinoids for which the responsible genes are known. The present study revealed a potential for breeding rye cultivars with

  3. Antioxidant effects of phenolic rye (Secale cereale L.) extracts, monomeric hydroxycinnamates, and ferulic acid dehydrodimers on human low-density lipoproteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, M.F.; Landbo, Anne-Katrine Regel; Christensen, L.P.

    2001-01-01

    Dietary antioxidants that protect low-density lipoprotein (LDL) from oxidation may help to prevent atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease. The antioxidant activities of purified monomeric and dimeric hydroxycinnamates and of phenolic extracts from rye (whole grain, bran, and flour) were...

  4. Antioxidant effects of phenolic rye (Secale cereale L.) extracts, monomeric hydroxycinnamates, and ferulic acid dehydrodimers on human low-density lipoproteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Mette Findal; Landbo, A K; Christensen, L P

    2001-01-01

    Dietary antioxidants that protect low-density lipoprotein (LDL) from oxidation may help to prevent atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease. The antioxidant activities of purified monomeric and dimeric hydroxycinnamates and of phenolic extracts from rye (whole grain, bran, and flour) were...... investigated using an in vitro copper-catalyzed human LDL oxidation assay. The most abundant ferulic acid dehydrodimer (diFA) found in rye, 8-O-4-diFA, was a slightly better antioxidant than ferulic acid and p-coumaric acid. The antioxidant activity of the 8-5-diFA was comparable to that of ferulic acid......, but neither 5-5-diFA nor 8-5-benzofuran-diFA inhibited LDL oxidation when added at 10-40 microM. The antioxidant activity of the monomeric hydroxycinnamates decreased in the following order: caffeic acid > sinapic acid > ferulic acid > p-coumaric acid. The antioxidant activity of rye extracts...

  5. Phytotoxicity and Benzoxazinone Concentration in Field Grown Cereal Rye (Secale cereale L.)

    OpenAIRE

    La Hovary, C.; Danehower, D. A.; Ma, G.; Reberg-Horton, C.; Williamson, J. D.; Baerson, S. R.; Burton, J. D.

    2016-01-01

    Winter rye (Secale cereale L.) is used as a cover crop because of the weed suppression potential of its mulch. To gain insight into the more effective use of rye as a cover crop we assessed changes in benzoxazinone (BX) levels in rye shoot tissue over the growing season. Four rye varieties were planted in the fall and samples harvested at intervals the following spring. Two different measures of phytotoxic compound content were taken. Seed germination bioassays were used as an estimate of tot...

  6. Salicylic acid-induced germination, biochemical and developmental alterations in rye (Secale cereale L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Yanik, Fatma; Aytürk, Özlem; Çetinbaş-Genç, Aslihan; Vardar, Filiz

    2018-01-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) is one of the endogenous plant growth regulators that modulate various metabolic and physiological events. To evaluate the exogenous SA-induced germination, biochemical and developmental alterations, different concentrations (10, 100, 500 and 1000 μM) of SA were applied to rye (Secale cereale L.) seeds in hydroponic culture conditions for 15 days. The observations revealed that seed germination and root elongation were stimulated in 10 μM SA treatment, however they were in...

  7. Phytotoxicity and Benzoxazinone Concentration in Field Grown Cereal Rye (Secale cereale L.

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    C. La Hovary

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Winter rye (Secale cereale L. is used as a cover crop because of the weed suppression potential of its mulch. To gain insight into the more effective use of rye as a cover crop we assessed changes in benzoxazinone (BX levels in rye shoot tissue over the growing season. Four rye varieties were planted in the fall and samples harvested at intervals the following spring. Two different measures of phytotoxic compound content were taken. Seed germination bioassays were used as an estimate of total phytotoxic potential. Dilutions of shoot extracts were tested using two indicator species to compare the relative toxicity of tissue. In addition, BX (DIBOA, DIBOA-glycoside, and BOA levels were directly determined using gas chromatography. Results showed that rye tissue harvested in March was the most toxic to indicator species, with toxicity decreasing thereafter. Likewise the BX concentration in rye shoot tissue increased early in the season and then decreased over time. Thus, phytotoxicity measured by bioassay and BX levels measured by GC have a similar but not identical temporal profile. The observed decrease in phytotoxic potential and plant BX levels in rye later in the season appears to correlate with the transition from vegetative to reproductive growth.

  8. Role of benzoxazinones in allelopathy by rye (Secale cereale L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, J P; Putnam, A R

    1987-04-01

    Two phytotoxic compounds [2,4-dihydroxy-1,4(2H)-benzoxazin-3-one (DIBOA) and 2(3H)-benzoxazolinone (BOA)] were previously isolated and identified in 35-day-old greenhouse-grown rye shoot tissue. Both compounds were also detected by TLC in greenhouse-grown root and fieldgrown shoot tissue. The concentration of DIBOA varied in the tissues, with the greatest quantity detected in greenhouse-grown shoots. DIBOA and BOA were compared with β-phenyllactic acid (PLA) and β-hydroxybutyric acid (HBA) for activity on seed germination and seedling growth and were consistently more toxic than either compound. Dicot species tested, including lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.), and redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus L.), were 30% more sensitive than the monocots tested. Of the two benzoxazinone compounds, DIBOA was most toxic to seedling growth. DIBOA and BOA reduced chlorophyll production inChlamydomonas rheinhardtii Dangeard, by 50% at 7.5 × 10(-5) M and 1.0 × 10(-3) M, respectively. Both DIBOA and BOA inhibited emergence of barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crusgalli L. Beauv.), cress (Lepidium sativum L.), and lettuce when applied to soil, indicating their potential for allelopathic activity.

  9. Sequence composition and gene content of the short arm of rye (Secale cereale chromosome 1.

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    Silvia Fluch

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The purpose of the study is to elucidate the sequence composition of the short arm of rye chromosome 1 (Secale cereale with special focus on its gene content, because this portion of the rye genome is an integrated part of several hundreds of bread wheat varieties worldwide. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Multiple Displacement Amplification of 1RS DNA, obtained from flow sorted 1RS chromosomes, using 1RS ditelosomic wheat-rye addition line, and subsequent Roche 454FLX sequencing of this DNA yielded 195,313,589 bp sequence information. This quantity of sequence information resulted in 0.43× sequence coverage of the 1RS chromosome arm, permitting the identification of genes with estimated probability of 95%. A detailed analysis revealed that more than 5% of the 1RS sequence consisted of gene space, identifying at least 3,121 gene loci representing 1,882 different gene functions. Repetitive elements comprised about 72% of the 1RS sequence, Gypsy/Sabrina (13.3% being the most abundant. More than four thousand simple sequence repeat (SSR sites mostly located in gene related sequence reads were identified for possible marker development. The existence of chloroplast insertions in 1RS has been verified by identifying chimeric chloroplast-genomic sequence reads. Synteny analysis of 1RS to the full genomes of Oryza sativa and Brachypodium distachyon revealed that about half of the genes of 1RS correspond to the distal end of the short arm of rice chromosome 5 and the proximal region of the long arm of Brachypodium distachyon chromosome 2. Comparison of the gene content of 1RS to 1HS barley chromosome arm revealed high conservation of genes related to chromosome 5 of rice. CONCLUSIONS: The present study revealed the gene content and potential gene functions on this chromosome arm and demonstrated numerous sequence elements like SSRs and gene-related sequences, which can be utilised for future research as well as in breeding of wheat and rye.

  10. Metabolic reduction of phenylpropanoid compounds in primary leaves of rye (Secale cereale L.) leads to increased UV-B sensitivity of photosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reuber, S.; Leitsch, J.; Krause, G.H.; Weissenböck, G.

    1993-01-01

    The present study was undertaken in order to investigate the suitability of certain markers for UV plant response. In addition, we attempted to link the internal tissue distribution of specific UV-absorbing compounds to profiles of radiation gradients within intact primary rye leaves (Secale cereale L. cv. Kustro). Etiolated rye seedlings irradiated with low visible light (LL) and/or UV radiation were used to study enzyme activities of the two key enzymes, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and chalcone synthase (CHS), together with the tissue-specific accumulation of soluble phenylpropanoid products. Plants grown under relatively high visible light (HL) with or without supplementary UV-B radiation were used for further characterization. Apparent quantum yield and fluorescence quenching parameters were monitored to assess potential physiological changes due to UV-B exposure in HL-grown seedlings. A quartz fibreoptic microprobe was used to characterize the internal UV-B gradient of the leaf. The response of the phenylpropanoid metabolism to UV radiation was similar in primary leaves of both etiolated and HL-treated green plants. The epidermis-specific flavonoids together with CHS activity turned out to be suitable markers for assessing the effect of UV on the phenolic metabolism. The functional role of phenylpropanoid compounds was strongly implicated in protecting rye from UV-B radiation

  11. Changes over time in the allelochemical content of ten cultivars of rye (Secale cereale L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reberg-Horton, S Chris; Burton, James D; Danehower, David A; Ma, Guoying; Monks, David W; Murphy, J Paul; Ranells, Noah N; Williamson, John D; Creamer, Nancy G

    2005-01-01

    Published studies focused on characterizing the allelopathy-based weed suppression by rye cover crop mulch have provided varying and inconsistent estimates of weed suppression. Studies were initiated to examine several factors that could influence the weed suppressiveness of rye: kill date, cultivar, and soil fertility. Ten cultivars of rye were planted with four rates of nitrogen fertilization, and tissue from each of these treatment combinations was harvested three times during the growing season. Concentrations of a known rye allelochemical DIBOA (2,4-dihydroxy-1,4-(2H)benzoxazine-3-one) were quantified from the harvested rye tissue using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Phytotoxicity observed from aqueous extracts of the harvested rye tissue correlated with the levels of DIBOA recovered in harvested tissue. The amount of DIBOA in rye tissue varied depending on harvest date and rye cultivar, but was generally lower with all cultivars when rye was harvested later in the season. However, the late maturing variety 'Wheeler' retained greater concentrations of DIBOA in comparison to other rye cultivars when harvested later in the season. The decline in DIBOA concentrations as rye matures, and the fact that many rye cultivars mature at different rates may help explain why estimates of weed suppression from allelopathic agents in rye have varied so widely in the literature.

  12. Climate Change: Natural Water and Fertilization Effects on Winter Rye (Secale cereale L.) Yield in Monoculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    László Phd, M., ,, Dr.

    2009-04-01

    early as 1850. Among the natural consequences of changing weather patterns, years of drought (rainfall deficit) and wet (rainfall excess) conditions, resulted in problems among plant nutrition and field crop production (EU, 2003). Whereas rye (Secale cereale L.) is a crop of worldwide importance, limited research exists about the effects of climate change on these crop (Kádár et al., 1984; Kádár, 2005; Márton, 2002). These crop has sensitive reactions to the prevailing weather conditions (such as rainfall) and, for this reason, understanding the effects of anthropogenic climate change on it's production has a great importance. In addition to rainfall, the crop require an optimal level of soil macronutrients: nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium (Várallyay, 1939; Kádár, 1992; Kárár et al., 1982; Kádár et al., 1984; Kádár & Szemes, 1994). Most environmental research focuses on only one, or a very few changes instead of the concomitant multiple changes occurring in our world. Unfortunately, however, the bulk of past research has focused on one factor at a time. As a result for example, much is known about the effects of a change in a geochemical element (macro, meso, micro or trace) loading on yield of some crops, but much less is known about the effects of a change in a geochemical element in combination with a change in rainfall quantity and distribution on the yield of those same crops. It is obviously the effects of all the environmental changes occurring, rather than just a geochemical element (or just other geochemical elements, or just raifall quantity and distribution, etc.), that is of importance to any crop. Although much of this paper focuses on single factors (rainfall quantity, rainfall distribution, N-, P-, K-fertilization), it was our intent to emphasize that the net effect of multiple environmental changes on rye is far more important than the effect of a single factor on that crop. So, we show interaction findings related to rainfall quantity

  13. Regrowth in Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and Rye (Secale cereale L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, J L; Jørgensen, Johannes Ravn; Jørnsgård, B

    1998-01-01

    Regrowth after cutting at four development stages, from heading to grain maturity, was investigated in a pot experiment containing three rye and four barley varieties (including 2 Hordeum spontaneum lines). Regrowth in the barley varieties decreased strongly from heading to grain maturity. Rye ge...

  14. Evaluation of winter rye (Secale cereale L.) and triticale after using physical and chemical mutagens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawicka, E.J.; Murani, R.

    1990-01-01

    Full text: It was decided to induce mutations separately in rye and triticale to obtain forms resistant to lodging. Seeds of rye cv. 'Dankowskie Zlote' and triticale cv. 'Lasko' were irradiated with fast neutrons and treated with MNH, rye cv. 'LAD 2T80' was treated with only MNH. The mutant selection was made in M 3 and the progenies were evaluated with regard to plant height. In total, 226 changed forms were found, most of them shorter than the control. Some of them should be useful as a source of resistance to lodging. (author)

  15. Reaction of Global Collection of Rye (Secale cereale L. to Tan Spot and Pyrenophora tritici-repentis Races in South Dakota

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    Sidrat Abdullah

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Rye (Secale cereale L. serves as an alternative host of Pyrenophora tritici-repentis (PTR the cause of tan spot on wheat. Rye is cultivated as a forage or cover crop and overlaps with a significant portion of wheat acreage in the U.S. northern Great Plains; however, it is not known whether the rye crop influences the evolution of PTR races. We evaluated a global collection of 211 rye accessions against tan spot and assessed the diversity in PTR population on rye in South Dakota. All the rye genotypes were inoculated with PTR races 1 and 5, and infiltrated with Ptr ToxA and Ptr ToxB, at seedling stage. We observed 21% of the genotypes exhibited susceptibility to race 1, whereas, 39% were susceptible to race 5. All 211 accessions were insensitive to both the Ptr toxins. It indicates that though rye exhibits diversity in reaction to tan spot, it lacks Ptr ToxA and ToxB sensitivity genes. This suggests that unknown toxins or other factors can lead to PTR establishment in rye. We characterized the race structure of 103 PTR isolates recovered from rye in South Dakota. Only 22% of the isolates amplified Ptr ToxA gene and were identified as race 1 based on their phenotypic reaction on the differential set. The remaining 80 isolates were noted to be race 4. Our results show that races 1 and 4 are prevalent on rye in South Dakota with a higher frequency of race 4, suggesting a minimal role of rye in the disease epidemiology.

  16. Reaction of Global Collection of Rye (Secale cereale L.) to Tan Spot and Pyrenophora tritici-repentis Races in South Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Sidrat; Sehgal, Sunish K; Glover, Karl D; Ali, Shaukat

    2017-06-01

    Rye ( Secale cereale L.) serves as an alternative host of Pyrenophora tritici-repentis ( PTR ) the cause of tan spot on wheat. Rye is cultivated as a forage or cover crop and overlaps with a significant portion of wheat acreage in the U.S. northern Great Plains; however, it is not known whether the rye crop influences the evolution of PTR races. We evaluated a global collection of 211 rye accessions against tan spot and assessed the diversity in PTR population on rye in South Dakota. All the rye genotypes were inoculated with PTR races 1 and 5, and infiltrated with Ptr ToxA and Ptr ToxB, at seedling stage. We observed 21% of the genotypes exhibited susceptibility to race 1, whereas, 39% were susceptible to race 5. All 211 accessions were insensitive to both the Ptr toxins. It indicates that though rye exhibits diversity in reaction to tan spot, it lacks Ptr ToxA and ToxB sensitivity genes. This suggests that unknown toxins or other factors can lead to PTR establishment in rye. We characterized the race structure of 103 PTR isolates recovered from rye in South Dakota. Only 22% of the isolates amplified Ptr ToxA gene and were identified as race 1 based on their phenotypic reaction on the differential set. The remaining 80 isolates were noted to be race 4. Our results show that races 1 and 4 are prevalent on rye in South Dakota with a higher frequency of race 4, suggesting a minimal role of rye in the disease epidemiology.

  17. Concentrations and allelopathic effects of benzoxazinoid compounds in soil treated with rye (Secale cereale) cover crop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Clifford P; Cai, Guimei; Teasdale, John R

    2012-05-09

    The concentration of benzoxazinoids (BX) was measured in field soils at selected intervals after rye residue was either incorporated or left on the soil surface. The spectrum of compounds arising in the soil persisted approximately two weeks and was dominated by methoxy containing BX compounds, which were only minor components of the rye foliage. Growth assays with lettuce and smooth pigweed species showed inhibition when treated soils were tested during the first two weeks after rye applications; however, there were no sufficient concentrations of any one BX compound in the soil to explain these affects. Solution applications of two pure BX compounds, benzoxazolin-2(3H)-one (BOA) and 6-methoxy-benzoxazolin-2(3H)-one (MBOA), to the surface of soils revealed that movement into the soil column was minimal (greater than 70% BOA and 97% MBOA remained in the top 1-cm of soil profiles) and that the time course for their complete dissipation was less than 24 h.

  18. Positions of disulfide bonds in rye (Secale cereale) seed chitinase-a.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagami, T; Funatsu, G; Ishiguro, M

    2000-06-01

    The positions of disulfide bonds of rye seed chitinase-a (RSC-a) were identified by the isolation of disulfide-containing peptides produced with enzymatic and/or chemical cleavages of RSC-a, followed by sequencing them. An unequivocal assignment of disulfide bonds in this enzyme was as follows: Cys3-Cysl8, Cys12-Cys24, Cys15-Cys42, Cys17-Cys31, and Cys35-Cys39 in the chitin-binding domain (CB domain), Cys82-Cys144, Cys156-Cys164, and Cys282-Cys295 in the catalytic domain (Cat domain), and Cys263 was a free form.

  19. Output of continuous directed selection aimed at short stem development in Winter Rye (Secale cereale L.

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    В. В. Скорик

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The article provides progress report on the barley of F3к-10029/Saratovske 4 height decreasing throughout 1974 to 2012 by way of selecting plants of the shortest stem. 38 years of selecting the shortest stem genotypes cut down plant height by 5,7 times at the background of dominant Hl gene expression. Average plant height during 38 breeding cycles was descending by 2,69 cm, but this was not an even trend. New creative donor for ultimate short stem characteristic, Gnome 3, has been developed, with Hl-3Hl-3alleles designation. Relative impact on the efficacy of minus-selection by the plant height of the selection differential (38,00% and inheritance coefficient in its narrow sense (14,56% is established. Efficiency of the selection is realized with the decrease of winter rye height plants by 72,08% as expected by the relative breeding forecast. Analyzes is completed for 11 genetic and statistical clusters of average utilitarian characteristics of Gnome 3 ultra short stem rye over the period from 1974 to 2012.

  20. Model training across multiple breeding cycles significantly improves genomic prediction accuracy in rye (Secale cereale L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auinger, Hans-Jürgen; Schönleben, Manfred; Lehermeier, Christina; Schmidt, Malthe; Korzun, Viktor; Geiger, Hartwig H; Piepho, Hans-Peter; Gordillo, Andres; Wilde, Peer; Bauer, Eva; Schön, Chris-Carolin

    2016-11-01

    Genomic prediction accuracy can be significantly increased by model calibration across multiple breeding cycles as long as selection cycles are connected by common ancestors. In hybrid rye breeding, application of genome-based prediction is expected to increase selection gain because of long selection cycles in population improvement and development of hybrid components. Essentially two prediction scenarios arise: (1) prediction of the genetic value of lines from the same breeding cycle in which model training is performed and (2) prediction of lines from subsequent cycles. It is the latter from which a reduction in cycle length and consequently the strongest impact on selection gain is expected. We empirically investigated genome-based prediction of grain yield, plant height and thousand kernel weight within and across four selection cycles of a hybrid rye breeding program. Prediction performance was assessed using genomic and pedigree-based best linear unbiased prediction (GBLUP and PBLUP). A total of 1040 S 2 lines were genotyped with 16 k SNPs and each year testcrosses of 260 S 2 lines were phenotyped in seven or eight locations. The performance gap between GBLUP and PBLUP increased significantly for all traits when model calibration was performed on aggregated data from several cycles. Prediction accuracies obtained from cross-validation were in the order of 0.70 for all traits when data from all cycles (N CS  = 832) were used for model training and exceeded within-cycle accuracies in all cases. As long as selection cycles are connected by a sufficient number of common ancestors and prediction accuracy has not reached a plateau when increasing sample size, aggregating data from several preceding cycles is recommended for predicting genetic values in subsequent cycles despite decreasing relatedness over time.

  1. Hybrid dwarfness in crosses between wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and rye (Secale cereale L.): a new look at an old phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhenko, N; Rutten, T; Tsvetkova, N; Voylokov, A; Börner, A

    2015-03-01

    The existence of hybrid dwarfs from intraspecific crosses in wheat (Triticum aestivum) was described 100 years ago, and the genetics underlying hybrid dwarfness are well understood. In this study, we report a dwarf phenotype in interspecific hybrids between wheat and rye (Secale cereale). We identified two rye lines that produce hybrid dwarfs with wheat and have none of the hitherto known hybrid dwarfing genes. Genetic analyses revealed that both rye lines carry a single allelic gene responsible for the dwarf phenotype. This gene was designated Hdw-R1 (Hybrid dwarf-R1). Application of gibberellic acid (GA3 ) to both intraspecific (wheat-wheat) and interspecific (wheat-rye) hybrids showed that hybrid dwarfness cannot be overcome by treatment with this phytohormone. Histological analysis of shoot apices showed that wheat-rye hybrids with the dwarf phenotype at 21 and 45 days after germination failed to develop further. Shoot apices of dwarf plants did not elongate, did not form new primordia and had a dome-shaped appearance in the seed. The possible relationship between hybrid dwarfness and the genes responsible for the transition from vegetative to generative growth stage is discussed. © 2014 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  2. Osmo and hydro priming improvement germination characteristics and enzyme activity of Mountain Rye (Secale montanum seeds under drought stress

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    Ansari O.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Impacts of various concentrations of polyetylenglycol 6000 (PEG 6000(0, -9, -11, -13 and -15 bar and hydro priming on Mountain Rye (secale montanum germination characteristic and enzyme activity were evaluated under drought stress in the seed laboratory of Natural Resources Faculty, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran. Analyze of variance for hydro priming showed that temperature × time of priming interaction was significantly for germination percentage (GP, normal seedling percentage (NSP, coefficient of velocity of germination (CVG, seedling vigor index (SVI, coefficient of allometry (AC and seedling length (SL under drought stress and for osmo priming showed that Concentration of PEG × Temperature × Time of priming interaction was significantly for all traits under drought stress. Results of interaction effects for hydro priming showed that the highest GP (53% and NSP (23.5% were attained from hydro priming for 16h at 15 ◦C and the highest CVG (0.21 and AC (0.49 were attained from hydro priming for 8h at 10 ◦C, also hydro priming for 8h at 15 ◦C increased SL (3.15 as compared to the unprimed.Osmo priming with concentration of -15 bar PEG for 24h at 15 ◦C increased GP (80.5 %, GI (17.9, NSP (45 %, SVI (257.85 and SL (5.73 cm and decreased MTG as compared to the unprimed and other treatments of osmo priming. The highest CVG was attained from concentration of -9 bar PEG for 24h at 10 ◦C. the highest AC was attained from concentration of -9 bar PEG for 12h at 15 ◦C. Also osmo and hydro priming increased catalase (CAT and ascorbate peroxidase (APX as compared to the unprimed.

  3. Donor of winter rye short stem (Secale cereale L. Gnom 1

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    В. В. Скорик

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The article proves that the genetic cluster analysis using of parents – offspring system at the period of 38 generations of directional intentional selection to short stem, the height of winter rye plants has been reduced less than 90 cm with simultaneously productivity integral components increasing. Directional selection on parent plants short stem has revealed pleiotropic effects to increasing averages of productivity yield capacity, spike length, flowers number, grains, and short stem and simultaneously its productivity reducing, plant and weight reducing of 100 direct descendants grains. Plant height donor of short stem Gnome 1 has been controlled prevailing by genetic factors and has been less influenced by environmental conditions. Selection by enlargement of elite plants grains has predetermined genetically increasing of the average height of families in the next generation without the concept selection requirements satisfaction. Therefore, the directed selections, by the structural analysis results, are annually held in two phases, first – to the expressed short stem and then among of them – to the high weight of 100 grains per plant and desirable productivity elements. A creative dominant short stem donor with stems up to 90 cm and a weight of 100 grains per plant more than 4.0 g has been made. A short stem spike shortness donor Dwarf 1possesses a significant reserve of common genetic mutation of quantitative characteristics, which can be used by direct and indirect selection. This population has been represented by its large amount, in order to enhance capabilities of directional selection plants short stem providing with the desired productivity components during the studying. Informative additive genetic cluster analysis is high. Plants productivity is considered to be extremely complicated selection characteristics, including many component constituents parts related genetically. One of these traits changing inevitably causes

  4. Physical Analysis of the Complex Rye (Secale cereale L.) Alt4 Aluminium (Aluminum) Tolerance Locus Using a Whole-Genome BAC Library of Rye cv. Blanco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rye is a diploid crop species with many outstanding qualities, and is also important as a source of new traits for wheat and triticale improvement. Here we describe a BAC library of rye cv. Blanco, representing a valuable resource for rye molecular genetic studies. The library provides a 6 × genome ...

  5. Effect of Drought Stress on Water Use Efficiency and Root Dry Weight of Wheat (Triticum aesativum L. and Rye (Secale cereale L. in Competition Conditions

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    F Golestani Far

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Deficiency of water during the plant growth is one of the main factors which reduce the crops production around the world. Drought stress is one of the most important tensions that may occur around the low rainfall, high temperature and wind blowing environments. Plant response to this stress depends on the stage of plant growth and drought intensity. Weeds are unwanted and harmful plants with disturbance in agricultural practices which make increase the cost of crop production and reduce the crop yields. Rye (Secale cereal L. is one of the most important weeds at wheat fields in Iran (Baghestani and Atri, 2003. Low expectations, allelopathic effects and similarity of life cycle and morphology, caused increasing of rye density in winter wheat fields. Water use efficiency (WUE as an important physiological characteristic indicates the ability of plants to water stress. WUE may be affected by climatic and soil or plant factors. In plant communities, competition is one of most important physiological topics (Evans et al, 2003. At Inter-specific competition, weeds interfere to absorbing of light, water and nutrients through the adjacency with crop and so affect the growth and yield of crops. Weeds often compete with crops for soil water and reduce the accessibility of water. Competition between weeds and crops decrease the soil moisture and cause water stress which might decrease the weeds and crops growth. When the supply of water is limited, water drainage overlap areas in soil profile could be occurred relatively fast at early of in the crop life cycle. Materials and Methods In order to study the effects of drought stress on water use efficiency and root dry weight of wheat (Triticum aesativum L. and rye (Secale cereale L. in competition conditions, a pot experiment was conducted in the greenhouse of Agriculture Faculty , University of Birjand in 2012. The experiment was arranged as factorial based on completely randomized design

  6. Alkylresorcinols in rye (Secale cereale L. caryopses. III. Application of detergents for extraction of proteins and alkylresorcinols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Mejbaum-Katzenellenbogen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the work here described sodium dodecyl sulphate solutions (SDS, tween 80 and triton X 100 were used for isolation of proteins and 5-n-alkylresorcinols from ground rye grain. It was found that the above named detergents extract different protein and various amounts of alkylresorcin derivatives. The results indicate that 5-n-alkylresorcinols are localized in the membraneous structures of rye caryopses.

  7. Influence of rye flour enzymatic biotransformation on the antioxidant capacity and transepithelial transport of phenolic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima, Fabíola Aliaga; Martins, Isabela Mateus; Faria, Ana; Calhau, Conceição; Azevedo, Joana; Fernandes, Iva; Mateus, Nuno; Macedo, Gabriela Alves

    2018-03-01

    Phenolic acids have been reported to play a role on the antioxidant activity and other important biological activities. However, as most polyphenolics in food products are either bound to cellular matrices or present as free polymeric forms, the way they are absorbed has not been totally clear until now. Hydrolytic enzymes may act to increase functionalities in polyphenolic-rich foods, enhancing the bioaccessibility of phenolic compounds and minerals from whole grains. The aim of this study was to evaluate the action of tannin acyl hydrolase (tannase) on the total phenols, phenolic acid profile, antioxidant capacity and in vitro bioaccessibility of phenolic acids found in whole rye flour (RF). Besides increasing total phenols and the antioxidant capacity, tannase treatment increased the amounts of ferulic, sinapic and vanillic acids identified in RF, evidencing a new type of feruloyl esterase catalytic action of tannase. Vanillic and sinapic acids in tannase-treated whole rye flour (RFT) were higher than RF after in vitro gastrointestinal digestion, and higher amounts of transported vanillic acid through the Caco-2 monolayer were detected in RFT. However, the bioaccessibility and the transport efficiency of RF phenolic acids were higher than RFT. Underutilized crops like rye and rye-derived products may be an important source of phenolic acids. The tannase biotransformation, even influencing the total phenolics and antioxidant capacity of RF, did not increase the bioaccessibility of phenolic acids under the experimental conditions of this study.

  8. Comparison of ethanol-soluble proteins from different rye (Secale cereale) varieties by two-dimensional electrophoresis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Radzikowski, Louise; Nesic, Ljiljana; Hansen, H.B.

    2002-01-01

    The major storage proteins from six rye varieties, grown under the same conditions in 1997 and 1998 in Ronhave, Denmark, were analyzed by two-dimensional (2-D) polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The proteins were extracted from ground rye kernels with 70% ethanol and separated by 2-D electrophor......The major storage proteins from six rye varieties, grown under the same conditions in 1997 and 1998 in Ronhave, Denmark, were analyzed by two-dimensional (2-D) polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The proteins were extracted from ground rye kernels with 70% ethanol and separated by 2-D...... electrophoresis. The gels were scanned, compared using ImageMaster(R) software and the data sets were analyzed by principal component analysis (PCA) using THE UNSCRAMBLER software. Afterwards MATLAB was used to make a cluster analysis of the varieties based on PCA. The analysis of the gels showed...... separately. When the results were combined from the two years five varieties could be differentiated. The results from the PCA confirmed the finding of the unique spots and cluster analysis was made in order to illustrate the results. The combination of the results from 2-D electrophoresis and other grain...

  9. Studies on rye (Secale cereale L.) lines exhibiting a range of extract viscosities. 2. Rheological and baking characteristics of rye and rye/wheat blends and feeding value for chicks of wholemeals and breads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragaee, S M; Campbell, G L; Scoles, G J; McLeod, J G; Tyler, R T

    2001-05-01

    Five rye lines exhibiting a wide range of extract viscosities were evaluated for the rheological and baking properties of their flours, individually and in blends with hard red spring wheat flour. Commercial cultivars of rye and triticale were included in the study as controls. Extract viscosities of rye flours were higher than those of corresponding wholemeals, indicating shifting of water-extractable arabinoxylan into flour during roller milling. Falling numbers of the rye flours correlated positively with their extract viscosities in the presence (r = 0.73, p < 0.05) or absence (r = 0.65, p < 0.05) of an enzyme inhibitor. Farinograms revealed the weakness of rye and triticale flours compared to wheat flour. Extract viscosities of rye flours were negatively correlated (r = -0.65, p < 0.05) with mixing tolerance index and positively correlated (r = 0.64, p < 0.05) with dough stability, suggesting a positive impact of extract viscosity on dough strength. Extract viscosity was negatively correlated (r = -0.74, p < 0.05) with loaf volume and specific volume (r = -0.73, p < 0.05) and positively correlated (r = 0.73, p < 0.05) with loaf weight of rye/wheat bread. Overall, the results indicated that 30% of flour from high or low extract viscosity rye could be incorporated into rye/wheat breads without seriously compromising bread quality. Inclusion of rye, particularly high extract viscosity rye, in chick diets seriously impeded growth performance and feed efficiency. Part of the arabinoxylan survived bread-making and exerted an effect on chicks, although substantially lower digesta viscosities were observed in chicks fed rye bread diets than in those fed rye wholemeals.

  10. Structural characteristics of ScBx genes controlling the biosynthesis of hydroxamic acids in rye (Secale cereale L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakera, Beata; Makowska, Bogna; Groszyk, Jolanta; Niziołek, Michał; Orczyk, Wacław; Bolibok-Brągoszewska, Hanna; Hromada-Judycka, Aneta; Rakoczy-Trojanowska, Monika

    2015-08-01

    Benzoxazinoids (BX) are major secondary metabolites of gramineous plants that play an important role in disease resistance and allelopathy. They also have many other unique properties including anti-bacterial and anti-fungal activity, and the ability to reduce alfa-amylase activity. The biosynthesis and modification of BX are controlled by the genes Bx1 ÷ Bx10, GT and glu, and the majority of these Bx genes have been mapped in maize, wheat and rye. However, the genetic basis of BX biosynthesis remains largely uncharacterized apart from some data from maize and wheat. The aim of this study was to isolate, sequence and characterize five genes (ScBx1, ScBx2, ScBx3, ScBx4 and ScBx5) encoding enzymes involved in the synthesis of DIBOA, an important defense compound of rye. Using a modified 3D procedure of BAC library screening, seven BAC clones containing all of the ScBx genes were isolated and sequenced. Bioinformatic analyses of the resulting contigs were used to examine the structure and other features of these genes, including their promoters, introns and 3'UTRs. Comparative analysis showed that the ScBx genes are similar to those of other Poaceae species, especially to the TaBx genes. The polymorphisms present both in the coding sequences and non-coding regions of ScBx in relation to other Bx genes are predicted to have an impact on the expression, structure and properties of the encoded proteins.

  11. Comparative studies on the carbohydrate, protein and acid phosphatase contents in seeds of some rye (Secale cereale varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Morawiecka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The contents of sugars. proteins and acid phosphatase extracted with 0.1 M acetate buffer, pH 5.1, from some rye varieties were determined. The total sugar level amounted to 3.25-9.70 g per 100 g of seeds; the estimates for pentoses were 1.7-2.9 g and those for proteins 0.91-1.60 g per 100 g of seeds. Acid phosphatase showed and activity level between 0.18 and 1.26 units/mg protein. After disc electrophoresis proteins were separated into 10 to 11 bands: at pH 9.4 or into 4-7 bands at pH 3.8. Essential variety differences were expressed in protein patterns after electrophoresis at pH 3.8. Acid phosphatase was separated into 5 and 4 activity bands at pH 9.4 and 3.3,. respectively. No variations in zymogram patterns were observed in respect to variety differences or cultivation in various climate and soil conditions.

  12. The application of GBS markers for extending the dense genetic map of rye (Secale cereale L.) and the localization of the Rfc1 gene restoring male fertility in plants with the C source of sterility-inducing cytoplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milczarski, Paweł; Hanek, Monika; Tyrka, Mirosław; Stojałowski, Stefan

    2016-11-01

    Genotyping by sequencing (GBS) is an efficient method of genotyping in numerous plant species. One of the crucial steps toward the application of GBS markers in crop improvement is anchoring them on particular chromosomes. In rye (Secale cereale L.), chromosomal localization of GBS markers has not yet been reported. In this paper, the application of GBS markers generated by the DArTseq platform for extending the high-density map of rye is presented. Additionally, their application is used for the localization of the Rfc1 gene that restores male fertility in plants with the C source of sterility-inducing cytoplasm. The total number of markers anchored on the current version of the map is 19,081, of which 18,132 were obtained from the DArTseq platform. Numerous markers co-segregated within the studied mapping population, so, finally, only 3397 unique positions were located on the map of all seven rye chromosomes. The total length of the map is 1593 cM and the average distance between markers is 0.47 cM. In spite of the resolution of the map being not very high, it should be a useful tool for further studies of the Secale cereale genome because of the presence on this map of numerous GBS markers anchored for the first time on rye chromosomes. The Rfc1 gene was located on high-density maps of the long arm of the 4R chromosome obtained for two mapping populations. Genetic maps were composed of DArT, DArTseq, and PCR-based markers. Consistent mapping results were obtained and DArTs tightly linked to the Rfc1 gene were successfully applied for the development of six new PCR-based markers useful in marker-assisted selection.

  13. Inhibiton of Yellow Nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus L. and Bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers by a Mulch Derived from Rye (Secale cereale L. in grapevines Inhibición del Crecimiento de Chufa (Cyperus esculentus L. y Pasto Bermuda (Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers. con mulch Vegetal Proveniente de Centeno (Secale cereale L. en Vides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Ormeño-Núñez

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Two field trials (Los Andes 1998-1999 and Santiago 2004-2005 were carried out to determine growth inhibition of yellow nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus L. and bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers., growing on the plantation row, by mulch derived from a rye (Secale cereale L. cover crop established between grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. rows on overhead (cv. Flame Seedless and vertical (cv. Cabernet Sauvignon training. Spring mowing of the rye sown in the fall allowed for developing a thick and long lasting mulch along the grape rows. Nutsedge and bermudagrass control was 81 and 82%, respectively, and was more effective than conventional chemical (in the row + mechanical (between rows control. Glyphosate at 2% for nutsedge and 1% for bermudagrass control, applied twice (October and December, was insufficient to control either perennial weed adequately. Total broadleaved and grass/sedge weed control was 67.3 and 43.0% more effective with the rye mulch than with conventional treatments at Los Andes and Santiago, respectively. Perennial weed control levels could be explained as the new foliage of yellow nutsedge and bermudagrass was particularly susceptible to the shading provided by the rye mulch assembled prior to mid spring shoot emergence, and this effect remained active up until the beginning of autumn. The subsequent rye foliage mowing at the vegetative stage fully expressed the allelopathic effect produced by this local rye cultivar. The use of rye cover crop management and mulch could be applied as an effective weed control technique in conventional, as well as organic deciduous tree orchards.En dos ensayos de campo (Los Andes 1998-1999 y Santiago 2004-2005 se determinó el efecto inhibitorio sobre chufa (Cyperus esculentus L. y pasto bermuda (Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers. de residuos de centeno (Secale cereale L. establecido en otoño entre las hileras de vides (Vitis vinifera L. en parronal (cv. Flame Seedless y espaldera (cv. Cabernet Sauvignon

  14. Effect of Bioprocessing on the In Vitro Colonic Microbial Metabolism of Phenolic Acids from Rye Bran Fortified Breads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koistinen, Ville M; Nordlund, Emilia; Katina, Kati

    2017-01-01

    in an in vitro colon model, the metabolites were analyzed using two different methods applying mass spectrometry. While phenolic acids were released more extensively from the bioprocessed bran bread and ferulic acid had consistently higher concentrations in the bread type during fermentation, there were only......Cereal bran is an important source of dietary fiber and bioactive compounds, such as phenolic acids. We aimed to study the phenolic acid metabolism of native and bioprocessed rye bran fortified refined wheat bread and to elucidate the microbial metabolic route of phenolic acids. After incubation...

  15. A "TEST OF CONCEPT" COMPARISON OF AERODYNAMIC AND MECHANICAL RESUSPENSION MECHANISMS FOR PARTICLES DEPOSITED ON FIELD RYE GRASS (SECALE CERCELE). PART I. RELATIVE PARTICLE FLUX RATES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resuspension of uniform latex micro spheres deposited on a single seed pod of field rye grass stalk and head was investigated experimentally in a wind tunnel. The experiment was designed to distinguish aerodynamic (viscous and turbulent) mechanisms from mechanical resuspension re...

  16. Genetic variability induced in winter rye (Secale cereale l.), soya bean (Glicine max merill.) and china aster (Callistephus chinensis L. Nees)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muszynski, S.; Darlewska, M.; Dobosz-Rojewska, K.; Wosinska, A.

    1998-01-01

    Optimal treatments for mutation induction were established as follows: for China aster - treating seeds with gamma rays of 6-9 rad; for soya bean - irradiating seeds with fast neutrons of 100 rad, for rye - soaking the grains in water solutions of NEU (0.04% concentration) and of SA (1.5-2.0-2.5 mM concentration). The most interesting mutants of each species are kept in collection. They include the following mutants of China aster (homogamic) of soya bean (with tall and strong stems, with great leaves) and of winter rye (short-straw mutants, xanthina, with horizontal type of growth and with late senescence, combined with long spikes). (author)

  17. Alkylresorcinols in rye (Secale cereale L. grains. VI. Colorimetric micromethod for the determination of alkylresorcinols with the use of diazonium salt, Fast Blue B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franciszek Tłuścik

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple and precise method for alkylresorcinols determination was elaborated. The method a based on coupling of alkylresorcinals with diazotized Fast Blue B, in acidified propaaiol. The method is highly specific for 5-n-alkyl derivatives of resorcinols. In case of rye and wheat 98.1% and 96.2% respectively of total extinction value were due to 5-n-alkylresorcinols.

  18. Combined effects of enhanced UV-B radiation and nitrogen deficiency on the growth, composition and photosynthesis of rye (Secale cereale)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deckmyn, G.; Impens, I.

    1997-01-01

    The interactive effects of N-deficiency and enhanced UV-B radiation on growth, photosynthesis and pigmentation of rye were studied. The plants were grown for 5 weeks in growth chambers with high (700 μmol m -2 s -2 ) irradiance levels. A 30% difference in UV-B at plant level was achieved by using different thicknesses of UV-B transparent Plexiglass. One half of the plants received optimal N nutrition, while the other received half of this dose. Both enhanced UV-B and N deficiency strongly decreased production (from 24–33%). The combined effect was additive (no interaction) on most parameters, including total dry weight production which was 52% lower than in the control series. Significant interaction was found on the root/shoot ratio. While reduced N supply induced an increase in the ratio at normal UV-B irradiation, under the increased UV-B, N deficiency had no effect on the root/shoot ratio. The reduced biomass due to UV-B was clearly correlated to a reduction in photosynthesis. At optimal N supply the plants increased the production of protective pigments in response to UV-B, but at reduced N supply this response was lacking. The increased N content of the high UV-B/high N plants could be a result of increased flavonoid production as well as changes in light penetration in the canopy. (author)

  19. Soluble and cell wall-bound phenolic acids and ferulic acid dehydrodimers in rye flour and five bread model systems: insight into mechanisms of improved availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dynkowska, Wioletta M; Cyran, Malgorzata R; Ceglińska, Alicja

    2015-03-30

    The bread-making process influences bread components, including phenolics that significantly contribute to its antioxidant properties. Five bread model systems made from different rye cultivars were investigated to compare their impact on concentration of ethanol-soluble (free and ester-bound) and insoluble phenolics. Breads produced by a straight dough method without acid addition (A) and three-stage sourdough method with 12 h native starter preparation (C) exhibited the highest, genotype-dependent concentrations of free phenolic acids. Dough acidification by direct acid addition (method B) or by gradual production during prolonged starter fermentation (24 and 48 h, for methods D and E) considerably decreased their level. However, breads B were enriched in soluble ester-bound fraction. Both direct methods, despite substantial differences in dough pH, caused a similar increase in the amount of insoluble ester-bound fraction. The contents of phenolic fractions in rye bread were positively related to activity level of feruloyl esterase and negatively to those of arabinoxylan-hydrolysing enzymes in wholemeal flour. The solubility of rye bread phenolics may be enhanced by application of a suitable bread-making procedure with respect to rye cultivar, as the mechanisms of this process are also governed by a response of an individual genotype with specific biochemical profile. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Impact of grazing dairy steers on winter rye (Secale cereale versus winter wheat (Triticum aestivum and effects on meat quality, fatty acid and amino acid profiles, and consumer acceptability of organic beef.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah N Phillips

    Full Text Available Meat from Holstein and crossbred organic dairy steers finished on winter rye and winter wheat pastures was evaluated and compared for meat quality, fatty acid and amino acid profiles, and consumer acceptability. Two adjacent 4-ha plots were established with winter rye or winter wheat cover crops in September 2015 at the University of Minnesota West Central Research and Outreach Center (Morris, MN. During spring of 2015, 30 steers were assigned to one of three replicate breed groups at birth. Breed groups were comprised of: Holstein (HOL; n = 10, crossbreds comprised of Montbéliarde, Viking Red, and HOL (MVH; n = 10, and crossbreds comprised of Normande, Jersey, and Viking Red (NJV; n = 10. Dairy steers were maintained in their respective replicate breed group from three days of age until harvest. After weaning, steers were fed an organic total mixed ration of organic corn silage, alfalfa silage, corn, soybean meal, and minerals until spring 2016. Breed groups were randomly assigned to winter rye or winter wheat and rotationally grazed from spring until early summer of 2016. For statistical analysis, independent variables were fixed effects of breed, forage, and the interaction of breed and forage, with replicated group as a random effect. Specific contrast statements were used to compare HOL versus crossbred steers. Fat from crossbreds had 13% greater omega-3 fatty acids than HOL steers. Furthermore, the omega-6/3 ratio was 14% lower in fat from crossbreds than HOL steers. For consumer acceptability, steaks from steers grazed on winter wheat had greater overall liking than steers grazed on winter rye. Steak from crossbreeds had greater overall liking than HOL steers. The results suggest improvement in fatty acids and sensory attributes of beef from crossbred dairy steers compared to HOL steers, as well as those finished on winter wheat compared to winter rye.

  1. Impact of grazing dairy steers on winter rye (Secale cereale) versus winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) and effects on meat quality, fatty acid and amino acid profiles, and consumer acceptability of organic beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Hannah N; Heins, Bradley J; Delate, Kathleen; Turnbull, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Meat from Holstein and crossbred organic dairy steers finished on winter rye and winter wheat pastures was evaluated and compared for meat quality, fatty acid and amino acid profiles, and consumer acceptability. Two adjacent 4-ha plots were established with winter rye or winter wheat cover crops in September 2015 at the University of Minnesota West Central Research and Outreach Center (Morris, MN). During spring of 2015, 30 steers were assigned to one of three replicate breed groups at birth. Breed groups were comprised of: Holstein (HOL; n = 10), crossbreds comprised of Montbéliarde, Viking Red, and HOL (MVH; n = 10), and crossbreds comprised of Normande, Jersey, and Viking Red (NJV; n = 10). Dairy steers were maintained in their respective replicate breed group from three days of age until harvest. After weaning, steers were fed an organic total mixed ration of organic corn silage, alfalfa silage, corn, soybean meal, and minerals until spring 2016. Breed groups were randomly assigned to winter rye or winter wheat and rotationally grazed from spring until early summer of 2016. For statistical analysis, independent variables were fixed effects of breed, forage, and the interaction of breed and forage, with replicated group as a random effect. Specific contrast statements were used to compare HOL versus crossbred steers. Fat from crossbreds had 13% greater omega-3 fatty acids than HOL steers. Furthermore, the omega-6/3 ratio was 14% lower in fat from crossbreds than HOL steers. For consumer acceptability, steaks from steers grazed on winter wheat had greater overall liking than steers grazed on winter rye. Steak from crossbreeds had greater overall liking than HOL steers. The results suggest improvement in fatty acids and sensory attributes of beef from crossbred dairy steers compared to HOL steers, as well as those finished on winter wheat compared to winter rye.

  2. Ryecyanatines A and B and ryecarbonitrilines A and B, substituted cyanatophenol, cyanatobenzo[1,3]dioxole, and benzo[1,3]dioxolecarbonitriles from rye (Secale cereale L.) root exudates: Novel metabolites with allelopathic activity on Orobanche seed germination and radicle growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimmino, Alessio; Fernández-Aparicio, Mónica; Avolio, Fabiana; Yoneyama, Koichi; Rubiales, Diego; Evidente, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Orobanche and Phelipanche species (the broomrapes) are root parasitic plants, some of which represent serious weed problems causing heavy yield losses on important crops. Current control relies on the use of certain agronomic practices, resistant crop varieties, and herbicides, albeit success has been marginal. Agronomic practices such as the use of allelopathic species in intercropping or cover crops, or the use of direct seedling over residues of allelopathic species incorporate the principle of allelopathy exerted by molecules exuded from roots or released by crop residues to control broomrapes. In addition, the isolation of natural substances from root exudates of plants with potential to inhibit broomrape development opens the door to the design of new herbicides based on natural and benign sources. Ryecyanatines A and B and ryecarbonitrilines A and B, the first new substituted cyanatophenol, substituted cyanatobenzo[1,3]dioxole, and the latter two new substituted benzo[1,3]dioxolecarbonitriles were isolated from rye (Secale cereale L.) root exudates. They were characterized as 4-cyanato-2-methoxyphenol, 2-cyanato-benzo[1,3]dioxole, 2-methoxybenzo[1,3]dioxole-5-carbonitrile and benzo[1,3]dioxole-2-carbonitrile by spectroscopic (essentially NMR and HRESI MS spectra) methods. These compounds were investigated for allelopathic activity on Orobanche germination and development. Ryecarbonitriline A induced germination of Orobanche cumana seeds, and this germination can be considered as suicidal because O. cumana does not parasite rye roots and cannot survive without host resources beyond germination stage. In addition, ryecyanatine A promotes a rapid cessation of O. cumana, Orobanche crenata and Orobanche minor radicle growth with the promotion of a layer of papillae at the radicle tip in O. cumana and O. crenata hampering the contact of the parasite to the host. Ryecarbonitriline B also displayed the same activity although being less active than ryecyanatine A and

  3. Detection genetic variability of secale cereale L. by scot markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenka Petrovičová

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Rye (Secale cereale L. is our traditional cereal used for baking. The genetic variability of grown rye has been reduced by modern agronomic practices, which subsequently prompted the importance of search for species that could be useful as a gene pool for the improving of flour quality for human consumption or for other industrial uses. Therefore, the aim of this study was to detect genetic variability among the set of 45 rye genotypes using 8 SCoT markers. Amplification of genomic DNA of 45 genotypes, using SCoT analysis, yielded 114 fragments, with an average of 14.25 polymorphic fragments per primer. The most polymorphic primer was SCoT 36, where 21 polymorphic amplification products were detected. In contract the lowest polymorphic primer was SCoT 45 with 5 polymorphic products. Genetic polymorphism was characterized based on diversity index (DI, probability of identity (PI and polymorphic information content (PIC. The hierarchical cluster analysis showed that the rye genotypes were divided into 2 main clusters. One rye genotype Motto, origin from Poland formed a separate subcluster (1b. Subscluster 2a included only genotype Valtické (CSK. In this experiment, SCoT proved to be a rapid, reliable and practicable method for revealing of polymorphism in the rye cultivars. Normal 0 21 false false false EN-GB X-NONE X-NONE

  4. Reticulate Evolution of the Rye Genome

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Martis, M.M.; Zhou, R.; Haseneyer, G.; Schmutzer, T.; Vrána, Jan; Kubaláková, Marie; Konig, S.; Kugler, K.G.; Scholz, U.; Hackauf, B.; Korzun, V.; Schon, C.C.; Doležel, Jaroslav; Bauer, E.; Mayer, K. F. X.; Stein, N.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 10 (2013), s. 3685-3698 ISSN 1040-4651 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP501/12/G090 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) ED0007/01/01 Program:ED Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : SECALE-CEREALE L. * CULTIVATED RYE * PHYLOGENETIC ANALYSIS Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 9.575, year: 2013

  5. Optimizing the harvesting stage of rye as a green manure to maximize nutrient production and to minimize methane production in mono-rice paddies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kim, Sang Yun; Park, Chi Kyu; Gwon, Hyo Suk; Khan, Muhammed Israr; Kim, P.J.

    2015-01-01

    Rye (Secale cerealis) has been widely cultivated to improve soil quality in temperate paddies. However, its biomass incorporation can significantly increase greenhouse gas emissions, particularly the emission of methane (CH4), during rice cultivation. The chemical composition and productivity of

  6. Can epigenetic control explain pronounced within plant heterogeneity of meiosis in a translocation trisome of Secale L.?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sybenga, J.

    2012-01-01

    Meiotic metaphase I configuration frequencies were determined in different tillers of genetically related plants of rye (Secale cereale L.) heterozygous for reciprocal translocation T248W (between chromosome arms 1RS and 6RS) and with an additional (telocentric) arm 1RS. Seventeen different

  7. Molecular characterization of rye cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Želmíra Balážová

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available 14.00 The results of molecular analysis of 45 rye taxa (Secale cereale L. represented by agricultural varieties originated from Central Europe and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (SUN are presented. The genetic diversity of rye cultivars by 6 SSR markers was evaluated. Six specific microsatellite primer pairs produced 58 polymorphic alleles with an average of 9.7 alleles per locus. The number of alleles ranged from 6 (SCM2 to 14 (SCM86. Genetic polymorphism was characterized based on diversity index (DI, probability of identity (PI and polymorphic information content (PIC. The diversity index (DI of SSR markers ranged from 0.5478 (SCM2 to 0.887 (SCM86 with an average of 0.778. The lowest value of polymorphic information content was recorded for SCM2 (0.484 and the highest value for SCM86 (0.885 of PIC was detected in SCM86 with an average of 0.760.The dendrogram of genetic similarity was constructed, based on UPGMA algorithm. The hierarchical cluster analysis divided rye genotypes into 4 main clusters. The first cluster of 14 genotypes was subdivided in two subclusters (1a and 1b where 50% of genotypes were Czechoslovak origin. The second cluster contained four genotypes were three (75% of them had Czech or Czechoslovak origin. In the third subcluster separated three rye genotypes of different origin. The rest (24 of rye genotypes in the fourth cluster were divided into two subclusters (4a and 4b where clearly separated group of Polish (4aa and Czech and Czechoslovak (4ab genotypes. Two genotypes of 4aa subcluster (Wojcieszyckie and Dankowskie Nowe from Poland were genetically the closest. In the dendrogram alle genotypes were differentiated and clustering partially reflects geographic origin of studied rye genotypes. In this experiment, SSRs markers proved to be a high informative and usefull tool in genetic diversity research for the distinguishing and characterization of close related varieties. Normal 0 21 false false false CS JA X-NONE

  8. Benefits of Vetch and Rye Cover Crops to Sweet Corn under No-Tillage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zotarelli, L.; Avila, L.; Scholberg, J.M.S.; Alves, B.J.R.

    2009-01-01

    Leguminous cover crops (CCs) may reduce N fertilizer requirements by fixing N biologically and storing leftover N-fertilizer applied in the previous year. The objective of this study was to determine the contribution of CCs [rye (Secale cereal L.) and hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth)] on plant N

  9. Grazing winter rye cover crop in a cotton no-till system: yield and economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter cover crop adoption in conservation management systems continues to be limited in the US but could be encouraged if establishment costs could be offset. A 4-yr field experiment was conducted near Watkinsville, Georgia in which a rye (Secale cereale L.) cover crop was either grazed by catt...

  10. High-copy sequences reveal distinct evolution of the rye B chromosome

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klemme, S.; Banaei-Moghaddam, A.M.; Macas, Jiří; Wicker, T.; Novák, Petr; Houben, A.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 199, č. 2 (2013), s. 550-558 ISSN 0028-646X R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP501/12/G090 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : satellite DNA * nondisjunction control region * B chromosome * Secale cereale (rye) Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 6.545, year: 2013

  11. Expression of allelopathy in the soil environment: Soil concentration and activity of benzoxazinoid compounds released by rye cover crop residue

    Science.gov (United States)

    The activity of allelopathic compounds is often reduced in the soil environment where processes involving release from donor plant material, soil adsorption and degradation, and uptake by receptor plants naturally result in complex interactions. Rye (Secale cereale L.) cover crops are known to supp...

  12. The use of plant tissue culture system in the mutagenesis of Secale cereale L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rybczynski, J.J.; KozIowska, W.; Turzynski, D.

    1990-01-01

    Full text: Among cereals, Secale cereale L. is the worst species for 'in vitro' mutagenesis. In the case of seed mutagenesis of rye each seed is expected to be a different genotype and only somatic embryogenesis assures propagation towards numerous individuals possessing the same genotype. Therefore, another system of in-vitro mutagenesis is explored. Immature embryos were isolated from spikes of field growing plants. The established cultures were irradiated with 0.5; 1.0 and 1.5 kR gamma rays on the first day of the culture and after 6 weeks in culture. After irradiation all cultures were subcultured. For mutagenesis in general uniformity of the original material is very important. Therefore, in rye, irradiation of regenerated somatic embryos may be a good approach. (author)

  13. Molecular diversity and genetic relationships in Secale

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2001); and molecular methods such as amplified fragment length polymorphism ... to the maintenance and rational use of germplasm resources in the improvement of ... study of diversity of ScMATE1 gene in different species of. Secale genus.

  14. Hydroxamic acids in Secale cereale L. and the relationship with their antifeedant and allelopathic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copaja, Sylvia V; Villarroel, Elisa; Bravo, Héctor R; Pizarro, Lorena; Argandoña, Víctor H

    2006-01-01

    Contents of the hydroxamic acids 2,4-dihydroxy-1,4-benzoxazin-3-one (DIBOA), and 2,4-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-1,4-benzoxazin-3-one (DIMBOA) in leaves and roots of 14 cultivars of rye, Secale cereale L., were determined. Dynamics of accumulation in three cultivars were evaluated. DIBOA was the main cyclic hydroxamic acid in leaves but the contents differed significantly between the cultivars. Both DIBOA and DIMBOA were present in the roots. Maximum concentration of DIBOA in leaves and DIMBOA in roots was reached between 48-54 h and 54-72 h after germination, respectively. Antifeedant activity of DIBOA towards the aphid Rhopalosiphum padi and the feeding behavior were studied by electronic recording in barley leaves treated with different contents of DIBOA. The deleterious activity of DIBOA could arise by starvation and/or a toxic effect. Additionally, allelopathic potential of pure DIBOA and aqueous extracts of leaves and roots of rye (Tetra-Baer) on the germination of lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and rye (Tetra-Baer) seeds was evaluated. A high percentage of germination inhibition of pure DIBOA and the extracts of leaves and roots was observed. The activity is in agreement with the contents of hydroxamic acids in the plants. The substrates had no allelopathic effect on rye seeds.

  15. Suitability of peanut residue as a nitrogen source for a rye cover crop

    OpenAIRE

    Balkcom,Kipling Shane; Wood,Charles Wesley; Adams,James Fredrick; Meso,Bernard

    2007-01-01

    Leguminous winter cover crops have been utilized in conservation systems to partially meet nitrogen (N) requirements of succeeding summer cash crops, but the potential of summer legumes to reduce N requirements of a winter annual grass, used as a cover crop, has not been extensively examined. This study assessed the N contribution of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) residues to a subsequent rye (Secale cereale L.) cover crop grown in a conservation system on a Dothan sandy loam (fine-loamy, kaoli...

  16. Postprandial glycemia, insulinemia, and satiety responses in healthy subjects after whole grain rye bread made from different rye varieties. 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosén, Liza A H; Östman, Elin M; Shewry, Peter R; Ward, Jane L; Andersson, Annika A M; Piironen, Vieno; Lampi, Anna-Maija; Rakszegi, Marianne; Bedö, Zoltan; Björck, Inger M E

    2011-11-23

    Rye products typically induce low insulin responses and appear to facilitate glucose regulation. The objective of this study was to investigate differences in postprandial glucose, insulin, and satiety responses between breads made from five rye varieties. Breads made from whole grain rye (Amilo, Rekrut, Dankowski Zlote, Nikita, and Haute Loire Pop) or a white wheat bread (WWB) were tested in a randomized cross-over design in 14 healthy subjects (50 g available starch). Metabolic responses were also related to the composition of dietary fiber and bioactive compounds in the breads and to the rate of in vitro starch hydrolysis. The Amilo and Rekrut rye breads induced significantly lower insulin indices (II) than WWB. Low early postprandial glucose and insulin responses (tAUC 0-60 min) were related to higher amounts of caffeic, ferulic, sinapic, and vanillic acids in the rye breads, indicating that the phenolic acids in rye may influence glycemic regulation. All rye breads induced significantly higher subjective feelings of fullness compared to WWB. A low II was related to a higher feeling of fullness and a lower desire to eat in the late postprandial phase (180 min). The data indicate that some rye varieties may be more insulin-saving than others, possibly due to differences in dietary fiber, rate of starch hydrolysis, and bioactive components such as phenolic acids.

  17. Molecular diversity and genetic relationships in Secale

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Molecular diversity and genetic relationships in Secale. E. Santos, M. Matos, P. Silva, A. M. Figueiras, C. Benito and O. Pinto-Carnide. J. Genet. 95, 273–281. Table 1. RAPD and ISSR primers used in this study. Primer. 5 –3. Primer. 5 –3. RAPDs (Operon). A1. CAGGCCCTTC. C5. CATGACCGCC. A4. AATCGGGCTG. C6.

  18. Molecular diversity and genetic relationships in Secale

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The objective of this study was to quantify the molecular diversity and to determine the genetic relationships amongSecalespp. and among cultivars ofSecale ... Faculty of Sciences, Campo Grande, Lisboa, Portugal; Departamento de Genética, Facultad de Biologia, Universidad Complutense, C/ José Antonio Novais, 12, ...

