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Sample records for phase-contrast micro-ct beamline

  1. In-line phase contrast micro-CT reconstruction for biomedical specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Jian; Tan, Renbo

    2014-01-01

    X-ray phase contrast micro computed tomography (micro-CT) can non-destructively provide the internal structure information of soft tissues and low atomic number materials. It has become an invaluable analysis tool for biomedical specimens. Here an in-line phase contrast micro-CT reconstruction technique is reported, which consists of a projection extraction method and the conventional filter back-projection (FBP) reconstruction algorithm. The projection extraction is implemented by applying the Fourier transform to the forward projections of in-line phase contrast micro-CT. This work comprises a numerical study of the method and its experimental verification using a biomedical specimen dataset measured at an X-ray tube source micro-CT setup. The numerical and experimental results demonstrate that the presented technique can improve the imaging contrast of biomedical specimens. It will be of interest for a wide range of in-line phase contrast micro-CT applications in medicine and biology.

  2. Optimisation of a propagation-based x-ray phase-contrast micro-CT system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesterets, Yakov I.; Gureyev, Timur E.; Dimmock, Matthew R.

    2018-03-01

    Micro-CT scanners find applications in many areas ranging from biomedical research to material sciences. In order to provide spatial resolution on a micron scale, these scanners are usually equipped with micro-focus, low-power x-ray sources and hence require long scanning times to produce high resolution 3D images of the object with acceptable contrast-to-noise. Propagation-based phase-contrast tomography (PB-PCT) has the potential to significantly improve the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) or, alternatively, reduce the image acquisition time while preserving the CNR and the spatial resolution. We propose a general approach for the optimisation of the PB-PCT imaging system. When applied to an imaging system with fixed parameters of the source and detector this approach requires optimisation of only two independent geometrical parameters of the imaging system, i.e. the source-to-object distance R 1 and geometrical magnification M, in order to produce the best spatial resolution and CNR. If, in addition to R 1 and M, the system parameter space also includes the source size and the anode potential this approach allows one to find a unique configuration of the imaging system that produces the required spatial resolution and the best CNR.

  3. Micro-CT at the imaging beamline P05 at PETRA III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilde, Fabian; Ogurreck, Malte; Greving, Imke; Hammel, Jörg U.; Beckmann, Felix; Hipp, Alexander; Lottermoser, Lars; Khokhriakov, Igor; Lytaev, Pavel; Dose, Thomas; Burmester, Hilmar; Müller, Martin; Schreyer, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    The Imaging Beamline (IBL) P05 is operated by the Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht and located at the DESY storage ring PETRA III. IBL is dedicated to X-ray full field imaging and consists of two experimental end stations. A micro tomography end station equipped for spatial resolutions down to 1 µm and a nano tomography end station for spatial resolutions down to 100 nm. The micro tomography end station is in user operation since 2013 and offers imaging with absorption contrast, phase enhanced absorption contrast and phase contrast methods. We report here on the current status and developments of the micro tomography end station including technical descriptions and show examples of research performed at P05.

  4. Preliminary results for X-ray phase contrast micro-tomography on the biomedical imaging beamline at SSRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Rongchang; Du Guohao; Xie Honglan; Deng Biao; Tong Yajun; Hu Wen; Xue Yanling; Chen Can; Ren Yuqi; Zhou Guangzhao; Wang Yudan; Xiao Tiqiao; Xu Hongjie; Zhu Peiping

    2009-01-01

    With X-ray phase contrast micro-tomography(CT), one is able to obtain edge-enhanced image of internal structure of the samples. This allows visualization of the fine internal features for biology tissues, which is not able to resolve by conventional absorption CT. After preliminary modulation, monochromatic X-rays (8-72.5 keV) are available for experiments on the experimental station of the biomedical imaging beamline at Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility(SSRF). In this paper, we report the in line phase contrast micro-tomography(IL-XPCT) of biology sample (locust) on the beamline. The reconstruct slice images and three dimensional rendering images of the locust were obtained, with clearly visible images of locus's wing, surface texture and internal tissue distribution. (authors)

  5. Differential phase contrast setup for a non coherent beamline at HASYLAB using hard X-ray grating interferometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herzen, Julia; Beckmann, Felix; Haibel, Astrid; Schreyer, Andreas [GKSS Research Centre, Geesthacht (Germany); Donath, Tilman; David, Christian; Gruenzweig, Christian [Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Pfeiffer, Franz [Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen PSI (Switzerland); EPF Lausanne, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2009-07-01

    Phase-contrast imaging is a common technique to visualize soft tissue with much higher contrast than the conventional absorption-contrast imaging. Differential phase contrast (DPC), developed at PSI, Switzerland, makes use of a hard x-ray grating interferometer and allows for phase-contrast imaging with high brilliance synchrotron sources as well as with conventional x-ray tubes. It is recently reported also to provide dark field information that is very sensitive to micro structures like porosity within the materials. Here we present the plans to adopt the DPC technique to the HARWI-II materials science beamline, operated by GKSS Research Centre, in cooperation with DESY, Hamburg. This will offer an amount of new applications especially in the field of materials science like for example characterizing new light weight materials like magnesium and studying its corrosion as implant material.

  6. A feasibility study of X-ray phase-contrast mammographic tomography at the Imaging and Medical beamline of the Australian Synchrotron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesterets, Yakov I; Gureyev, Timur E; Mayo, Sheridan C; Stevenson, Andrew W; Thompson, Darren; Brown, Jeremy M C; Kitchen, Marcus J; Pavlov, Konstantin M; Lockie, Darren; Brun, Francesco; Tromba, Giuliana

    2015-11-01

    Results are presented of a recent experiment at the Imaging and Medical beamline of the Australian Synchrotron intended to contribute to the implementation of low-dose high-sensitivity three-dimensional mammographic phase-contrast imaging, initially at synchrotrons and subsequently in hospitals and medical imaging clinics. The effect of such imaging parameters as X-ray energy, source size, detector resolution, sample-to-detector distance, scanning and data processing strategies in the case of propagation-based phase-contrast computed tomography (CT) have been tested, quantified, evaluated and optimized using a plastic phantom simulating relevant breast-tissue characteristics. Analysis of the data collected using a Hamamatsu CMOS Flat Panel Sensor, with a pixel size of 100 µm, revealed the presence of propagation-based phase contrast and demonstrated significant improvement of the quality of phase-contrast CT imaging compared with conventional (absorption-based) CT, at medically acceptable radiation doses.

  7. Compressive Phase Contrast Tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maia, Filipe; MacDowell, Alastair; Marchesini, Stefano; Padmore, Howard A.; Parkinson, Dula Y.; Pien, Jack; Schirotzek, Andre; Yang, Chao

    2010-01-01

    When x-rays penetrate soft matter, their phase changes more rapidly than their amplitude. Interference effects visible with high brightness sources creates higher contrast, edge enhanced images. When the object is piecewise smooth (made of big blocks of a few components), such higher contrast datasets have a sparse solution. We apply basis pursuit solvers to improve SNR, remove ring artifacts, reduce the number of views and radiation dose from phase contrast datasets collected at the Hard X-Ray Micro Tomography Beamline at the Advanced Light Source. We report a GPU code for the most computationally intensive task, the gridding and inverse gridding algorithm (non uniform sampled Fourier transform).

  8. Bone histomorphometric quantification by X-ray phase contrast and transmission 3D SR microcomputed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nogueira, L.P.; Pinheiro, C.J.G.; Braz, D.; Oliveira, L.F.; Barroso, R.C.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Conventional histomorphometry is an important method for quantitative evaluation of bone microstructure. X-ray computed tomography is a noninvasive technique, which can be used to evaluate histomorphometric indices. In this technique, the output 3D images are used to quantify the whole sample, differently from the conventional one, in which the quantification is performed in 2D slices and extrapolated for 3D case. Looking for better resolutions and visualization of soft tissues, X-ray phase contrast imaging technique was developed. The objective of this work was to perform histomorphometric quantification of human cancellous bone using 3D synchrotron X ray computed microtomography, using two distinct techniques: transmission and phase contrast, in order to compare the results and evaluate the viability of applying the same methodology of quantification for both technique. All experiments were performed at the ELETTRA Synchrotron Light Laboratory in Trieste (Italy). MicroCT data sets were collected using the CT set-up on the SYRMEP (Synchrotron Radiation for Medical Physics) beamline. Results showed that there is a better correlation between histomorphometric parameters of both techniques when morphological filters had been used. However, using these filters, some important information given by phase contrast are lost and they shall be explored by new techniques of quantification

  9. Generalized phase contrast:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glückstad, Jesper; Palima, Darwin

    Generalized Phase Contrast elevates the phase contrast technique not only to improve phase imaging but also to cross over and interface with diverse and seemingly disparate fields of contemporary optics and photonics. This book presents a comprehensive introduction to the Generalized Phase Contrast...

  10. Phase contrast image synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glückstad, J.

    1996-01-01

    A new method is presented for synthesizing arbitrary intensity patterns based on phase contrast imaging. The concept is grounded on an extension of the Zernike phase contrast method into the domain of full range [0; 2 pi] phase modulation. By controlling the average value of the input phase funct...... function and by choosing appropriate phase retardation at the phase contrast filter, a pure phase to intensity imaging is accomplished. The method presented is also directly applicable in dark field image synthesis....

  11. Recent micro-CT scanner developments at UGCT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dierick, Manuel, E-mail: Manuel.Dierick@UGent.be [UGCT-Department of Physics and Astronomy, Faculty of Sciences, Ghent University, Proeftuinstraat 86, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); XRE, X-Ray Engineering bvba, De Pintelaan 111, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); Van Loo, Denis, E-mail: info@XRE.be [XRE, X-Ray Engineering bvba, De Pintelaan 111, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); Masschaele, Bert [UGCT-Department of Physics and Astronomy, Faculty of Sciences, Ghent University, Proeftuinstraat 86, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); XRE, X-Ray Engineering bvba, De Pintelaan 111, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); Van den Bulcke, Jan [UGCT-Woodlab-UGent, Department of Forest and Water Management, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Ghent University, Coupure Links 653, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); Van Acker, Joris, E-mail: Joris.VanAcker@UGent.be [UGCT-Woodlab-UGent, Department of Forest and Water Management, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Ghent University, Coupure Links 653, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); Cnudde, Veerle, E-mail: Veerle.Cnudde@UGent.be [UGCT-SGIG, Department of Geology and Soil Science, Faculty of Sciences, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281, S8, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); Van Hoorebeke, Luc, E-mail: Luc.VanHoorebeke@UGent.be [UGCT-Department of Physics and Astronomy, Faculty of Sciences, Ghent University, Proeftuinstraat 86, 9000 Ghent (Belgium)

    2014-04-01

    This paper describes two X-ray micro-CT scanners which were recently developed to extend the experimental possibilities of microtomography research at the Centre for X-ray Tomography ( (www.ugct.ugent.be)) of the Ghent University (Belgium). The first scanner, called Nanowood, is a wide-range CT scanner with two X-ray sources (160 kV{sub max}) and two detectors, resolving features down to 0.4 μm in small samples, but allowing samples up to 35 cm to be scanned. This is a sample size range of 3 orders of magnitude, making this scanner well suited for imaging multi-scale materials such as wood, stone, etc. Besides the traditional cone-beam acquisition, Nanowood supports helical acquisition, and it can generate images with significant phase-contrast contributions. The second scanner, known as the Environmental micro-CT scanner (EMCT), is a gantry based micro-CT scanner with variable magnification for scanning objects which are not easy to rotate in a standard micro-CT scanner, for example because they are physically connected to external experimental hardware such as sensor wiring, tubing or others. This scanner resolves 5 μm features, covers a field-of-view of about 12 cm wide with an 80 cm vertical travel range. Both scanners will be extensively described and characterized, and their potential will be demonstrated with some key application results.

  12. Recent micro-CT scanner developments at UGCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dierick, Manuel; Van Loo, Denis; Masschaele, Bert; Van den Bulcke, Jan; Van Acker, Joris; Cnudde, Veerle; Van Hoorebeke, Luc

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes two X-ray micro-CT scanners which were recently developed to extend the experimental possibilities of microtomography research at the Centre for X-ray Tomography ( (www.ugct.ugent.be)) of the Ghent University (Belgium). The first scanner, called Nanowood, is a wide-range CT scanner with two X-ray sources (160 kV max ) and two detectors, resolving features down to 0.4 μm in small samples, but allowing samples up to 35 cm to be scanned. This is a sample size range of 3 orders of magnitude, making this scanner well suited for imaging multi-scale materials such as wood, stone, etc. Besides the traditional cone-beam acquisition, Nanowood supports helical acquisition, and it can generate images with significant phase-contrast contributions. The second scanner, known as the Environmental micro-CT scanner (EMCT), is a gantry based micro-CT scanner with variable magnification for scanning objects which are not easy to rotate in a standard micro-CT scanner, for example because they are physically connected to external experimental hardware such as sensor wiring, tubing or others. This scanner resolves 5 μm features, covers a field-of-view of about 12 cm wide with an 80 cm vertical travel range. Both scanners will be extensively described and characterized, and their potential will be demonstrated with some key application results

  13. Generalized Phase Contrast

    CERN Document Server

    Glückstad, Jesper

    2009-01-01

    Generalized Phase Contrast elevates the phase contrast technique not only to improve phase imaging but also to cross over and interface with diverse and seemingly disparate fields of contemporary optics and photonics. This book presents a comprehensive introduction to the Generalized Phase Contrast (GPC) method including an overview of the range of current and potential applications of GPC in wavefront sensing and phase imaging, structured laser illumination and image projection, optical trapping and manipulation, and optical encryption and decryption. The GPC method goes further than the restrictive assumptions of conventional Zernike phase contrast analysis and achieves an expanded range of validity beyond weak phase perturbations. The generalized analysis yields design criteria for tuning experimental parameters to achieve optimal performance in terms of accuracy, fidelity and light efficiency. Optimization can address practical issues, such as finding an optimal spatial filter for the chosen application, ...

  14. Phase Contrast Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1996-01-01

    The invention relates to a method and a system for synthesizing a prescribed intensity pattern based on phase contrast imaging that is not based on the assumption of prior art methods that the pahase shift phi is less than 1 radian. An improved method based on a simple imaging operation...... phasors attain predetermined values for predetermined spatial frequencies, and the phasor value of the specific resolution element of the spatial phase mask corresponds to a distinct intensity level of the image of the resolution element in the intensity pattern, and a spatial phase filter for phase...... shifting of a part of the electromagntic radiation, in combination with an imaging system for generation of the intensity pattern by interference in the image plane of the imaging system between the part of the electromagnetic raidation that has been phase shifted by the phase filter and the remaining part...

  15. Phase Contrast Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menk, Ralf Hendrik

    2008-01-01

    All standard (medical) x-ray imaging technologies, rely primarily on the amplitude properties of the incident radiation, and do not depend on its phase. This is unchanged since the discovery by Roentgen that the intensity of an x-ray beam, as measured by the exposure on a film, was related to the relative transmission properties of an object. However, recently various imaging techniques have emerged which depend on the phase of the x-rays as well as the amplitude. Phase becomes important when the beam is coherent and the imaging system is sensitive to interference phenomena. Significant new advances have been made in coherent optic theory and techniques, which now promise phase information in medical imaging. The development of perfect crystal optics and the increasing availability of synchrotron radiation facilities have contributed to a significant increase in the application of phase based imaging in materials and life sciences. Unique source characteristics such as high intensity, monochromaticity, coherence and high collimating provide an ideal source for advanced imaging. Phase contrast imaging has been applied in both projection and computed tomography modes, and recent applications have been made in the field of medical imaging. Due to the underlying principle of X-ray detection conventional image receptors register only intensities of wave fields and not their phases. During the last decade basically five different methods were developed that translate the phase information into intensity variations. These methods are based on measuring the phase shift φ directly (using interference phenomena), the gradient ∇ φ , or the Laplacian ∇ 2 φ. All three methods can be applied to polychromatic X-ray sources keeping in mind that the native source is synchrotron radiation, featuring monochromatic and reasonable coherent X-ray beams. Due to the vast difference in the coefficients that are driven absorption and phase effects (factor 1,000-10,000 in the energy

  16. The application of phase contrast X-ray techniques for imaging Li-ion battery electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eastwood, D.S. [Manchester X-ray Imaging Facility, School of Materials, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Research Complex at Harwell, Didcot, Oxon OX11 0FA (United Kingdom); Bradley, R.S. [Manchester X-ray Imaging Facility, School of Materials, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Tariq, F.; Cooper, S.J. [Dept. Earth Science and Engineering, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Taiwo, O.O. [Dept. Chemical Engineering, University College London, London WC1E 7JE (United Kingdom); Gelb, J.; Merkle, A. [Carl Zeiss X-ray Microscopy Inc., Pleasanton, CA 94588 (United States); Brett, D.J.L. [Dept. Chemical Engineering, University College London, London WC1E 7JE (United Kingdom); Brandon, N.P. [Dept. Earth Science and Engineering, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Withers, P.J.; Lee, P.D. [Manchester X-ray Imaging Facility, School of Materials, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Research Complex at Harwell, Didcot, Oxon OX11 0FA (United Kingdom); Shearing, P.R., E-mail: p.shearing@ucl.ac.uk [Dept. Chemical Engineering, University College London, London WC1E 7JE (United Kingdom)

    2014-04-01

    In order to accelerate the commercialization of fuel cells and batteries across a range of applications, an understanding of the mechanisms by which they age and degrade at the microstructural level is required. Here, the most widely commercialized Li-ion batteries based on porous graphite based electrodes which de/intercalate Li{sup +} ions during charge/discharge are studied by two phase contrast enhanced X-ray imaging modes, namely in-line phase contrast and Zernike phase contrast at the micro (synchrotron) and nano (laboratory X-ray microscope) level, respectively. The rate of charge cycling is directly dependent on the nature of the electrode microstructure, which are typically complex multi-scale 3D geometries with significant microstructural heterogeneities. We have been able to characterise the porosity and the tortuosity by micro-CT as well as the morphology of 5 individual graphite particles by nano-tomography finding that while their volume varied significantly their sphericity was surprisingly similar. The volume specific surface areas of the individual grains measured by nano-CT are significantly larger than the total volume specific surface area of the electrode from the micro-CT imaging, which can be attributed to the greater particle surface area visible at higher resolution.

  17. The application of phase contrast X-ray techniques for imaging Li-ion battery electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastwood, D. S.; Bradley, R. S.; Tariq, F.; Cooper, S. J.; Taiwo, O. O.; Gelb, J.; Merkle, A.; Brett, D. J. L.; Brandon, N. P.; Withers, P. J.; Lee, P. D.; Shearing, P. R.

    2014-04-01

    In order to accelerate the commercialization of fuel cells and batteries across a range of applications, an understanding of the mechanisms by which they age and degrade at the microstructural level is required. Here, the most widely commercialized Li-ion batteries based on porous graphite based electrodes which de/intercalate Li+ ions during charge/discharge are studied by two phase contrast enhanced X-ray imaging modes, namely in-line phase contrast and Zernike phase contrast at the micro (synchrotron) and nano (laboratory X-ray microscope) level, respectively. The rate of charge cycling is directly dependent on the nature of the electrode microstructure, which are typically complex multi-scale 3D geometries with significant microstructural heterogeneities. We have been able to characterise the porosity and the tortuosity by micro-CT as well as the morphology of 5 individual graphite particles by nano-tomography finding that while their volume varied significantly their sphericity was surprisingly similar. The volume specific surface areas of the individual grains measured by nano-CT are significantly larger than the total volume specific surface area of the electrode from the micro-CT imaging, which can be attributed to the greater particle surface area visible at higher resolution.

  18. The application of phase contrast X-ray techniques for imaging Li-ion battery electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eastwood, D.S.; Bradley, R.S.; Tariq, F.; Cooper, S.J.; Taiwo, O.O.; Gelb, J.; Merkle, A.; Brett, D.J.L.; Brandon, N.P.; Withers, P.J.; Lee, P.D.; Shearing, P.R.