  19. Sowing time affects the abundance of pests and weeds in winter rye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. HUUSELA-VEISTOLA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Selection of an appropriate sowing time for some winter rye (Secale cereale cultivars could reduce the need for crop protection measures. In this study the occurrence and status of pests and weeds in relation to sowing time and growth habit of winter rye was studied in southern Finland. This was done using three sowing times and four rye varieties in field trials conducted at three locations in 1999–2001. The early sown rye was severely affected by pests (Oscinella frit, Mayetiola destructor and weeds, whereas postponing sowing for two weeks after the recommended sowing time in late August resulted in considerably less damage and the optimal establishment of crop stands. The German hybrid varieties Picasso and Esprit produced more tillers m-2 in autumn than the Finnish varieties Anna and Bor 7068. However, the number of pests and weeds did not differ among rye varieties. Late sowing of rye should be considered to minimize the need for plant protection. If rye is sown at the recommended time it may still require insecticide treatments promptly in the autumn whereas herbicide treatment need not be determined until spring, after recording the winter mortality of weeds.;

  20. Effects of sowing time on pink snow mould, leaf rust and winter damage in winter rye varieties in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. SERENIUS

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Disease infection in relation to sowing time of winter rye (Secale cereale was studied in southern Finland in order to compare overwintering capacity of modern rye varieties and to give recommendations for rye cultivation. This was done by using three sowing times and four rye varieties in field trials conducted at three locations in 1999–2001. The early sown rye (beginning of August was severely affected by diseases caused by Puccinia recondita and Microdochium nivale, whereas postponing sowing for two weeks after the recommended sowing time resulted in considerably less infection. The infection levels of diseases differed among rye varieties. Finnish rye varieties Anna and Bor 7068 were more resistant to snow mould and more winter hardy than the Polish variety Amilo, or the German hybrid varieties Picasso and Esprit. However, Amilo was the most resistant to leaf rust. In the first year snow mould appeared to be the primary cause of winter damage, but in the second year the winter damage was positively correlated with leaf rust. No significant correlation between frit fly infestation and winter damage or disease incidence of snow mould or leaf rust was established. The late sowing of rye (in the beginning of September is recommended in Finland, particularly with hybrid varieties, to minimize the need for chemical plant protection in autumn.;

  1. Geography and end use drive the diversification of worldwide winter rye populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parat, Florence; Schwertfirm, Grit; Rudolph, Ulrike; Miedaner, Thomas; Korzun, Viktor; Bauer, Eva; Schön, Chris-Carolin; Tellier, Aurélien

    2016-01-01

    To meet the current challenges in human food production, improved understanding of the genetic diversity of crop species that maximizes the selection efficacy in breeding programs is needed. The present study offers new insights into the diversity, genetic structure and demographic history of cultivated rye (Secale cereale L.). We genotyped 620 individuals from 14 global rye populations with a different end use (grain or forage) at 32 genome-wide simple sequence repeat markers. We reveal the relationships among these populations, their sizes and the timing of domestication events using population genetics and model-based inference with approximate Bayesian computation. Our main results demonstrate (i) a high within-population variation and genetic diversity, (ii) an unexpected absence of reduction in diversity with an increasing improvement level and (iii) patterns suggestive of multiple domestication events. We suggest that the main drivers of diversification of winter rye are the end use of rye in two early regions of cultivation: rye forage in the Mediterranean area and grain in northeast Europe. The lower diversity and stronger differentiation of eastern European populations were most likely due to more intensive cultivation and breeding of rye in this region, in contrast to the Mediterranean region where it was considered a secondary crop or even a weed. We discuss the relevance of our results for the management of gene bank resources and the pitfalls of inference methods applied to crop domestication due to violation of model assumptions and model complexity. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Root-exuded acid phosphatase and 32Pi-uptake kinetics of wheat, rye and triticale under phosphorus starvation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandey, Renu

    2006-01-01

    A nutrient culture experiment was conducted with cereal species viz., wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cv. PBW-343), rye (Secale cereale L cv. R-308) and triticale (Triticale octoploide L. cv. DT-46), a hybrid of wheat and rye, to examine the genetic variation in root-exuded acid phosphatase (ACPase) activity and kinetics of 32 Pi-uptake under P deficient condition. The ACPase activity was assayed in the extract (intra-) and on surface (extra-cellular) or root, using p-nitrophenyl phosphate as substrate. Significantly higher ACPase activity was observed in wheat followed by rye and triticale both on the root surface and in root extract. In general, root surface ACPase activity was 2.2-fold higher than that in root extract. A strong correlation (r 2 = 0.87**) between extra and intra-cellular ACPase activity was observed. In terms of kinetic parameters, it was observed that 32 Pi uptake and I max values were significantly higher in rye while C min and K m were lowest compared to wheat and triticale. The dry weights of shoot, root and total plant were significantly higher in rye compared to wheat and triticale. Rye also had higher amount of total plant P content The superiority of rye over wheat and triticale in P uptake was observed mainly due to efficient Pi-uptake system, which needs further studies to ascertain the enhancement of Pi-induced high-affinity P transporter in these cereals. (author)

  3. Increased Risk of Insect Injury to Corn Following Rye Cover Crop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, Mike W; O'Neal, Matthew E; Gassmann, Aaron J

    2016-08-01

    Decreased pest pressure is sometimes associated with more diverse agroecosystems, including the addition of a rye cover crop (Secale cereale L.). However, not all pests respond similarly to greater vegetational diversity. Polyphagous pests, such as true armyworm (Mythimna unipuncta Haworth), black cutworm (Agrotis ipsilon Hufnagel), and common stalk borer (Papaipema nebris Guenee), whose host range includes rye have the potential to cause injury to crops following a rye cover crop. The objectives of this study were to compare the abundance of early-season insect pests and injury to corn (Zea mays L.) from fields with and without a rye cover crop on commercial farms. Fields were sampled weekly to quantify adult and larval pests and feeding injury to corn plants from mid-April until corn reached V8 stage, during 2014 and 2015. Measurements within fields were collected along transects that extended perpendicularly from field edges into the interior of cornfields. Adult true armyworm and adult black cutworm were captured around all cornfields, but most lepidopteran larvae captured within cornfields were true armyworm and common stalk borer. Cornfields with a rye cover crop had significantly greater abundance of true armyworm and greater proportion of injured corn. Both true armyworm abundance and feeding injury were significantly greater in the interior of cornfields with rye. Common stalk borer abundance did not differ between cornfields with or without rye cover. Farmers planting corn following a rye cover crop should be aware of the potential for increased presence of true armyworm and for greater injury to corn. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Textural properties of bread formulations based on buckwheat and rye flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Dvořáková

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern nutrition and nutritionists worldwide more and more require high nutritional quality foods including breads. Products based on rye (Secale cereale L. and other cereals such as buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench provide nutritional benefits such as higher intake of fibre which has a positive effect on digestion and decreases a risk of obesity and heart disease, therefore current trend is to replace part of gluten breads with other cereal products. The main aim of this work was to observe changes in breads based on buckwheat and rye mixtures influenced by ratio of buckwheat and rye flour. Eleven ratios of buckwheat-rye flours were prepared. Dough and bread quality were tested in terms of dough machine workability, dough and pastry yield, baking loss, specific volume and texture analyses 24 and 72 hours after baking. The results were statistically evaluated and showed that rising amount of rye flour in mixtures did not affect dough machine workability but improved all of the investigated texture characteristics such as chewiness and gumminess, concerning specific volume of breads, no significant differences were found. All texture parameters deteriorated with staling time.

  5. Identification of barley and rye varieties using matrix- assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry with neural networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloch, H.A.; Petersen, Marianne Kjerstine; Sperotto, Maria Maddalena

    2001-01-01

    developed, which combines analysis of alcohol-soluble wheat proteins (gliadins) using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry with neural networks. Here we have applied the same method for the identification of both barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and rye (Secale cereale L.......) varieties. For barley, 95% of the mass spectra were correctly classified. This is an encouraging result, since in earlier experiments only a grouping into subsets of varieties was possible. However, the method was not useful in the classification of rye, due to the strong similarity between mass spectra...

  6. Influence of Seeding Ratio, Planting Date, and Termination Date on Rye-Hairy Vetch Cover Crop Mixture Performance under Organic Management

    OpenAIRE

    Lawson, Andrew; Cogger, Craig; Bary, Andy; Fortuna, Ann-Marie

    2015-01-01

    Cover crop benefits include nitrogen accumulation and retention, weed suppression, organic matter maintenance, and reduced erosion. Organic farmers need region-specific information on winter cover crop performance to effectively integrate cover crops into their crop rotations. Our research objective was to compare cover crop seeding mixtures, planting dates, and termination dates on performance of rye (Secale cereale L.) and hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth) monocultures and mixtures in the ma...

  7. Development of microsatellite markers specific for the short arm of rye (Secale cereale L.) chromosome 1

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kofler, R.; Bartoš, Jan; Gong, L.; Stift, G.; Suchánková, Pavla; Šimková, Hana; Berenyi, M.; Burg, K.; Doležel, Jaroslav; Lelley, T.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 117, č. 6 (2008), s. 915-926 ISSN 0040-5752 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA521/04/0607; GA ČR GP521/06/P412 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : NON-LTR RETROTRANSPOSONS * ORYZA-SATIVA L. * PLANT GENOMES Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.490, year: 2008

  8. The Ph1 Locus from Wheat Controls Meiotic Chromosome Pairing in Autotetraploid Rye (Secale cereale L.)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lukaszewski, A.J.; Kopecký, David

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 129, 1-3 (2010), s. 117-123 ISSN 1424-8581 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Diploid-like pairing * Introgression * Meiosis Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.783, year: 2010

  9. Sequence Composition and Gene Content of the Short Arm of Rye (Secale cereale) Chromosome 1

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fluch, S.; Kopecky, D.; Burg, K.; Šimková, Hana; Taudien, S.; Petzold, A.; Kubaláková, Marie; Platzer, M.; Berenyi, M.; Krainer, S.; Doležel, Jaroslav; Lelley, T.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 2 (2012), e30784 E-ISSN 1932-6203 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) ED0007/01/01 Program:ED Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : GENOME SIZE * CHLOROPLAST DNA * ISOZYME MARKERS Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.730, year: 2012

  10. Cultivar and year-to-year variation of phytosterol content in rye (Secale cereale L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zangenberg, M.; Hansen, H.B.; Jørgensen, J.R.

    2004-01-01

    on phytosterol content in the different cultivars. The studied cultivars had all the lowest phytosterol contents in the dry and warm harvest season of 1999. Although there were statistically significant cultivar and year-to-year variations in the sterol composition (p

  11. Hydroxamic acid content and toxicity of rye at selected growth stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Clifford P; Park, Yong Bong; Adam, Frédérick; Abdul-Baki, Aref A; Teasdale, John R

    2005-08-01

    Rye (Secale cereale L.) is an important cover crop that provides many benefits to cropping systems including weed and pest suppression resulting from allelopathic substances. Hydroxamic acids have been identified as allelopathic compounds in rye. This research was conducted to improve the methodology for quantifying hydroxamic acids and to determine the relationship between hydroxamic acid content and phytotoxicity of extracts of rye root and shoot tissue harvested at selected growth stages. Detection limits for an LC/MS-MS method for analysis of hydroxamic acids from crude aqueous extracts were better than have been reported previously. (2R)-2-beta-D-Glucopyranosyloxy-4-hydroxy-(2H)-1,4-benzoxazin-3(4H)-one (DIBOA-G), 2,4-dihydroxy-(2H)-1,4-benzoxazin-3(4H)-one (DIBOA), benzoxazolin-2(3H)-one (BOA), and the methoxy-substituted form of these compounds, (2R)-2-beta-D-glucopyranosyloxy-4-hydroxy-7-methoxy-(2H)-1,4-benzoxazin-3(4H)-one (DIMBOA glucose), 2,4-hydroxy-7-methoxy-(2H)-1,4-benzoxazin-3(4H)-one (DIMBOA), and 6-methoxy-benzoxazolin-2(3H)-one (MBOA), were all detected in rye tissue. DIBOA and BOA were prevalent in shoot tissue, whereas the methoxy-substituted compounds, DIMBOA glucose and MBOA, were prevalent in root tissue. Total hydroxamic acid concentration in rye tissue generally declined with age. Aqueous crude extracts of rye shoot tissue were more toxic than extracts of root tissue to lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) root length. Extracts of rye seedlings (Feekes growth stage 2) were most phytotoxic, but there was no pattern to the phytotoxicity of extracts of rye sampled at growth stages 4 to 10.5.4, and no correlation of hydroxamic acid content and phytotoxicity (I50 values). Analysis of dose-response model slope coefficients indicated a lack of parallelism among models for rye extracts from different growth stages, suggesting that phytotoxicity may be attributed to compounds with different modes of action at

  12. Metabolic profiling of sourdough fermented wheat and rye bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koistinen, Ville M; Mattila, Outi; Katina, Kati; Poutanen, Kaisa; Aura, Anna-Marja; Hanhineva, Kati

    2018-04-09

    Sourdough fermentation by lactic acid bacteria is commonly used in bread baking, affecting several attributes of the final product. We analyzed whole-grain wheat and rye breads and doughs prepared with baker's yeast or a sourdough starter including Candida milleri, Lactobacillus brevis and Lactobacillus plantarum using non-targeted metabolic profiling utilizing LC-QTOF-MS. The aim was to determine the fermentation-induced changes in metabolites potentially contributing to the health-promoting properties of whole-grain wheat and rye. Overall, we identified 118 compounds with significantly increased levels in sourdough, including branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) and their metabolites, small peptides with high proportion of BCAAs, microbial metabolites of phenolic acids and several other potentially bioactive compounds. We also identified 69 compounds with significantly decreased levels, including phenolic acid precursors, nucleosides, and nucleobases. Intensive sourdough fermentation had a higher impact on the metabolite profile of whole-grain rye compared to milder whole-grain wheat sourdough fermentation. We hypothesize that the increased amount of BCAAs and potentially bioactive small peptides may contribute to the insulin response of rye bread, and in more general, the overall protective effect against T2DM and CVD.

  13. Molecular cytogenetic characterization of a new wheat Secale ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A stable, highly fertile wheat Secale africanum substitution line LF24, derived from the F7 generation of a cross between Mianyang11 (MY11) and Triticum durum, S. africanum amphiploid (YF) was identified through molecular cytogenetic analysis. Application of C-banding, in situ hybridization and molecular markers ...

  14. Rye cover crop and gamagrass strip effects on NO3 concentration and load in tile drainage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaspar, T C; Jaynes, D B; Parkin, T B; Moorman, T B

    2007-01-01

    A significant portion of the NO3 from agricultural fields that contaminates surface waters in the Midwest Corn Belt is transported to streams or rivers by subsurface drainage systems or "tiles." Previous research has shown that N fertilizer management alone is not sufficient for reducing NO3 concentrations in subsurface drainage to acceptable levels; therefore, additional approaches need to be devised. We compared two cropping system modifications for NO3 concentration and load in subsurface drainage water for a no-till corn (Zea mays L.)-soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.) management system. In one treatment, eastern gamagrass (Tripsacum dactyloides L.) was grown in permanent 3.05-m-wide strips above the tiles. For the second treatment, a rye (Secale cereale L.) winter cover crop was seeded over the entire plot area each year near harvest and chemically killed before planting the following spring. Twelve 30.5x42.7-m subsurface-drained field plots were established in 1999 with an automated system for measuring tile flow and collecting flow-weighted samples. Both treatments and a control were initiated in 2000 and replicated four times. Full establishment of both treatments did not occur until fall 2001 because of dry conditions. Treatment comparisons were conducted from 2002 through 2005. The rye cover crop treatment significantly reduced subsurface drainage water flow-weighted NO3 concentrations and NO3 loads in all 4 yr. The rye cover crop treatment did not significantly reduce cumulative annual drainage. Averaged over 4 yr, the rye cover crop reduced flow-weighted NO3 concentrations by 59% and loads by 61%. The gamagrass strips did not significantly reduce cumulative drainage, the average annual flow-weighted NO3 concentrations, or cumulative NO3 loads averaged over the 4 yr. Rye winter cover crops grown after corn and soybean have the potential to reduce the NO3 concentrations and loads delivered to surface waters by subsurface drainage systems.

  15. BRS Progresso – Rye cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo do Nascimento Junior

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The rye cultivar BRS Progresso, developed by the Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation (Embrapa, is the result of a synthetic cross of 18 open-pollinated, self-incompatible lines, resistant to stem rust.

  16. Allelopathic cover crop of rye for integrated weed control in sustainable agroecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Tabaglio

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The allelopathic potential of rye (Secale cereale L. is mainly due to phytotoxic benzoxazinones, compounds that are produced and accumulated in young tissues to different degrees depending on cultivar and environmental influences. Living rye plants exude low levels of benzoxazinones, while cover crop residues can release from 12 to 20 kg ha–1. This paper summarizes the results obtained from several experiments performed in both controlled and field environments, in which rye was used as a cover crop to control summer weeds in a following maize crop. Significant differences in benzoxazinoid content were detected between rye cultivars. In controlled environments, rye mulches significantly reduced germination of some broadleaf weeds. Germination and seedling growth of Amaranthus retroflexus and Portulaca oleracea were particularly affected by the application of rye mulches, while Chenopodium album was hardly influenced and Abutilon theophrasti was advantaged by the presence of the mulch. With reference to the influence of agronomic factors on the production of benzoxazinoids, nitrogen fertilization increased the content of allelochemicals, although proportionally less than dry matter. The field trial established on no-till maize confirmed the significant weed suppressiveness of rye mulch, both for grass and broadleaf weeds. A significant positive interaction between nitrogen (N fertilization and notillage resulting in the suppression of broadleaf weeds was observed. The different behavior of the weeds in the presence of allelochemicals was explained in terms of differential uptake and translocation capabilities. The four summer weeds tested were able to grow in the presence of low amounts of benzoxazolin-2(3H-one (BOA, between 0.3 and 20 mmol g–1 fresh weight. Although there were considerable differences in their sensitivity to higher BOA concentrations, P. oleracea, A. retroflexus, and Ch. album represented a group of species with a consistent

  17. Transcriptionally Active Heterochromatin in Rye B Chromosomes[W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carchilan, Mariana; Delgado, Margarida; Ribeiro, Teresa; Costa-Nunes, Pedro; Caperta, Ana; Morais-Cecílio, Leonor; Jones, R. Neil; Viegas, Wanda; Houben, Andreas

    2007-01-01

    B chromosomes (Bs) are dispensable components of the genomes of numerous species. Thus far, there is a lack of evidence for any transcripts of Bs in plants, with the exception of some rDNA sequences. Here, we show that the Giemsa banding-positive heterochromatic subterminal domain of rye (Secale cereale) Bs undergoes decondensation during interphase. Contrary to the heterochromatic regions of A chromosomes, this domain is simultaneously marked by trimethylated H3K4 and by trimethylated H3K27, an unusual combination of apparently conflicting histone modifications. Notably, both types of B-specific high copy repeat families (E3900 and D1100) of the subterminal domain are transcriptionally active, although with different tissue type–dependent activity. No small RNAs were detected specifically for the presence of Bs. The lack of any significant open reading frame and the highly heterogeneous size of mainly polyadenylated transcripts indicate that the noncoding RNA may function as structural or catalytic RNA. PMID:17586652

  18. Molecular Cytogenetic Identification of a New Wheat-Rye 6R Chromosome Disomic Addition Line with Powdery Mildew Resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diaoguo An

    Full Text Available Rye (Secale cereale L. possesses many valuable genes that can be used for improving disease resistance, yield and environment adaptation of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.. However, the documented resistance stocks derived from rye is faced severe challenge due to the variation of virulent isolates in the pathogen populations. Therefore, it is necessary to develop desirable germplasm and search for novel resistance gene sources against constantly accumulated variation of the virulent isolates. In the present study, a new wheat-rye line designated as WR49-1 was produced through distant hybridization and chromosome engineering protocols between common wheat cultivar Xiaoyan 6 and rye cultivar German White. Using sequential GISH (genomic in situ hybridization, mc-FISH (multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization, mc-GISH (multicolor GISH and EST (expressed sequence tag-based marker analysis, WR49-1 was proved to be a new wheat-rye 6R disomic addition line. As expected, WR49-1 showed high levels of resistance to wheat powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici, Bgt pathogens prevalent in China at the adult growth stage and 19 of 23 Bgt isolates tested at the seedling stage. According to its reaction pattern to different Bgt isolates, WR49-1 may possess new resistance gene(s for powdery mildew, which differed from the documented powdery mildew gene, including Pm20 on chromosome arm 6RL of rye. Additionally, WR49-1 was cytologically stable, had improved agronomic characteristics and therefore could serve as an important bridge for wheat breeding and chromosome engineering.

  19. Structural variations of chromosome 1 R from rye cultivar Jingzhouheimai induced by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Conglei; Zhuang Lifang; Qi Zengjun

    2012-01-01

    Irradiated with 60 Co γ-rays (12 Gy), the pollen of wheat landrace Huixianhong-Secale cereal cv. Jingzhouheimai DA1R was pollinated to the emasculated spikes of Huixianhong. Analyzed with genomic in situ hybridization GISH using gDNA of rye cv. Jingzhouheimai as a probe, four plants with reciprocal translocation, four plants with large segmental translocation and one plant with distal segmental translocation, one plant with one telocentric chromosome were identified from 33 M 1 seeds. The results showed that the translocation frequency was 30.30% and of the total 11 breakage-fusion events, 1 involved centric regions and 10 involved interstitial regions. The experiment showed that pollen irradiation was an effective method to induce wheat alien chromosomal structural variations which could effectively by used in deletion mapping, chromosomal location of important agronomic genes and development of small segmental translocations with target genes. (authors)

  20. Influence of Seeding Ratio, Planting Date, and Termination Date on Rye-Hairy Vetch Cover Crop Mixture Performance under Organic Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Andrew; Cogger, Craig; Bary, Andy; Fortuna, Ann-Marie

    2015-01-01

    Cover crop benefits include nitrogen accumulation and retention, weed suppression, organic matter maintenance, and reduced erosion. Organic farmers need region-specific information on winter cover crop performance to effectively integrate cover crops into their crop rotations. Our research objective was to compare cover crop seeding mixtures, planting dates, and termination dates on performance of rye (Secale cereale L.) and hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth) monocultures and mixtures in the maritime Pacific Northwest USA. The study included four seed mixtures (100% hairy vetch, 25% rye-75% hairy vetch, 50% rye-50% hairy vetch, and 100% rye by seed weight), two planting dates, and two termination dates, using a split-split plot design with four replications over six years. Measurements included winter ground cover; stand composition; cover crop biomass, N concentration, and N uptake; and June soil NO3(-)-N. Rye planted in mid-September and terminated in late April averaged 5.1 Mg ha(-1) biomass, whereas mixtures averaged 4.1 Mg ha(-1) and hairy vetch 2.3 Mg ha(-1). Delaying planting by 2.5 weeks reduced average winter ground cover by 65%, biomass by 50%, and cover crop N accumulation by 40%. Similar reductions in biomass and N accumulation occurred for late March termination, compared with late April termination. Mixtures had less annual biomass variability than rye. Mixtures accumulated 103 kg ha(-1) N and had mean C:N ratio rye, 97 kg ha(-1) for the mixtures, and 119 kg ha(-1) for hairy vetch. Weeds comprised less of the mixtures biomass (20% weeds by weight at termination) compared with the monocultures (29%). Cover crop mixtures provided a balance between biomass accumulation and N concentration, more consistent biomass over the six-year study, and were more effective at reducing winter weeds compared with monocultures.

  1. Male sterility of triticale lines generated through recombination of triticale and rye maintainers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Warzecha

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The Triticum timopheevi cytoplasmic male sterility (cms system in triticale (xTriticosecale Wittmack suffers from a low frequency of maintainers and environmental instability of the male sterility. On the other hand, the Pampa cms system in rye (Secale cereale exhibits strong male sterility and a low frequency of restorers. Here, we report generating hybrids between maintainers of the T. timopheevi cms system in triticale and maintainers of the rye Pampa cms system. Ten hybrids were obtained. Their hybridity was verified by PCR (polymerase chain reaction using ISSR (inter simple sequence repeats primers. The cms maintaining ability of F2 individuals and their progeny was tested. The F2 plants were crossed to male sterile lines of triticale carrying the T. timopheevi cytoplasm. Among 180 G1 offspring of these crosses, 71 (39.4% were completely male sterile. Fourteen F2 individuals (7.8%, as well as their F2S1 and progeny, generated stable male sterility in G1, G1BC1 and G1BC2 generations after the crosses. Our results suggest that it is possible to produce a more stable cms system in triticale based on the T. timopheevi cytoplasm as compared to the existing one.

  2. Steers grazing of a rye cover crop influences growth of rye and no-till cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small grain cover crops offer opportunities for grazing but effects on following row crops are not well understood. From 1999 through 2008, stocker steers sequence grazed small grains in a 2-paddock rye-cotton-wheat-fallow- rye rotation. Treatments imposed on rye included 1) zero-grazing from 1999; ...

  3. Mutants induced in winter rye (Secale cereale L.): Short straw-mutant No. 2714 and late-senescence mutant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muszynski, S; Darlewska, M [Department of Plant Breeding and Seed Science, Warsaw Agricultural University, Warsaw (Poland)

    1990-01-01

    Full text: Mutants were induced by treating dormant seeds with ionizing radiation (fast neutrons) or chemicals (N-nitroso-N-ethyl urea or sodium azide). Among several mutants obtained, of special value is the short-straw mutant No. 2714 and a late senescent mutant. (author)

  4. Effect of date of termination of a winter cereal rye cover crop (Secale cereale) on corn seedling disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cover cropping is an expanding conservation practice that offers substantial benefits to soil protection, soil health, water quality, and potentially crop yields. Presently, winter cereals are the most widely used cover crops in the upper Midwest. However, winter cereal cover crops preceding corn, ...

  5. Evaluation of In Vitro Inhibitory Activity of Rye-Buckwheat Ginger Cakes with Rutin on the Formation of Advanced Glycation End-Products (AGEs)

    OpenAIRE

    Przygodzka Małgorzata; Zieliński Henryk

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the relationship between the inhibitory effects of extracts from rye-buckwheat ginger cakes supplemented with low and high rutin dosage baked without or with dough fermentation step on the formation of fluorescent advanced glycation end-products (AGEs), and phenolic compounds, rutin, D-chiro-inositol and antioxidant capacity were addressed. The cakes were based on rye flour substituted by light buckwheat flour or flour from roasted buckwheat groats at 30% level, and were produc...

  6. Rye bran bread intake elevates urinary excretion of ferulic acid in humans, but does not affect the susceptibility of LDL to oxidation ex vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harder, H.; Tetens, I.; Let, Mette Bruni

    2004-01-01

    Background Rye bread contributes an important part of the whole grain intake in the Scandinavian diet. Ferulic acid is the major phenolic compound in rye bran and is an antioxidant in vitro and may, therefore, contribute to cardioprotective effects of whole grain consumption. Aim of study Firstly...... had no influence on lag time or propagation rate of the LDL oxidation ex vivo. Conclusions The present study demonstrated that ferulic acid from rye bran is bioavailable and that the urinary concentration of ferulic acid reflects the dietary intake of this hydroxycinnamic acid. Within the period...

  7. Winter rye as a bioenergy feedstock: impact of crop maturity on composition, biological solubilization and potential revenue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Xiongjun; DiMarco, Kay; Richard, Tom L; Lynd, Lee R

    2015-01-01

    Winter annual crops such as winter rye (Secale cereale L) can produce biomass feedstock on seasonally fallow land that continues to provide high-value food and feed from summer annuals such as corn and soybeans. As energy double crops, winter grasses are likely to be harvested while still immature and thus structurally different from the fully senesced plant material typically used for biofuels. This study investigates the dynamic trends in biomass yield, composition, and biological solubilization over the course of a spring harvest season. The water soluble fraction decreased with increasing maturity while total carbohydrate content stayed roughly constant at about 65%. The protein mass fraction decreased with increasing maturity, but was counterbalanced by increasing harvest yield resulting in similar total protein across harvest dates. Winter rye was ground and autoclaved then fermented at 15 g/L total solids by either (1) Clostridium thermocellum or (2) simultaneous saccharification and cofermentation (SSCF) using commercial cellulases (CTec2 and HTec2) and a xylose-fermenting Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain. Solubilization of total carbohydrate dropped significantly as winter rye matured for both C. thermocellum (from approximately 80% to approximately 50%) and SSCF (from approximately 60% to approximately 30%). C. thermocellum achieved total solubilization 33% higher than that of SSCF for the earliest harvest date and 50% higher for the latest harvest date. Potential revenue from protein and bioethanol was stable over a range of different harvest dates, with most of the revenue due to ethanol. In a crop rotation with soybean, recovery of the soluble protein from winter rye could increase per hectare protein production by 20 to 35%. Double-cropping winter rye can produce significant biomass for biofuel production and feed protein as coproduct without competing with the main summer crop. During a 24-day harvest window, the total carbohydrate content remained

  8. New wheat-rye 5DS-4RS·4RL and 4RS-5DS·5DL translocation lines with powdery mildew resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Shulan; Ren, Zhenglong; Chen, Xiaoming; Yan, Benju; Tan, Feiquan; Fu, Tihua; Tang, Zongxiang

    2014-11-01

    Powdery mildew is one of the serious diseases of wheat (Triticum aestivum L., 2 n = 6 × = 42, genomes AABBDD). Rye (Secale cereale L., 2 n = 2 × = 14, genome RR) offers a rich reservoir of powdery mildew resistant genes for wheat breeding program. However, extensive use of these resistant genes may render them susceptible to new pathogen races because of co-evolution of host and pathogen. Therefore, the continuous exploration of new powdery mildew resistant genes is important to wheat breeding program. In the present study, we identified several wheat-rye addition lines from the progeny of T. aestivum L. Mianyang11 × S. cereale L. Kustro, i.e., monosomic addition lines of the rye chromosomes 4R and 6R; a disomic addition line of 6R; and monotelosomic or ditelosomic addition lines of the long arms of rye chromosomes 4R (4 RL) and 6R (6 RL). All these lines displayed immunity to powdery mildew. Thus, we concluded that both the 4 RL and 6 RL arms of Kustro contain powdery mildew resistant genes. It is the first time to discover that 4 RL arm carries powdery mildew resistant gene. Additionally, wheat lines containing new wheat-rye translocation chromosomes were also obtained: these lines retained a short arm of wheat chromosome 5D (5 DS) on which rye chromosome 4R was fused through the short arm 4 RS (designated 5 DS-4 RS · 4 RL; 4 RL stands for the long arm of rye chromosome 4R); or they had an extra short arm of rye chromosome 4R (4 RS) that was attached to the short arm of wheat chromosome 5D (5 DS) (designated 4 RS-5 DS · 5 DL; 5 DL stands for the long arm of wheat chromosome 5D). These two translocation chromosomes could be transmitted to next generation stably, and the wheat lines containing 5 DS-4 RS · 4 RL chromosome also displayed immunity to powdery mildew. The materials obtained in this study can be used for wheat powdery mildew resistant breeding program.

  9. Changes in chemical composition and antioxidative properties of rye ginger cakes during their shelf-life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zieliński, Henryk; del Castillo, Maria Dolores; Przygodzka, Małgorzata; Ciesarova, Zuzana; Kukurova, Kristina; Zielińska, Danuta

    2012-12-15

    Changes in chemical composition and antioxidative properties of rye ginger cakes during their shelf-life were investigated in this study. In particular, the changes in antioxidants content, antioxidative and reducing capacity, and Maillard reaction development in rye ginger cakes after long-term storage were addressed. Ginger cakes produced according to the traditional and current recipe were stored for 5 years at room temperature in a dark place. The total phenolic compounds (TPC), inositol hexaphosphate (IP6), reduced (GSH) and oxidised glutathione (GSSG) contents, antioxidant and reducing capacity and Maillard reaction products (MRPs) were determined in ginger cakes after storage and then compared to those measured after baking. After long-term storage a decrease in TPC and IP6 contents in cakes was noted. In contrast, an increase in antioxidative and reducing capacity of stored cakes was observed. Long-term storage induced formation of furosine, advanced and final Maillard reaction products and caused changes in both reduced and oxidised forms of glutathione. After long-term storage the modest changes in furosine, FAST index and browning in ginger cake formulated with dark rye flour may suggest that this product is the healthiest among others. Therefore, traditional rye ginger cakes can be considered as an example of a healthy food that is also relatively stable during long term storage as noted by the small chemical changes observed in its composition. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Multicompartmental nontargeted LC-MS metabolomics: explorative study on the metabolic responses of rye fiber versus refined wheat fiber intake in plasma and urine of hypercholesterolemic pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørskov, Natalja; Hedemann, Mette Skou; Lærke, Helle Nygaard

    2013-01-01

    A multicompartmental nontargeted LC–MS metabolomics approach was used to study the metabolic responses on plasma and urine of hypercholesterolemic pigs after consumption of diets with contrasting dietary fiber composition (whole grain rye with added rye bran versus refined wheat). To study...... the metabolic responses, we performed a supervised multivariate data analyses used for pattern recognition, which revealed marked effects of the diets on both plasma and urine metabolic profiles. Diverse pools of metabolites were responsible for the discrimination between the diets. Elevated levels of phenolic...... compounds and dicarboxylic acids were detected in urine of pigs after rye consumption compared to refined wheat. Furthermore, consumption of rye was characterized by lower levels of linoleic acid derived oxylipins and cholesterol in the plasma metabolic profiles. These results indicate that higher...

  11. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: Secale [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term Secale 名詞 一般 * * * * ライムギ属 ライムギゾク ライムギゾク Thesaurus2015 200906053529242894 C LS06 UNKNOWN_1 Secale

  12. Effect of selected spices on chemical and sensory markers in fortified rye-buckwheat cakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przygodzka, Małgorzata; Zieliński, Henryk; Ciesarová, Zuzana; Kukurová, Kristina; Lamparski, Grzegorz

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to find out the effect of selected spices on chemical and sensorial markers in cakes formulated on rye and light buckwheat flour fortified with spices. Among collection of spices, rye-buckwheat cakes fortified individually with cloves, nutmeg, allspice, cinnamon, vanilla, and spice mix revealed the highest sensory characteristics and overall quality. Cakes fortified with cloves, allspice, and spice mix showed the highest antioxidant capacity, total phenolics, rutin, and almost threefold higher available lysine contents. The reduced furosine content as well as free and total fluorescent intermediatory compounds were observed as compared to nonfortified cakes. The FAST index was significantly lowered in all cakes enriched with spices, especially with cloves, allspice, and mix. In contrast, browning index increased in compare to cakes without spices. It can be suggested that clove, allspice, vanilla, and spice mix should be used for production of safety and good quality cakes.

  13. Optimizing the harvesting stage of rye as a green manure to maximize nutrient production and to minimize methane production in mono-rice paddies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sang Yoon [Division of Applied Life Science (BK 21 Program), Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 660-701 (Korea, Republic of); Netherlands Institute of Ecology (NIOO-KNAW), Department of Microbial Ecology, Wageningen (Netherlands); Park, Chi Kyu [Hamyang-gun Agricultural Development & Technology Center, Hamyang 676-806 (Korea, Republic of); Gwon, Hyo Suk; Khan, Muhammad Israr [Division of Applied Life Science (BK 21 Program), Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 660-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Pil Joo, E-mail: pjkim@gnu.ac.kr [Division of Applied Life Science (BK 21 Program), Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 660-701 (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Agriculture and Life Science, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 660-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    Rye (Secale cerealis) has been widely cultivated to improve soil quality in temperate paddies. However, its biomass incorporation can significantly increase greenhouse gas emissions, particularly the emission of methane (CH{sub 4}), during rice cultivation. The chemical composition and productivity of cover crop biomass may vary at different growing stages. Therefore, nutrient productivity and CH{sub 4} production potential might be controlled by selecting the optimum harvesting stage. To investigate the effect of rye harvesting stage on nutrient productivity and CH{sub 4} production potential, rye was harvested at different growing stages, from the flowering stage to the maturing stage, for seven weeks. The chemical composition and biomass productivity of rye were investigated. CH{sub 4} production was measured by laboratory incubation, and CH{sub 4} production potential was estimated to determine the real impact on CH{sub 4} dynamics in rice soils. Rye biomass increased with plant maturation, but nutrient productivities such as N (nitrogen), P{sub 2}O{sub 5}, and K{sub 2}O were maximized at the flowering stage. The contents of cellulose and lignin increased significantly as plants matured, but the total N, labile organic carbon (C), and hot and cold water-extractable organic C clearly decreased. Soils were mixed with 0.3% (wt wt{sup −1} on dry weight) air-dried biomass and incubated to measure the maximum CH{sub 4} productivity at 30 °C under flooded conditions. Maximum CH{sub 4} productivity was significantly correlated with increasing labile organic C and protein content, but it was negatively correlated with total organic C, cellulose, and lignin content. CH{sub 4} production potentials were significantly increased up to the pre-maturing stage (220 DAS) and remained unchanged thereafter. As a result, CH{sub 4} production potential per N productivity was the lowest at the late flowering stage (198–205 DAS), which could be the best harvesting stage as well

  14. Influence of Seeding Ratio, Planting Date, and Termination Date on Rye-Hairy Vetch Cover Crop Mixture Performance under Organic Management.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Lawson

    Full Text Available Cover crop benefits include nitrogen accumulation and retention, weed suppression, organic matter maintenance, and reduced erosion. Organic farmers need region-specific information on winter cover crop performance to effectively integrate cover crops into their crop rotations. Our research objective was to compare cover crop seeding mixtures, planting dates, and termination dates on performance of rye (Secale cereale L. and hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth monocultures and mixtures in the maritime Pacific Northwest USA. The study included four seed mixtures (100% hairy vetch, 25% rye-75% hairy vetch, 50% rye-50% hairy vetch, and 100% rye by seed weight, two planting dates, and two termination dates, using a split-split plot design with four replications over six years. Measurements included winter ground cover; stand composition; cover crop biomass, N concentration, and N uptake; and June soil NO3(--N. Rye planted in mid-September and terminated in late April averaged 5.1 Mg ha(-1 biomass, whereas mixtures averaged 4.1 Mg ha(-1 and hairy vetch 2.3 Mg ha(-1. Delaying planting by 2.5 weeks reduced average winter ground cover by 65%, biomass by 50%, and cover crop N accumulation by 40%. Similar reductions in biomass and N accumulation occurred for late March termination, compared with late April termination. Mixtures had less annual biomass variability than rye. Mixtures accumulated 103 kg ha(-1 N and had mean C:N ratio <17:1 when planted in mid-September and terminated in late April. June soil NO3(--N (0 to 30 cm depth averaged 62 kg ha(-1 for rye, 97 kg ha(-1 for the mixtures, and 119 kg ha(-1 for hairy vetch. Weeds comprised less of the mixtures biomass (20% weeds by weight at termination compared with the monocultures (29%. Cover crop mixtures provided a balance between biomass accumulation and N concentration, more consistent biomass over the six-year study, and were more effective at reducing winter weeds compared with monocultures.

  15. Optimizing the harvesting stage of rye as a green manure to maximize nutrient production and to minimize methane production in mono-rice paddies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sang Yoon; Park, Chi Kyu; Gwon, Hyo Suk; Khan, Muhammad Israr; Kim, Pil Joo

    2015-01-01

    Rye (Secale cerealis) has been widely cultivated to improve soil quality in temperate paddies. However, its biomass incorporation can significantly increase greenhouse gas emissions, particularly the emission of methane (CH_4), during rice cultivation. The chemical composition and productivity of cover crop biomass may vary at different growing stages. Therefore, nutrient productivity and CH_4 production potential might be controlled by selecting the optimum harvesting stage. To investigate the effect of rye harvesting stage on nutrient productivity and CH_4 production potential, rye was harvested at different growing stages, from the flowering stage to the maturing stage, for seven weeks. The chemical composition and biomass productivity of rye were investigated. CH_4 production was measured by laboratory incubation, and CH_4 production potential was estimated to determine the real impact on CH_4 dynamics in rice soils. Rye biomass increased with plant maturation, but nutrient productivities such as N (nitrogen), P_2O_5, and K_2O were maximized at the flowering stage. The contents of cellulose and lignin increased significantly as plants matured, but the total N, labile organic carbon (C), and hot and cold water-extractable organic C clearly decreased. Soils were mixed with 0.3% (wt wt"−"1 on dry weight) air-dried biomass and incubated to measure the maximum CH_4 productivity at 30 °C under flooded conditions. Maximum CH_4 productivity was significantly correlated with increasing labile organic C and protein content, but it was negatively correlated with total organic C, cellulose, and lignin content. CH_4 production potentials were significantly increased up to the pre-maturing stage (220 DAS) and remained unchanged thereafter. As a result, CH_4 production potential per N productivity was the lowest at the late flowering stage (198–205 DAS), which could be the best harvesting stage as well as the most promising stage for increasing nutrient production and

  16. Biogas and Methane Yield from Rye Grass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Vítěz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Biogas production in the Czech Republic has expanded substantially, including marginal regions for maize cultivation. Therefore, there are increasingly sought materials that could partially replace maize silage, as a basic feedstock, while secure both biogas production and its quality.Two samples of rye grass (Lolium multiflorum var. westerwoldicum silage with different solids content 21% and 15% were measured for biogas and methane yield. Rye grass silage with solid content of 15% reached an average specific biogas yield 0.431 m3·kg−1 of organic dry matter and an average specific methane yield 0.249 m3·kg−1 of organic dry matter. Rye grass silage with solid content 21% reached an average specific biogas yield 0.654 m3·kg−1 of organic dry matter and an average specific methane yield 0.399 m3·kg−1 of organic dry matter.

  17. Quality evaluation of the sourdough rye breads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IULIANA BANU

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Sourdough fermentation is a biotechnological process that has been reported to improve dough properties, to increase bread flavor and taste, to enhance nutritional value and to extend shelf life of sourdough bread. The quality of rye breads prepared with 20 and 40% sourdough, fermented with different mixed starter cultures was investigated in this study. The bread quality was evaluated in terms of specific volume, humidity, total titratable acidity, crumb characteristics and sensory profiles. Digital image analysis revealed that rye bread with 40% sourdough had a considerably denser crumb structure. Rye bread with 20% sourdough maintained superior texture characteristics over the storage period, while increasing the sourdough content to 40% had a negative effect on the texture. The sensory profiles of the bread highly depended on the type of starter cultures used for fermentation.

  18. INFLUENCE DE LA PROPOLIS SUR LA MITOSE DANS LE MERYSTEME DE SECALE CEREALE L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mioara Navrotescu

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Cette recherche présente l’influence de propolis sur la mitose dans le merysteme de Secale cereale L. (2n=14. On confirme l’utilisation de plus en plus large de ce produit apicole - propolis - au niveau de la thérapeutique.

  19. An empirical test of the treatment of indels during optimization alignment based on the phylogeny of the genus Secale (Poaceae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Gitte; Seberg, Ole; Aagesen, Lone

    2004-01-01

    The ability of the program POY, implementing optimization alignment, to deal with major indels is explored and discussed in connection with a phylogenetic analysis of the genus Secale based on partial Adhl sequences. The Adhl sequences used span exon 2-4. Nearly all variation is found in intron 2...... recovers both genera as monophyletic when knowledge of the duplication is incorporated in the analysis. The phylogenetic relationships within Secale are not clearly resolved. Subspecific taxa of Secale strictum have identical sequences and they are confined to a monophyletic group. However, the two...

  20. Alveoconsistograph evaluation of rheological properties of rye doughs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callejo, M. J.; Bujeda, C.; Rodriguez, G.; Chaya, C.

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this work is to study the effect of rye flour on the rheological properties of doughs. Rye meals of two different extraction rate (65% and 85%) were blended in different proportions with wheat flours. The viscoelastic behaviour of the sample blends was determined by a Chopin alveograph. The effect of rye flour on dough rheology during mixing was determined by a Chopin consistograph. It was found that Chopin Consistograph methodology was not suitable for determining water absorption capacity in blends with rye. It has been confirmed that adjustment of dough hydration in baked products incorporating rye flour must be taken into account, depending not only on the wheat-to-rye ratio but also on the rye meals extraction rate. (Author) 35 refs.

  1. Effects of rye inclusion in broilers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schokker, D.; Krimpen, van M.M.; Vastenhouw, S.A.

    2017-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary inclusion of rye, a model ingredient to increase gut viscosity, between 14 and 28 days of age on immune competence related parameters and performance of broiler. A total number of 960 one-day-old male Ross 308 chicks were weighed and

  2. Isolation and characterization of an isoamylase gene from rye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Zheng

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Genomic DNA and cDNA sequences of an isoamylase gene were isolated and characterized from the rye genome. The full-lengths of the rye isoamylase gene are 7351 bp for genomic DNA and 2364 bp for cDNA. There are 18 exons and 17 introns in the genomic sequence, which shares a similar organization with homologous genes from Aegilops tauschii, maize, rice and Arabidopsis. Exon regions of rye and other plant isoamylase genes are more conserved than the introns. High sequence similarity (> 95% was observed in mature proteins of isoamylase genes originating from rye, Ae. tauschii, wheat and barley. The transcript profile revealed that rye isoamylase is mainly expressed in the seed endosperm with a maximum level at the middle developmental stage (15 DPA. A phylogenetic tree based on the deduced aa sequences of mature proteins from rye and other plant isoamylases indicated that rye isoamylase is more closely related to Ae. tauschii wDBE1 and wheat iso1. This is the first report on identification and characterization of the isoamylase gene from rye, making it possible to explore the roles of this enzyme for amylopectin development in rye and triticale.

  3. The influence of rye fiber on gut metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach; Lærke, Helle Nygaard

    2014-01-01

    and tocotrienols—and their importance in human health Up-to-date findings on biomarkers and how they can be used in intervention and epidemiological studies to link rye intake with disease risk Rye’s influence on glucose levels and other satiating effects Relationships between rye intake and certain Western...... diseases such as type 2 diabetes, prostate cancer, and colorectal cancer People with a variety of professional backgrounds will find this book useful, including rye producers and breeders, those working in the rye processing industries, food product developers, nutritionists, health professionals...

  4. Optimizing the harvesting stage of rye as a green manure to maximize nutrient production and to minimize methane production in mono-rice paddies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang Yoon; Park, Chi Kyu; Gwon, Hyo Suk; Khan, Muhammad Israr; Kim, Pil Joo

    2015-12-15

    Rye (Secale cerealis) has been widely cultivated to improve soil quality in temperate paddies. However, its biomass incorporation can significantly increase greenhouse gas emissions, particularly the emission of methane (CH4), during rice cultivation. The chemical composition and productivity of cover crop biomass may vary at different growing stages. Therefore, nutrient productivity and CH4 production potential might be controlled by selecting the optimum harvesting stage. To investigate the effect of rye harvesting stage on nutrient productivity and CH4 production potential, rye was harvested at different growing stages, from the flowering stage to the maturing stage, for seven weeks. The chemical composition and biomass productivity of rye were investigated. CH4 production was measured by laboratory incubation, and CH4 production potential was estimated to determine the real impact on CH4 dynamics in rice soils. Rye biomass increased with plant maturation, but nutrient productivities such as N (nitrogen), P2O5, and K2O were maximized at the flowering stage. The contents of cellulose and lignin increased significantly as plants matured, but the total N, labile organic carbon (C), and hot and cold water-extractable organic C clearly decreased. Soils were mixed with 0.3% (wt wt(-1) on dry weight) air-dried biomass and incubated to measure the maximum CH4 productivity at 30 °C under flooded conditions. Maximum CH4 productivity was significantly correlated with increasing labile organic C and protein content, but it was negatively correlated with total organic C, cellulose, and lignin content. CH4 production potentials were significantly increased up to the pre-maturing stage (220 DAS) and remained unchanged thereafter. As a result, CH4 production potential per N productivity was the lowest at the late flowering stage (198-205 DAS), which could be the best harvesting stage as well as the most promising stage for increasing nutrient production and decreasing GHG

  5. Monoclonal antibodies to the major Lolium perenne (rye grass) pollen allergen Lol p I (Rye I).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, C R; Marsh, D G

    1986-12-01

    Thirteen monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) were produced against Lol p I (Rye I), the major Lolium perenne (rye grass) pollen allergen. Spleen cells from A/J and SJL mice immunized with highly purified Lol p I (Lol I) were allowed to fuse with cells from the non-secreting Sp2/0-Ag14 myeloma cell line. Each MAb was analyzed for antigenic specificity by radioimmunoassay (RIA) using 125I-Lol I. The epitope specificities of seven of the MAbs were examined by competitive binding against a labelled standard MAb for the Lol I antigen (Ag). The dissociation constant, Kd, of one MAb (No. 3.2) that was studied most extensively was determined by double Ab RIA to be 3.5 X 10(-6) L/M. This MAb recognized the related 27,000-30,000 Group I glycoproteins found in the pollens of nine other species of grass pollens tested, including weak binding to Bermuda grass Group I (Cyn d I), which by conventional analysis using polyclonal anti-Lol I serum shows no detectable binding. Monoclonal antibody No. 3.2 was coupled covalently to Sepharose 4B and used to prepare highly purified Lol I from a partially purified rye pollen extract. Finally, an RIA was developed which permitted the analysis of the Group I components in rye grass and nine other grass pollen species. The latter assay is likely to prove useful in the standardization of grass pollen extracts according to their Group I contents.

  6. Winter rye cover crop effect on corn seedling pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cover crops have been grown successfully in Iowa, but sometimes a cereal rye cover crop preceding corn can reduce corn yields. Our research examines the effect of a rye cover crop on infections of the succeeding corn crop by soil fungal pathogens. Plant measurements included: growth stage, height, r...

  7. Postprandial glycemia, insulinemia, and satiety responses in healthy subjects after whole grain rye bread made from different rye varieties. 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosén, Liza A H; Östman, Elin M; Björck, Inger M E

    2011-11-23

    Rye breads made from commercial rye blends lower the postprandial insulin demand and appear to facilitate glucose regulation. However, differences in metabolic responses may occur between rye varieties. In the present work, five rye varieties (Amilo, Evolo, Kaskelott, Picasso. and Vicello) and a commercial blend of rye grown in Sweden were investigated with regard to their postprandial insulin, glucose, and appetite regulation properties in a randomized crossover study in 20 healthy subjects. The rye flours were baked into whole grain breads, and a white wheat bread (WWB) was used as reference (50 g of available starch). Picasso and Vicello rye bread showed lower glycemic indices (GIs) compared with WWB (80 and 79, respectively) (P bread made from not only Vicello and Picasso but also Amilo and Kaskelott displayed significantly lower insulin indices (IIs) than WWB (74-82). A high GP and GP(2) and a low GI were related to a lower II and insulin incremental peak. A high content of insoluble fibers and a high GP(2) were related to a higher subjective satiety in the early and late postprandial phase (tAUC 0-60 min and tAUC 120-180 min, respectively). The results suggest that there may be differences in the course of glycemia following different rye varieties, affecting postprandial insulin responses and subjective satiety.

  8. Occurrence of ochratoxin A in Danish wheat and rye, 1992-99

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kevin; Jacobsen, J.S.

    2002-01-01

    Ochratoxin A concentrations in rye and wheat in Denmark for 1992-99 are reported. The results show that the concentration of ochratoxin A is higher in rye than in wheat for both conventionally and organically grown rye and wheat. The levels in organically grown rye are higher than in conventionally...

  9. Structural differences between rye and wheat breads but not total fiber content may explain the lower postprandial insulin response to rye bread

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juntunen, Katri S; Laaksonen, David E; Autio, Karin

    2003-01-01

    and glucose responses. DESIGN: Nineteen healthy postmenopausal women aged 61 +/- 1 y, with a body mass index (in kg/m(2)) of 26.0 +/- 0.6, and with normal glucose tolerance participated in the study. The test products were refined wheat bread (control), endosperm rye bread, traditional rye bread, and high......BACKGROUND: Rye bread has a beneficial effect on the postprandial insulin response in healthy subjects. The role of rye fiber in insulin and glucose metabolism is not known. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to determine the effect of the content of rye fiber in rye breads on postprandial insulin...

  10. A novel resource for genomics of Triticeae: BAC library specific for the short arm of rye (Secale cereale L.) chromosome 1R (1RS)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šimková, Hana; Šafář, Jan; Suchánková, Pavla; Kovářová, Pavlína; Bartoš, Jan; Kubaláková, Marie; Janda, Jaroslav; Čihalíková, Jarmila; Mago, R.; Lelley, T.; Doležel, Jaroslav

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 237 (2008), s. 101-109 ISSN 1471-2164 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA521/04/0607; GA ČR GP521/05/P257; GA ČR GD521/05/H013; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06004 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : flow cytometry * flow-sorted chromosomes * BAC library Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.926, year: 2008

  11. Brassinosteroids increase winter survival of winter rye (Secale cereale L.) by affecting photosynthetic capacity and carbohydrate metabolism during the cold acclimation process

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pociecha, E.; Dziurka, M.; Oklešťková, Jana; Janeczko, A.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 80, č. 2 (2016), s. 127-135 ISSN 0167-6903 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-34792S Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Chlorophyll a fluorescence * Cold acclimation * Frost tolerance Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 2.646, year: 2016

  12. A first survey of the rye (Secale cereale) genome composition through BAC end sequencing of the short arm of chromosome 1R

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bartoš, Jan; Paux, E.; Kofler, R.; Havránková, Miroslava; Kopecký, David; Suchánková, Pavla; Šafář, Jan; Šimková, Hana; Town, C.D.; Lelley, T.; Feuillet, C.; Doležel, Jaroslav

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 95 (2008), s. 1-12 ISSN 1471-2229 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP521/06/P412; GA ČR GD521/05/H013; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06004 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : BAC libraries * flow-sorted chromosomes Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.030, year: 2008

  13. Evaluation of In Vitro Inhibitory Activity of Rye-Buckwheat Ginger Cakes with Rutin on the Formation of Advanced Glycation End-Products (AGEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przygodzka Małgorzata

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the relationship between the inhibitory effects of extracts from rye-buckwheat ginger cakes supplemented with low and high rutin dosage baked without or with dough fermentation step on the formation of fluorescent advanced glycation end-products (AGEs, and phenolic compounds, rutin, D-chiro-inositol and antioxidant capacity were addressed. The cakes were based on rye flour substituted by light buckwheat flour or flour from roasted buckwheat groats at 30% level, and were produced with or without dough fermentation step. The inhibitory effect against AGEs formation was studied in bovine serum albumin (BSA-glucose and BSA-methylglyoxal (MGO systems. The antioxidant capacity was measured by 2,2-diphenyl- -1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH and cyclic voltammetry (CV, rutin and D-chiro-inositol contents by HPLC and total phenolics (TPC by spectrophotometric assays. The study showed the inhibitory effects of extracts from rye-buckwheat ginger cakes supplemented with low and high rutin dosage. The results of the inhibitory activity were highly correlated in two applied model systems. Enrichment of rye-buckwheat ginger cakes with rutin improved their antioxidant properties. The correlation studies showed that the inhibitory effects of rye-buckwheat ginger cakes produced with dough fermentation step and enhanced with rutin against formation of AGEs were highly correlated with TPC, rutin and D-chiro-inositol contents, and antioxidant capacity. Moreover, the effect of rutin enrichment was clearly seen in cakes obtained with dough fermentation step, even the inhibitory activity was slightly lower as compared to the cakes produced without dough fermentation.

  14. Effects of different ground surface on rye habit and yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doroszewski, A.

    1995-01-01

    Rye was sown in pots imbeded into the ground, in non-competitive conditions. Plot differed only with kinds of ground surfaces (grass, bare soil) which affected the spectral composition of reflected sunlight. Plants growing on the ground covered with grass received more radiation in the range of far red than plants growing on bare soil. The plants from both plots reacted differently to the environmental conditions by creating different habits. Main shoots of rye growing in the neighbourhood of grass had been much taller than the rye growing on the bare soil; its internodes were longer and its heads heavier and heads had more grain

  15. Wine phenolics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterhouse, Andrew L

    2002-05-01

    Wine contains many phenolic substances, most of which originate in the grape berry. The phenolics have a number of important functions in wine, affecting the tastes of bitterness and astringency, especially in red wine. Second, the color of red wine is caused by phenolics. Third, the phenolics are the key wine preservative and the basis of long aging. Lastly, since phenolics oxidize readily, they are the component that suffers owing to oxidation and the substance that turns brown in wine (and other foods) when exposed to air. Wine phenolics include the non-flavonoids: hydroxycinnamates, hydroxybenzoates and the stilbenes; plus the flavonoids: flavan-3-ols, the flavonols, and the anthocyanins. While polymeric condensed tannins and pigmented tannins constitute the majority of wine phenolics, their large size precludes absorption and thus they are not likely to have many health effects (except, perhaps, in the gut). The total amount of phenols found in a glass of red wine is on the order of 200 mg versus about 40 mg in a glass of white wine.

  16. Cover Crop (Rye) and No-Till System in Wisconsin

    OpenAIRE

    Alföldi, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Erin Silva, University of Wisconsin, describes an organic no-till production technique using rye as cover crop to suppress weeds in the following production season. Using a roller-crimper, the overwintering rye is terminated at the time of cash crop planting, leaving a thick mat of plant residue on the soil surface. Soybeans are sown directly into the cover crop residue, allowing the cash crop to emerge through the terminated cover crop while suppressing weeds throughout the season. W...

  17. Studies on rye starch properties and modification. Pt. 1. Composition and properties of rye starch granules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schierbaum, F; Radosta, S; Richter, M; Kettlitz, B [Zentralinstitut fuer Ernaehrung, Potsdam (Germany); Gernat, C [Zentralinstitut fuer Molekularbiologie, Berlin (Germany)

    1991-09-01

    Rye is considered as a potential raw material for starch industry. Starting from a survey of technical procedures of isolating starches from rye-flour and -grits investigations will be reported, which were performed on pilot plant- and laboratory-isolated rye starches. The present paper deals with its granule appearance and composition. A distribution of granule size between small granules ({<=} 10 {mu}m - 15%) and large granules ({>=} 11 ... {<=} 40 {mu}m = 85%) is typical for the totality of the starches. Differing distributions depend on the conditions of isolation: The entity of starch containing samples resulted from the latoratory procedures under investigation. Large-granule starch preparations were isolated in the pilot plant: The centrifuge-overflow contains the small-granule fraction which is high in impurities. Granule crystallinity amounts to 16%. The crystalline component - like in wheat and triticale starches - consists predominantly of A-polymorph - with up to 9% of the B-type. The isotherms of water exchange are of the cereal type. The contents of minor constituents largely relate to the small granule fraction which assembles the majority of crude protein, pentosans and lipids, which are difficult to remove. Lipid components in all fractions influence the results of linear chain-iodine interactions and they must be removed to proceed from apparent to absolute polysaccharide indices. The absolute amylose contents amount to {approx equal} 25% for large granule samples and to 20-21% for small granule samples. The average chain-length of iodine binding helical regions was determined with 220-240 AGU. (orig.).

  18. Photosystem II excitation pressure and development of resistance to photoinhibition. II. Adjustment of photosynthetic capacity in winter wheat and winter rye

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, G.R.; Savitch, L.V.; Ivanov, A.G.; Huner, N.P.A.

    1996-01-01

    Winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv Monopol), spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv Katepwa), and winter rye (Secale cereale L. cv Musketeer) grown at 5 degrees C and moderate irradiance (250 micromoles m -2 s -1 ) (5/250) exhibit an increased tolerance to photoinhibition at low temperature in comparison to plants grown at 20 degrees C and 250 micromoles m -2 s -1 (20/250). However, 5/250 plants exhibited a higher photosystem II (PSII) excitation pressure (0.32-0.63) than 20/250 plants (0.18-0.21), measured as 1 - q p , the coefficient of photochemical quenching. Plants grown at 20 degrees C and a high irradiance (800 micromoles m -2 s -1 ) (20/800) also exhibited a high PSII excitation pressure (0.32-0.48). Similarly, plants grown at 20/800 exhibited a comparable tolerance to photoinhibition relative to plants grown at 5/250. In contrast to a recent report for Chlorella vulgaris (D.P. Maxwell, S. Falk, N.P.A. Huner [1995] Plant Physiol 107: 687-694), this tolerance to photoinhibition occurs in winter rye with minimal adjustment to polypeptides of the PSII light-harvesting complex, chlorophyll a/b ratios, or xanthophyll cycle carotenoids. However, Monopol winter wheat exhibited a 2.5-fold stimulation of sucrose-phosphate synthase activity upon growth at 5/250, in comparison to Katepwa spring wheat. We demonstrate that low-temperature-induced tolerance to photoinhibition is not a low-temperature-growth effect per se but, instead, reflects increased photosynthetic capacity in response to elevated PSII excitation pressure, which may be modulated by either temperature or irradiance

  19. Organic dyes removal using magnetically modified rye straw

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldikova, Eva, E-mail: baldie@email.cz [Department of Nanobiotechnology, Institute of Nanobiology and Structural Biology of GCRC, Na Sadkach 7, 370 05 Ceske Budejovice (Czech Republic); Safarikova, Mirka [Department of Nanobiotechnology, Institute of Nanobiology and Structural Biology of GCRC, Na Sadkach 7, 370 05 Ceske Budejovice (Czech Republic); Safarik, Ivo, E-mail: ivosaf@yahoo.com [Department of Nanobiotechnology, Institute of Nanobiology and Structural Biology of GCRC, Na Sadkach 7, 370 05 Ceske Budejovice (Czech Republic); Regional Centre of Advanced Technologies and Materials, Palacky University, Slechtitelu 11, 783 71 Olomouc (Czech Republic)

    2015-04-15

    Rye straw, a very low-cost material, was employed as a biosorbent for two organic water-soluble dyes belonging to different dye classes, namely acridine orange (acridine group) and methyl green (triarylmethane group). The adsorption properties were tested for native and citric acid–NaOH modified rye straw, both in nonmagnetic and magnetic versions. The adsorption equilibrium was reached in 2 h and the adsorption isotherms data were analyzed using the Langmuir model. The highest values of maximum adsorption capacities were 208.3 mg/g for acridine orange and 384.6 mg/g for methyl green. - Highlights: • Rye derivatives can be considered as efficient adsorbents for organic dyes. • Magnetic modification of straw by microwave-synthesized magnetic iron oxides. • Citric acid–NaOH modification increased the maximum adsorption capacities.

  20. Chromosome identification by new molecular markers and genomic in situ hybridization in the Triticum-Secale-Thinopyrum trigeneric hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Yi; Duan, Yamei; Chi, Dawn; Liu, Huiping; Huang, Shuai; Cao, Wenguang; Gao, Yong; Fedak, George; Chen, Jianmin

    2017-08-01

    It is very important to use chromosome-specific markers for identifying alien chromosomes in advanced generations of distant hybridization. The chromosome-specific markers of rye and Thinopyrum elongatum, as well as genomic in situ hybridization, were used to identify the alien chromosomes in eight lines that were derived from the crossing between Triticum trititrigia (AABBEE) and triticale (AABBRR). The results showed that four lines contained all rye chromosomes but no Th. elongatum chromosomes. The line RE36-1 contained all of the rye chromosomes except for chromosome 2R. The lines RE33-2 and RE62-1 contained all rye chromosomes and 1E and 5E translocated chromosome, respectively. The line RE24-4 contained 12 rye chromosomes plus a 7E chromosome or 12 rye chromosomes plus one R-E translocated chromosome. Chromosome identification in the above lines was consistent using chromosome-specific markers and genomic in situ hybridization. These chromosome-specific markers provide useful tools for detecting alien chromosomes in trigeneric hybrids, and these lines could be utilized as valuable germplasm in wheat improvement.

  1. Suitability of peanut residue as a nitrogen source for a rye cover crop Resíduos da cultura de amendoim como fonte de nitrogênio para uma cultura de cobertura de centeio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kipling Shane Balkcom

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Leguminous winter cover crops have been utilized in conservation systems to partially meet nitrogen (N requirements of succeeding summer cash crops, but the potential of summer legumes to reduce N requirements of a winter annual grass, used as a cover crop, has not been extensively examined. This study assessed the N contribution of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L. residues to a subsequent rye (Secale cereale L. cover crop grown in a conservation system on a Dothan sandy loam (fine-loamy, kaolinitic, thermic Plinthic Kandiudults at Headland, AL USA during the 2003-2005 growing seasons. Treatments were arranged in a split plot design, with main plots of peanut residue retained or removed from the soil surface, and subplots as N application rates (0, 34, 67 and 101 kg ha-1 applied in the fall. Peanut residue had minimal to no effect on rye biomass yields, N content, carbon (C /N ratio, or N, P, K, Ca and Zn uptake. Additional N increased rye biomass yield, and N, P, K, Ca, and Zn uptakes. Peanut residue does not contribute significant amounts of N to a rye cover crop grown as part of a conservation system, but retaining peanut residue on the soil surface could protect the soil from erosion early in the fall and winter before a rye cover crop grows sufficiently to protect the typically degraded southeastern USA soils.Culturas leguminosas de inverno tem sido utilizadas em sistemas conservacionistas para suprimento parcial das necessidades de nitrogênio (N de culturas subseqüentes de verão, mas o potencial destas culturas leguminosas de verão no sentido de reduzir as necessidades de N de gramíneas anuais de inverno, utilizadas como culturas de cobertura, ainda não foi extensivamente estudado. Este trabalho avaliou a contribuição dos resíduos de uma cultura de amendoim (Arachis hypogaea L. sobre as necessidades de N de uma cultura subsequente de centeio (Secale cereale L. como cobertura desenvolvida dentro de um sistema conservacionista, em um

  2. EFFECT OF THE METHOD OF PREPARATION OF RYE GRAIN ON ITS MICROSTRUCTURE AND SAFETY INDICATORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. I. Ponomareva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. One of the main issues in the baking industry is currently the development and introduction of new products increased nutritional value. By promising area of enrichment products include the use of whole grains. Currently pressing issue is expanding the range of bakery products by applying the functional orientation of the whole grain rye. Expand the range of bread from a mixture of rye and wheat flour can be due to the use of whole grain rye. German company "Irex" developed a method of preparing a mixture of products from rye and wheat flour with the addition of acidified whole rye "Saftkorn." The experiment was conducted microstructure definition, content of toxic elements (cadmium, lead, mercury, arsenic and microbiological indicators rye "Saftkorn" and "Avanguard". The microstructure and grain safety performance prepared in different ways. The difference in the microstructure of rye "Saftсorn" (Germany and "Аvangard" (Russia. Proven that their microbiological parameters were within acceptable limits.

  3. Influence of calcium acetate on rye bread volume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina FUCKERER

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The positive accepted savoury taste of rye bread is dependent on acetate concentration in the dough of such breads. In order to study how calcium acetate influences rye bread properties, the pH of rye doughs fortified with calcium acetate and the resulting volume of the breads were measured. Furthermore, CO2 formation of yeast with added calcium acetate and yeast with different pH levels (4, 7, 9 were measured. Thereby, it was determined that the addition of calcium acetate increased the pH of dough from 4.42 to 5.29 and significantly reduced the volume of the breads from 1235.19 mL to 885.52 mL. It could be proven that bread volume was affected by a 30.9% lower CO2 amount production of yeast, although bread volume was not affected by changing pH levels. Due to reduced bread volume, high concentrations of calcium acetate additions are not recommended for improving rye bread taste.

  4. Yantarnaya is a new variety of fodder winter rye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bezgodov A.V.

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available the article has evaluation of four years observation of the prospective varieties of winter rye Yantarnaya in comparison with the standard in the nursery of the competitive variety trial of the Ural Scientific Research Institute for Agriculture in Yekaterinburg and the results of a two year test in the system of FGBU «Gossortkomissiya». A winter rye is widely used for bread baking mainly. This culture has resistance from negative environmental factors. The main cause of limited use of a winter rye grain for forage is high content water-soluble pentosans over 1.5%. They reduce availability of nutrients to an organism. Creation of varieties with low content of water-soluble pentosans is the rational solution of increase in use of parts of grain of a winter rye in forage production. Together with VIR, a variety with the required characteristics was transferred to the state grade testing. The observation took place in 2013–2017, with contrasts on the weather conditions. According to FGBU «Gossorgkomissiya», the variety has high potential productivity and significantly exceeds same low pentosan variety in the yield.

  5. Organic dyes removal using magnetically modified rye straw

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Baldíková, E.; Šafaříková, Miroslava; Šafařík, Ivo

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 180, APR 2015 (2015), s. 181-185 ISSN 0304-8853 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-13709S Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : Rye straw * Adsorbent * Dyes removal * Magnetic modification Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.357, year: 2015

  6. Differentiation of shoot elements from the rachis of Secale cereale L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan J. Rybczyński

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In vitro culture of young Secale cereale spikes is described with special attention given to changes in development of the rachis. 7 mm explants were cultivated on a modified M u r a s h i g e and S k o o g (1962 medium (MS supplemented with 2,4-D (dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, NAA (α-naph-thaleneacetic acid, IAA (β-indoleacetic acid, 2,4,5-T (trichlorophenoxyacetic acid, and ZEA (zeatin, KIN (kinetin, BAP (6-benzylaminopurine, IPA (izopentenyladenine or 2 iP in numerous combinations and concentrations. Rachises differentiated branches with node construction in the presence of synthetic auxin. Rhizogenesis of explants was stimulated by 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T. 2,4,5-T + IPA appeared to be the best combination for callus regeneration. Many meristematic centres were found previously and combinations of NAA + KIN stimulated direct, whereas 2,4-D + ZEA indirect, differentiation of shoot elements. Development was observed from plantlets to flowering plants.

  7. Exploring new alleles for frost tolerance in winter rye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erath, Wiltrud; Bauer, Eva; Fowler, D Brian; Gordillo, Andres; Korzun, Viktor; Ponomareva, Mira; Schmidt, Malthe; Schmiedchen, Brigitta; Wilde, Peer; Schön, Chris-Carolin

    2017-10-01

    Rye genetic resources provide a valuable source of new alleles for the improvement of frost tolerance in rye breeding programs. Frost tolerance is a must-have trait for winter cereal production in northern and continental cropping areas. Genetic resources should harbor promising alleles for the improvement of frost tolerance of winter rye elite lines. For frost tolerance breeding, the identification of quantitative trait loci (QTL) and the choice of optimum genome-based selection methods are essential. We identified genomic regions involved in frost tolerance of winter rye by QTL mapping in a biparental population derived from a highly frost tolerant selection from the Canadian cultivar Puma and the European elite line Lo157. Lines per se and their testcrosses were phenotyped in a controlled freeze test and in multi-location field trials in Russia and Canada. Three QTL on chromosomes 4R, 5R, and 7R were consistently detected across environments. The QTL on 5R is congruent with the genomic region harboring the Frost resistance locus 2 (Fr-2) in Triticeae. The Puma allele at the Fr-R2 locus was found to significantly increase frost tolerance. A comparison of predictive ability obtained from the QTL-based model with different whole-genome prediction models revealed that besides a few large, also small QTL effects contribute to the genomic variance of frost tolerance in rye. Genomic prediction models assigning a high weight to the Fr-R2 locus allow increasing the selection intensity for frost tolerance by genome-based pre-selection of promising candidates.

  8. PREDIÇÃO DOS TEORES DE COMPOSTOS FENÓLICOS E FLAVONOIDES NA PARTE AÉREA DAS ESPÉCIES Secale cereale L., Avena strigosa L. E Raphanus sativus L. POR MEIO DE ESPECTROSCOPIA NO INFRAVERMELHO PRÓXIMO (NIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique Souza

    Full Text Available Spectroscopy associated with chemometrics is a non-destructive method of the samples for the prediction of phenolic compounds. The objective of the work was to apply the near infrared spectroscopy (NIR technique for the prediction of phenolic compounds and flavonoids in aerial part samples of cover crops plants Raphanus sativus L., Secale cereale L. and Avena strigosa L. Samples were collected at 60, 80 and 100 days after sowing (DAS of the plants and, after lodging (DAA, at 15 and 30 days, in an experiment implanted in the field, in the city of Ituporanga, Santa Catarina. The samples were homogenized, identified, transported on dry ice, lyophilized, crushed, sieved and stored at -20 °C for analysis. For the calibration, 84 samples were used and for the validation 10 samples. The combination of NIR spectroscopy and multivariate analysis by partial least squares regression allowed the development of prediction models of phenolics and flavonoids with associated errors averaging 10%. NIR spectroscopy is recommended for the development of calibration models because it allows to non-destructive infer phenolic and total flavonoid contents, with high analytical frequency, without the use of reagents and other inputs required by the reference method, with results very close to those obtained in the laboratory.

  9. Phenolic Lipids Affect the Activity and Conformation of Acetylcholinesterase from Electrophorus electricus (Electric eel)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stasiuk, Maria; Janiszewska, Alicja; Kozubek, Arkadiusz

    2014-01-01

    Phenolic lipids were isolated from rye grains, cashew nutshell liquid (CNSL) from Anacardium occidentale, and fruit bodies of Merrulius tremellosus, and their effects on the electric eel acetylcholinesterase activity and conformation were studied. The observed effect distinctly depended on the chemical structure of the phenolic lipids that were available for interaction with the enzyme. All of the tested compounds reduced the activity of acetylcholinesterase. The degree of inhibition varied, showing a correlation with changes in the conformation of the enzyme tested by the intrinsic fluorescence of the Trp residues of the protein. PMID:24787269

  10. Developing methods of strip cropping cucumbers with rye/vetch

    OpenAIRE

    Ogutu, Maurice Okendo

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this research carried out in 1998 and 1999 was to develop methods for strip cropping of cucumbers with rye/vetch and black plastic mulch. Effects of planting methods, weed control measures, and cover crop management techniques on pest and beneficial insects, petiole sap nitrate-nitrogen, soil moisture, yields and economic viability were assessed. Four treatments, namely cucumber direct seeded in black plastic mulch on tilled bare ground (conventional); cucumber d...

  11. Effect of germination and thermal treatments on folates in rye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kariluoto, Susanna; Liukkonen, Kirsi-Helena; Myllymäki, Olavi; Vahteristo, Liisa; Kaukovirta-Norja, Anu; Piironen, Vieno

    2006-12-13

    Effects of germination conditions and thermal processes on folate contents of rye were investigated. Total folate contents were determined microbiologically with Lactobacillus rhamnosus (ATCC 7469) as the growth indicator organism, and individual folates were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography after affinity chromatographic purification. Germination increased the folate content by 1.7-3.8-fold, depending on germination temperature, with a maximum content of 250 micro g/100 g dry matter. Hypocotylar roots with their notably high folate concentrations (600-1180 micro g/100 g dry matter) contributed 30-50% of the folate contents of germinated grains. Germination altered the proportions of folates, increasing the proportion of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate and decreasing the proportion of formylated folate compounds. Thermal treatments (extrusion, autoclaving and puffing, and IR and toasting) resulted in significant folate losses. However, folate levels in grains that were germinated and then were heat processed were higher than for native (nongerminated) grains. Opportunities to optimize rye processing to enhance folate levels in rye-based foods are discussed.

  12. Transfer of radiocaesium to barley, rye grass and pea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oehlenschlaeger, M.; Gissel-Nielsen, G.

    1989-11-01

    In areas with intensive farming, as in Denmark, it is of great interest to identify possible countermeasures to be taken in order to reduce the longterm effects of radioactive contamination of arable land. The most important longer-lived radionuclides from the Chernobyl were 137 Cs and 134 Cs. The aim of the present project was to identify crops with relatively low or high root uptake of these two isotopes. Although such differences may be small, a shift in varieties might be a cost-effective way to reduce collective doses. The experiment was carried out at Risoe National Laboratory in the summer of 1988. The species used were: spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L) varieties: Golf, Apex, Anker, Sila; Perennial rye grass (Lolium perenne L.) varieties: Darbo (early) and Patoro (late); Italian rye-grass (Lolium multiflorum) variety: Prego; and pea (Pisum arvense L.) variety: Bodil. Each crop was grown in two types of soil, a clay-loam and an organic soil. 137 Cs was added to the clay-loam. The organic soil, which was contaminated with 137 Cs from the Chernobyl accident, was supplied with 134 Cs. Sila barley and Italian rye-grass were identified among the species tested as plants with a relative high uptake of radio-caesium. (author)

  13. Effect of flour extraction rate and baking on thiamine and riboflavin content and antioxidant capacity of traditional rye bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Villaluenga, C; Michalska, A; Frias, J; Piskula, M K; Vidal-Valverde, C; Zieliński, H

    2009-01-01

    The effect of rye flour extraction rates and baking on thiamine and riboflavin content, and antioxidant capacity of traditional rye bread were studied and compared with white wheat flour. The content of thiamine was higher (10.9%) in rye dough formulated with dark rye flour (F-100%; extraction rate of 100%) than in rye dough formulated with brown rye flour (F-92%; extraction rate of 92%) that was similar to dough made with wheat flour. The riboflavin content in rye dough made from flour F-100% was also higher (16%) than in dough formulated with flour F-92%, and both provided larger riboflavin content than wheat dough. Baking led to reductions in thiamine of 56% for wheat bread and of 20% for both rye breads; however, this process caused only a 10% decrease in riboflavin for wheat bread and a 30% decrease for rye breads. Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, peroxyl radical scavenging capacity, DPPH radical scavenging activity, and Folin-Ciocalteu reducing capacity were higher in rye than in wheat dough and bread. Baking process produced slight changes in antioxidant activity, except for Superoxide Dismutase-like activity where a sharp decrease was observed. Our findings showed that rye breads are an important source of B vitamins and rye breads formulated with dark and brown flours showed better antioxidant properties than wheat bread. Therefore, rye breads should be more widely recommended in human nutrition.

  14. Phenolic Compounds of Cereals and Their Antioxidant Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hung, Pham

    2016-01-01

    Phenolic compounds play an important role in health benefits because of their highly antioxidant capacity. In this review, total phenolic contents (TPCs), phenolic acid profile and antioxidant capacity of the extracted from wheat, corn, rice, barley, sorghum, rye, oat, and millet, which have been recently reported, are summarized. The review shows clearly that cereals contain a number of phytochemicals including phenolics, flavonoids, anthocyanins, etc. The phytochemicals of cereals significantly exhibit antioxidant activity as measured by trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging, reducing power, oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), inhibition of oxidation of human low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and DNA, Rancimat, inhibition of photochemilumenescence (PCL), and iron(II) chelation activity. Thus, the consumption of whole grains is considered to have significantly health benefits in prevention from chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and cancer because of the contribution of phenolic compounds existed. In addition, the extracts from cereal brans are considered to be used as a source of natural antioxidants.

  15. Short- and full-season soybean in stale seedbeds versus rolled-crimped winter rye mulch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Late seedbed preparations (also known as stale or false seedbeds) are used by organic growers to reduce weed populations prior to crop planting. Rye mulches, derived from mechanically killed (rolled and crimped) winter rye cover crops, can serve the same purpose for spring-planted organic crops. Bot...

  16. The Potential for Cereal Rye Cover Crops to Host Corn Seedling Pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, Matthew G; Acharya, Jyotsna; Moorman, Thomas B; Robertson, Alison E; Kaspar, Thomas C

    2016-06-01

    Cover cropping is a prevalent conservation practice that offers substantial benefits to soil and water quality. However, winter cereal cover crops preceding corn may diminish beneficial rotation effects because two grass species are grown in succession. Here, we show that rye cover crops host pathogens capable of causing corn seedling disease. We isolated Fusarium graminearum, F. oxysporum, Pythium sylvaticum, and P. torulosum from roots of rye and demonstrate their pathogenicity on corn seedlings. Over 2 years, we quantified the densities of these organisms in rye roots from several field experiments and at various intervals of time after rye cover crops were terminated. Pathogen load in rye roots differed among fields and among years for particular fields. Each of the four pathogen species increased in density over time on roots of herbicide-terminated rye in at least one field site, suggesting the broad potential for rye cover crops to elevate corn seedling pathogen densities. The radicles of corn seedlings planted following a rye cover crop had higher pathogen densities compared with seedlings following a winter fallow. Management practices that limit seedling disease may be required to allow corn yields to respond positively to improvements in soil quality brought about by cover cropping.

  17. Identification of genome-specific transcripts in wheat–rye translocation lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong Geon Lee

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Studying gene expression in wheat–rye translocation lines is complicated due to the presence of homeologs in hexaploid wheat and high levels of synteny between wheat and rye genomes (Naranjo and Fernandez-Rueda, 1991 [1]; Devos et al., 1995 [2]; Lee et al., 2010 [3]; Lee et al., 2013 [4]. To overcome limitations of current gene expression studies on wheat–rye translocation lines and identify genome-specific transcripts, we developed a custom Roche NimbleGen Gene Expression microarray that contains probes derived from the sequence of hexaploid wheat, diploid rye and diploid progenitors of hexaploid wheat genome (Lee et al., 2014. Using the array developed, we identified genome-specific transcripts in a wheat–rye translocation line (Lee et al., 2014. Expression data are deposited in the NCBI Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO under accession number GSE58678. Here we report the details of the methods used in the array workflow and data analysis.

  18. THE EFFECT OF SOME TECHNOLOGICAL FACTORS ON THE RYE SOURDOUGH BREAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iuliana Banu

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The modern biotechnology of bread production uses sourdough as a natural leavening agent. In rye bread making the sourdough is essential. The aim of this paper was to examine the influence of starter culture types, flour extraction rate, dough yield and temperature of fermentation on the quality of the sourdough rye bread. The sourdough was prepared using a mixed culture of Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus brevis. The rye breads prepared with 20% sourdough and bread with no sourdough were investigated. The addition of sourdough increases the loaf specific volume relative to control sample. The best results were obtained in case of sourdough made from dark rye flour, 300 dough yield, after 24 h fermentation at 30 °C. The porosity of the bread was estimated by analyzing the scanned images of the vertically halved bread. Digital image analysis revealed that the cell-to-total area ratio was lower for the sourdough prepared with whole rye bread.

  19. Postprandial glucose metabolism and SCFA after consuming wholegrain rye bread and wheat bread enriched with bioprocessed rye bran in individuals with mild gastrointestinal symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lappi, J; Mykkänen, H; Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach

    2014-01-01

    BackgroundRye bread benefits glucose metabolism. It is unknown whether the same effect is achieved by rye bran-enriched wheat bread. We tested whether white wheat bread enriched with bioprocessed rye bran (BRB + WW) and sourdough wholegrain rye bread (WGR) have similar effects on glucose metabolism...... and plasma level of short chain fatty acids (SCFAs).  MethodsTwenty-one (12 women) of 23 recruited subjects completed an intervention with a four-week run-in and two four-week test periods in cross-over design. White wheat bread (WW; 3% fibre) was consumed during the run-in, and WGR and BRB + WW (10% fibre.......05) and propionate (p = 0.009) at 30 min increased during both rye bread periods.ConclusionsBeneficial effects of WGR over white wheat bread on glucose and SCFA production were confirmed. The enrichment of the white wheat bread with bioprocessed rye bran (BRB + WW) yielded similar but not as pronounced effects than...

  20. HEALTH BENEFITS OF KVASS MANUFACTURED FROM RYE WHOLEMEAL BREAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halina Gambuś

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Kvass based on traditional technology completely disappeared from polish market. It was replaced by drinks, prepared from malt concentrates, wrongly named kvass. The aim of this study was therefore to obtain traditional bread kvass (by fermentation, using the mash prepared from commercial wholemeal rye bread, produced by 5-phase dough fermentation method, and to determine the quality of this kvass in terms of consumer acceptance, chemical composition and antioxidant activity. It has been demonstrated that based on the traditional wholemeal rye bread, it is possible to produce good quality bread kvass, with similar organoleptic qualities to the commercial kvasses, which contain several added flavours and preservatives. Natural bread kvass can be consumed by consumers of all ages, since it contains only trace amounts of alcohol, and it has almost double the dietary fibre content and three times lower content of reducing sugars as compared to the commercial kvasses. Laboratory made kvasses by natural fermentation also showed an increase in antioxidant activity by 60%, when compared to commercial kvasses.

  1. Investigation of rye straw ash sintering characteristics and the effect of additives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Liang; Skreiberg, Øyvind; Becidan, Michael; Li, Hailong

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Rye straw ash has a high sintering tendency at elevated temperatures. • Addition of additive increases melting temperature of the rye straw ash. • Kaolin addition leads to formation of silicates binding K in the ash. • Calcite and Ca-sludge promotes formation of silicates and phosphates in the ash. • Calcite addition restrains attaching and accumulation of rye straw ash melts. - Abstract: The understanding of ash sintering during combustion of agricultural residues is far from complete, because of the high heterogeneity of the content and composition of ash forming matters and the complex transformation of them. In order to make agricultural residues competitive fuels on the energy market, further research efforts are needed to investigate agricultural residues’ ash sintering behavior and propose relevant anti-sintering measures. The aim of this work was to investigate the ash characteristics of rye straw and effects of additives. Three additives were studied regarding their abilities to prevent and abate rye straw ash sintering. Standard ash fusion characterization and laboratory-scale sintering tests were performed on ashes from mixtures of rye straw and additives produced at 550 °C. Ash residues from sintering tests at higher temperatures were analyzed using a combination of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy–energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (SEM–EDX). High sintering and melting tendency of the rye straw ash at elevated temperatures was observed. Severe sintering of the rye straw ash was attributed to the formation and fusion of low temperature K–silicates and K–phosphates with high K/Ca ratios. Among the three additives, calcite served the best one to mitigate sintering of the rye straw ash. Ca from the calcite promoted formation of high temperature silicates and calcium rich K–phosphates. In addition, calcite may hinder aggregating of ash melts and further formation of large ash slag. Therefore

  2. Application of model bread baking in the examination of arabinoxylan-protein complexes in rye bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buksa, Krzysztof

    2016-09-05

    The changes in molecular mass of arabinoxylan (AX) and protein caused by bread baking process were examined using a model rye bread. Instead of the normal flour, the dough contained starch, water-extractable AX and protein which were isolated from rye wholemeal. From the crumb of selected model breads, starch was removed releasing AX-protein complexes, which were further examined by size exclusion chromatography. On the basis of the research, it was concluded that optimum model mix can be composed of 3-6% AX and 3-6% rye protein isolate at 94-88% of rye starch meaning with the most similar properties to low extraction rye flour. Application of model rye bread allowed to examine the interactions between AX and proteins. Bread baked with a share of AX, rye protein and starch, from which the complexes of the highest molar mass were isolated, was characterized by the strongest structure of the bread crumb. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Involvement of Disperse Repetitive Sequences in Wheat/Rye Genome Adjustment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Silva

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The union of different genomes in the same nucleus frequently results in hybrid genotypes with improved genome plasticity related to both genome remodeling events and changes in gene expression. Most modern cereal crops are polyploid species. Triticale, synthesized by the cross between wheat and rye, constitutes an excellent model to study polyploidization functional implications. We intend to attain a deeper knowledge of dispersed repetitive sequence involvement in parental genome reshuffle in triticale and in wheat-rye addition lines that have the entire wheat genome plus each rye chromosome pair. Through Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD analysis with OPH20 10-mer primer we unraveled clear alterations corresponding to the loss of specific bands from both parental genomes. Moreover, the sequential nature of those events was revealed by the increased absence of rye-origin bands in wheat-rye addition lines in comparison with triticale. Remodeled band sequencing revealed that both repetitive and coding genome domains are affected in wheat-rye hybrid genotypes. Additionally, the amplification and sequencing of pSc20H internal segments showed that the disappearance of parental bands may result from restricted sequence alterations and unraveled the involvement of wheat/rye related repetitive sequences in genome adjustment needed for hybrid plant stabilization.

  4. Physical, microscopic and chemical characterisation of industrial rye and wheat brans from the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamal-Eldin, A; Lærke, Helle Nygaard; Bach Knudsen, Knud Erik

    2009-01-01

    , compared to wheat bran, regarding structure and content of nutrients as well as a number of presumably bioactive compounds. Design: Six different rye brans from Sweden, Denmark and Finland were analysed and compared with two wheat brans regarding colour, particle size distribution, microscopic structures...... and chemical composition including proximal components, vitamins, minerals and bioactive compounds. Results: Rye brans were generally greener in colour and smaller in particle size than wheat brans. The rye brans varied considerably in their starch content (13.2-28.3%), which reflected variable inclusion...

  5. Brewing with 100 % unmalted grains: barley, wheat, oat and rye

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhuang, Shiwen; Shetty, Radhakrishna; Hansen, Mikkel

    2017-01-01

    of fermentable wort carbohydrates were observed in the worts (all at ca. 12°P), and in particular oat wort had lower concentration of maltose compared to the others, resulting in the lowest concentration of alcohol in final beer. Moreover, wort made from unmalted grains also showed lower free amino nitrogen......Whilst beers have been produced using various levels of unmalted grains as adjuncts along with malt, brewing with 100 % unmalted grains in combination with added mashing enzymes remains mostly unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the brewing potential of 100 % unmalted barley, wheat......, oat and rye in comparison with 100 % malt. To address this, identical brewing methods were adopted at 10-L scale for each grain type by applying a commercial mashing enzyme blend (Ondea® Pro), and selected quality attributes were assessed for respective worts and beers. Different compositions...

  6. NASA crop calendars: Wheat, barley, oats, rye, sorghum, soybeans, corn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuckey, M. R.; Anderson, E. N.

    1975-01-01

    Crop calenders used to determine when Earth Resources Technology Satellite ERTS data would provide the most accurate wheat acreage information and to minimize the amount of ground verified information needed are presented. Since barley, oats, and rye are considered 'confusion crops, i.e., hard to differentiate from wheat in ERTS imagery, specific dates are estimated for these crops in the following stages of development: (1) seed-bed operation, (2) planting or seeding, (3) intermediate growth, (4) dormancy, (5) development of crop to full ground cover, (6) heading or tasseling, and flowering, (7) harvesting, and (8) posting-harvest operations. Dormancy dates are included for fall-snow crops. A synopsis is given of each states' growing conditions, special cropping practices, and other characteristics which are helpful in identifying crops from ERTS imagery.

  7. Reorganization of wheat and rye genomes in octoploid triticale (× Triticosecale).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinka, Anna; Achrem, Magdalena

    2018-04-01

    The analysis of early generations of triticale showed numerous rearrangements of the genome. Complexed transformation included loss of chromosomes, t-heterochromatin content changes and the emergence of retrotransposons in new locations. This study investigated certain aspects of genomic transformations in the early generations (F5 and F8) of the primary octoploid triticale derived from the cross of hexaploid wheat with the diploid rye. Most of the plants tested were hypoploid; among eliminated chromosomes were rye chromosomes 4R and 5R and variable number of wheat chromosomes. Wheat chromosomes were eliminated to a higher extent. The lower content of telomeric heterochromatin was also found in rye chromosomes in comparison with parental rye. Studying the location of selected retrotransposons from Ty1-copia and Ty3-gypsy families using fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed additional locations of these retrotransposons that were not present in chromosomes of parental species. ISSR, IRAP and REMAP analyses showed significant changes at the level of specific DNA nucleotide sequences. In most cases, the disappearance of certain types of bands was observed, less frequently new types of bands appeared, not present in parental species. This demonstrates the scale of genome rearrangement and, above all, the elimination of wheat and rye sequences, largely due to the reduction of chromosome number. With regard to the proportion of wheat to rye genome, the rye genome was more affected by the changes, thus this study was focused more on the rye genome. Observations suggest that genome reorganization is not finished in the F5 generation but is still ongoing in the F8 generation.

  8. Ethanol fermentation of HTST extruded rye grain by bacteria and yeasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czarnecki, Z [Univ. of Agriculture, Poznan (Poland). Inst. of Food Technology; Nowak, J [Univ. of Agriculture, Poznan (Poland). Inst. of Food Technology

    1997-09-01

    High temperature extrusion cooking of rye was used as a pretreatment for ethanol fermentation, and yeasts and bacteria were compared for their fermentation rates. Extrusion cooking caused, on average, a 7.5% increase in ethanol yield in comparison to autoclaved samples. The best results were achieved for grain with a moisture of 21-23% which was extruded at temperatures of 160-180 C. Extrusion decreased the relative viscosity of rye grain water extracts, so it was possible to mash it without {alpha}-amylase. The efficiency of fermentation of extruded rye without Termamyl was equal to that of autoclaved and traditionally mashed rye (using {alpha}-amylase). The rate of fermentation of extruded rye grain by Zymomonas was higher during the first stage, but the final ethanol yield was similar for the bacterium and the yeast. Through both microorganisms gave good quality distillates, the concentration of compounds other than ethanol achieved from extruded rye mashes, which were fermented by Z. mobilis, was five times lower than for yeasts. (orig.)

  9. Structural changes of starch during baking and staling of rye bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihhalevski, Anna; Heinmaa, Ivo; Traksmaa, Rainer; Pehk, Tõnis; Mere, Arvo; Paalme, Toomas

    2012-08-29

    Rye sourdough breads go stale more slowly than wheat breads. To understand the peculiarities of bread staling, rye sourdough bread, wheat bread, and a number of starches were studied using wide-angle X-ray diffraction, nuclear magnetic resonance ((13)C CP MAS NMR, (1)H NMR, (31)P NMR), polarized light microscopy, rheological methods, microcalorimetry, and measurement of water activity. The degree of crystallinity of starch in breads decreased with hydration and baking to 3% and increased during 11 days of storage to 21% in rye sourdough bread and to 26% in wheat bread. (13)C NMR spectra show that the chemical structures of rye and wheat amylopectin and amylose contents are very similar; differences were found in the starch phospholipid fraction characterized by (31)P NMR. The (13)C CP MAS NMR spectra demonstrate that starch in rye sourdough breads crystallize in different forms than in wheat bread. It is proposed that different proportions of water incorporation into the crystalline structure of starch during staling and changes in starch fine structure cause the different rates of staling of rye and wheat bread.

  10. Effects of rye bran addition on fatty acid composition and quality characteristics of low-fat meatballs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yılmaz, Ismail

    2004-06-01

    Rye bran was used as a fat substitute in the production of meatballs. The effect of rye bran addition on the fatty acid composition, trans fatty acids, total fat, some physico-chemical and sensory properties of the samples was studied. Meatballs were produced with four different formulations including 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% rye bran addition. Control samples were formulated with 10% fat addition. Meatballs containing rye bran had lower concentrations of total fat and total trans fatty acids than the control samples. Meatballs made with addition of 20% rye bran had the highest protein, ash contents, L value (lightness), b value (yellowness), and the lowest moisture, salt content and weight losses and a value (redness). There was a significant difference among the meatball samples in respect to sensory properties and 5%, 10% rye bran added meatballs and control samples had high acceptability.

  11. Study on Sensory Quality, Antioxidant Properties, and Maillard Reaction Products Formation in Rye-Buckwheat Cakes Enhanced with Selected Spices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Przygodzka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of selected spices included in the recipe of rye-buckwheat cakes on sensory quality, nutritional value, and Maillard reaction (MR products formation was addressed in this study. The cakes with cloves, nutmeg, allspice, cinnamon, vanilla, and spice mix addition revealed the highest overall quality values. Cakes enriched with cloves, allspice, and spice mix showed the highest rutin content and almost threefold higher available lysine contents whereas cakes enhanced with mix, cloves, and cinnamon were the richest source of phenolic compounds. The highest antioxidant capacity showed cakes with cloves and spice mix. The furosine, a marker of early stage of MR, was decreased in cakes with cloves, allspice, spice mix, and vanilla whereas fluorescent intermediatory compounds were reduced in cakes enhanced with cloves, allspice, and cinnamon. In contrast, browning index was increased as compared to cakes without spices. The FAST index was significantly lowered in all cakes enriched with spices, especially with cloves, allspice, and mix addition. The presence of cloves, allspice, and vanilla in cake formula was the most efficient in acrylamide strategy. It can be suggested that cloves, allspice, and vanilla might be used for production of safety and good quality cakes.

  12. Rye and Wheat Bran Extracts Isolated with Pressurized Solvents Increase Oxidative Stability and Antioxidant Potential of Beef Meat Hamburgers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šulniūtė, Vaida; Jaime, Isabel; Rovira, Jordi; Venskutonis, Petras Rimantas

    2016-02-01

    Rye and wheat bran extracts containing phenolic compounds and demonstrating high DPPH• (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl), ABTS(•+) (2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) scavenging and oxygen radical absorbance capacities (ORAC) were tested in beef hamburgers as possible functional ingredients. Bran extracts significantly increased the indicators of antioxidant potential of meat products and their global antioxidant response (GAR) during physiological in vitro digestion. The extracts also inhibited the formation of oxidation products, hexanal and malondialdehyde, of hamburgers during their storage; however, they did not have significant effect on the growth of microorganisms. Hamburgers with 0.8% wheat bran extract demonstrated the highest antioxidant potential. Some effects of bran extracts on other quality characteristics such as pH, color, formation of metmyoglobin were also observed, however, these effects did not have negative influence on the overall sensory evaluation score of hamburgers. Consequently, the use of bran extracts in meat products may be considered as promising means of increasing oxidative product stability and enriching with functional ingredients which might possess health benefits. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  13. Arsenic distribution in soils and rye plants of a cropland located in an abandoned mining area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Álvarez-Ayuso, Esther, E-mail: esther.alvarez@irnasa.csic.es [Department of Environmental Geochemistry, IRNASA (CSIC), C/ Cordel de Merinas 40-52, 37008 Salamanca (Spain); Abad-Valle, Patricia [Department of Environmental Geochemistry, IRNASA (CSIC), C/ Cordel de Merinas 40-52, 37008 Salamanca (Spain); Murciego, Ascensión [Department of Geology, Plza. de los Caídos s/n, Salamanca University, 37008 Salamanca (Spain); Villar-Alonso, Pedro [Saloro SLU, Avda. Italia 8, 37006 Salamanca (Spain)

    2016-01-15

    A mining impacted cropland was studied in order to assess its As pollution level and the derived environmental and health risks. Profile soil samples (0–50 cm) and rye plant samples were collected at different distances (0–150 m) from the near mine dump and analyzed for their As content and distribution. These cropland soils were sandy, acidic and poor in organic matter and Fe/Al oxides. The soil total As concentrations (38–177 mg kg{sup −1}) and, especially, the soil soluble As concentrations (0.48–4.1 mg kg{sup −1}) importantly exceeded their safe limits for agricultural use of soils. Moreover, the soil As contents more prone to be mobilized could rise up to 25–69% of total As levels as determined using (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}SO{sub 4}, NH{sub 4}H{sub 2}PO{sub 4} and (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}C{sub 2}O{sub 4}·H{sub 2}O as sequential extractants. Arsenic in rye plants was primarily distributed in roots (3.4–18.8 mg kg{sup −1}), with restricted translocation to shoots (TF = 0.05–0.26) and grains (TF = < 0.02–0.14). The mechanism for this excluder behavior should be likely related to arsenate reduction to arsenite in roots, followed by its complexation with thiols, as suggested by the high arsenite level in rye roots (up to 95% of the total As content) and the negative correlation between thiol concentrations in rye roots and As concentrations in rye shoots (| R | = 0.770; p < 0.01). Accordingly, in spite of the high mobile and mobilizable As contents in soils, As concentrations in rye above-ground tissues comply with the European regulation on undesirable substances in animal feed. Likewise, rye grain As concentrations were below its maximum tolerable concentration in cereals established by international legislation. - Highlights: • Environmental assessment of a rye cultivated area impacted by past mining activities. • Soil As contents exceeded the recommended safe limits for agricultural use of soils. • Soil soluble As concentrations attained high

  14. Bromination of Phenol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    This "Science note" examines the bromination of phenol, a reaction that is commonly taught at A-level and IB (International Baccalaureate) as an example of electrophilic substitution. Phenol undergoes bromination with bromine or bromine water at room temperature. A white precipitate of 2,4,6-tribromophenol is rapidly formed. This…

  15. Phenolic Molding Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koizumi, Koji; Charles, Ted; de Keyser, Hendrik

    Phenolic Molding Compounds continue to exhibit well balanced properties such as heat resistance, chemical resistance, dimensional stability, and creep resistance. They are widely applied in electrical, appliance, small engine, commutator, and automotive applications. As the focus of the automotive industry is weight reduction for greater fuel efficiency, phenolic molding compounds become appealing alternatives to metals. Current market volumes and trends, formulation components and its impact on properties, and a review of common manufacturing methods are presented. Molding processes as well as unique advanced techniques such as high temperature molding, live sprue, and injection/compression technique provide additional benefits in improving the performance characterisitics of phenolic molding compounds. Of special interest are descriptions of some of the latest innovations in automotive components, such as the phenolic intake manifold and valve block for dual clutch transmissions. The chapter also characterizes the most recent developments in new materials, including long glass phenolic molding compounds and carbon fiber reinforced phenolic molding compounds exhibiting a 10-20-fold increase in Charpy impact strength when compared to short fiber filled materials. The role of fatigue testing and fatigue fracture behavior presents some insight into long-term reliability and durability of glass-filled phenolic molding compounds. A section on new technology outlines the important factors to consider in modeling phenolic parts by finite element analysis and flow simulation.

  16. Phenolation of vegetable oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZORAN S. PETROVIĆ

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Novel bio-based compounds containing phenols suitable for the syn­thesis of polyurethanes were prepared. The direct alkylation of phenols with different vegetable oils in the presence of superacids (HBF4, triflic acid as ca­talysts was studied. The reaction kinetics was followed by monitoring the de­crease of the double bond content (iodine value with time. In order to under­stand the mechanism of the reaction, phenol was alkylated with model com­pounds. The model compounds containing one internal double bond were 9-oc­tadecene and methyl oleate and those with three double bonds were triolein and high oleic safflower oil (82 % oleic acid. It was shown that the best structures for phenol alkylation are fatty acids with only one double bond (oleic acid. Fatty acids with two double bonds (linoleic acid and three double bonds (lino­lenic acid lead to polymerized oils by a Diels–Alder reaction, and to a lesser extent to phenol alkylated products. The reaction product of direct alkylation of phenol with vegetable oils is a complex mixture of phenol alkylated with poly­merized oil (30–60 %, phenyl esters formed by transesterification of phenol with triglyceride ester bonds (<10 % and unreacted oil (30 %. The phenolated vegetable oils are new aromatic–aliphatic bio-based raw materials suitable for the preparation of polyols (by propoxylation, ethoxylation, Mannich reactions for the preparation of polyurethanes, as intermediates for phenolic resins or as bio-based antioxidants.

  17. Limited Impact of a Fall-Seeded, Spring-Terminated Rye Cover Crop on Beneficial Arthropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, Mike W; Gassmann, Aaron J; O'Neal, Matthew E

    2017-04-01

    Cover crops are beneficial to agroecosystems because they decrease soil erosion and nutrient loss while increasing within-field plant diversity. Greater plant diversity within cropping systems can positively affect beneficial arthropod communities. We hypothesized that increasing plant diversity within annually rotated corn and soybean with the addition of a rye cover crop would positively affect the beneficial ground and canopy-dwelling communities compared with rotated corn and soybean grown without a cover crop. From 2011 through 2013, arthropod communities were measured at two locations in Iowa four times throughout each growing season. Pitfall traps were used to sample ground-dwelling arthropods within the corn and soybean plots and sweep nets were used to measure the beneficial arthropods in soybean canopies. Beneficial arthropods captured were identified to either class, order, or family. In both corn and soybean, community composition and total community activity density and abundance did not differ between plots that included the rye cover crop and plots without the rye cover crop. Most taxa did not significantly respond to the presence of the rye cover crop when analyzed individually, with the exceptions of Carabidae and Gryllidae sampled from soybean pitfall traps. Activity density of Carabidae was significantly greater in soybean plots that included a rye cover crop, while activity density of Gryllidae was significantly reduced in plots with the rye cover crop. Although a rye cover crop may be agronomically beneficial, there may be only limited effects on beneficial arthropods when added within an annual rotation of corn and soybean. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Effect of Different Extrusion Parameters on Dietary Fiber in Wheat Bran and Rye Bran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Annica A M; Andersson, R; Jonsäll, Anette; Andersson, Jörgen; Fredriksson, Helena

    2017-06-01

    Wheat bran and rye bran are mostly used as animal feed today, but their high content of dietary fiber and bioactive components are beneficial to human health. Increased use of bran as food raw material could therefore be desirable. However, bran mainly contains unextractable dietary fiber and deteriorates the sensory properties of products. Processing by extrusion could increase the extractability of dietary fiber and increase the sensory qualities of bran products. Wheat bran and rye bran were therefore extruded at different levels of moisture content, screw speed and temperature, in order to find the optimal setting for increased extractability of dietary fiber and positive sensory properties. A water content of 24% for wheat bran and 30% for rye bran, a screw speed of 400 rpm, and a temperature of 130 °C resulted in the highest extractability of total dietary fiber and arabinoxylan. Arabinoxylan extractability increased from 5.8% in wheat bran to 9.0% in extruded wheat bran at those settings, and from 14.6% to 19.2% for rye bran. Total contents of dietary fiber and arabinoxylan were not affected by extrusion. Content of β-glucan was also maintained during extrusion, while its molecular weight decreased slightly and extractability increased slightly. Extrusion at these settings is therefore a suitable process for increasing the use of wheat bran and rye bran as a food raw material. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  19. Co-digestion of wheat and rye bread suspensions with source-sorted municipal biowaste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Chaoran; Mörtelmaier, Christoph; Winter, Josef; Gallert, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Volatile fatty acid spectra of acidified WBS, RBS or FBS differ, but methanogenesis is similar. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Biogas improvement by co-digestion of wheat and rye bread. • Increased population density at high organic loading rates. • Less Pelotomaculum but increased numbers of Syntrophobacter and Smithella found in rye bread reactor. • Replacement of Methanosarcinales by acetate-oxidizers in rye bread co-digestion. • Increasing proportion of Methanomicrobiales in biowaste + rye bread reactor. - Abstract: Acidification of wheat bread (WBS), rye bread (RBS) and fresh biowaste suspensions (FBS), leading to lactate+acetate, lactate+acetate+n-buyrate, and acetate+propionate+n-butyrate, respectively, and biogas production as well as population dynamics were investigated. Co-fermentation of FBS (14 kg m −3 d −1 organic loading rate (OLR)) with WBS or RBS was stable up to an OLR of 22 kg m −3 d −1 and resulted in up to 3 times as much biogas. During co-fermentation at more than 20 kg m −3 d −1 OLR the total population increased more than 2-fold, but the originally low share of propionate-oxidizing bacteria significantly decreased. The proportion of methanogens also decreased. Whereas the proportion of Methanosarcinales to Methanomicrobiales in biowaste and biowaste+WBS remained constant, Methanosarcinales and in particular Methanosaeta spec. in the biowaste+RBS assay almost completely disappeared. Methanomicrobiales increased instead, indicating propionate oxidation via acetate cleavage to CO 2 and hydrogen

  20. Quantities and qualities of physical and chemical fractions of soil organic matter under a rye cover crop

    Science.gov (United States)

    To detect the effects of a rye cover crop on labile soil carbon, the light fraction, large particulate organic matter (POM), small POM, and two NaOH-extractable humic fractions were extracted from three depths of a corn soil in central Iowa having an overwinter rye cover crop treatment and a contro...

  1. Comparison of the levels of bioactive benzoxazinoids in different wheat and rye fractions and the transformation of these compounds in homemade foods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanwir, Fariha; Fredholm, Maria; Gregersen, Per L.

    2013-01-01

    -benzoxazin-3-one (HBOA-glc-hexose) were the predominant compounds found in the different wheat and rye seed fractions followed by DIBOA-glc and DIBOA. The soaking and boiling of three rye-based breakfast cereals resulted in considerable changes in the benzoxazinoid contents. The soaking of pearled rye...

  2. Second meal effect on appetite and fermentation of wholegrain rye foods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibrügger, Sabine; Vigsnæs, Louise Kristine; Blennow, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    the effect of wholegrain rye consumption on appetite and colonic fermentation after a subsequent meal. Methods: In a randomized, controlled, three-arm cross-over study, twelve healthy male subjects consumed three iso-caloric evening test meals. The test meals were based on white wheat bread (WBB), wholegrain...... rye kernel bread (RKB), or boiled rye kernels (RK). Breath hydrogen excretion and subjective appetite sensation were measured before and at 30 min intervals for 3 h after a standardized breakfast in the subsequent morning. After the 3 h, an ad libitum lunch meal was served to assess energy intake....... In an in vitro study, RKB and RK were subjected to digestion and 24 h-fermentation in order to study SCFA production and growth of selected saccharolytic bacteria. Results: The test meals did not differ in their effect on parameters of subjective appetite sensation the following day. Ad libitum energy intake...

  3. Antifungal activity of essential oils evaluated by two different application techniques against rye bread spoilage fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suhr, Karin Isabel; Nielsen, Per Væggemose

    2003-01-01

    Aims: To study how antifungal activity of natural essential oils depends on the assay method used.Methods and Results: Oils of bay, cinnamon leaf, clove, lemongrass, mustard, orange, sage, thyme and two rosemary oils were tested by two methods: (1) a rye bread-based agar medium was supplemented...... with 100 and 250 mu l l(-1) essential oil and (2) real rye bread was exposed to 136 and 272 mu l l(-1) volatile oil in air. Rye bread spoilage fungi were used for testing. Method 1 proved thyme oil to be the overall best growth inhibitor, followed by clove and cinnamon. On the contrary, orange, sage...... and rosemary oils had very limited effects. Mustard and lemongrass were the most effective oils by the volatile method, and orange, sage and one rosemary showed some effects. Oil compositions were analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrography.Conclusions: Antifungal effects of the essential oils depended...

  4. Amino acid digestibility of different rye genotypes in caecectomised laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuber, Tobias; Miedaner, Thomas; Rosenfelder, Pia; Rodehutscord, Markus

    2016-12-01

    This study investigated the variability of amino acid (AA) digestibility of rye grains in laying hens. Relationships between AA digestibility and physical properties (thousand seed weight, test weight, falling number, and extract viscoelasticity), chemical composition (proximate nutrients, non-starch polysaccharides, AA, minerals, and inositol phosphates), gross energy concentration, and in vitro solubility of nitrogen (N) of the grains were also examined. Twenty rye genotypes were grown under standardised agronomic and environmental conditions as part of a collaborative research project known as "GrainUp". Each genotype was added to a basal diet at 500 g/kg at the expense of maize starch to produce 20 rye diets. The experimental design comprised four Latin Squares (6 × 6) distributed over two runs, resulting in 12 experimental periods. Caecectomised laying hens (LSL-Classic) were individually kept in metabolism cages. Excreta were collected quantitatively for 4 d, and AA digestibility of the rye genotypes was determined using a regression approach. The digestibility of AA was generally low but varied significantly among the 20 rye genotypes, especially for Lys (digestibility range 35-59%), Met (57-75%), Thr (34-54%), and Trp (36-71%). Nevertheless, physical and chemical characteristics as well as the in vitro solubility of N correlated in only a few cases with AA digestibility. Multiple linear regression was used to calculate equations to predict AA digestibility based on the analysed characteristics. However, their explanatory power, as judged by the adjusted R(2), was not sufficiently precise for practical application (below 0.6 for most AA). In conclusion, the AA digestibility of rye grain is generally low and varies significantly between crop genotypes. Equations based on its physical and chemical characteristics are not sufficiently precise to be useful for feed formulation.

  5. High-temperature treatment for efficient drying of bread rye and reduction of fungal contaminants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, E.F.; Elmholt, S.; Thrane, Ulf

    2005-01-01

    on the grain. The aim of this study was to establish a drying regime that kills fungal propagules on rye without reducing its quality for baking. Special attention was paid to some important mycotoxin-producing species. As drying temperatures and retention time in the drum are essential, the drum drier must...... the grain was properly stored afterwards. At the same time a high quality for baking was maintained. The highest baking quality in rye was obtained at grain temperatures of about 62 degrees C and only at grain temperatures above 70 degrees C visual quality changes were detected. (c) 2005 Silsoe Research...

  6. Phenolics and Plant Allelopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De-An Jiang

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic compounds arise from the shikimic and acetic acid (polyketide metabolic pathways in plants. They are but one category of the many secondary metabolites implicated in plant allelopathy. Phenolic allelochemicals have been observed in both natural and managed ecosystems, where they cause a number of ecological and economic problems, such as declines in crop yield due to soil sickness, regeneration failure of natural forests, and replanting problems in orchards. Phenolic allelochemical structures and modes of action are diverse and may offer potential lead compounds for the development of future herbicides or pesticides. This article reviews allelopathic effects, analysis methods, and allelopathic mechanisms underlying the activity of plant phenolic compounds. Additionally, the currently debated topic in plant allelopathy of whether catechin and 8-hydroxyquinoline play an important role in Centaurea maculata and Centaurea diffusa invasion success is discussed. Overall, the main purpose of this review is to highlight the allelopacthic potential of phenolic compounds to provide us with methods to solve various ecology problems, especially in regard to the sustainable development of agriculture, forestry, nature resources and environment conservation.

  7. Genetic and epigenetic alterations induced by different levels of rye genome integration in wheat recipient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, X L; Zhou, J P; Zang, L L; Tang, A T; Liu, D Q; Deng, K J; Zhang, Y

    2016-06-17

    The narrow genetic variation present in common wheat (Triticum aestivum) varieties has greatly restricted the improvement of crop yield in modern breeding systems. Alien addition lines have proven to be an effective means to broaden the genetic diversity of common wheat. Wheat-rye addition lines, which are the direct bridge materials for wheat improvement, have been wildly used to produce new wheat cultivars carrying alien rye germplasm. In this study, we investigated the genetic and epigenetic alterations in two sets of wheat-rye disomic addition lines (1R-7R) and the corresponding triticales. We used expressed sequence tag-simple sequence repeat, amplified fragment length polymorphism, and methylation-sensitive amplification polymorphism analyses to analyze the effects of the introduction of alien chromosomes (either the entire genome or sub-genome) to wheat genetic background. We found obvious and diversiform variations in the genomic primary structure, as well as alterations in the extent and pattern of the genomic DNA methylation of the recipient. Meanwhile, these results also showed that introduction of different rye chromosomes could induce different genetic and epigenetic alterations in its recipient, and the genetic background of the parents is an important factor for genomic and epigenetic variation induced by alien chromosome addition.

  8. METABOLIC AND BIOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF PROBIOTIC CULTURE IN MILK SUPPLEMENTED WITH RYE FLAKES AND MALT EXTRACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Bărăscu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Rye flakes and malt extract were added to milk in order to stimulate growth and fermentative activity of probioticbacteria and to obtain a probiotic product with pleasant sensory attributes. Probiotic culture used in this study containsbifidobacteria, Lb. acidophilus, Lactobacilus lactis and Streptococcus thermophilus.Rye flakes have a stimulating effect more pronounced than malt extract on acidification capacity of the probioticculture, and to achieve an increase of the milk acidity of 7g lactic acid /dm3 (in 6h at 39oC the two ingredients must beadded in concentration of 2% and, respectively, 0.2%..The probiotic culture reach the greatest proteolytic activity when rye flakes are added in the proportion of 3% andmalt extract in the proportion of 0.1% and the amino acids released rate was 764.6 μg%. The lactose bioconversionrate was greater in the milk supplemented with rye flakes 3% and malt extract 0.1% and residual lactose was 3.84%.

  9. Application of cross-linked and hydrolyzed arabinoxylans in baking of model rye bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buksa, Krzysztof; Nowotna, Anna; Ziobro, Rafał

    2016-02-01

    The role of water extractable arabinoxylan with varying molar mass and structure (cross-linked vs. hydrolyzed) in the structure formation of rye bread was examined using a model bread. Instead of the normal flour, the dough contained starch, arabinoxylan and protein, which were isolated from rye wholemeal. It was observed that the applied mixes of these constituents result in a product closely resembling typical rye bread, even if arabinoxylan was modified (by cross-linking or hydrolysis). The levels of arabinoxylan required for bread preparation depended on its modification and mix composition. At 3% protein, the maximum applicable level of poorly soluble cross-linked arabinoxylan was 3%, as higher amounts of this preparation resulted in an extensively viscous dough and diminished bread volume. On the other hand highly soluble, hydrolyzed arabinoxylan could be used at a higher level (6%) together with larger amounts of rye protein (3% or 6%). Further addition of arabinoxylan leads to excessive water absorption, resulting in a decreased viscosity of the dough during baking and insufficient gas retention. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Chemical and nutritional characteristics of high-fibre rye milling fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kołodziejczyk, Piotr; Makowska, Agnieszka; Pospieszna, Barbara; Michniewicz, Jan; Paschke, Hanna

    2018-01-01

    Many studies have demonstrated the potential health benefits of consuming more high-fibre cereal-based food products. Therefore, there is a need to discover new ways to improve the overall nutritional balance of refined cereal products and focus on increasing their dietary fibre content, at the expense of readily digestible carbohydrates. Lab-scale milling and sieving of whole rye grain was used to obtain two fractions rich in dietary fibre. The fractions were analysed and compared, in terms of microstructure, chemical com- position and nutritional quality. The two fractions significantly obtained differed in their particle size and contents of minerals, available saccharides, and nutritional fractions of starch and dietary fibre and its major components. The total dietary fibre concentrations in the coarse and fine fractions were 50.0 and 36.0 g/100 g, respectively, i.e. three and 2.2 times higher than that of wholegrain rye flour. Both fractions also differed in their relative proportions of major fibre components. In the fine fraction, the levels of soluble fibre, as well as soluble arabinoxylans and fructans, were significantly higher than those in the coarse fraction. It was shown that the application of a simple dry-fractionation method to wholemeal rye flour allows the preparation of two rye products which can serve as concentrated sources of dietary fibre low in available saccharides.

  11. APPLICATION OF RYE SSR MARKERS FOR DETECTION OF GENETIC DIVERSITY IN TRITICALE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Želmíra Balážová

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Present study aims to testify usefulness of particular rye SSR markers for the detection of genetic diversity degree in the set of 20 triticale cultivars coming from different European countries. For this purpose, a set of six rye SSR markers were used. The set of six polymorphic markers provided 22 alleles with an average frequency of 3.67 alleles per locus. The number of alleles ranged between 2 (SCM43 and 5 (SCM28, SCM86. Resulting from the number and frequency of alleles diversity index (DI, polymorphic information content (PIC and probability of identity (PI were calculated. An average value of PIC for 6 SSR markers was 0.505, the highest value was calculated for rye SSR marker SCM86 (0.706. Based on UPGMA algorithm, a dendrogram was constructed. In dendrogram cultivars were divided into two main clusters. The first cluster contained two cultivars, Russian cultivar Greneder and Slovak cultivar Largus, and second included 18 cultivars. Genetically the closest were two Greek cultivars (Niobi and Thisbi and were close to other Greek cultivar Vrodi. It was possible to separate triticale cultivars of spring and winter form in dendrogram. Results showed the utility of rye microsatellite markers for estimation of genetic diversity of European triticale genotypes leading to genotype identification.

  12. Bioethanol production by inherent enzymes from rye and wheat with addition of organic farming cheese whey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kádár, Zsófia; Christensen, Anne Deen; Thomsen, Mette Hedegaard

    2011-01-01

    . Throughout our studies, wheat and rye grain was used as raw material in bioethanol production with the purpose of producing in situ enzymes (during germination) for the hydrolysis of starch in the grains and compared with commercial amylase enzyme preparations. Whey permeate was incorporated into the grain...

  13. Improved Properties of Medium-Density Particleboard Manufactured from Saline Creeping Wild Rye and HDPE Plastic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creeping Wild Rye (CWR), Leymus triticoides, is a salt-tolerant perennial grass used for mitigating the problems of saltilization and alkalization in drainage irrigation water and soil to minimize potential pollution of water streams. In this study, CWR was used as a raw material to manufacture med...

  14. Gnom 3 as a Donor for Ultra Short- Stem Trait of Winter Rye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В. В. Скорик

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The article reflects the progress of genetic decrease of Rye F 3k- 10029/ Saratovske (Саратовське 4 height by means of the shortest stem plants selection during the period from 1974 to 2010. 37 years selection of the shortest- stern genotypes decreased the plants height from 119.33 cm to 22.57cm. Targeted selection into minus direction decreased the plants height in 5,29 times on the background of the dominant HI expression. In average, the height of plants in the course of 27 breeding cycles were decreasing by 2.69 cm, but that was not going gradually. A new donor Gnom 3 had been created for ultra short-stem trait of the Winter Rye, with the marking of alleles HI-3HI-3. Relative influence on the minus selection efficiency has been established by height of plants for the selection differential (38% and coefficient of inheritance in narrow sense (14,56%. Realized efficiency of selection in decrease of winter rye height in 72,08% of cases corresponded to predicted hit ration of the breeding. Analyzes of genetic and statistical parameters and correlation clusters of 11 utilitarian average characteristics of ultra short- stem rye Gnom 3 for the period of 1974 to 2010 has been performed.

  15. Harvesting fertilized rye cover crop: simulated revenue, net energy, and drainage Nitrogen loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Food and biofuel production along with global N use are expected to increase over the next few decades, which complicates the goal of reducing N loss to the environment. Including winter rye as a cover crop in corn-soybean rotations reduces N loss to drainage. A few studies suggest that harvesting r...

  16. Alteration of terminal heterochromatin and chromosome rearrangements in derivatives of wheat-rye hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Shulan; Lv, Zhenling; Guo, Xiang; Zhang, Xiangqi; Han, Fangpu

    2013-08-20

    Wheat-rye addition and substitution lines and their self progenies revealed variations in telomeric heterochromatin and centromeres. Furthermore, a mitotically unstable dicentric chromosome and stable multicentric chromosomes were observed in the progeny of a Chinese Spring-Imperial rye 3R addition line. An unstable multicentric chromosome was found in the progeny of a 6R/6D substitution line. Drastic variation of terminal heterochromatin including movement and disappearance of terminal heterochromatin occurred in the progeny of wheat-rye addition line 3R, and the 5RS ditelosomic addition line. Highly stable minichromosomes were observed in the progeny of a monosomic 4R addition line, a ditelosomic 5RS addition line and a 6R/6D substitution line. Minichromosomes, with and without the FISH signals for telomeric DNA (TTTAGGG)n, derived from a monosomic 4R addition line are stable and transmissible to the next generation. The results indicated that centromeres and terminal heterochromatin can be profoundly altered in wheat-rye hybrid derivatives. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Understanding "The Catcher in the Rye": A Student Casebook to Issues, Sources, and Historical Documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinsker, Sanford; Pinsker, Ann

    The social, cultural, and historical documents and commentary in this casebook illuminate the reading of "The Catcher in the Rye," a novel that has become an important rite of passage for many young adults. In addition to a literary analysis, the casebook acquaints students with the larger world in which Holden Caulfield, the…

  18. Development of SSR markers for the short arm of rye chromosome 1

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kofler, R.; Stift, G.; Gong, L.; Suchánková, Pavla; Šimková, Hana; Doležel, Jaroslav; Lelley, T.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 71, - (2007), s. 279-281 ISSN 0723-7812 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA521/04/0607 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Source of funding: V - iné verejné zdroje Keywords : SSR markers * rye chromosome 1 Subject RIV: GE - Plant Breeding

  19. Radiation induced wheat-rye chromosomal translocations in triticale. Optimizing the dose using fluorescence in situ hybridization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, F.; Comeau, A.; Chen, Q.; Collin, J.; St-Pierre, C.A.

    2000-01-01

    Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) was utilized to monitor the level of ionizing radiation ( 60 Co source) in their ability to cause intra- and intergeneric chromosomal aberrations in triticale seeds. Seeds were irradiated with 0, 20, 50, 100, 200, 300, 400, 500 and 1000 Gy doses. The root growth of irradiated seeds was greatly inhibited at 200 Gy and above. Various types of aberrations including wheat-rye, wheat-wheat, rye-rye, wheat-rye-wheat, rye-wheat-rye translocations and acentric fragments with or without translocations were observed. There was a consistent increase in proportion of aberrations per cell with an increase in radiation dose. It was concluded that for an optimal level of chromosomal translocation and least number of acentric fragments, a 20 Gy dose was quite sufficient for inducing a desirable level of wheat-rye chromosomal translocations. The excellent efficiency and importance of utilizing FISH in such studies of alien-introgression via chromosomal translocations are discussed. (author)

  20. Molecular cytogenetic characterization of a new wheat-rye 4R chromosome translocation line resistant to powdery mildew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Diaoguo; Zheng, Qi; Zhou, Yilin; Ma, Pengtao; Lv, Zhenling; Li, Lihui; Li, Bin; Luo, Qiaoling; Xu, Hongxing; Xu, Yunfeng

    2013-07-01

    Rye is an important and valuable gene resource for wheat improvement. However, due to extensive growing of cultivars with disease resistance genes from short arm of rye chromosome 1R and coevolution of pathogen virulence and host resistance, these cultivars successively lost resistance to pathogens. Identification and deployment of new resistance gene sources in rye are, therefore, of especial importance and urgency. A new wheat-rye line, designated as WR41-1, was produced through distant hybridization and chromosome engineering protocols between common wheat cultivar Xiaoyan 6 and rye cultivar German White. It was proved to be a new wheat-rye T4BL·4RL and T7AS·4RS translocation line using sequential genomic in situ hybridization (GISH), multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization (mc-FISH), and expressed sequence tag-simple sequence repeat (EST-SSR) marker analysis. WR41-1 showed high levels of resistance to powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici, Bgt) pathogens prevalent in China at the adult growth stage and 13 of 23 Bgt isolates tested at the seedling stage. According to its resistant pattern to 23 different Bgt isolates, WR41-1 may possess new gene(s) for resistance to powdery mildew, which differed from previously identified and known powdery mildew genes from rye (Pm7, Pm8, Pm17, and Pm20). In addition, WR41-1 was cytologically stable, had a desirable fertility, and is expected to be useful in wheat improvement.

  1. Hydroxylated phenylacetamides derived from bioactive benzoxazinoids are bioavailable in humans after habitual consumption of whole grain sourdough rye bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckmann, Manfred; Lloyd, Amanda J; Haldar, Sumanto; Seal, Chris; Brandt, Kirsten; Draper, John

    2013-10-01

    Understanding relationships between dietary whole grain and health is hindered by incomplete knowledge of potentially bioactive metabolites derived from these foods. We aimed to discover compounds in urine correlated with changes in amounts of whole grain rye consumption. After a wash-out period, volunteers consumed 48-g whole grain rye foods per day for 4 wk and then doubled their intake for a further 4 wk. Samples of 24-h urines were analyzed by flow infusion electrospray MS followed by supervised multivariate data analysis. Urine samples from participants who reported high intakes of rye flakes, rye pasta, or total whole grain rye products could not be discriminated adequately from their wash-out samples. However, discrimination was seen in urine samples from participants who reported high whole grain sourdough rye bread consumption. Accurate mass analysis of explanatory signals followed by fragmentation identified conjugates of the benzoxazinoid lactam 2-hydroxy-1,4-benzoxazin-3-one and hydroxylated phenyl acetamide derivatives. Statistical validation showed sensitivities of 84-96% and specificities of 70-81% (p values bread consumption. Several potentially bioactive alkaloids have been identified in humans consuming fermented whole grain sourdough rye bread. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Radiation induced wheat-rye chromosomal translocations in triticale. Optimizing the dose using fluorescence in situ hybridization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, F. [Brandon Univ., Manitoba (Canada); Comeau, A.; Chen, Q.; Collin, J.; St-Pierre, C.A.