    2014-01-01

    In order to accelerate the commercialization of fuel cells and batteries across a range of applications, an understanding of the mechanisms by which they age and degrade at the microstructural level is required. Here, the most widely commercialized Li-ion batteries based on porous graphite based electrodes which de/intercalate Li + ions during charge/discharge are studied by two phase contrast enhanced X-ray imaging modes, namely in-line phase contrast and Zernike phase contrast at the micro (synchrotron) and nano (laboratory X-ray microscope) level, respectively. The rate of charge cycling is directly dependent on the nature of the electrode microstructure, which are typically complex multi-scale 3D geometries with significant microstructural heterogeneities. We have been able to characterise the porosity and the tortuosity by micro-CT as well as the morphology of 5 individual graphite particles by nano-tomography finding that while their volume varied significantly their sphericity was surprisingly similar. The volume specific surface areas of the individual grains measured by nano-CT are significantly larger than the total volume specific surface area of the electrode from the micro-CT imaging, which can be attributed to the greater particle surface area visible at higher resolution

  19. Phase contrast STEM for thin samples: Integrated differential phase contrast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazić, Ivan; Bosch, Eric G T; Lazar, Sorin

    2016-01-01

    It has been known since the 1970s that the movement of the center of mass (COM) of a convergent beam electron diffraction (CBED) pattern is linearly related to the (projected) electrical field in the sample. We re-derive a contrast transfer function (CTF) for a scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) imaging technique based on this movement from the point of view of image formation and continue by performing a two-dimensional integration on the two images based on the two components of the COM movement. The resulting integrated COM (iCOM) STEM technique yields a scalar image that is linear in the phase shift caused by the sample and therefore also in the local (projected) electrostatic potential field of a thin sample. We confirm that the differential phase contrast (DPC) STEM technique using a segmented detector with 4 quadrants (4Q) yields a good approximation for the COM movement. Performing a two-dimensional integration, just as for the COM, we obtain an integrated DPC (iDPC) image which is approximately linear in the phase of the sample. Beside deriving the CTFs of iCOM and iDPC, we clearly point out the objects of the two corresponding imaging techniques, and highlight the differences to objects corresponding to COM-, DPC-, and (HA) ADF-STEM. The theory is validated with simulations and we present first experimental results of the iDPC-STEM technique showing its capability for imaging both light and heavy elements with atomic resolution and a good signal to noise ratio (SNR). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Spectral optimization for micro-CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hupfer, Martin; Nowak, Tristan; Brauweiler, Robert; Eisa, Fabian; Kalender, Willi A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To optimize micro-CT protocols with respect to x-ray spectra and thereby reduce radiation dose at unimpaired image quality. Methods: Simulations were performed to assess image contrast, noise, and radiation dose for different imaging tasks. The figure of merit used to determine the optimal spectrum was the dose-weighted contrast-to-noise ratio (CNRD). Both optimal photon energy and tube voltage were considered. Three different types of filtration were investigated for polychromatic x-ray spectra: 0.5 mm Al, 3.0 mm Al, and 0.2 mm Cu. Phantoms consisted of water cylinders of 20, 32, and 50 mm in diameter with a central insert of 9 mm which was filled with different contrast materials: an iodine-based contrast medium (CM) to mimic contrast-enhanced (CE) imaging, hydroxyapatite to mimic bone structures, and water with reduced density to mimic soft tissue contrast. Validation measurements were conducted on a commercially available micro-CT scanner using phantoms consisting of water-equivalent plastics. Measurements on a mouse cadaver were performed to assess potential artifacts like beam hardening and to further validate simulation results. Results: The optimal photon energy for CE imaging was found at 34 keV. For bone imaging, optimal energies were 17, 20, and 23 keV for the 20, 32, and 50 mm phantom, respectively. For density differences, optimal energies varied between 18 and 50 keV for the 20 and 50 mm phantom, respectively. For the 32 mm phantom and density differences, CNRD was found to be constant within 2.5% for the energy range of 21–60 keV. For polychromatic spectra and CMs, optimal settings were 50 kV with 0.2 mm Cu filtration, allowing for a dose reduction of 58% compared to the optimal setting for 0.5 mm Al filtration. For bone imaging, optimal tube voltages were below 35 kV. For soft tissue imaging, optimal tube settings strongly depended on phantom size. For 20 mm, low voltages were preferred. For 32 mm, CNRD was found to be almost independent

  1. Spectral optimization for micro-CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hupfer, Martin; Nowak, Tristan; Brauweiler, Robert; Eisa, Fabian; Kalender, Willi A

    2012-06-01

    To optimize micro-CT protocols with respect to x-ray spectra and thereby reduce radiation dose at unimpaired image quality. Simulations were performed to assess image contrast, noise, and radiation dose for different imaging tasks. The figure of merit used to determine the optimal spectrum was the dose-weighted contrast-to-noise ratio (CNRD). Both optimal photon energy and tube voltage were considered. Three different types of filtration were investigated for polychromatic x-ray spectra: 0.5 mm Al, 3.0 mm Al, and 0.2 mm Cu. Phantoms consisted of water cylinders of 20, 32, and 50 mm in diameter with a central insert of 9 mm which was filled with different contrast materials: an iodine-based contrast medium (CM) to mimic contrast-enhanced (CE) imaging, hydroxyapatite to mimic bone structures, and water with reduced density to mimic soft tissue contrast. Validation measurements were conducted on a commercially available micro-CT scanner using phantoms consisting of water-equivalent plastics. Measurements on a mouse cadaver were performed to assess potential artifacts like beam hardening and to further validate simulation results. The optimal photon energy for CE imaging was found at 34 keV. For bone imaging, optimal energies were 17, 20, and 23 keV for the 20, 32, and 50 mm phantom, respectively. For density differences, optimal energies varied between 18 and 50 keV for the 20 and 50 mm phantom, respectively. For the 32 mm phantom and density differences, CNRD was found to be constant within 2.5% for the energy range of 21-60 keV. For polychromatic spectra and CMs, optimal settings were 50 kV with 0.2 mm Cu filtration, allowing for a dose reduction of 58% compared to the optimal setting for 0.5 mm Al filtration. For bone imaging, optimal tube voltages were below 35 kV. For soft tissue imaging, optimal tube settings strongly depended on phantom size. For 20 mm, low voltages were preferred. For 32 mm, CNRD was found to be almost independent of tube voltage. For 50 mm

  2. Phase contrast STEM for thin samples: Integrated differential phase contrast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazić, Ivan; Bosch, Eric G.T.; Lazar, Sorin

    2016-01-01

    It has been known since the 1970s that the movement of the center of mass (COM) of a convergent beam electron diffraction (CBED) pattern is linearly related to the (projected) electrical field in the sample. We re-derive a contrast transfer function (CTF) for a scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) imaging technique based on this movement from the point of view of image formation and continue by performing a two-dimensional integration on the two images based on the two components of the COM movement. The resulting integrated COM (iCOM) STEM technique yields a scalar image that is linear in the phase shift caused by the sample and therefore also in the local (projected) electrostatic potential field of a thin sample. We confirm that the differential phase contrast (DPC) STEM technique using a segmented detector with 4 quadrants (4Q) yields a good approximation for the COM movement. Performing a two-dimensional integration, just as for the COM, we obtain an integrated DPC (iDPC) image which is approximately linear in the phase of the sample. Beside deriving the CTFs of iCOM and iDPC, we clearly point out the objects of the two corresponding imaging techniques, and highlight the differences to objects corresponding to COM-, DPC-, and (HA) ADF-STEM. The theory is validated with simulations and we present first experimental results of the iDPC-STEM technique showing its capability for imaging both light and heavy elements with atomic resolution and a good signal to noise ratio (SNR). - Highlights: • First DPC-based atomic resolution images of potential and charge density are obtained. • This is enabled by integration and differentiation of 2D DPC signals, respectively. • Integrated DPC (iDPC) based on 4 quadrant imaging is compared to iCOM imaging. • Noise analysis and comparison with standard STEM imaging modes is provided. • iDPC allows direct imaging of light (C, N, O …) and heavy (Ga, Au …) atoms together.

  3. Phase contrast STEM for thin samples: Integrated differential phase contrast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazić, Ivan, E-mail: ivan.lazic@fei.com; Bosch, Eric G.T.; Lazar, Sorin

    2016-01-15

    It has been known since the 1970s that the movement of the center of mass (COM) of a convergent beam electron diffraction (CBED) pattern is linearly related to the (projected) electrical field in the sample. We re-derive a contrast transfer function (CTF) for a scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) imaging technique based on this movement from the point of view of image formation and continue by performing a two-dimensional integration on the two images based on the two components of the COM movement. The resulting integrated COM (iCOM) STEM technique yields a scalar image that is linear in the phase shift caused by the sample and therefore also in the local (projected) electrostatic potential field of a thin sample. We confirm that the differential phase contrast (DPC) STEM technique using a segmented detector with 4 quadrants (4Q) yields a good approximation for the COM movement. Performing a two-dimensional integration, just as for the COM, we obtain an integrated DPC (iDPC) image which is approximately linear in the phase of the sample. Beside deriving the CTFs of iCOM and iDPC, we clearly point out the objects of the two corresponding imaging techniques, and highlight the differences to objects corresponding to COM-, DPC-, and (HA) ADF-STEM. The theory is validated with simulations and we present first experimental results of the iDPC-STEM technique showing its capability for imaging both light and heavy elements with atomic resolution and a good signal to noise ratio (SNR). - Highlights: • First DPC-based atomic resolution images of potential and charge density are obtained. • This is enabled by integration and differentiation of 2D DPC signals, respectively. • Integrated DPC (iDPC) based on 4 quadrant imaging is compared to iCOM imaging. • Noise analysis and comparison with standard STEM imaging modes is provided. • iDPC allows direct imaging of light (C, N, O …) and heavy (Ga, Au …) atoms together.

  4. Application of phase contrast imaging to mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tohyama, Keiko; Yamada, Katsuhiko; Katafuchi, Tetsuro; Matsuo, Satoru; Morishita, Junji

    2005-01-01

    Phase contrast images were obtained experimentally by using a customized mammography unit with a nominal focal spot size of 100 μm and variable source-to-image distances of up to 1.5 m. The purpose of this study was to examine the applicability and potential usefulness of phase contrast imaging for mammography. A mammography phantom (ACR156 RMI phantom) was imaged, and its visibility was examined. The optical density of the phantom images was adjusted to approximately 1.3 for both the contact and phase contrast images. Forty-one observers (18 medical doctors and 23 radiological technologists) participated in visual evaluation of the images. Results showed that, in comparison with the images of contact mammography, the phantom images of phase contrast imaging demonstrated statistically significantly superior visibility for fibers, clustered micro-calcifications, and masses. Therefore, phase contrast imaging obtained by using the customized mammography unit would be useful for improving diagnostic accuracy in mammography. (author)

  5. Scout-view assisted interior micro-CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Kriti Sen; Narayanan, Shree; Agah, Masoud; Holzner, Christian; Vasilescu, Dragoş M; Jin, Xin; Hoffman, Eric A; Yu, Hengyong; Wang, Ge

    2013-01-01

    Micro computed tomography (micro-CT) is a widely-used imaging technique. A challenge of micro-CT is to quantitatively reconstruct a sample larger than the field-of-view (FOV) of the detector. This scenario is characterized by truncated projections and associated image artifacts. However, for such truncated scans, a low resolution scout scan with an increased FOV is frequently acquired so as to position the sample properly. This study shows that the otherwise discarded scout scans can provide sufficient additional information to uniquely and stably reconstruct the interior region of interest. Two interior reconstruction methods are designed to utilize the multi-resolution data without significant computational overhead. While most previous studies used numerically truncated global projections as interior data, this study uses truly hybrid scans where global and interior scans were carried out at different resolutions. Additionally, owing to the lack of standard interior micro-CT phantoms, we designed and fabricated novel interior micro-CT phantoms for this study to provide means of validation for our algorithms. Finally, two characteristic samples from separate studies were scanned to show the effect of our reconstructions. The presented methods show significant improvements over existing reconstruction algorithms. (paper)

  6. Micro CT based truth estimation of nodule volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnard, L. M.; Gavrielides, M. A.; Myers, K. J.; Zeng, R.; Whiting, B.; Lin-Gibson, S.; Petrick, N.

    2010-03-01

    With the advent of high-resolution CT, three-dimensional (3D) methods for nodule volumetry have been introduced, with the hope that such methods will be more accurate and consistent than currently used planar measures of size. However, the error associated with volume estimation methods still needs to be quantified. Volume estimation error is multi-faceted in the sense that there is variability associated with the patient, the software tool and the CT system. A primary goal of our current research efforts is to quantify the various sources of measurement error and, when possible, minimize their effects. In order to assess the bias of an estimate, the actual value, or "truth," must be known. In this work we investigate the reliability of micro CT to determine the "true" volume of synthetic nodules. The advantage of micro CT over other truthing methods is that it can provide both absolute volume and shape information in a single measurement. In the current study we compare micro CT volume truth to weight-density truth for spherical, elliptical, spiculated and lobulated nodules with diameters from 5 to 40 mm, and densities of -630 and +100 HU. The percent differences between micro CT and weight-density volume for -630 HU nodules range from [-21.7%, -0.6%] (mean= -11.9%) and the differences for +100 HU nodules range from [-0.9%, 3.0%] (mean=1.7%).

  7. Generalised phase contrast: microscopy, manipulation and more

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palima, Darwin; Glückstad, Jesper

    2010-01-01

    Generalised phase contrast (GPC) not only leads to more accurate phase imaging beyond thin biological samples, but serves as an enabling framework in developing tools over a wide spectrum of contemporary applications in optics and photonics, including optical trapping and micromanipulation, optic...

  8. Ring artifact correction for high-resolution micro CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyriakou, Yiannis; Prell, Daniel; Kalender, Willi A

    2009-01-01

    In high-resolution micro CT using flat detectors (FD), imperfect or defect detector elements may cause concentric-ring artifacts due to their continuous over- or underestimation of attenuation values, which often disturb image quality. We here present a dedicated image-based ring artifact correction method for high-resolution micro CT, based on median filtering of the reconstructed image and working on a transformed version of the reconstructed images in polar coordinates. This post-processing method reduced ring artifacts in the reconstructed images and improved image quality for phantom and in in vivo scans. Noise and artifacts were reduced both in transversal and in multi-planar reformations along the longitudinal axis. (note)

  9. Reconstruction methods for phase-contrast tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raven, C.

    1997-02-01

    Phase contrast imaging with coherent x-rays can be distinguished in outline imaging and holography, depending on the wavelength {lambda}, the object size d and the object-to-detector distance r. When r << d{sup 2}{lambda}, phase contrast occurs only in regions where the refractive index fastly changes, i.e. at interfaces and edges in the sample. With increasing object-to-detector distance we come in the area of holographic imaging. The image contrast outside the shadow region of the object is due to interference of the direct, undiffracted beam and a beam diffracted by the object, or, in terms of holography, the interference of a reference wave with the object wave. Both, outline imaging and holography, offer the possibility to obtain three dimensional information of the sample in conjunction with a tomographic technique. But the data treatment and the kind of information one can obtain from the reconstruction is different.

  10. A sparsity-based iterative algorithm for reconstruction of micro-CT images from highly undersampled projection datasets obtained with a synchrotron X-ray source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melli, S. Ali; Wahid, Khan A.; Babyn, Paul; Cooper, David M. L.; Gopi, Varun P.

    2016-12-01

    Synchrotron X-ray Micro Computed Tomography (Micro-CT) is an imaging technique which is increasingly used for non-invasive in vivo preclinical imaging. However, it often requires a large number of projections from many different angles to reconstruct high-quality images leading to significantly high radiation doses and long scan times. To utilize this imaging technique further for in vivo imaging, we need to design reconstruction algorithms that reduce the radiation dose and scan time without reduction of reconstructed image quality. This research is focused on using a combination of gradient-based Douglas-Rachford splitting and discrete wavelet packet shrinkage image denoising methods to design an algorithm for reconstruction of large-scale reduced-view synchrotron Micro-CT images with acceptable quality metrics. These quality metrics are computed by comparing the reconstructed images with a high-dose reference image reconstructed from 1800 equally spaced projections spanning 180°. Visual and quantitative-based performance assessment of a synthetic head phantom and a femoral cortical bone sample imaged in the biomedical imaging and therapy bending magnet beamline at the Canadian Light Source demonstrates that the proposed algorithm is superior to the existing reconstruction algorithms. Using the proposed reconstruction algorithm to reduce the number of projections in synchrotron Micro-CT is an effective way to reduce the overall radiation dose and scan time which improves in vivo imaging protocols.

  11. Laser projection using generalized phase contrast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glückstad, Jesper; Palima, Darwin; Rodrigo, Peter John

    2007-01-01

    is introduced. An arbitrary phase shift filter eliminates the need for high-frequency modulation and conjugate phase encoding. This lowers device performance requirements and allows practical implementation with currently available dynamic spatial light modulators. (c) 2007 Optical Society of America.......We demonstrate experimental laser projection of a gray-level photographic image with 74% light efficiency using the generalized phase contrast (GPC) method. In contrast with a previously proposed technique [Alonzo et al., New J. Phys. 9, 132 (2007)], a new approach to image construction via GPC...

  12. In vivo microCT imaging of rodent cerebral vasculature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Youngho; Hasegawa, Bruce H; Hashimoto, Tomoki; Nuki, Yoshitsugu

    2008-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) remains a critical diagnostic tool for evaluating patients with cerebrovascular disease, and the advent of specialized systems for imaging rodents has extended these techniques to small animal models of these diseases. We therefore have evaluated in vivo methods of imaging rat models of hemorrhagic stroke using a high resolution compact computed tomography ('microCT') system (FLEX(tm) X-O(tm), Gamma Medica-Ideas, Northridge, CA). For all in vivo studies, the head of the anesthetized rat was secured in a custom immobilization device for microCT imaging with 512 projections over 2 min at 60 kVp and 0.530 mA (I tube x t/rotation = 63.6 mAs). First, imaging without iodinated contrast was performed (a) to differentiate the effect of contrast agent in contrast-enhanced CT and (b) to examine the effectiveness of the immobilization device between two time points of CT acquisitions. Then, contrast-enhanced CT was performed with continuous administration of iopromide (300 mgI ml -1 at 1.2 ml min -1 ) to visualize aneurysms and other vascular formations in the carotid and cerebral arteries that may precede subarachnoid hemorrhage. The accuracy of registration between the noncontrast and contrast-enhanced CT images with the immobilization device was compared against the images aligned with normalized mutual information using FMRIB's linear image registration tool (FLIRT). Translations and rotations were examined between the FLIRT-aligned noncontrast CT image and the nonaligned noncontrast CT image. These two data sets demonstrated translational and rotational differences of less than 0.5 voxel (∼85 μm) and 0.5 deg., respectively. Noncontrast CT demonstrated a very small volume (0.1 ml) of femoral arterial blood introduced surgically into the rodent brain. Continuous administration of iopromide during the CT acquisition produced consistent vascular contrast in the reconstructed CT images. As a result, carotid arteries and major cerebral blood vessels

  13. In vivo microCT imaging of rodent cerebral vasculature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Youngho; Hasegawa, Bruce H [Center for Molecular and Functional Imaging, Department of Radiology, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143 (United States); Hashimoto, Tomoki; Nuki, Yoshitsugu [Center for Cerebrovascular Research, Department of Anesthesia and Perioperative Care, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143 (United States)], E-mail: youngho.seo@radiology.ucsf.edu

    2008-04-07

    Computed tomography (CT) remains a critical diagnostic tool for evaluating patients with cerebrovascular disease, and the advent of specialized systems for imaging rodents has extended these techniques to small animal models of these diseases. We therefore have evaluated in vivo methods of imaging rat models of hemorrhagic stroke using a high resolution compact computed tomography ('microCT') system (FLEX(tm) X-O(tm), Gamma Medica-Ideas, Northridge, CA). For all in vivo studies, the head of the anesthetized rat was secured in a custom immobilization device for microCT imaging with 512 projections over 2 min at 60 kVp and 0.530 mA (I{sub tube} x t/rotation = 63.6 mAs). First, imaging without iodinated contrast was performed (a) to differentiate the effect of contrast agent in contrast-enhanced CT and (b) to examine the effectiveness of the immobilization device between two time points of CT acquisitions. Then, contrast-enhanced CT was performed with continuous administration of iopromide (300 mgI ml{sup -1} at 1.2 ml min{sup -1}) to visualize aneurysms and other vascular formations in the carotid and cerebral arteries that may precede subarachnoid hemorrhage. The accuracy of registration between the noncontrast and contrast-enhanced CT images with the immobilization device was compared against the images aligned with normalized mutual information using FMRIB's linear image registration tool (FLIRT). Translations and rotations were examined between the FLIRT-aligned noncontrast CT image and the nonaligned noncontrast CT image. These two data sets demonstrated translational and rotational differences of less than 0.5 voxel ({approx}85 {mu}m) and 0.5 deg., respectively. Noncontrast CT demonstrated a very small volume (0.1 ml) of femoral arterial blood introduced surgically into the rodent brain. Continuous administration of iopromide during the CT acquisition produced consistent vascular contrast in the reconstructed CT images. As a result, carotid

  14. Phase-contrast X-ray CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Momose, Atsushi [Hitachi Ltd., Saitama (Japan). Advanced Research Laboratory; Takeda, Tohoru; Itai, Yuji

    1995-12-01

    Phase-contrast X-ray computed tomography (CT) enabling the observation of biological soft tissues without contrast enhancement has been developed. The X-ray phase shift caused by an object is measured and input to a standard CT reconstruction algorithm. A thousand times increase in the image sensitivity to soft tissues is achieved compared with the conventional CT using absorption contrast. This is because the X-ray phase shift cross section of light elements is about a thousand times larger than the absorption cross section. The phase shift is detected using an X-ray interferometer and computer analyses of interference patterns. Experiments were performed using a synchrotron X-ray source. Excellent image sensitivity is demonstrated in the observation of cancerous rabbit liver. The CT images distinguish cancer lesion from normal liver tissue and, moreover, visualize the pathological condition in the lesion. Although the X-ray energy employed and the present observation area size are not suitable for medical applications as they are, phase-contrast X-ray CT is promising for investigating the internal structure of soft tissue which is almost transparent for X-rays. The high sensitivity also provides the advantage of reducing X-ray doses. (author).