    2000-03-01

    Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) was utilized to monitor the level of ionizing radiation ({sup 60}Co source) in their ability to cause intra- and intergeneric chromosomal aberrations in triticale seeds. Seeds were irradiated with 0, 20, 50, 100, 200, 300, 400, 500 and 1000 Gy doses. The root growth of irradiated seeds was greatly inhibited at 200 Gy and above. Various types of aberrations including wheat-rye, wheat-wheat, rye-rye, wheat-rye-wheat, rye-wheat-rye translocations and acentric fragments with or without translocations were observed. There was a consistent increase in proportion of aberrations per cell with an increase in radiation dose. It was concluded that for an optimal level of chromosomal translocation and least number of acentric fragments, a 20 Gy dose was quite sufficient for inducing a desirable level of wheat-rye chromosomal translocations. The excellent efficiency and importance of utilizing FISH in such studies of alien-introgression via chromosomal translocations are discussed. (author)

  3. DEVELOPMENT OF A FUNCTIONAL PURPOSE WHIPPED BREAD WHOLE GRAIN WHEAT, RYE AND WHEAT BRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. O. Magomedov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the development of whipped bakery products enriched with dietary fiber, minerals, vitamins retinol, tocopherol, group, polyunsaturated fatty acids through the use of rye and wheat bran and flour of wholegrain wheat. The main raw material for enrichment whipped bakery products used wheat bran and rye. Choice of rye and wheat bran as supplementation prepared whipped bread is explained not only from the point of view of the rationality of the use of this secondary raw materials, but also its rich vitamin and mineral composition. Wheat bran contain the necessary man of b vitamins, including B1, B2, B6, PP and others. Found provitamin a (carotene and vitamin E (tocopherol. Bran is rich in mineral substances. Among them potassium, magnesium, chromium, zinc, copper, selenium and other trace elements. Thanks to this composition bran are essential dietary product. They are rich in insoluble fiber and can be useful to reduce the risk of developing colon cancer. Rye bran contain dietary fiber, tocopherol E, thiamin B1, Riboflavin B2, Pantothenic acid B5, B4 (choline, nicotinic acid B3, etc. In the bran rich set of microelements and macroelements such as iron, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, zinc, iodine, selenium, chromium, etc. the Introduction in the diet, bran rye contribute to the prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis, diabetes and anemia. They restore blood pressure, reduce blood sugar levels and improve the cardiovascular system. Flour from wholegrain wheat is the main supplier of bread protein and starch, while preserving the maximum of the original nutritional value of the grain, enriched whipped bread macro - and micronutrients. The analysis of the chemical composition of flour from wholegrain wheat, rye and wheat bran leads to the conclusion that the choice of these types of materials suitable for making the recipe whipped bakery products, because their use can increase the content in bread is not only the

  4. Effects of rye inclusion in grower diets on immune competence-related parameters and performance in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Krimpen, M M; Torki, M; Schokker, D

    2017-09-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary inclusion of rye, a model ingredient to increase gut viscosity, between 14 and 28 d of age on immune competence-related parameters and performance of broilers. A total of 960 day-old male Ross 308 chicks were weighed and randomly allocated to 24 pens (40 birds per pen), and the birds in every 8 replicate pens were assigned to 1 of 3 experimental diets including graded levels, 0%, 5%, and 10% of rye. Tested immune competence-related parameters were composition of the intestinal microbiota, genes expression in gut tissue, and gut morphology. The inclusion of 5% or 10% rye in the diet (d 14 to 28) resulted in decreased performance and litter quality, but in increased villus height and crypt depth in the small intestine (jejunum) of the broilers. Relative bursa and spleen weights were not affected by dietary inclusion of rye. In the jejunum, no effects on number and size of goblet cells, and only trends on microbiota composition in the digesta were observed. Dietary inclusion of rye affected expression of genes involved in cell cycle processes of the jejunal enterocyte cells, thereby influencing cell growth, cell differentiation and cell survival, which in turn were consistent with the observed differences in the morphology of the gut wall. In addition, providing rye-rich diets to broilers affected the complement and coagulation pathways, which among others are parts of the innate immune system. These pathways are involved in eradicating invasive pathogens. Overall, it can be concluded that inclusion of 5% or 10% rye to the grower diet of broilers had limited effects on performance. Ileal gut morphology, microbiota composition of jejunal digesta, and gene expression profiles of jejunal tissue, however, were affected by dietary rye inclusion level, indicating that rye supplementation to broiler diets might affect immune competence of the birds. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  5. Evaluation of molecular basis of cross reactivity between rye and Bermuda grass pollen allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Ruby; Bhalla, Prem L; Singh, Mohan B

    2009-12-01

    Allergenic cross reactivity between the members of the Pooids (Lolium perenne, Phleum pratense, and Poa pratensis) and Chloridoids (Cynodon dactylon and Paspalum notatum) is well established. Studies using crude extracts in the past have demonstrated limited cross reactivity between the Pooids and the Chloridoids suggesting separate diagnosis and therapy. However, little is known regarding the molecular basis for the limited cross reactivity observed between the 2 groups of grasses. The present study was undertaken to gain insights into the molecular basis of cross allergenicity between the major allergens from rye and Bermuda grass pollens. Immunoblot inhibition tests were carried out to determine the specificity of the proteins involved in cross reactivity. Crude pollen extract and bacterially expressed and purified recombinant Lol p 1and Lol p 5 from rye grass were subjected to cross inhibition experiments with crude and purified recombinant Cyn d 1 from Bermuda grass using sera from patients allergic to rye grass pollen. The immunoblot inhibition studies revealed a high degree of cross inhibition between the group 1 allergens. In contrast, a complete lack of inhibition was observed between Bermuda grass group 1 allergen rCyn d 1, and rye grass group 5 allergen rLol p 5. Crude rye grass extract strongly inhibited IgE reactivity to Bermuda grass, whereas crude Bermuda grass pollen extract showed a weaker inhibition. Our data suggests that a possible explanation for the limited cross reactivity between the Pooids and Chloridoids may, in part, be due to the absence of group 5 allergen from Chloridoid grasses. This approach of using purified proteins may be applied to better characterize the cross allergenicity patterns between different grass pollen allergens.

  6. Alterations and abnormal mitosis of wheat chromosomes induced by wheat-rye monosomic addition lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shulan Fu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Wheat-rye addition lines are an old topic. However, the alterations and abnormal mitotic behaviours of wheat chromosomes caused by wheat-rye monosomic addition lines are seldom reported. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Octoploid triticale was derived from common wheat T. aestivum L. 'Mianyang11'×rye S. cereale L. 'Kustro' and some progeny were obtained by the controlled backcrossing of triticale with 'Mianyang11' followed by self-fertilization. Genomic in situ hybridization (GISH using rye genomic DNA and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH using repetitive sequences pAs1 and pSc119.2 as probes were used to analyze the mitotic chromosomes of these progeny. Strong pSc119.2 FISH signals could be observed at the telomeric regions of 3DS arms in 'Mianyang11'. However, the pSc119.2 FISH signals were disappeared from the selfed progeny of 4R monosomic addition line and the changed 3D chromosomes could be transmitted to next generation stably. In one of the selfed progeny of 7R monosomic addition line, one 2D chromosome was broken and three 4A chromosomes were observed. In the selfed progeny of 6R monosomic addition line, structural variation and abnormal mitotic behaviour of 3D chromosome were detected. Additionally, 1A and 4B chromosomes were eliminated from some of the progeny of 6R monosomic addition line. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results indicated that single rye chromosome added to wheat might cause alterations and abnormal mitotic behaviours of wheat chromosomes and it is possible that the stress caused by single alien chromosome might be one of the factors that induced karyotype alteration of wheat.

  7. Co-digestion of wheat and rye bread suspensions with source-sorted municipal biowaste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Chaoran, E-mail: Chaoran.Li3@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute of Biology for Engineers and Biotechnology of Wastewater, Am Fasanengarten, D-76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); Mörtelmaier, Christoph, E-mail: Christoph.Moertelmaier@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute of Biology for Engineers and Biotechnology of Wastewater, Am Fasanengarten, D-76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); Winter, Josef, E-mail: Josef.Winter@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute of Biology for Engineers and Biotechnology of Wastewater, Am Fasanengarten, D-76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); Gallert, Claudia, E-mail: Claudia.Gallert@HS-Emden-Leer.de [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute of Biology for Engineers and Biotechnology of Wastewater, Am Fasanengarten, D-76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); University of Applied Science, Hochschule Emden-Leer, Faculty of Technology, Division Microbiology – Biotechnology, Constantiaplatz 4, D-26723 Emden (Germany)

    2015-06-15

    Graphical abstract: Volatile fatty acid spectra of acidified WBS, RBS or FBS differ, but methanogenesis is similar. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Biogas improvement by co-digestion of wheat and rye bread. • Increased population density at high organic loading rates. • Less Pelotomaculum but increased numbers of Syntrophobacter and Smithella found in rye bread reactor. • Replacement of Methanosarcinales by acetate-oxidizers in rye bread co-digestion. • Increasing proportion of Methanomicrobiales in biowaste + rye bread reactor. - Abstract: Acidification of wheat bread (WBS), rye bread (RBS) and fresh biowaste suspensions (FBS), leading to lactate+acetate, lactate+acetate+n-buyrate, and acetate+propionate+n-butyrate, respectively, and biogas production as well as population dynamics were investigated. Co-fermentation of FBS (14 kg m{sup −3} d{sup −1} organic loading rate (OLR)) with WBS or RBS was stable up to an OLR of 22 kg m{sup −3} d{sup −1} and resulted in up to 3 times as much biogas. During co-fermentation at more than 20 kg m{sup −3} d{sup −1} OLR the total population increased more than 2-fold, but the originally low share of propionate-oxidizing bacteria significantly decreased. The proportion of methanogens also decreased. Whereas the proportion of Methanosarcinales to Methanomicrobiales in biowaste and biowaste+WBS remained constant, Methanosarcinales and in particular Methanosaeta spec. in the biowaste+RBS assay almost completely disappeared. Methanomicrobiales increased instead, indicating propionate oxidation via acetate cleavage to CO{sub 2} and hydrogen.

  8. Introgression of A- and B-genome of tetraploid triticale chromatin into tetraploid rye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiśniewska, H; Kwiatek, M; Kulak-Książczyk, S; Apolinarska, B

    2013-11-01

    An improvement of rye is one of the mainstream goals of current breeding. Our study is concerned with the introduction of the tetraploid triticale (ABRR) into the 4x rye (RRRR) using classical methods of distant crossing. One hundred fifty BC1F9 hybrid plants [(4x rye × 4x triticales) × 4x rye] obtained from a backcrossing program were studied. The major aim of this work was to verify the presence of an introgressed A- and B- genome chromatin of triticale in a collection of the 4x rye-tiritcale hybrids and to determine their chromosome compositions. In the present study, karyotypes of the previously reported BC1F2s and BC1F3s were compared with that of the BC1F9 generation as obtained after several subsequent open pollinations. The genomic in situ hybridisation (GISH) allowed us to identify 133 introgression forms in which chromosome numbers ranged between 26 and 32. Using four DNA probes (5S rDNA, 25S rDNA, pSc119.2 and pAs1), the fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) was carried out to facilitate an exact chromosome identification in the hybrid plants. The combination of the multi-colour GISH with the repetitive DNA FISH singled out five types of translocated chromosomes: 2A.2R, 4A.4R, 5A.5R, 5B.5R and 7A.7R among the examined BC1F9s. The reported translocation lines could serve as valuable sources of wheat chromatin suitable for further improvements of rye.

  9. Alterations and Abnormal Mitosis of Wheat Chromosomes Induced by Wheat-Rye Monosomic Addition Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Shulan; Yang, Manyu; Fei, Yunyan; Tan, Feiquan; Ren, Zhenglong; Yan, Benju; Zhang, Huaiyu; Tang, Zongxiang

    2013-01-01

    Background Wheat-rye addition lines are an old topic. However, the alterations and abnormal mitotic behaviours of wheat chromosomes caused by wheat-rye monosomic addition lines are seldom reported. Methodology/Principal Findings Octoploid triticale was derived from common wheat T. aestivum L. ‘Mianyang11’×rye S. cereale L. ‘Kustro’ and some progeny were obtained by the controlled backcrossing of triticale with ‘Mianyang11’ followed by self-fertilization. Genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) using rye genomic DNA and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using repetitive sequences pAs1 and pSc119.2 as probes were used to analyze the mitotic chromosomes of these progeny. Strong pSc119.2 FISH signals could be observed at the telomeric regions of 3DS arms in ‘Mianyang11’. However, the pSc119.2 FISH signals were disappeared from the selfed progeny of 4R monosomic addition line and the changed 3D chromosomes could be transmitted to next generation stably. In one of the selfed progeny of 7R monosomic addition line, one 2D chromosome was broken and three 4A chromosomes were observed. In the selfed progeny of 6R monosomic addition line, structural variation and abnormal mitotic behaviour of 3D chromosome were detected. Additionally, 1A and 4B chromosomes were eliminated from some of the progeny of 6R monosomic addition line. Conclusions/Significance These results indicated that single rye chromosome added to wheat might cause alterations and abnormal mitotic behaviours of wheat chromosomes and it is possible that the stress caused by single alien chromosome might be one of the factors that induced karyotype alteration of wheat. PMID:23936213

  10. METHODS OF REDUCTION OF FREE PHENOL CONTENT IN PHENOLIC FOAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruyako Mikhail Gerasimovich

    2012-12-01

    method aimed at reduction of toxicity of phenolic foams consists in the introduction of a composite mixture of chelate compounds. Raw materials applied in the production of phenolic foams include polymers FRB-1A and VAG-3. The aforementioned materials are used to produce foams FRP-1. Introduction of 1% aluminum fluoride leads to the 40% reduction of the free phenol content in the foam. Introduction of crystalline zinc chloride accelerates the foaming and curing of phenolic foams. The technology that contemplates the introduction of zeolites into the mixture includes pre-mixing with FRB -1A and subsequent mixing with VAG-3; thereafter, the composition is poured into the form, in which the process of foaming is initiated. The content of free phenol was identified using the method of UV spectroscopy. The objective of the research was to develop methods of reduction of the free phenol content in the phenolic foam.

  11. Phenolic Compounds in Brassica Vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Velasco

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic compounds are a large group of phytochemicals widespread in the plant kingdom. Depending on their structure they can be classified into simple phenols, phenolic acids, hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives and flavonoids. Phenolic compounds have received considerable attention for being potentially protective factors against cancer and heart diseases, in part because of their potent antioxidative properties and their ubiquity in a wide range of commonly consumed foods of plant origin. The Brassicaceae family includes a wide range of horticultural crops, some of them with economic significance and extensively used in the diet throughout the world. The phenolic composition of Brassica vegetables has been recently investigated and, nowadays, the profile of different Brassica species is well established. Here, we review the significance of phenolic compounds as a source of beneficial compounds for human health and the influence of environmental conditions and processing mechanisms on the phenolic composition of Brassica vegetables.

  12. Long-term intake of iron fortified wholemeal rye bread appears to benefit iron status of young women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Max; Nielsen, Sussi Bæch; Thomsen, A.D.

    2005-01-01

    The efficacy of intake of iron fortified, wholemeal rye bread on iron status of young women with low iron stores was evaluated in a 5 month single-blind intervention study. Two parallel groups of women (20-38 y) were given 144 g of rye bread/d either fortified with 6 mg iron as ferrous fumarate/100...... stores of young women with poor iron status which were otherwise reduced by intake of the unfortified control bread....

  13. Low-FODMAP vs regular rye bread in irritable bowel syndrome: Randomized SmartPill® study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirkola, Laura; Laatikainen, Reijo; Loponen, Jussi; Hongisto, Sanna-Maria; Hillilä, Markku; Nuora, Anu; Yang, Baoru; Linderborg, Kaisa M; Freese, Riitta

    2018-03-21

    To compare the effects of regular vs low-FODMAP rye bread on irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) symptoms and to study gastrointestinal conditions with SmartPill ® . Our aim was to evaluate if rye bread low in FODMAPs would cause reduced hydrogen excretion, lower intraluminal pressure, higher colonic pH, different transit times, and fewer IBS symptoms than regular rye bread. The study was a randomized, double-blind, controlled cross-over meal study. Female IBS patients ( n = 7) ate study breads at three consecutive meals during one day. The diet was similar for both study periods except for the FODMAP content of the bread consumed during the study day. Intraluminal pH, transit time, and pressure were measured by SmartPill, an indigestible motility capsule. Hydrogen excretion (a marker of colonic fermentation) expressed as area under the curve (AUC) (0-630 min) was [median (range)] 6300 (1785-10800) ppm∙min for low-FODMAP rye bread and 10 635 (4215-13080) ppm∙min for regular bread ( P = 0.028). Mean scores of gastrointestinal symptoms showed no statistically significant differences but suggested less flatulence after low-FODMAP bread consumption ( P = 0.063). Intraluminal pressure correlated significantly with total symptom score after regular rye bread (ρ = 0.786, P = 0.036) and nearly significantly after low-FODMAP bread consumption (ρ = 0.75, P = 0.052). We found no differences in pH, pressure, or transit times between the breads. Gastric residence of SmartPill was slower than expected. SmartPill left the stomach in less than 5 h only during one measurement (out of 14 measurements in total) and therefore did not follow on par with the rye bread bolus. Low-FODMAP rye bread reduced colonic fermentation vs regular rye bread. No difference was found in median values of intraluminal conditions of the gastrointestinal tract.

  14. Biosynthesis and chemical transformation of benzoxazinoids in rye during seed germination and the identification of a rye Bx6-like gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanwir, Fariha; Dionisio, Giuseppe; B. Adhikari, Khem

    2017-01-01

    Benzoxazinoids are secondary metabolites with plant defense properties and possible health-promoting effects in humans. In this study, the transcriptional activity of ScBx genes (ScBx1-ScBx5; ScBx6-like), involved in benzoxazinoid biosynthesis, was analyzed during germination and early seedling...... development in rye. Our results showed that ScBx genes had highest levels of expression at 24–30 h after germination, followed by a decrease at later stages. For ScBx1-ScBx5 genes expression was higher in shoots compared with root tissues and vice versa for ScBx6-like gene transcripts. Moreover, methylated...

  15. Iodination of phenol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christiansen, J.V.; Feldthus, A.; Carlsen, L.

    1990-01-01

    Phenol is iodinated in aqueous solution at pH 5 (acetate buffer) by elemental iodine or, if the iodine is present as iodide, enzymatically controlled by peroxidases. Generally mono-, di- and triiodophenols are obtained, the overall product composition being virtually identical for the two iodination modes. However, there is a tendency to a higher para to ortho ratio for the enzymatically controlled reaction. The mutual ratios of the single iodophenols depends on the initial concentration ratio between phenol and the iodinating species. The first step in the iodination leads preferentially to substitution in the ortho position rather than in the para position in contract to e.g. the corresponding bromination. The relative rates of the competive reactions in the combined iodination scheme has been derived. (author) 2 tabs., 3 ills., 15 refs

  16. Early decomposer assemblages of soil organisms in litterbags with vetch and rye roots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georgieva, Slavka; Christensen, Søren; Petersen, Henning

    2005-01-01

    and predatory nematodes (the intraguild predator) protozoa (the intraguild prey) and bacteria (the common prey). The much higher fungal biomass in rye than in vetch litterbags was not reflected in the biomass of the fungal feeders. Due to the generally lower intrinsic rate of increase of the fungivores, as well...... as of the omnivores and predators, in comparison with the bacterial feeders, they were not able to generate dense populations at this early stage of decomposition....... relationship to flagellated protozoa. This suggests that these nematodes controlled the protozoan biomass constituting a lower fraction of the bacterivore biomass in vetch compared to in rye. Such intraguild predator-prey relationship is therefore indicated for microbivorous organisms among bacterivorous...

  17. cDNA cloning and immunological characterization of the rye grass allergen Lol p I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, M; Ishioka, G Y; Walker, L E; Chesnut, R W

    1990-09-25

    The complete amino acid sequence of two "isoallergenic" forms of Lol p I, the major rye grass (Lolium perenne) pollen allergen, was deduced from cDNA sequence analysis. cDNA clones isolated from a Lolium perenne pollen library contained an open reading frame coding for a 240-amino acid protein. Comparison of the nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequence of two of these clones revealed four changes at the amino acid level and numerous nucleotide differences. Both clones contained one possible asparagine-linked glycosylation site. Northern blot analysis shows one RNA species of 1.2 kilobases. Based on the complete amino acid sequence of Lol p I, overlapping peptides covering the entire molecule were synthesized. Utilizing these peptides we have identified a determinant within the Lol p I molecule that is recognized by human leukocyte antigen class II-restricted T cells obtained from persons allergic to rye grass pollen.

  18. Sensory characteristics and consumer liking of sausages with 10% fat and added rye or wheat bran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Louise Margrethe Arildsen; Vuholm, Stine; Aaslyng, Margit Dall

    2014-01-01

    and added rye or wheat bran. Sensory descriptive attributes (odor, appearance, texture, and flavor) of rye bran sausage (RBS) and wheat bran sausage (WBS) were evaluated by a trained sensory panel (n = 9). A sausage with wheat flour (WFS) and two commercial 20% (20%S) and 10% (10%S) (w/w) fat sausages were......Improving the nutritional profile of sausages through the addition of dietary fiber might affect appetite, sensory characteristics, and liking differently depending on the fiber source. This study investigates the sensory characteristics and consumer acceptance of sausages with 10% (w/w) fat...... also included. Liking was investigated in consumer tests with two Danish target groups (49 children aged between six and nine and 24 parents). RBS and WBS were similar with regard to their sensory descriptive attributes, but the structure of these sausages was coarser and the color was more brown than...

  19. Condensation of rye chromatin in somatic interphase nuclei of Ph1 and ph1b wheat

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kopecký, David; Allen, D.C.; Duchoslav, M.; Doležel, Jaroslav; Lukaszewski, A.J.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 119, 3-4 (2007), s. 263-267 ISSN 1424-8581 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06004 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Source of funding: V - iné verejné zdroje Keywords : hexaploid wheat * Ph1 and ph1b * rye chromatin Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.402, year: 2007

  20. Differential resistance to stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis) in collections of basin wild rye (Leymus cinereus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank M. Dugan; Michael J. Cashman; Richard C. Johnson; Meinan Wang; Chen Xianming

    2014-01-01

    Differential resistance to stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis) in a planting of 111 wild collections of Basin wild rye (Leymus cinereus) was noted 2011-2013. In 2011, rust severity was rated on a scale of 1-9. Much lighter infection in 2012 and 2013 was rated as the number of symptomatic leaves per plant divided by plant circumference (to adjust for plant size). Effect...

  1. Rye bread consumption in early life and reduced risk of advanced prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torfadottir, Johanna E; Valdimarsdottir, Unnur A; Mucci, Lorelei; Stampfer, Meir; Kasperzyk, Julie L; Fall, Katja; Tryggvadottir, Laufey; Aspelund, Thor; Olafsson, Orn; Harris, Tamara B; Jonsson, Eirikur; Tulinius, Hrafn; Adami, Hans-Olov; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Steingrimsdottir, Laufey

    2012-06-01

    To determine whether consumption of whole-grain rye bread, oatmeal, and whole-wheat bread, during different periods of life, is associated with risk of prostate cancer (PCa). From 2002 to 2006, 2,268 men, aged 67-96 years, reported their dietary habits in the AGES-Reykjavik cohort study. Dietary habits were assessed for early life, midlife, and current life using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Through linkage to cancer and mortality registers, we retrieved information on PCa diagnosis and mortality through 2009. We used regression models to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and hazard ratios (HRs) for PCa according to whole-grain consumption, adjusted for possible confounding factors including fish, fish liver oil, meat, and milk intake. Of the 2,268 men, 347 had or were diagnosed with PCa during follow-up, 63 with advanced disease (stage 3+ or died of PCa). Daily rye bread consumption in adolescence (vs. less than daily) was associated with a decreased risk of PCa diagnosis (OR = 0.76, 95 % confidence interval (CI): 0.59-0.98) and of advanced PCa (OR = 0.47, 95 % CI: 0.27-0.84). High intake of oatmeal in adolescence (≥5 vs. ≤4 times/week) was not significantly associated with risk of PCa diagnosis (OR = 0.99, 95 % CI: 0.77-1.27) nor advanced PCa (OR = 0.67, 95 % CI: 0.37-1.20). Midlife and late life consumption of rye bread, oatmeal, or whole-wheat bread was not associated with PCa risk. Our results suggest that rye bread consumption in adolescence may be associated with reduced risk of PCa, particularly advanced disease.

  2. Effects of yeasts and bacteria on the levels of folates in rye sourdoughs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kariluoto, Susanna; Aittamaa, Marja; Korhola, Matti; Salovaara, Hannu; Vahteristo, Liisa; Piironen, Vieno

    2006-02-01

    Fermentation of rye dough is often accompanied with an increase in folate content. In this study, three sourdough yeasts, Candida milleri CBS 8195, Saccharomyces cerevisiae TS 146, and Torulaspora delbrueckii TS 207; a control, baker's yeast S. cerevisiae ALKO 743; and four Lactobacillus spp., L. acidophilus TSB 262, L. brevis TSB 307, L. plantarum TSB 304, and L. sanfranciscensis TSB 299 originally isolated from rye sourdough were examined for their abilities to produce or consume folates. The microorganisms were grown in yeast extract-peptone-d-glucose medium as well as in small-scale fermentations that modelled the sourdough fermentation step used in rye baking. Total folate contents were determined using Lactobacillus rhamnosus (ATCC 7469) as the growth indicator organism. The microorganisms studied did not excrete folates into the media in significant amounts. Yeasts increased the folate contents of sterilised rye flour-water mixtures from 6.5 microg/100 g to between 15 and 23 microg/100 g after 19-h fermentation, whereas lactic acid bacteria decreased it to between 2.9 and 4.2 microg/100 g. Strains of Lactobacillus bulgaricus, L. casei, L. curvatus, L. fermentum, L. helveticus, Pediococcus spp., and Streptococcus thermophilus that were also tested gave folate contents after fermentation that varied between 2 and 10.4 microg/100 g. Although the four Lactobacillus spp. from sourdough consumed folates their effect on folate contents in co-cultivations was minimal. It was concluded that the increase of folate content during fermentation was mainly due to folate synthesis by yeasts. Fermentation of non-sterilised flour-water mixtures as such resulted in three-fold increases in the folate contents. Two folate producing bacteria were isolated from the non-sterilised flour and identified as Enterobacter cowanii and Pantoea agglomerans.

  3. Comparable efficiency of different extraction protocols for wheat and rye prolamins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Socha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The identification and quantification of cereal storage proteins is of interest of many researchers. Their structural or functional properties are usually affected by the way how they are extracted. The efficiency of extraction process depends on the cereal source and working conditions. Here, we described various commonly used extraction protocols differing in the extraction conditions (pre-extraction of albumins/globulins, sequential extraction of individual protein fractions or co-extraction of gluten proteins, heating or non-heating, reducing or non-reducing conditions. The total protein content of all fractions extracted from commercially available wheat and rye flours was measured by the Bradford method. Tris-Tricine SDS-PAGE was used to determine the molecular weights of wheat gliadins, rye secalins and high-molecular weight glutelins which are the main triggering factors causing celiac disease. Moreover, we were able to distinguish individual subunits (α/β-, γ-, ω-gliadins and 40k-γ-, 75k-γ-, ω-secalins of wheat/rye prolamins. Generally, modified extraction protocols against classical Osborne procedure were more effective and yields higher protein content in all protein fractions. Bradford measurement led into underestimation of results in three extraction procedures, while all protein fractions were clearly identified on SDS-PAGE gels. Co-extraction of gluten proteins resulted in appearance of both, low-molecular weight fractions (wheat gliadins and rye secalins as well as high-molecular weight glutelins which means that is not necessary to extract gluten proteins separately. The two of three extraction protocols showed high technical reproducibility with coefficient of variation less than 20%. Carefully optimized extraction protocol can be advantageous for further analyses of cereal prolamins.  Normal 0 21 false false false SK X-NONE X-NONE

  4. Soluble carbohydrates in cereal (wheat, rye, triticale seed after storage under accelerated ageing conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka I. Piotrowicz-Cieślak

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Germinability and the content of soluble carbohydrates were analysed in cereal seed (winter rye, cv. Warko; spring wheat, cv. Santa; hexaploid winter triticale, cv. Fidelio and cv. Woltario. Seed moisture content (mc was equilibrated over silica gel to 0.08 g H2O/g dry mass and stored in a desiccator at 20oC for up to 205 weeks or were equilibrated to mc 0.06, 0.08 or 0.10 g H2O/g dm and subjected to artificial aging at 35oC in air-tight laminated aluminium foil packages for 205 weeks. It was shown that the rate of seed aging depended on the species and seed moisture content. The fastest decrease of germinability upon storage was observed in seed with the highest moisture level. Complete germinability loss for winter rye, winter triticale cv. Fidelio, winter triticale cv. Woltario and spring wheat seed with mc 0.10 g H2O/g dm3 occurred after 81, 81, 101 and 133 weeks, respectively. Fructose, glucose, galactose, myo-inositol, sucrose, galactinol, raffinose, stachyose and verbascose were the main soluble carbohydrates found in the seed. The obtained data on the contents of specific sugars and the composition of soluble sugars fraction in seed of rye, wheat and triticale did not corroborate any profound effect of reducing sugars, sucrose and oligosaccharides on seed longevity.

  5. Impact of food processing on rye product properties and their in vitro digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Daniel P; Gutiérrez, José L Vázquez; Landberg, Rikard; Alminger, Marie; Langton, Maud

    2018-06-01

    Rye products have been reported to elicit postprandial insulin and glucose responses which may be beneficial for prevention of type-2 diabetes. However, mechanisms underlying variations in responses related to processing techniques are not fully understood. Five differently processed rye products (sourdough-fermented bread, fermented and unfermented crispbread, extrusion-cooked rye, and porridge) and refined wheat bread were characterised. Two in vitro methods, a dynamic method simulating digestion in the stomach and small intestine and a static method, simulating conditions in the stomach were used to determine viscosity development, structural changes and release of glucose during digestion. Structural and compositional differences induced by processing influenced product digestion. Gastric disintegration and digesta particle size were related to characteristics of the starch/protein matrix, while digesta viscosity was reduced due to fibre degradation during fermentation. More cohesive boluses were associated with slower glucose release. Sourdough fermentation increased amylose leakage and appeared to inhibit starch hydrolysis despite low digesta viscosity and rapid disintegration. The net release of glucose during digestion of foods is determined by several factors which may vary in their importance depending on product specific properties.

  6. Transfer of genes for stem rust resistance from Agropyron elongatum and imperial rye to durum wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prabhakara Rao, M.V.

    1977-01-01

    The Agropyron elongatum gene for stem rust resistance on chromosome 6A of Knott's Thatcher translocation line was transferred to a susceptible local durum wheat variety, Jaya, through a series of back-crosses. Plants heterozygous for the Agropyron translocation always show at least one open bivalent. Homozygotes have not been obtained, probably because of the absence of male transmission in durum background. Monotelosomic addition of the short arm of Imperial rye chromosome 3R (formerly ''G'' of Sears), which carries a gene(s) for resistance to wheat stem rust, was obtained in the local durum variety. Rust-resistant plants from parents having the added rye telocentric were irradiated with gamma rays just before meiosis, and the pollen obtained from the irradiated spikes was used to pollinate euploid plants. In addition, seeds harvested from 2n+1 resistant plants were irradiated with thermal neutrons and the resistant M 1 plants were selfed to raise M 2 families. Two durum-rye translocation lines were obtained following irradiation. DRT-1 was transmitted normally through the female gametes but showed no male transmission. As a result of this, homozygotes have not been obtained. Gametic transmission rates of DRT-2 are being tested. Alien translocations, which show normal gametic and zygotic transmissions in the hexaploid wheat, may behave differently in a tetraploid background. The results indicate that alien genetic transfers may be more difficult to obtain in durum wheat, probably owing to the reduced buffering effect of the tetraploid genome. (author)

  7. How does the preparation of rye porridge affect molecular weight distribution of extractable dietary fibers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakha, Allah; Aman, Per; Andersson, Roger

    2011-01-01

    Extractable dietary fiber (DF) plays an important role in nutrition. This study on porridge making with whole grain rye investigated the effect of rest time of flour slurries at room temperature before cooking and amount of flour and salt in the recipe on the content of DF components and molecular weight distribution of extractable fructan, mixed linkage (1→3)(1→4)-β-d-glucan (β-glucan) and arabinoxylan (AX) in the porridge. The content of total DF was increased (from about 20% to 23% of dry matter) during porridge making due to formation of insoluble resistant starch. A small but significant increase in the extractability of β-glucan (P = 0.016) and AX (P = 0.002) due to rest time was also noted. The molecular weight of extractable fructan and AX remained stable during porridge making. However, incubation of the rye flour slurries at increased temperature resulted in a significant decrease in extractable AX molecular weight. The molecular weight of extractable β-glucan decreased greatly during a rest time before cooking, most likely by the action of endogenous enzymes. The amount of salt and flour used in the recipe had small but significant effects on the molecular weight of β-glucan. These results show that whole grain rye porridge made without a rest time before cooking contains extractable DF components maintaining high molecular weights. High molecular weight is most likely of nutritional importance.

  8. How Does the Preparation of Rye Porridge Affect Molecular Weight Distribution of Extractable Dietary Fibers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Andersson

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Extractable dietary fiber (DF plays an important role in nutrition. This study on porridge making with whole grain rye investigated the effect of rest time of flour slurries at room temperature before cooking and amount of flour and salt in the recipe on the content of DF components and molecular weight distribution of extractable fructan, mixed linkage (1→3(1→4-β-D-glucan (β-glucan and arabinoxylan (AX in the porridge. The content of total DF was increased (from about 20% to 23% of dry matter during porridge making due to formation of insoluble resistant starch. A small but significant increase in the extractability of β-glucan (P = 0.016 and AX (P = 0.002 due to rest time was also noted. The molecular weight of extractable fructan and AX remained stable during porridge making. However, incubation of the rye flour slurries at increased temperature resulted in a significant decrease in extractable AX molecular weight. The molecular weight of extractable β-glucan decreased greatly during a rest time before cooking, most likely by the action of endogenous enzymes. The amount of salt and flour used in the recipe had small but significant effects on the molecular weight of β-glucan. These results show that whole grain rye porridge made without a rest time before cooking contains extractable DF components maintaining high molecular weights. High molecular weight is most likely of nutritional importance.

  9. Fertilizers nitrogen balance under maizl and winter rye in lysimentric experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionova, O.N.

    1979-01-01

    The balance of the labelled 15 N nitrogen fertilizers in lysimentric experiment carried oUt in the turf-podsolic medium loamy soil has been studied. The results of two year experiment (1976-1977) have shown that depending on the doses and time of introduction the use of fertilizer nitrogen by maize varied from 51 to 58 % and by winter rye from 52 to 59 %. Consolidation in the organic substance of soil constituted 18-26 and 17-33 %, respectively. The losses of fertilizer nitrogen varied (14-29 % under maize and 9-23 % under winter rye). Nitrogen losses as a result of atmospheric precipitation infiltration both under maize and winter rye occured mainly at the expense of nitrogen of soil and reached considerable dimensions (31 kg) only under conditions of exceeding moistening of 1976. The losses of fertilizer nitrogen caused by washing out do not exceed 1 % for two years. The main losses of fertilizer nitrogen occurred in the form of gaseous nitrogen compounds

  10. Dilute acid pretreatment of rye straw and bermudagrass for ethanol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye Sun; Jay J Cheng [North Carolina State Univ., Dept. of Biological and Agricultural Engineering, Raleigh, NC (United States)

    2005-09-01

    Ethanol production from lignocellulosic materials provides an alternative energy production system. Rye and bermudagrass that are used in hog farms for nutrient uptake from swine wastewater have the potential for fuel ethanol production because they have a relative high cellulose and hemicellulose content. Dilute sulfuric acid pretreatment of rye straw and bermudagrass before enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose was investigated in this study. The biomass at a solid loading rate of 10% was pretreated at 121 deg C with different sulfuric acid concentrations (0.6, 0.9, 1.2 and 1.5%, w/w) and residence times (30, 60, and 90 min). Total reducing sugars, arabinose, galactose, glucose, and xylose in the prehydrolyzate were analyzed. In addition, the solid residues were hydrolyzed by cellulases to investigate the enzymatic digestibility. With the increasing acid concentration and residence time, the amount of arabinose and galactose in the filtrates increased. The glucose concentration in the prehydrolyzate of rye straw was not significantly influenced by the sulfuric acid concentration and residence time, but it increased in the prehydrolyzate of bermudagrass with the increase of pretreatment severity. The xylose concentration in the filtrates increased with the increase of sulfuric acid concentration and residence time. Most of the arabinan, galactan and xylan in the biomass were hydrolyzed during the acid pretreatment. Cellulose remaining in the pretreated feedstock was highly digestible by cellulases from Trichoderma reesei. (Author)

  11. Immunological characterization of the gluten fractions and their hydrolysates from wheat, rye and barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rallabhandi, Prasad; Sharma, Girdhari M; Pereira, Marion; Williams, Kristina M

    2015-02-18

    Gluten proteins in wheat, rye and barley cause celiac disease, an autoimmune disorder of the small intestine, which affects approximately 1% of the world population. Gluten is comprised of prolamin and glutelin. Since avoidance of dietary gluten is the only option for celiac patients, a sensitive gluten detection and quantitation method is warranted. Most regulatory agencies have set a threshold of 20 ppm gluten in foods labeled gluten-free, based on the currently available ELISA methods. However, these methods may exhibit differences in gluten quantitation from different gluten-containing grains. In this study, prolamin and glutelin fractions were isolated from wheat, rye, barley, oats and corn. Intact and pepsin-trypsin (PT)-digested prolamin and glutelin fractions were used to assess their immunoreactivity and gluten recovery by three sandwich and two competitive ELISA kits. The Western blots revealed varied affinity of ELISA antibodies to gluten-containing grain proteins and no reactivity to oat and corn proteins. ELISA results showed considerable variation in gluten recoveries from both intact and PT-digested gluten fractions among different kits. Prolamin fractions showed higher gluten recovery compared to their respective glutelin fractions. Among prolamins, barley exhibited higher recovery compared to wheat and rye with most of the ELISA kits used. Hydrolysis resulted in reduced gluten recovery of most gluten fractions. These results suggest that the suitability of ELISA for accurate gluten quantitation is dependent upon various factors, such as grain source, antibody specificity, gluten proteins and the level of their hydrolysis in foods.

  12. Phenol oxidation with hydrogen peroxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramiez Cortina, R.C.; Hernadez Perez, I. [Univ. Autonoma Metropolitana - Azcapotzalco, Div. de CBI, Dept. de Energia, Azcapotzalco (Mexico); Ortiz Lozoya, C.E. [Univ. Autonoma Metropolitana - Azcapotzalco, Div. de CBI, Dept. de Energia, Azcapotzalco (Mexico)]|[Inst. Mexicano del Petroleo (Mexico); Alonso Gutierrez, M.S. [Inst. National Polytechnique, ENSCT, Lab. of Chimie Agro-Industrielle, Toulouse (France)

    2003-07-01

    In this work the process application of advanced oxidation is investigated with hydrogen peroxide, for the phenol destruction. The experiments were carried out in a glass reactor of 750 mL. Three phenol concentrations were studied (2000, 1000 and 500 ppm) being oxidized with H{sub 2}O{sub 2} (1, 2 and 3 M). The tests of oxidation had a reaction time of 48 h at ambient temperature and pressure. The phenol degradation was determined as COD at different reaction times and intermediate oxidation products were analyzed by chromatography. The results of this study show that it is possible to degrade phenol (1000 ppm) until 90% with H{sub 2}O{sub 2} 2M. Being achieved the best efficiency with a good molar relationship of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/phenol. Intends a reaction outline in the degradation of the phenol. (orig.)

  13. The reactivity of natural phenols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denisov, Evgenii T; Denisova, Taisa G [Institute of Problems of Chemical Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Chernogolovka, Moscow Region (Russian Federation)

    2009-11-30

    This review surveys physicochemical data of natural phenols published in recent years. The structures of some compounds of this class are given. A complete set of the dissociation energies of the O-H bonds for 71 natural phenols is presented. Kinetic characteristics of the reactions of peroxyl, alkyl and thiyl radicals with natural phenols, exchange reactions of phenoxyl radicals with phenols and reactions of phenoxyl radicals with lipids, hydroperoxides, cysteine and ascorbic acid are compiled and described systematically. The reactivity of phenols in radical reactions and the factors that determine the reactivity (the enthalpy of reaction, triplet repulsion, the electronegativities of atoms at the reaction centre, the presence of pi-electrons adjacent to the reaction centre, the radii of atoms at the reaction centre, steric hindrance, the force constants of the reacting bonds) are discussed. An important role of hydrogen bonding between surrounding molecules and the OH groups of natural phenols in decreasing their reactivities is noted.

  14. UPLC-QTOF/MS metabolic profiling unveils urinary changes in humans after a whole grain rye versus refined wheat bread intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bondia-Pons, Isabel; Barri, Thaer; Hanhineva, Kati

    2013-01-01

    Non-targeted urine metabolite profiling has not been previously exploited in the field of whole grain (WG) products. WG products, particularly rye, are important elements in a healthy Nordic diet. The aim of this study was to identify novel urinary biomarkers of WG rye bread (RB) intake in a rand......Non-targeted urine metabolite profiling has not been previously exploited in the field of whole grain (WG) products. WG products, particularly rye, are important elements in a healthy Nordic diet. The aim of this study was to identify novel urinary biomarkers of WG rye bread (RB) intake...

  15. Second meal effect on appetite and fermentation of wholegrain rye foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrügger, Sabine; Vigsnæs, Louise Kristine; Blennow, Andreas; Skuflić, Dan; Raben, Anne; Lauritzen, Lotte; Kristensen, Mette

    2014-09-01

    Wholegrain rye has been associated with decreased hunger sensations. This may be partly mediated by colonic fermentation. Sustained consumption of fermentable components is known to change the gut microflora and may increase numbers of saccharolytic bacteria. To investigate the effect of wholegrain rye consumption on appetite and colonic fermentation after a subsequent meal. In a randomized, controlled, three-arm cross-over study, twelve healthy male subjects consumed three iso-caloric evening test meals. The test meals were based on white wheat bread (WBB), wholegrain rye kernel bread (RKB), or boiled rye kernels (RK). Breath hydrogen excretion and subjective appetite sensation were measured before and at 30 min intervals for 3 h after a standardized breakfast in the subsequent morning. After the 3 h, an ad libitum lunch meal was served to assess energy intake. In an in vitro study, RKB and RK were subjected to digestion and 24 h-fermentation in order to study SCFA production and growth of selected saccharolytic bacteria. The test meals did not differ in their effect on parameters of subjective appetite sensation the following day. Ad libitum energy intake at lunch was, however, reduced by 11% (P < 0.01) after RKB and 7% (P < 0.05) after RK compared with after WWB evening meal. Breath hydrogen excretion was significantly increased following RKB and RK evening meals compared with WWB (P < 0.01 and P < 0.05, respectively). Overall, RKB and RK were readily fermented in vitro and exhibited similar fermentation profiles, although total SCFA production was higher for RK compared with RKB (P < 0.001). In vitro fermentation of RKB and RK both increased the relative quantities of Bifidobacterium and decreased Bacteroides compared with inoculum (P < 0.001). The C. coccoides group was reduced after RKB (P < 0.001). Consumption of wholegrain rye products reduced subsequent ad libitum energy intake in young healthy men, possibly mediated by

  16. Sorption of phenol and phenol derivatives in hydrotalcite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avina G, E.I.

    2002-01-01

    One of the main problems in Mexico and in the World is the waste water pollution of a great variety of industrial processes by organic compounds. Among those ones the phenol compounds which are highly toxic, refractories (to the chemical degradation) and poorly biodegradable. This is due in a large extent to the problem created by the accelerated increase in the environmental pollution in the cities and industrial centers. The phenol compounds are used in a great variety of industries such as the production of resins, plasticizers, antioxidants, pesticides, colourings, disinfectants, etc. These phenol compounds are specially harmful, since they have repercussions on the flora of plants of biological treatment of water affecting its operation. The main objective of this work is to evaluate the capacities of phenol detention and its derivatives in an hydrotalcite type compound and diminishing with it the presence in water, in this case, of solutions prepared in the laboratory. In order to analyse this elimination process was used a methodology based in the carrying out in batch experiments and in the elaboration of a sorption isotherm. It is worth pointing out that this work was realized at laboratory scale, at relatively high phenol concentration ratio. With the obtained results when the sorption properties are evaluated the calcined hydrotalcite (HTC) for detaining phenol and p-chloro phenol it was observed that it is detained greater quantity of p-chloro phenol than phenol in the HTC. The detention of these phenol compounds in the HTC is due to the memory effect by the hydrotalcite regeneration starting from the oxides which are formed by the burning material. (Author)

  17. Genetic and epigenetic variations induced by wheat-rye 2R and 5R monosomic addition lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Shulan; Sun, Chuanfei; Yang, Manyu; Fei, Yunyan; Tan, Feiqun; Yan, Benju; Ren, Zhenglong; Tang, Zongxiang

    2013-01-01

    Monosomic alien addition lines (MAALs) can easily induce structural variation of chromosomes and have been used in crop breeding; however, it is unclear whether MAALs will induce drastic genetic and epigenetic alterations. In the present study, wheat-rye 2R and 5R MAALs together with their selfed progeny and parental common wheat were investigated through amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and methylation-sensitive amplification polymorphism (MSAP) analyses. The MAALs in different generations displayed different genetic variations. Some progeny that only contained 42 wheat chromosomes showed great genetic/epigenetic alterations. Cryptic rye chromatin has introgressed into the wheat genome. However, one of the progeny that contained cryptic rye chromatin did not display outstanding genetic/epigenetic variation. 78 and 49 sequences were cloned from changed AFLP and MSAP bands, respectively. Blastn search indicated that almost half of them showed no significant similarity to known sequences. Retrotransposons were mainly involved in genetic and epigenetic variations. Genetic variations basically affected Gypsy-like retrotransposons, whereas epigenetic alterations affected Copia-like and Gypsy-like retrotransposons equally. Genetic and epigenetic variations seldom affected low-copy coding DNA sequences. The results in the present study provided direct evidence to illustrate that monosomic wheat-rye addition lines could induce different and drastic genetic/epigenetic variations and these variations might not be caused by introgression of rye chromatins into wheat. Therefore, MAALs may be directly used as an effective means to broaden the genetic diversity of common wheat.

  18. Products deriving from microbial fermentation are linked to insulinaemic response in pigs fed breads prepared from whole-wheat grain and wheat and rye ingredients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theil, Peter Kappel; Jørgensen, Henry Johs. Høgh; Serena, Anja

    2011-01-01

    The effects of wheat and rye breads made from whole-wheat grain (WWG), wheat aleurone flour (WAF) or rye aleurone flour (RAF) on net portal absorption of carbohydrate-derived nutrients (glucose, SCFA and lactate) and apparent insulin secretion were studied in a model experiment with catheterised...

  19. Effect of length of interval between cereal rye cover crop termination and corn planting on seedling root disease and corn growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cereal rye cover crops terminated immediately before corn planting can sometimes reduce corn population, early growth, and yield. We hypothesized that cereal rye may act as a green bridge for corn pathogens and may increase corn seedling root disease. A field experiment was conducted over two years ...

  20. Endosperm and whole grain rye breads are characterized by low post-prandial insulin response and a beneficial blood glucose profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Östman Elin M

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rye products have previously been shown to induce comparatively low post-prandial insulin responses; irrespectively of their glycaemic indices (GI. However, the mechanism behind this lowered insulin demand remains unknown. An improved insulin economy might contribute to the benefits seen in epidemiological studies with whole grain diets on metabolic risk factors and weight regulation. The objective of this study was to explore the mechanism for a reduced post-prandial insulin demand with rye products. Methods 12 healthy subjects were given flour based rye products made from endosperm, whole grain or bran, produced with different methods (baking, simulated sour-dough baking and boiling as breakfasts in random order in a cross-over design. White wheat bread (WWB was used as a reference. Blood glucose, serum insulin, plasma ghrelin and subjective satiety were measured during 180 minutes. To evaluate the course of post-meal glycaemia, a measure of the glycaemic profile (GP was introduced defined as the duration for the incremental post-prandial blood glucose response divided with the blood glucose incremental peak (min/mM. Results The study shows that whole grain rye breads and endosperm rye products induced significantly (p Conclusion Our study shows that endosperm and wholegrain rye products induce low acute insulinaemic responses and improved glycaemic profiles. The results also suggest that the rye products possess beneficial appetite regulating properties. Further studies are needed to identify the unknown property or bioactive component(s responsible for these beneficial metabolic features of rye.

  1. Appetite and food intake after consumption of sausages with 10% fat and added wheat or rye bran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vuholm, Stine; Arildsen Jakobsen, Louise Margrethe; Sørensen, Karina Vejrum

    2014-01-01

    The use of dietary fibers as fat-replacers in sausages gives less energy-dense and thereby healthier foods. Also, dietary fibers have been shown to induce satiety. The objectives of this study were to investigate if appetite sensations and energy intake was affected by (1) addition of dietary...... fibers to sausages, (2) type of dietary fibers and (3) the food matrix of the dietary fibers. In this randomized cross-over study 25 young men were served four test meals; wheat bran sausages, rye bran sausages, rye bran bread and wheat flour sausages. The test meals were served as breakfast after...... an overnight fast. Appetite sensations were evaluated by visual analogue scales (VAS) assessed every 30 min for 240 min followed by an ad libitum lunch meal where energy intake was calculated. Both rye bran and wheat bran sausages increased satiety (P

  2. Survival rate of Plodia interpunctella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae: On different states of wheat and rye kernels previously infested by beetle pests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukajlović Filip N.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to determine survival rate of Plodia interpunctella (Hübner, 1813, reared on different mechanical states of Vizija winter wheat cultivar and Raša winter rye cultivar, previously infested with different beetle pests. Wheat was previously infested with Rhyzopertha dominica, Sitophilus granarius, Oryzaephilus surinamensis and Cryptolestes ferrugineus, while rye was infested only with O. surinamensis. Kernels were tested in three different mechanical states: (A whole undamaged kernels; (B kernels already damaged by pests and (C original storage kernels (mixture of B and C type. No P. interpunctella adult emerged on wheat kernels, while 36 adults developed on rye kernels. The highest abundance reached beetle species who fed with a mixture of kernels damaged by pests and whole undamaged kernels. Development and survival rate of five different storage insect pests depends on type of kernels and there exist significant survivorship correlations among them.

  3. Soil Water Improvements with the Long Term Use of a Winter Rye Cover Crop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basche, A.; Kaspar, T.; Archontoulis, S.; Jaynes, D. B.; Sauer, T. J.; Parkin, T.; Miguez, F.

    2015-12-01

    The Midwestern United States, a region that produces one-third of maize and one-quarter of soybeans globally, is projected to experience increasing rainfall variability with future climate change. One approach to mitigate climate impacts is to utilize crop and soil management practices that enhance soil water storage, reducing the risks of flooding and runoff as well as drought-induced crop water stress. While some research indicates that a winter cover crop in a maize-soybean rotation increases soil water, producers continue to be concerned that water use by cover crops will reduce water for a following cash crop. We analyzed continuous in-field soil moisture measurements over from 2008-2014 at a Central Iowa research site that has included a winter rye cover crop in a maize-soybean rotation for thirteen years. This period of study included years in the top third of wettest years on record (2008, 2010, 2014) as well as years in the bottom third of driest years (2012, 2013). We found the cover crop treatment to have significantly higher soil water storage from 2012-2014 when compared to the no cover crop treatment and in most years greater soil water content later in the growing season when a cover crop was present. We further found that the winter rye cover crop significantly increased the field capacity water content and plant available water compared to the no cover crop treatment. Finally, in 2012 and 2013, we measured maize and soybean biomass every 2-3 weeks and did not see treatment differences in crop growth, leaf area or nitrogen uptake. Final crop yields were not statistically different between the cover and no cover crop treatment in any of the years of this analysis. This research indicates that the long-term use of a winter rye cover crop can improve soil water dynamics without sacrificing cash crop growth.

  4. An Astrological Diary of the Seventeenth Century - Samuel Jeake of Rye 1652-1699

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Michael; Gregory, Annabel

    1988-04-01

    A seventeenth-century merchant and nonconformist from Rye in Sussex, Samuel Jeake had a passionate interest in astrology. In his diary--recently recovered in Los Angeles and published here for the first time--Jeake not only recorded the events of his life; he subjected them to astrological scrutiny, interspersing his text with horoscopes. The result is one of the most interesting 17th-century diaries to be published in many years, throwing important light on the history of astrology, commerce, medicine, and religion. An illuminating introduction by the editors places the diary in the context of the preoccupations and priorities of Jeake's age.

  5. Potential bioetanol and biogas production using lignocellulosic biomass from winter rye, oilseed rape and faba bean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersson, Anneli; Thomsen, Mette Hedegaard; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    ) faba bean straw (Viciafaba L.). Their composition with regard to cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, extractives and ash was evaluated, as well as their potential as raw materials for ethanol and biogas production. The materials were pretreated by wet oxidation using parameters previously found...... to be optimal for pretreatment of corn stover (195 degrees C, 15 min, 2 g l(-1) Na2CO3 and 12 bar oxygen). It was shown that pretreatment was necessary for ethanol production from all raw materials and gave increased biogas yield from winter rye straw. Neither biogas productivity nor yield from oilseed rape...

  6. Contribution of allelopathy and competition to weed suppression by winter wheat, triticale and winter rye

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reiss, Antje; Fomsgaard, Inge S.; Mathiassen, Solvejg Kopp

    Above-ground competition and allelopathy are two of the most dominant mechanisms of plants to subdue their competitors in their closest surroundings. In an agricultural perspective, the suppression of weeds by the crop is of particular interest, as weeds represent the largest yield loss potential...... of competitive traits, such as early vigour, crop height and leaf area index and presence of phytotoxic compounds of the group of benzoxazinoids to weed suppression. Four cultivars of each of the winter cereals wheat, triticale and rye were grown in field experiments at two locations. Soil samples were taken...

  7. Generation of amphidiploids from hybrids of wheat and related species from the genera Aegilops, Secale, Thinopyrum, and Triticum as a source of genetic variation for wheat improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemeth, Csilla; Yang, Cai-yun; Kasprzak, Paul; Hubbart, Stella; Scholefield, Duncan; Mehra, Surbhi; Skipper, Emma; King, Ian; King, Julie

    2015-02-01

    We aim to improve diversity of domesticated wheat by transferring genetic variation for important target traits from related wild and cultivated grass species. The present study describes the development of F1 hybrids between wheat and related species from the genera Aegilops, Secale, Thinopyrum, and Triticum and production of new amphidiploids. Amphidiploid lines were produced from 20 different distant relatives. Both colchicine and caffeine were successfully used to double the chromosome numbers. The genomic constitution of the newly formed amphidiploids derived from seven distant relatives was determined using genomic in situ hybridization (GISH). Altogether, 42 different plants were analysed, 19 using multicolour GISH separating the chromosomes from the A, B, and D genomes of wheat, as well as the distant relative, and 23 using single colour GISH. Restructuring of the allopolyploid genome, both chromosome losses and aneuploidy, was detected in all the genomes contained by the amphidiploids. From the observed chromosome numbers there is an indication that in amphidiploids the B genome of wheat suffers chromosome losses less frequently than the other wheat genomes. Phenotyping to realize the full potential of the wheat-related grass germplasm is underway, linking the analyzed genotypes to agronomically important target traits.

  8. Molecular Cytogenetic Characterization of two Triticum-Secale-Thinopyrum Trigeneric Hybrids Exhibiting Superior Resistance to Fusarium Head Blight, Leaf Rust, and Stem Rust Race Ug99.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Yi; Duan, Yamei; Liu, Huiping; Chi, Dawn; Cao, Wenguang; Xue, Allen; Gao, Yong; Fedak, George; Chen, Jianmin

    2017-01-01

    Fusarium head blight (FHB), leaf rust, and stem rust are the most destructive fungal diseases in current world wheat production. The diploid wheatgrass, Thinopyrum elongatum (Host) Dewey (2 n = 2 x = 14, EE) is an excellent source of disease resistance genes. Two new Triticum-Secale-Thinopyrum trigeneric hybrids were derived from a cross between a hexaploid triticale (X Triticosecale Wittmack, 2 n = 6 x = 42, AABBRR) and a hexaploid Triticum trititrigia (2 n = 6 x = 42, AABBEE), were produced and analyzed using genomic in situ hybridization and molecular markers. The results indicated that line RE21 contained 14 A-chromosomes, 14 B-chromosomes, three pairs of R-chromosomes (4R, 6R, and 7R), and four pairs of E-chromosomes (1E, 2E, 3E, and 5E) for a total chromosome number of 2 n = 42. Line RE62 contained 14 A-chromosomes, 14 B-chromosomes, six pairs of R-chromosomes, and one pair of translocation chromosomes between chromosome 5R and 5E, for a total chromosome number of 2 n = 42. At the seedling and adult growth stages under greenhouse conditions, line RE21 showed high levels of resistance to FHB, leaf rust, and stem rust race Ug99, and line RE62 was highly resistant to leaf rust and stem rust race Ug99. These two lines (RE21 and RE62) display superior disease resistance characteristics and have the potential to be utilized as valuable germplasm sources for future wheat improvement.

  9. Metabolomics reveals the metabolic shifts following an intervention with rye bread in postmenopausal women- a randomized control trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moazzami Ali A

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemiological studies have consistently shown that whole grain (WG cereals can protect against the development of chronic diseases, but the underlying mechanism is not fully understood. Among WG products, WG rye is considered even more potent because of its unique discrepancy in postprandial insulin and glucose responses known as the rye factor. In this study, an NMR-based metabolomics approach was applied to study the metabolic effects of WG rye as a tool to determine the beneficial effects of WG rye on human health. Methods Thirty-three postmenopausal Finnish women with elevated serum total cholesterol (5.0-8.5 mmol/L and BMI of 20–33 kg/m2 consumed a minimum of 20% of their daily energy intake as high fiber WG rye bread (RB or refined wheat bread (WB in a randomized, controlled, crossover design with two 8-wk intervention periods separated by an 8-wk washout period. At the end of each intervention period, fasting serum was collected for NMR-based metabolomics and the analysis of cholesterol fractions. Multilevel partial least squares discriminant analysis was used for paired comparisons of multivariate data. Results The metabolomics analysis of serum showed lower leucine and isoleucine and higher betaine and N,N-dimethylglycine levels after RB than WB intake. To further investigate the metabolic effects of RB, the serum cholesterol fractions were measured. Total- and LDL-cholesterol levels were higher after RB intake than after WB (p Conclusions This study revealed favorable shifts in branched amino acid and single carbon metabolism and an unfavorable shift in serum cholesterol levels after RB intake in postmenopausal women, which should be considered for evaluating health beneficial effects of rye products.

  10. Quantitative aspects of the metabolism of lignans in pigs fed fibre-enriched rye and wheat bread

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lærke, Helle N; Mortensen, Marianne A; Hedemann, Mette S

    2009-01-01

    A diet rich in lignans has been suggested to be protective against a range of chronic diseases. The distribution and metabolic fate of lignans is, however, very poorly understood. We fed high-fibre wheat breads low in lignans (n 8) or high-fibre rye breads (n 9) rich in plant lignans to pigs for ......, liver, breast and brain at a much higher level with rye than with wheat, but only in the form of enterolactone. The importance and implications of systemic exposure to plant lignans remain to be elucidated....

  11. Activity of Escherichia coli, Aspergillus niger, and Rye Phytase toward Partially Phosphorylated myo-Inositol Phosphates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greiner, Ralf

    2017-11-08

    Kinetic parameters for the dephosphorylation of sodium phytate and a series of partially phosphorylated myo-inositol phosphates were determined at pH 3.0 and pH 5.0 for three phytase preparations (Aspergillus niger, Escherichia coli, rye). The enzymes showed lower affinity and turnover numbers at pH 3 compared to pH 5 toward all myo-inositol phosphates included in the study. The number and distribution of phosphate groups on the myo-inositol ring affected the kinetic parameters. Representatives of the individual phytate dephosphorylation pathways were identified as the best substrates of the phytases. Within the individual phytate dephosphorylation pathways, the pentakisphosphates were better substrates compared to the tetrakisphosphates or phytate itself. E. coli and rye phytase showed comparable activities at both pH values toward the tetrakis- and trisphosphate, whereas A. niger phytase exhibited a higher activity toward the tetrakisphosphate. A myo-inositol phosphate with alternate phosphate groups was shown to be not significantly dephosphorylated by the phytases.

  12. Impact of water extractable arabinoxylan from rye bran on the frozen steamed bread dough quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pei; Tao, Han; Jin, Zhengyu; Xu, Xueming

    2016-06-01

    Impact of water extractable arabinoxylan from rye bran on frozen steamed bread dough quality was investigated in terms of the bread characteristics, ice crystallization, yeast activity as well as the gluten molecular weight distribution and glutenin macropolymer content in the present study. Results showed that water extractable arabinoxylan significantly improved bread characteristics during the 60-day frozen storage. Less water was crystallized in the water extractable arabinoxylan dough during storage, which could explain the alleviated yeast activity loss. For all the frozen dough samples, more soluble high molecular weight (Mw ≈ 91,000-688,000) and low molecular weight (Mw ≈ 91,000-16,000) proteins were derived from glutenin macropolymer depolymerization. Nevertheless, water extractable arabinoxylan dough developed higher glutenin macropolymer content with lowered level of soluble low molecular weight proteins throughout the storage. This study suggested water extractable arabinoxylan from rye bran had great potential to be served as an effective frozen steamed bread dough improver. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Evolution of bacterial consortia in spontaneously started rye sourdoughs during two months of daily propagation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianna Bessmeltseva

    Full Text Available The evolution of bacterial consortia was studied in six semi-solid rye sourdoughs during long-term backslopping at different temperatures. Each rye sourdough was started spontaneously in a laboratory (dough yield 200, propagated at either 20°C or 30°C, and renewed daily at an inoculation rate of 1∶10 for 56 days. The changes in bacterial diversity over time were followed by both DGGE coupled with partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing and pyrosequencing of bar-coded 16S rRNA gene amplicons. Four species from the genus Lactobacillus (brevis, crustorum, plantarum, and paralimentarius were detected in different combinations in all sourdoughs after 56 propagation cycles. Facultative heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria dominated in sourdoughs fermented at 30°C, while both obligate and facultative heterofermentative LAB were found to dominate in sourdoughs fermented at 20°C. After 56 propagation cycles, Kazachstania unispora (formerly Saccharomyces unisporus was identified as the only yeast species that dominated in sourdoughs fermented at 20°C, while different combinations of strains from four yeast species (Kazachstania unispora, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida krusei and Candida glabrata were detected in sourdoughs propagated at 30°C. The evolution of bacterial communities in sourdoughs fermented at the same temperature did not follow the same time course and changes in the composition of dominant and subdominant bacterial communities occurred even after six weeks of backslopping.

  14. Complete amino acid sequence of a Lolium perenne (perennial rye grass) pollen allergen, Lol p II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, A A; Shenbagamurthi, P; Marsh, D G

    1989-07-05

    The complete amino acid sequence of a Lolium perenne (rye grass) pollen allergen, Lol p II was determined by automated Edman degradation of the protein and selected fragments. Cleavage of the protein by enzymatic and chemical techniques established an unambiguous sequence for the protein. Lol p II contains 97 amino acid residues, with a calculated molecular weight of 10,882. The protein lacks cysteine and glutamine and shows no evidence of glycosylation. Theoretical predictions by Fraga's (Fraga, S. (1982) Can. J. Chem. 60, 2606-2610) and Hopp and Woods' (Hopp, T. P., and Woods, K. R. (1981) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 78, 3824-3828) methods indicate the presence of four hydrophilic regions, which may contribute to sequential or parts of conformational B-cell epitopes. Analysis of amphipathic regions by Berzofsky's method indicates the presence of a highly amphipathic region, which may contain, or contribute to, an Ia/T-cell epitope. This latter segment of Lol p II was found to be highly homologous with an antibody-binding segment of the major rye allergen Lol p I and may explain why immune responsiveness to both the allergens is associated with HLA-DR3.

  15. Rapid method of element determination in rye crispbread by ICP OES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Szymczycha-Madeja

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work, various sample preparation procedures, i.e., microwave-assisted acid digestion in a mixture of HNO3 and H2O2 solutions, solubilisation in aqua regia or tetramethyl ammonium hydroxide and extraction in diluted HNO3 or in HCl, for the determination of the total content of Ba, Ca, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Ni, P, Pb, Sr and Zn in rye crispbread using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry were compared. Analytical characteristic was evaluated by comparing the accuracy and precision of the results and limits of detection of elements. Among these five procedures solubilisation in aqua regia provides the best results, i.e., limits of detection of elements within 0.12–31.4 ng mL−1, precision of 0.4–5% and accuracy better than 5%. Additionally, a good agreement between the measured and certified values of the NIST 1567a was found for all elements. The proposed procedure is simple, reduces sample handling and minimises time and reagent consumption. Thus, it can be alternatively used instead of microwave-assisted acid digestion for routine analysis. Six different rye crispbreads were analysed with this procedure.

  16. Folates stability in two types of rye breads during processing and frozen storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gujska, Elzbieta; Michalak, Joanna; Klepacka, Joanna

    2009-06-01

    High-performance liquid chromatography was used to study the stability of folate vitamers in two types of rye breads after baking and 16 weeks of frozen storage. Bread made using sourdough seeds contained less total folate (74.6 microg/100 g dry basis, expressed as folic acid) than the whole rye flour (79.8 microg/100 g dry basis) and bread leavened only with baker's yeast (82.8 microg/100 g dry basis). Most importantly, it was generated by a significant decrease in 5-CH3-H4folate form. The baking process caused some changes in folate distribution. Storage of breads at -18 degrees C for 2 weeks did not have a significant effect (p type of breads. After a longer period of storage (16 weeks), a 25% loss of folates in the bread made with baker's yeast and a 38% loss in the bread fermented with sourdough seeds was found. Retention of 5-CH3-H4folate and 10-HCO-H2folate forms were much lower in the bread made with a sourdough addition than with baker's yeast only.