  15. Fresnel zone-plate based X-ray microscopy in Zernike phase contrast with sub-50 nm resolution at NSRL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Jie; Li Wenjie; Tian Jinping; Liu Longhua; Xiong Ying; Liu Gang; Wu Ziyu; Tian Yangchao [National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (China); Liu Yijin [School of Physics (China); Yue Zhengbo; Yu Hanqing [Laboratory of Environmental Engineering, School of Chemistry, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei Anhui 230029 (China); Wang Chunru, E-mail: ychtian@ustc.edu.c [Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 10060 (China)

    2009-09-01

    A transmission X-ray microscope using Fresnel zone-plates (FZPs) has been installed at U7A beamline of National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (NSRL). The objective FZP with 45 nm outermost zone width delivers a sub-50 nm resolution. A gold phase ring with 2.5 {mu}m thickness and 4 {mu}m width was placed at the focal plane of the objective FZP at 8 keV to produce a negative Zernike phase contrast. A series of samples were used to test the performance of the Zernike phase contrast X-ray microscopy.

  16. Fresnel zone-plate based X-ray microscopy in Zernike phase contrast with sub-50 nm resolution at NSRL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Jie; Li Wenjie; Tian Jinping; Liu Longhua; Xiong Ying; Liu Gang; Wu Ziyu; Tian Yangchao; Liu Yijin; Yue Zhengbo; Yu Hanqing; Wang Chunru

    2009-01-01

    A transmission X-ray microscope using Fresnel zone-plates (FZPs) has been installed at U7A beamline of National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (NSRL). The objective FZP with 45 nm outermost zone width delivers a sub-50 nm resolution. A gold phase ring with 2.5 μm thickness and 4 μm width was placed at the focal plane of the objective FZP at 8 keV to produce a negative Zernike phase contrast. A series of samples were used to test the performance of the Zernike phase contrast X-ray microscopy.

  17. Exploring miniature insect brains using micro-CT scanning techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Dylan B.; Bernhardt, Galina; Raine, Nigel E.; Abel, Richard L.; Sykes, Dan; Ahmed, Farah; Pedroso, Inti; Gill, Richard J.

    2016-01-01

    The capacity to explore soft tissue structures in detail is important in understanding animal physiology and how this determines features such as movement, behaviour and the impact of trauma on regular function. Here we use advances in micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) technology to explore the brain of an important insect pollinator and model organism, the bumblebee (Bombus terrestris). Here we present a method for accurate imaging and exploration of insect brains that keeps brain tissue free from trauma and in its natural stereo-geometry, and showcase our 3D reconstructions and analyses of 19 individual brains at high resolution. Development of this protocol allows relatively rapid and cost effective brain reconstructions, making it an accessible methodology to the wider scientific community. The protocol describes the necessary steps for sample preparation, tissue staining, micro-CT scanning and 3D reconstruction, followed by a method for image analysis using the freeware SPIERS. These image analysis methods describe how to virtually extract key composite structures from the insect brain, and we demonstrate the application and precision of this method by calculating structural volumes and investigating the allometric relationships between bumblebee brain structures. PMID:26908205

  18. 4-D Micro-CT of the Mouse Heart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian T. Badea

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Demonstrate noninvasive imaging methods for in vivo characterization of cardiac structure and function in mice using a micro-CT system that provides high photon fluence rate and integrated motion control. Materials and Methods: Simultaneous cardiac- and respiratory-gated micro-CT was performed in C57BL/6 mice during constant intravenous infusion of a conventional iodinated contrast agent (Isovue-370, and after a single intravenous injection of a blood pool contrast agent (Fenestra VC. Multiple phases of the cardiac cycle were reconstructed with contrast to noise and spatial resolution sufficient for quantitative assessment of cardiac function. Results: Contrast enhancement with Isovue-370 increased over time with a maximum of ~500 HU (aorta and 900 HU (kidney cortex. Fenestra VC provided more constant enhancement over 3 hr, with maximum enhancement of ~620 HU (aorta and ~90 HU (kidney cortex. The maximum enhancement difference between blood and myocardium in the heart was ~250 HU for Isovue-370 and ~500 HU for Fenestra VC. In mice with Fenestra VC, volumetric measurements of the left ventricle were performed and cardiac function was estimated by ejection fraction, stroke volume, and cardiac output. Conclusion: Image quality with Fenestra VC was sufficient for morphological and functional studies required for a standardized method of cardiac phenotyping of the mouse.

  19. Towards an inline reconstruction architecture for micro-CT systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brasse, David; Humbert, Bernard; Mathelin, Carole; Rio, Marie-Christine; Guyonnet, Jean-Louis

    2005-01-01

    Recent developments in micro-CT have revolutionized the ability to examine in vivo living experimental animal models such as mouse with a spatial resolution less than 50 μm. The main requirements of in vivo imaging for biological researchers are a good spatial resolution, a low dose induced to the animal during the full examination and a reduced acquisition and reconstruction time for screening purposes. We introduce inline acquisition and reconstruction architecture to obtain in real time the 3D attenuation map of the animal fulfilling the three previous requirements. The micro-CT system is based on commercially available x-ray detector and micro-focus x-ray source. The reconstruction architecture is based on a cluster of PCs where a dedicated communication scheme combining serial and parallel treatments is implemented. In order to obtain high performance transmission rate between the detector and the reconstruction architecture, a dedicated data acquisition system is also developed. With the proposed solution, the time required to filter and backproject a projection of 2048 x 2048 pixels inside a volume of 140 mega voxels using the Feldkamp algorithm is similar to 500 ms, the time needed to acquire the same projection

  20. Dental imaging using laminar optical tomography and micro CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Feixiao; Ozturk, Mehmet S.; Intes, Xavier; Kotha, Shiva

    2014-02-01

    Dental lesions located in the pulp are quite difficult to identify based on anatomical contrast, and, hence, to diagnose using traditional imaging methods such as dental CT. However, such lesions could lead to functional and/or molecular optical contrast. Herein, we report on the preliminary investigation of using Laminar Optical Tomography (LOT) to image the pulp and root canals in teeth. LOT is a non-contact, high resolution, molecular and functional mesoscopic optical imaging modality. To investigate the potential of LOT for dental imaging, we injected an optical dye into ex vivo teeth samples and imaged them using LOT and micro-CT simultaneously. A rigid image registration between the LOT and micro-CT reconstruction was obtained, validating the potential of LOT to image molecular optical contrast deep in the teeth with accuracy, non-invasively. We demonstrate that LOT can retrieve the 3D bio-distribution of molecular probes at depths up to 2mm with a resolution of several hundred microns in teeth.

  1. Virtual dissection of Thoropa miliaris tadpole using phase-contrast synchrotron microtomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidalgo, G.; Colaço, M. V.; Nogueira, L. P.; Braz, D.; Silva, H. R.; Colaço, G.; Barroso, R. C.

    2018-05-01

    In this work, in-line phase-contrast synchrotron microtomography was used in order to study the external and internal morphology of Thoropa miliaris tadpoles. Whole-specimens of T. miliaris in larval stages of development 28, 37 and 42, collected in the municipality of Mangaratiba (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil) were used for the study. The samples were scanned in microtomography beamline (IMX) at the Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS). The phase-contrast technique allowed us to obtain high quality images which made possible the structures segmentation on the rendered volume by the Avizo graphic image editing software. The combination of high quality images and segmentation process provides adequate visualization of different organs and soft (liver, notochord, brain, crystalline, cartilages) and hard (elements of the bone skeleton) tissues.

  2. Development of phase-contrast imaging technique for material science and medical science applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashyap, Y.S.; Roy, Tushar; Sarkar, P.S; Shukla, Mayank; Yadav, P.S; Sinha, Amar; Verma, Vishnu; Ghosh, A.K.

    2007-07-01

    In-line phase contrast imaging technique is an emerging method for study of materials such as carbon fibres, carbon composite materials, polymers etc. These represent the class of materials for which x-ray attenuation cross-section is very small. Similarly, this technique is also well suited for imaging of soft materials such as tissues, distinguishing between tumour and normal tissue. Thus this method promises a far better contrast for low x-ray absorbing substances than the conventional radiography method for material and medical science applications. Though the conventional radiography technique has been carried out for decades, the phase-imaging technique is being demonstrated for the first time within, the country. We have set up an experimental facility for phase contrast imaging using a combination of x-ray CCD detector and a microfocus x-ray source. This facility is dedicated for micro-imaging experiments such as micro-tomography and high resolution phase contrast experiments. In this report, the results of phase contrast imaging using microfocus source and ELETTRA, synchrotron source are discussed. We have also discussed the basic design and heat load calculation for upcoming imaging beamline at Indus-II, RRCAT, Indore. (author)

  3. Experimental stations at I13 beamline at Diamond Light Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pešić, Z. D.; De Fanis, A.; Wagner, U.; Rau, C.

    2013-03-01

    The I13 beamline of Diamond Light Source has been operational since December 2011. The beamline encompass two fully independent branches devoted to coherent imaging experiments (coherent x-ray diffraction, coherent diffraction imaging and ptychography) and x-ray imaging (in-line phase contrast imaging, tomography and full-field microscopy). This paper gives an overview of the current status of experimental stations on both branches and outlines planned developments.

  4. Experimental stations at I13 beamline at Diamond Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pešić, Z D; Fanis, A De; Wagner, U; Rau, C

    2013-01-01

    The I13 beamline of Diamond Light Source has been operational since December 2011. The beamline encompass two fully independent branches devoted to coherent imaging experiments (coherent x-ray diffraction, coherent diffraction imaging and ptychography) and x-ray imaging (in-line phase contrast imaging, tomography and full-field microscopy). This paper gives an overview of the current status of experimental stations on both branches and outlines planned developments.

  5. X-ray phase-contrast imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endrizzi, Marco

    2018-01-01

    X-ray imaging is a standard tool for the non-destructive inspection of the internal structure of samples. It finds application in a vast diversity of fields: medicine, biology, many engineering disciplines, palaeontology and earth sciences are just few examples. The fundamental principle underpinning the image formation have remained the same for over a century: the X-rays traversing the sample are subjected to different amount of absorption in different parts of the sample. By means of phase-sensitive techniques it is possible to generate contrast also in relation to the phase shifts imparted by the sample and to extend the capabilities of X-ray imaging to those details that lack enough absorption contrast to be visualised in conventional radiography. A general overview of X-ray phase contrast imaging techniques is presented in this review, along with more recent advances in this fast evolving field and some examples of applications.

  6. Computerized methodology for micro-CT and histological data inflation using an IVUS based translation map.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athanasiou, Lambros S; Rigas, George A; Sakellarios, Antonis I; Exarchos, Themis P; Siogkas, Panagiotis K; Naka, Katerina K; Panetta, Daniele; Pelosi, Gualtiero; Vozzi, Federico; Michalis, Lampros K; Parodi, Oberdan; Fotiadis, Dimitrios I

    2015-10-01

    A framework for the inflation of micro-CT and histology data using intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) images, is presented. The proposed methodology consists of three steps. In the first step the micro-CT/histological images are manually co-registered with IVUS by experts using fiducial points as landmarks. In the second step the lumen of both the micro-CT/histological images and IVUS images are automatically segmented. Finally, in the third step the micro-CT/histological images are inflated by applying a transformation method on each image. The transformation method is based on the IVUS and micro-CT/histological contour difference. In order to validate the proposed image inflation methodology, plaque areas in the inflated micro-CT and histological images are compared with the ones in the IVUS images. The proposed methodology for inflating micro-CT/histological images increases the sensitivity of plaque area matching between the inflated and the IVUS images (7% and 22% in histological and micro-CT images, respectively). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Monitoring stem cells in phase contrast imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, K. P.; Dempsey, K. P.; Collins, D. J.; Richardson, J. B.

    2016-04-01

    Understanding the mechanisms behind the proliferation of Mesenchymal Stem cells (MSCs) can offer a greater insight into the behaviour of these cells throughout their life cycles. Traditional methods of determining the rate of MSC differentiation rely on population based studies over an extended time period. However, such methods can be inadequate as they are unable to track cells as they interact; for example, in autologous cell therapies for osteoarthritis, the development of biological assays that could predict in vivo functional activity and biological action are particularly challenging. Here further research is required to determine non-histochemical biomarkers which provide correlations between cell survival and predictive functional outcome. This paper proposes using a (previously developed) advanced texture-based analysis algorithm to facilitate in vitro cells tracking using time-lapsed microscopy. The technique was adopted to monitor stem cells in the context of unlabelled, phase contrast imaging, with the goal of examining the cell to cell interactions in both monoculture and co-culture systems. The results obtained are analysed using established exploratory procedures developed for time series data and compared with the typical fluorescent-based approach of cell labelling. A review of the progress and the lessons learned are also presented.

  8. MicroCT vs. Hg porosimetry: microporosity in commercial stones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusi, N.; Martinez-Martinez, J.; Barberini, V.; Galimberti, L.

    2009-04-01

    have been cut and scanned by means of a X ray microCT system before and after mercury saturation with Hg porosimeter. The microCT system used is a BIR Actis 130/150 with nominal resolution of 5 micron; for our samples resolution is of 25 microns. Generator and detector are fixed, while the sample rotates; the scanning plane is horizontal. Samples reduce the X rays energy passing through, as a function of its density and atomic number. X rays are then collected on a detector, which converts them into light radiations; a digital camera collects light radiations in raw data and send them to the computer, where they are processed as black/white images. The Hg porosimeter used is a Pascal 140/240 Thermo Fisher. Samples were first degassed and then intruded by Hg. Apparent density, bulk density, porosity and open pore size distribution (pore diameter between 3.7 and 58000 nm) of each sample have been computed using the PASCAL (Pressurization with Automatic Speed-up by Continuous Adjustametnt Logic) method and the Washburn equation; this equation assumes: cylindrical pores, a contact angle between mercury and sample of 140°, a surface tension of mercury vacuum of 0,480 N/m and mercury density equal to 13.5 g/cm³. MicroCT images and porosity data from Hg porosimeter have been compared by several authors both for rocks (Klobes et alii, 1997) and for artificial materials with medical applications (Lin-Gibson et alii, 2007) In samples with no density/composition differences microCT images are homogeneous and gives no information on the internal structure of the sample. This is the case of massive samples (such as BA, BT, GM and TB) and of samples without any significant density differences between clasts and matrix (A and BS) or rock and veins (RC). MicroCT images of the same sample after mercury saturation offer a detailed map of microporosity of the rock, due to the high density contrast between mercury (13.6 g/cm3) and the rock (2.71 g/cm3 for calcite and 2.86 g/cm3 for

  9. Accuracy of cancellous bone volume fraction measured by micro-CT scanning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Ming; Odgaard, A; Hvid, I

    1999-01-01

    Volume fraction, the single most important parameter in describing trabecular microstructure, can easily be calculated from three-dimensional reconstructions of micro-CT images. This study sought to quantify the accuracy of this measurement. One hundred and sixty human cancellous bone specimens...... which covered a large range of volume fraction (9.8-39.8%) were produced. The specimens were micro-CT scanned, and the volume fraction based on Archimedes' principle was determined as a reference. After scanning, all micro-CT data were segmented using individual thresholds determined by the scanner...

  10. Morphology of Major Stone Types, As Shown by Micro Computed Tomography (micro CT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, Molly E.; Beuschel, Christian A.; McAteer, James A.; Williams, James C.

    2008-01-01

    Micro CT offers the possibility of providing a non-destructive method of stone analysis that allows visualization of 100% of the stone's volume. For the present study, micro CT analysis was completed on stones of known composition with isotropic voxel sizes of either 7 or 9.1 μm. Each mineral type was distinctive, either by x-ray attenuation values or by morphology. Minor components, such as the presence of apatite in oxalate stones, were easily seen. The analysis of stones by micro CT opens up the possibility of exploring the stone as an encapsulated history of the patient's disease, showing changes in mineral deposition with time.

  11. Micro-CT assessment of two different endodontic preparation systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cacio Moura-Netto

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare two endodontic preparation systems using micro-CT analysis. Twenty-four one-rooted mandibular premolars were selected and randomly assigned to two groups. The samples (n = 12 of Group 1 were prepared using the ProTaper Universal rotary system, while Group 2 (n = 12 was prepared using the EndoEZE AET system complemented by manual apical preparation with K-type hand files up to #30. A 2.5% sodium hypochlorite solution was used in both groups for irrigating. Both groups were scanned by high-resolution microcomputed tomography before and after preparation (SkyScan 1172, SkyScan, Kontich, Belgium. The root canal volume and surface area was measured before and after preparation, and the differences were calculated and analyzed for statistically significant differences using ANOVA complemented by the Tukey test (p < 0.05. The results showed no statistically significant differences between the mean volumes of dentin removal by the two systems. However, the EndoEZE AET system presented a significantly greater mean surface area compared to the ProTaper system (p < 0.05. The EndoEZE AET system enabled preparation of a greater root canal surface area when compared to the ProTaper Universal system. There seemed to be no difference in dentin volume loss between the two systems used.

  12. Mathematical filtering minimizes metallic halation of titanium implants in MicroCT images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Jee; Osher, Stanley J; Nishimura, Ichiro

    2013-01-01

    Microcomputed tomography (MicroCT) images containing titanium implant suffer from x-rays scattering, artifact and the implant surface is critically affected by metallic halation. To improve the metallic halation artifact, a nonlinear Total Variation denoising algorithm such as Split Bregman algorithm was applied to the digital data set of MicroCT images. This study demonstrated that the use of a mathematical filter could successfully reduce metallic halation, facilitating the osseointegration evaluation at the bone implant interface in the reconstructed images.