  17. Evolution of bacterial consortia in spontaneously started rye sourdoughs during two months of daily propagation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessmeltseva, Marianna; Viiard, Ene; Simm, Jaak; Paalme, Toomas; Sarand, Inga

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of bacterial consortia was studied in six semi-solid rye sourdoughs during long-term backslopping at different temperatures. Each rye sourdough was started spontaneously in a laboratory (dough yield 200), propagated at either 20°C or 30°C, and renewed daily at an inoculation rate of 1∶10 for 56 days. The changes in bacterial diversity over time were followed by both DGGE coupled with partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing and pyrosequencing of bar-coded 16S rRNA gene amplicons. Four species from the genus Lactobacillus (brevis, crustorum, plantarum, and paralimentarius) were detected in different combinations in all sourdoughs after 56 propagation cycles. Facultative heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria dominated in sourdoughs fermented at 30°C, while both obligate and facultative heterofermentative LAB were found to dominate in sourdoughs fermented at 20°C. After 56 propagation cycles, Kazachstania unispora (formerly Saccharomyces unisporus) was identified as the only yeast species that dominated in sourdoughs fermented at 20°C, while different combinations of strains from four yeast species (Kazachstania unispora, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida krusei and Candida glabrata) were detected in sourdoughs propagated at 30°C. The evolution of bacterial communities in sourdoughs fermented at the same temperature did not follow the same time course and changes in the composition of dominant and subdominant bacterial communities occurred even after six weeks of backslopping.

  18. Fructan content of commonly consumed wheat, rye and gluten-free breads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelan, Kevin; Abrahmsohn, Olivia; David, Gondi J P; Staudacher, Heidi; Irving, Peter; Lomer, Miranda C E; Ellis, Peter R

    2011-08-01

    Fructans are non-digestible carbohydrates with various nutritional properties including effects on microbial metabolism, mineral absorption and satiety. They are present in a range of plant foods, with wheat being an important source. The aim of the present study was to measure the fructan content of a range of wheat, rye and gluten-free breads consumed in the United Kingdom. Fructans were measured in a range of breads using selective enzymic hydrolysis and spectrophotometry based on the AOAC 999.03 method. The breads generally contained low quantities of fructan (0.61-1.94 g/100 g), with rye bread being the richest source (1.94 g/100 g). Surprisingly, gluten-free bread contained similar quantities of fructan (1.00 g/100 g) as other breads. There was wide variation in fructan content between individual brands of granary (0.76-1.09 g/100 g) and gluten-free breads (0.36-1.79 g/100 g). Although they contain only low quantities of fructan, the widespread consumption of bread may make a significant contribution to fructan intakes.

  19. Deoxynivalenol and other Fusarium toxins in wheat and rye flours on the Danish market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Peter Have; Pasikhani, Faranak Ghorbani; Berg, T.

    2003-01-01

    Information on the contamination of Danish cereals and cereal products with Fusarium toxins is limited and the last survey is from 1984/1985. In the present study, the occurrence of deoxynivalenol (DON), nivalenol (NIV), HT-2 toxin, T-2 toxin and zearalenone (ZON) was investigated in. our of common...... wheat, durum wheat and rye. The samples were collected from 1998 to 2001 from both mills and the retail market in Denmark. A total of 190. our samples were analysed for DON and NIV and about 60 samples for HT-2, T-2 toxin and ZON. DON was most frequently detected with an incidence rate of 78% over all......)). Contents of NIV, HT-2 toxin and ZON in samples of wheat and rye were generally low, and even in positive samples the contents were close to the detection limit of the methods. The T-2 toxin was detected in only a few of the wheat samples and in low amounts. However, the toxin was found in about 50...

  20. Anthocyanin Composition and Content in Rye Plants with Different Grain Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zykin, Pavel A; Andreeva, Elena A; Lykholay, Anna N; Tsvetkova, Natalia V; Voylokov, Anatoly V

    2018-04-19

    The color of grain in cereals is determined mainly by anthocyanin pigments. A large level of genetic diversity for anthocyanin content and composition in the grain of different species was observed. In rye, recessive mutations in six genes (vi1...vi6) lead to the absence of anthocyanins in all parts of the plant. Moreover, dominant genes of anthocyanin synthesis in aleurone (gene C) and pericarp (gene Vs) also affect the color of the grain. Reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry were used to study anthocyanins in 24 rye samples. A lack of anthocyanins in the lines with yellow and brown grain was determined. Delphinidin rutinoside and cyanidin rutinoside were found in the green-seeded lines. Six samples with violet grains significantly varied in terms of anthocyanin composition and content. However, the main aglycone was cyanidin or peonidin in all of them. Monosaccharide glucose and disaccharide rutinose served as the glycoside units. Violet-seeded accession forms differ in the ratio of the main anthocyanins and the range of their acylated derivatives. The acyl groups were presented mainly by radicals of malonic and sinapic acids. For the colored forms, a profile of the revealed anthocyanins with the indication of their contents was given. The obtained results are discussed in connection to similar data in rice, barley, and wheat, which will provide a perspective for future investigations.

  1. Anthocyanin Composition and Content in Rye Plants with Different Grain Color

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel A. Zykin

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The color of grain in cereals is determined mainly by anthocyanin pigments. A large level of genetic diversity for anthocyanin content and composition in the grain of different species was observed. In rye, recessive mutations in six genes (vi1...vi6 lead to the absence of anthocyanins in all parts of the plant. Moreover, dominant genes of anthocyanin synthesis in aleurone (gene C and pericarp (gene Vs also affect the color of the grain. Reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry were used to study anthocyanins in 24 rye samples. A lack of anthocyanins in the lines with yellow and brown grain was determined. Delphinidin rutinoside and cyanidin rutinoside were found in the green-seeded lines. Six samples with violet grains significantly varied in terms of anthocyanin composition and content. However, the main aglycone was cyanidin or peonidin in all of them. Monosaccharide glucose and disaccharide rutinose served as the glycoside units. Violet-seeded accession forms differ in the ratio of the main anthocyanins and the range of their acylated derivatives. The acyl groups were presented mainly by radicals of malonic and sinapic acids. For the colored forms, a profile of the revealed anthocyanins with the indication of their contents was given. The obtained results are discussed in connection to similar data in rice, barley, and wheat, which will provide a perspective for future investigations.

  2. Effects of rye inclusion in grower diets on immune competence-related parameters and performance in broilers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krimpen, van M.M.; Torki, M.; Schokker, D.

    2017-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary inclusion of rye, a model ingredient to increase gut viscosity, between 14 and 28 d of age on immune competence-related parameters and performance of broilers. A total of 960 day-old male Ross 308 chicks were weighed and randomly

  3. Preparation of arabinoxylobiose from rye xylan using family 10 Aspergillus aculeatus endo-1,4-ß-d-xylanase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rantanen, H.; Virkki, L.; Tuomainen, P.; Kabel, M.A.; Schols, H.A.; Tenkanen, M.

    2007-01-01

    Commercial xylanase preparation Shearzyme®, which contains the glycoside hydrolase family 10 endo-1,4-ß-d-xylanase from Aspergillus aculeatus, was used to prepare short-chain arabinoxylo-oligosaccharides (AXOS) from rye arabinoxylan (AX). A major AXOS was formed as a hydrolysis product. Longer AXOS

  4. A study of the wet deposit and foliar uptake of iodine and strontium on rye-grass and clover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angeletti, Livio; Levi, Emilio; Commission of the European Communities, Ispra

    1977-12-01

    Foliar uptake of iodine and strontium by rye-grass and clover was studied as a function of aspersion intensities. At the same time, the contribution of root sorption to foliar uptake was measured. The effective half-lives of radionuclides of standing and harvested grass were also determined together with their uptake under the action of demineralized water aspersion [fr

  5. Preliminary studies on allelopatic effect of some woody plants on seed germination of rye-grass and tall fescue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arouiee, H; Nazdar, T; Mousavi, A

    2010-11-01

    In order to investigation of allelopathic effects of some ornamental trees on seed germination of rye-grass (Lolium prenne) and tall fescue (Festuca arundinaceae), this experiment was conducted in a randomized complete block design with 3 replicates at the laboratory of Horticultural Sciences Department of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, during 2008. In this research, we studied the effect of aqueous and hydro-alcoholic extracts of Afghanistan pine (Pinus eldarica), arizona cypress (Cupressus arizonica), black locust (Robinia psedue acacia) and box elder (Acer negundo) leaves that prepared in 1:5 ratio on seed germination percent and rate for two grasses. The results showed that all extracts decreased statistically seed germination in compared to control treatment. The highest germination percentage and germination rate of tested grass detected in control treatment. Hydro-alcoholic extracts of all woody plants (15, 30%) were completely inhibited seed germination of rye-grass and tall fescue. Also aqueous extract of arizona cypress was completely inhibited seed germination of tall fescue and had more inhibitory activity than other aqueous extracts on rye-grass. Between aqueous extracts, the highest and lowest seed germination of rye-grass was found in Afghanistan pine and arizona cypress, respectively.

  6. Rye bran as fermentation matrix boosts in situ dextran production by Weissella confusa compared to wheat bran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajala, Ilkka; Mäkelä, Jari; Coda, Rossana; Shukla, Shraddha; Shi, Qiao; Maina, Ndegwa Henry; Juvonen, Riikka; Ekholm, Päivi; Goyal, Arun; Tenkanen, Maija; Katina, Kati

    2016-04-01

    The consumption of fiber-rich foods such as cereal bran is highly recommended due to its beneficial health effects. Pre-fermentation of bran with lactic acid bacteria can be used to improve the otherwise impaired flavor and textural qualities of bran-rich products. These positive effects are attributed to enzymatic modification of bran components and the production of functional metabolites like organic acids and exopolysaccharides such as dextrans. The aim of this study was to investigate dextran production in wheat and rye bran by fermentation with two Weissella confusa strains. Bran raw materials were analyzed for their chemical compositions and mineral content. Microbial growth and acidification kinetics were determined from the fermentations. Both strains produced more dextran in rye bran in which the fermentation-induced acidification was slower and the acidification lag phase longer than in wheat bran. Higher dextran production in rye bran is expected to be due to the longer period of optimal pH for dextran synthesis during fermentation. The starch content of wheat bran was higher, which may promote isomaltooligosaccharide formation at the expense of dextran production. W. confusa Cab3 produced slightly higher amounts of dextran than W. confusa VTT E-90392 in all raw materials. Fermentation with W. confusa Cab3 also resulted in lower residual fructose content which has technological relevance. The results indicate that wheat and particularly rye bran are promising matrices for producing technologically significant amounts of dextran, which facilitates the use of nutritionally valuable raw bran in food applications.

  7. The annual variation in stomatal ammonia compensation point of rye grass (Lolium perenne L.) leaves in an intensively managed grassland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hove, van L.W.A.; Heeres, P.; Bossen, M.E.

    2002-01-01

    The stomatal ammonia compensation point for ammonia (NH3) of an intensively managed pasture of rye grass (Lolium perenne L.) was followed from mid January till November 2000. Leaf samples were taken every week. Simultaneously, the ambient NH3 concentration was measured. Meteorological data

  8. Effects of seeding rate and poultry litter on weed suppression from a rolled cereal rye cover crop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Growing enough cover crop biomass to adequately suppress weeds is one of the primary challenges in reduced-tillage systems that rely on mulch-based weed suppression. We investigated two approaches to increasing cereal rye biomass for improved weed suppression: (1) increasing soil fertility and (2) i...

  9. Rolled-crimped winter rye cover effects on hand-weeding times and fruit yield and quality of cucurbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruit and vegetables produced without pesticides are in demand by some segments of society. However, weeds often are deleterious in such crops, and managing them without herbicides is difficult. Stale seedbeds and rolled-crimped winter rye cover crops are non-chemical methods that may help manage we...

  10. Effects of whole-grain rye porridge with added inulin and wheat gluten on appetite, gut fermentation and postprandial glucose metabolism: a randomised, cross-over, breakfast study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Isabella; Shi, Lin; Webb, Dominic-Luc; Hellström, Per M; Risérus, Ulf; Landberg, Rikard

    2016-12-01

    Whole-grain rye foods reduce appetite, insulin and sometimes glucose responses. Increased gut fermentation and plant protein may mediate the effect. The aims of the present study were to investigate whether the appetite-suppressing effects of whole-grain rye porridge could be enhanced by replacing part of the rye with fermented dietary fibre and plant protein, and to explore the role of gut fermentation on appetite and metabolic responses over 8 h. We conducted a randomised, cross-over study using two rye porridges (40 and 55 g), three 40-g rye porridges with addition of inulin:gluten (9:3; 6:6; 3:9 g) and a refined wheat bread control (55 g), served as part of complete breakfasts. A standardised lunch and an ad libitum dinner were served 4 and 8 h later, respectively. Appetite, breath hydrogen and methane, glucose, insulin and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) responses were measured over 8 h. Twenty-one healthy men and women, aged 23-60 years, with BMI of 21-33 kg/m2 participated in this study. Before lunch, the 55-g rye porridges lowered hunger by 20 % and desire to eat by 22 % and increased fullness by 29 % compared with wheat bread (Pinulin and gluten compared with plain rye porridges.

  11. Sulfomethylated phenolic material useful in post primary oil recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stapp, P.R.; Pardue, J.E.

    1986-12-30

    This patent describes a sulfomethylated alkyl phenol compound chosen from among the group consisting of sulfomethylated alkyl phenol, sulfomethylated alkylated bis-phenol, and sulfomethylated alkylated naphthol.

  12. Modulation of Signal Proteins: A Plausible Mechanism to Explain How a Potentized Drug Secale Cor 30C Diluted beyond Avogadro's Limit Combats Skin Papilloma in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khuda-Bukhsh, Anisur Rahman; Bhattacharyya, Soumya Sundar; Paul, Saili; Dutta, Suman; Boujedaini, Naoual; Belon, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    In homeopathy, ability of ultra-high diluted drugs at or above potency 12C (diluted beyond Avogadro's limit) in ameliorating/curing various diseases is often questioned, particularly because the mechanism of action is not precisely known. We tested the hypothesis if suitable modulations of signal proteins could be one of the possible pathways of action of a highly diluted homeopathic drug, Secale cornutum 30C (diluted 10(60) times; Sec cor 30). It could successfully combat DMBA + croton oil-induced skin papilloma in mice as evidenced by histological, cytogenetical, immunofluorescence, ELISA and immunoblot findings. Critical analysis of several signal proteins like AhR, PCNA, Akt, Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, NF-κB and IL-6 and of pro-apoptotic proteins like cytochrome c, Bax, Bad, Apaf, caspase-3 and -9 revealed that Sec cor 30 suitably modulated their expression levels along with amelioration of skin papilloma. FACS data also suggested an increase of cell population at S and G2 phases and decrease in sub-G1 and G1 phages in carcinogen-treated drug-unfed mice, but these were found to be near normal in the Sec cor 30-fed mice. There was reduction in genotoxic and DNA damages in bone marrow cells of Sec Cor 30-fed mice, as revealed from cytogenetic and Comet assays. Changes in histological features of skin papilloma were noted. Immunofluorescence studies of AhR and PCNA also suggested reduced expression of these proteins in Sec cor 30-fed mice, thereby showing its anti-cancer potentials against skin papilloma. Furthermore, this study also supports the hypothesis that potentized homeopathic drugs act at gene regulatory level.

  13. Modulation of Signal Proteins: A Plausible Mechanism to Explain How a Potentized Drug Secale Cor 30C Diluted beyond Avogadro's Limit Combats Skin Papilloma in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anisur Rahman Khuda-Bukhsh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In homeopathy, ability of ultra-high diluted drugs at or above potency 12C (diluted beyond Avogadro's limit in ameliorating/curing various diseases is often questioned, particularly because the mechanism of action is not precisely known. We tested the hypothesis if suitable modulations of signal proteins could be one of the possible pathways of action of a highly diluted homeopathic drug, Secale cornutum 30C (diluted 1060 times; Sec cor 30. It could successfully combat DMBA + croton oil-induced skin papilloma in mice as evidenced by histological, cytogenetical, immunofluorescence, ELISA and immunoblot findings. Critical analysis of several signal proteins like AhR, PCNA, Akt, Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, NF-κB and IL-6 and of pro-apoptotic proteins like cytochrome c, Bax, Bad, Apaf, caspase-3 and -9 revealed that Sec cor 30 suitably modulated their expression levels along with amelioration of skin papilloma. FACS data also suggested an increase of cell population at S and G2 phases and decrease in sub-G1 and G1 phages in carcinogen-treated drug-unfed mice, but these were found to be near normal in the Sec cor 30-fed mice. There was reduction in genotoxic and DNA damages in bone marrow cells of Sec Cor 30-fed mice, as revealed from cytogenetic and Comet assays. Changes in histological features of skin papilloma were noted. Immunofluorescence studies of AhR and PCNA also suggested reduced expression of these proteins in Sec cor 30-fed mice, thereby showing its anti-cancer potentials against skin papilloma. Furthermore, this study also supports the hypothesis that potentized homeopathic drugs act at gene regulatory level.

  14. Genetic and epigenetic variations induced by wheat-rye 2R and 5R monosomic addition lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shulan Fu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Monosomic alien addition lines (MAALs can easily induce structural variation of chromosomes and have been used in crop breeding; however, it is unclear whether MAALs will induce drastic genetic and epigenetic alterations. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the present study, wheat-rye 2R and 5R MAALs together with their selfed progeny and parental common wheat were investigated through amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP and methylation-sensitive amplification polymorphism (MSAP analyses. The MAALs in different generations displayed different genetic variations. Some progeny that only contained 42 wheat chromosomes showed great genetic/epigenetic alterations. Cryptic rye chromatin has introgressed into the wheat genome. However, one of the progeny that contained cryptic rye chromatin did not display outstanding genetic/epigenetic variation. 78 and 49 sequences were cloned from changed AFLP and MSAP bands, respectively. Blastn search indicated that almost half of them showed no significant similarity to known sequences. Retrotransposons were mainly involved in genetic and epigenetic variations. Genetic variations basically affected Gypsy-like retrotransposons, whereas epigenetic alterations affected Copia-like and Gypsy-like retrotransposons equally. Genetic and epigenetic variations seldom affected low-copy coding DNA sequences. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results in the present study provided direct evidence to illustrate that monosomic wheat-rye addition lines could induce different and drastic genetic/epigenetic variations and these variations might not be caused by introgression of rye chromatins into wheat. Therefore, MAALs may be directly used as an effective means to broaden the genetic diversity of common wheat.

  15. Occurrence of Rhynchosporium secalis (Oud. J.J. Davis on spring barley and winter rye in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaiho Mäkelä

    1974-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out on Rhynchosprium secalis (Oud. J. J. Davis occurring on spring barley, winter rye and couch grass (Agropyron repens (L. PB in Finland. The results were obtained from samples of barley (c. 860 samples and rye (c. 200 samples gathered in fields during the growing season throughout the country in 1971 1973. The samples (c. 170 samples of Agropyron repens were collected in fields and the borders of fields. The fungi of all the samples were examined by microscope and cultures and inocolation tests were used as well. Rhynchosporium secalis was observed to occur commonly on spring barley throughout the country from Helsinki to Lapland. The fungus was observed in about 30 per cent of the fields and in below 60 percent of the localities examined. Leaf blotch was commoner on six rowed barley than on two-rowed barley. The fungus sometimes attacked a field in great profusion. R. secalis was observed in below 50 per cent of the winter rye samples and in below 70 per cent of the localities examined. The fungus occurred commonly in the southern part of Finland and was found also in Lapland (Inari, 69° N, 27°E. Spores of the fungus were most abundant in the leaves of rye in spring and in early summer. R. secalis was observed rather scarce (in over 10 per cent of fields and in over 25 per cent of the localities examined on Agropyron repens throughout the country. A high degree of host specialisation has been found within the species R. secalis. Two isolates from spring barley and from winter rye were pathogenic to their original host only.

  16. Meatballs with 3% and 6% dietary fibre from rye bran or pea fibre - effects on sensory quality and subjective appetite sensations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kehlet, Ursula; Pagter, Mette; Aaslyng, Margit D.

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated dose-response effects of rye bran and pea fibre added to meatballs on sensory quality and subjective appetite sensations. Pea fibre or rye bran was added to meatballs in doses ranging from 3 g to 6 g dietary fibre per 100 g. In a sensory profile, a trained panel (n=9......) evaluated the meatballs in terms of odour, appearance, texture and flavour attributes. In a cross-over appetite study, 27 healthy men were served five test meals. Subjective appetite sensations were assessed over a 4-hour period. The addition of rye bran to the meatballs increased the grainy odour, texture...

  17. Molecular cloning, expression and immunological characterisation of Lol p 5C, a novel allergen isoform of rye grass pollen demonstrating high IgE reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suphioglu, C; Mawdsley, D; Schäppi, G; Gruehn, S; de Leon, M; Rolland, J M; O'Hehir, R E

    1999-12-03

    A novel isoform of a major rye grass pollen allergen Lol p 5 was isolated from a cDNA expression library. The new isoform, Lol p 5C, shares 95% amino acid sequence identity with Lol p 5A. Both isoforms demonstrated shared antigenic activity but different allergenic activities. Recombinant Lol p 5C demonstrated 100% IgE reactivity in 22 rye grass pollen sensitive patients. In comparison, recombinant Lol p 5A showed IgE reactivity in less than 64% of the patients. Therefore, Lol p 5C represents a novel and highly IgE-reactive isoform allergen of rye grass pollen.

  18. Determination of phenol in tar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dierichs, A; Heinichen, G

    1955-01-01

    During low-temperature carbonization of lignite, the phenols and other oxygenated compounds appear both in the aqueous-process liquor and in the tar. Measurements of these oxygenated components resulting from low-temperature carbonization may serve as a parameter for the classification of lignites. However, such measurements are complicated by the instability of the tar and the complex nature of some of the acidic substances. Difficulties with the previous methods of analysis are reviewed. The present method outlines separation of aqueous-process liquor from lignite tar in a Fischer retort, followed by determination of phenols and fatty acids in the tar phase. The jacketed tar receiver is washed with 300 milliliter xylol and treated with aqueous caustic washes. Neutral oils are separated from the aqueous alkali solution. It is then extracted with ether and finally acidified with HCl. Solids are filtered off, and phenols and fatty acids are separated by Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3/ solution.

  19. Compositional Changes and Baking Performance of Rye Dough As Affected by Microbial Transglutaminase and Xylanase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossmann, Isabel; Döring, Clemens; Jekle, Mario; Becker, Thomas; Koehler, Peter

    2016-07-20

    Doughs supplemented with endoxylanase (XYL) and varying amounts of microbial transglutaminase (TG) were analyzed by sequential protein extraction, quantitation of protein fractions and protein types, and determination of water-extractable arabinoxylans. With increasing TG activity, the concentration of prolamins and glutelins decreased and increased, respectively, and the prolamin-to-glutelin ratio strongly declined. The overall amount of extractable protein decreased with increasing TG level showing that cross-linking by TG provided high-molecular-weight protein aggregates. The decrease of the high-molecular-weight arabinoxylan fraction and the concurrent increase of the medium-molecular-weight fraction confirmed the degradation of arabinoxylans by XYL. However, XYL addition did not lead to significant improved cross-linking of rye proteins by TG. Volume and crumb hardness measurements of bread showed increased protein connectivity induced by XYL and TG. Significant positive effects on the final bread quality were especially obtained by XYL addition.

  20. A Stylistic Analysis of Four Translations of J. D. Salinger's The Catcher in the Rye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Bratož

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper looks at stylistic differences between four translations of J. D. Salinger’s Catcher in the Rye – two Slovene translations, a Serbo-Croatian, and an Italian translation. Firstly, stylistic components relevant to the novel in question are identified. In this respect, the translation of teenage speech and idiom appears to be not only the most conspicuous stylistic feature of the original but also the hardest to translate. Secondly, the ways in which the different translations have rendered certain formal and lexical features of style are compared by determining and describing their function. A large number of examples have been submitted to critical scrutiny, of which only a few representative ones are listed and explained in the paper. Finally, this paper points to some particular difficulties of the four translators in their attempts to reproduce the stylistic components of the original.

  1. Germination of rye brome (Bromus secalinus L. seeds under simulated drought and different thermal conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Haliniarz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to compare the germination of rye brome (Bromus secalinus L. seeds and the initial growth of seedlings under simulated drought and different thermal conditions. The study included two experiments carried out under laboratory conditions in the spring of 2012. The first experiment involved an evaluation of the speed of germination as well as of the biometric characters and weight of seedlings in polyethylene glycol solutions (PEG 8000 in which the water potential was: -0.2; -0.4; -0.65; -0.9 MPa, and in distilled water as the control treatment. The experiment was conducted at the following temperatures: 25/22oC and 18/14oC day/night, at a relative air humidity of 90%. The other experiment, in which lessive soil was used as a germination substrate, was carried out in a plant growth chamber at two levels of air humidity (55–65% and 85–95% and temperature (22/10oC and 16/5oC. The soil moisture content was determined by the gravimetric method and the water potential corresponding to it was as follows: -0.02, -0.07, -0.16, -0.49, -1.55 MPa. The germination capacity and emergence of Bromus secalinus as well as the weight of sprouts produced were significantly dependent on the water potential of the polyethylene glycol solution and on the soil water potential. The emergence of Bromus secalinus was completely inhibited by reducing the soil water potential below -0.16 MPa (the point of strong growth inhibition. The emergence and biometric characters of rye bro- me seedlings were significantly dependent on temperature and air humidity.

  2. Effects of rye grass coverage on soil loss from loess slopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuequn Dong

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Vegetative coverage is commonly used to reduce urban slope soil erosion. Laboratory experimental study on soil erosion under grass covered slopes is conventionally time and space consuming. In this study, a new method is suggested to study the influences of vegetation coverage on soil erosion from a sloped loess surface under three slope gradients of 5°, 15°, and 25°; four rye grass coverages of 0%, 25%, 50%, and 75%; and three rainfall intensities of 60, 90, and 120 mm/h with a silt-loamy loess soil. Rye grasses were planted in the field with the studied soil before being transplanted into a laboratory flume. Grass was allowed to resume growth for a period before the rain simulation experiment. Results showed that the grass cover reduced soil erosion by 63.90% to 92.75% and sediment transport rate by 80.59% to 96.17% under different slope gradients and rainfall intensities. The sediment concentration/sediment transport rate from bare slope was significantly higher than from a grass-covered slope. The sediment concentration/transport rate from grass-covered slopes decreased linearly with grass coverage and increased with rainfall intensity. The sediment concentration/transport rate from the bare slope increased as a power function of slope and reached the maximum value at the gradient of about 25°, whereas that from grass-covered slope increased linearly and at much lower levels. The results of this study can be used to estimate the effect of vegetation on soil erosion from loess slopes.

  3. Immunochemical studies of Lolium perenne (rye grass) pollen allergens, Lol p I, II, and III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, A A; Kihara, T K; Marsh, D G

    1987-12-15

    It was reported earlier that human immune responses to three perennial rye grass (Lolium perenne) pollen allergens, Lol p I, II, and III, are associated with histocompatibility leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DR3. Rye-allergic people are often concordantly sensitive to all three of these allergens. Since earlier studies suggested that these antigens are non-cross-reactive, their immunologic relatedness by double antibody radioimmunoassay (DARIA) was studied in order to understand further the immunochemical basis for the concordant recognition of the three allergens. Direct binding DARIA studies were performed with human sera from 189 allergic subjects. Inhibition DARIA studies were carried out with 17 human sera from grass-allergic patients who were on grass immunotherapy, one goat anti-serum, and six rabbit antisera. None of the sera detected any significant degree of two-way cross-reactivity between Lol p I and II, or between Lol p I and III. However, the degree of two-way cross-reactivity between Lol p II and III exhibited by individual human and animal antisera varied between undetectable and 100%. In general, the degree of cross-reactivity between Lol p II and III was higher among human sera than among animal sera. Taken together with earlier findings that antibody responses to Lol p I, II and III are associated with HLA-HDR3, and that most Lol p II and III responders are also Lol p I responders, but not vice versa, our present results suggest the following: the HLA-DR3-encoded Ia molecule recognizes a similar immunodominant Ia recognition site (agretope) shared between Lol p I and Lol p II and/or III; in addition, Lol p I appears to contain unique Ia recognition site(s) not present in Lol p II and III. However, further epitope analyses are required to investigate these possibilities.

  4. Variability of N{sub 2}O emissions during the production of poplar and rye

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kern, Juergen; Hellebrand, Hans Juergen; Scholz, Volkhard [ATB Potsdam (Germany)], E-mail: jkern@atb-potsdam.de

    2008-07-01

    The emission of N{sub 2}O from the soil has a significant impact on the greenhouse gas balance of energy crops. Soil type, temperature, precipitation, tillage practice and level of fertilization may affect the source strength of N{sub 2}O emissions and fertilizer-induced N{sub 2}O emissions. The N{sub 2}O-fluxes from different sites of an experimental field were measured by the flux chamber method over a period of four years (2003-2006). Poplar and rye as one perennial and one annual crop were fertilized at levels of 0 kg N ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1}, 75 kg N ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1} and 150 kg N ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1}. Enhanced N{sub 2}O emission spots with maxima of up to 1653 {mu}g N{sub 2}O m{sup -2} h{sup -1} were observed at fertilized sites for several weeks. The emissions ranged between 0.4 kg N{sub 2}O-N ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1} and 2.7 kg N{sub 2}O-N ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1} depending on fertilization level, crop variety and year. The mean conversion factor was 2.1% for poplar and 0.9% for rye. The CO{sub 2}-advantage of energy crops is reduced by N{sub 2}O emissions by up to 10%. (author)

  5. Assessing wines based on total phenols, phenolic acids and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to investigate the phenolic profile of some red wines produced from native Turkish grape varieties (Vitis vinifera Öküzgözü, V. vinifera Boğazkere and V. vinifera Shiraz) and some red fruit wines produced from pomegranate (Punica granatum L.), myrtle (Myrtus communis L.) and black mulberry ...

  6. Antioxidant Capacity, Radical Scavenging Kinetics and Phenolic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    Phenolic Profile of Methanol Extracts of Wild Plants of. Southern Sonora ... plant extracts. Phenolic compounds determination was carried out by high ... Determination of antioxidant capacity ..... In vitro antioxidant and antiproliferative activities ...

  7. Isolation and characterization of phenol degrading yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Riddhi; Rajkumar, Shalini

    2009-04-01

    A phenol degrading yeast isolate was identified and characterized from the soil sample collected from a landfill site, in Ahmedabad, India, by plating the soil dilutions on Sabouraud's Dextrose Agar. The microscopic studies and biochemical tests indicated the isolate to be Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The phenol degrading potential of the isolate was measured by inoculation of pure culture in the mineral medium containing various phenol concentrations ranging from 100 to 800 mg l(-1 )and monitoring phenol disappearance rate at regular intervals of time. Growth of the isolate in mineral medium with various phenol concentrations was monitored by measuring the turbidity (OD(600) nm). The results showed that the isolated yeast was tolerant to phenol up to 800 mg(-1). The phenol degradation ranged from 8.57 to 100% for the concentration of phenol from 800 mg l(-1 )to 200 mg l(-1), respectively. ((c) 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim).

  8. Techniques for Analysis of Plant Phenolic Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas H. Roberts

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic compounds are well-known phytochemicals found in all plants. They consist of simple phenols, benzoic and cinnamic acid, coumarins, tannins, lignins, lignans and flavonoids. Substantial developments in research focused on the extraction, identification and quantification of phenolic compounds as medicinal and/or dietary molecules have occurred over the last 25 years. Organic solvent extraction is the main method used to extract phenolics. Chemical procedures are used to detect the presence of total phenolics, while spectrophotometric and chromatographic techniques are utilized to identify and quantify individual phenolic compounds. This review addresses the application of different methodologies utilized in the analysis of phenolic compounds in plant-based products, including recent technical developments in the quantification of phenolics.

  9. On the assessments of arabinoxylan localization and enzymatic modifications for enhanced protein networking and its structural impact on rye dough and bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Döring, Clemens; Hussein, Mohamed A; Jekle, Mario; Becker, Thomas

    2017-08-15

    For rye dough structure, it is hypothesised that the presence of arabinoxylan hinders the proteins from forming a coherent network. This hypothesis was investigated using fluorescent-stained antibodies that bind to the arabinoxylan chains. Image analysis proves that the arabinoxylan surrounds the proteins, negatively affecting protein networking. Further, it is hypothesised that the dosing of xylanase and transglutaminase has a positive impact on rye dough and bread characteristics; the findings in this study evidenced that this increases the protein network by up to 38% accompanied by a higher volume rise of 10.67%, compared to standard rye dough. These outcomes combine a product-oriented and physiochemical design of a recipe, targeting structural and functional relationships, and demonstrate a successful methodology for enhancing rye bread quality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Rye bran modified with cell wall-degrading enzymes influences the kinetics of plant lignans but not of enterolignans in multicatheterized pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolvig, Anne Katrine; Nørskov, Natalja; van Vliet, Sophie

    2017-01-01

    could describe the postprandial increase in plasma concentration after ENZLR intake, whereas an asymptotic regression model described the plasma concentrations after LR intake. Despite increased available and soluble PLs, ENZLR did not increase plasma enterolignans. Conclusion: The modification of rye...

  11. Octyl Phenol Synthesis Using Natural Clays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Casuscelli

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available A series of clay minerals, HB, NB and Al-PILC have been studied in the alkylation reactions of 2-octanol with phenol at 180°C, under conditions of alcohol/phenol = 1 (mole ratio and W/FAo °= 64,27 ghmol-1. The selectivity of Al-PILC was 77,12% for octyl phenol and 16,5% for dioctyl phenol.

  12. Compositional differences in the phenolics compounds of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluates phenolic composition of commercial and experimental wines derived from bunch (Vitis vinifera) and muscadine (Vitis rotundifolia) grapes to determine compositional differences in phenolics. HPLC analysis of wines showed that majority of phenolic compounds eluted during the first 30 min. Of the red ...

  13. Identification and genetic characterization of phenol- degrading ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAURABH

    2013-02-20

    Feb 20, 2013 ... this paper, we reported about the new strain of Acinetobacter sp. ... characteristics of an efficient phenol-degrading microorganism. ... compounds are widespread in the environment. The problem is compounded by the fact that phenol is toxic, ... The phenol biodegradation ability of this bacterium was.

  14. Bioavailability of dietary phenolic compounds: Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erick Gutiérrez-Grijalva Paul Gutiérrez-Grijalva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic compounds are ubiquitous in plant-based foods. High dietary intake of fruits, vegetables and cereals is related to a decreased rate in chronic diseases. Phenolic compounds are thought to be responsible, at least in part, for those health effects. Nonetheless, phenolic compounds bioaccessibility and biotransformation is often not considered in these studies; thus, a precise mechanism of action of phenolic compounds is not known. In this review we aim to present a comprehensive knowledge of the metabolic processes through which phenolic compounds go after intake.

  15. Effect of gamma-radiation of pollen tube growth and seed set in barley-rye crosses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohilla, J.S.; Khanna, V.K.

    1993-01-01

    One variety of barley and one variety of rye were taken to study the effect of gamma-radiation on pollen germination, pollen tube growth and seed set in barley-rye crosses. There was an increase in pollen germination and pollen tube growth over control at 1 kR dose but it was reduced at higher doses. Seed set was maximum at 1 kR and it was more than control from 1-5 kR. Only seeds of the cross Karan - 4 (1 kR)*MRSP-992 were able to germinate. In these germinated seeds the root growth was arrested after the fourth day of germination and they turned brown. The shoot growth was also very poor and it stopped after a week. (author) 11 refs.; 2 tabs

  16. Comparison of different pretreatment methods for lignocellulosic materials. Part I: conversion of rye straw to valuable products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, Thomas; Wörmeyer, Kai; Lima, Juan Carlos Ixcaraguá; Bockemühl, Vera; Antranikian, Garabed; Brunner, Gerd; Smirnova, Irina

    2011-04-01

    The conversion of lignocellulose to valuable products requires I: a fractionation of the major components hemicellulose, cellulose, and lignin, II: an efficient method to process these components to higher valued products. The present work compares liquid hot water (LHW) pretreatment to the soda pulping process and to the ethanol organosolv pretreatment using rye straw as a single lignocellulosic material. The organosolv pretreated rye straw was shown to require the lowest enzyme loading in order to achieve a complete saccharification of cellulose to glucose. At biomass loadings of up to 15% (w/w) cellulose conversion of LHW and organosolv pretreated lignocellulose was found to be almost equal. The soda pulping process shows lower carbohydrate and lignin recoveries compared to the other two processes. In combination with a detailed analysis of the different lignins obtained from the three pretreatment methods, this work gives an overview of the potential products from different pretreatment processes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Replication Improves Sorting-Task Results Analyzed by DISTATIS in a Consumer Study of American Bourbon and Rye Whiskeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahne, Jacob; Collins, Thomas S; Heymann, Hildegarde

    2016-05-01

    In consumer food-sensory studies, sorting and closely related methods (for example, projective mapping) have often been applied to large product sets which are complex and fatiguing for panelists. Analysis of sorting by Multi-Dimensional Scaling (MDS) is common, but this method discards relevant individual decisions; analysis by DISTATIS, which accounts for individual differences, is gaining acceptance. This research posits that replication can improve DISTATIS analysis by stabilizing consumer sensory maps, which are often extremely unstable. As a case study a fatiguing product set was sorted: 10 American whiskeys-5 bourbons and 5 ryes-were sorted into groups by 21 consumers over 2 replications. These products were chosen because American whiskeys are some of the most important distilled beverages in today's market; in particular, "bourbon" (mashbill more than 50% corn) and "rye" (more than 50% rye) whiskeys are important and assumed to be products with distinct sensory attributes. However, there is almost no scientific information about their sensory properties. Data were analyzed using standard and aggregated DISTATIS and MDS. No significant relationship between mashbill and consumer categorization in whiskeys was found; instead, there was evidence of producer and aging effects. aggregated DISTATIS was found to provide more stable results than without replication, and DISTATIS results provided a number of benefits over MDS, including bootstrapped confidence intervals for product separation. In addition, this is the first published evidence that mashbill does not determine sensory properties of American whiskey: bourbons and ryes, while legally distinct, were not separated by consumers. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  18. Whole Rye Consumption Improves Blood and Liver n-3 Fatty Acid Profile and Gut Microbiota Composition in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ounnas, Fayçal; Privé, Florence; Salen, Patricia; Gaci, Nadia; Tottey, William; Calani, Luca; Bresciani, Letizia; López-Gutiérrez, Noelia; Hazane-Puch, Florence; Laporte, François; Brugère, Jean-François; Del Rio, Daniele; Demeilliers, Christine; de Lorgeril, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Whole rye (WR) consumption seems to be associated with beneficial health effects. Although rye fiber and polyphenols are thought to be bioactive, the mechanisms behind the health effects of WR have yet to be fully identified. This study in rats was designed to investigate whether WR can influence the metabolism of n-3 and n-6 long-chain fatty acids (LCFA) and gut microbiota composition. For 12 weeks, rats were fed a diet containing either 50% WR or 50% refined rye (RR). The WR diet provided more fiber (+21%) and polyphenols (+29%) than the RR diet. Fat intake was the same in both diets and particularly involved similar amounts of essential (18-carbon) n-3 and n-6 LCFAs. The WR diet significantly increased the 24-hour urinary excretion of polyphenol metabolites-including enterolactone-compared with the RR diet. The WR rats had significantly more n-3 LCFA-in particular, eicosapentanoic (EPA) and docosahexanoic (DHA) acids-in their plasma and liver. Compared with the RR diet, the WR diet brought significant changes in gut microbiota composition, with increased diversity in the feces (Shannon and Simpson indices), decreased Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio and decreased proportions of uncultured Clostridiales cluster IA and Clostridium cluster IV in the feces. In contrast, no difference was found between groups with regards to cecum microbiota. The WR rats had lower concentrations of total short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) in cecum and feces (pconsumption results in major biological modifications-increased plasma and liver n-3 EPA and DHA levels and improved gut microbiota profile, notably with increased diversity-known to provide health benefits. Unexpectedly, WR decreased SCFA levels in both cecum and feces. More studies are needed to understand the interactions between whole rye (fiber and polyphenols) and gut microbiota and also the mechanisms of action responsible for stimulating n-3 fatty acid metabolism.

  19. Bread consumption patterns in a Swedish national dietary survey focusing particularly on whole-grain and rye bread

    OpenAIRE

    Sandvik, Pernilla; Kihlberg, Iwona; Lindroos, Anna Karin; Marklinder, Ingela; Nydahl, Margaretha

    2014-01-01

    Background: Bread types with high contents of whole grains and rye are associated with beneficial health effects. Consumer characteristics of different bread consumption patterns are however not well known.Objective: To compare bread consumption patterns among Swedish adults in relation to selected socio-demographic, geographic, and lifestyle-related factors. For selected consumer groups, the further aim is to investigate the intake of whole grains and the context of bread consumption, that i...

  20. Diversity and Stability of Lactic Acid Bacteria in Rye Sourdoughs of Four Bakeries with Different Propagation Parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Viiard, Ene; Bessmeltseva, Marianna; Simm, Jaak; Talve, Tiina; Aasp?llu, Anu; Paalme, Toomas; Sarand, Inga

    2016-01-01

    We identified the lactic acid bacteria within rye sourdoughs and starters from four bakeries with different propagation parameters and tracked their dynamics for between 5-28 months after renewal. Evaluation of bacterial communities was performed using plating, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, and pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons. Lactobacillus amylovorus and Lactobacillus frumenti or Lactobacillus helveticus, Lactobacillus pontis and Lactobacillus panis prevailed in sourdoug...

  1. Candidate Genes for Aggressiveness in a Natural Fusarium culmorum Population Greatly Differ between Wheat and Rye Head Blight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valheria Castiblanco

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium culmorum is one of the species causing Fusarium head blight (FHB in cereals in Europe. We aimed to investigate the association between the nucleotide diversity of ten F. culmorum candidate genes and field ratings of aggressiveness in winter rye. A total of 100 F. culmorum isolates collected from natural infections were phenotyped for FHB at two locations and two years. Variance components for aggressiveness showed significant isolate and isolate-by-environment variance, as expected for quantitative host-pathogen interactions. Further analysis of the isolate-by-environment interaction revealed the dominant role of the isolate-by-year over isolate-by-location interaction. One single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP in the cutinase (CUT gene was found to be significantly (p < 0.001 associated with aggressiveness and explained 16.05% of the genotypic variance of this trait in rye. The SNP was located 60 base pairs before the start codon, which suggests a role in transcriptional regulation. Compared to a previous study in winter wheat with the same nucleotide sequences, a larger variation of pathogen aggressiveness on rye was found and a different candidate gene was associated with pathogen aggressiveness. This is the first report on the association of field aggressiveness and a host-specific candidate gene codifying for a protein that belongs to the secretome in F. culmorum.

  2. Appetite and food intake after consumption of sausages with 10% fat and added wheat or rye bran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuholm, Stine; Arildsen Jakobsen, Louise Margrethe; Vejrum Sørensen, Karina; Kehlet, Ursula; Raben, Anne; Kristensen, Mette

    2014-02-01

    The use of dietary fibers as fat-replacers in sausages gives less energy-dense and thereby healthier foods. Also, dietary fibers have been shown to induce satiety. The objectives of this study were to investigate if appetite sensations and energy intake was affected by (1) addition of dietary fibers to sausages, (2) type of dietary fibers and (3) the food matrix of the dietary fibers. In this randomized cross-over study 25 young men were served four test meals; wheat bran sausages, rye bran sausages, rye bran bread and wheat flour sausages. The test meals were served as breakfast after an overnight fast. Appetite sensations were evaluated by visual analogue scales (VAS) assessed every 30 min for 240 min followed by an ad libitum lunch meal where energy intake was calculated. Both rye bran and wheat bran sausages increased satiety (P appetite sensations and thereby has a potential added health benefit beyond the role as fat-replacer. The satisfying effect of dietary fibers appears to be more pronounced when added to sausages than when added to bread, stressing the importance of food matrix and food processing.

  3. Effect of commercial rye whole-meal bread on postprandial blood glucose and gastric emptying in healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darwich Gassan

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The intake of dietary fibre has been shown to reduce the risk of developing diabetes mellitus. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of commercial rye whole-meal bread containing whole kernels and white wheat bread on the rate of gastric emptying and postprandial glucose response in healthy subjects. Methods Ten healthy subjects took part in a blinded crossover trial. Blood glucose level and gastric emptying rate (GER were determined after the ingestion of 150 g white wheat bread or 150 g whole-meal rye bread on two different occasions after fasting overnight. The GER was measured using real-time ultrasonography, and was calculated as the percentage change in antral cross-sectional area 15 and 90 minutes after completing the meal. Results No statistically significant difference was found between the GER values or the blood glucose levels following the two meals when evaluated with the Wilcoxon signed rank sum test. Conclusion The present study revealed no difference in postprandial blood glucose response or gastric emptying after the ingestion of rye whole-meal bread compared with white wheat bread. Trial registration NCT00779298

  4. Resistance to Wheat Curl Mite in Arthropod-Resistant Rye-Wheat Translocation Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Maria Aguirre-Rojas

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The wheat curl mite, Aceria toschiella (Keifer, and a complex of viruses vectored by A. toschiella substantially reduce wheat yields in every wheat-producing continent in the world. The development of A. toschiella-resistant wheat cultivars is a proven economically and ecologically viable method of controlling this pest. This study assessed A. toschiella resistance in wheat genotypes containing the H13, H21, H25, H26, H18 and Hdic genes for resistance to the Hessian fly, Mayetiola destructor (Say and in 94M370 wheat, which contains the Dn7 gene for resistance to the Russian wheat aphid, Diuraphis noxia (Kurdjumov. A. toschiella populations produced on plants containing Dn7 and H21 were significantly lower than those on plants of the susceptible control and no different than those on the resistant control. Dn7 resistance to D. noxia and H21 resistance to M. destructor resulted from translocations of chromatin from rye into wheat (H21—2BS/2RL, Dn7—1BL/1RS. These results provide new wheat pest management information, indicating that Dn7 and H21 constitute resources that can be used to reduce yield losses caused by A. toschiella, M. destructor, D. noxia, and wheat streak mosaic virus infection by transferring multi-pest resistance to single sources of germplasm.

  5. EFFECT OF XYLANASE ADDED TO A RYE-BASED DIET ON NUTRIENT UTILIZATION IN PIGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav Heger

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The effect of enzyme xylanase derived from Trichoderma longibrachiatum supplemented to a rye-based diet on apparent ileal digestibility of amino acids and non-starch polysaccharides constituting sugars was studied. Enzymes supplementation at 200 mg.kg−1 increased (P˂0.05 the digestibility of total amino acids from 67.1 to 70.8. When the dietary concentration of enzyme increased from 0 to 100 mg.kg-1, the ileal digestibility of the NSP constituents gradually increased as well. No further increase was observed with the supplementation level of 200 mg.kg-1. The improvement in the digestibility of arabinose and xylose (685%, P˂0.05 was much higher in comparison with remaining sugars (110%, P˂0.05. The apparent ileal digestibility of galactose was positively influenced by xylanase but it remained negative in all dietary treatments, presumably due to the high concentration of galactose in endogenous secretions. It is concluded that xylanase effectively degrades non-starch polysaccharides in upper digestive tract and marginally improves amino acid availability in young pigs.

  6. Growth and yield of cucumber under no-tillage cultivation using rye as a cover crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Jelonkiewicz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the first two years of study, method of cultivation did not affect the emergence of cucumber seedlings. In the third year, a drought occurring during the spring was the cause of poor seedling emergence on no-tilled plots. Six weeks after seed sowing, the shoots of cucumbers grown on the no-tilled plots were much shorter, especially in the last study year. At the time of cucumber seed sowing, no-tilled soil contained less phosphorus and potassium and in the middle of the fructification period the content of these elements in cucumber leaves was higher under no-tillage cultivation. Additional spring fertilization of rye with ammonium nitrate resulted in a higher N-NO3 content in soil and later in a higher nitrogen content of cucumber leaves. The content of calcium and magnesium in soil and than in cucumber leaves was independent of the cultivation method. In the first two years, method of cultivation did not affect the yield of cucumber fruits and in the third year the yield was much lower under no-tillage because of poor seedling emergence. Moreover, in the third year the fruits were smaller and dry matter content of the fruit was significantly higer under no-tillage cultivation.

  7. Co-digestion of wheat and rye bread suspensions with source-sorted municipal biowaste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chaoran; Mörtelmaier, Christoph; Winter, Josef; Gallert, Claudia

    2015-06-01

    Acidification of wheat bread (WBS), rye bread (RBS) and fresh biowaste suspensions (FBS), leading to lactate+acetate, lactate+acetate+n-buyrate, and acetate+propionate+n-butyrate, respectively, and biogas production as well as population dynamics were investigated. Co-fermentation of FBS (14 kg m(-3) d(-1) organic loading rate (OLR)) with WBS or RBS was stable up to an OLR of 22 kg m(-3) d(-1) and resulted in up to 3 times as much biogas. During co-fermentation at more than 20 kg m(-3) d(-1) OLR the total population increased more than 2-fold, but the originally low share of propionate-oxidizing bacteria significantly decreased. The proportion of methanogens also decreased. Whereas the proportion of Methanosarcinales to Methanomicrobiales in biowaste and biowaste+WBS remained constant, Methanosarcinales and in particular Methanosaeta spec. in the biowaste+RBS assay almost completely disappeared. Methanomicrobiales increased instead, indicating propionate oxidation via acetate cleavage to CO2 and hydrogen. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Chemistry and health of olive oil phenolics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicerale, Sara; Conlan, Xavier A; Sinclair, Andrew J; Keast, Russell S J

    2009-03-01

    The Mediterranean diet is associated with a lower incidence of atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disease, and certain types of cancer. The apparent health benefits have been partially attributed to the dietary consumption of virgin olive oil by Mediterranean populations. Most recent interest has focused on the biologically active phenolic compounds naturally present in virgin olive oils. Studies (human, animal, in vivo and in vitro) have shown that olive oil phenolics have positive effects on certain physiological parameters, such as plasma lipoproteins, oxidative damage, inflammatory markers, platelet and cellular function, and antimicrobial activity. Presumably, regular dietary consumption of virgin olive oil containing phenolic compounds manifests in health benefits associated with a Mediterranean diet. This paper summarizes current knowledge on the physiological effects of olive oil phenolics. Moreover, a number of factors have the ability to affect phenolic concentrations in virgin olive oil, so it is of great importance to understand these factors in order to preserve the essential health promoting benefits of olive oil phenolic compounds.

  9. Expression of chalcone synthase genes in coleoptiles and primary leaves of Secale cereale L. after induction by UV radiation: evidence for a UV-protective role of the coleoptile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haussühl, K.; Rohde, W.; Weissenböck, G.

    1996-01-01

    Four chalcone synthase (CHS; EC 2.3.1.74) clones from rye were isolated and characterized. Two of these clones were used for analysis of CHS gene activities in response to ultraviolet and visible radiation in the coleoptile and the primary leaf of the rye seedling. The time-dependence of CHS gene activation and the spatial distribution of CHS were studied by investigation of enzyme activities and CHS mRNA levels, including in situ RNA hybridization. In the primary leaf strong induction of CHS gene activity was localized in the epidermal layers and only marginally found in the mesophyll. The coleoptile showed an even higher response to UV irradiation, but CHS gene activity was evenly distributed throughout the tissues. It is suggested that, in addition to its function as a mechanical protection for the primary leaf during seed germination and seedling emergence through the soil, the coleoptile may also protect the emerging seedling from harmful radiation

  10. Wine phenolics: looking for a smooth mouthfeel

    OpenAIRE

    Alice, Vilela; António, M. Jordão; Fernanda, Cosme

    2016-01-01

    Each grape variety has its own phenolic profile. However, the concentration of the phenolic compounds present in wine mainly dependson winemaking processes. Phenolic compounds influence wine sensorial characteristics namely taste or mouthfeel, bitterness, astringency and color. Humans can perceive six basic tastes: sweet, salty; sour; umami; fat-taste and bitter taste. This last basic taste is considered as a defense mechanism against the ingestion of potential poisons. Some of the genes,enco...

  11. High-fiber rye diet increases ileal excretion of energy and macronutrients compared with low-fiber wheat diet independent of meal frequency in ileostomy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaksson, Hanna; Landberg, Rikard; Sundberg, Birgitta; Lundin, Eva; Hallmans, Göran; Zhang, Jie-Xian; Tidehag, Per; Erik Bach Knudsen, Knud; Moazzami, Ali A; Aman, Per

    2013-01-01

    Whole-grain foods and cereal dietary fiber intake is associated with lower body weight. This may partly result from lower energy utilization of high-fiber diets. In the present study, the impact on ileal excretion of energy and macronutrients in response to a rye bread high-fiber diet compared to a refined wheat low-fiber diet was investigated. Furthermore, the effect of meal frequency on apparent absorption of nutrients was studied for the first time. Ten participants that had undergone ileostomy consumed standardized iso-caloric diets, including low-fiber wheat bread (20 g dietary fiber per day) for 2 weeks followed by high-fiber rye bread (52 g dietary fiber per day) for 2 weeks. The diets were consumed in an ordinary (three meals per day) and a nibbling (seven meals per day) meal frequency in a cross-over design. Ileal effluents were collected during 24 h at the third day of each of the four dietary periods and analyzed for gross energy and nutrient contents. The results showed that intake of rye bread high-fiber diet compared to the refined wheat low-fiber diet caused an increase in ileal excretion of energy and macronutrients. The effect was independent of meal frequency. This suggests that a high intake of rye may result in lower availability of macronutrients for small intestinal digestion and absorption. A regular intake of rye may therefore have implications for weight management.

  12. Effect of the molecular structure of phenolic novolac precursor resins on the properties of phenolic fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ying, Yong-Gang; Pan, Yan-Ping; Ren, Rui; Dang, Jiang-Min; Liu, Chun-Ling

    2013-01-01

    A series of phenolic resins with different weight-average molecular weights (M w ) and ortho/para (O/P) ratios were prepared. The effect of the phenolic precursor resin structure on the structure and properties of the resulting phenolic fibers was investigated. The structures of the resins and fibers were characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, gel permeation chromatography, melt rheometry, dynamic mechanical analysis, and thermogravimetric analysis. The results show that the O/P ratio, unsubstituted ortho and para carbon ratio (O u /P u ), and M w of the phenolic resins play an important role in determining the properties of the phenolic fibers. The tensile strength of the phenolic fibers increases with increasing novolac precursor O u /P u ratios, corresponding to low O/P ratios, at comparable resin M w values. Also, the tensile strength of the phenolic fibers increases with increasing novolac M w values at comparable O/P ratios. Phenolic fibers with high tensile strength and good flame resistance characteristics were generated from a phenolic precursor resin, possessing a high weight-average molecular weight and a low O/P value. - Highlights: • Phenolic resins with different weight-average molecular weights and ortho/para ratios have been prepared. • The tensile strength of the phenolic fibers increases with reducing novolac O/P ratio. • The tensile strength of the phenolic fibers increases with increasing novolac M w

  13. Molecular genetics of human immune responsiveness to Lolium perenne (rye) allergen, Lol p III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, A A; Freidhoff, L R; Marsh, D G

    1989-01-01

    Lol p II and III are each about 11-kD protein allergens from the pollen of Lolium perenne (rye grass). We have found that human immune responses (IgE and IgG antibodies) to both proteins are significantly associated with HLA-DR3. In addition, the two proteins are cross-reactive with the antibodies in many human sera (about 84% human sera showed the cross-reactivity). We have determined greater than 90% of the amino acid sequences of the two proteins and found that they are at least 54% homologous. Berzofsky found that 75% of the 23 known T cell sites in various proteins had an amphipathic structure. Our analysis by the same method showed that both Lol p II and III have a major region of amphipathicity (at residues 61-67, Lol p III numbering) which might contain sites for binding to an Ia molecule and a T cell receptor. This region is identical between Lol p II and III, except for an Arg-Lys substitution, and could account, in part, for the DR3 association with responsiveness to both molecules. An interesting difference between the two proteins is that immune response to Lol p III is associated with DR5 (in addition to DR3), whereas no DR5 association is found in the case of Lol p II. One possibility is that Lol p III has an additional site which binds to the DR5 Ia molecule. Lol p III indeed has a second highly amphiphathic peptide, 24-30 (Lol p III 24 R P G D T L A 30), which is different and not amphipathic in Lol p II.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. Phenolics, Antiradical Assay and Cytotoxicity of Processed Mango ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phenolics, Antiradical Assay and Cytotoxicity of Processed Mango ( Mangifera indica ) and Bush Mango ( Irvingia gabonensis ) Kernels. ... Nigerian Food Journal ... Phenolic constituents (total phenols, flavonoids, tannins, and anthocyanins), comparative antiradical potency and cytotoxicity of processed mango (Mangifera ...

  15. Gold-catalyzed oxidation of substituted phenols by hydrogen peroxide

    KAUST Repository

    Cheneviere, Yohan; Caps, Valerie; Tuel, Alain

    2010-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles deposited on inorganic supports are efficient catalysts for the oxidation of various substituted phenols (2,6-di-tert-butyl phenol and 2,3,6-trimethyl phenol) with aqueous hydrogen peroxide. By contrast to more conventional

  16. Bacterial removal of toxic phenols from an industrial effluent

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-07-04

    Jul 4, 2008 ... Chlorinated phenols, widely used in industries, are of growing concern owing to their high toxicity, .... phenol-degradation ability of bacterial isolate at the high phenol .... ed virtually no decrease in the respiratory response over.

  17. Biodegradation of phenol by a newly isolated marine bacterial strain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-12-26

    Dec 26, 2011 ... Full Length Research Paper. Biodegradation of phenol ... screen bacteria with potential for phenol degradation from sea water, mud and sand. .... poisonous compound media, such as phenol (Santos et al., 2001). For instance ...

  18. Lignan precursors from flaxseed or rye bran do not protect against the development of intestinal neoplasia in Apc(Min) mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Kranen, H.J.; Mortensen, Alicja; Sørensen, Ilona Kryspin

    2003-01-01

    lignan precursors, i.e., secoisolariciresinol and matairesinol. No statistically significant difference was observed in the incidence and multiplicity of small intestinal and colon tumors at terminal sacrifice between mice fed the control diet or the diet supplemented with 5% flaxseed. With the rye bran...... diet a statistically significant enhancement of the number of small intestinal tumors in female mice was observed. The number of colon tumors, however, was comparable between the control and rye bran-fed mice of either sex. Furthermore, no activating point mutations in the K-ras oncogene nor positive...... immunohistochemical staining for the p53 gene were observed in a set of 48 colon tumors. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that increased intake of lignan precursors from flaxseed or rye bran, administered in a Western-style diet, does not protect against intestinal tumor development in an appropriate animal...

  19. Diet-derived changes by sourdough-fermented rye bread in exhaled breath aspiration ion mobility spectrometry profiles in individuals with mild gastrointestinal symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raninen, Kaisa; Lappi, Jenni; Kolehmainen, Mikko; Kolehmainen, Marjukka; Mykkänen, Hannu; Poutanen, Kaisa; Raatikainen, Olavi

    2017-12-01

    The potential of utilising exhaled breath volatile organic compound (VOC) profiles in studying diet-derived metabolic changes was examined. After a four-week initial diet period with white wheat bread (WW), seven participants received in randomised order high-fibre diets containing sourdough whole grain rye bread (WGR) or white wheat bread enriched with bioprocessed rye bran (WW + BRB), both for 4 weeks. Alveolar exhaled breath samples were analysed with ChemPro ® 100i analyser (Environics OY, Mikkeli, Finland) at the end of each diet period in fasting state and after a standardised meal. The AIMS signal intensities in fasting state were different after the WGR diet as compared to other diets. The result suggests that WGR has metabolic effects not completely explained by the rye fibre content of the diet. This study encourages to utilise the exhaled breath VOC profile analysis as an early screening tool in studying physiological functionality of foods.

  20. High-fiber rye diet increases ileal excretion of energy and macronutrients compared with low-fiber wheat diet independent of meal frequency in ileostomy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Isaksson, Hanna; Landberg, Rikard; Sundberg, Birgitta

    2013-01-01

    -fiber diet compared to a refined wheat low-fiber diet was investigated. Furthermore, the effect of meal frequency on apparent absorption of nutrients was studied for the first time. Design: Ten participants that had undergone ileostomy consumed standardized iso-caloric diets, including low-fiber wheat bread...... (20 g dietary fiber per day) for 2 weeks followed by high-fiber rye bread (52 g dietary fiber per day) for 2 weeks. The diets were consumed in an ordinary (three meals per day) and a nibbling (seven meals per day) meal frequency in a cross-over design. Ileal effluents were collected during 24 h...... was independent of meal frequency. This suggests that a high intake of rye may result in lower availability of macronutrients for small intestinal digestion and absorption. A regular intake of rye may therefore have implications for weight management....

  1. Microbial behavior and changes in food constituents during fermentation of Japanese sourdoughs with different rye and wheat starting materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, Akihito; Ito, Keisuke; Itou, Madoka; Narushima, Noriko; Ito, Takayuki; Yamamoto, Akihisa; Hirayama, Satoru; Furukawa, Soichi; Morinaga, Yasushi; Miyamoto, Takahisa

    2018-01-01

    Sourdough is a food item made by kneading grain flour and water together and allowing fermentation through the action of lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillales) and yeast. Typically, Japanese bakeries make sourdough with rye flour, wheat flour, malt extract, and water and allow spontaneous fermentation for 6 days. We compared the microbial behavior and food components, such as organic acids, sugars, and free amino acids, of sourdoughs made using two different rye and wheat flours during the 6-day fermentation period. Comparisons were made for two types of rye and wheat flours, using different production sites and different milling, distribution, and storage conditions. The microbial count was evaluated using different culture media. All sourdough types showed a significant increase in lactic acid levels on fermentation day 2 and a decrease in free amino acid levels on day 4. Low overall lactic acid production and little fluctuation in sugar levels occurred in sourdough made from French ingredients. For sourdough made from Japanese ingredients, sugar levels (chiefly glucose, sucrose, and maltose) declined on fermentation day 1, increased on day 2, and declined by day 5. With the French ingredients, no yeast cells were detected until day 3, and many acid precursors of sourdough flavor components were detected. Yet with the Japanese ingredients, 10 6 /g yeast cells were detected on days 3-5, as well as sourdough-flavor esters and alcohols. Differences in raw material quality affected the microbial behavior and changes in food constituents during the fermentation process and, consequently, the sourdough flavor. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. 9607 EFFECT OF MULCH AND DIFFERENT FUNGICIDE SPRAY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mimi

    1Department of Crop Science and Production, Sokoine University of Agriculture, ..... Ammonium Nitrate) during the growing season to increase the available calcium in .... rye (Secale cereale)-pea (Pisum sativum) cover crop mixes Weed Tech.