  13. [Detection of marginal leakage of Class V restorations in vitro by micro-CT].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Lin-juan; Zhao, Xin-yi; Li, Shi-bao

    2012-09-01

    To evaluate the reliability and superiority of micro-CT in marginal leakage assessment of Class V restorations. Class V preparations with gingival margins in dentin and occlusal in enamel were made in sixteen extracted non-carious human molars and restored with dental bonding agents and composite resin. All teeth were then immersed in 50% ammonia-silver nitrate solution for 12 hours, followed by developing solution for 8 hours. Each restoration was scanned by a micro-CT and silver leakage was measured and three-dimensional image of the silver leakage alone cavity wall were reconstructed. Afterward, all restorations were sectioned and examined for leakage depth using a microscope. The silver leakage depth of each restoration obtained by micro-CT and microscope were compared for equivalency. The silver leakage depths in gingival wall obtained with micro-CT (0.78 mm) and microscope (0.74 mm) showed no significant difference (P > 0.05), while the judgment of leakage depths in occlusal wall in micro-CT image (0.40 mm) was affected by adjacent enamel structure, giving less leakage depths compared to microscope (0.72 mm)(P leakages showed channels on their way to spreading. Micro-CT can detect precisely the silver leakage in the dentin wall of a restoration and display its three-dimensional shape fully. Enamel structure affects the detection of the silver leakage next to it.

  14. High-throughput, high-resolution X-ray phase contrast tomographic microscopy for visualisation of soft tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, S A; Marone, F; Hintermueller, C; Stampanoni, M [Swiss Light Source, Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Bensadoun, J-C; Aebischer, P, E-mail: samuel.mcdonald@psi.c [EPFL, School of Life Sciences, Station 15, 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2009-09-01

    The use of conventional absorption based X-ray microtomography can become limited for samples showing only very weak absorption contrast. However, a wide range of samples studied in biology and materials science can produce significant phase shifts of the X-ray beam, and thus the use of the phase signal can provide substantially increased contrast and therefore new and otherwise inaccessible information. The application of two approaches for high-throughput, high-resolution X-ray phase contrast tomography, both available on the TOMCAT beamline of the SLS, is illustrated. Differential Phase Contrast (DPC) imaging uses a grating interferometer and a phase-stepping technique. It has been integrated into the beamline environment on TOMCAT in terms of the fast acquisition and reconstruction of data and the availability to scan samples within an aqueous environment. The second phase contrast approach is a modified transfer of intensity approach that can yield the 3D distribution of the phase (refractive index) of a weakly absorbing object from a single tomographic dataset. These methods are being used for the evaluation of cell integrity in 3D, with the specific aim of following and analyzing progressive cell degeneration to increase knowledge of the mechanistic events of neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson's disease.

  15. Investigation of biomedical inner microstructures with hard X-ray phase-contrast imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shu Hang [Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Institute of High Energy Physics, CAS, 100049 Beijing (China); Graduate University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, 100864 Beijing (China); Zhu Peiping [Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Institute of High Energy Physics, CAS, 100049 Beijing (China); Chen Bo [Department of Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Liu Bo; Yin Hongxia [Capital University of Medical Sciences, 100054 Beijing (China); Li Enrong [Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Institute of High Energy Physics, CAS, 100049 Beijing (China); Graduate University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, 100864 Beijing (China); Liu Yijin [Department of Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Wang Junyue [Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Institute of High Energy Physics, CAS, 100049 Beijing (China); Graduate University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, 100864 Beijing (China); Yuan Qingxi; Huang Wanxia; Fang Shouxian [Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Institute of High Energy Physics, CAS, 100049 Beijing (China); Wu Ziyu [Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Institute of High Energy Physics, CAS, 100049 Beijing (China); National Center for NanoScience and Technology, 100080 Beijing (China)], E-mail: wuzy@ihep.ac.cn

    2007-09-21

    Hard X-ray Phase-Contrast Imaging (HX-PCI) is a new and valuable method that may provide information of the inner parts of an opaque object. Previous reports demonstrated its applicability in soft and hard tissue imaging. Here we provide further evidence for improved image quality and the effective capability to distinguish inner microstructures in real biomedical systems such as cochlea. Experiments performed both at the 4W1A beamline of the Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility (BSRF) and at the Taiwan National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center (NSRRC) clearly show details of samples' inner microstructure with a resolution of a few microns. The improved spatial resolution is a relevant achievement for future improved understanding and clinical trials.

  16. Study of bony trabecular characteristics using bone morphometry and micro-CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Young Han; Lee, Wan; Lee, Chang Jin; Ji, Jung Hyun; Lee, Byung Do

    2007-01-01

    The research was done to investigate the effectiveness of 2D bony morphometry and microstructure of micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) on the osteoporotic bony change. We performed the bone morphometric analysis of proximal femur in ovariectomized rabbits with BMD and micro-CT examination. Twenty-one female (Newzeland, about 16 weeks old, 2.9-3.4 kg) rabbits were used. Three rabbits were sacrificed on the day when experiment began (Basline). The remaining 18 rabbits were divided into two groups. One group was ovariectomized bilaterally (OVX) and the other animals were subjected to sham operation (Sham). Bone specimens were obtained from the right and left femur of sacrificed rabbits. At intervals of 1,2,3,5,6 months respectively, BMD tests were performed on the proximal on the proximal femur by using PIXImus 2 (GE Lunar Co. USA), 2-dimensional bone morphometric analysis by custom computer program and 2D / 3D bone structure analysis by micro-CT (Skyscan1072, Antwerpen, Belgium). Statistical analysis was carried out for the correlation between bone morphometry, micro-CT and BMD. BV/TV, Tb.Th, Tb.N of micro-CT parameters showed higher values in sham group than OVX group. N.Nd/Ar.RI, N.NdNd, N.NdTm, N. TmTm, PmB/Ar.RI, 3-D BoxSlope of 2D morphometric parameters showed higher values in Sham group than OVX group. The micro-CT parameters of Tb.Sp. Tb.N were statistically significant correlated with BMD respectively. Several 2D morphometric parameters were statistically significant correlated with BMD respectively. Several parameters of 2D bony morphometry and micro-CT showed effective aspects on the osteoporotic bony change

  17. A quality assurance phantom for the performance evaluation of volumetric micro-CT systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, Louise Y [Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Western Ontario, London, ON (Canada); Umoh, Joseph [Imaging Research Laboratories, Robarts Research Institute, London, ON (Canada); Nikolov, Hristo N [Imaging Research Laboratories, Robarts Research Institute, London, ON (Canada); Pollmann, Steven I [Imaging Research Laboratories, Robarts Research Institute, London, ON (Canada); Lee, Ting-Yim [Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Western Ontario, London, ON (Canada); Holdsworth, David W [Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Western Ontario, London, ON (Canada)

    2007-12-07

    Small-animal imaging has recently become an area of increased interest because more human diseases can be modeled in transgenic and knockout rodents. As a result, micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) systems are becoming more common in research laboratories, due to their ability to achieve spatial resolution as high as 10 {mu}m, giving highly detailed anatomical information. Most recently, a volumetric cone-beam micro-CT system using a flat-panel detector (eXplore Ultra, GE Healthcare, London, ON) has been developed that combines the high resolution of micro-CT and the fast scanning speed of clinical CT, so that dynamic perfusion imaging can be performed in mice and rats, providing functional physiological information in addition to anatomical information. This and other commercially available micro-CT systems all promise to deliver precise and accurate high-resolution measurements in small animals. However, no comprehensive quality assurance phantom has been developed to evaluate the performance of these micro-CT systems on a routine basis. We have designed and fabricated a single comprehensive device for the purpose of performance evaluation of micro-CT systems. This quality assurance phantom was applied to assess multiple image-quality parameters of a current flat-panel cone-beam micro-CT system accurately and quantitatively, in terms of spatial resolution, geometric accuracy, CT number accuracy, linearity, noise and image uniformity. Our investigations show that 3D images can be obtained with a limiting spatial resolution of 2.5 mm{sup -1} and noise of {+-}35 HU, using an acquisition interval of 8 s at an entrance dose of 6.4 cGy.

  18. A quality assurance phantom for the performance evaluation of volumetric micro-CT systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, Louise Y; Umoh, Joseph; Nikolov, Hristo N; Pollmann, Steven I; Lee, Ting-Yim; Holdsworth, David W

    2007-01-01

    Small-animal imaging has recently become an area of increased interest because more human diseases can be modeled in transgenic and knockout rodents. As a result, micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) systems are becoming more common in research laboratories, due to their ability to achieve spatial resolution as high as 10 μm, giving highly detailed anatomical information. Most recently, a volumetric cone-beam micro-CT system using a flat-panel detector (eXplore Ultra, GE Healthcare, London, ON) has been developed that combines the high resolution of micro-CT and the fast scanning speed of clinical CT, so that dynamic perfusion imaging can be performed in mice and rats, providing functional physiological information in addition to anatomical information. This and other commercially available micro-CT systems all promise to deliver precise and accurate high-resolution measurements in small animals. However, no comprehensive quality assurance phantom has been developed to evaluate the performance of these micro-CT systems on a routine basis. We have designed and fabricated a single comprehensive device for the purpose of performance evaluation of micro-CT systems. This quality assurance phantom was applied to assess multiple image-quality parameters of a current flat-panel cone-beam micro-CT system accurately and quantitatively, in terms of spatial resolution, geometric accuracy, CT number accuracy, linearity, noise and image uniformity. Our investigations show that 3D images can be obtained with a limiting spatial resolution of 2.5 mm -1 and noise of ±35 HU, using an acquisition interval of 8 s at an entrance dose of 6.4 cGy

  19. Methods of in-vivo mouse lung micro-CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recheis, Wolfgang A.; Nixon, Earl; Thiesse, Jacqueline; McLennan, Geoffrey; Ross, Alan; Hoffman, Eric

    2005-04-01

    Micro-CT will have a profound influence on the accumulation of anatomical and physiological phenotypic changes in natural and transgenetic mouse models. Longitudinal studies will be greatly facilitated, allowing for a more complete and accurate description of events if in-vivo studies are accomplished. The purpose of the ongoing project is to establish a feasible and reproducible setup for in-vivo mouse lung micro-computed tomography (μCT). We seek to use in-vivo respiratory-gated μCT to follow mouse models of lung disease with subsequent recovery of the mouse. Methodologies for optimizing scanning parameters and gating for the in-vivo mouse lung are presented. A Scireq flexiVent ventilated the gas-anesthetized mice at 60 breaths/minute, 30 cm H20 PEEP, 30 ml/kg tidal volume and provided a respiratory signal to gate a Skyscan 1076 μCT. Physiologic monitoring allowed the control of vital functions and quality of anesthesia, e.g. via ECG monitoring. In contrary to longer exposure times with ex-vivo scans, scan times for in-vivo were reduced using 35μm pixel size, 158ms exposure time and 18μm pixel size, 316ms exposure time to reduce motion artifacts. Gating via spontaneous breathing was also tested. Optimal contrast resolution was achieved at 50kVp, 200μA, applying an aluminum filter (0.5mm). There were minimal non-cardiac related motion artifacts. Both 35μm and 1μm voxel size images were suitable for evaluation of the airway lumen and parenchymal density. Total scan times were 30 and 65 minutes respectively. The mice recovered following scanning protocols. In-vivo lung scanning with recovery of the mouse delivered reasonable image quality for longitudinal studies, e.g. mouse asthma models. After examining 10 mice, we conclude μCT is a feasible tool evaluating mouse models of lung pathology in longitudinal studies with increasing anatomic detail available for evaluation as one moves from in-vivo to ex-vivo studies. Further developments include automated

  20. Quantification of in-stent restenosis parameters in rabbits by micro-CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langheinrich, A.C.; Zoerb, C.; Jajima, J.; Lommel, D.; Rau, W.S.; Walker, G.; Mueller, K.M.; Bohle, R.M.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The well-defined model of angioplasty and stent implantation in the rabbit aorta is useful in experimental studies of restenosis. This study was performed to evaluate the feasibility of Micro-CT for quantification of in-stent restenosis in a rabbit aortic in-stent restenosis model. Material and Methods: To induce in-stent restenosis seven female New Zealand rabbits underwent balloon dilation and denudation prior to stenting the abdominal aorta. After six weeks on atherogenic diet, animals were killed and the aorta was perfused with contrast agent. Micro-CT morphometric analysis of balloon and stent injured arteries obtained by 700 transverse sections (voxel size 10 μm) was compared to conventional histological analysis. Results: Intimal hyperplasia was present in stented and balloon injured arteries with a moderate intimal area assessed by Micro-CT and conventional histology (3.91±0.5 mm 2 vs. 4.18±0.42; r=0.9). High significant correlations between Micro-CT image analysis and conventional histomorphometry were obtained for lesion size, size of media, size of lumen and stent area (r=0.84 to 0.96). Conclusion: Micro-CT is feasible for quantitative information about restenosis following balloon angioplasty and stent implantation and has the potential to become a standard technique in many laboratories which will augment serial histology as the reference method for ex-vivo studies of restenosis. (orig.)

  1. Quantitative Analysis of Micro-CT Imaging and Histopathological Signatures of Experimental Arthritis in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew D. Silva

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Micro-computed tomographic (micro-CT imaging provides a unique opportunity to capture 3-D architectural information in bone samples. In this study of pathological joint changes in a rat model of adjuvant-induced arthritis (AA, quantitative analysis of bone volume and roughness were performed by micro-CT imaging and compared with histopathology methods and paw swelling measurement. Micro-CT imaging of excised rat hind paws (n = 10 stored in formalin consisted of approximately 600 30-μm slices acquired on a 512 × 512 image matrix with isotropic resolution. Following imaging, the joints were scored from H&E stained sections for cartilage/bone erosion, pannus development, inflammation, and synovial hyperplasia. From micro-CT images, quantitative analysis of absolute bone volumes and bone roughness was performed. Bone erosion in the rat AA model is substantial, leading to a significant decline in tarsal volume (27%. The result of the custom bone roughness measurement indicated a 55% increase in surface roughness. Histological and paw volume analyses also demonstrated severe arthritic disease as compared to controls. Statistical analyses indicate correlations among bone volume, roughness, histology, and paw volume. These data demonstrate that the destructive progression of disease in a rat AA model can be quantified using 3-D micro-CT image analysis, which allows assessment of arthritic disease status and efficacy of experimental therapeutic agents.

  2. Deciphering complex, functional structures with synchrotron-based absorption and phase contrast tomographic microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stampanoni, M.; Reichold, J.; Weber, B.; Haberthür, D.; Schittny, J.; Eller, J.; Büchi, F. N.; Marone, F.

    2010-09-01

    Nowadays, thanks to the high brilliance available at modern, third generation synchrotron facilities and recent developments in detector technology, it is possible to record volumetric information at the micrometer scale within few minutes. High signal-to-noise ratio, quantitative information on very complex structures like the brain micro vessel architecture, lung airways or fuel cells can be obtained thanks to the combination of dedicated sample preparation protocols, in-situ acquisition schemes and cutting-edge imaging analysis instruments. In this work we report on recent experiments carried out at the TOMCAT beamline of the Swiss Light Source [1] where synchrotron-based tomographic microscopy has been successfully used to obtain fundamental information on preliminary models for cerebral fluid flow [2], to provide an accurate mesh for 3D finite-element simulation of the alveolar structure of the pulmonary acinus [3] and to investigate the complex functional mechanism of fuel cells [4]. Further, we introduce preliminary results on the combination of absorption and phase contrast microscopy for the visualization of high-Z nanoparticles in soft tissues, a fundamental information when designing modern drug delivery systems [5]. As an outlook we briefly discuss the new possibilities offered by high sensitivity, high resolution grating interferomtery as well as Zernike Phase contrast nanotomography [6].

  3. In Vivo Respiratory-Gated Micro-CT Imaging in Small-Animal Oncology Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawn Cavanaugh

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Micro-computed tomography (micro-CT is becoming an accepted research tool for the noninvasive examination of laboratory animals such as mice and rats, but to date, in vivo scanning has largely been limited to the evaluation of skeletal tissues. We use a commercially available micro-CT device to perform respiratory gated in vivo acquisitions suitable for thoracic imaging. The instrument is described, along with the scan protocol and animal preparation techniques. Preliminary results confirm that lung tumors as small as 1 mm in diameter are visible in vivo with these methods. Radiation dose was evaluated using several approaches, and was found to be approximately 0.15 Gy for this respiratory-gated micro-CT imaging protocol. The combination of high-resolution CT imaging and respiratory-gated acquisitions appears well-suited to serial in vivo scanning.

  4. Micro-CT in situ study of carbonate rock microstructural evolution for geologic CO2 storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Yi; Yang, Yan; Rogowska, M.

    2017-01-01

    to achieve this is to find a suitable condition to create a stable 3D space in carbonate rock by injecting liquid to prepare space for the later CO2 injection. Micro-CT imaging is a non-destructive 3D method that can be used to study the property changes of carbonate rocks during and after CO2 injection....... The advance in lab source based micro-CT has made it capable of in situ experiments. We used a commercial bench top micro-CT (Zeiss Versa XRM410) to study the microstructure changes of chalk during liquid injection. Flexible temporal CT resolution is essential in this study because that the time scales...... of coupled physical and chemical processes can be very different. The results validated the feasibility of using a bench top CT system with a pressure cell to monitor the mesoscale multiphase interactions in chalk....

  5. In-situ, real time micro-CT imaging of pore scale processes, the next frontier for laboratory based micro-CT scanning

    OpenAIRE

    Boone, Marijn; Bultreys, Tom; Masschaele, Bert; Van Loo, Denis; Van Hoorebeke, Luc; Cnudde, Veerle

    2016-01-01

    Over the past decade, laboratory based X-ray computed micro-tomography (micro-CT) has given unique insights in the internal structure of complex reservoir rocks, improving the understanding of pore scale processes and providing crucial information for pore scale modelling. Especially in-situ imaging using X-ray optimized Hassler type cells has enabled the direct visualization of fluid distributions at the pore scale under reservoir conditions. While sub-micrometre spatial resolutions are achi...

  6. Reduction of ring artefacts in high resolution micro-CT reconstructions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sijbers, Jan; Postnov, Andrei

    2004-01-01

    High resolution micro-CT images are often corrupted by ring artefacts, prohibiting quantitative analysis and hampering post processing. Removing or at least significantly reducing such artefacts is indispensable. However, since micro-CT systems are pushed to the extremes in the quest for the ultimate spatial resolution, ring artefacts can hardly be avoided. Moreover, as opposed to clinical CT systems, conventional correction schemes such as flat-field correction do not lead to satisfactory results. Therefore, in this note a simple but efficient and fast post processing method is proposed that effectively reduces ring artefacts in reconstructed μ-CT images. (note)

  7. Bi-directional x-ray phase-contrast mammography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Scherer

    Full Text Available Phase-contrast x-ray imaging is a promising improvement of conventional absorption-based mammography for early tumor detection. This potential has been demonstrated recently, utilizing structured gratings to obtain differential phase and dark-field scattering images. However, the inherently anisotropic imaging sensitivity of the proposed mono-directional approach yields only insufficient diagnostic information, and has low diagnostic sensitivity to highly oriented structures. To overcome these limitations, we present a two-directional x-ray phase-contrast mammography approach and demonstrate its advantages by applying it to a freshly dissected, cancerous mastectomy breast specimen. We illustrate that the two-directional scanning procedure overcomes the insufficient diagnostic value of a single scan, and reliably detects tumor structures, independently from their orientation within the breast. Our results indicate the indispensable diagnostic necessity and benefit of a multi-directional approach for x-ray phase-contrast mammography.

  8. Biological applications of phase-contrast electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagayama, Kuniaki

    2014-01-01

    Here, I review the principles and applications of phase-contrast electron microscopy using phase plates. First, I develop the principle of phase contrast based on a minimal model of microscopy, introducing a double Fourier-transform process to mathematically formulate the image formation. Next, I explain four phase-contrast (PC) schemes, defocus PC, Zernike PC, Hilbert differential contrast, and schlieren optics, as image-filtering processes in the context of the minimal model, with particular emphases on the Zernike PC and corresponding Zernike phase plates. Finally, I review applications of Zernike PC cryo-electron microscopy to biological systems such as protein molecules, virus particles, and cells, including single-particle analysis to delineate three-dimensional (3D) structures of protein and virus particles and cryo-electron tomography to reconstruct 3D images of complex protein systems and cells.

  9. Micro-CTvlab: A web based virtual gallery of biological specimens using X-ray microtomography (micro-CT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keklikoglou, Kleoniki; Faulwetter, Sarah; Chatzinikolaou, Eva; Michalakis, Nikitas; Filiopoulou, Irene; Minadakis, Nikos; Panteri, Emmanouela; Perantinos, George; Gougousis, Alexandros; Arvanitidis, Christos

    2016-01-01

    During recent years, X-ray microtomography (micro-CT) has seen an increasing use in biological research areas, such as functional morphology, taxonomy, evolutionary biology and developmental research. Micro-CT is a technology which uses X-rays to create sub-micron resolution images of external and internal features of specimens. These images can then be rendered in a three-dimensional space and used for qualitative and quantitative 3D analyses. However, the online exploration and dissemination of micro-CT datasets are rarely made available to the public due to their large size and a lack of dedicated online platforms for the interactive manipulation of 3D data. Here, the development of a virtual micro-CT laboratory (Micro-CT vlab ) is described, which can be used by everyone who is interested in digitisation methods and biological collections and aims at making the micro-CT data exploration of natural history specimens freely available over the internet. The Micro-CT vlab offers to the user virtual image galleries of various taxa which can be displayed and downloaded through a web application. With a few clicks, accurate, detailed and three-dimensional models of species can be studied and virtually dissected without destroying the actual specimen. The data and functions of the Micro-CT vlab can be accessed either on a normal computer or through a dedicated version for mobile devices.

  10. Efficient digitalization method for dental restorations using micro-CT data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Changhwan; Baek, Seung Hoon; Lee, Taewon; Go, Jonggun; Kim, Sun Young; Cho, Seungryong

    2017-03-15

    The objective of this study was to demonstrate the feasibility of using micro-CT scan of dental impressions for fabricating dental restorations and to compare the dimensional accuracy of dental models generated from various methods. The key idea of the proposed protocol is that dental impression of patients can be accurately digitized by micro-CT scan and that one can make digital cast model from micro-CT data directly. As air regions of the micro-CT scan data of dental impression are equivalent to the real teeth and surrounding structures, one can segment the air regions and fabricate digital cast model in the STL format out of them. The proposed method was validated by a phantom study using a typodont with prepared teeth. Actual measurement and deviation map analysis were performed after acquiring digital cast models for each restoration methods. Comparisons of the milled restorations were also performed by placing them on the prepared teeth of typodont. The results demonstrated that an efficient fabrication of precise dental restoration is achievable by use of the proposed method.

  11. EXD HME MicroCT Data Acquisition, Processing and Data Request Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seetho, Isaac M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Brown, William D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Martz, Jr., Harry E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-12-06

    This document is a short summary of the steps required for MicroCT evaluation of a specimen. This includes data acquisition through image analysis, for the EXD HME program. Expected outputs for each stage are provided. Data shall be shipped to LLNL as described herein.

  12. Quantifying lung morphology with respiratory-gated micro-CT in a murine model of emphysema

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, N. L.; Martin, E. L.; Lewis, J. F.; Veldhuizen, R. A. W.; Holdsworth, D. W.; Drangova, M.

    2009-04-01

    Non-invasive micro-CT imaging techniques have been developed to investigate lung structure in free-breathing rodents. In this study, we investigate the utility of retrospectively respiratory-gated micro-CT imaging in an emphysema model to determine if anatomical changes could be observed in the image-derived quantitative analysis at two respiratory phases. The emphysema model chosen was a well-characterized, genetically altered model (TIMP-3 knockout mice) that exhibits a homogeneous phenotype. Micro-CT scans of the free-breathing, anaesthetized mice were obtained in 50 s and retrospectively respiratory sorted and reconstructed, providing 3D images representing peak inspiration and end expiration with 0.15 mm isotropic voxel spacing. Anatomical measurements included the volume and CT density of the lungs and the volume of the major airways, along with the diameters of the trachea, left bronchus and right bronchus. From these measurements, functional parameters such as functional residual capacity and tidal volume were calculated. Significant differences between the wild-type and TIMP-3 knockout groups were observed for measurements of CT density over the entire lung, indicating increased air content in the lungs of TIMP-3 knockout mice. These results demonstrate retrospective respiratory-gated micro-CT, providing images at multiple respiratory phases that can be analyzed quantitatively to investigate anatomical changes in murine models of emphysema.

  13. Efficient digitalization method for dental restorations using micro-CT data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Changhwan; Baek, Seung Hoon; Lee, Taewon; Go, Jonggun; Kim, Sun Young; Cho, Seungryong

    2017-03-01

    The objective of this study was to demonstrate the feasibility of using micro-CT scan of dental impressions for fabricating dental restorations and to compare the dimensional accuracy of dental models generated from various methods. The key idea of the proposed protocol is that dental impression of patients can be accurately digitized by micro-CT scan and that one can make digital cast model from micro-CT data directly. As air regions of the micro-CT scan data of dental impression are equivalent to the real teeth and surrounding structures, one can segment the air regions and fabricate digital cast model in the STL format out of them. The proposed method was validated by a phantom study using a typodont with prepared teeth. Actual measurement and deviation map analysis were performed after acquiring digital cast models for each restoration methods. Comparisons of the milled restorations were also performed by placing them on the prepared teeth of typodont. The results demonstrated that an efficient fabrication of precise dental restoration is achievable by use of the proposed method.

  14. A LabVIEW Platform for Preclinical Imaging Using Digital Subtraction Angiography and Micro-CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badea, Cristian T; Hedlund, Laurence W; Johnson, G Allan

    2013-01-01

    CT and digital subtraction angiography (DSA) are ubiquitous in the clinic. Their preclinical equivalents are valuable imaging methods for studying disease models and treatment. We have developed a dual source/detector X-ray imaging system that we have used for both micro-CT and DSA studies in rodents. The control of such a complex imaging system requires substantial software development for which we use the graphical language LabVIEW (National Instruments, Austin, TX, USA). This paper focuses on a LabVIEW platform that we have developed to enable anatomical and functional imaging with micro-CT and DSA. Our LabVIEW applications integrate and control all the elements of our system including a dual source/detector X-ray system, a mechanical ventilator, a physiological monitor, and a power microinjector for the vascular delivery of X-ray contrast agents. Various applications allow cardiac- and respiratory-gated acquisitions for both DSA and micro-CT studies. Our results illustrate the application of DSA for cardiopulmonary studies and vascular imaging of the liver and coronary arteries. We also show how DSA can be used for functional imaging of the kidney. Finally, the power of 4D micro-CT imaging using both prospective and retrospective gating is shown for cardiac imaging.

  15. Direct micro-CT observation confirms the induction of embolism upon xylem cutting under tension

    Science.gov (United States)

    We used two different Synchrotron-based micro-CT facilities (SLS: Swiss Light Source, Villigen, Switzerland, and ALS: Advanced Light Source, Berkeley, CA USA) to test the excision artifact described by Wheeler et al. (2013). Specifically, we examined the impact of cutting xylem under tension and und...

  16. In vivo longitudinal micro-CT study of bent long limb bones in rat offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Schaepdrijver, Luc; Delille, Peter; Geys, Helena; Boehringer-Shahidi, Christian; Vanhove, Christian

    2014-07-01

    Micro-computed X-ray tomography (micro-CT) has been reported as a reliable method to assess ex vivo rat and rabbit fetal skeletons in embryo-fetal developmental toxicity studies. Since micro-CT is a non-invasive imaging modality it has the potential for longitudinal, in vivo investigation of postnatal skeletal development. This is the first paper using micro-CT to assess the reversibility of drug-induced bent long bones in a longitudinal study from birth to early adulthood in rat offspring. Analysis of the scans obtained on postnatal Day 0, 7, 21 and 80 showed complete recovery or repair of the bent long limb bones (including the scapula) within the first 3 weeks. When assessing risk the ability to demonstrate recovery is highly advantageous when interpreting such transient skeletal change. In summary, in vivo micro-CT of small laboratory animals can aid in non-clinical safety assessment, particularly for specific mechanistic purposes or to address a particular concern in developmental biology. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Integrated visualization of multi-angle bioluminescence imaging and micro CT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, P.; Dijkstra, J.; Botha, C.P.; Post, F.H.; Kaijzel, E.; Que, I.; Löwik, C.W.G.M.; Reiber, J.H.C.; Lelieveldt, B.P.F.

    2007-01-01

    This paper explores new methods to visualize and fuse multi-2D bioluminescence imaging (BLI) data with structural imaging modalities such as micro CT and MR. A geometric, back-projection-based 3D reconstruction for superficial lesions from multi-2D BLI data is presented, enabling a coarse estimate

  18. Quantifying lung morphology with respiratory-gated micro-CT in a murine model of emphysema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, N L; Martin, E L; Lewis, J F; Veldhuizen, R A W; Holdsworth, D W; Drangova, M

    2009-01-01

    Non-invasive micro-CT imaging techniques have been developed to investigate lung structure in free-breathing rodents. In this study, we investigate the utility of retrospectively respiratory-gated micro-CT imaging in an emphysema model to determine if anatomical changes could be observed in the image-derived quantitative analysis at two respiratory phases. The emphysema model chosen was a well-characterized, genetically altered model (TIMP-3 knockout mice) that exhibits a homogeneous phenotype. Micro-CT scans of the free-breathing, anaesthetized mice were obtained in 50 s and retrospectively respiratory sorted and reconstructed, providing 3D images representing peak inspiration and end expiration with 0.15 mm isotropic voxel spacing. Anatomical measurements included the volume and CT density of the lungs and the volume of the major airways, along with the diameters of the trachea, left bronchus and right bronchus. From these measurements, functional parameters such as functional residual capacity and tidal volume were calculated. Significant differences between the wild-type and TIMP-3 knockout groups were observed for measurements of CT density over the entire lung, indicating increased air content in the lungs of TIMP-3 knockout mice. These results demonstrate retrospective respiratory-gated micro-CT, providing images at multiple respiratory phases that can be analyzed quantitatively to investigate anatomical changes in murine models of emphysema.

  19. Quantifying lung morphology with respiratory-gated micro-CT in a murine model of emphysema

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ford, N L [Department of Physics, Ryerson University, 350 Victoria Street, Toronto, Ontario M5B 2K3 (Canada); Martin, E L; Lewis, J F; Veldhuizen, R A W [Lawson Health Research Institute, 268 Grosvenor Street, London, Ontario N6A 4V2 (Canada); Holdsworth, D W; Drangova, M [Imaging Research Laboratories, Robarts Research Institute, 100 Perth Drive, PO Box 5015, London, Ontario N6A 5K8 (Canada)], E-mail: nlford@ryerson.ca

    2009-04-07

    Non-invasive micro-CT imaging techniques have been developed to investigate lung structure in free-breathing rodents. In this study, we investigate the utility of retrospectively respiratory-gated micro-CT imaging in an emphysema model to determine if anatomical changes could be observed in the image-derived quantitative analysis at two respiratory phases. The emphysema model chosen was a well-characterized, genetically altered model (TIMP-3 knockout mice) that exhibits a homogeneous phenotype. Micro-CT scans of the free-breathing, anaesthetized mice were obtained in 50 s and retrospectively respiratory sorted and reconstructed, providing 3D images representing peak inspiration and end expiration with 0.15 mm isotropic voxel spacing. Anatomical measurements included the volume and CT density of the lungs and the volume of the major airways, along with the diameters of the trachea, left bronchus and right bronchus. From these measurements, functional parameters such as functional residual capacity and tidal volume were calculated. Significant differences between the wild-type and TIMP-3 knockout groups were observed for measurements of CT density over the entire lung, indicating increased air content in the lungs of TIMP-3 knockout mice. These results demonstrate retrospective respiratory-gated micro-CT, providing images at multiple respiratory phases that can be analyzed quantitatively to investigate anatomical changes in murine models of emphysema.

  20. Quantitative analysis of titanium-induced artifacts and correlated factors during micro-CT scanning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun Yuan; Pow, Edmond Ho Nang; Zheng, Li Wu; Ma, Li; Kwong, Dora Lai Wan; Cheung, Lim Kwong

    2014-04-01

    To investigate the impact of cover screw, resin embedment, and implant angulation on artifact of microcomputed tomography (micro-CT) scanning for implant. A total of twelve implants were randomly divided into 4 groups: (i) implant only; (ii) implant with cover screw; (iii) implant with resin embedment; and (iv) implants with cover screw and resin embedment. Implants angulation at 0°, 45°, and 90° were scanned by micro-CT. Images were assessed, and the ratio of artifact volume to total volume (AV/TV) was calculated. A multiple regression analysis in stepwise model was used to determine the significance of different factors. One-way ANOVA was performed to identify which combination of factors could minimize the artifact. In the regression analysis, implant angulation was identified as the best predictor for artifact among the factors (P  0.05). Non-embedded implants with the axis parallel to X-ray source of micro-CT produced minimal artifact. Implant angulation and resin embedment affected the artifact volume of micro-CT scanning for implant, while cover screw did not. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Phase contrast imaging with coherent high energy X-rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snigireva, I. [ESRF, Grenoble (France)

    1997-02-01

    X-ray imaging concern high energy domain (>6 keV) like a contact radiography, projection microscopy and tomography is used for many years to discern the features of the internal structure non destructively in material science, medicine and biology. In so doing the main contrast formation is absorption that makes some limitations for imaging of the light density materials and what is more the resolution of these techniques is not better than 10-100 {mu}m. It was turned out that there is now way in which to overcome 1{mu}m or even sub-{mu}m resolution limit except phase contrast imaging. It is well known in optics that the phase contrast is realised when interference between reference wave front and transmitted through the sample take place. Examples of this imaging are: phase contrast microscopy suggested by Zernike and Gabor (in-line) holography. Both of this techniques: phase contrast x-ray microscopy and holography are successfully progressing now in soft x-ray region. For imaging in the hard X-rays to enhance the contrast and to be able to resolve phase variations across the beam the high degree of the time and more importantly spatial coherence is needed. Because of this it was reasonable that the perfect crystal optics was involved like Bonse-Hart interferometry, double-crystal and even triple-crystal set-up using Laue and Bragg geometry with asymmetrically cut crystals.

  2. Improved specimen reconstruction by Hilbert phase contrast tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Bastian; Joos, Friederike; Schröder, Rasmus R

    2008-11-01

    The low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in images of unstained specimens recorded with conventional defocus phase contrast makes it difficult to interpret 3D volumes obtained by electron tomography (ET). The high defocus applied for conventional tilt series generates some phase contrast but leads to an incomplete transfer of object information. For tomography of biological weak-phase objects, optimal image contrast and subsequently an optimized SNR are essential for the reconstruction of details such as macromolecular assemblies at molecular resolution. The problem of low contrast can be partially solved by applying a Hilbert phase plate positioned in the back focal plane (BFP) of the objective lens while recording images in Gaussian focus. Images recorded with the Hilbert phase plate provide optimized positive phase contrast at low spatial frequencies, and the contrast transfer in principle extends to the information limit of the microscope. The antisymmetric Hilbert phase contrast (HPC) can be numerically converted into isotropic contrast, which is equivalent to the contrast obtained by a Zernike phase plate. Thus, in-focus HPC provides optimal structure factor information without limiting effects of the transfer function. In this article, we present the first electron tomograms of biological specimens reconstructed from Hilbert phase plate image series. We outline the technical implementation of the phase plate and demonstrate that the technique is routinely applicable for tomography. A comparison between conventional defocus tomograms and in-focus HPC volumes shows an enhanced SNR and an improved specimen visibility for in-focus Hilbert tomography.

  3. Using the phase-space imager to analyze partially coherent imaging systems: bright-field, phase contrast, differential interference contrast, differential phase contrast, and spiral phase contrast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Shalin B.; Sheppard, Colin J. R.

    2010-05-01

    Various methods that use large illumination aperture (i.e. partially coherent illumination) have been developed for making transparent (i.e. phase) specimens visible. These methods were developed to provide qualitative contrast rather than quantitative measurement-coherent illumination has been relied upon for quantitative phase analysis. Partially coherent illumination has some important advantages over coherent illumination and can be used for measurement of the specimen's phase distribution. However, quantitative analysis and image computation in partially coherent systems have not been explored fully due to the lack of a general, physically insightful and computationally efficient model of image formation. We have developed a phase-space model that satisfies these requirements. In this paper, we employ this model (called the phase-space imager) to elucidate five different partially coherent systems mentioned in the title. We compute images of an optical fiber under these systems and verify some of them with experimental images. These results and simulated images of a general phase profile are used to compare the contrast and the resolution of the imaging systems. We show that, for quantitative phase imaging of a thin specimen with matched illumination, differential phase contrast offers linear transfer of specimen information to the image. We also show that the edge enhancement properties of spiral phase contrast are compromised significantly as the coherence of illumination is reduced. The results demonstrate that the phase-space imager model provides a useful framework for analysis, calibration, and design of partially coherent imaging methods.