  3. Bread consumption patterns in a Swedish national dietary survey focusing particularly on whole-grain and rye bread

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandvik, Pernilla; Kihlberg, Iwona; Lindroos, Anna Karin; Marklinder, Ingela; Nydahl, Margaretha

    2014-01-01

    Background Bread types with high contents of whole grains and rye are associated with beneficial health effects. Consumer characteristics of different bread consumption patterns are however not well known. Objective To compare bread consumption patterns among Swedish adults in relation to selected socio-demographic, geographic, and lifestyle-related factors. For selected consumer groups, the further aim is to investigate the intake of whole grains and the context of bread consumption, that is, where and when it is consumed. Design Secondary analysis was performed on bread consumption data from a national dietary survey (n=1,435). Respondents were segmented into consumer groups according to the type and amount of bread consumed. Multiple logistic regressions were performed to study how selected socio-demographic, geographic, and lifestyle-related factors were associated with the consumer groups. Selected consumption groups were compared in terms of whole-grain intake and consumption context. Consumption in different age groups was analysed more in detail. Results One-third of the respondents consumed mainly white bread. Socio-demographic, geographic, and healthy-lifestyle-related factors were associated with the bread type consumed. White bread consumption was associated with younger age groups, less education, children in the family, eating less fruit and vegetables, and more candy and snacks; the opposite was seen for mainly whole-grain bread consumers. Older age groups more often reported eating dry crisp bread, whole-grain bread, and whole-grain rye bread with sourdough whereas younger respondents reported eating bread outside the home, something that also mainly white bread eaters did. Low consumers of bread also consumed less whole grain in total. Conclusions Traditional bread consumption structures were observed, as was a transition among young consumers who more often consumed fast food bread and bread outside the home, as well as less rye and whole

  4. Bread consumption patterns in a Swedish national dietary survey focusing particularly on whole-grain and rye bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandvik, Pernilla; Kihlberg, Iwona; Lindroos, Anna Karin; Marklinder, Ingela; Nydahl, Margaretha

    2014-01-01

    Bread types with high contents of whole grains and rye are associated with beneficial health effects. Consumer characteristics of different bread consumption patterns are however not well known. To compare bread consumption patterns among Swedish adults in relation to selected socio-demographic, geographic, and lifestyle-related factors. For selected consumer groups, the further aim is to investigate the intake of whole grains and the context of bread consumption, that is, where and when it is consumed. Secondary analysis was performed on bread consumption data from a national dietary survey (n=1,435). Respondents were segmented into consumer groups according to the type and amount of bread consumed. Multiple logistic regressions were performed to study how selected socio-demographic, geographic, and lifestyle-related factors were associated with the consumer groups. Selected consumption groups were compared in terms of whole-grain intake and consumption context. Consumption in different age groups was analysed more in detail. One-third of the respondents consumed mainly white bread. Socio-demographic, geographic, and healthy-lifestyle-related factors were associated with the bread type consumed. White bread consumption was associated with younger age groups, less education, children in the family, eating less fruit and vegetables, and more candy and snacks; the opposite was seen for mainly whole-grain bread consumers. Older age groups more often reported eating dry crisp bread, whole-grain bread, and whole-grain rye bread with sourdough whereas younger respondents reported eating bread outside the home, something that also mainly white bread eaters did. Low consumers of bread also consumed less whole grain in total. Traditional bread consumption structures were observed, as was a transition among young consumers who more often consumed fast food bread and bread outside the home, as well as less rye and whole-grain bread. Target groups for communication strategies

  5. Bread consumption patterns in a Swedish national dietary survey focusing particularly on whole-grain and rye bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pernilla Sandvik

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bread types with high contents of whole grains and rye are associated with beneficial health effects. Consumer characteristics of different bread consumption patterns are however not well known. Objective: To compare bread consumption patterns among Swedish adults in relation to selected socio-demographic, geographic, and lifestyle-related factors. For selected consumer groups, the further aim is to investigate the intake of whole grains and the context of bread consumption, that is, where and when it is consumed. Design: Secondary analysis was performed on bread consumption data from a national dietary survey (n=1,435. Respondents were segmented into consumer groups according to the type and amount of bread consumed. Multiple logistic regressions were performed to study how selected socio-demographic, geographic, and lifestyle-related factors were associated with the consumer groups. Selected consumption groups were compared in terms of whole-grain intake and consumption context. Consumption in different age groups was analysed more in detail. Results: One-third of the respondents consumed mainly white bread. Socio-demographic, geographic, and healthy-lifestyle-related factors were associated with the bread type consumed. White bread consumption was associated with younger age groups, less education, children in the family, eating less fruit and vegetables, and more candy and snacks; the opposite was seen for mainly whole-grain bread consumers. Older age groups more often reported eating dry crisp bread, whole-grain bread, and whole-grain rye bread with sourdough whereas younger respondents reported eating bread outside the home, something that also mainly white bread eaters did. Low consumers of bread also consumed less whole grain in total. Conclusions: Traditional bread consumption structures were observed, as was a transition among young consumers who more often consumed fast food bread and bread outside the home, as well as

  6. Olive oil phenols are absorbed in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vissers, M.N.; Zock, P.L.; Roodenburg, A.J.C.; Leenen, R.; Katan, M.B.

    2002-01-01

    Animal and in vitro studies suggest that olive oil phenols are effective antioxidants. The most abundant phenols in olive oil are the nonpolar oleuropein- and ligstroside-aglycones and the polar hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol. The aim of this study was to gain more insight into the metabolism of those

  7. CORRELATION AMONG PHENOLIC, TOXIC METALS AND ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    in food and related products is essential for understanding their nutritive importance. .... (prepared solution), with 0.1 M nitric acid in order to check the linearity. ..... Shahidi, F.; Naczk, M. Food Phenolics: An overview in Food Phenolics: Sources ...

  8. Process of converting phenols into hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seelig, S

    1929-02-02

    A process is disclosed for the conversion of phenols into hydrocarbons, characterized by preheating a mixture of phenols and hydrogen or hydrogen-producing gases to approximately the reaction temperature under pressure, heating by passage percussion-like through a bath of metal to the reaction temperature, and rapidly cooling.

  9. Interplay of ribosomal DNA loci in nucleolar dominance: dominant NORs are up-regulated by chromatin dynamics in the wheat-rye system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Silva

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chromatin organizational and topological plasticity, and its functions in gene expression regulation, have been strongly revealed by the analysis of nucleolar dominance in hybrids and polyploids where one parental set of ribosomal RNA (rDNA genes that are clustered in nucleolar organizing regions (NORs, is rendered silent by epigenetic pathways and heterochromatization. However, information on the behaviour of dominant NORs is very sparse and needed for an integrative knowledge of differential gene transcription levels and chromatin specific domain interactions. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using molecular and cytological approaches in a wheat-rye addition line (wheat genome plus the rye nucleolar chromosome pair 1R, we investigated transcriptional activity and chromatin topology of the wheat dominant NORs in a nucleolar dominance situation. Herein we report dominant NORs up-regulation in the addition line through quantitative real-time PCR and silver-staining technique. Accompanying this modification in wheat rDNA trascription level, we also disclose that perinucleolar knobs of ribosomal chromatin are almost transcriptionally silent due to the residual detection of BrUTP incorporation in these domains, contrary to the marked labelling of intranucleolar condensed rDNA. Further, by comparative confocal analysis of nuclei probed to wheat and rye NORs, we found that in the wheat-rye addition line there is a significant decrease in the number of wheat-origin perinucleolar rDNA knobs, corresponding to a diminution of the rDNA heterochromatic fraction of the dominant (wheat NORs. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We demonstrate that inter-specific interactions leading to wheat-origin NOR dominance results not only on the silencing of rye origin NOR loci, but dominant NORs are also modified in their transcriptional activity and interphase organization. The results show a cross-talk between wheat and rye NORs, mediated by ribosomal chromatin

  10. Rye B chromosomes encode a functional Argonaute-like protein with in vitro slicer activities similar to its A chromosome paralog

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ma, W.; Gabriel, T.S.; Martis, M.M.; Gursinsky, T.; Schubert, V.; Vrána, Jan; Doležel, Jaroslav; Grundlach, H.; Altschmied, L.; Scholz, U.; Himmelbach, A.; Behrens, S.E.; Banaei-Moghaddam, A.M.; Houben, A.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 213, č. 2 (2017), s. 916-928 ISSN 0028-646X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204; GA ČR GBP501/12/G090 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : rna-polymerase-ii * ribosomal-rna * accessory chromosomes * plant argonautes * gene-expression * evolution * transcription * pseudogenes * sequences * identification * Argonaute * B chromosomes * B-located genes * gene erosion. gene expression * pseudogenization * Secale cereale Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 7.330, year: 2016

  11. Determination of Phenolic Compounds in Wines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charalampos Proestos

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Wine contains natural antioxidants such as phenolic compounds also known as bioactive compounds. Samples of commercially available Greek wines were analyzed in order to determine this phenolic content. For the analysis, Reversed Phase-High Performance Liquid Chromatography (RP-HPLC coupled with a multiwavelength Ultraviolet/visible (UV/vis detector was used. The most abundant phenolic substances detected were (+-catechin (13.5-72.4 mg L-1 , gallic acid (0.40-99.47 mg L-1 and caffeic acid (0.87-33.48 mg L-1. The principal component analysis (PCA technique was used to study differentiation among wines according to their production area. Red wines contained more phenolic substances than white ones. Differences of the phenolic composition in wines of the same cultivar were investigated too.

  12. Antioxidant activity and total phenolic and flavonoid content of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-12-19

    Dec 19, 2011 ... Key words: Astragalus squarrosus, antioxidant, phenolics, flavonoids. INTRODUCTION ... Phenolic and flavonoid compounds are widely distri- buted plant constituents. ..... Antioxidant effects of some ginger constituents.

  13. Toxicity of Phenol and Salt on the Phenol-Degrading Pseudomonas aeruginosa Bacterium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samaei

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Phenolic compounds, phenol and phenol derivatives are environmental contaminants in some industrial effluents. Entrance of such substances into the environment causes severe environmental pollution, especially pollution of water resources. Biological treatment is a method that uses the potential of microorganisms to clean up contaminated environments. Among microorganisms, bacteria play an important role in treating wastewater contaminated with phenol. Objectives This study aimed to examine the effects of Pseudomonas aeruginosa on degradation of phenol in wastewater contaminated with this pollutant. Methods In this method, the growth rate of P. aeruginosa bacteria was investigated using different concentrations of salt and phenol. This is an experimental study conducted as a pilot in a batch reactor with different concentrations of phenol (25, 50, 100, 150, 300 and 600 mg L-1 and salt (0%, 0.5%, 1%, 2.5% and 5% during 9, 12 and 15 hours. During three days, from 5 experimental and 3 control samples, 18 samples were taken a day forming a sample size of 54 samples for each phenol concentration. Given the number of phenol concentrations (n = 6, a total of 324 samples were analyzed using a spectrophotometer at a wavelength of 600 nm. Results The phenol concentration of 600 mg L-1 was toxic for P. aeruginosa. However, at a certain concentration, it acts as a carbon source for P. aeruginosa. During investigations, it was found that increasing the concentration of phenol increases the rate of bacteria growth. The highest bacteria growth rate occurred was at the salt concentration of zero and phenol concentration of 600 mg L-1. Conclusions The findings of the current study indicate that at high concentrations of salt, the growth of bacteria reduces so that it stops at a concentration of 50 mg L-1 (5%. Thus, the bacterium is halotolerant or halophilic. With an increase in phenol concentration, the growth rate increased. Phenol toxicity appears

  14. The influence of addition of dried tomato pomace on the physical and sensory properties of whole grain rye flour cookies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomić Jelena M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the potential raw materials which could be used for production of food with added nutritional value is tomato pomace, a by-product from tomato processing. On the other hand, requirements of consumers for diverse food with potential for health benefits impose the need for creation of products made from different cereals. In this respect, the aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of addition of dried tomato pomace on the physical and sensory properties of whole grain rye flour cookies. The whole grain rye flour was substituted with tomato pomace powder in two levels (15% and 25% in the standard formulation of short-dough cookie. The quality of final products was evaluated by instrumental and sensory methods. The results clearly demonstrated that redness (+a* and yellowness (+b* were highly influenced by level of tomato pomace in the cookie formulations due to its content of carotenoid pigments. The spread factor of the cookies made with addition of tomato pomace powder was higher than the control sample. Hardness of the cookie samples decreased for approximately 50% for the cookie sample with 25% tomato pomace level substitution when compared with control sample. According to the results of sensory analysis, substitution level of 15% caused decrease of surface roughness, fracturability, and granularity, as well as increase of caramel flavour intensity. Substitution level of 25% caused higher degree of cookie softening and more pronounced tomato flavour.

  15. Phytochemical phenolics in organically grown vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Janice E; Zhao, Xin; Carey, Edward E; Welti, Ruth; Yang, Shie-Shien; Wang, Weiqun

    2005-12-01

    Fruit and vegetable intake is inversely correlated with risks for several chronic diseases in humans. Phytochemicals, and in particular, phenolic compounds, present in plant foods may be partly responsible for these health benefits through a variety of mechanisms. Since environmental factors play a role in a plant's production of secondary metabolites, it was hypothesized that an organic agricultural production system would increase phenolic levels. Cultivars of leaf lettuce, collards, and pac choi were grown either on organically certified plots or on adjacent conventional plots. Nine prominent phenolic agents were quantified by HPLC, including phenolic acids (e. g. caffeic acid and gallic acid) and aglycone or glycoside flavonoids (e. g. apigenin, kaempferol, luteolin, and quercetin). Statistically, we did not find significant higher levels of phenolic agents in lettuce and collard samples grown organically. The total phenolic content of organic pac choi samples as measured by the Folin-Ciocalteu assay, however, was significantly higher than conventional samples (p lettuce and collards, the organic system provided an increased opportunity for insect attack, resulting in a higher level of total phenolic agents in pac choi.

  16. Modeling electrokinetic transport in phenol contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zorn, R.; Haus, R.; Czurda, K. [Dept. of Applied Geology, Univ. Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    Numerical simulations are compared to laboratory experiments of electroremediation in soils contaminated by phenolic pollutants. The developing pH affects the electrokinetic transport behaviour of phenol. It is found that a water chemistry model must be included in an electrokinetic mass transport model to describe the process of electroremediation more accurately, if no buffering system is used at the electrodes. In the case of controlling the pH at the electrode compartments only a simplified chemical reaction model must be included in the numerical code to match the experimental phenolic transport. (orig.)

  17. Efficient Enzymatic Synthesis of Phenolic Ester by Increasing Solubility of Phenolic Acids in Ionic Liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Zhiyong; Guo, Zheng; Xu, Xuebing

    Compounds from phenolic acid family are well known natural antioxidants, but the application of phenolic acids as antioxidants in industry is limited due to the relatively low solubility in oil-based media. The properties of phenolic acids can be modified through enzymatic lipophilization...... and modified phenolic acids will have amphiphilic property, therefore they can be localized at oil-water or water-oil phase where oxidation is considered to occur frequently. It had been reported that immobilized Candida Antarctica lipase B was the most effective biocatalyst for the various esterification...... reactions, and it had been widely used for esterification of various phenolic acids with fatty alcohol or triglycerides. However, the conversion of phenolic acids is low due to low solubility in hydrophobic solvents and hindrance effect of unsaturated side chain towards the enzyme. Our studies show...

  18. Role of Bacillus subtilis direct-fed microbial on digesta viscosity, bacterial translocation, and bone mineralization in turkey poults fed with a rye-based diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rye contains high concentrations of non-starch polysaccharides (NSP), leading to reduced digestibility. Since poultry have little or no endogenous enzymes capable of hydrolyzing these NSP, exogenous carbohydrases as feed additives are used in an attempt to reduce the anti-nutritional effects of the...

  19. DETERMINATION OF OPTIMUM PARAMETERS OF A ZAMESHIVANIYE OF A SBIVNY SEMI-FINISHED PRODUCT FROM A MIX OF RYE AND WHEAT FLOUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. O. Magomedov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In article influence of parameters замеса (pressure, duration of knocking down, frequency of rotation of mesilny body sbivny dough from a mix of rye and wheat flour on indicators of quality of finished articles is investigated.

  20. Ergot alkaloids in rye flour determined by solid-phase cation-exchange and high-pressure liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storm, Ida Marie Lindhardt Drejer; Rasmussen, Peter Have; Strobel, B.W.

    2008-01-01

    Ergot alkaloids are mycotoxins that are undesirable contaminants of cereal products, particularly rye. A method was developed employing clean-up by cation-exchange solid-phase extraction, separation by high-performance liquid chromatography under alkaline conditions and fluorescence detection...

  1. Group 5 allergens of timothy grass (Phl p 5) bear cross-reacting T cell epitopes with group 1 allergens of rye grass (Lol p 1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, W D; Karamfilov, T; Bufe, A; Fahlbush, B; Wolf, I; Jäger, L

    1996-04-01

    Selected human T cell clones reactive with group 5 allergens of timothy grass (Phl p 5) were cross-stimulated in specific proliferation assays with group 1 allergens of rye grass (Lol p 1). Such interspecies cross-reactivities result obviously from structural motifs presented on defined Phl p 5 fragments as shown with recombinant Phl p 5 products.

  2. A microtitre plate radioimmunoassay for the detection and semiquantitation of housedust mite, rye grass pollen and cow's milk specific IgA antibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahoney, G.N.; Hartley, W.A.; Taylor, B.

    1980-01-01

    A microtitre plate based radioimmunoassay (RIA) to measure semiquantitatively allergen specific IgA antibodies is described, with optimal coupling conditions for 3 allergens, house dust mite (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus), rye grass pollen and cow's milk, and the optimal serum and [ 125 I]anti-IgA incubation conditions. (Auth.)

  3. Fermentation Results and Chemical Composition of Agricultural Distillates Obtained from Rye and Barley Grains and the Corresponding Malts as a Source of Amylolytic Enzymes and Starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcerek, Maria; Pielech-Przybylska, Katarzyna; Dziekońska-Kubczak, Urszula; Patelski, Piotr; Strąk, Ewelina

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the efficiency of rye and barley starch hydrolysis in mashing processes using cereal malts as a source of amylolytic enzymes and starch, and to establish the volatile profile of the obtained agricultural distillates. In addition, the effects of the pretreatment method of unmalted cereal grains on the physicochemical composition of the prepared mashes, fermentation results, and the composition of the obtained distillates were investigated. The raw materials used were unmalted rye and barley grains, as well as the corresponding malts. All experiments were first performed on a semi-technical scale, and then verified under industrial conditions in a Polish distillery. The fermentable sugars present in sweet mashes mostly consisted of maltose, followed by glucose and maltotriose. Pressure-thermal treatment of unmalted cereals, and especially rye grains, resulted in higher ethanol content in mashes in comparison with samples subjected to pressureless liberation of starch. All agricultural distillates originating from mashes containing rye and barley grains and the corresponding malts were characterized by low concentrations of undesirable compounds, such as acetaldehyde and methanol. The distillates obtained under industrial conditions contained lower concentrations of higher alcohols (apart from 1-propanol) than those obtained on a semi-technical scale.

  4. Fermentation Results and Chemical Composition of Agricultural Distillates Obtained from Rye and Barley Grains and the Corresponding Malts as a Source of Amylolytic Enzymes and Starch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Balcerek

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the efficiency of rye and barley starch hydrolysis in mashing processes using cereal malts as a source of amylolytic enzymes and starch, and to establish the volatile profile of the obtained agricultural distillates. In addition, the effects of the pretreatment method of unmalted cereal grains on the physicochemical composition of the prepared mashes, fermentation results, and the composition of the obtained distillates were investigated. The raw materials used were unmalted rye and barley grains, as well as the corresponding malts. All experiments were first performed on a semi-technical scale, and then verified under industrial conditions in a Polish distillery. The fermentable sugars present in sweet mashes mostly consisted of maltose, followed by glucose and maltotriose. Pressure-thermal treatment of unmalted cereals, and especially rye grains, resulted in higher ethanol content in mashes in comparison with samples subjected to pressureless liberation of starch. All agricultural distillates originating from mashes containing rye and barley grains and the corresponding malts were characterized by low concentrations of undesirable compounds, such as acetaldehyde and methanol. The distillates obtained under industrial conditions contained lower concentrations of higher alcohols (apart from 1-propanol than those obtained on a semi-technical scale.

  5. Impact of cell wall-degrading enzymes on water-holding capacity and solubility of dietary fibre in rye and wheat bran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersson, Karin; Nordlund, Emilia; Tornberg, Eva; Eliasson, Ann-Charlotte; Buchert, Johanna

    2013-03-15

    Rye and wheat bran were treated with several xylanases and endoglucanases, and the effects on physicochemical properties such as solubility, viscosity, water-holding capacity and particle size as well as the chemical composition of the soluble and insoluble fractions of the bran were studied. A large number of enzymes with well-defined activities were used. This enabled a comparison between enzymes of different origins and with different activities as well as a comparison between the effects of the enzymes on rye and wheat bran. The xylanases derived from Bacillus subtilis were the most effective in solubilising dietary fibre from wheat and rye bran. There was a tendency for a higher degree of degradation of the soluble or solubilised dietary fibre in rye bran than in wheat bran when treated with most of the enzymes. None of the enzymes increased the water-holding capacity of the bran or the viscosity of the aqueous phase. The content of insoluble material decreased as the dietary fibre was solubilised by the enzymes. The amount of material that may form a network to retain water in the system was thereby decreased. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Comparison of total phenolic content and composition of individual ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A successful peanut breeding to obtain genotypes with greater phenolic content requires information on type and content of phenolic compounds in parental peanut genotypes. The aim of this study was to investigate the total phenolic contents and phenolic acid profiles of 15 Valencia-type peanut genotypes both in peanut ...

  7. Sesquiterpenoids and phenolics from Taraxacum hondoense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisiel, Wanda; Michalska, Klaudia

    2005-09-01

    Eleven sesquiterpene lactones, including the new guaianolide 11beta-hydroxydeacetylmatricarin-8-O-beta-glucopyranoside, along with four known phenolic glucosides were isolated from Taraxacum hondoense. The compounds were characterized by spectral methods.

  8. Biological removal of phenol from wastewaters: a mini review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradeep, N. V.; Anupama, S.; Navya, K.; Shalini, H. N.; Idris, M.; Hampannavar, U. S.

    2015-06-01

    Phenol and its derivatives are common water pollutants and include wide variety of organic chemicals. Phenol poisoning can occur by skin absorption, inhalation, ingestion and various other methods which can result in health effects. High exposures to phenol may be fatal to human beings. Accumulation of phenol creates toxicity both for flora and fauna. Therefore, removal of phenol is crucial to perpetuate the environment and individual. Among various treatment methods available for removal of phenols, biodegradation is environmental friendly. Biological methods are gaining importance as they convert the wastes into harmless end products. The present work focuses on assessment of biological removal (biodegradation) of phenol. Various factors influence the efficiency of biodegradation of phenol such as ability of the microorganism, enzymes involved, the mechanism of degradation and influencing factors. This study describes about the sources of phenol, adverse effects on the environment, microorganisms involved in the biodegradation (aerobic and anaerobic) and enzymes that polymerize phenol.

  9. Preparation of pure phenols from tars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, J

    1933-02-07

    A process is disclosed for the preparation of pure phenols from brown coal tar, shale tar, or primary tar, characterized in that the raw oil obtained from the tar is carefully fractionated, in a suitable way without or with a slight pressure decrease, or before the fractionation the raw oil is heated to free the prepared phenolate solution from impurities after successful oxidation by passing in steam at a temperature between 100 and 120/sup 0/C.

  10. Enzymes of Candida tropicalis yeast biodegrading phenol

    OpenAIRE

    Koubková, Zuzana

    2011-01-01

    Effluents of industrial wastewaters from oil refineries, paper mills, dyes, ceramic factories, resins, textiles and plastic contain high concentrations of aromatic compounds, which are toxic to organisms. Degradation of these compounds to tolerant limits before releasing them into the environment is an urgent requirement. Candida tropicalis yeast is an important representative of eucaryotic microorganisms that are able to utilize phenol. During the first phase of phenol biodegradation, cytopl...

  11. Lysergic acid amide as chemical marker for the total ergot alkaloids in rye flour - Determination by high-performance thin-layer chromatography-fluorescence detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oellig, Claudia

    2017-07-21

    Ergot alkaloids are generally determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to fluorescence detection (FLD) or mass selective detection, analyzing the individual compounds. However, fast and easy screening methods for the determination of the total ergot alkaloid content are more suitable, since for monitoring only the sum of the alkaloids is relevant. The herein presented screening uses lysergic acid amide (LSA) as chemical marker, formed from ergopeptine alkaloids, and ergometrine for the determination of the total ergot alkaloids in rye with high-performance thin-layer chromatography-fluorescence detection (HPTLC-FLD). An ammonium acetate buffered extraction step was followed by liquid-liquid partition for clean-up before the ergopeptine alkaloids were selectively transformed to LSA and analyzed by HPTLC-FLD on silica gel with isopropyl acetate/methanol/water/25% ammonium hydroxide solution (80:10:3.8:1.1, v/v/v/v) as the mobile phase. The enhanced native fluorescence of LSA and unaffected ergometrine was used for quantitation without any interfering matrix. Limits of detection and quantitation were 8 and 26μg LSA/kg rye, which enables the determination of the total ergot alkaloids far below the applied quality criterion limit for rye. Close to 100% recoveries for different rye flours at relevant spiking levels were obtained. Thus, reliable results were guaranteed, and the fast and efficient screening for the total ergot alkaloids in rye offers a rapid alternative to the HPLC analysis of the individual compounds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Molecular basis of IgE-recognition of Lol p 5, a major allergen of rye-grass pollen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suphioglu, C; Blaher, B; Rolland, J M; McCluskey, J; Schäppi, G; Kenrick, J; Singh, M B; Knox, R B

    1998-04-01

    Grass pollen, especially of rye-grass (Lolium perenne). represents an important cause of type I allergy. Identification of IgE-binding (allergenic) epitopes of major grass pollen allergens is essential for understanding the molecular basis of interaction between allergens and human IgE antibodies and therefore facilitates the devising of safer and more effective diagnostic and immunotherapy reagents. The aim of this study was to identify the allergenic epitopes of Lol p 5, a major allergen of rye-grass pollen, immunodissect these epitopes further so that the amino acid residues critical for antibody binding can be determined and investigate the conservation and nature of these epitopes within the context of the natural grass pollen allergens. Peptides, 12-13 amino acid residues long and overlapping each other by 4 amino acid residues, based on the entire deduced amino acid sequence of the coding region of Lol p 5, were synthesised and assayed for IgE-binding. Two strong IgE-binding epitopes (Lol p 5 (49-60) and (265-276), referred to as peptides 7 and 34, respectively) were identified. These epitopes were further resolved by truncated peptides and amino acid replacement studies and the amino acid residues critical for IgE-binding determined (Lol p 5 (49-60) residue Lys57 and (265-276) residue Lys275). Sequences of these epitopes were conserved in related allergens and may form the conserved allergenic domains responsible for the cross-reactivity observed between pollen allergens of taxonomically related grasses. Furthermore, due to its strong IgE-reactivity, synthetic peptide Lol p 5 (265-276) was used to affinity-purify specific IgE antibodies which recognised proteins of other clinically important grass pollens. further indicating presence of allergenic cross-reactivity at the level of allergenic epitope. Moreover, Lol p 5 (265 276) demonstrated a strong capacity to inhibit IgE-binding to natural rye-grass pollen proteins highlighting the antibody accessibility

  13. APPLICATION OF OAT, WHEAT AND RYE BRAN TO MODIFY NUTRITIONAL PROPERTIES, PHYSICAL AND SENSORY CHARACTERISTICS OF EXTRUDED CORN SNACKS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makowska, Agnieszka; Polcyn, Anna; Chudy, Sylwia; Michniewicz, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Cereal products constitute the basis of the diet pyramid. While the consumption of such products as bread decreases, the group of food which popularity increase is cereal snacks. Unfortunately, the dietary value of this group of foodstuffs is limited. Thus, different types of cereal bran may be added to the produced snacks to enhance their nutritive value. However, an addition of bran may have an adverse effect on quality attributes of products. Corn grits enriched with 20 and 40% oat, wheat and rye bran was extruded. Basic parameters determining the nutritive value, physical characteristics and sensory attributes of the six produced types of extrudates were measured and compared. Moreover, the effect of additives applied on viscosity of aqueous suspensions of the raw materials and extrudates under controlled conditions was measured using RVA. The dietary value of snacks containing bran depends on the type and quantitative shares of the additives. The content of dietary fibre in produced extrudates ranged from 6.5 to 15.8%, including soluble dietary fibre at 2.1 to 3.7%. With an increase of bran content in extrudates, their expansion decreased, density increased and the colour of extrudates changed (reduced brightness, increased a*, decreased b*). In sensory evaluation the highest acceptability was given to extrudates with a 20% addition of oat bran, while the lowest was given for those with 40% wheat bran. Based on PCA results positive correlations were found between overall desirability and crispiness, porosity, taste, colour and expansion. Negative correlations between desirability and hardness and density of extrudates were observed. The additives and their level also had an effect on changes in viscosity of aqueous suspensions measured using RVA. However, no correlation was found between quality features of extrudates and values of attributes measured in the analysis of viscosity. In the production of corn extruded snacks an addition of oat, wheat and rye bran

  14. Berry Phenolics of Grapevine under Challenging Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernâni Gerós

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Plant phenolics have been for many years a theme of major scientific and applied interest. Grape berry phenolics contribute to organoleptic properties, color and protection against environmental challenges. Climate change has already caused significant warming in most grape-growing areas of the world, and the climatic conditions determine, to a large degree, the grape varieties that can be cultivated as well as wine quality. In particular, heat, drought and light/UV intensity severely affect phenolic metabolism and, thus, grape composition and development. In the variety Chardonnay, water stress increases the content of flavonols and decreases the expression of genes involved in biosynthesis of stilbene precursors. Also, polyphenolic profile is greatly dependent on genotype and environmental interactions. This review deals with the diversity and biosynthesis of phenolic compounds in the grape berry, from a general overview to a more detailed level, where the influence of environmental challenges on key phenolic metabolism pathways is approached. The full understanding of how and when specific phenolic compounds accumulate in the berry, and how the varietal grape berry metabolism responds to the environment is of utmost importance to adjust agricultural practices and thus, modify wine profile.

  15. Nutritional Value of Seaweed to Ruminants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger D. Applegate

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available We compared the nutritional quality (apparent digestible dry matter (ADDM, crude protein, total phenolics, gross energy, of 3 seaweed species (Alaria esculenta, Ascophyllum nodosum, Fucus vesiculosis to that of 3 woody browse species{Acer rubrum, Thuja occidentalis, Abies balsamea, lichen (Usnea spp., and winter rye (Secale cereals for ruminants. The ADDM's of the 3 seaweeds (63-80% DM were 11-167% DM higher and crude protein contents (12.1-14.6% DM were 68-186% DM higher than the 3 browse species. Seaweeds had lower total phenolics (5.5-10.3% DM and gross energy (12-15 KJ/g DM, and moderate digestible energy (DE contents (9-10 KJ/g DM compared to the browse species. The 3 browse species had ADDM's of 30-57% DM, crude protein contents of 5.1-7.2% DM, total phenolic concentrations of 11.6-16.4% DM, and DE contents of 6-12 KJ/g DM. Winter rye and lichen had the lowest total phenolic concentrations (1.3 and 1.9% DM of forages examined, and had lower ADDM's (35 and 40% DM, DE contents (6-7 KJ/g DM, and crude protein (7.8 and 5.7% DM than seaweeds. The relatively high DE and protein contents of seaweed may explain high deer densities of Maine coastal islands where browse availability and use appears to be low.

  16. A study of the human immune response to Lolium perenne (rye) pollen and its components, Lol p I and Lol p II (rye I and rye II). I. Prevalence of reactivity to the allergens and correlations among skin test, IgE antibody, and IgG antibody data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freidhoff, L R; Ehrlich-Kautzky, E; Grant, J H; Meyers, D A; Marsh, D G

    1986-12-01

    In a stratified random sample of 320 white adults, the prevalence of puncture skin test positivity (ST +) to Lolium perenne (rye grass)-pollen extract (LPE) was 16%. Fifteen percent of all subjects (or 84% of subjects classified LPE IgE antibody positive [Ab +]) was classified IgE Ab + to highly purified Lol p I (Rye I), and 4% of all subjects (or 26% of subjects classified LPE IgE Ab +) was classified IgE Ab + to highly purified Lol p II (Rye II). These data and similar results obtained in an allergy-enriched group of 361 subjects are consistent with previous studies that Lol I is a major allergen and Lol II is a minor allergen of LPE. Whether we studied LPE, Lol I, or Lol II, responder subjects were younger than nonresponder subjects and more male than female subjects were responders. We then investigated the quantitative interrelationships among ST, IgE, and IgG Ab responsiveness to LPE, Lol I, and Lol II in the allergy-enriched group. For each allergen, log-log correlations were strong and significant for ST versus IgE Ab and for IgE Ab versus IgG Ab. All subjects IgE Ab + to Lol I or Lol II were IgG Ab + to that allergen, supporting other evidence for a commonality in the genetic control influencing the production of IgE and IgG Abs to a given allergen. Log-log correlations among ST end points, IgE Ab levels, or IgG Ab levels were strong for LPE versus either Lol I or Lol II but weak between Lol I and Lol II, consistent with the reported lack of cross-reactivity between Lol I and Lol II. Despite these findings, almost all Lol II + subjects were Lol I + by ST (98%), IgE Ab (91%), and IgG Ab (83%), suggesting that the Ia-restricted immune recognition of both these molecules is at least in part under a common genetic control.

  17. Zea mI, the maize homolog of the allergen-encoding Lol pI gene of rye grass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadwater, A H; Rubinstein, A L; Chay, C H; Klapper, D G; Bedinger, P A

    1993-09-15

    Sequence analysis of a pollen-specific cDNA from maize has identified a homolog (Zea mI) of the gene (Lol pI) encoding the major allergen of rye-grass pollen. The protein encoded by the partial cDNA sequence is 59.3% identical and 72.7% similar to the comparable region of the reported amino acid sequence of Lol pIA. Southern analysis indicates that this cDNA represents a member of a small multigene family in maize. Northern analysis shows expression only in pollen, not in vegetative or female floral tissues. The timing of expression is developmentally regulated, occurring at a low level prior to the first pollen mitosis and at a high level after this postmeiotic division. Western analysis detects a protein in maize pollen lysates using polyclonal antiserum and monoclonal antibodies directed against purified Lolium perenne allergen.

  18. Cloning and sequencing of Lol pI, the major allergenic protein of rye-grass pollen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, I J; Smith, P M; Pollock, J; Theerakulpisut, P; Avjioglu, A; Davies, S; Hough, T; Singh, M B; Simpson, R J; Ward, L D

    1991-02-25

    We have isolated a full length cDNA clone encoding the major glycoprotein allergen Lol pI. The clone was selected using a combination of immunological screening of a cDNA expression library and PCR amplification of Lol pI-specific transcripts. Lol pI expressed in bacteria as a fusion protein shows recognition by specific IgE antibodies present in sera of grass pollen-allergic subjects. Northern analysis has shown that the Lol pI transcripts are expressed only in pollen of rye-grass. Molecular cloning of Lol pI provides a molecular genetic approach to study the structure-function relationship of allergens.

  19. Diversity and Stability of Lactic Acid Bacteria in Rye Sourdoughs of Four Bakeries with Different Propagation Parameters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ene Viiard

    Full Text Available We identified the lactic acid bacteria within rye sourdoughs and starters from four bakeries with different propagation parameters and tracked their dynamics for between 5-28 months after renewal. Evaluation of bacterial communities was performed using plating, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, and pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons. Lactobacillus amylovorus and Lactobacillus frumenti or Lactobacillus helveticus, Lactobacillus pontis and Lactobacillus panis prevailed in sourdoughs propagated at higher temperature, while ambient temperature combined with a short fermentation cycle selected for Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis, Lactobacillus pontis, and Lactobacillus zymae or Lactobacillus helveticus, Lactobacillus pontis and Lactobacillus zymae. The ratio of species in bakeries employing room-temperature propagation displayed a seasonal dependence. Introduction of different and controlled propagation parameters at one bakery (higher fermentation temperature, reduced inoculum size, and extended fermentation time resulted in stabilization of the microbial community with an increased proportion of L. helveticus and L. pontis. Despite these new propagation parameters no new species were detected.

  20. Attempts to use pulsed light as an emerging technology for inactivation of mould naturally present on rye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NICOLETA ARON MAFTEI

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Pulsed light technology was used to inactivate moulds, naturally present on rye. The experiments were performed on samples containing 3.5·104 CFU/g and 4.3·103 CFU/g. Treatments of different duration (5, 10, 15, 20, 30, and 40 pulses at intensity of 0.4 J·cm-2 per pulse were applied and mould inactivation was evaluated. Besides confirming the utilisation of pulsed light as decontamination method for cereals, this work contributes with new information regarding the effects of the spectral range of pulsed light, proving that the whole UV range of the spectrum accounts for the lethal effect against moulds. This research supports pulsed light as emerging technology in food preservation.

  1. The powdery mildew resistance gene Pm8 derived from rye is suppressed by its wheat ortholog Pm3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurni, Severine; Brunner, Susanne; Stirnweis, Daniel; Herren, Gerhard; Peditto, David; McIntosh, Robert A; Keller, Beat

    2014-09-01

    The powdery mildew resistance gene Pm8 derived from rye is located on a 1BL.1RS chromosome translocation in wheat. However, some wheat lines with this translocation do not show resistance to isolates of the wheat powdery mildew pathogen avirulent to Pm8 due to an unknown genetically dominant suppression mechanism. Here we show that lines with suppressed Pm8 activity contain an intact and expressed Pm8 gene. Therefore, the absence of Pm8 function in certain 1BL.1RS-containing wheat lines is not the result of gene loss or mutation but is based on suppression. The wheat gene Pm3, an ortholog of rye Pm8, suppressed Pm8-mediated powdery mildew resistance in lines containing Pm8 in a transient single-cell expression assay. This result was further confirmed in transgenic lines with combined Pm8 and Pm3 transgenes. Expression analysis revealed that suppression is not the result of gene silencing, either in wheat 1BL.1RS translocation lines carrying Pm8 or in transgenic genotypes with both Pm8 and Pm3 alleles. In addition, a similar abundance of the PM8 and PM3 proteins in single or double homozygous transgenic lines suggested that a post-translational mechanism is involved in suppression of Pm8. Co-expression of Pm8 and Pm3 genes in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves followed by co-immunoprecipitation analysis showed that the two proteins interact. Therefore, the formation of a heteromeric protein complex might result in inefficient or absent signal transmission for the defense reaction. These data provide a molecular explanation for the suppression of resistance genes in certain genetic backgrounds and suggest ways to circumvent it in future plant breeding. © 2014 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Transfer of Hessian fly resistance from rye to wheat via radiation-induced terminal and intercalary chromosomal translocations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friebe, B.; Hatchett, J.H.; Gill, B.S.; Mukai, Y.; Sebesta, E.E.

    1991-01-01

    A new Hessian fly (Mayetiola destructor) resistance gene derived from 'Balbo' rye and its transfer to hexaploid wheat via radiation-induced terminal and intercalary chromosomal translocations are described. Crosses between resistant 'Balbo' rye and susceptible 'Suwon 92' wheat and between the F1 amphidiploids and susceptible 'TAM 106' and 'Amigo' wheats produced resistant BC2F3 lines that were identified by C-banding analysis as being 6RL telocentric addition lines. Comparative chromosomal analyses and resistance tests revealed that the resistance gene is located on the 6RL telocentric chromosome. X-irradiated pollen of 6RL addition plants was used to fertilize plants of susceptible wheats 'TAM 106,' 'TAM 101,' and 'Vona.' After several generations of selection for resistance, new sublines were obtained that were homogeneous for resistance. Thirteen of these lines were analyzed by C-banding, and three different wheat-6RL chromosomal translocations (T) were identified. Wheat chromosomes involved in the translocations were 6B, 4B, and 4A. Almost the complete 6RL arm is present in T6BS · 6BL-6RL. Only the distal half of 6RL is present in T4BS · 4BL-6RL, which locates the resistance gene in the distal half of 6RL. Only a very small segment (ca 1.0 μm) of the distal region of 6RL is present in an intercalary translocation (Ti) Ti4AS · 4AL-6RL-4AL. The 6RL segment is inserted in the intercalary region between the centromere of chromosome 4A and the large proximal C-band of 4AL. The break-points of the translocations are outside the region of the centromere, indicating that they were induced by the X-ray treatment. All three translocations are cytologically stable and can be used directly in wheat breeding programs

  3. Methodologic considerations in the measurement of glycemic index: glycemic response to rye bread, oatmeal porridge, and mashed potato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hätönen, Katja A; Similä, Minna E; Virtamo, Jarmo R; Eriksson, Johan G; Hannila, Marja-Leena; Sinkko, Harri K; Sundvall, Jouko E; Mykkänen, Hannu M; Valsta, Liisa M

    2006-11-01

    Methodologic choices affect measures of the glycemic index (GI). The effects on GI values of blood sampling site, reference food type, and the number of repeat tests have been insufficiently determined. The objective was to study the effect of methodologic choices on GI values. Comparisons were made between venous and capillary blood sampling and between glucose and white bread as the reference food. The number of tests needed for the reference food was assessed. Rye bread, oatmeal porridge, and instant mashed potato were used as the test foods. Twelve healthy volunteers were served each test food once and both reference foods 3 times at 1-wk intervals in a random order after they had fasted overnight. Capillary and venous blood samples were drawn at intervals for 3 h after each study meal. GIs and their CVs based on capillary samples were lower than those based on venous samples. Two tests of glucose solution as the reference provided stable capillary GIs for the test foods. The capillary GIs did not differ significantly when white bread was used as the reference 1, 2, or 3 times, but the variation was lower when tests were performed 2 and 3 times. Capillary GIs with white bread as the reference were 1.3 times as high as those with glucose as the reference. The capillary GIs of rye bread, oatmeal porridge, and mashed potato were 77, 74, and 80, respectively, with glucose as the reference. Capillary blood sampling should be used in the measurement of GI, and reference tests with glucose or white bread should be performed at least twice.

  4. Identification and characterization of phenol hydroxylase from phenol-degrading Candida tropicalis strain JH8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Yan; Yang, Sheng; Xie, Zhixiong; Cheng, Li

    2014-09-01

    The gene phhY encoding phenol hydroxylase from Candida tropicalis JH8 was cloned, sequenced, and expressed in Escherichia coli. The gene phhY contained an open reading frame of 2130 bp encoding a polypeptide of 709 amino acid residues. From its sequence analysis, it is a member of a family of flavin-containing aromatic hydroxylases and shares 41% amino acid identity with phenol hydroxylase from Trichosporon cutaneum. The recombinant phenol hydroxylase exists as a homotetramer structure with a native molecular mass of 320 kDa. Recombinant phenol hydroxylase was insensitive to pH treatment; its optimum pH was at 7.6. The optimum temperature for the enzyme was 30 °C, and its activity was rapidly lost at temperatures above 60 °C. Under the optimal conditions with phenol as substrate, the K(m) and V(max) of recombinant phenol hydroxylase were 0.21 mmol·L(-1) and 0.077 μmol·L(-1)·min(-1), respectively. This is the first paper presenting the cloning and expression in E. coli of the phenol hydroxylase gene from C. tropicalis and the characterization of the recombinant phenol hydroxylase.

  5. Selective defunctionalization by TiO2 of monomeric phenolics from lignin pyrolysis into simple phenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mante, Ofei D; Rodriguez, Jose A; Babu, Suresh P

    2013-11-01

    This study is focused on defunctionalizing monomeric phenolics from lignin into simple phenols for applications such as phenol/formaldehyde resins, epoxidized novolacs, adhesives and binders. Towards this goal, Titanium dioxide (TiO2) was used to selectively remove hydroxyl, methoxy, carbonyl and carboxyl functionalities from the monomeric phenolic compounds from lignin to produce mainly phenol, cresols and xylenols. The results showed that anatase TiO2 was more selective and active compared to rutile TiO2. Catechols were found to be the most reactive phenolics and 4-ethylguaiacol the least reactive with anatase TiO2. An overall conversion of about 87% of the phenolics was achieved at 550°C with a catalyst-to-feed ratio of 5 w/w. Over 97% conversion of phenolics is achievable at moderate temperatures (550°C or ≤ 600°C) and a moderate catalyst-to-feed ratio of 6.5:1. The reactivity of catechols on TiO2 suggests that titania is a promising catalyst in the removal of hydroxyl moiety. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. A study of the human immune response to Lolium perenne (rye) pollen and its components, Lol p I and Lol p II (Rye I and Rye II). II. Longitudinal variation of antibody levels in relation to symptomatology and pollen exposure and correction of seasonally elevated antibody levels to basal values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freidhoff, L R; Ehrlich-Kautzky, E; Meyers, D A; Marsh, D G

    1987-11-01

    This study used a standardized, dialyzed, Lolium perenne (ryegrass) pollen extract and two of its well-characterized components, Lol p I (Rye I) and Lol p II (Rye II), to characterize the longitudinal variation of both IgE and IgG antibody (Ab) levels, as well as total serum IgE levels, in 20 grass-allergic subjects followed for 13 months. Ab levels declined toward a basal level just before, and increased just after, the grass-pollination season, returning to the same basal level just before the next grass-pollination season. The least complex allergen, Lol II, demonstrated the most uniform pattern of variation in both IgE and IgG Ab levels. Total serum IgE levels demonstrated the least regular pattern of variation. Grass-pollen counts were strongly correlated with symptom-medication scores for these subjects (rs = 0.87). Initial values were correlated with the rise in total IgE and IgE Ab to Lol II across the grass-pollen season. Skin test results were correlated with initial IgE Ab levels for L. perenne pollen extract and Lol II. Finally, a procedure for correcting IgE Ab levels to basal values was proposed and tested. The correction procedure, for each IgE Ab, was based on the average rise during the grass-pollination season (or average decline after the grass-pollination season) observed for all subjects with that IgE Ab.

  7. Fatal Phenol Toxicity Following Attempted Tattoo Removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhen; Zhang, Huang; Li, Shu-Hua; Byard, Roger W

    2016-07-01

    Tattoo removal is increasingly required as the number of, particularly young, people acquiring tattoos is increasing. A 21-year-old man is reported who underwent attempted removal of large dragon tattoo utilizing a tattoo machine that injected a phenol-containing solution. At the end of the 3-h procedure, he collapsed and died. At autopsy, large areas of white skin discoloration with focal necrosis and sloughing were present overlying areas of previous tattooing. Histological examination showed collections of eosinophilic fluid with a minimal chronic inflammatory infiltrate in better preserved areas, with focal areas of dermal necrosis. Toxicology was positive for phenol in cardiac blood and liver tissue. There were no underlying organic disease or injuries present which could have caused or contributed to death. This idiosyncratic method of tattoo removal involving subcutaneous injection of phenol had resulted in death most likely from cardiotoxicity. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  8. Antioxidative and antiradical properties of plant phenolics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sroka, Zbigniew

    2005-01-01

    The plant phenolic compounds such as flavonoids, tannins and phenolic acids appeared to be strong antiradical and antioxidant compounds. The number of hydroxy groups and the presence of a 2,3-double bond and orthodiphenolic structure enhance antiradical and antioxidative activity of flavonoids. The glycosylation, blocking the 3-OH group in C-ring, lack of a hydroxy group or the presence of only a methoxy group in B-ring have a decreasing effect on antiradical or antioxidative activity of these compounds. Tannins show strong antioxidative properties. Some tannins in red wine or gallate esters were proved to have antioxidative effect in vivo. The number of hydroxy groups connected with the aromatic ring, in ortho or para position relative to each other, enhance antioxidative and antiradical activity of phenolic acids. The substitution of a methoxy group in ortho position to the OH in monophenols seems to favour the antioxidative activity of the former.

  9. High-Temperature Graphite/Phenolic Composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seal, Ellis C.; Bodepudi, Venu P.; Biggs, Robert W., Jr.; Cranston, John A.

    1995-01-01

    Graphite-fiber/phenolic-resin composite material retains relatively high strength and modulus of elasticity at temperatures as high as 1,000 degrees F. Costs only 5 to 20 percent as much as refractory materials. Fabrication composite includes curing process in which application of full autoclave pressure delayed until after phenolic resin gels. Curing process allows moisture to escape, so when composite subsequently heated in service, much less expansion of absorbed moisture and much less tendency toward delamination. Developed for nose cone of external fuel tank of Space Shuttle. Other potential aerospace applications for material include leading edges, parts of nozzles, parts of aircraft engines, and heat shields. Terrestrial and aerospace applications include structural firewalls and secondary structures in aircraft, spacecraft, and ships. Modified curing process adapted to composites of phenolic with other fiber reinforcements like glass or quartz. Useful as high-temperature circuit boards and electrical insulators.

  10. Grandstand view of phenolic foam insulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-03-01

    Stadium Insulation Ltd, manufacture pipe sections, tank and vessel insulation products in Lowphen, polyisocyanurate, polyurethane foams and expanded polystyrene, though for certain specialist applications, cork is still employed in small quantities. Currently the emphasis is very much on Lowphen, the company's range of pipe sections based on phenolic foam. The company's manufacturing and marketing effort reflects the increasing market trend towards the use of insulating material capable of withstanding higher temperatures, and phenolic foam neatly satisfies the demand since it is capable of use at temperatures up to 140/sup 0/C. Moreover, phenolic foam has the lowest K value at 0.02W/m/sup 0/C of any of the currently available range of insulating materials, and while the product is slightly more expensive than alternatives such as polyisocyanurate and polyurethane, its high performance offsets that premium.

  11. High chemoselectivity in the phenol synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Stephen K. Hashmi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Efforts to trap early intermediates of the gold-catalyzed phenol synthesis failed. Neither inter- nor intramolecularly offered vinyl groups, ketones or alcohols were able to intercept the gold carbenoid species. This indicates that the competing steps of the gold-catalyzed phenol synthesis are much faster than the steps of the interception reaction. In the latter the barrier of activation is higher. At the same time this explains the high tolerance of this very efficient and general reaction towards functional groups.

  12. The role of whole-wheat grain and wheat and rye ingredients on the digestion and fermentation processes in the gut - a model experiment with pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Legall, Maud; Serena, Anja; Jørgensen, Henry

    2009-01-01

    The effect of wheat and rye breads made from white wheat flour with added refined fibre (WFL), whole-wheat grain, wheat aleurone flour (WAF) or rye aleurone flour (RAF) on digestion and fermentation processes in the gut was studied in a model experiment with pigs. The diets were similar in dietary...... of the wheat-based diets primarily due to the higher intestinal viscosity. The DF composition had an impact on (P,0001) the site for fibre degradation in the large intestine. Thus, AX of the WAF bread, with the lowest degree of substitution, were fermented as much in the caecum as in the colon, whereas AX...... of the RAF bread, with an intermediary degree of substitution, were mainly fermented in the caecum. The WFL bread, rich in cellulose, was fermented more distally. Fermentation of experimental breads in the large intestine had no effect (P.005) on the production of metabolites, except for butyrate which...

  13. Effects of cereal breakfasts on postprandial glucose, appetite regulation and voluntary energy intake at a subsequent standardized lunch; focusing on rye products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björck Inger ME

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rye products have been demonstrated to lower the acute insulin demand, induce a low and prolonged blood glucose response (high Glycemic Profile, GP and reduce subclinical inflammation. These products may therefore contribute to a lowered risk of obesity, type 2 diabetes and cardio vascular disease. The objective of the present paper was to evaluate the mechanism for a reduced postprandial insulin demand with rye products, and to explore possible appetite regulating properties. Methods 10 healthy subjects were served breakfast meals (50 g of available starch with endosperm- or whole grain rye breads, with and without lactic acid, boiled whole grain rye- (RK or wheat (WK kernels, or white wheat bread reference (WWB in random order in a cross-over design. Plasma concentrations of glucose, ghrelin, serum insulin, free fatty acids, adiponectin, breath hydrogen excretion (H2, and subjective satiety was evaluated during the postprandial phase. 270 min after the breakfast, an ad lib lunch buffet was served and the voluntary energy intake (EI was registered. Results All rye products and WK induced lower insulinemic indices (II than WWB. A lower incremental insulin peak following breakfast correlated with a lower EI at lunch (r = 0.38. A low II was related to improved satiety in the early postprandial phase (fullness AUC 0-60 min, r = -0.36. RK induced a higher GP compared to WWB and WK. A higher GP was related to a lowered desire to eat before lunch (AUC 210-270 and to a lower concentration of ghrelin in the late postprandial phase after breakfast (270 min, r = -0.29 and -0.29, which in turn was related to a lower voluntary EI (r = 0.43 and 0.33. The RK breakfast improved satiety in the early postprandial phase (0-60 min compared to WWB, and induced a lower EI at lunch (-16%. A high content of indigestible carbohydrates in the breakfast products was related to improved satiety (0-60 min, r = 0.68 for fullness, and a higher breath H2

  14. The effects of oxidative stress on phenolic composition and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Twenty phenolic compounds (apigenin, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, gallic acid, ... quercetin, rutin hydrate, vanillic acid, ferulic acid, salicylic acid, sinapic acid, ... phenolic molecules biosynthesis and activation of antioxidant metabolism on ...

  15. Antifungal activity of extracts and phenolic compounds from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-06-17

    Jun 17, 2009 ... Key words: Barringtonia racemosa, antifungal, HPLC, phenolic acids, flavonoids. ... Among them, phenolic acids and flavonoids have been the object of .... on the previous method as described by Crozier et al. ... Quantification.

  16. Yttrium Nitrate mediated Nitration of Phenols at room temperature in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The described method is selective for phenols. ... the significant cause of post translational modification that can ... decades, significant attention was paid on nitration of phenols to .... Progress of the reaction can be noted visually. Yttrium.

  17. Antibacterial Activity of Phenolic Compounds Against the Phytopathogen Xylella fastidiosa

    OpenAIRE

    Maddox, Christina E.; Laur, Lisa M.; Tian, Li

    2010-01-01

    Xylella fastidiosa is a pathogenic bacterium that causes diseases in many crop species, which leads to considerable economic loss. Phenolic compounds (a group of secondary metabolites) are widely distributed in plants and have shown to possess antimicrobial properties. The anti-Xylella activity of 12 phenolic compounds, representing phenolic acid, coumarin, stilbene and flavonoid, was evaluated using an in vitro agar dilution assay. Overall, these phenolic compounds were effective in inhibiti...

  18. The removal of phenols from oily wastewater by chlorine dioxide

    OpenAIRE

    Hsu, Chung-Jung

    1988-01-01

    Treatability studies were performed on oily wastewaters produced by petroleum and canning industries. Chlorine dioxide was used for the removal of phenolic compounds from these oily wastewaters. Most of phenolic compounds can be destroyed by chlorine dioxide within 15 minutes if CI02-to-phenol ratios of higher than 5.0 are provided. Factors such as pH, temperature, and COD have little effect on phenol removal. The effectiveness of chlorine dioxide treatment depends critic...

  19. Study of Canopy Structure and Growth Characters Role of Two Wheat Cultivars in Competition, on Economic Threshold and Yield of Rye and Wild Mustard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Saadatian

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the role of effective factors on competition of two wheat cultivars against two species of narrow leaf and broad leaf weeds this study was conducted as two separated experiments based on a randomized complete block design with 3 replications at Agricultural Faculty of Bu-Ali Sina University, in 2008-2009. In both Experiments, Alvand and Sayson cultivars were planted with densities of 450 plants m-2. In the 1st experiment, rye with densities of 0, 20, 40, 60 and 80 plants m-2 were planted in inter-rows of wheat. In the 2nd experiment, wild mustard densities were 0, 8, 16, 24 and 32 plants m-2. The results showed that characters such as vertical distribution of leaf area index and dry matter, height and its increase rate in interference, emergence rate, rate of canopy development and precocity led to increasing competitive ability of Alvand than Sayson in competition with two weed species. These factors were effective in reduction seed production of weeds and economic threshold in Alvand. Despite of lower height of wild mustard than rye, distribution of leaf area and canopy structure of wild mustard increased light competition ability and shadow on crop, so that harmful effects of individual plant of wild mustard in different densities was more than rye. Increasing rate of wild mustard seed bank was more than ray.

  20. Postprandial differences in the plasma metabolome of healthy Finnish subjects after intake of a sourdough fermented endosperm rye bread versus white wheat bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mykkänen Hannu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mechanism behind the lowered postprandial insulin demand observed after rye bread intake compared to wheat bread is unknown. The aim of this study was to use the metabolomics approach to identify potential metabolites related to amino acid metabolism involved in this mechanism. Methods A sourdough fermented endosperm rye bread (RB and a standard white wheat bread (WB as a reference were served in random order to 16 healthy subjects. Test bread portions contained 50 g available carbohydrate. In vitro hydrolysis of starch and protein were performed for both test breads. Blood samples for measuring glucose and insulin concentrations were drawn over 4 h and gastric emptying rate (GER was measured. Changes in the plasma metabolome were investigated by applying a comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry metabolomics platform (GC×GC-TOF-MS. Results Plasma insulin response to RB was lower than to WB at 30 min (P = 0.004, 45 min (P = 0.002 and 60 min (P in vitro protein digestibility. There were no differences in GER between breads. From 255 metabolites identified by the metabolomics platform, 26 showed significant postprandial relative changes after 30 minutes of bread intake (p and q values Conclusions A single meal of a low fibre sourdough rye bread producing low postprandial insulin response brings in several changes in plasma amino acids and their metabolites and some of these might have properties beneficial for health.

  1. 40 CFR 721.5762 - Aromatic aldehyde phenolic resin (generic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aromatic aldehyde phenolic resin... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5762 Aromatic aldehyde phenolic resin (generic). (a) Chemical substance... aromatic aldehyde phenolic resin (PMN P-01-573) is subject to reporting under this section for the...

  2. 21 CFR 177.2410 - Phenolic resins in molded articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Phenolic resins in molded articles. 177.2410... as Components of Articles Intended for Repeated Use § 177.2410 Phenolic resins in molded articles. Phenolic resins identified in this section may be safely used as the food-contact surface of molded...

  3. Reaction of formaldehyde with phenols: a computational chemistry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tohru Mitsunaga; Anthony H. Conner; Charles G. Hill

    2001-01-01

    Phenolic resins are important adhesives used by the forest products industry. The phenolic compounds in these resins are derived primarily from petrochemical sources. Alternate sources of phenolic compounds include tannins, lignins, biomass pyrolysis products, and coal gasification products. Because of variations in their chemical structures, the reactivities of these...

  4. Kinetics of biological treatment of phenolic wastewater in a three ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phenolic wastewater was treated in a three-phase draft tube fluidized bed reactor containing biofilm. Phenol removal rate with biofilm was evaluated both theoretically and experimentally. The results indicate that biodegradation of phenolic wastewater by biofilm process could be treated as a zero order reaction.

  5. [Production, absorption and excretion of phenols in intestinal obstruction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamoto, M

    1986-11-01

    In intestinal obstruction, phenols were produced in the distended loop proximal to obstruction by enteric bacteria. Clinically, in 17 cases of non-strangulated intestinal obstruction, phenols were detected in 15 cases and mean concentration of phenols was 4.2 +/- 9.7 micro g/ml(mean +/- 1 SD). In the fraction of phenols, p-cresol was detected in 15 cases and mean concentration was 3.8 +/- 7.7 and phenol was detected in 4 cases and mean concentration was 0.5 +/- 2.6. Phenols were decreased as clinical improvement of intestinal obstruction. Enteric bacteria in enteric juice ranged from 10(4) to 10(10)/ml and its change paralleled to phenols concentration. Mean urinary concentration of phenols in intestinal obstruction was increased to 297 +/- 415 mg/day compared to control (less than 50 mg/day). Its change also paralleled to phenols concentration in enteric juice. Closed ileal loop was made in dogs and phenols were infused in the loop. Phenols were increased in the portal vein 5 min after the infusion and in the femoral vein 60 min after the infusion. Phenols, which was thought to be toxic to the host, were proved to be produced in the distended intestine and excreted from the kidney.

  6. Electrochemical catalytic treatment of phenol wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Hongzhu; Zhang Xinhai; Ma Qingliang; Wang Bo

    2009-01-01

    The slurry bed catalytic treatment of contaminated water appears to be a promising alternative for the oxidation of aqueous organic pollutants. In this paper, the electrochemical oxidation of phenol in synthetic wastewater catalyzed by ferric sulfate and potassium permanganate adsorbed onto active bentonite in slurry bed electrolytic reactor with graphite electrode has been investigated. In order to determine the optimum operating condition, the orthogonal experiments were devised and the results revealed that the system of ferric sulfate, potassium permanganate and active bentonite showed a high catalytic efficiency on the process of electrochemical oxidation phenol in initial pH 5. When the initial concentration of phenol was 0.52 g/L (the initial COD 1214 mg/L), up to 99% chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal was obtained in 40 min. According to the experimental results, a possible mechanism of catalytic degradation of phenol was proposed. Environmental estimation was also done and the results showed that the treated wastewater have little impact on plant growth and could totally be applied to irrigation.

  7. DEGRADATION AND TOXICITY REDUCTION OF PHENOL BY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a

    Ultrasonic energy dissipated in the reactor was set at 2.5 W cm-2 through the calorimetric method. ... temperature-controlled condition of 22 ± 2 ºC and a 12/12 light-dark cycle. Culture ... Plot of Ln C/Co vs. time for sonodegradation of phenol.

  8. Interaction of phenolic antioxidants and hydroxyl radicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Wenfeng; Luo Jian; Yao Side; Lian Zhirui; Zhang Jiashan; Lin Nianyun

    1992-01-01

    Based on pulse radiolysis of aqueous solutions of four phenolic antioxidants including green tea polyphenols, quercetin, caffeic acid and sinapic acid the rate constants for reactions of OH and the antioxidants were determined. And green tea polyphenols and quercetin are the strongest antioxidants

  9. Continuous phenol removal using Nocardia hydrocarbonoxydans in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Shock load studies are essential to investigate the suitability of biocontactors in degradation of pollutants. In the present work, the degradation of phenol by immobilized Nocardia hydrocarbonoxydans in a spouted bed contactor was conducted. Granular activated carbon (GAC) and polymer beads were tested for the ...

  10. Separation and characterization of phenolic compounds from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (Combretaceae) is an Ivorian medicinal plant. There is little ethnobotanical and almost no chemical information available for this species. The aim of this study was to isolate phenolic compounds from T. ivoriensis. In this way, its ethyl acetate extract (Ea) was fractionated by silica gel column chromatography followed by ...

  11. Continuous phenol removal using Nocardia hydrocarbonoxydans in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-02-18

    Feb 18, 2009 ... be removed from waste stream before discharge. Biodegradation of phenol is a widely used method as it is economical and easy to operate as compared to chemi- cal, physical, electrochemical or advanced oxidation process. Attached growth processes have advantage of retain- ing more biomass in the ...

  12. Antiplasmodial activity of some phenolic compounds from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Plasmodium falciparum, one of the causative agents of malaria, has high adaptability through mutation and is resistant to many types of anti-malarial drugs. This study presents an in vitro assessment of the antiplasmodial activity of some phenolic compounds isolated from plants of the genus Allanblackia.

  13. Exposure to phenols, parabens and UV filters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joensen, Ulla N.; Jørgensen, Niels; Thyssen, Jacob P.

    2017-01-01

    Concentrations of eight simple phenols, six parabens and nine UV filters were analysed in urine from 65 FLG loss-of-function mutation carriers and 130 non-carriers (controls). Regression analyses, controlling for urinary dilution and confounders, were performed to estimate associations between FLG mutation...