  4. The cutting edge - Micro-CT for quantitative toolmark analysis of sharp force trauma to bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, D G; Watson, D G; Burnett, B; Fenne, P M; Williams, M A

    2018-02-01

    Toolmark analysis involves examining marks created on an object to identify the likely tool responsible for creating those marks (e.g., a knife). Although a potentially powerful forensic tool, knife mark analysis is still in its infancy and the validation of imaging techniques as well as quantitative approaches is ongoing. This study builds on previous work by simulating real-world stabbings experimentally and statistically exploring quantitative toolmark properties, such as cut mark angle captured by micro-CT imaging, to predict the knife responsible. In Experiment 1 a mechanical stab rig and two knives were used to create 14 knife cut marks on dry pig ribs. The toolmarks were laser and micro-CT scanned to allow for quantitative measurements of numerous toolmark properties. The findings from Experiment 1 demonstrated that both knives produced statistically different cut mark widths, wall angle and shapes. Experiment 2 examined knife marks created on fleshed pig torsos with conditions designed to better simulate real-world stabbings. Eight knives were used to generate 64 incision cut marks that were also micro-CT scanned. Statistical exploration of these cut marks suggested that knife type, serrated or plain, can be predicted from cut mark width and wall angle. Preliminary results suggest that knives type can be predicted from cut mark width, and that knife edge thickness correlates with cut mark width. An additional 16 cut marks walls were imaged for striation marks using scanning electron microscopy with results suggesting that this approach might not be useful for knife mark analysis. Results also indicated that observer judgements of cut mark shape were more consistent when rated from micro-CT images than light microscopy images. The potential to combine micro-CT data, medical grade CT data and photographs to develop highly realistic virtual models for visualisation and 3D printing is also demonstrated. This is the first study to statistically explore simulated

  5. Multi-institutional MicroCT image comparison of image-guided small animal irradiators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnstone, Chris D.; Lindsay, Patricia; E Graves, Edward; Wong, Eugene; Perez, Jessica R.; Poirier, Yannick; Ben-Bouchta, Youssef; Kanesalingam, Thilakshan; Chen, Haijian; E Rubinstein, Ashley; Sheng, Ke; Bazalova-Carter, Magdalena

    2017-07-01

    To recommend imaging protocols and establish tolerance levels for microCT image quality assurance (QA) performed on conformal image-guided small animal irradiators. A fully automated QA software SAPA (small animal phantom analyzer) for image analysis of the commercial Shelley micro-CT MCTP 610 phantom was developed, in which quantitative analyses of CT number linearity, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), uniformity and noise, geometric accuracy, spatial resolution by means of modulation transfer function (MTF), and CT contrast were performed. Phantom microCT scans from eleven institutions acquired with four image-guided small animal irradiator units (including the commercial PXi X-RAD SmART and Xstrahl SARRP systems) with varying parameters used for routine small animal imaging were analyzed. Multi-institutional data sets were compared using SAPA, based on which tolerance levels for each QA test were established and imaging protocols for QA were recommended. By analyzing microCT data from 11 institutions, we established image QA tolerance levels for all image quality tests. CT number linearity set to R 2  >  0.990 was acceptable in microCT data acquired at all but three institutions. Acceptable SNR  >  36 and noise levels  1.5 lp mm-1 for MTF  =  0.2) was obtained at all but four institutions due to their large image voxel size used (>0.275 mm). Ten of the eleven institutions passed the set QA tolerance for geometric accuracy (2000 HU for 30 mgI ml-1). We recommend performing imaging QA with 70 kVp, 1.5 mA, 120 s imaging time, 0.20 mm voxel size, and a frame rate of 5 fps for the PXi X-RAD SmART. For the Xstrahl SARRP, we recommend using 60 kVp, 1.0 mA, 240 s imaging time, 0.20 mm voxel size, and 6 fps. These imaging protocols should result in high quality images that pass the set tolerance levels on all systems. Average SAPA computation time for complete QA analysis for a 0.20 mm voxel, 400 slice Shelley phantom microCT data set

  6. A study of effective sequences on micro-CT in the dent-maxillo-facial region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Masataka; Mori, Shintaro; Sakayanagi, Masashi; Fujita, Yuzo; Kaneda, Takashi

    2005-01-01

    Microfocus computed tomography (micro-CT) using cone-beam scan is becoming widely used for various studies of oral structures. However, this machine has not been used to evaluate the effective parameters for two-dimensional (2D) or three-dimensional (3D) images. This study evaluated the effective parameters of micro-CT for 2D or 3D images of oral hard tissue structures. We evaluated the CT value of 5 human teeth (upper first molars) to determine suitable CT value examined according to several X-ray parameters using conformal radiotherapy (CRT) on a work station. CT information from the specimens was obtained using a micro-CT (Toscaner-31300 μ, Toshiba ITC), under the conditions of tube voltage of 75 kV, tube current of 120 μA, 100∼1600 views, the number of times of addition, 512 x 512 pixel matrix, and 0.2 slice thickness. We made 3D-reconstruction images from the micro-CT data. Three-dimensional reconstruction was performed using 2D images processed by the volume-rendering method using 3D-reconstruction software (TRI/3D BON, RATOC system engineering). Then, we evaluate the 3D tooth images. In the assessment of images, three dental radiologists evaluated several 3D tooth images using 3D-reconstruction images. Each image was scored on a five-level scale by Scheffe one-pair comparison method as follows: 5: much easier to evaluate, 4: easier to evaluate, 3: equivalent, 2: harder to evaluate, 1: much harder to evaluate. In scoring, each of the three dental radiologists made an individual assessment, and when differences among individual scores occurred, the score was ultimately assigned by consensus among the three individuals. Statistical analysis of the scores assigned by the three dental radiologists as described above was carried out using Stat View-J 5.0 (Abacus Concepts, Inc, USA) statistical software and Tukey-Kramer multiple-comparison testing. The optimal CT value for evaluating the human tooth by micro-CT is 600 on 2D images. On 3D images, the optimal

  7. Low dose reconstruction algorithm for differential phase contrast imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhentian; Huang, Zhifeng; Zhang, Li; Chen, Zhiqiang; Kang, Kejun; Yin, Hongxia; Wang, Zhenchang; Marco, Stampanoni

    2011-01-01

    Differential phase contrast imaging computed tomography (DPCI-CT) is a novel x-ray inspection method to reconstruct the distribution of refraction index rather than the attenuation coefficient in weakly absorbing samples. In this paper, we propose an iterative reconstruction algorithm for DPCI-CT which benefits from the new compressed sensing theory. We first realize a differential algebraic reconstruction technique (DART) by discretizing the projection process of the differential phase contrast imaging into a linear partial derivative matrix. In this way the compressed sensing reconstruction problem of DPCI reconstruction can be transformed to a resolved problem in the transmission imaging CT. Our algorithm has the potential to reconstruct the refraction index distribution of the sample from highly undersampled projection data. Thus it can significantly reduce the dose and inspection time. The proposed algorithm has been validated by numerical simulations and actual experiments.

  8. X-ray Phase Contrast analysis - Digital wavefront development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idir, Mourad; Potier, Jonathan; Fricker, Sebastien; Snigirev, Anatoly; Snigireva, Irina; Modi, M. H.

    2010-01-01

    Optical schemes that enable imaging of the phase shift produced by an object have become popular in the x-ray region, where phase can be the dominant contrast mechanism. The propagation-based technique consists of recording the interference pattern produced by choosing one or several sample-to-detector distances. Pioneering studies, carried out making use of synchrotron radiation, demonstrated that this technique results in a dramatic increase of image contrast and detail visibility, allowing the detection of structures invisible with conventional techniques. An experimental and theoretical study of in-line hard x-ray phase-contrast imaging had been performed. The theoretical description of the technique is based on Fresnel diffraction. As an illustration of the potential of this quantitative imaging technique, high-resolution x-ray phase contrast images of simple objects will be presented.

  9. A phase contrast imaging system for TEXT-U

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatterjee, R.; Hallock, G.A.; Gartman, M.L.

    1994-01-01

    A diagnostic to study plasma density fluctuations, Phase Contrast Imaging (PCI) has been developed for the Texas Experimental Tokamak-Upgrade. The diagnostic has a sensitivity of about 10 -4 n e0 and is capable of detecting a wide range of wavenumbers (0.5 cm -1 - 12 cm -1 ) with a bandwidth of 500 Khz. The design of the diagnostic, some results of acoustic calibration tests and preliminary results of simulation of expected spectra are presented

  10. Phase contrast image segmentation using a Laue analyser crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitchen, Marcus J; Paganin, David M; Lewis, Robert A; Pavlov, Konstantin M; Uesugi, Kentaro; Allison, Beth J; Hooper, Stuart B

    2011-01-01

    Dual-energy x-ray imaging is a powerful tool enabling two-component samples to be separated into their constituent objects from two-dimensional images. Phase contrast x-ray imaging can render the boundaries between media of differing refractive indices visible, despite them having similar attenuation properties; this is important for imaging biological soft tissues. We have used a Laue analyser crystal and a monochromatic x-ray source to combine the benefits of both techniques. The Laue analyser creates two distinct phase contrast images that can be simultaneously acquired on a high-resolution detector. These images can be combined to separate the effects of x-ray phase, absorption and scattering and, using the known complex refractive indices of the sample, to quantitatively segment its component materials. We have successfully validated this phase contrast image segmentation (PCIS) using a two-component phantom, containing an iodinated contrast agent, and have also separated the lungs and ribcage in images of a mouse thorax. Simultaneous image acquisition has enabled us to perform functional segmentation of the mouse thorax throughout the respiratory cycle during mechanical ventilation.

  11. Synchrotron Based Phase Contrast Tomography of Hyper cholesteromic Rat Liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatima A

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available X-ray phase contrast imaging technique has been applied for the study of morphological variations in soft tissues. The effect of an antioxidant, α-lipoic acid in reducing hypercholesterolemia in rats is investigated. The experiment was conducted to measure serum lipid profile and diameter of vessels in rat liver, as liver is the most vital organ in hypolipidemic activity studies. Methods: Four groups of male Wistar rats, control (Group I, hyperlipidemic (Group II, positive control (Group III and treated Group IV were studied for serum lipid profile and liver vessels with synchrotron X-ray phase tomography. The Group I rats received chow diet, in Group II rats, administration of 20% butter rich diet induced hyperlipidemia. Group III, treated rats received hypolipidemic drug Atorvastatin and Group IV animals received a potent antioxidant DL-α-Lipoic acid. The excised liver tissue immersed in 10% formalin. X-ray phase contrast tomography was performed for comparison of diameter of liver vessels. Results: Among the four group of animals, the diameter of liver vessels was much larger in hypercholesterolemic rat (Group II. The liver vessel diameter comparison with X-ray phase contrast tomography and the lipid profile shows reduction in serum lipids and lipoproteins by ALA treatment.

  12. Benchtop phase-contrast X-ray imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gundogdu, O. [Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)], E-mail: o.gundogdu@surrey.ac.uk; Nirgianaki, E.; Che Ismail, E.; Jenneson, P.M.; Bradley, D.A. [Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)

    2007-12-15

    Clinical radiography has traditionally been based on contrast obtained from absorption when X-rays pass through the body. The contrast obtained from traditional radiography can be rather poor, particularly when it comes to soft tissue. A wide range of media of interest in materials science, biology and medicine exhibit very weak absorption contrast, but they nevertheless produce significant phase shifts with X-rays. The use of phase information for imaging purposes is therefore an attractive prospect. Some of the X-ray phase-contrast imaging methods require highly monochromatic plane wave radiation and sophisticated X-ray optics. However, the propagation-based phase-contrast imaging method adapted in this paper is a relatively simple method to implement, essentially requiring only a microfocal X-ray tube and electronic detection. In this paper, we present imaging results obtained from two different benchtop X-ray sources employing the free space propagation method. X-ray phase-contrast imaging provides higher contrast in many samples, including biological tissues that have negligible absorption contrast.

  13. Phase-contrast computed tomography for quantification of structural changes in lungs of asthma mouse models of different severity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dullin, Christian; Larsson, Emanuel; Tromba, Giuliana; Markus, Andrea M.; Alves, Frauke

    2015-01-01

    Synchrotron inline phase-contrast computed tomography in combination with single-distance phase retrieval enables quantification of morphological alterations in lungs of mice with mild and severe experimental allergic airways disease in comparison with healthy controls. Lung imaging in mouse disease models is crucial for the assessment of the severity of airway disease but remains challenging due to the small size and the high porosity of the organ. Synchrotron inline free-propagation phase-contrast computed tomography (CT) with its intrinsic high soft-tissue contrast provides the necessary sensitivity and spatial resolution to analyse the mouse lung structure in great detail. Here, this technique has been applied in combination with single-distance phase retrieval to quantify alterations of the lung structure in experimental asthma mouse models of different severity. In order to mimic an in vivo situation as close as possible, the lungs were inflated with air at a constant physiological pressure. Entire mice were embedded in agarose gel and imaged using inline free-propagation phase-contrast CT at the SYRMEP beamline (Synchrotron Light Source, ‘Elettra’, Trieste, Italy). The quantification of the obtained phase-contrast CT data sets revealed an increasing lung soft-tissue content in mice correlating with the degree of the severity of experimental allergic airways disease. In this way, it was possible to successfully discriminate between healthy controls and mice with either mild or severe allergic airway disease. It is believed that this approach may have the potential to evaluate the efficacy of novel therapeutic strategies that target airway remodelling processes in asthma

  14. Phase-contrast computed tomography for quantification of structural changes in lungs of asthma mouse models of different severity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dullin, Christian, E-mail: christian.dullin@med.uni-goettingen.de [University Medical Center Goettingen, Robert Koch Strasse 40, Goettingen, Lower Saxony 37075 (Germany); Larsson, Emanuel [Elettra-Sincrotrone Trieste, Strada Statale 14, km 163,5 in AREA Science Park, Basovizza (Trieste) 34149 (Italy); University of Trieste, Trieste (Italy); Linkoeping University, SE-581 83 Linkoeping (Sweden); Tromba, Giuliana [Elettra-Sincrotrone Trieste, Strada Statale 14, km 163,5 in AREA Science Park, Basovizza (Trieste) 34149 (Italy); Markus, Andrea M. [University Medical Center Goettingen, Robert Koch Strasse 40, Goettingen, Lower Saxony 37075 (Germany); Alves, Frauke [University Medical Center Goettingen, Robert Koch Strasse 40, Goettingen, Lower Saxony 37075 (Germany); University Medical Center Goettingen, Robert Koch Strasse 40, Goettingen, Lower Saxony 37075 (Germany); Max Planck Institut for Experimental Medicine, Hermann-Rein-Strasse 3, Goettingen, Lower Saxony 37075 (Germany)

    2015-06-17

    Synchrotron inline phase-contrast computed tomography in combination with single-distance phase retrieval enables quantification of morphological alterations in lungs of mice with mild and severe experimental allergic airways disease in comparison with healthy controls. Lung imaging in mouse disease models is crucial for the assessment of the severity of airway disease but remains challenging due to the small size and the high porosity of the organ. Synchrotron inline free-propagation phase-contrast computed tomography (CT) with its intrinsic high soft-tissue contrast provides the necessary sensitivity and spatial resolution to analyse the mouse lung structure in great detail. Here, this technique has been applied in combination with single-distance phase retrieval to quantify alterations of the lung structure in experimental asthma mouse models of different severity. In order to mimic an in vivo situation as close as possible, the lungs were inflated with air at a constant physiological pressure. Entire mice were embedded in agarose gel and imaged using inline free-propagation phase-contrast CT at the SYRMEP beamline (Synchrotron Light Source, ‘Elettra’, Trieste, Italy). The quantification of the obtained phase-contrast CT data sets revealed an increasing lung soft-tissue content in mice correlating with the degree of the severity of experimental allergic airways disease. In this way, it was possible to successfully discriminate between healthy controls and mice with either mild or severe allergic airway disease. It is believed that this approach may have the potential to evaluate the efficacy of novel therapeutic strategies that target airway remodelling processes in asthma.

  15. Improved method of in vivo respiratory-gated micro-CT imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walters, Erin B; Panda, Kunal; Bankson, James A; Brown, Ellana; Cody, Dianna D [Department of Imaging Physics, Unit 56, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe Blvd., Houston, TX 77030 (United States)

    2004-09-07

    The presence of motion artifacts is a typical problem in thoracic imaging. However, synchronizing the respiratory cycle with computed tomography (CT) image acquisition can reduce these artifacts. We currently employ a method of in vivo respiratory-gated micro-CT imaging for small laboratory animals (mice). This procedure involves the use of a ventilator that controls the respiratory cycle of the animal and provides a digital output signal that is used to trigger data acquisition. After inspection of the default respiratory trigger timing, we hypothesized that image quality could be improved by moving the data-acquisition window to a portion of the cycle with less respiratory motion. For this reason, we developed a simple delay circuit to adjust the timing of the ventilator signal that initiates micro-CT data acquisition. This delay circuit decreases motion artifacts and substantially improves image quality.

  16. Improved method of in vivo respiratory-gated micro-CT imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walters, Erin B; Panda, Kunal; Bankson, James A; Brown, Ellana; Cody, Dianna D

    2004-01-01

    The presence of motion artifacts is a typical problem in thoracic imaging. However, synchronizing the respiratory cycle with computed tomography (CT) image acquisition can reduce these artifacts. We currently employ a method of in vivo respiratory-gated micro-CT imaging for small laboratory animals (mice). This procedure involves the use of a ventilator that controls the respiratory cycle of the animal and provides a digital output signal that is used to trigger data acquisition. After inspection of the default respiratory trigger timing, we hypothesized that image quality could be improved by moving the data-acquisition window to a portion of the cycle with less respiratory motion. For this reason, we developed a simple delay circuit to adjust the timing of the ventilator signal that initiates micro-CT data acquisition. This delay circuit decreases motion artifacts and substantially improves image quality

  17. Hybrid Spectral Micro-CT: System Design, Implementation, and Preliminary Results

    CERN Document Server

    Bennett, James R; Xu, Qiong; Yu, Hengyong; Walsh, Michael; Butler, Anthony; Butler, Phillip; Cao, Guohua; Mohs, Aaron; Wang, Ge

    2014-01-01

    Spectral CT has proven an important development in biomedical imaging, and there have been several publications in the past years demonstrating its merits in pre-clinical and clinical applications. In 2012, Xu et al. reported that near-term implementation of spectral micro-CT could be enhanced by a hybrid architecture: a narrow-beam spectral "interior" imaging chain integrated with a traditional wide-beam "global" imaging chain. This hybrid integration coupled with compressive sensing (CS)-based interior tomography demonstrated promising results for improved contrast resolution, and decreased system cost and radiation dose. The motivation for the current study is implementation and evaluation of the hybrid architecture with a first-of-its-kind hybrid spectral micro-CT system. Preliminary results confirm improvements in both contrast and spatial resolution. This technology is shown to merit further investigation and potential application in future spectral CT scanner design.

  18. Micro-CT of Carotid Arteries: A Tool for Experimental Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohr, Andreas; Wenke, Ruediger; Roemer, Frank W.; Lynch, John A.; Gatzka, Christian; Priebe, Markus; Guermazi, Ali; Grigorian, Mikayel; Heller, Martin; Mueller-Huelsbeck, Stefan

    2004-01-01

    Micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) is a high-resolution, nondestructive tool for two- and three-dimensional imaging and quantification. The ability of this technique to assess atherosclerosis of the carotid artery was evaluated in three human cadaver samples based on the original axial acquisitions, multiplanar reconstructions and volume rendering techniques. Quantitative analysis included the calculation of: (1) the original lumen perimeter, original lumen area, plaque area, residual lumen area, calcified area and gross sectional area reduction of the vascular lumen from two-dimensional slices; (2) the total tissue volume, soft tissue volume and calcified tissue volume from the three-dimensional data set. This preliminary study demonstrates the potential of micro-CT as a supplementary method for the two- and three-dimensional ex vivo evaluation of carotid atherosclerosis

  19. Experimental validation of a rapid Monte Carlo based micro-CT simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colijn, A P; Zbijewski, W; Sasov, A; Beekman, F J

    2004-01-01

    We describe a newly developed, accelerated Monte Carlo simulator of a small animal micro-CT scanner. Transmission measurements using aluminium slabs are employed to estimate the spectrum of the x-ray source. The simulator incorporating this spectrum is validated with micro-CT scans of physical water phantoms of various diameters, some containing stainless steel and Teflon rods. Good agreement is found between simulated and real data: normalized error of simulated projections, as compared to the real ones, is typically smaller than 0.05. Also the reconstructions obtained from simulated and real data are found to be similar. Thereafter, effects of scatter are studied using a voxelized software phantom representing a rat body. It is shown that the scatter fraction can reach tens of per cents in specific areas of the body and therefore scatter can significantly affect quantitative accuracy in small animal CT imaging

  20. Analysis of the enamel hypoplasia using micro-CT scanner versus classical method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchewka, Justyna; Skrzat, Janusz; Wróbel, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    This article demonstrates the use of micro-CT scanning of the teeth surface for recognizing and evaluating severity of the enamel hypoplasia. To test capabilities of the microtomography versus classical method of evaluation hypoplastic defects of the enamel we selected two human teeth (C, M(2)) showing different types of enamel hypoplasia: linear, pits, and groove. Examined samples derive from archeological material dated on XVII-XVIII AD and excavated in Poland. In the current study we proved that micro-CT scanning is a powerful technique not only for imaging all kinds of the enamel hypoplasia but also allows to perform accurate measurements of the enamel defects. We figure out that contrary to the classical method of scoring enamel defects, the micro-computed tomography yields adequate data which serve for estimating the length of stress episode and length of interval between them.

  1. Processing of microCT implant-bone systems images using Fuzzy Mathematical Morphology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouchet, A; Pastore, J; Colabella, L; Omar, S; Ballarre, J

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between a metallic implant and the existing bone in a surgical permanent prosthesis is of great importance since the fixation and osseointegration of the system leads to the failure or success of the surgery. Micro Computed Tomography is a technique that helps to visualize the structure of the bone. In this study, the microCT is used to analyze implant-bone systems images. However, one of the problems presented in the reconstruction of these images is the effect of the iron based implants, with a halo or fluorescence scattering distorting the micro CT image and leading to bad 3D reconstructions. In this work we introduce an automatic method for eliminate the effect of AISI 316L iron materials in the implant-bone system based on the application of Compensatory Fuzzy Mathematical Morphology for future investigate about the structural and mechanical properties of bone and cancellous materials. (paper)

  2. The Scanning Nanoprobe Beamline Nanoscopium at Synchrotron Soleil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somogyi, A.; Kewish, C. M.; Polack, F.; Moreno, T.