  14. Phenolic compounds in Ross Sea water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zangrando, Roberta; Barbaro, Elena; Gambaro, Andrea; Barbante, Carlo; Corami, Fabiana; Kehrwald, Natalie; Capodaglio, Gabriele

    2016-04-01

    Phenolic compounds are semi-volatile organic compounds produced during biomass burning and lignin degradation in water. In atmospheric and paleoclimatic ice cores studies, these compounds are used as biomarkers of wood combustion and supply information on the type of combusted biomass. Phenolic compounds are therefore indicators of paleoclimatic interest. Recent studies of Antarctic aerosols highlighted that phenolic compounds in Antarctica are not exclusively attributable to biomass burning but also derive from marine sources. In order to study the marine contribution to aerosols we developed an analytical method to determine the concentration of vanillic acid, vanillin, p-coumaric acid, syringic acid, isovanillic acid, homovanillic acid, syringaldehyde, acetosyringone and acetovanillone present in dissolved and particle phases in Sea Ross waters using HPLC-MS/MS. The analytical method was validated and used to quantify phenolic compounds in 28 sea water samples collected during a 2012 Ross Sea R/V cruise. The observed compounds were vanillic acid, vanillin, acetovanillone and p-coumaric acid with concentrations in the ng/L range. Higher concentrations of analytes were present in the dissolved phase than in the particle phase. Sample concentrations were greatest in the coastal, surficial and less saline Ross Sea waters near Victoria Land.

  15. Antioxidant Capacity, Radical Scavenging Kinetics and Phenolic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antioxidant Capacity, Radical Scavenging Kinetics and Phenolic Profile of Methanol Extracts of Wild Plants of Southern Sonora, Mexico. EF Moran-Palacio, LA Zamora-Álvarez, NA Stephens-Camacho, GA Yáñez- Farías, A Virgen-Ortiz, O Martínez-Cruz, JA Rosas-Rodríguez ...

  16. Preparation of pure phenols from tars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, J

    1929-06-18

    A process is disclosed for preparing pure phenols from brown coal and shale tar, characterized in that the alkaline extract obtained from the tar is oxidized and concurrently the alkaline solution is separated from the existing impurities by heating with steam at high temperature, which finally reaches at least 150/sup 0/C.

  17. Production of phenolic compounds from Spirulina maxima ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to illustrate the enhancing process of phenolics synthesis in Spirulina maxima grown in Zarrouk's medium supplemented with different concentration of NaNO3 and/or combined with phenylalanine (L-PA). Also, the protective efficacy of Spirulina polyphenolic (SPP) extracts against ...

  18. Interaction of phenolic antioxidants and hydroxyl radicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, W.F.; Luo, J.; Yao, S.D.; Lian, Z.R.; Zhang, J.S.; Lin, N.Y.

    1993-01-01

    Based on pulse radiolysis of aqueous solutions of four phenolic antioxidants including green tea polyphenols, quercetin, caffeic acid and sinapic acid the rate constants for reactions of OH and the antioxidants were determined. Green tea polyphenols and quercetin are the strongest antioxidants. (author)

  19. Flavonoid, hesperidine, total phenolic contents and antioxidant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Additionally, the antioxidant activities were also determined by ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity. C. hystrix had the highest flavonoid and total phenolic contents while C. aurantifolia had the highest hesperidine content. The antioxidant activity of ...

  20. Separation and characterization of phenolic compounds from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Attioua

    2013-07-03

    Jul 3, 2013 ... (Theobroma cacao). J. Mass Spectrom. 38:35-42. Sanchez R, Jauregui LR, Viladomat B, Codina (2004). Qualitative analysis of phenolic compounds in apple Pomace using liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry in tandem mode. Rapid Communun Mass Spectrom. 18:553-563. Saulo LDS ...

  1. Electrochemical catalytic treatment of phenol wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma Hongzhu, E-mail: hzmachem@snnu.edu.cn [Institute of Energy Chemistry, School of Chemistry and Materials Science, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi' an 710062 (China); Zhang Xinhai [Institute of Energy Chemistry, School of Chemistry and Materials Science, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi' an 710062 (China); Ma Qingliang [Department of Applied Physics, College of Sciences, Taiyuan University of Technology, 030024 Taiyuan (China); Wang Bo [Institute of Energy Chemistry, School of Chemistry and Materials Science, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi' an 710062 (China)

    2009-06-15

    The slurry bed catalytic treatment of contaminated water appears to be a promising alternative for the oxidation of aqueous organic pollutants. In this paper, the electrochemical oxidation of phenol in synthetic wastewater catalyzed by ferric sulfate and potassium permanganate adsorbed onto active bentonite in slurry bed electrolytic reactor with graphite electrode has been investigated. In order to determine the optimum operating condition, the orthogonal experiments were devised and the results revealed that the system of ferric sulfate, potassium permanganate and active bentonite showed a high catalytic efficiency on the process of electrochemical oxidation phenol in initial pH 5. When the initial concentration of phenol was 0.52 g/L (the initial COD 1214 mg/L), up to 99% chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal was obtained in 40 min. According to the experimental results, a possible mechanism of catalytic degradation of phenol was proposed. Environmental estimation was also done and the results showed that the treated wastewater have little impact on plant growth and could totally be applied to irrigation.

  2. Characterization of Phenolic Compounds in Wine Lees

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    Ye Zhijing

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of vinification techniques on phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of wine lees are poorly understood. The present study investigated the antioxidant activity of white and red wine lees generated at early fermentation and during aging. In this study, the total phenol content (TPC, total tannin content (TTC, mean degree of polymerization (mDP, and antioxidant activities of five white and eight red wine lees samples from different vinification backgrounds were determined. The results showed that vinification techniques had a significant (p < 0.05 impact on total phenol and tannin content of the samples. White wine lees had high mDP content compared with red ones. Catechin (50–62% and epicatechin contents were the predominant terminal units of polymeric proanthocyanidin extracted from examined samples. Epigallocatechin was the predominant extension unit of white wine lees, whereas epicatechin was the predominant compound in red wine marc. The ORAC (oxygen radical absorbance capacity assay was strongly correlated with the DPPH (α, α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl assay, and the results showed the strong antioxidant activities associated with red wine lees (PN > 35 mg Trolox/g FDM (PN: Pinot noir lees; FDM: Freeze-dried Material. This study indicates that tannin is one of the major phenolic compounds available in wine lees that can be useful in human and animal health applications.

  3. N loss to drain flow and N2O emissions from a corn-soybean rotation with winter rye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillette, K; Malone, R W; Kaspar, T C; Ma, L; Parkin, T B; Jaynes, D B; Fang, Q X; Hatfield, J L; Feyereisen, G W; Kersebaum, K C

    2018-03-15

    Anthropogenic perturbation of the global nitrogen cycle and its effects on the environment such as hypoxia in coastal regions and increased N 2 O emissions is of increasing, multi-disciplinary, worldwide concern, and agricultural production is a major contributor. Only limited studies, however, have simultaneously investigated NO 3 - losses to subsurface drain flow and N 2 O emissions under corn-soybean production. We used the Root Zone Water Quality Model (RZWQM) to evaluate NO 3 - losses to drain flow and N 2 O emissions in a corn-soybean system with a winter rye cover crop (CC) in central Iowa over a nine year period. The observed and simulated average drain flow N concentration reductions from CC were 60% and 54% compared to the no cover crop system (NCC). Average annual April through October cumulative observed and simulated N 2 O emissions (2004-2010) were 6.7 and 6.0kgN 2 O-Nha -1 yr -1 for NCC, and 6.2 and 7.2kgNha -1 for CC. In contrast to previous research, monthly N 2 O emissions were generally greatest when N loss to leaching were greatest, mostly because relatively high rainfall occurred during the months fertilizer was applied. N 2 O emission factors of 0.032 and 0.041 were estimated for NCC and CC using the tested model, which are similar to field results in the region. A local sensitivity analysis suggests that lower soil field capacity affects RZWQM simulations, which includes increased drain flow nitrate concentrations, increased N mineralization, and reduced soil water content. The results suggest that 1) RZWQM is a promising tool to estimate N 2 O emissions from subsurface drained corn-soybean rotations and to estimate the relative effects of a winter rye cover crop over a nine year period on nitrate loss to drain flow and 2) soil field capacity is an important parameter to model N mineralization and N loss to drain flow. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Relationship between red wine grades and phenolics. 1. Tannin and total phenolics concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercurio, Meagan D; Dambergs, Robert G; Cozzolino, Daniel; Herderich, Markus J; Smith, Paul A

    2010-12-08

    Measuring chemical composition is a common approach to support decisions about allocating foods and beverages to grades related to market value. Red wine is a particularly complex beverage, and multiple compositional attributes are needed to account for its sensory properties, including measurement of key phenolic components such as anthocyanins, total phenolics, and tannin, which are related to color and astringency. Color has been shown to relate positively to red wine grade; however, little research has been presented that explores the relationship between astringency-related components such as total phenolic or tannin concentration and wine grade. The aim of this research has been to investigate the relationship between the wine grade allocations of commercial wineries and total phenolic and tannin concentrations, respectively, in Australian Shiraz and Cabernet Sauvignon wines. Total phenolic and tannin concentrations were determined using the methyl cellulose precipitable (MCP) tannin assay and then compared to wine grade allocations made by winemaker panels during the companies' postvintage allocation process. Data were collected from wines produced by one Australian wine company over the 2005, 2006, and 2007 vintages and by a further two companies in 2007 (total wines = 1643). Statistical analysis revealed a positive trend toward higher wine grade allocation and wines that had higher concentrations of both total phenolics and tannin, respectively. This research demonstrates that for these companies, in general, Cabernet Sauvignon and Shiraz wines allocated to higher market value grades have higher total phenolics and higher tannin concentrations and suggests that these compositional parameters should be considered in the development of future multiparameter decision support systems for relevant commercial red wine grading processes. In addition, both tannin and total phenolics would ideally be included because although, in general, a positive relationship

  5. Wine phenolic compounds influence the production of volatile phenols by wine-related lactic acid bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, I; Campos, F M; Hogg, T; Couto, J A

    2011-08-01

    To evaluate the effect of wine phenolic compounds on the production of volatile phenols (4-vinylphenol [4VP] and 4-ethylphenol [4EP]) from the metabolism of p-coumaric acid by lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus collinoides and Pediococcus pentosaceus were grown in MRS medium supplemented with p-coumaric acid, in the presence of different phenolic compounds: nonflavonoids (hydroxycinnamic and benzoic acids) and flavonoids (flavonols and flavanols). The inducibility of the enzymes involved in the p-coumaric acid metabolism was studied in resting cells. The hydroxycinnamic acids tested stimulated the capacity of LAB to synthesize volatile phenols. Growth in the presence of hydroxycinnamic acids, especially caffeic acid, induced the production of 4VP by resting cells. The hydroxybenzoic acids did not significantly affect the behaviour of the studied strains. Some of the flavonoids showed an effect on the production of volatile phenols, although strongly dependent on the bacterial species. Relatively high concentrations (1 g l(-1) ) of tannins inhibited the synthesis of 4VP by Lact. plantarum. Hydroxycinnamic acids were the main compounds stimulating the production of volatile phenols by LAB. The results suggest that caffeic and ferulic acids induce the synthesis of the cinnamate decarboxylase involved in the metabolism of p-coumaric acid. On the other hand, tannins exert an inhibitory effect. This study highlights the capacity of LAB to produce volatile phenols and that this activity is markedly influenced by the phenolic composition of the medium. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2011 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  6. Phenolic Acids, Phenolic Aldehydes and Furanic Derivatives in Oak Chips: American vs. French Oaks

    OpenAIRE

    Cabrita, M.J.; Barrocas Dias, C.; Costa Freitas, A.M.

    2011-01-01

    Phenolic acids (gallic, vanillic, syringic and ellagic acids), phenolic aldehydes (vanillin, syringaldehyde, coniferaldehyde and sinapaldehyde) and furanic derivatives (furfural, 5-methylfurfural and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural) were quantified in commercial American and French oak chips. Chips with different sizes and toast degrees were used. Compounds were extracted directly from the wood samples in order to determine possible differences among woods as well as toast degree. Likewise, the compo...

  7. Paraplegia after intercostal neurolysis with phenol

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    Gollapalli L

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Lakshman Gollapalli, Rudramanaidu Muppuri Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Wayne State University/Detroit Medical Center, Detroit, MI, USA Abstract: In patients with advanced stages of cancer, severe pain is commonly encountered and is very difficult to treat. It affects the quality of life of the patient and the families involved. Pain can be managed using analgesics and adjuvant therapy. However, studies have shown that at least 10%–15% of patients fail to control pain adequately and will experience severe pain. We discuss the case of a 66-year-old female with metastatic adenoid cystic carcinoma of the left submandibular gland and developed paraplegia following intercostal neurolysis with phenol. After a successful diagnostic T6 to T12 intercostal nerve block, the patient was scheduled for an intercostal neurolytic block. We injected 2 mL of 10% aqueous phenol at each level on the left from the T6 to T12 ribs. One hour after the procedure, the patient developed bilateral lower extremity weakness with difficulty moving. A physical examination showed the absence of sensation to pinpricks and vibration from T10 to S5 and an absence of anal sphincter tone and sensation. Magnetic resonance images of the thoracic and lumbar spine showed leptomeningeal metastatic disease and myelitis. We postulate that the paraplegia could be from phenol diffusing along either the spinal nerves or the paravertebral venous plexus into the subarachnoid space. This case report points to the risks involved with phenol neurolysis close to the spine, and we propose alternative methods to minimize neurological complications. Keywords: intercostal neurolysis, pain, phenol, paraplegia 

  8. Directional liquefaction of biomass for phenolic compounds and in situ hydrodeoxygenation upgrading of phenolics using bifunctional catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junfeng Feng; Chung-yun Hse; Kui Wang; Zhongzhi Yang; Jianchun Jiang; Junming Xu

    2017-01-01

    Phenolic compounds derived from biomass are important feedstocks for the sustainable production of hydrocarbon biofuels. Hydrodeoxygenation is an effective process to remove oxygen-containing functionalities in phenolic compounds. This paper reported a simple method for producing hydrocarbons by liquefying biomass and upgrading liquefied products. Three phenolic...

  9. Electrochemical remediation of the phenol contaminated clay soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korolev, V.A.; Babakina, O.A.; Lazareva, E.V. [Moscow State Univ. (Russian Federation)

    2001-07-01

    The study phenol migration induced by electric current is multiple analyze, because determine the governing factor of electrokinetic remediation is one more problem. The governing factor of phenol removal can be electroosmotic water transport, ionic migration or phenol destruction caused by electrolysis or oxidizing agents. Therefore research objective was study mechanism of removal phenol from soils with different mineral composition. To answer on set issue should be studied the effectiveness of electrochemcial remediation for contaminated soil and determination electrokinetic characteristics of interaction clay's particles with phenol solution. (orig.)

  10. Removal of Phenol in Aqueous Solution Using Kaolin Mineral Clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sayed, M.S.

    2008-01-01

    Kaolin clay were tested for phenol removal as toxic liquid waste from aqueous waste water. Several experimental conditions such as weight and particle size of clay were investigated to study batch kinetic techniques, also the ph and concentration of the phenol solution were carried out. The stability of the Langmuir adsorption model of the equilibrium data were studied for phenol sorbent clay system. Infrared spectra, thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis techniques were used to characterize the behavior of kaolin clay and kaolin clay saturated with phenol. The results obtained showed that kaolin clay could be used successfully as an efficient sorbent material to remove phenol from aqueous solution

  11. Effect of Various Sodium Chloride Mass Fractions on Wheat and Rye Bread Using Different Dough Preparation Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Tańska

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the selected properties of bread with reduced amount of sodium chloride. The bread was made from white and wholemeal wheat flour and rye flour. The dough was prepared using three techniques: with yeast, natural sourdough or starter sourdough. Sodium chloride was added to the dough at 0, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 % of the flour mass. The following bread properties were examined in the study: yield and volume of the loaf, moisture content, crumb firmness and porosity, and organoleptic properties. Reducing the mass fraction of added sodium chloride was not found to have considerable effect on bread yield, whereas it had a significant and variable effect on the loaf volume, and crumb firmness and porosity. Organoleptic assessment showed diverse effects of sodium chloride addition on sensory properties of bread, depending on the type of bread and the dough preparation method. Reduced mass fractions of sodium chloride changed the organoleptic properties of bread made with yeast and with starter sourdough to a greater extent than of bread prepared with natural sourdough.

  12. Fate and chemical speciation of antimony (Sb) during uptake, translocation and storage by rye grass using XANES spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Ying; Sarret, Géraldine; Schulin, Rainer; Tandy, Susan

    2017-12-01

    Antimony (Sb) is a contaminant of increased prevalence in the environment, but there is little knowledge about the mechanisms of its uptake and translocation within plants. Here, we applied for the synchrotron based X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy to analyze the speciation of Sb in roots and shoots of rye grass (Lolium perenne L. Calibra). Seedlings were grown in nutrient solutions to which either antimonite (Sb(III)), antimonate (Sb(V)) or trimethyl-Sb(V) (TMSb) were added. While exposure to Sb(III) led to around 100 times higher Sb accumulation in the roots than the other two treatments, there was no difference in total Sb in the shoots. Antimony taken up in the Sb(III) treatment was mainly found as Sb-thiol complexes (roots: >76% and shoots: 60%), suggesting detoxification reactions with compounds such as glutathione and phytochelatins. No reduction of accumulated Sb(V) was found in the roots, but half of the translocated Sb was reduced to Sb(III) in the Sb(V) treatment. Antimony accumulated in the TMSb treatment remained in the methylated form in the roots. By synchrotron based XANES spectroscopy, we were able to distinguish the major Sb compounds in plant tissue under different Sb treatments. The results help to understand the translocation and transformation of different Sb species in plants after uptake and provide information for risk assessment of plant growth in Sb contaminated soils. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Thermo-mechanic and sensory properties of wheat and rye breads produced with varying concentration of the additive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demin Mirjana A.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of different concentrations of the complex additive containing emulsifiers, oxido-reductive substances and enzymes, on the rheological conditions of dough, and on the sensory properties of three groups of bread were investigated. The best initial quality and the lowest degree of protein network weakening had the dough obtained from mixed wheat and rye flours. The best expected baking properties were shown by the white wheat flour due to the least damage of its starch. The use of the additive has an effect on the absorption of water and on the majority of C-values of all sorts of flour. The amount of additive had a significant effect on the sensory properties of wheat bread crumb texture. Also, storage duration significantly affected (p <0.01 the sensory properties of integral wheat bread aroma-taste and the weighted mean score. The interaction of these two factors had no significant effect on any of sensory properties of the investigated groups of bread.

  14. Fundamental study on reactivities of gluten protein types from wheat, rye and barley with five sandwich ELISA test kits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lexhaller, Barbara; Tompos, Christine; Scherf, Katharina Anne

    2017-12-15

    Monitoring the compliance of gluten-free foods to the regulatory threshold of 20mg/kg of gluten is essential for celiac disease patients. The different enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) for gluten detection each have specific characteristics, but there are only a few systematic comparisons. This fundamental study compared the specificities and sensitivities of the R5, G12 and Skerritt monoclonal and two polyclonal antibodies to well-defined gluten protein types (GPT) isolated from wheat, rye and barley flours. Quantitation of protein concentrations by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography provided independent reference values. The ELISA responses showed high variability depending on the type of cereal, the GPT and the antibody used. Overall, ω1,2-gliadins and γ-75k-secalins were most reactive, whereas ω5-gliadins and γ-, B- and D-hordeins were detected with the lowest sensitivities. These results revealed which GPT each antibody is most sensitive to and provided novel insights that will be helpful for appropriate calibration of ELISAs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Anti-idiotypes to anti-Lolp I (Rye) antibodies in allergic and non-allergic individuals. Influence of immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, R; Marsh, D G; Delespesse, G

    1986-01-01

    Anti-idiotypes (aId) reacting with anti-Lol I (Lolp I; Rye I) antibodies were detected by their ability to bind to radioiodinated F(ab')2 anti-Lol I. Sera were tested after removal of anti-Lol I and anti-heavy and light chain activity by adsorption on Lol I-Sepharose 4B and normal human serum Sepharose 4B. The binding of aId to Id was inhibited by affinity purified anti-Lol I but not by certain unrelated immunoglobulins; in some sera this binding was also inhibited by Lol I. The levels of aId were measured in serial bleedings collected over a 1 year period from Lol I-sensitive patients, allergic donors not sensitive to Lol I and non-allergic persons. In Lol I-allergic patients the levels of aId were significantly influenced by seasonal exposure to pollen and by immunotherapy with extracts of grass pollen. Moreover, in 12 out of 16 cases, there was also a significant inverse relationship between changes in serum levels of aId and of IgG or IgE anti-Lol I. Most interestingly, aId were also detected in non-allergic individuals; in this case, the levels of aId were not influenced by the pollen season. The data suggest that Id-aId interactions may play a role in the regulation of anti-Lol I antibody production. PMID:3492316

  16. Effect of Various Sodium Chloride Mass Fractions on Wheat and Rye Bread Using Different Dough Preparation Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tańska, Małgorzata; Rotkiewicz, Daniela; Piętak, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    Summary This study assessed the selected properties of bread with reduced amount of sodium chloride. The bread was made from white and wholemeal wheat flour and rye flour. The dough was prepared using three techniques: with yeast, natural sourdough or starter sourdough. Sodium chloride was added to the dough at 0, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5% of the flour mass. The following bread properties were examined in the study: yield and volume of the loaf, moisture content, crumb firmness and porosity, and organoleptic properties. Reducing the mass fraction of added sodium chloride was not found to have considerable effect on bread yield, whereas it had a significant and variable effect on the loaf volume, and crumb firmness and porosity. Organoleptic assessment showed diverse effects of sodium chloride addition on sensory properties of bread, depending on the type of bread and the dough preparation method. Reduced mass fractions of sodium chloride changed the organoleptic properties of bread made with yeast and with starter sourdough to a greater extent than of bread prepared with natural sourdough. PMID:27904407

  17. In situ and in vitro ruminal starch degradation of grains from different rye, triticale and barley genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieg, J; Seifried, N; Steingass, H; Rodehutscord, M

    2017-10-01

    In recent years, advances in plant breeding were achieved, which potentially led to modified nutritional values of cereal grains. The present study was conducted in order to obtain a broad overview of ruminal digestion kinetics of rye, triticale and barley grains, and to highlight differences between the grain species. In total, 20 genotypes of each grain species were investigated using in situ and in vitro methods. Samples were ground (2 mm), weighed into polyester bags, and incubated in situ 1 to 48 h in three ruminally cannulated lactating dairy cows. The in vitro gas production of ground samples (1 mm) was measured according to the 'Hohenheim Gas Test', and cumulative gas production was recorded over different time spans for up to 72 h. There were significant differences (Pvalues exhibited the highest variation within species. The in vitro gas production rate was significantly higher (Pvalues, but was not reflected in the ED estimates. Therefore, the usage of mean values for the ED of DM and ST for each species appears reasonable. Estimated metabolisable energy concentrations (ME, MJ/kg DM) and the estimated digestibility of organic matter (dOM, %) were significantly lower (Pvalues were not significantly different (P=0.386 and 0.485).

  18. A rapid and efficient two-step gel electrophoresis method for the purification of major rye grass pollen allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, D; Davies, J; O'Hehir, R; Suphioglu, C

    2001-06-01

    Purified proteins are mandatory for molecular, immunological and cellular studies. However, purification of proteins from complex mixtures requires specialised chromatography methods (i.e., gel filtration, ion exchange, etc.) using fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC) or high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) systems. Such systems are expensive and certain proteins require two or more different steps for sufficient purity and generally result in low recovery. The aim of this study was to develop a rapid, inexpensive and efficient gel-electrophoresis-based protein purification method using basic and readily available laboratory equipment. We have used crude rye grass pollen extract to purify the major allergens Lol p 1 and Lol p 5 as the model protein candidates. Total proteins were resolved on large primary gel and Coomassie Brilliant Blue (CBB)-stained Lol p 1/5 allergens were excised and purified on a secondary "mini"-gel. Purified proteins were extracted from unstained separating gels and subjected to sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and immunoblot analyses. Silver-stained SDS-PAGE gels resolved pure proteins (i.e., 875 microg of Lol p 1 recovered from a 8 mg crude starting material) while immunoblot analysis confirmed immunological reactivity of the purified proteins. Such a purification method is rapid, inexpensive, and efficient in generating proteins of sufficient purity for use in monoclonal antibody (mAb) production, protein sequencing and general molecular, immunological, and cellular studies.

  19. Recycling of phenolic compounds in Borneo's tropical peat swamp forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yule, Catherine M; Lim, Yau Yan; Lim, Tse Yuen

    2018-02-07

    Tropical peat swamp forests (TPSF) are globally significant carbon stores, sequestering carbon mainly as phenolic polymers and phenolic compounds (particularly as lignin and its derivatives) in peat layers, in plants, and in the acidic blackwaters. Previous studies show that TPSF plants have particularly high levels of phenolic compounds which inhibit the decomposition of organic matter and thus promote peat accumulation. The studies of phenolic compounds are thus crucial to further understand how TPSF function with respect to carbon sequestration. Here we present a study of cycling of phenolic compounds in five forests in Borneo differing in flooding and acidity, leaching of phenolic compounds from senescent Macaranga pruinosa leaves, and absorption of phenolics by M. pruinosa seedlings. The results of the study show that total phenolic content (TPC) in soil and leaves of three species of Macaranga were highest in TPSF followed by freshwater swamp forest and flooded limestone forest, then dry land sites. Highest TPC values were associated with acidity (in TPSF) and waterlogging (in flooded forests). Moreover, phenolic compounds are rapidly leached from fallen senescent leaves, and could be reabsorbed by tree roots and converted into more complex phenolics within the leaves. Extreme conditions-waterlogging and acidity-may facilitate uptake and synthesis of protective phenolic compounds which are essential for impeded decomposition of organic matter in TPSF. Conversely, the ongoing drainage and degradation of TPSF, particularly for conversion to oil palm plantations, reverses the conditions necessary for peat accretion and carbon sequestration.

  20. Electrochemical removal of phenol from oil refinery wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelwahab, O; Amin, N K; El-Ashtoukhy, E-S Z

    2009-04-30

    This study explores the possibility of using electrocoagulation to remove phenol from oil refinery waste effluent using a cell with horizontally oriented aluminum cathode and a horizontal aluminum screen anode. The removal of phenol was investigated in terms of various parameters namely: pH, operating time, current density, initial phenol concentration and addition of NaCl. Removal of phenol during electrocoagulation was due to combined effect of sweep coagulation and adsorption. The results showed that, at high current density and solution pH 7, remarkable removal of 97% of phenol after 2h can be achieved. The rate of electrocoagulation was observed to increase as the phenol concentration decreases; the maximum removal rate was attained at 30 mg L(-1) phenol concentration. For a given current density using an array of closely packed Al screens as anode was found to be more effective than single screen anode, the percentage phenol removal was found to increase with increasing the number of screens per array. After 2h of electrocoagulation, 94.5% of initial phenol concentration was removed from the petroleum refinery wastewater. Energy consumption and aluminum Electrode consumption were calculated per gram of phenol removed. The present study shows that, electrocoagulation of phenol using aluminum electrodes is a promising process.

  1. Bioactivity of Olive Oil Phenols in Neuroprotection

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    Cristina Angeloni

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Neurological disorders such as stroke, Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases are associated with high morbidity and mortality, and few or no effective options are available for their treatment. These disorders share common pathological characteristics like the induction of oxidative stress, abnormal protein aggregation, perturbed Ca2+ homeostasis, excitotoxicity, inflammation and apoptosis. A large body of evidence supports the beneficial effects of the Mediterranean diet in preventing neurodegeneration. As the Mediterranean diet is characterized by a high consumption of extra-virgin olive oil it has been hypothesized that olive oil, and in particular its phenols, could be responsible for the beneficial effect of the Mediterranean diet. This review provides an updated vision of the beneficial properties of olive oil and olive oil phenols in preventing/counteracting both acute and chronic neurodegenerative diseases.

  2. Bioactivity of Olive Oil Phenols in Neuroprotection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angeloni, Cristina; Barbalace, Maria Cristina

    2017-01-01

    Neurological disorders such as stroke, Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases are associated with high morbidity and mortality, and few or no effective options are available for their treatment. These disorders share common pathological characteristics like the induction of oxidative stress, abnormal protein aggregation, perturbed Ca2+ homeostasis, excitotoxicity, inflammation and apoptosis. A large body of evidence supports the beneficial effects of the Mediterranean diet in preventing neurodegeneration. As the Mediterranean diet is characterized by a high consumption of extra-virgin olive oil it has been hypothesized that olive oil, and in particular its phenols, could be responsible for the beneficial effect of the Mediterranean diet. This review provides an updated vision of the beneficial properties of olive oil and olive oil phenols in preventing/counteracting both acute and chronic neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:29068387

  3. Phenolics from Kalanchoe marmorata Baker, Family Crassulaceae

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    Abdel Nasser Badawy Singab

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In search of plants rich in phenolics in Egypt, Kalanchoe marmorata Baker was subjected to phytochemical study. The preliminary phytochemical screening revealed its richness in phenolics. Fractionation of the lyophilized aqueous extract of the leaves of K. marmorata by different organic solvents successively resulted in the isolation and purification of five compounds from the ethyl acetate soluble fraction. These compounds namely; E1 isorhamnetin-3-O-α-l-1C4-rhamnopyranoside; E2 quercitin; E3 4′-methoxy-myricetin-3-O-α-l-1C4-rhamnopyranoside; E4 Quercitin-3-O-β-d-4C1-glucopyranoside and E5 protocatechuic-4′-O-β-d-4C1-glucopyranoside, were identified by analysis of their spectral data including 1H NMR and 13C NMR.

  4. Spice phenolics inhibit human PMNL 5-lipoxygenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, N Satya; Raghavendra, R; Lokesh, B R; Naidu, K Akhilender

    2004-06-01

    A wide variety of phenolic compounds and flavonoids present in spices possess potent antioxidant, antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic activities. We examined whether 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO), the key enzyme involved in biosynthesis of leukotrienes is a possible target for the spices. Effect of aqueous extracts of turmeric, cloves, pepper, chili, cinnamon, onion and also their respective active principles viz., curcumin, eugenol, piperine, capsaicin, cinnamaldehyde, quercetin, and allyl sulfide were tested on human PMNL 5-LO activity by spectrophotomeric and HPLC methods. The formation of 5-LO product 5-HETE was significantly inhibited in a concentration-dependent manner with IC(50) values of 0.122-1.44 mg for aqueous extracts of spices and 25-83 microM for active principles, respectively. The order of inhibitory activity was of quercetin>eugenol>curcumin>cinnamaldehyde>piperine>capsaicin>allyl sulfide. Quercetin, eugenol and curcumin with one or more phenolic ring and methoxy groups in their structure showed high inhibitory effect, while the non-phenolic spice principle allyl sulfide showed least inhibitory effect on 5-LO. The inhibitory effect of quercetin, curcumin and eugenol was similar to that of synthetic 5-LO inhibitors-phenidone and NDGA. Moreover, the inhibitory potency of aqueous extracts of spice correlated with the active principles of their respective spices. The synergistic or antagonistic effect of mixtures of spice active principles and spice extracts were investigated and all the combinations of spice active principles/extracts exerted synergistic effect in inhibiting 5-LO activity. These findings clearly suggest that phenolic compounds present in spices might have physiological role in modulating 5-LO pathway.

  5. Electronic Energy Levels and Band Alignment for Aqueous Phenol and Phenolate from First Principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opalka, Daniel; Pham, Tuan Anh; Sprik, Michiel; Galli, Giulia

    2015-07-30

    Electronic energy levels in phenol and phenolate solutions have been computed using density functional theory and many-body perturbation theory. The valence and conduction bands of the solvent and the ionization energies of the solutes have been aligned with respect to the vacuum level based on the concept of a computational standard hydrogen electrode. We have found significant quantitative differences between the generalized-gradient approximation, calculations with the HSE hybrid functional, and many-body perturbation theory in the G0W0 approximation. For phenol, two ionization energies below the photoionization threshold of bulk water have been assigned in the spectrum of Kohn-Sham eigenvalues of the solution. Deprotonation to phenolate was found to lift a third occupied energy level above the valence band maximum of the solvent which is characterized by an electronic lone pair at the hydroxyl group. The second and third ionization energies of phenolate were found to be very similar and explain the intensity pattern observed in recent experiments using liquid-microjet photoemission spectroscopy.

  6. Characterization of Phenolic Compounds in Wine Lees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhijing, Ye; Shavandi, Amin; Harrison, Roland; Bekhit, Alaa El-Din A

    2018-03-25

    The effect of vinification techniques on phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of wine lees are poorly understood. The present study investigated the antioxidant activity of white and red wine lees generated at early fermentation and during aging. In this study, the total phenol content (TPC), total tannin content (TTC), mean degree of polymerization (mDP), and antioxidant activities of five white and eight red wine lees samples from different vinification backgrounds were determined. The results showed that vinification techniques had a significant ( p tannin content of the samples. White wine lees had high mDP content compared with red ones. Catechin (50-62%) and epicatechin contents were the predominant terminal units of polymeric proanthocyanidin extracted from examined samples. Epigallocatechin was the predominant extension unit of white wine lees, whereas epicatechin was the predominant compound in red wine marc. The ORAC (oxygen radical absorbance capacity) assay was strongly correlated with the DPPH (α, α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl) assay, and the results showed the strong antioxidant activities associated with red wine lees (PN > 35 mg Trolox/g FDM) (PN: Pinot noir lees; FDM: Freeze-dried Material). This study indicates that tannin is one of the major phenolic compounds available in wine lees that can be useful in human and animal health applications.

  7. Characterization of Phenolic Compounds in Wine Lees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhijing, Ye; Shavandi, Amin; Harrison, Roland; Bekhit, Alaa El-Din A.

    2018-01-01

    The effect of vinification techniques on phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of wine lees are poorly understood. The present study investigated the antioxidant activity of white and red wine lees generated at early fermentation and during aging. In this study, the total phenol content (TPC), total tannin content (TTC), mean degree of polymerization (mDP), and antioxidant activities of five white and eight red wine lees samples from different vinification backgrounds were determined. The results showed that vinification techniques had a significant (p wine lees had high mDP content compared with red ones. Catechin (50–62%) and epicatechin contents were the predominant terminal units of polymeric proanthocyanidin extracted from examined samples. Epigallocatechin was the predominant extension unit of white wine lees, whereas epicatechin was the predominant compound in red wine marc. The ORAC (oxygen radical absorbance capacity) assay was strongly correlated with the DPPH (α,α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl) assay, and the results showed the strong antioxidant activities associated with red wine lees (PN > 35 mg Trolox/g FDM) (PN: Pinot noir lees; FDM: Freeze-dried Material). This study indicates that tannin is one of the major phenolic compounds available in wine lees that can be useful in human and animal health applications. PMID:29587406

  8. Phenol Removal from Industrial Wastewater by HRP Enzyme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iran Alemzadeh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this research, horseradish peroxidase for phenol removal was utilized. First, the process was studied at the laboratory scale using a synthetic phenol solution (1-10 mM. Results showed that horseradish peroxidase (HRP could effectively remove phenolic compounds from wastewater and that the catalytic capability of the enzyme was maintained for a wide range of pH, temperature, and aromatic concentration levels. The performance conditions were optimized for at lease 95% and 100% removal of phenolic compounds for both actual and synthetic wastewaters under high and low phenol concentrations (1 and 10 mM. The phenolic wastewater used was an olive mill effluent with a phenol concentration of 1221 mg/L (13 mM and a pH value of 3.5. At the end of the reaction, the phenolic compounds changed to insoluble polymers and precipitated. Each enzyme/wastewater system was optimized for the following chemical dosages: hydrogen peroxide, enzyme, polyethylene glycol (PEG, and buffer. Furthermore, the reaction time to achieve at least 95% phenol removal was determined. According to the results, COD and BOD reduced to 58% and 78%, respectively. Experimental results showed an increase in H2O2 concentration beyond the optimum dose resulting from enzyme inactivation, thus reducing the phenol removal efficiency. On the other hand, increasing the enzyme, PEG, and/or reaction time beyond the optimum values resulted in only a marginal increase in removal efficiency.

  9. Phenolic content variability and its chromosome location in tritordeum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navas-Lopez, José F.; Ostos-Garrido, Francisco J.; Castillo, Almudena; Martín, Antonio; Gimenez, Maria J.; Pistón, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    For humans, wheat is the most important source of calories, but it is also a source of antioxidant compounds that are involved in the prevention of chronic disease. Among the antioxidant compounds, phenolic acids have great potential to improve human health. In this paper we evaluate the effect of environmental and genetic factors on the phenolics content in the grain of a collection of tritordeums with different cytoplasm and chromosome substitutions. To this purpose, tritordeum flour was used for extraction of the free, conjugates and bound phenolic compounds. These phenolic compounds were identified and quantified by RP-HPLC and the results were analyzed by univariate and multivariate methods. This is the first study that describes the composition of phenolic acids of the amphiploid tritordeum. As in wheat, the predominant phenolic compound is ferulic acid. In tritordeum there is great variability for the content of phenolic compounds and the main factor which determines its content is the genotype followed by the environment, in this case included in the year factor. Phenolic acid content is associated with the substitution of chromosome DS1D(1Hch) and DS2D(2Hch), and the translocation 1RS/1BL in tritordeum. The results show that there is high potential for further improving the quality and quantity of phenolics in tritordeum because this amphiploid shows high variability for the content of phenolic compounds. PMID:24523725

  10. Thermomechanical analyses of phenolic foam reinforced with glass fiber mat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Jintang; Yao, Zhengjun; Chen, Yongxin; Wei, Dongbo; Wu, Yibing

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Over 10% glass fiber was used to reinforce phenolic foam in the shape of glass fiber mat. • Nucleating agents were used together with glass fiber mat and improved tensile strength of phenolic foam by 215.6%. • Nucleating agents lead to a smaller bubble size of phenolic foam. • The glass transition temperature of phenolic foam remained unchanged during the reinforcement. - Abstract: In this paper, thermomechanical analysis (TMA) and dynamic mechanical analysis were employed to study the properties of phenolic foam reinforced with glass fiber mat. Unreinforced phenolic foam was taken as the control sample. Mechanical tests and scanning electron microscopy were performed to confirm the results of TMA. The results show that glass fiber mat reinforcement improves the mechanical performance of phenolic foam, and nucleating agents improve it further. Phenolic foam reinforced with glass fiber mat has a smaller thermal expansion coefficient compared with unreinforced foam. The storage modulus of the reinforced phenolic foam is also higher than that in unreinforced foam, whereas the loss modulus of the former is lower than that of the latter. The glass transition temperature of the phenolic foam matrix remains unchanged during the reinforcement

  11. Estimate of consumption of phenolic compounds by Brazilian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanesa Gesser Corrêa

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Estimate the intake of phenolic compounds by the Brazilian population. METHODS: To estimate the average per capita food consumption, micro data from the National Dietary Survey and from the Household Budget Survey from 2008 to 2009 was analyzed. The phenolic content in food was estimated from the base of Phenol-Explorer. It was chosen according to compatibility and variety of food items and usual method of preparation. RESULTS: The Brazilian population consumed, on average, 460.15 mg/day of total phenolic compounds, derived mainly from beverages (48.9%, especially coffee and legumes (19.5%. Since this analysis of classes of phenolics it was possible to observe an intake of 314 mg/day of phenolic acids, 138.92 mg/day of flavonoids and 7.16 mg/ day of other kinds of phenolics. Regarding the variables studied this present study shows that those men who live in the countryside and in the northeastern region of the country had a higher consumption of phenolic compounds. Besides, consumption was higher by adults and the elderly, the medium income classes, the population with incomplete and complete primary education and those with adequate nutrition and also overweight status. CONCLUSION: The intake of phenolic compounds can be considered low, especially where consumption of fruit and vegetables is insufficient. We can conclude that coffee and black beans were the best contributors to phenolic intake.

  12. Mechanism of microsomal metabolism of benzene to phenol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinson, J.A.; Freeman, J.P.; Potter, D.W.; Mitchum, R.K.; Evans, F.E.

    1985-05-01

    The mechanism of microsomal hydroxylation of benzene to phenol has been studied by examining the microsomal metabolism of the specifically deuterated derivative 1,3,5-(/sub 2/H/sup 3/)benzene. Evidence for the formation of the following four products was obtained: 2,3,5-(/sub 2/H/sup 3/)phenol, 3,5-(/sub 2/H/sup 2/)phenol, 2,4,6-(/sub 2/H/sup 3/)phenol, and 2,4-(/sub 2/H/sup 2/)phenol. The presence of 2,3,5-(2H3)phenol and 2,4-(/sub 2/H/sup 2/)phenol shows that, in the microsomal metabolism of benzene to phenol, a NIH shift had occurred. A deuterium isotope effect (kH/kD) of approximately 4 was detected in both the meta- and para-deuterated phenols. This finding indicates that cyclohexadienone, formed either by isomerization of the epoxide or directly from the enzyme-substrate complex, is a major intermediate in the metabolism of benzene to phenol.

  13. Genomic prediction in early selection stages using multi-year data in a hybrid rye breeding program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernal-Vasquez, Angela-Maria; Gordillo, Andres; Schmidt, Malthe; Piepho, Hans-Peter

    2017-05-31

    The use of multiple genetic backgrounds across years is appealing for genomic prediction (GP) because past years' data provide valuable information on marker effects. Nonetheless, single-year GP models are less complex and computationally less demanding than multi-year GP models. In devising a suitable analysis strategy for multi-year data, we may exploit the fact that even if there is no replication of genotypes across years, there is plenty of replication at the level of marker loci. Our principal aim was to evaluate different GP approaches to simultaneously model genotype-by-year (GY) effects and breeding values using multi-year data in terms of predictive ability. The models were evaluated under different scenarios reflecting common practice in plant breeding programs, such as different degrees of relatedness between training and validation sets, and using a selected fraction of genotypes in the training set. We used empirical grain yield data of a rye hybrid breeding program. A detailed description of the prediction approaches highlighting the use of kinship for modeling GY is presented. Using the kinship to model GY was advantageous in particular for datasets disconnected across years. On average, predictive abilities were 5% higher for models using kinship to model GY over models without kinship. We confirmed that using data from multiple selection stages provides valuable GY information and helps increasing predictive ability. This increase is on average 30% higher when the predicted genotypes are closely related with the genotypes in the training set. A selection of top-yielding genotypes together with the use of kinship to model GY improves the predictive ability in datasets composed of single years of several selection cycles. Our results clearly demonstrate that the use of multi-year data and appropriate modeling is beneficial for GP because it allows dissecting GY effects from genomic estimated breeding values. The model choice, as well as ensuring

  14. Characterization of the human T cell response to rye grass pollen allergens Lol p 1 and Lol p 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, M D; Papalia, L; Eusebius, N P; O'Hehir, R E; Rolland, J M

    2002-12-01

    Knowledge of dominant T cell epitopes of major allergens recognized by allergic individuals is required to improve efficacy and safety of allergen immunotherapy. Rye grass pollen (RGP) is the most important source of seasonal aeroallergens in temperate climates and Lol p 1 and Lol p 5 are the two major IgE-reactive allergens. This study aimed to characterize the T cell response to these allergens using a large panel of RGP-sensitive individuals. Short-term RGP-specific T cell lines (TCL) were generated from 38 RGP-sensitive subjects and stimulated with Lol p 1 and/or Lol p 5 allergens and synthetic 20-mer peptides. Proliferative responses were determined by 3H-thymidine uptake and IL-5 and IFN-gamma in culture supernatants analysed by ELISA. Of 17 subjects tested for reactivity to both allergens 16 (94%) responded to Lol p 1 and/or Lol p 5, establishing these as major T cell-reactive allergens. Sites of T cell reactivity were spread throughout the allergen molecules but regions of high reactivity were found. For Lol p 1 these spanned residues 19-38, 109-128, 154-173, 190-209, and for Lol p 5 37-56, 100-119, 145-164, 154-173, 190-209, 217-236 and 226-245. IL-5 and IFN-gamma were produced by T cells cultured with proliferation-inducing peptides. T cell responses to RGP major allergens have been extensively characterized, providing fundamental information for developing T cell-targeted immunotherapy for RGP allergy.

  15. Role of a Bacillus subtilis Direct-Fed Microbial on Digesta Viscosity, Bacterial Translocation, and Bone Mineralization in Turkey Poults Fed with a Rye-Based Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latorre, Juan D; Hernandez-Velasco, Xochitl; Kogut, Michael H; Vicente, Jose L; Wolfenden, Ross; Wolfenden, Amanda; Hargis, Billy M; Kuttappan, Vivek A; Tellez, Guillermo

    2014-01-01

    Rye contains high concentrations of non-starch polysaccharides (NSPs), leading to reduced digestibility. Since poultry have little or no endogenous enzymes capable of hydrolyzing these NSP, exogenous carbohydrases as feed additives are used in an attempt to reduce the anti-nutritional effects of these polysaccharides. Previously, an in vitro study conducted in our laboratory showed that inclusion of certain Bacillus direct-fed microbial (DFM) candidates that produce exogenous phytase, lipase, protease, cellulase, and xylanase in high-NSP diets significantly reduced both digesta viscosity and Clostridium perfringens proliferation. In the present study, rye-based turkey starter diets with or without Bacillus-DFM were administered ad libitum to day-of-hatch turkey poults in two independent experiments. In both experiments, day-of-hatch turkey poults were randomly assigned to either a control diet (CON) or a DFM treated diet (n = 25 birds/group). At 10 days-of-age, all turkey poults from experiments 1 and 2 were weighted and 12 turkey poults/group were randomly selected and humanely killed. Liver samples were aseptically collected to evaluate bacterial translocation, and intestinal digesta samples were individually collected to evaluate viscosity. Additionally, in experiment 2 both tibias were removed for assessment of bone parameters. In both experiments, the treated group showed a reduction in the total number of coliforms in the liver and a reduced digesta viscosity when compared to the CON group (P content, calcium content, and phosphorus content when compared with CON turkey poults. In summary, turkey poults fed with a rye-based diet without DFM showed an increase in bacterial translocation and digesta viscosity, accompanied by a reduction in bone mineralization; however, these adverse effects can be prevented by the inclusion of selected a Bacillus-DFM candidate in high-NSP diets.

  16. Phenolic Compounds Analysis of Root, Stalk, and Leaves of Nettle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semih Otles

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Types of nettles (Urtica dioica were collected from different regions to analyze phenolic compounds in this research. Nettles are specially grown in the coastal part. According to this kind of properties, nettle samples were collected from coastal part of (Mediterranean, Aegean, Black sea, and Marmara Turkey. Phenolic profile, total phenol compounds, and antioxidant activities of nettle samples were analyzed. Nettles were separated to the part of root, stalk, and leaves. Then, these parts of nettle were analyzed to understand the difference of phenolic compounds and amount of them. Nettle (root, stalk and leaves samples were analyzed by using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography with Diode-Array Detection (HPLC-DAD to qualitative and quantitative determination of the phenolic compounds. Total phenolic components were measured by using Folin-Ciocalteu method. The antioxidant activity was measured by using DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl which is generally used for herbal samples and based on single electron transfer (SET.

  17. Phenolic compounds analysis of root, stalk, and leaves of nettle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otles, Semih; Yalcin, Buket

    2012-01-01

    Types of nettles (Urtica dioica) were collected from different regions to analyze phenolic compounds in this research. Nettles are specially grown in the coastal part. According to this kind of properties, nettle samples were collected from coastal part of (Mediterranean, Aegean, Black sea, and Marmara) Turkey. Phenolic profile, total phenol compounds, and antioxidant activities of nettle samples were analyzed. Nettles were separated to the part of root, stalk, and leaves. Then, these parts of nettle were analyzed to understand the difference of phenolic compounds and amount of them. Nettle (root, stalk and leaves) samples were analyzed by using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography with Diode-Array Detection (HPLC-DAD) to qualitative and quantitative determination of the phenolic compounds. Total phenolic components were measured by using Folin-Ciocalteu method. The antioxidant activity was measured by using DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) which is generally used for herbal samples and based on single electron transfer (SET).

  18. Interspecific variation in total phenolic content in temperate brown algae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Mannino

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Marine algae synthesize secondary metabolites such as polyphenols that function as defense and protection mechanisms. Among brown algae, Fucales and Dictyotales (Phaeophyceae contain the highest levels of phenolic compounds, mainly phlorotannins, that play multiple roles. Four temperate brown algae (Cystoseira amentacea, Cystoseira compressa, Dictyopteris polypodioides and Padina pavonica were studied for total phenolic contents. Total phenolic content was determined colorimetrically with the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. Significant differences in total phenolic content were observed between leathery and sheetlike algae and also within each morphological group. Among the four species, the sheet-like alga D. polypodioides, living in the upper infralittoral zone, showed the highest concentration of phenolic compounds. These results are in agreement with the hypothesis that total phenolic content in temperate brown algae is influenced by a combination of several factors, such as growth form, depth, and exposition to solar radiation.

  19. Phenolic Compounds Analysis of Root, Stalk, and Leaves of Nettle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otles, Semih; Yalcin, Buket

    2012-01-01

    Types of nettles (Urtica dioica) were collected from different regions to analyze phenolic compounds in this research. Nettles are specially grown in the coastal part. According to this kind of properties, nettle samples were collected from coastal part of (Mediterranean, Aegean, Black sea, and Marmara) Turkey. Phenolic profile, total phenol compounds, and antioxidant activities of nettle samples were analyzed. Nettles were separated to the part of root, stalk, and leaves. Then, these parts of nettle were analyzed to understand the difference of phenolic compounds and amount of them. Nettle (root, stalk and leaves) samples were analyzed by using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography with Diode-Array Detection (HPLC-DAD) to qualitative and quantitative determination of the phenolic compounds. Total phenolic components were measured by using Folin-Ciocalteu method. The antioxidant activity was measured by using DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) which is generally used for herbal samples and based on single electron transfer (SET). PMID:22593694

  20. NMR-based metabonomic studies reveal changes in the biochemical profile of plasma and urine from pigs fed high fibre rye bread

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertram, Hanne C.; Bach Knudsen, Knud E.; Serena, Anja

    2006-01-01

    This study presents an NMR-based metabonomic approach to elucidate the overall endogenous biochemical effects of a wholegrain diet. Two diets with similar levels of dietary fibre and macronutrients, but with contrasting levels of wholegrain ingredients, were prepared from wholegrain rye (wholegrain...... diet (WGD)) and non-wholegrain wheat (non-wholegrain diet (NWD)) and fed to four pigs in a crossover design. Plasma samples were collected after 7 d on each diet, and 1H NMR spectra were acquired on these. Partial least squares regression discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) on spectra obtained for plasma...

  1. Concentrated Arabinoxylan but Not Concentrated Beta-Glucan in Wheat Bread Has Similar Effects on Postprandial Insulin as Whole-Grain Rye in Porto-arterial Catheterized Pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Kirstine Lykke; Hedemann, Mette Skou; Lærke, Helle Nygaard

    2013-01-01

    wheat bread were fed to six pigs in a randomized crossover design. Blood profiles were collected for 4 h after feeding. Glucose absorption was reduced in pigs fed the AX bread at 60 min postprandial (3.1 mmol/min for AX compared to 9.4 mmol/min for WF, P = 0.02) and insulin secretion was lowered at 30...... min postprandial for AX and GR (74.4 and 129 pmol/min for AX and GR, respectively, compared to 738 pmol/min for WF, P insulin economy, suggesting that arabinoxylan from wheat and rye induces similar outcomes in the metabolic...

  2. Phenolic Compounds Analysis of Root, Stalk, and Leaves of Nettle

    OpenAIRE

    Otles, Semih; Yalcin, Buket

    2012-01-01

    Types of nettles (Urtica dioica) were collected from different regions to analyze phenolic compounds in this research. Nettles are specially grown in the coastal part. According to this kind of properties, nettle samples were collected from coastal part of (Mediterranean, Aegean, Black sea, and Marmara) Turkey. Phenolic profile, total phenol compounds, and antioxidant activities of nettle samples were analyzed. Nettles were separated to the part of root, stalk, and leaves. Then, these parts ...

  3. Cytotoxicity of Phenol Red in Toxicity Assays for Carbon Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunhai Fan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available To explore the novel properties of carbon nanoparticles (CNPs in nanotoxicity assays, the adsorption of phenol red (a pH indicator for culture medium by multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs and three kinds of carbon blacks (CBs with nanosize, and its effects on cytotoxicity were studied. Results indicated that the phenol red adsorbed and delivered into cells by CBs was responsible for the toxicity to Hela cells in the medium without serum. The cellular uptake of phenol red was verified using 125I-labeling techniques. The size-dependent cytotoxicity of CBs was found to closely correlate to adsorption of phenol red, cellular uptake of phenol red-CB complexes and the amount of phenol red delivered into the cells by CBs. Although the CBs were either nontoxic or slightly toxic, as vehicles of phenol red, they played an essential role in the cytotoxicity induced by phenol red. However, MWNTs showed an intrinsic cytotoxicity independent of phenol red. The implications associated with these findings are discussed.

  4. Rapid determination of phenol content in extra virgin olive oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Favati, F.

    1994-04-01

    Full Text Available A quick extraction methodology was developed to reduce the time usually required to determine the phenol content in olive oil. The validity of this method, based on SPE technique, was tested against two other phenol extraction techniques.
    The statistical analysis of the analytical data showed that over a phenol content range of 110-550 μg/g oil, the proposed method can be a reliable alternative for a rapid extraction of the phenols from olive oil.

    No disponible.

  5. Effects of whole grain rye crisp bread for breakfast on appetite and energy intake in a subsequent meal: two randomised controlled trails with different amounts of test foods and breakfast energy content

    OpenAIRE

    Forsberg, Tina; Åman, Per; Landberg, Rikard

    2014-01-01

    Background Fibre-rich rye products have been shown to have superior effects on self-reported appetite compared to white wheat bread and some studies have shown lower energy intake after subsequent meal. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of whole grain rye crisp bread (RB) versus refined wheat bread (WB) on appetite in two studies using different portion sizes and total energy intakes. Methods Two randomised cross-over pre-load studies were conducted in 20 and 21 subject...

  6. Chlorine dioxide as phenol and H2S scavenger - formation of halogenated phenols and subsequent environmental risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melbye, Alf G.; Faksness, Liv-Guri; Knudsen, Boerre Leif

    2006-03-15

    Formation of halogenated phenols as side products from treatment of produced water with aqueous chlorine dioxide has been investigated. The literature describes formation of halogenated hydrocarbons in effluent treatment using chlorine, hypochlorite and chlorine dioxide. A new chlorine dioxide product, originally intended as a H2S scavenger in the oil and gas industry, has been tested both as a phenol scavenger and H2S-scavenger for produced water applications. The concern about the possible formation of halogenated by-products initiated laboratory testing of chlorine dioxide as phenol and H2S scavenger for produced water applications. The tests also included synthetic matrixes containing phenols, and the tests show that halogenated phenols, mainly brominated species, are found in produced water after treatment with chlorine dioxide. Due to potential environmental risk from halogenated organic contaminants, the use of chlorine dioxide as phenol and H2S scavenger is not recommended. (Author)

  7. QSARs for phenols and phenolates: oxidation potential as a predictor of reaction rate constants with photochemically produced oxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, William A; Oueis, Yan; O'Connor, Meghan; Rinaman, Johanna E; Taggart, Miranda G; McCarthy, Rachel E; Foster, Kimberley A; Latch, Douglas E

    2017-03-22

    Quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs) for prediction of the reaction rate constants of phenols and phenolates with three photochemically produced oxidants, singlet oxygen, carbonate radical, and triplet excited state sensitizers/organic matter, are developed. The predictive variable is the one-electron oxidation potential (E 1 ), which is calculated for each species using density functional theory. The reaction rate constants are obtained from the literature, and for singlet oxygen, are augmented with new experimental data. Calculated E 1 values have a mean unsigned error compared to literature values of 0.04-0.06 V. For singlet oxygen, a single linear QSAR that includes both phenols and phenolates is developed that predicts experimental rate constants, on average, to within a factor of three. Predictions for only 6 out of 87 compounds are off by more than a factor of 10. A more limited data set for carbonate radical reactions with phenols and phenolates also gives a single linear QSAR with prediction of rate constant being accurate to within a factor of three. The data for the reactions of phenols with triplet state sensitizers demonstrate that two sensitizers, 2-acetonaphthone and methylene blue, most closely predict the reactivity trend of triplet excited state organic matter with phenols. Using sensitizers with stronger reduction potentials could lead to overestimation of rate constants and thus underestimation of phenolic pollutant persistence.

  8. Inhibition of lignin-derived phenolic compounds to cellulase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Lei; Li, Wen-Chao; Liu, Li; Zhu, Jia-Qing; Li, Xia; Li, Bing-Zhi; Yuan, Ying-Jin

    2016-01-01

    Lignin-derived phenolic compounds are universal in the hydrolysate of pretreated lignocellulosic biomass. The phenolics reduce the efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis and increase the cost of ethanol production. We investigated inhibition of phenolics on cellulase during enzymatic hydrolysis using vanillin as one of the typical lignin-derived phenolics and Avicel as cellulose substrate. As vanillin concentration increased from 0 to 10 mg/mL, cellulose conversion after 72-h enzymatic hydrolysis decreased from 53 to 26 %. Enzyme deactivation and precipitation were detected with the vanillin addition. The enzyme concentration and activity consecutively decreased during hydrolysis, but the inhibition degree, expressed as the ratio of the cellulose conversion without vanillin to the conversion with vanillin (A 0 /A), was almost independent on hydrolysis time. Inhibition can be mitigated by increasing cellulose loading or cellulase concentration. The inhibition degree showed linear relationship with the vanillin concentration and exponential relationship with the cellulose loading and the cellulase concentration. The addition of calcium chloride, BSA, and Tween 80 did not release the inhibition of vanillin significantly. pH and temperature for hydrolysis also showed no significant impact on inhibition degree. The presence of hydroxyl group, carbonyl group, and methoxy group in phenolics affected the inhibition degree. Besides phenolics concentration, other factors such as cellulose loading, enzyme concentration, and phenolic structure also affect the inhibition of cellulose conversion. Lignin-blocking agents have little effect on the inhibition effect of soluble phenolics, indicating that the inhibition mechanism of phenolics to enzyme is likely different from insoluble lignin. The inhibition of soluble phenolics can hardly be entirely removed by increasing enzyme concentration or adding blocking proteins due to the dispersity and multiple binding sites of phenolics

  9. Phytases Improve Myo-Inositol Bioaccessibility in Rye Bread: A Study Using an In Vitro Method of Digestion and a Caco-2 Cell Culture Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duliński, Robert; Cielecka, Emilia Katarzyna; Pierzchalska, Małgorzata; Żyła, Krzysztof

    2015-03-01

    Preparations of 6-phytase A (EC 3.1.3.26) and phytase B (acid phosphatase, EC 3.1.3.2) were applied alone and combined in the preparation of dough to estimate their catalytic potential for myo- inositol liberation from rye flour in the breadmaking technology. The experimental bread samples were ground after baking and subjected to determination of myo- inositol bioavailability by an in vitro method that simulated digestion in a human alimentary tract, followed by measurements of myo- inositol transport through enterocyte- -like differentiated Caco-2 cells to determine its bioaccessibility. Myo- inositol content was measured by a high-performance anion-exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection (HPAEC-PAD) technique. The concentration of myo- inositol in the dialysates of control bread was 25.3 µg/mL, whereas in the dialysates of bread sample baked with 6-phytase A, the concentration increased to 35.4 µg/mL, and in the bread baked with phytase B to 64.98 µg/mL. Simultaneous application of both enzymes resulted in myo- inositol release of 64.04 µg/mL. The highest bioaccessibility of myo- inositol, assessed by the measurement of the passage through the Caco-2 monolayer was determined in the bread baked with the addition of 6-phytase A. Enzymatically modified rye bread, particularly by the addition of 6-phytase A, may be therefore a rich source of a highly bioaccessible myo - -inositol.

  10. Myo-inositol hexakisphosphate degradation by Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum ATCC 27919 improves mineral availability of high fibre rye-wheat sour bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Mantrana, Izaskun; Monedero, Vicente; Haros, Monika

    2015-07-01

    The goal of this investigation was to develop baking products using Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum ATCC27919, a phytase producer, as a starter in sourdough for the production of whole rye-wheat mixed bread. This Bifidobacterium strain contributed to myo-inositol hexakisphosphate (phytate) hydrolysis, resulting in breads with higher mineral availability as was predicted by the phytate/mineral molar ratios, which remained below the inhibitory threshold values for Ca and Zn intestinal absorption. The products with sourdough showed similar technological quality as their homologous without sourdough, with levels of acetic and d/l lactic acids in dough and bread baking significantly higher with the use of sourdough. The overall acceptability scores showed that breads with 25% of whole rye flour were highly accepted regardless of the inclusion of sourdough. This work emphasises that the in situ production of phytase during fermentation by GRAS/QPS microorganisms constitutes a strategy which is particularly appropriate for reducing the phytate contents in products for human consumption. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Rye-Based Evening Meals Favorably Affected Glucose Regulation and Appetite Variables at the Following Breakfast; A Randomized Controlled Study in Healthy Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandberg, Jonna C; Björck, Inger M E; Nilsson, Anne C

    2016-01-01

    Whole grain has shown potential to prevent obesity, cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Possible mechanism could be related to colonic fermentation of specific indigestible carbohydrates, i.e. dietary fiber (DF). The aim of this study was to investigate effects on cardiometabolic risk factors and appetite regulation the next day when ingesting rye kernel bread rich in DF as an evening meal. Whole grain rye kernel test bread (RKB) or a white wheat flour based bread (reference product, WWB) was provided as late evening meals to healthy young adults in a randomized cross-over design. The test products RKB and WWB were provided in two priming settings: as a single evening meal or as three consecutive evening meals prior to the experimental days. Test variables were measured in the morning, 10.5-13.5 hours after ingestion of RKB or WWB. The postprandial phase was analyzed for measures of glucose metabolism, inflammatory markers, appetite regulating hormones and short chain fatty acids (SCFA) in blood, hydrogen excretion in breath and subjective appetite ratings. With the exception of serum CRP, no significant differences in test variables were observed depending on length of priming (P>0.05). The RKB evening meal increased plasma concentrations of PYY (0-120 min, Pappetite ratings during the whole experimental period (Pappetite sensation could be beneficial in preventing obesity. These effects could possibly be mediated through colonic fermentation. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02093481.

  12. Uptake of soil P, Al, Fe, Mn, Mg and Ca by Italian rye grass (Lolium multiflorum Lam. induced by synthetic chelating agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helinä Hartikainen

    1981-05-01

    Full Text Available The effect of a synthetic chelating compound on the dry matter yield and the uptake of soil P, Al, Fe, Mn, Mg and Ca by Italian rye grass was studied in a pot experiment with three mineral soil samples irrigated with water or 0.001 M Na2-EDTA(dinatrium salt of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid solution. The Na2-EDTA treatment seemed not to affect the quantity of the dry matter yields, but it affected markedly their chemical composition. Increased contents of P, Al and Fe were found in all the harvests. In two soil samples the P supply was improved by 35—45 %. The accumulation of Al, Fe and Mn induced by Na2-EDTA tended to be the more effective the greater the stability constant for the corresponding metal-EDTA chelate was. Thus, the iron uptake increased most intensively, i.e. by 217—458 %, and that of aluminium by 33—120 %. On the basis of the first two harvests the manganese absorption by the rye grass seemed to decrease probably due to the enormous accumulation of iron. The results also suggested that the addition of Na2-EDTA to the soil was not able essentially to affect the magnesium and calcium supply to the plants.

  13. Extraction and chemical characterization of rye arabinoxylan and the effect of β-glucan on the mechanical and barrier properties of cast arabinoxylan films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sárossy, Zsuzsa; Tenkanen, Maija; Pitkänen, Leena

    2013-01-01

    .9 and 1.0 cm3 mm/m2 d kPa). However, the water vapor permeability increased with addition of increasing amounts of BG to WE-AX. To our knowledge, this is the first study on the effect of β-glucans on the material and permeability properties of arabinoxylan-based films. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights......Water-extractable hemicellulose (WEH) fractions, containing approximately 65% arabinoxylans (WE-AX) and 20% mixed-linkage b-glucans were isolated from rye bran. In addition, water-extractable mixedlinkage β-glucans (BG) were isolated from oat bran as a reference material. The β-glucan content....../mol. The material properties of films prepared from the rye hemicellulose isolate and WE-AX as such, or with varying amounts of added BG (20:80; 50:50; 80:20 ratios) were studied. Prior removal of β-glucan from the isolate decreased the tensile strength of the films significantly as well as the elongation at break...

  14. Phenolic compounds and related enzymes as determinants of sorghum for food use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dicko, M.H.; Gruppen, H.; Traore, A.S.; Voragen, A.G.J.; Berkel, van W.J.H.

    2006-01-01

    Phenolic compounds and related enzymes such as phenol biosynthesizing enzymes (phenylalanine ammonia lyase) and phenol catabolizing enzymes (polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase) are determinants for sorghum utilization as human food because they influence product properties during and after sorghum

  15. Fracture in Phenolic Impregnated Carbon Ablator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Parul; Chavez-Garcia, Jose; Pham, John

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a novel technique to understand the failure mechanisms inside thermal protection materials. The focus of this research is on the class of materials known as phenolic impregnated carbon ablators. It has successfully flown on the Stardust spacecraft and is the thermal protection system material chosen for the Mars Science Laboratory and SpaceX Dragon spacecraft. Although it has good thermal properties, structurally, it is a weak material. To understand failure mechanisms in carbon ablators, fracture tests were performed on FiberForm(Registered TradeMark) (precursor), virgin, and charred ablator materials. Several samples of these materials were tested to investigate failure mechanisms at a microstructural scale. Stress-strain data were obtained simultaneously to estimate the tensile strength and toughness. It was observed that cracks initiated and grew in the FiberForm when a critical stress limit was reached such that the carbon fibers separated from the binder. However, both for virgin and charred carbon ablators, crack initiation and growth occurred in the matrix (phenolic) phase. Both virgin and charred carbon ablators showed greater strength values compared with FiberForm samples, confirming that the presence of the porous matrix helps in absorbing the fracture energy.

  16. Bioassay of Phenol and its Intermediate Products Using Daphnia magna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afshin Maleki

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Phenol is one of the most common compounds found in many industrial effluents such as petroleum refining and petrochemicals, pharmaceuticals, pesticides, paint and dye industries, organic chemicals manufacturing, etc. The contamination of bodies of water with phenol is a serious problem in terms of environmental considerations due to its high toxicity. In this study, toxicity of phenol and its degradation mixtures by sonochemical, photochemical, and photosonochemical processes were investigated. Toxicity assay tests were carried out using Daphnia magna as a bio-indicator. The sonochemical and photochemical experiments were carried out using a bath sonicator (500 W working at 35 and 130 kHz frequencies and with a 400 W medium pressure mercury lamp, respectively. Experiments were performed at initial concentrations of 100 mg L-1. Bioassay tests showed that phenol was toxic to D.magna and so resulted in quite low LC50 values. Comparison of toxicity units (TU between phenol and effluent toxicity showed that TU value for photosonochemical effluent was lower than that obtained for phenol, photochemical effluent, and sonochemical effluent. It was found that the toxicity unit of photochemical effluent was lower than that obtained for sonochemical effluent. According to the D.magna acute toxicity test, it is concluded that photosonolysis and photolysis are capable of decreasing the toxicity of by-products formed during the degradation of phenol aqueous solutions. Photosonic and photolytic processes can, therefore, be recommended as a potential approach to the treatment of phenolic wastewater.

  17. Influence of nanometric silicon carbide on phenolic resin composites ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. This paper presents a preliminary study on obtaining and characterization of phenolic resin-based com- posites modified with nanometric silicon carbide. The nanocomposites were prepared by incorporating nanometric silicon carbide (nSiC) into phenolic resin at 0.5, 1 and 2 wt% contents using ultrasonication to ...

  18. Radiation shielding phenolic fibers and method of producing same

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohtomo, K.

    1976-01-01

    A radiation shielding phenolic fiber is described comprising a filamentary phenolic polymer consisting predominantly of a sulfonic acid group-containing cured novolak resin and a metallic atom having a great radiation shielding capacity, the metallic atom being incorporated in the polymer by being chemically bound in the ionic state in the novolak resin. A method for the production of the fiber is discussed

  19. Validated RP-HPLC Method for Quantification of Phenolic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the total phenolic content and antioxidant potential of the methanol extracts of aerial parts and roots of Thymus sipyleus Boiss and also to determine some phenolic compounds using a newly developed and validated reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method.

  20. Anti-cancer and antioxidant properties of phenolics isolated from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the antioxidant and anticancer activities of phenolics from the leaf extract of Toona sinensis (TS). Methods: Acetone leaf extract of TS was screened for total phenolic and flavanoid contents, and the flanonoids were subjected to high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) analysis. Antioxidant ...

  1. Catalytic Ozonation of Phenolic Wastewater: Identification and Toxicity of Intermediates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Farzadkia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A new strategy in catalytic ozonation removal method for degradation and detoxification of phenol from industrial wastewater was investigated. Magnetic carbon nanocomposite, as a novel catalyst, was synthesized and then used in the catalytic ozonation process (COP and the effects of operational conditions such as initial pH, reaction time, and initial concentration of phenol on the degradation efficiency and the toxicity assay have been investigated. The results showed that the highest catalytic potential was achieved at optimal neutral pH and the removal efficiency of phenol and COD is 98.5% and 69.8%, respectively. First-order modeling demonstrated that the reactions were dependent on the initial concentration of phenol, with kinetic constants varying from 0.038 min−1  ([phenol]o = 1500 mg/L to 1.273 min−1 ([phenol]o = 50 mg/L. Bioassay analysis showed that phenol was highly toxic to Daphnia magna (LC50 96 h=5.6 mg/L. Comparison of toxicity units (TU of row wastewater (36.01 and the treated effluent showed that TU value, after slightly increasing in the first steps of ozonation for construction of more toxic intermediates, severely reduced at the end of reaction (2.23. Thus, COP was able to effectively remove the toxicity of intermediates which were formed during the chemical oxidation of phenolic wastewaters.

  2. Pyrolysis kinetics of phenols from lignite semicoking tar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Platonov, V.V.; Polovetskaya, O.S.; Proskuryakov, V.A.; Shavyrina, O.A. [Leo Tolstoy Tula State Pedag University, Tula (Russian Federation)

    2002-11-01

    The features of pyrolysis of phenols from lignite semicoking tar were studied. The activation energy and order of the reactions of accumulation of methane, hydrogen, carbon monoxide and dioxide, naphthalene and its methyl homologs, phenols, and isomeric cresols and dimethylphenols were determined.

  3. Phenolic Content, and Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    Methods: The content of total phenols, flavonoids and anthocyanins of the alcohol, hydroalcohol and aqueous extracts of ... Keywords: Crataegus oxyacantha L.; Natural phenolic compounds; Antioxidant and antimicrobial activity, Southeast Serbia. ..... Antioxidant activities of Sechium edule (Jacq.) Swart extracts, Food ...

  4. Response of total phenolic content and antioxidant activities of bush ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The positive health benefits associated with tea are made possible by the antioxidant activity of phenolic compounds present in tea. The total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of bush tea (Athrixia phylicoides DC.) and special tea (Monsonia burkeana) were studied. The extractions were done in triplicate using cold ...

  5. Phenolic acid changes during Orobanche parasitism on faba bean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present work is intended to provide further information on broomrape parasitism based on phenolic acid changes in either the host plant(s) or in each of the host and the parasite in the host-parasite system. Detection of phenolic acids was carried out using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in the host ...

  6. Biodegradation of phenol using an anaerobic EGSB reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eguia, A.; Olvera, M. E.; Cerezo, R.; Kuppusamy, I.

    2009-01-01

    Phenol is a compound found naturally in domestic and industrial waste waters and should be removed since in high concentrations it proves to be fatal. The present investigation was undertaken to evaluate the anaerobic biodegradability of the phenol in the wastewaters supplementing sulphates in the form of CaSO 4 2 , to increment the COD t otal removal value. (Author)

  7. Determination of Phenols in Water Samples using a Supported ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The sample preparation method was tested for the determination of phenols in river water samples and landfill leachate. Concentrations of phenols in river water were found to be in the range 4.2 μg L–1 for 2-chlorophenol to 50 μg L–1 for 4-chlorophenol. In landfill leachate, 4-chlorophenol was detected at a concentration ...

  8. Quality characteristics and phenolic compounds of European pear ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Pear fruits are an important source of plant secondary metabolites and one of the major sources of dietary phenolic compounds. Materials and Methods: The aim of this study was to determine the individual phenolic compounds and some quality characteristics of the flesh and peel of the fruit in four pear ...

  9. Extraction and antioxidant activity of phenolic compounds from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    35:1, temperature: 70 oC, the experimental total phenolic yield was 30.464 ± 0.025, which agreed with ... The phenolic compounds showed strong antioxidant activities. At extract ..... under steam explosion is a suitable approach for obtaining a ...

  10. Total Phenol amd Flavonoid contents of Crude Extract and Fractions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phenolic compounds are numerous in plants and are essential part of human diet. Picralima nitida has been extensively used in African folk medicine especially in West Africa. The present study evaluated the total phenolic and flavonoid contents of the extract and fractions of Picralima nitida. The methanol extracts of P.

  11. Factors controlling phenol content on Theobroma cacao callus culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quiñones-Galvez, Janet; HernándezTorre, Martha de la; Quirós Molina, Yemeys; Capdesuñer Ruiz, Yanelis; Trujillo Sánchez, Reinaldo

    2016-01-01

    Theobroma cacao L. is known in folk medicine as an antiseptic, diuretic and antiparasitic. Foods derived from this plant are rich in natural products of high added value, including phenolic compounds. As in vitro cultivation handle is an alternative source for the production of these metabolites. The present study was conducted to obtain phenolic compounds from callus culture with embryogenic structures. Culture conditions (agitation, light and glucose) were established to increase the concentration of phenols in calluses and elicitors to achieve the increase in callus and excretion into the culture area. The accumulation of phenolic compounds was favored with the additional supplement of glucose, growth in agitation and darkness. The addition of random hydroxylated cyclodextrins allowed the increase in the specific yield of phenols and biomass. (author)

  12. Solidification and performance of cement doped with phenol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vipulanandan, C.; Krishnan, S.

    1991-01-01

    Treating mixed hazardous wastes using the solidification/stabilization technology is becoming a critical element in waste management planning. The effect of phenol, a primary constituent in many hazardous wastes, on the setting and solidification process of Type I Portland cement was evaluated. The leachability of phenol from solidified cement matrix (TCLP test) and changes in mechanical properties were studied after curing times up to 28 days. The changes in cement hydration products due to phenol were studied using the X-ray diffraction (XRD) powder technique. Results show that phenol interferes with initial cement hydration by reducing the formation of calcium hydroxide and also reduces the compressive strength of cement. A simple model has been proposed to quantify the phenol leached from the cement matrix during the leachate test

  13. Gold-catalyzed oxidation of substituted phenols by hydrogen peroxide

    KAUST Repository

    Cheneviere, Yohan

    2010-10-20

    Gold nanoparticles deposited on inorganic supports are efficient catalysts for the oxidation of various substituted phenols (2,6-di-tert-butyl phenol and 2,3,6-trimethyl phenol) with aqueous hydrogen peroxide. By contrast to more conventional catalysts such as Ti-containing mesoporous silicas, which convert phenols to the corresponding benzoquinones, gold nanoparticles are very selective to biaryl compounds (3,3′,5,5′-tetra-tert-butyl diphenoquinone and 2,2′,3,3′,5,5′-hexamethyl-4,4′- biphenol, respectively). Products yields and selectivities depend on the solvent used, the best results being obtained in methanol with yields >98%. Au offers the possibility to completely change the selectivity in the oxidation of substituted phenols and opens interesting perspectives in the clean synthesis of biaryl compounds for pharmaceutical applications. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Capacity in Algal Food Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmila Machu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The study objective was to investigate total phenolic content using Folin-Ciocalteu’s method, to assess nine phenols by HPLC, to determine antioxidant capacity of the water soluble compounds (ACW by a photochemiluminescence method, and to calculate the correlation coefficients in commercial algal food products from brown (Laminaria japonica, Eisenia bicyclis, Hizikia fusiformis, Undaria pinnatifida and red (Porphyra tenera, Palmaria palmata seaweed, green freshwater algae (Chlorella pyrenoidosa, and cyanobacteria (Spirulina platensis. HPLC analysis showed that the most abundant phenolic compound was epicatechin. From spectrophotometry and ACW determination it was evident that brown seaweed Eisenia bicyclis was the sample with the highest phenolic and ACW values (193 mg·g−1 GAE; 7.53 µmol AA·g−1, respectively. A linear relationship existed between ACW and phenolic contents (r = 0.99. Some algal products seem to be promising functional foods rich in polyphenols.

  15. Total phenolics and total flavonoids in selected Indian medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulaiman, C T; Balachandran, Indira

    2012-05-01

    Plant phenolics and flavonoids have a powerful biological activity, which outlines the necessity of their determination. The phenolics and flavonoids content of 20 medicinal plants were determined in the present investigation. The phenolic content was determined by using Folin-Ciocalteu assay. The total flavonoids were measured spectrophotometrically by using the aluminium chloride colorimetric assay. The results showed that the family Mimosaceae is the richest source of phenolics, (Acacia nilotica: 80.63 mg gallic acid equivalents, Acacia catechu 78.12 mg gallic acid equivalents, Albizia lebbeck 66.23 mg gallic acid equivalents). The highest total flavonoid content was revealed in Senna tora which belongs to the family Caesalpiniaceae. The present study also shows the ratio of flavonoids to the phenolics in each sample for their specificity.

  16. Comparing phenolics composition and antioxidant activities of different pomegranate products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wasila, H.; Li, X.; Liu, L.; Ahmad, I.

    2014-01-01

    The phenolics and antioxidant abilities of pomegranate juices (aril juice (aj) and aril-mesocarp-epicarp mixture juice (amej), by-product extracts (extract of aril-mesocarp-epicarp (eame) and rind extract (er) were determined and compared. The results showed no significant difference in phenolic compositions however ratio of phenolic constituent were found different. The total phenolics, total flavonoids and total tannins contents followed the order of er>eame>amej>aj, and total anthocyanins followed the trend eame>amej>aj>er. The total antioxidant, total reduction, abts o+ radical scavenging and dppho radical scavenging capacities followed the sequence r>aj>eame>amej, amej>er>eame>aj, er>amej>eame>aj and amej>er>aj>eame respectively. With the exception of abtso+ scavenging capacities, strongest antioxidant activity found in juices compared to their corresponding purified products. These data suggest that phenolics play a vital role in the composition and antioxidant activity of pomegranate products. (author)

  17. Sulfonated phenolic material and its use in post primary oil recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pardue, J. E.; Stapp, P. R.

    1984-09-04

    Sulfonated phenolic compounds as well as sulfomethylated phenolic compounds, surfactant systems containing such compound and the use of such surfactant systems in post primary oil recovery are disclosed.

  18. Physiological and functional diversity of phenol degraders isolated from phenol-grown aerobic granules: Phenol degradation kinetics and trichloroethylene co-metabolic activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Tay, Joo Hwa

    2016-03-15

    Aerobic granule is a novel form of microbial aggregate capable of degrading toxic and recalcitrant substances. Aerobic granules have been formed on phenol as the growth substrate, and used to co-metabolically degrade trichloroethylene (TCE), a synthetic solvent not supporting aerobic microbial growth. Granule formation process, rate limiting factors and the comprehensive toxic effects of phenol and TCE had been systematically studied. To further explore their potential at the level of microbial population and functions, phenol degraders were isolated and purified from mature granules in this study. Phenol and TCE degradation kinetics of 15 strains were determined, together with their TCE transformation capacities and other physiological characteristics. Isolation in the presence of phenol and TCE exerted stress on microbial populations, but the procedure was able to preserve their diversity. Wide variation was found with the isolates' kinetic behaviors, with the parameters often spanning 3 orders of magnitude. Haldane kinetics described phenol degradation well, and the isolates exhibited actual maximum phenol-dependent oxygen utilization rates of 9-449 mg DO g DW(-1) h(-1), in phenol concentration range of 4.8-406 mg L(-1). Both Michaelis-Menten and Haldane types were observed for TCE transformation, with the actual maximum rate of 1.04-21.1 mg TCE g DW(-1) h(-1) occurring between TCE concentrations of 0.42-4.90 mg L(-1). The TCE transformation capacities and growth yields on phenol ranged from 20-115 mg TCE g DW(-1) and 0.46-1.22 g DW g phenol(-1), respectively, resulting in TCE transformation yields of 10-70 mg TCE g phenol(-1). Contact angles of the isolates were between 34° and 82°, suggesting both hydrophobic and hydrophilic cell surface. The diversity in the isolates is a great advantage, as it enables granules to be versatile and adaptive under different operational conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Phenolic compounds participating in mulberry juice sediment formation during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Bo; Xu, Yu-Juan; Wu, Ji-Jun; Yu, Yuan-Shan; Xiao, Geng-Sheng

    The stability of clarified juice is of great importance in the beverage industry and to consumers. Phenolic compounds are considered to be one of the main factors responsible for sediment formation. The aim of this study is to investigate the changes in the phenolic content in clarified mulberry juice during storage. Hence, separation, identification, quantification, and analysis of the changes in the contents of phenolic compounds, both free and bound forms, in the supernatant and sediments of mulberry juice, were carried out using high performance liquid chromatographic system, equipped with a photo-diode array detector (HPLC-PDA) and HPLC coupled with quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometric (HPLC-QTOF-MS/MS) techniques. There was an increase in the amount of sediment formed over the period of study. Total phenolic content of supernatant, as well as free phenolic content in the extracts of the precipitate decreased, whereas the bound phenolic content in the sediment increased. Quantitative estimation of individual phenolic compounds indicated high degradation of free anthocyanins in the supernatant and sediment from 938.60 to 2.30 mg/L and 235.60 to 1.74 mg/g, respectively. A decrease in flavonoids in the supernatant was also observed, whereas the contents of bound forms of gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, caffeic acid, and rutin in the sediment increased. Anthocyanins were the most abundant form of phenolics in the sediment, and accounted for 67.2% of total phenolics after 8 weeks of storage. These results revealed that phenolic compounds, particularly anthocyanins, were involved in the formation of sediments in mulberry juice during storage.

  20. Scavenging Capacities of Some Wines and Wine Phenolic Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis G. Roussis

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the ability of different wines – a sweet red, a dry red, a sweet white, and a dry white – to scavenge the stable 1,1’-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl radical (DPPH. and to determine their phenolic composition. Both red wines contained, apart from anthocyanins, also higher concentration of total phenolics, tartaric esters, and flavonols than the two white wines. All wines exhibited scavenging activity analogous to their total phenolic content. However, their phenolics differed in antiradical potency, which was visible in their EC50 values. The dry red wine, Xinomavro, had a lower EC50 value, indicating the higher antiradical potency of its phenolics. The scavenging capacities of phenolic extracts from Xinomavro red wine on hydroxyl radicals, superoxide radicals, and singlet oxygen were also assessed. Wine total extract was fractionated by extraction, and each of the three fractions was then subfractionated by column chromatography into two subfractions. Wine total extract, and its fractions and subfractions exhibited scavenging capacity on hydroxyl radicals, superoxide radicals, and singlet oxygen, indicating the activity of many wine phenolics. The most active wine extracts towards hydroxyl radicals were characterized by the high peaks of flavanols, anthocyanins and flavonols in their HPLC-DAD chromatograms. The most active extract towards superoxide radicals was rich in flavanols and anthocyanins. The characteristic phenolics of the most active wine extracts towards singlet oxygen were flavanols, flavonols and phenolic acids. The ability of all red wine phenolic extracts to scavenge singlet oxygen, along with hydroxyl and superoxide radicals, emphasizes its health functionality.

  1. A quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical study of the hydroxylation of phenol and halogeneted derivatives by phenol hydroxylase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ridder, L.; Mulholland, A.J.; Rietjens, I.M.C.M.; Vervoort, J.

    2000-01-01

    A combined quantum mechanical and molecular mechanical (QM/MM) method (AM1/CHARMM) was used to investigate the mechanism of the aromatic hydroxylation of phenol by a flavin dependent phenol hydroxylase (PH), an essential reaction in the degradation of a wide range of aromatic compounds. The model

  2. Effects of unfermented and fermented whole grain rye crisp breads served as part of a standardized breakfast, on appetite and postprandial glucose and insulin responses: a randomized cross-over trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel P Johansson

    Full Text Available Whole grain rye products have been shown to increase satiety and elicit lower postprandial insulin response without a corresponding change in glucose response compared with soft refined wheat bread. The underlying mechanisms for these effects have not been fully determined The primary aim of the study was to investigate if whole grain rye crisp bread compared to refined wheat crisp bread, elected beneficial effects on appetite and postprandial insulin response, similarly as for other rye products.In a randomized cross-over trial, 23 healthy volunteers, aged 27-70 years, BMI 18-31.4 kg/m2, were served a standardized breakfast with unfermented whole grain rye crisp bread (uRCB, fermented whole grain rye crisp bread (RCB or refined wheat crisp bread (WCB, Appetite was measured using a visual analogue scale (VAS until 4 h after breakfast. Postprandial glucose and insulin were measured at 0-230 min. Breads were chemically characterized including macronutrients, energy, dietary fiber components, and amino acid composition, and microstructure was characterized with light microscopy.Reported fullness was 16% higher (P<0.001, and hunger 11% and 12% lower (P<0.05 after ingestion of uRCB and RCB, respectively, compared with WCB. Postprandial glucose response did not differ significantly between treatments. Postprandial insulin was 10% lower (P<0.007 between 0-120 min but not significantly lower between 0-230 min for RCB compared with WCB. uRCB induced 13% (P<0.002 and 17% (P<0.001 lower postprandial insulin response between 0-230 min compared with RCB and WCB respectively.Whole grain rye crisp bread induces higher satiety and lower insulin response compared with refined wheat crisp bread. Microstructural characteristics, dietary fiber content and composition are probable contributors to the increased satiety after ingestion of rye crisp breads. Higher insulin secretion after ingestion of RCB and WCB compared with uRCB may be due to differences in fiber

  3. Bioactive phenolic acids from Scorzonera radiata Fisch.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Tsevegsuren

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Chromatographic separation of the crude extract obtained from the aerial parts of the Mongolian medicinal plant Scorzonera radiata yielded five new dihydrostilbenes [4], two new flavonoids, one new quinic acid derivative, as well as twenty known compounds including eight quinic acid derivatives, four flavonoids, two coumarins, five simple benzoic acids, and one monoterpene glycoside. We present here results on isolation and structural identification some active phenolic compounds from the Scorzonera radiata - eight quinic acid derivatives (quinic acid, 4,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid, 4,5-dicaffeoyl-epi-quinic acid, 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid, 3,5-dicaffeoyl-epi-quinic acid, chlorogenic acid, 5-p-coumaroylquinic acid (trans, 5-p-coumaroylquinic acid (cis. Quinic acid derivatives exhibited antioxidative activity.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5564/mjc.v12i0.177 Mongolian Journal of Chemistry Vol.12 2011: 78-84

  4. [Phenolic compounds in branches of Tamarix rasissima].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Juan; Li, Wei-Qi; Zheng, Ping; Wang, Rui; Yu, Jian-Qiang; Yang, Jian-Hong; Yao, Yao

    2014-06-01

    To study the chemical constituents of the branches of Tamarix rasissima, repeated silica gel column chromatography, Sephadex LH-20 chromatography and recrystallization were applied for chemical constituents isolation and purification. Ten phenolic compounds were isolated from the n-BuOH fraction and their structures were elucidated by physical properties and spectra analysis such as UV, ESI-MS and NMR as monodecarboxyellagic acid (1), ellagic acid (2), 3, 3'-di-O-methylellagic acid (3), 3, 3'-di-O-methylellagic acid-4-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (4), 3, 3'-di-O-methylellagic acid-4'-O-alpha-D-arabinfuranoside (5), ferulic acid (6), isoferulic acid (7), caffeic acid (8), 4-O-acetyl-caffeic acid (9), and 4-methyl-1, 2-benzenediol (10). All compounds except for isoferulic acid were isolated firstly from this plant except for isoferulic acid, and compounds 5, 9 and 10 were obtained from Tamarix genus for the first time.

  5. Synthesis of improved phenolic and polyester resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delano, C. B.

    1980-01-01

    Thirty-seven cured phenolic resin compositions were prepared and tested for their ability to provide improved char residues and moisture resistance over state of the art epoxy resin composite matrices. Cyanate, epoxy novolac and vinyl ester resins were investigated. Char promoter additives were found to increase the anaerobic char yield at 800 C of epoxy novolacs and vinyl esters. Moisture resistant cyanate and vinyl ester compositions were investigated as composite matrices with Thornel 300 graphite fiber. A cyanate composite matrix provided state of the art composite mechanical properties before and after humidity exposure and an anaerobic char yield of 46 percent at 800 C. The outstanding moisture resistance of the matrix was not completely realized in the composite. Vinyl ester resins showed promise as candidates for improved composite matrix systems.

  6. Sorption of phenol and phenol derivatives in hydrotalcite; Sorcion de fenol y derivados de fenol en hidrotalcita

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avina G, E I

    2002-07-01

    One of the main problems in Mexico and in the World is the waste water pollution of a great variety of industrial processes by organic compounds. Among those ones the phenol compounds which are highly toxic, refractories (to the chemical degradation) and poorly biodegradable. This is due in a large extent to the problem created by the accelerated increase in the environmental pollution in the cities and industrial centers. The phenol compounds are used in a great variety of industries such as the production of resins, plasticizers, antioxidants, pesticides, colourings, disinfectants, etc. These phenol compounds are specially harmful, since they have repercussions on the flora of plants of biological treatment of water affecting its operation. The main objective of this work is to evaluate the capacities of phenol detention and its derivatives in an hydrotalcite type compound and diminishing with it the presence in water, in this case, of solutions prepared in the laboratory. In order to analyse this elimination process was used a methodology based in the carrying out in batch experiments and in the elaboration of a sorption isotherm. It is worth pointing out that this work was realized at laboratory scale, at relatively high phenol concentration ratio. With the obtained results when the sorption properties are evaluated the calcined hydrotalcite (HTC) for detaining phenol and p-chloro phenol it was observed that it is detained greater quantity of p-chloro phenol than phenol in the HTC. The detention of these phenol compounds in the HTC is due to the memory effect by the hydrotalcite regeneration starting from the oxides which are formed by the burning material. (Author)

  7. Retardation of quality changes in camel meat sausages by phenolic compounds and phenolic extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maqsood, Sajid; Manheem, Kusaimah; Abushelaibi, Aisha; Kadim, Isam Tawfik

    2016-11-01

    Impact of tannic acid (TA), date seed extract (DSE), catechin (CT) and green tea extract (GTE) on lipid oxidation, microbial load and textural properties of camel meat sausages during 12 days of refrigerated storage was investigated. TA and CT showed higher activities in all antioxidative assays compared to DSE and GTE. Lipid oxidation and microbial growth was higher for control sausages when compared to other samples. TA and CT at a level of 200 mg/kg were more effective in retarding lipid oxidation and lowering microbial count (P < 0.05). Sausages treated with TA and DSE were found to have higher hardness, gumminess and chewiness values compared to other treatments (P < 0.05). Addition of different phenolic compounds or extract did not influence the sensory color of sausages. Furthermore, sensory quality was also found to be superior in TA and CT treated sausages. Therefore, pure phenolic compounds (TA and CT) proved to be more effective in retaining microbial and sensorial qualities of camel meat sausages compared to phenolic extracts (GTE and DSE) over 12 days of storage at 4°C. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  8. Effects of whole grain rye, with and without resistant starch type 2 supplementation, on glucose tolerance, gut hormones, inflammation and appetite regulation in an 11-14.5 hour perspective; a randomized controlled study in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandberg, Jonna C; Björck, Inger M E; Nilsson, Anne C

    2017-04-21

    The prevalence of obesity is increasing worldwide and prevention is needed. Whole grain has shown potential to lower the risk of obesity, cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. One possible mechanism behind the benefits of whole grain is the gut fermentation of dietary fiber (DF), e.g. non-starch polysaccharides and resistant starch (RS), in whole grain. The purpose of the study is to investigate the effect of whole grain rye-based products on glucose- and appetite regulation. Twenty-one healthy subjects were provided four rye-based evening test meals in a crossover overnight study design. The test evening meals consisted of either whole grain rye flour bread (RFB) or a 1:1 ratio of whole grain rye flour and rye kernels bread (RFB/RKB), with or without added resistant starch (+RS). White wheat flour bread (WWB) was used as reference evening meal. Blood glucose, insulin, PYY, FFA, IL-6 as well as breath H 2 and subjective rating of appetite were measured the following morning at fasting and repeatedly up to 3.5 h after a standardized breakfast consisting of WWB. Ad libitum energy intake was determined at lunch, 14.5 h after evening test and reference meals, respectively. The evening meal with RFB/RKB + RS decreased postprandial glucose- and insulin responses (iAUC) (P appetite regulation in a semi-acute perspective. Meanwhile, RFB and RFB/RKB improved subjective appetite ratings. The effects probably emanate from gut fermentation events. The study was registered at: ClinicalTrials.gov, register number NCT02347293 ( www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02347293 ). Registered 15 January 2015.

  9. Rye Bran Modified with Cell Wall-Degrading Enzymes Influences the Kinetics of Plant Lignans but Not of Enterolignans in Multicatheterized Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolvig, Anne K; Nørskov, Natalja P; van Vliet, Sophie; Foldager, Leslie; Curtasu, Mihai V; Hedemann, Mette S; Sørensen, Jens F; Lærke, Helle N; Bach Knudsen, Knud E

    2017-12-01

    Background: Whole-grain intake is associated with a lower risk of chronic Western-style diseases, possibly brought about by the high concentration of phytochemicals, among them plant lignans (PLs), in the grains. Objective: We studied whether treatment of rye bran with cell wall-degrading enzymes changed the solubility and kinetics of PLs in multicatheterized pigs. Methods: Ten female Duroc × Danish Landrace × Yorkshire pigs (60.3 ± 2.3 kg at surgery) fitted with permanent catheters were included in an incomplete crossover study. The pigs were fed 2 experimental diets for 1-7 d. The diets were rich in PLs and based on nontreated lignan-rich [LR; lignan concentration: 20.2 mg dry matter (DM)/kg] or enzymatically treated lignan-rich (ENZLR; lignan concentration: 27.8 mg DM/kg) rye bran. Plasma concentrations of PLs and enterolignans were quantified with the use of targeted LC-tandem mass spectrometry. Data were log transformed and analyzed with mixed-effects, 1-compartment, and asymptotic regression models. Results: The availability of PLs was 38% greater in ENZLR than in LR, and the soluble fraction of PLs was 49% in ENZLR compared with 35% in LR diets. PLs appeared in the circulation 30 min after intake of both the ENZLR and LR diets. Postprandially, consumption of ENZLR resulted in a 4-times-greater ( P concentration compared with LR. The area under the curve (AUC) measured 0-360 min after ENZLR intake was ∼2 times higher than after LR intake. A 1-compartment model could describe the postprandial increase in plasma concentration after ENZLR intake, whereas an asymptotic regression model described the plasma concentrations after LR intake. Despite increased available and soluble PLs, ENZLR did not increase plasma enterolignans. Conclusion: The modification of rye bran with cell wall-degrading enzymes resulted in significantly greater plasma concentrations of PLs and the 4-h AUC, particularly syringaresinol, in multicatheterized pigs. © 2017 American Society

  10. pyrophosphatase gene in rye

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1Triticeae Research Institute, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu, Sichuan ... Under all the investigated stress conditions, expression of ScHP1 was lower in the stem than ..... Total RNA extraction and first-strand cDNA synthesis were.

  11. Associations of prenatal exposure to phenols with birth outcomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Rong; Chen, Min-jian; Ding, Guo-dong; Chen, Xiao-jiao; Han, Xiu-mei; Zhou, Kun; Chen, Li-mei; Xia, Yan-kai; Tian, Ying; Wang, Xin-ru

    2013-01-01

    Many phenols are known to mimic or antagonize hormonal activities and may adversely affect fetal growth. A study of 567 pregnant women was conducted to investigate the relationship between prenatal phenol exposure and birth outcomes, including birth weight, length, and gestational age. We measured the concentrations of bisphenol A, benzophenone-3, 4-n-octylphenol and 4-n-nonylphenol in maternal urine and examine their association with birth outcomes. Categories of urinary benzophenone-3 concentration were associated with decreased gestational age in all infants (p for trend = 0.03). Between middle and low exposure groups, we also found bisphenol A was negatively associated with gestational duration (β adjusted = −0.48 week; 95% confidence interval: −0.91, −0.05). After stratification by gender, we found the consistent results in infant boys with those in all infants, but we did not observe significant association for girls. In conclusion, we found prenatal phenol exposure was sex-specifically related to birth outcomes. -- Highlights: •We examined relationship of prenatal exposure to phenols with birth outcomes. •We determined urinary concentrations of various phenols. •BP-3 and BPA were negatively associated with gestational age. •There was sex-specific association between phenol exposure and birth outcomes. -- Prenatal phenol exposure was sex-specifically related to birth outcomes

  12. Electrokinetic transport behavior of phenol in upper Permian soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haus, R.; Zorn, R.; Czurda, K.; Ruthe, H. [Dept. of Applied Geology, Univ. Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    Electrokinetic experiments with upper Permian, phenol contaminated soils ('Solaris'-area Chemnitz) were performed. Bench scale results show the successful removal of phenol. The developing soil-pH during electroremediation tests is found to affect the transport behavior of phenol strongly. If buffer solutions are used at the electrode compartments, phenol could be removed from the soils. By neutralizing the generating hydrogen ions at the anode reservoir the hydroxyl ions developing at the cathode by the electrolysis of water enter the soil and propagate to the anode by increasing the soil pH. The pH dependent dehydroxylation of phenol promotes the electromigration of negative charged phenolate ions from the cathode to the anode. At the anode the coupling of phenoxyl-radicals supports the formation of non toxic, water insoluble polyoxyphenylene by electro-polymerization. In the case of buffering the pH at the cathode uncharged phenol is transported by electroosmosis from the anode to the cathode because of the nonexisting base front and the unhindered production of hydrogen ions at the anode. (orig.)

  13. Study of phenol extraction from coke-chemical sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catana, E.; Mateescu, I.; Giurcaneanu, V.; Bota, T.

    1990-09-01

    The paper presents an experimental study of the phase equilibrium in the coke-chemical tarphenols-solvent system (NaOH) solution and (phenolate solution) implied in the extraction of the phenols from coke-chemical sources. The possibility of using the phenolate solution as an extraction agent, thus making possible the improvement of the specific consumption and also simplifying the problem of the corrosion and of the waste water at the same time is presented. The influence of the solvent tar mass ratio on the selectivity of the process is discussed, this criterion being considered for establishing the conditions of the extraction. 2 figs., 7 tabs., 13 refs.

  14. Intestinal release and uptake of phenolic antioxidant diferulic acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Mette Findal; Kroon, P A; Williamson, G

    2001-01-01

    Diferulic acids are potent antioxidants and are abundant structural components of plant cell walls, especially in cereal brans. As such, they are part of many human and animal diets and may contribute to the beneficial effect of cereal brans on health. However, these phenolics are ester-linked to......Diferulic acids are potent antioxidants and are abundant structural components of plant cell walls, especially in cereal brans. As such, they are part of many human and animal diets and may contribute to the beneficial effect of cereal brans on health. However, these phenolics are ester...... system. Our results suggest that the phenolic antioxidant diferulic acids are bioavailable. Udgivelsesdato: 2001-Aug-1...

  15. Isolation of cDNA encoding a newly identified major allergenic protein of rye-grass pollen: intracellular targeting to the amyloplast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, M B; Hough, T; Theerakulpisut, P; Avjioglu, A; Davies, S; Smith, P M; Taylor, P; Simpson, R J; Ward, L D; McCluskey, J

    1991-01-01

    We have identified a major allergenic protein from rye-grass pollen, tentatively designated Lol pIb of 31kDa and with pI 9.0. A cDNA clone encoding Lol pIb has been isolated, sequenced, and characterized. Lol pIb is located mainly in the starch granules. This is a distinct allergen from Lol pI, which is located in the cytosol. Lol pIb is synthesized in pollen as a pre-allergen with a transit peptide targeting the allergen to amyloplasts. Epitope mapping of the fusion protein localized the IgE binding determinant in the C-terminal domain. Images PMID:1671715

  16. The impact of drying techniques on phenolic compound, total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of oat flour tarhana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Değirmencioğlu, Nurcan; Gürbüz, Ozan; Herken, Emine Nur; Yıldız, Aysun Yurdunuseven

    2016-03-01

    In this study, the changes in phenolic composition, total phenolic content, and antioxidant capacity of tarhanas supplemented with oat flour (OF) at the levels of 20-100% (w/w) after three drying treatments (sun-, oven-, and microwave drying) were investigated. A total of seventeen phenolic standards have been screened in tarhanas, and the most abundant flavonol and phenolic acid compounds were kaempferol (23.62mg/g) and 3-hydroxy-4-metoxy cinnamic acid (9.60mg/g). The total phenolic content amount gradually increased with the addition of OF to tarhana, but decidedly higher total phenolic content was found in samples oven dried at 55°C as compared with other methods. The microwave- and oven dried tarhana samples showed higher TEACDPPH and TEACABTS values than those dried with the other methods, respectively, in higher OF amounts. Consequently, oven- and microwave-drying can be recommended to retain the highest for phenolic compounds as well as maximal antioxidant capacity in OF supplemented tarhana samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Dynamic Changes in Phenolics and Antioxidant Capacity during Pecan (Carya illinoinensis Kernel Ripening and Its Phenolics Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodong Jia

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Pecan (Carya illinoinensis kernels have a high phenolics content and a high antioxidant capacity compared to other nuts—traits that have attracted great interest of late. Changes in the total phenolic content (TPC, condensed tannins (CT, total flavonoid content (TFC, five individual phenolics, and antioxidant capacity of five pecan cultivars were investigated during the process of kernel ripening. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadruple time-of-flight mass (UPLC-Q/TOF-MS was also used to analyze the phenolics profiles in mixed pecan kernels. TPC, CT, TFC, individual phenolics, and antioxidant capacity were changed in similar patterns, with values highest at the water or milk stages, lowest at milk or dough stages, and slightly varied at kernel stages. Forty phenolics were tentatively identified in pecan kernels, of which two were first reported in the genus Carya, six were first reported in Carya illinoinensis, and one was first reported in its kernel. The findings on these new phenolic compounds provide proof of the high antioxidant capacity of pecan kernels.

  18. Dynamic Changes in Phenolics and Antioxidant Capacity during Pecan (Carya illinoinensis) Kernel Ripening and Its Phenolics Profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xiaodong; Luo, Huiting; Xu, Mengyang; Zhai, Min; Guo, Zhongren; Qiao, Yushan; Wang, Liangju

    2018-02-16

    Pecan ( Carya illinoinensis ) kernels have a high phenolics content and a high antioxidant capacity compared to other nuts-traits that have attracted great interest of late. Changes in the total phenolic content (TPC), condensed tannins (CT), total flavonoid content (TFC), five individual phenolics, and antioxidant capacity of five pecan cultivars were investigated during the process of kernel ripening. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadruple time-of-flight mass (UPLC-Q/TOF-MS) was also used to analyze the phenolics profiles in mixed pecan kernels. TPC, CT, TFC, individual phenolics, and antioxidant capacity were changed in similar patterns, with values highest at the water or milk stages, lowest at milk or dough stages, and slightly varied at kernel stages. Forty phenolics were tentatively identified in pecan kernels, of which two were first reported in the genus Carya , six were first reported in Carya illinoinensis , and one was first reported in its kernel. The findings on these new phenolic compounds provide proof of the high antioxidant capacity of pecan kernels.

  19. Mutagenicity testing in the Salmonella typhimurium assay of phenolic compounds and phenolic fractions obtained from smokehouse smoke condensates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pool, B L; Lin, P Z

    1982-08-01

    Smokehouse smoke, which is used for flavouring meat products, was investigated for its mutagenic activity in the Salmonella typhimurium assay. We were chiefly concerned with the fractions free of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons but containing phenol compounds, which are responsible for the preservative and aromatizing properties of the smoke. The most abundantly occurring phenol compounds (phenol, cresols, 2,4-dimethylphenol, brenzcatechine, syringol, eugenol, vanilline and guaiacol) gave negative results when they were tested for mutagenicity at five concentrations up to 5000 micrograms/plate, with and without S-9 mix, using five strains of S. typhimurium. Even when phenol was further investigated in a variety of test conditions, no induction of his+ revertants was observed. When smokehouse smoke was condensed and fractionated the majority of the various phenolic fractions also gave negative results when tested at five concentrations using five strains of S. typhimurium. However there was a slight increase in the number of revertants in a few cases. The presence in the phenolic fractions of very small amounts of mutagenic impurities, the nature of which needs further investigation, cannot be excluded. These results support the further development of non-hazardous smoke-aroma preparations, based on the phenolic components of smokehouse smoke.

  20. Mutagenicity testing in the Salmonella typhimurium assay of phenolic compounds and phenolic fractions obtained from smokehouse smoke condensates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pool, B.L.; Lin, P.Z.

    1982-08-01

    Smokehouse smoke, which is used for flavouring meat products, was investigated for its mutagenic activity in the Salmonella typhimurium assay. We were chiefly concerned with the fractions free of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons but containing phenol compounds, which are responsible for the preservative and aromatizing properties of the smoke. The most abundantly occurring phenol compounds (phenol, cresols, 2,4-dimethylphenol, brenzcatechine, syringol, eugenol, vanilline and guaiacol) gave negative results when they were tested for mutagenicity at five concentrations up to 5000 micrograms/plate, with and without S-9 mix, using five strains of S. typhimurium. Even when phenol was further investigated in a variety of test conditions, no induction of his+ revertants was observed. When smokehouse smoke was condensed and fractionated the majority of the various phenolic fractions also gave negative results when tested at five concentrations using five strains of S. typhimurium. However there was a slight increase in the number of revertants in a few cases. The presence in the phenolic fractions of very small amounts of mutagenic impurities, the nature of which needs further investigation, cannot be excluded. These results support the further development of non-hazardous smoke-aroma preparations, based on the phenolic components of smokehouse smoke.

  1. Formation of brominated phenolic contaminants from natural manganese oxides-catalyzed oxidation of phenol in the presence of Br(.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Kunde; Song, Lianghui; Zhou, Shiyang; Chen, Da; Gan, Jay

    2016-07-01

    Brominated phenolic compounds (BPCs) are a class of persistent and potentially toxic compounds ubiquitously present in the aquatic environment. However, the origin of BPCs is not clearly understood. In this study, we investigated the formation of BPCs from natural manganese oxides (MnOx)-catalyzed oxidation of phenol in the presence of Br(-). Experiments at ambient temperature clearly demonstrated that BPCs were readily produced via the oxidation of phenol by MnOx in the presence of Br(-). In the reaction of MnOx sand with 0.213 μmol/L phenol and 0.34 mmol/L Br(-) for 10 min, more than 60% of phenol and 56% of Br(-) were consumed to form BPCs. The yield of BPCs increased with increasing concentrations of phenol and Br(-). Overall, a total of 14 BPCs including simple bromophenols (4-bromophenol, 2,4-dibromophenol, and 2,4,6-tribromophenol), hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (OH-PBDEs), and hydroxylated polybrominated biphenyls (OH-PBBs) were identified. The production of BPCs increased with increasing concentrations of Br(-) or phenol. It was deduced that Br(-) was first oxidized to form active bromine, leading to the subsequent bromination of phenol to form bromophenols. The further oxidation of bromophenols by MnOx resulted in the formation of OH-PBDEs and OH-PBBs. In view of the ubiquity of phenol, Br(-), and MnOx in the environment, MnOx-mediated oxidation may play a role on the natural production of BPCs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Phytases Improve Myo-Inositol Bioaccessibility in Rye Bread: A Study Using an In Vitro Method of Digestion and a Caco-2 Cell Culture Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia Katarzyna Cielecka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Preparations of 6-phytase A (EC 3.1.3.26 and phytase B (acid phosphatase, EC 3.1.3.2 were applied alone and combined in the preparation of dough to estimate their catalytic potential for myo-inositol liberation from rye flour in the breadmaking technology. The experimental bread samples were ground after baking and subjected to determination of myo-inositol bioavailability by an in vitro method that simulated digestion in a human alimentary tract, followed by measurements of myo-inositol transport through enterocyte-like differentiated Caco-2 cells to determine its bioaccessibility. Myo-inositol content was measured by a high-performance anion-exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection (HPAEC-PAD technique. The concentration of myo-inositol in the dialysates of control bread was 25.3 μg/mL, whereas in the dialysates of bread sample baked with 6-phytase A, the concentration increased to 35.4 μg/mL, and in the bread baked with phytase B to 64.98 μg/mL. Simultaneous application of both enzymes resulted in myo-inositol release of 64.04 μg/mL. The highest bioaccessibility of myo-inositol, assessed by the measurement of the passage through the Caco-2 monolayer was determined in the bread baked with the addition of 6-phytase A. Enzymatically modifi ed rye bread, particularly by the addition of 6-phytase A, may be therefore a rich source of a highly bioaccessible myo-inositol.

  3. Multiplex liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for the detection of wheat, oat, barley and rye prolamins towards the assessment of gluten-free product safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manfredi, Anita [Dipartimento di Chimica, Università degli Studi di Parma, Parco Area delle Scienze 17/A, 43124, Parma (Italy); Mattarozzi, Monica, E-mail: monica.mattarozzi@unipr.it [Dipartimento di Chimica, Università degli Studi di Parma, Parco Area delle Scienze 17/A, 43124, Parma (Italy); Giannetto, Marco; Careri, Maria [Dipartimento di Chimica, Università degli Studi di Parma, Parco Area delle Scienze 17/A, 43124, Parma (Italy); Centro Interdipartimentale SITEIA.PR, Università degli Studi di Parma, Parco Area delle Scienze 181/A, 43124 Parma (Italy)

    2015-10-01

    Celiac patients should feel confident in the safety of foods labelled or expected to be gluten-free. In this context, a targeted proteomic approach based on liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) technique was proposed to assess the presence of celiotoxic cereals, namely wheat, oats, barley and rye, in raw and processed food products. To this aim, unique marker peptides were properly selected in order to distinguish between the different cereal types. A revised cocktail solution based on reducing and denaturing agents was exploited for prolamin extraction from raw and processed food; in addition, defatting with hexane was carried out for sample clean-up, allowing to largely reduce problems related to matrix effect. Method validation on fortified rice flour showed good analytical performance in terms of sensitivity (limits of detection in the 2–18 mg kg{sup −1} range). However, poor trueness was calculated for self-made incurred bread (between 3 and 30% depending on the peptide), probably due to baking processes, which reduce gluten extractability. Thus, it is evident that in the case of processed foods further insights into sample treatment efficiency and reference materials for protein calibration are required to obtain accurate gluten determination. Finally, the developed method was applied for the analysis of market food products, offering the possibility to discriminate among cereals, with good agreement with labelled ingredients for gluten-containing foodstuffs. - Highlights: • Multiplex LC-MS/MS detection of wheat, oats, barley and rye in food. • Discrimination among celiotoxic cereals by selection of unique marker peptides. • Defatting step for matrix complexity reduction and improved sensitivity. • Investigation of gluten presence in different kinds of food product samples.

  4. Effects of rye bread enriched with green tea extract on weight maintenance and the characteristics of metabolic syndrome following weight loss: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajerska, Joanna; Mildner-Szkudlarz, Sylwia; Walkowiak, Jarosław

    2015-06-01

    We examined whether the incorporation of green tea extract enriched rye bread (GTRB) into the diet can improve weight loss (WL) maintenance and control of abnormalities linked to metabolic syndrome (MS). A total of 55 obese men and women (mean age: 53.0±7.0 years, body mass index: 35.0±5.5 kg m(-2)) were recruited. The study had a single-blind randomized study design and consisted of an 8-week WL phase with low-energy calorie diet, followed by a 12-week weight maintenance (WM) phase. During the WM phase, the subjects were randomized into two groups, receiving either the control rye bread (control group) or the GTRB (intervention group). The ingestion of 280 and 360 g GTRB provided daily totals of 123.2 and 158.4 mg caffeine, and 188.3 and 242.1 mg of epigallocatechin gallate, for women and men, respectively. After the WL phase, subjects lost 7.3±3.1 kg of their baseline body weight. GTRB intake did not significantly influence the maintenance of WL, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, triglycerides, and glucose concentrations. Although, it resulted in significant differences (mean difference [95% confidence interval]) between the treatment groups in the maintenance of waist circumference (-1.22 cm [-2.4, -0.02; P=.04]), the results were not clinically meaningful. Nevertheless, the ingestion of GTRB led to the maintenance of lower blood pressure (BP), also the proportion of subjects fulfilling the criteria of MS after the WM phase was lower in the intervention group than in the control group. Although GTRB consumption did not improve significantly the WL maintenance, it resulted in a better control of BP.

  5. Phytases Improve Myo-Inositol Bioaccessibility in Rye Bread: A Study Using an In Vitro Method of Digestion and a Caco-2 Cell Culture Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cielecka, Emilia Katarzyna; Pierzchalska, Małgorzata; Żyła, Krzysztof

    2015-01-01

    Summary Preparations of 6-phytase A (EC 3.1.3.26) and phytase B (acid phosphatase, EC 3.1.3.2) were applied alone and combined in the preparation of dough to estimate their catalytic potential for myo-inositol liberation from rye flour in the breadmaking technology. The experimental bread samples were ground after baking and subjected to determination of myo-inositol bioavailability by an in vitro method that simulated digestion in a human alimentary tract, followed by measurements of myo-inositol transport through enterocyte- -like differentiated Caco-2 cells to determine its bioaccessibility. Myo-inositol content was measured by a high-performance anion-exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection (HPAEC-PAD) technique. The concentration of myo-inositol in the dialysates of control bread was 25.3 µg/mL, whereas in the dialysates of bread sample baked with 6-phytase A, the concentration increased to 35.4 µg/mL, and in the bread baked with phytase B to 64.98 µg/mL. Simultaneous application of both enzymes resulted in myo-inositol release of 64.04 µg/mL. The highest bioaccessibility of myo-inositol, assessed by the measurement of the passage through the Caco-2 monolayer was determined in the bread baked with the addition of 6-phytase A. Enzymatically modified rye bread, particularly by the addition of 6-phytase A, may be therefore a rich source of a highly bioaccessible myo- -inositol. PMID:27904333

  6. Multiplex liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for the detection of wheat, oat, barley and rye prolamins towards the assessment of gluten-free product safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manfredi, Anita; Mattarozzi, Monica; Giannetto, Marco; Careri, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Celiac patients should feel confident in the safety of foods labelled or expected to be gluten-free. In this context, a targeted proteomic approach based on liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) technique was proposed to assess the presence of celiotoxic cereals, namely wheat, oats, barley and rye, in raw and processed food products. To this aim, unique marker peptides were properly selected in order to distinguish between the different cereal types. A revised cocktail solution based on reducing and denaturing agents was exploited for prolamin extraction from raw and processed food; in addition, defatting with hexane was carried out for sample clean-up, allowing to largely reduce problems related to matrix effect. Method validation on fortified rice flour showed good analytical performance in terms of sensitivity (limits of detection in the 2–18 mg kg −1 range). However, poor trueness was calculated for self-made incurred bread (between 3 and 30% depending on the peptide), probably due to baking processes, which reduce gluten extractability. Thus, it is evident that in the case of processed foods further insights into sample treatment efficiency and reference materials for protein calibration are required to obtain accurate gluten determination. Finally, the developed method was applied for the analysis of market food products, offering the possibility to discriminate among cereals, with good agreement with labelled ingredients for gluten-containing foodstuffs. - Highlights: • Multiplex LC-MS/MS detection of wheat, oats, barley and rye in food. • Discrimination among celiotoxic cereals by selection of unique marker peptides. • Defatting step for matrix complexity reduction and improved sensitivity. • Investigation of gluten presence in different kinds of food product samples.

  7. Adsorption of phenolic compound by aged-refuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chai Xiaoli [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of Enviromental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Siping Road 1239, Shanghai 200092 (China)]. E-mail: xlchai@mail.tongji.edu.cn; Zhao Youcai [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of Enviromental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Siping Road 1239, Shanghai 200092 (China)

    2006-09-01

    The adsorption of phenol, 2-chlorophenol, 4-chlorophenol and 2,4-dichlorophenol by aged-refuse has been studied. Adsorption isotherms have been determined for phenol, 2-chlorophenol, 4-chlorophenol and 2,4-dichlorophenol and the data fits well to the Freundlich equation. The chlorinated phenols are absorbed more strongly than the phenol and the adsorption capacity has an oblivious relationship with the numbers and the position of chlorine subsistent. The experiment data suggests that both the partition function and the chemical adsorption involve in the adsorption process. Pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order model were applied to investigate the kinetics of the adsorption and the results show that it fit the pseudo-second-order model. More than one step involves in the adsorption process and the overall rate of the adsorption process appears to be controlled by the chemical reaction. The thermodynamic analysis indicates that the adsorption is spontaneous and endothermic.

  8. RESEARCH OF PHENOLIC COMPLEX OF LEAVES OF MESPILUS GERMANICA L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. N. Vdovenko-Martynova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Leaves of Mespilus germanica L. from Rosaceae family gathered in Kabardino Balkaria regions and in Botanical garden of Pyatigorsk Medical and Pharmaceutical Institute. The purpose of the study is examination of phenolic compounds in the raw materieals under analysis. Qualitative composition and quantitative identification of phenolic compounds in the air-dry raw materials of samples under study was done using qualitative reactions and high performance liquid chromatography method (HPLC. 13 compounds were received, 8 of them were identified as the substances of phenolic origin: flavonoids (quercetine, taxofolin, luteolin, hydroxycoric acids (gallic, chlorogenic, ferulic, polyphenolic compounds (epigallocatechin gallate, epicatechin. The sum of identified phenolic compounds amounted to 78,24% of all compounds found by the given method.

  9. Efficient Enzyme-Free Biomimetic Sensors for Natural Phenol Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luane Ferreira Garcia

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The development of sensors and biosensors based on copper enzymes and/or copper oxides for phenol sensing is disclosed in this work. The electrochemical properties were studied by cyclic and differential pulse voltammetry using standard solutions of potassium ferrocyanide, phosphate/acetate buffers and representative natural phenols in a wide pH range (3.0 to 9.0. Among the natural phenols herein investigated, the highest sensitivity was observed for rutin, a powerful antioxidant widespread in functional foods and ubiquitous in the plant kingdom. The calibration curve for rutin performed at optimum pH (7.0 was linear in a broad concentration range, 1 to 120 µM (r = 0.99, showing detection limits of 0.4 µM. The optimized biomimetic sensor was also applied in total phenol determination in natural samples, exhibiting higher stability and sensitivity as well as distinct selectivity for antioxidant compounds.

  10. Efficient Enzyme-Free Biomimetic Sensors for Natural Phenol Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira Garcia, Luane; Ribeiro Souza, Aparecido; Sanz Lobón, Germán; Dos Santos, Wallans Torres Pio; Alecrim, Morgana Fernandes; Fontes Santiago, Mariângela; de Sotomayor, Rafael Luque Álvarez; de Souza Gil, Eric

    2016-08-13

    The development of sensors and biosensors based on copper enzymes and/or copper oxides for phenol sensing is disclosed in this work. The electrochemical properties were studied by cyclic and differential pulse voltammetry using standard solutions of potassium ferrocyanide, phosphate/acetate buffers and representative natural phenols in a wide pH range (3.0 to 9.0). Among the natural phenols herein investigated, the highest sensitivity was observed for rutin, a powerful antioxidant widespread in functional foods and ubiquitous in the plant kingdom. The calibration curve for rutin performed at optimum pH (7.0) was linear in a broad concentration range, 1 to 120 µM (r = 0.99), showing detection limits of 0.4 µM. The optimized biomimetic sensor was also applied in total phenol determination in natural samples, exhibiting higher stability and sensitivity as well as distinct selectivity for antioxidant compounds.

  11. Plant Phenolics: Extraction, Analysis and Their Antioxidant and Anticancer Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Dai

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Phenolics are broadly distributed in the plant kingdom and are the most abundant secondary metabolites of plants. Plant polyphenols have drawn increasing attention due to their potent antioxidant properties and their marked effects in the prevention of various oxidative stress associated diseases such as cancer. In the last few years, the identification and development of phenolic compounds or extracts from different plants has become a major area of health- and medical-related research. This review provides an updated and comprehensive overview on phenolic extraction, purification, analysis and quantification as well as their antioxidant properties. Furthermore, the anticancer effects of phenolics in-vitro and in-vivo animal models are viewed, including recent human intervention studies. Finally, possible mechanisms of action involving antioxidant and pro-oxidant activity as well as interference with cellular functions are discussed.

  12. The effect of growing conditions on phenolic compounds and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    arid and is widely used for anti-inflammatory and healing properties. This study evaluates the level of phenolic compounds and the antimicrobial activity in extracts of M. urundeuva obtained from greenhouse seedlings grown from seeds that ...

  13. Phenol adsorption by activated carbon produced from spent coffee grounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Cínthia S; Abreu, Anelise L; Silva, Carmen L T; Guerreiro, Mário C

    2011-01-01

    The present work highlights the preparation of activated carbons (ACs) using spent coffee grounds, an agricultural residue, as carbon precursor and two different activating agents: water vapor (ACW) and K(2)CO(3) (ACK). These ACs presented the microporous nature and high surface area (620-950 m(2) g(-1)). The carbons, as well as a commercial activated carbon (CAC) used as reference, were evaluated as phenol adsorbent showing high adsorption capacity (≈150 mg g(-1)). The investigation of the pH solution in the phenol adsorption was also performed. The different activating agents led to AC with distinct morphological properties, surface area and chemical composition, although similar phenol adsorption capacity was verified for both prepared carbons. The production of activated carbons from spent coffee grounds resulted in promising adsorbents for phenol removal while giving a noble destination to the residue.

  14. Solistatinol, a novel phenolic compactin analogue from Penicillium solitum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld; Lange, Lene; Schnorr, Kirk

    2007-01-01

    Solistatinol, a novel phenolic compactin analogue, has been isolated from Penicillium solitum using a UV-guided strategy. The structure and relative stereochemistry were determined by NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. The absolute stereochemistry was determined by chemical degradation...

  15. ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITIES AND PHENOLIC PROFILE OF SIX MOROCCAN SELECTED HERBS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madiha Bichra

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The present work evaluated the antioxidant capacity of six plants commonly used in traditional Moroccan medicine. The antioxidant capacity was estimated by DPPH test, ferrous ion chelating activity and ABTS test. As results, the highest antioxidant activities were found in Mentha suaveolens, Salvia officinalis and Mentha viridis. Different species showed significant differences in their total phenolic content (TPC. The highest level of phenolics was found in Salvia officinalis and the lowest in Pelargonium roseum. Linear correlation was found between TPC, especially the non-flavonoid content (NFC and the antioxidant activity. Qualitative and quantitative analyzes of major phenolics by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC were also performed. On the basis of the obtained results, these studied medicinal herbs were found to serve as a potential source of natural antioxidants due to their richness in phenolic compounds and marked antioxidant activity.

  16. Chilean prosopis mesocarp flour: phenolic profiling and antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmeda-Hirschmann, Guillermo; Quispe, Cristina; Soriano, Maria Del Pilar C; Theoduloz, Cristina; Jiménez-Aspée, Felipe; Pérez, Maria Jorgelina; Cuello, Ana Soledad; Isla, Maria Inés

    2015-04-17

    In South America, the mesocarp flour of Prosopis species plays a prominent role as a food resource in arid areas. The aim of this work was the characterization of the phenolic antioxidants occurring in the pod mesocarp flour of Chilean Prosopis. Samples were collected in the Copiapo, Huasco and Elqui valleys from the north of Chile. The samples of P. chilensis flour exhibited a total phenolic content ranging between 0.82-2.57 g gallic acid equivalents/100 g fresh flour weight. The highest antioxidant activity, measured by the DPPH assay, was observed for samples from the Huasco valley. HPLC-MS/MS analysis allowed the tentative identification of eight anthocyanins and 13 phenolic compounds including flavonol glycosides, C-glycosyl flavones and ellagic acid derivatives. The antioxidant activity and the phenolic composition in the flour suggest that this ancient South American resource may have potential as a functional food.

  17. Comparison of phenolic and volatile profiles of edible and toxic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparison of phenolic and volatile profiles of edible and toxic forms of Detarium senegalense J. F. GMEL. N.D. Ndiaye, S Munier, Y Pelissier, F Boudard, C Mertz, M Lebrun, C Dhuique-mayer, M Dornier ...

  18. Response of total phenolic content and antioxidant activities of bush

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    OF BUSH TEA AND SPECIAL TEA USING DIFFERENT SELECTED. EXTRACTION ... 3,3'digallate and caffeine). Tea leaves have ..... Effects of solvent extraction on phenolic content and ... Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition,.

  19. Daily intake estimation of phenolic compounds in the Spanish population

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    Inma Navarro González

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Phenolic compounds are a large group of molecules present in plants with a diversity of chemical structures and biological activity. The objective of this study was to quantify the intake of phenolic compounds of the Spanish population. Material and Methods: The most consumed foods from vegetal origin in Spain were selected. These were picked up in the National Survey of Spanish Dietary Intake (ENIDE of 2011, edited by AESAN (Spanish Agency for Food Safety and Nutrition as a basis for quantifying the intake of phenolic compounds of Spaniards using the Phenol-Explorer database. Results: This database has allowed to estimate the average intake of polyphenols per day of Spaniards, which is 1365.1mg. Conclusions: The average intake of total polyphenols of Spaniards could have a protective effect against the mortality rate and exercise a preventive function on some chronic diseases along with other healthy lifestyle habits.

  20. Quantitative analysis of phenol and alkylphenols in Brazilian coal tar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elina Bastos Caramão

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this work is the identification and quantification of phenolic compounds in coal tar samples from a ceramics factory in Cocal (SC, Brazil. The samples were subjected to preparative scale liquid chromatography, using Amberlyst A-27TM ion-exchange resin as stationary phase. The fractions obtained were classified as "acids" and "BN" (bases and neutrals. The identification and quantification of phenols, in the acid fraction, was made by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC/MS. Nearly twenty-five phenols were identified in the samples and nine of them were also quantified. The results showed that coal tar has large quantities of phenolic compounds of industrial interest.