    2011-09-01

    The Nanoscopium beamline at Synchrotron Soleil will offer advanced scanning-based hard x-ray imaging techniques in the 5- to 20-keV energy range, for user communities working in the earth, environmental, and life sciences. Two dedicated end stations will exploit x-ray coherence to produce images in which contrast is based on a range of physical processes. In the first experiment hutch, coherent scatter imaging techniques will produce images in which contrast arises from spatial variations in the complex refractive index, and orientation in the nanostructure of samples. In the second experiment hutch, elemental mapping will be carried out at the trace (ppm) level by scanning x-ray fluorescence, speciation mapping by XANES, and phase gradient mapping by scanning differential phase contrast imaging. The beamline aims to reach sub-micrometric, down to 30 nm, spatial resolution. This ˜155-meter-long beamline will share the straight section with a future tomography beamline by using canted undulators having 6.5-mrad separation angle. The optical design of Nanoscopium aims to reduce the effect of instabilities on the probing nanobeam by utilizing an all-horizontal geometry for the reflections of the primary beamline mirrors, which focus onto a slit, creating an over-filled secondary source. Kirkpatrick-Baez mirrors and Fresnel zone plates will be used as focusing devices in the experiment hutches. Nanoscopium is expected to commence user operation in 2013.

  3. Improved quantification in single-pinhole and multiple-pinhole SPECT using micro-CT information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanhove, Christian; Bossuyt, Axel; Defrise, Michel; Lahoutte, Tony

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the feasibility of accurate quantification in pinhole SPECT using micro-CT information. Pinhole SPECT scans were performed using a clinical dual-head gamma camera. Each pinhole SPECT scan was followed by a micro-CT acquisition. Functional and anatomical images were coregistered using six point sources visible with both modalities. Pinhole SPECT images were reconstructed iteratively. Attenuation correction was based on micro-CT information. Scatter correction was based on dual and triple-energy window methods. Phantom and animal experiments were performed. A phantom containing nine vials was filled with different concentrations of 99m Tc. Three vials were also filled with CT contrast agent to increase attenuation. Activity concentrations measured on the pinhole SPECT images were compared with activity concentrations measured by the dose calibrator. In addition, 11 mice were injected with 99m Tc-labelled Nanobodies. After acquiring functional and anatomical images, the animals were killed and the liver activity was measured using a gamma-counter. Activity concentrations measured on the reconstructed images were compared with activity concentrations measured with the gamma counter. The phantom experiments demonstrated an average error of -27.3 ± 15.9% between the activity concentrations measured on the uncorrected pinhole SPECT images and in the dose calibrator. This error decreased significantly to -0.1 ± 7.3% when corrections were applied for nonuniform attenuation and scatter. The animal experiment revealed an average error of -18.4 ± 11.9% between the activity concentrations measured on the uncorrected pinhole SPECT images and measured with the gamma counter. This error decreased to -7.9 ± 10.4% when attenuation and scatter correction was applied. Attenuation correction obtained from micro-CT data in combination with scatter correction allows accurate quantification in pinhole SPECT. (orig.)

  4. The extensor carpi ulnaris pseudolesion: evaluation with microCT, histology, and MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, Sayed; Cunningham, Ryan; Mohamed, Feroze; Amin, Mamta; Popoff, Steven N.; Barbe, Mary F.

    2015-01-01

    To determine if magic angle plays a role in apparent central increased signal intensity of the distal extensor carpi ulnaris tendon (ECU) on MRI, to see if histologic findings of tendon degeneration are associated with increased T1 or T2 tendon signal on MR imaging, and to determine the prevalence of the ECU ''pseudolesion''. A standard 3 Tesla protocol was utilized to scan ten cadaveric wrists. A 40 mm length of 10 ECU and four extensor carpi radialis brevis (ECRB) tendons were immersion fixed before microCT scanning. Staining with Alcian blue, Masson's trichrome and Safranin O was performed before light microscopy. Fifty clinical wrist MRIs were also reviewed for the presence of increased T1 and/or T2 signal. Central increased T1 and/or T2 signal was observed in 9 of 10 cadaveric ECU tendons, but not in ECRB tendons. MicroCT and histology showed inter-tendinous matrix between the two distal heads of the ECU. Increased mucoid degeneration correlated with increased MRI signal intensity. The tendon fibers were at a maximum of 8.39 to the longitudinal axis on microCT. Clinical MRIs showed increased T1 signal in 6 %, increased T2 signal in 8 %, increased T1 and T2 signal in 80 %, and 6 % showing no increased signal. Central increased T1 and/or T2 signal in the ECU tendon indicates the presence of normal inter-tendinous ground substance, with increased proteoglycan content (mucoid degeneration) responsible for increased signal intensity. None of the fibers were shown on microCT to approach the magic angle. (orig.)

  5. The extensor carpi ulnaris pseudolesion: evaluation with microCT, histology, and MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, Sayed; Cunningham, Ryan; Mohamed, Feroze [Temple University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Amin, Mamta; Popoff, Steven N.; Barbe, Mary F. [Temple University School of Medicine, Department of Anatomy, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2015-12-15

    To determine if magic angle plays a role in apparent central increased signal intensity of the distal extensor carpi ulnaris tendon (ECU) on MRI, to see if histologic findings of tendon degeneration are associated with increased T1 or T2 tendon signal on MR imaging, and to determine the prevalence of the ECU ''pseudolesion''. A standard 3 Tesla protocol was utilized to scan ten cadaveric wrists. A 40 mm length of 10 ECU and four extensor carpi radialis brevis (ECRB) tendons were immersion fixed before microCT scanning. Staining with Alcian blue, Masson's trichrome and Safranin O was performed before light microscopy. Fifty clinical wrist MRIs were also reviewed for the presence of increased T1 and/or T2 signal. Central increased T1 and/or T2 signal was observed in 9 of 10 cadaveric ECU tendons, but not in ECRB tendons. MicroCT and histology showed inter-tendinous matrix between the two distal heads of the ECU. Increased mucoid degeneration correlated with increased MRI signal intensity. The tendon fibers were at a maximum of 8.39 to the longitudinal axis on microCT. Clinical MRIs showed increased T1 signal in 6 %, increased T2 signal in 8 %, increased T1 and T2 signal in 80 %, and 6 % showing no increased signal. Central increased T1 and/or T2 signal in the ECU tendon indicates the presence of normal inter-tendinous ground substance, with increased proteoglycan content (mucoid degeneration) responsible for increased signal intensity. None of the fibers were shown on microCT to approach the magic angle. (orig.)

  6. Recent Progress Validating the HADES Model of LLNL's HEAF MicroCT Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, W. T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Bond, K. C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Lennox, K. P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Aufderheide, M. B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Seetho, I. M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Roberson, G. P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2014-07-17

    This report compares recent HADES calculations of x-ray linear attenuation coefficients to previous MicroCT measurements made at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory’s High Energy Applications Facility (HEAF). The chief objective is to investigate what impact recent changes in HADES modeling have on validation results. We find that these changes have no obvious effect on the overall accuracy of the model. Detailed comparisons between recent and previous results are presented.

  7. Automated segmentation of murine lung tumors in x-ray micro-CT images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swee, Joshua K. Y.; Sheridan, Clare; de Bruin, Elza; Downward, Julian; Lassailly, Francois; Pizarro, Luis

    2014-03-01

    Recent years have seen micro-CT emerge as a means of providing imaging analysis in pre-clinical study, with in-vivo micro-CT having been shown to be particularly applicable to the examination of murine lung tumors. Despite this, existing studies have involved substantial human intervention during the image analysis process, with the use of fully-automated aids found to be almost non-existent. We present a new approach to automate the segmentation of murine lung tumors designed specifically for in-vivo micro-CT-based pre-clinical lung cancer studies that addresses the specific requirements of such study, as well as the limitations human-centric segmentation approaches experience when applied to such micro-CT data. Our approach consists of three distinct stages, and begins by utilizing edge enhancing and vessel enhancing non-linear anisotropic diffusion filters to extract anatomy masks (lung/vessel structure) in a pre-processing stage. Initial candidate detection is then performed through ROI reduction utilizing obtained masks and a two-step automated segmentation approach that aims to extract all disconnected objects within the ROI, and consists of Otsu thresholding, mathematical morphology and marker-driven watershed. False positive reduction is finally performed on initial candidates through random-forest-driven classification using the shape, intensity, and spatial features of candidates. We provide validation of our approach using data from an associated lung cancer study, showing favorable results both in terms of detection (sensitivity=86%, specificity=89%) and structural recovery (Dice Similarity=0.88) when compared against manual specialist annotation.

  8. Alveolar bone healing in rats: micro-CT, immunohistochemical and molecular analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline Suemi HASSUMI

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Alveolar bone healing after upper incisor extraction in rats is a classical model of preclinical studies. The underlying morphometric, cellular and molecular mechanism, however, remains imprecise in a unique study. Objectives The aim of this study was therefore to characterize the alveolar bone healing after upper incisor extraction in rats by micro computed tomographic (Micro-CT, immunohistochemical and real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR analysis. Material and Methods Thirty animals (Rattus norvegicus, Albinus Wistar were divided into three groups after upper incisors extraction at 7, 14, and 28 days. Micro-CT was evaluated based on the morphometric parameters. Subsequently, the histological analyses and immunostaining of osteoprotegerin (OPG, receptor activator of nuclear kappa B ligand (RANKL and tartrate resistant acid phosphate (TRAP was performed. In addition, RT-PCR analyses of OPG, RANKL, the runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2, osteocalcin (OC, osteopontin (OPN, osterix (OST and receptor activator of nuclear kappa B (RANK were performed to determine the expression of these proteins in the alveolar bone healing. Results Micro-CT: The morphometric parameters of bone volume and trabecular thickness progressively increased over time. Consequently, a gradual decrease in trabecular separation, trabecular space and total bone porosity was observed. Immunohistochemical: There were no differences statistically significant between the positive labeling for OPG, RANKL and TRAP in the different periods. RT-PCR: At 28 days, there was a significant increase in OPG expression, while RANKL expression and the RANKL/OPG ratio both decreased over time. Conclusion Micro-CT showed the newly formed bone had favorable morphometric characteristics of quality and quantity. Beyond the RUNX2, OC, OPN, OST, and RANK proteins expressed in the alveolar bone healing, OPG and RANKL activity showed to be essential for activation of basic

  9. Synchrotron microCT imaging of soft tissue in juvenile zebrafish reveals retinotectal projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Xuying; Clark, Darin; Ang, Khai Chung; van Rossum, Damian B.; Copper, Jean; Xiao, Xianghui; La Riviere, Patrick J.; Cheng, Keith C.

    2017-02-01

    Biomedical research and clinical diagnosis would benefit greatly from full volume determinations of anatomical phenotype. Comprehensive tools for morphological phenotyping are central for the emerging field of phenomics, which requires high-throughput, systematic, accurate, and reproducible data collection from organisms affected by genetic, disease, or environmental variables. Theoretically, complete anatomical phenotyping requires the assessment of every cell type in the whole organism, but this ideal is presently untenable due to the lack of an unbiased 3D imaging method that allows histopathological assessment of any cell type despite optical opacity. Histopathology, the current clinical standard for diagnostic phenotyping, involves the microscopic study of tissue sections to assess qualitative aspects of tissue architecture, disease mechanisms, and physiological state. However, quantitative features of tissue architecture such as cellular composition and cell counting in tissue volumes can only be approximated due to characteristics of tissue sectioning, including incomplete sampling and the constraints of 2D imaging of 5 micron thick tissue slabs. We have used a small, vertebrate organism, the zebrafish, to test the potential of microCT for systematic macroscopic and microscopic morphological phenotyping. While cell resolution is routinely achieved using methods such as light sheet fluorescence microscopy and optical tomography, these methods do not provide the pancellular perspective characteristic of histology, and are constrained by the limited penetration of visible light through pigmented and opaque specimens, as characterizes zebrafish juveniles. Here, we provide an example of neuroanatomy that can be studied by microCT of stained soft tissue at 1.43 micron isotropic voxel resolution. We conclude that synchrotron microCT is a form of 3D imaging that may potentially be adopted towards more reproducible, large-scale, morphological phenotyping of optically

  10. Synchrotron-radiation phase-contrast imaging of human stomach and gastric cancer: in vitro studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Lei; Li, Gang; Sun, Ying-Shi; Li, Jie; Zhang, Xiao-Peng

    2012-05-01

    The electron density resolution of synchrotron-radiation phase-contrast imaging (SR-PCI) is 1000 times higher than that of conventional X-ray absorption imaging in light elements, through which high-resolution X-ray imaging of biological soft tissue can be achieved. For biological soft tissue, SR-PCI can give better imaging contrast than conventional X-ray absorption imaging. In this study, human resected stomach and gastric cancer were investigated using in-line holography and diffraction enhanced imaging at beamline 4W1A of the Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility. It was possible to depict gastric pits, measuring 50-70 µm, gastric grooves and tiny blood vessels in the submucosa layer by SR-PCI. The fine structure of a cancerous ulcer was displayed clearly on imaging the mucosa. The delamination of the gastric wall and infiltration of cancer in the submucosa layer were also demonstrated on cross-sectional imaging. In conclusion, SR-PCI can demonstrate the subtle structures of stomach and gastric cancer that cannot be detected by conventional X-ray absorption imaging, which prompt the X-ray diagnosis of gastric disease to the level of the gastric pit, and has the potential to provide new methods for the imageology of gastric cancer.

  11. Hard X-ray phase-contrast microscope for observing transparent specimens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kagoshima, Y.; Yokoyama, Y.; Niimi, T.; Koyama, T.; Tsusaka, Y.; Matsui, J. [Himeji Institute of Technology, Graduate School of Science, Hyogo (Japan); Takai, K. [Japan synchrotron Radiation Research Institute, Mikazuki, Hyogo (Japan)

    2002-08-01

    A hard X-ray transmission imaging microscope has been in use at the beamline BL24XU of Spring-8. It makes use of a phase zone plate made of tantalum as its X-ray lens, and is capable of imaging the structure as fine as 125-nm line-and-space pattern. The Zernike's phase-contrast method has been implemented to the microscope with phase plates made of gold. The photon energy was tuned to 12 keV just above the L{sub 3} absorption edge of gold (11.9 keV) in order to increase the image contrast. Polystyrene micro particles as transparent specimens were imaged clearly in the opposite image contrast with phase plates to shift the phase of the central order spectra in the back focal plane of the objective by one-quarter and three-quarters of a period, while the absorption contrast image showed little image contrast. Performance of the newly developed phase zone plate has been tested and it was confirmed that the structure as fine as 60-mm line-and-space pattern was able to be imaged. (authors)

  12. Micro-CT and nano-CT analysis of filling quality of three different endodontic sealers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yan; Celikten, Berkan; de Faria Vasconcelos, Karla; Ferreira Pinheiro Nicolielo, Laura; Lippiatt, Nicholas; Buyuksungur, Arda; Jacobs, Reinhilde; Orhan, Kaan

    2017-12-01

    To investigate voids in different root canal sealers using micro-CT and nano-CT, and to explore the feasibility of using nano-CT for quantitative analysis of sealer filling quality. 30 extracted mandibular central incisors were randomly assigned into three groups according to the applied root canal sealers (Total BC Sealer, Sure Seal Root, AH Plus) by the single cone technique. Subsequently, micro-CT and nano-CT were performed to analyse the incidence rate of voids, void fraction, void volume and their distribution in each sample. Micro-CT evaluation showed no significant difference among sealers for the incidence rate of voids or void fraction in the whole filling materials (p > 0.05), whereas a significant difference was found between AH Plus and the other two sealers using nano-CT (p nano-CT results displayed higher void volume in AH Plus among all the sealers and regions (p nano-CT analysis, when round root canals were treated by the single cone technique. The disparate results suggest that the higher resolution of nano-CT have a greater ability of distinguishing internal porosity, and therefore suggesting the potential use of nano-CT in quantitative analysis of filling quality of sealers.

  13. Micro-CT Arthrographic Analysis of Monosodium Iodoacetate- Induced Osteoarthritis in Rat Knees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Jong Won; Kang, Heung Sik; Hong, Sung Hwan

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the arthrographic findings of MIA-induced osteoarthritis in rat knees using the micro-CT arthrography. Intra-articular monosodium iodoacetate (MIA) injection-induced arthritis was induced in the right knees of twelve rats; their left knees served as the control group. Eight weeks after MIA injection, micro-CT arthrography was performed on each knee. We measured the thickness of retro-patellar cartilages, the distances of tibio-femoral joint space, subchondral bone plate thickness, tibial epiphyseal height, and transverse patellar diameter. Subchondral trabecular bone indices were measured in the tibial lateral condylar epiphysis. The data were analyzed statistically using a paired t-test. The retro-patellar articular cartilage showed thinning on the right side that had been induced to develop osteoarthritis. The right knees showed a significant reduction in the distance of the tibio-femoral joint space, prominent patellar osteophytes, and the resorption of subchondral bone. Among the subchondral trabecular bone indices, percent bone volume, and trabecular thickness was reduced on the right side. The articular cartilage thickness of MIA-induced arthritis model could be measured using micro- CT arthrography. It was possible to evaluate the osteoarthritic findings including the change in subchondral bone plate thickness, osteophyte formation, and subchondral bone resorption, as well as quantitatively analyze the trabecular bone indices

  14. Micro-CT Arthrographic Analysis of Monosodium Iodoacetate- Induced Osteoarthritis in Rat Knees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Jong Won [Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Heung Sik [Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Sung Hwan [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-15

    To evaluate the arthrographic findings of MIA-induced osteoarthritis in rat knees using the micro-CT arthrography. Intra-articular monosodium iodoacetate (MIA) injection-induced arthritis was induced in the right knees of twelve rats; their left knees served as the control group. Eight weeks after MIA injection, micro-CT arthrography was performed on each knee. We measured the thickness of retro-patellar cartilages, the distances of tibio-femoral joint space, subchondral bone plate thickness, tibial epiphyseal height, and transverse patellar diameter. Subchondral trabecular bone indices were measured in the tibial lateral condylar epiphysis. The data were analyzed statistically using a paired t-test. The retro-patellar articular cartilage showed thinning on the right side that had been induced to develop osteoarthritis. The right knees showed a significant reduction in the distance of the tibio-femoral joint space, prominent patellar osteophytes, and the resorption of subchondral bone. Among the subchondral trabecular bone indices, percent bone volume, and trabecular thickness was reduced on the right side. The articular cartilage thickness of MIA-induced arthritis model could be measured using micro- CT arthrography. It was possible to evaluate the osteoarthritic findings including the change in subchondral bone plate thickness, osteophyte formation, and subchondral bone resorption, as well as quantitatively analyze the trabecular bone indices.

  15. Polymer Assembly Encapsulation of Lanthanide Nanoparticles as Contrast Agents for In Vivo Micro-CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruje, Charmainne; Dunmore-Buyze, Joy; MacDonald, Jarret P; Holdsworth, David W; Drangova, Maria; Gillies, Elizabeth R

    2018-03-12

    Despite recent technological advancements in microcomputed tomography (micro-CT) and contrast agent development, preclinical contrast agents are still predominantly iodine-based. Higher contrast can be achieved when using elements with higher atomic numbers, such as lanthanides; lanthanides also have X-ray attenuation properties that are ideal for spectral CT. However, the formulation of lanthanide-based contrast agents at the high concentrations required for vascular imaging presents a significant challenge. In this work, we developed an erbium-based contrast agent that meets micro-CT imaging requirements, which include colloidal stability upon redispersion at high concentrations, evasion of rapid renal clearance, and circulation times of tens of minutes in small animals. Through systematic studies with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-poly(propylene glycol), PEG-polycaprolactone, and PEG-poly(l-lactide) (PLA) block copolymers, the amphiphilic block copolymer PEG 114 -PLA 53 was identified to be ideal for encapsulating oleate-coated lanthanide-based nanoparticles for in vivo intravenous administration. We were able to synthesize a contrast agent containing 100 mg/mL of erbium that could be redispersed into colloidally stable particles in saline after lyophilization. Contrast enhancement of over 250 HU was achieved in the blood pool for up to an hour, thereby meeting the requirements of live animal micro-CT.

  16. Micro-CT image reconstruction based on alternating direction augmented Lagrangian method and total variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopi, Varun P; Palanisamy, P; Wahid, Khan A; Babyn, Paul; Cooper, David

    2013-01-01

    Micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) plays an important role in pre-clinical imaging. The radiation from micro-CT can result in excess radiation exposure to the specimen under test, hence the reduction of radiation from micro-CT is essential. The proposed research focused on analyzing and testing an alternating direction augmented Lagrangian (ADAL) algorithm to recover images from random projections using total variation (TV) regularization. The use of TV regularization in compressed sensing problems makes the recovered image quality sharper by preserving the edges or boundaries more accurately. In this work TV regularization problem is addressed by ADAL which is a variant of the classic augmented Lagrangian method for structured optimization. The per-iteration computational complexity of the algorithm is two fast Fourier transforms, two matrix vector multiplications and a linear time shrinkage operation. Comparison of experimental results indicate that the proposed algorithm is stable, efficient and competitive with the existing algorithms for solving TV regularization problems. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. MicroCT Scan in paleobiology: application to the study of dental tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossi, M.; Casali, F. E-mail: casali@bo.infn.it; Romani, D.; Bondioli, L.; Macchiarelli, R.; Rook, L

    2004-01-01

    State of the art in paleoanthropological and paleoprimatological research foresees the use of advanced non-destructive investigative approaches. Microcomputed tomography (microCT) is a fundamental tool, since it offers the opportunity to get high quality morphological information with high spatial resolution. We carried out the set-up of an experimental microCT system able to examine paleobiological samples. The equipment can operate on small objects (size up to 3 cm) with a nominal spatial resolution of 30 {mu}m, allowing their 3D volume reconstruction and morphometric analysis. This approach represents a forefront technique in paleobiological studies, successfully employed only in a limited number of advanced research centers. A specific program of microCT analysis has been planned on a sample of human and non-human fossil primate dentitions, in order to assess the specific nature of a number of tooth lesions (e.g. caries versus abrasion). This currently in progress experimental activity represents the first step for the set-up of a research center specifically devoted to the realization of advanced studies in the field of archaeo-paleobiology.

  18. Accelerated 4D phase contrast MRI in skeletal muscle contraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzoli, Valentina; Gottwald, Lukas M; Peper, Eva S; Froeling, Martijn; Coolen, Bram F; Verdonschot, Nico; Sprengers, Andre M; van Ooij, Pim; Strijkers, Gustav J; Nederveen, Aart J

    2018-03-05

    3D time-resolved (4D) phase contrast MRI can be used to study muscle contraction. However, 3D coverage with sufficient spatiotemporal resolution can only be achieved by interleaved acquisitions during many repetitions of the motion task, resulting in long scan times. The aim of this study was to develop a compressed sensing accelerated 4D phase contrast MRI technique for quantification of velocities and strain rate of the muscles in the lower leg during active plantarflexion/dorsiflexion. Nine healthy volunteers were scanned during active dorsiflexion/plantarflexion task. For each volunteer, we acquired a reference scan, as well as 4 different accelerated scans (k-space undersampling factors: 3.14X, 4.09X, 4.89X, and 6.41X) obtained using Cartesian Poisson disk undersampling schemes. The data was reconstructed using a compressed sensing pipeline. For each scan, velocity and strain rate values were quantified in the gastrocnemius lateralis, gastrocnemius medialis, tibialis anterior, and soleus. No significant differences in velocity values were observed as a function acceleration factor in the investigated muscles. The strain rate calculation resulted in one positive (s + ) and one negative (s - ) eigenvalue, whereas the third eigenvalue (s 3 ) was consistently 0 for all the acquisitions. No significant differences were observed for the strain rate eigenvalues as a function of acceleration factor. Data undersampling combined with compressed sensing reconstruction allowed obtainment of time-resolved phase contrast acquisitions with 3D coverage and quantitative information comparable to the reference scan. The 3D sensitivity of the method can help in understanding the connection between muscle architecture and muscle function in future studies. © 2018 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  19. Value of micro-CT as an Investigative Tool for Osteochondritis Dissecans. A preliminary study with comparison to histology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohr, A.; Bergmann, I.; Muhle, C.; Heller, M.; Heiss, C.; Schrader, C.; Roemer, F.W.; Lynch, J.A.; Genant, H.K.

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate micro computed tomography (micro-CT) for the assessment of osteochondritis dissecans in comparison with histology. Material and Methods: Osteochondritis dissecans lesions of 3 patients were evaluated using micro-CT (0.125 mA, 40 keV, 60 m slice thickness, 60 m isotropic resolution, entire sample) and light microscopy (toluidine blue, 3-5 m slice thickness). The methods were compared regarding preparation time, detectability of tissue types and morphologic features of bone and cartilage. Results: Non-destructive micro-CT imaging of the entire sample was faster than histologic preparation of a single slice for light microscopy. Morphologic features of bone and cartilage could be imaged in a comparable way to histology. It was not possible to image cells or different tissue types of bone and cartilage with micro-CT. Conclusion: Micro-CT is a fast, non-destructive tool that may be a supplement or, if detailed histologic information is not necessary, an alternative to light microscopy for the investigation of osteochondritis dissecans. Osteochondritis dissecans micro-CT histology comparative investigation

  20. Multiscale differential phase contrast analysis with a unitary detector

    KAUST Repository

    Lopatin, Sergei; Ivanov, Yurii P.; Kosel, Jü rgen; Chuvilin, Andrey

    2015-01-01

    A new approach to generate differential phase contrast (DPC) images for the visualization and quantification of local magnetic fields in a wide range of modern nano materials is reported. In contrast to conventional DPC methods our technique utilizes the idea of a unitary detector under bright field conditions, making it immediately usable by a majority of modern transmission electron microscopes. The approach is put on test to characterize the local magnetization of cylindrical nanowires and their 3D ordered arrays, revealing high sensitivity of our method in a combination with nanometer-scale spatial resolution.

  1. From Relativistic Electrons to X-ray Phase Contrast Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lumpkin, A. H. [Fermilab; Garson, A. B. [Washington U., St. Louis; Anastasio, M. A. [Washington U., St. Louis

    2017-10-09

    We report the initial demonstrations of the use of single crystals in indirect x-ray imaging for x-ray phase contrast imaging at the Washington University in St. Louis Computational Bioimaging Laboratory (CBL). Based on single Gaussian peak fits to the x-ray images, we observed a four times smaller system point spread function (21 μm (FWHM)) with the 25-mm diameter single crystals than the reference polycrystalline phosphor’s 80-μm value. Potential fiber-optic plate depth-of-focus aspects and 33-μm diameter carbon fiber imaging are also addressed.

  2. Multiscale differential phase contrast analysis with a unitary detector

    KAUST Repository

    Lopatin, Sergei

    2015-12-30

    A new approach to generate differential phase contrast (DPC) images for the visualization and quantification of local magnetic fields in a wide range of modern nano materials is reported. In contrast to conventional DPC methods our technique utilizes the idea of a unitary detector under bright field conditions, making it immediately usable by a majority of modern transmission electron microscopes. The approach is put on test to characterize the local magnetization of cylindrical nanowires and their 3D ordered arrays, revealing high sensitivity of our method in a combination with nanometer-scale spatial resolution.

  3. Application of the optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) technique for mouse dosimetry in micro-CT imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vrigneaud, Jean-Marc; Courteau, Alan; Oudot, Alexandra; Collin, Bertrand [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Centre Georges-François Leclerc, 1 rue Professeur Marion, Dijon 21079 Cedex (France); Ranouil, Julien [Landauer Europe, 33 avenue du Général Leclerc, Fontenay-aux-Roses 92266 Cedex (France); Morgand, Loïc; Raguin, Olivier [Oncodesign, 20 rue Jean Mazen, Dijon 21076 Cedex (France); Walker, Paul [LE2i CNRS UMR 5158, Faculty of Medicine, BP 87900, 21079 Dijon Cedex (France); Brunotte, François [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Centre Georges-François Leclerc, 1 rue Professeur Marion, Dijon 21079 Cedex, France and LE2i CNRS UMR 5158, Faculty of Medicine, BP 87900, 21079 Dijon Cedex (France)

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: Micro-CT is considered to be a powerful tool to investigate various models of disease on anesthetized animals. In longitudinal studies, the radiation dose delivered by the micro-CT to the same animal is a major concern as it could potentially induce spurious effects in experimental results. Optically stimulated luminescence dosimeters (OSLDs) are a relatively new kind of detector used in radiation dosimetry for medical applications. The aim of this work was to assess the dose delivered by the CT component of a micro-SPECT (single-photon emission computed tomography)/CT camera during a typical whole-body mouse study, using commercially available OSLDs based on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}:C crystals.Methods: CTDI (computed tomography dose index) was measured in micro-CT with a properly calibrated pencil ionization chamber using a rat-like phantom (60 mm in diameter) and a mouse-like phantom (30 mm in diameter). OSLDs were checked for reproducibility and linearity in the range of doses delivered by the micro-CT. Dose measurements obtained with OSLDs were compared to those of the ionization chamber to correct for the radiation quality dependence of OSLDs in the low-kV range. Doses to tissue were then investigated in phantoms and cadavers. A 30 mm diameter phantom, specifically designed to insert OSLDs, was used to assess radiation dose over a typical whole-body mouse imaging study. Eighteen healthy female BALB/c mice weighing 27.1 ± 0.8 g (1 SD) were euthanized for small animal measurements. OLSDs were placed externally or implanted internally in nine different locations by an experienced animal technician. Five commonly used micro-CT protocols were investigated.Results: CTDI measurements were between 78.0 ± 2.1 and 110.7 ± 3.0 mGy for the rat-like phantom and between 169.3 ± 4.6 and 203.6 ± 5.5 mGy for the mouse-like phantom. On average, the displayed CTDI at the operator console was underestimated by 1.19 for the rat-like phantom and 2.36 for the mouse

  4. A phase contrast interferometer on DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coda, S.; Porkolab, M.; Carlstrom, T.N.

    1992-04-01

    A novel imaging diagnostic has recently become operational on the DIII-D tokamak for the study of density fluctuations at the outer edge of the plasma. The phase contrast imaging approach overcomes the limitations of conventional scattering techniques in the spectral range of interest for transport-related phenomena, by allowing detection of long wavelength modes (up to 7.6 cm) with excellent spatial resolution (5 mm) in the radial direction. Additional motivation for the diagnostic is provided by wave-plasma interactions during heating and current drive experiments in the Ion Cyclotron range of frequencies. Density perturbations of 4 x 10 7 cm -3 with a 1 MHz bandwidth can be resolved. The diagnostic employs a 7.6 cm diameter CO 2 laser beam launched vertically across the plasma edge. An image of the plasma is then created on a 16-element detector array: the detector signals are directly proportional to the density fluctuations integrated along each chord. Wavelengths and correlation lengths can be inferred from the spatial mapping. The phase contrast method and its application to DIII-D are described and tests and first plasma data are presented

  5. Implementation of neutron phase contrast imaging at FRM-II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenz, Klaus

    2008-11-12

    At ANTARES, the beam line for neutron imaging at the Forschungsneutronenquelle Heinz Maier-Leibnitz (FRM-II) in Garching, the option to do phase contrast imaging besides conventional absorption based neutron imaging was implemented and successfully used for the non-destructive testing of various types of objects. The used propagation-based technique is based on the interference of neutron waves in the detector plane that were differently strong diffracted by the sample. A comparison with other phase-sensitive neutron imaging techniques highlights assets and drawbacks of the different methods. In preliminary measurements at ANTARES and the spallation source SINQ at PSI in Villigen, the influence of the beam geometry, the neutron spectrum and the detector on the quality of the phase contrast measurements were investigated systematically. It was demonstrated that gamma radiation and epithermal neutrons in the beam contribute severely to background noise in measurements, which motivated the installation of a remotely controlled filter wheel for a quick and precise positioning of different crystal filters in the beam. By the installation of a similar aperture wheel, a quick change between eight different beam geometries was made possible. Besides pinhole and slit apertures, coded apertures based on non redundant arrays were investigated. The possibilities, which arise by the exploitation of the real part of the refractive index in neutron imaging, were demonstrated in experiments with especially designed test samples and in measurements with ordinary, industrial components. (orig.)

  6. Implementation of neutron phase contrast imaging at FRM-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenz, Klaus

    2008-01-01

    At ANTARES, the beam line for neutron imaging at the Forschungsneutronenquelle Heinz Maier-Leibnitz (FRM-II) in Garching, the option to do phase contrast imaging besides conventional absorption based neutron imaging was implemented and successfully used for the non-destructive testing of various types of objects. The used propagation-based technique is based on the interference of neutron waves in the detector plane that were differently strong diffracted by the sample. A comparison with other phase-sensitive neutron imaging techniques highlights assets and drawbacks of the different methods. In preliminary measurements at ANTARES and the spallation source SINQ at PSI in Villigen, the influence of the beam geometry, the neutron spectrum and the detector on the quality of the phase contrast measurements were investigated systematically. It was demonstrated that gamma radiation and epithermal neutrons in the beam contribute severely to background noise in measurements, which motivated the installation of a remotely controlled filter wheel for a quick and precise positioning of different crystal filters in the beam. By the installation of a similar aperture wheel, a quick change between eight different beam geometries was made possible. Besides pinhole and slit apertures, coded apertures based on non redundant arrays were investigated. The possibilities, which arise by the exploitation of the real part of the refractive index in neutron imaging, were demonstrated in experiments with especially designed test samples and in measurements with ordinary, industrial components. (orig.)

  7. Dynamic Studies of Lung Fluid Clearance with Phase Contrast Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitchen, Marcus J.; Williams, Ivan; Irvine, Sarah C.; Morgan, Michael J.; Paganin, David M.; Lewis, Rob A.; Pavlov, Konstantin; Hooper, Stuart B.; Wallace, Megan J.; Siu, Karen K. W.; Yagi, Naoto; Uesugi, Kentaro

    2007-01-01

    Clearance of liquid from the airways at birth is a poorly understood process, partly due to the difficulties of observing and measuring the distribution of air within the lung. Imaging dynamic processes within the lung in vivo with high contrast and spatial resolution is therefore a major challenge. However, phase contrast X-ray imaging is able to exploit inhaled air as a contrast agent, rendering the lungs of small animals visible due to the large changes in the refractive index at air/tissue interfaces. In concert with the high spatial resolution afforded by X-ray imaging systems (<100 μm), propagation-based phase contrast imaging is ideal for studying lung development. To this end we have utilized intense, monochromatic synchrotron radiation, together with a fast readout CCD camera, to study fluid clearance from the lungs of rabbit pups at birth. Local rates of fluid clearance have been measured from the dynamic sequences using a single image phase retrieval algorithm

  8. X-ray micro-CT and neutron CT as complementary imaging tools for non-destructive 3D imaging of rare silicified fossil plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karch, J.; Dudák, J.; Žemlička, J.; Vavřík, D.; Kumpová, I.; Kvaček, J.; Heřmanová, Z.; Šoltés, J.; Viererbl, L.; Morgano, M.; Kaestner, A.; Trtík, P.

    2017-12-01

    Computed tomography provides 3D information of inner structures of investigated objects. The obtained information is, however, strongly dependent on the used radiation type. It is known that as X-rays interact with electron cloud and neutrons with atomic nucleus, the obtained data often provide different contrast of sample structures. In this work we present a set of comparative radiographic and CT measurements of rare fossil plant samples using X-rays and thermal neutrons. The X-ray measurements were performed using large area photon counting detectors Timepix at IEAP CTU in Prague and Perkin Elmer flat-panel detector at Center of Excellence Telč. The neutron CT measurement was carried out at Paul Scherrer Institute using BOA beam-line. Furthermore, neutron radiography of fossil samples, provided by National Museum, were performed using a large-area Timepix detector with a neutron-sensitive converting 6LiF layer at Research Centre Rez, Czech Republic. The obtained results show different capabilities of both imaging approaches. While X-ray micro-CT provides very high resolution and enables visualization of fine cracks or small cavities in the samples neutron imaging provides high contrast of morphological structures of fossil plant samples, where X-ray imaging provides insufficient contrast.

  9. Pilot experimental study on continual spectrum thermal neutron in-line phase contrast radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Bin; Huo Heyong; Wu Yang

    2009-01-01

    The in-line phase contrast radiography is one of phase contrast imaging methods. The neutron in-line phase contrast is developed with X-rays phase contrast radiography. In the paper, the principle of in-line phase contrast is introduced briefly and the experimental result of thermal neutron in-line contrast at SPRR-300 is analysed. It shows that thermal neutron can be used as in-line phase contrast radiography and enhances the edge of some sample in radiography and complements the disadvantage of conventional neutron radiography. (authors)

  10. Preliminary comparison of grating-based and in-line phase contrast X-ray imaging with synchrotron radiation for mouse kidney at TOMCAT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, J; Liu, P; Xu, L X; Irvine, S; Pinzer, B; Stampanoni, M

    2013-01-01

    Phase contrast imaging has been demonstrated to be advantageous in revealing detailed structures inside biological specimens without contrast agents. Grating-based differential phase contrast (DPC) and in-line phase contrast (ILPC) X-ray imaging are the two modalities frequently used at the beamline of TOmographic Microscopy and Coherent rAdiology experimenTs (TOMCAT) at the Swiss Light Source (SLS). In this paper, we preliminarily compared the abilities of two types of phase contrast imaging in distinguishing micro structures in mouse kidneys. The 3D reconstructions showed that the microstructures in kidney, such as micro vessels and renal tubules, were displayed clearly with both imaging modalities. The two techniques may be viewed as complementary. For larger features with very small density variations DPC is the desirable method. In cases where dose and time limits may prohibit the multiple steps required for DPC, and when the focus is on finer features, the ILPC method may be considered as a more viable alternative. Moreover, high resolution ILPC images are comparable with histological results.

  11. Computational cell quantification in the human brain tissues based on hard x-ray phase-contrast tomograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hieber, Simone E.; Bikis, Christos; Khimchenko, Anna; Schulz, Georg; Deyhle, Hans; Thalmann, Peter; Chicherova, Natalia; Rack, Alexander; Zdora, Marie-Christine; Zanette, Irene; Schweighauser, Gabriel; Hench, Jürgen; Müller, Bert

    2016-10-01

    Cell visualization and counting plays a crucial role in biological and medical research including the study of neurodegenerative diseases. The neuronal cell loss is typically determined to measure the extent of the disease. Its characterization is challenging because the cell density and size already differs by more than three orders of magnitude in a healthy cerebellum. Cell visualization is commonly performed by histology and fluorescence microscopy. These techniques are limited to resolve complex microstructures in the third dimension. Phase- contrast tomography has been proven to provide sufficient contrast in the three-dimensional imaging of soft tissue down to the cell level and, therefore, offers the basis for the three-dimensional segmentation. Within this context, a human cerebellum sample was embedded in paraffin and measured in local phase-contrast mode at the beamline ID19 (ESRF, Grenoble, France) and the Diamond Manchester Imaging Branchline I13-2 (Diamond Light Source, Didcot, UK). After the application of Frangi-based filtering the data showed sufficient contrast to automatically identify the Purkinje cells and to quantify their density to 177 cells per mm3 within the volume of interest. Moreover, brain layers were segmented in a region of interest based on edge detection. Subsequently performed histological analysis validated the presence of the cells, which required a mapping from the two- dimensional histological slices to the three-dimensional tomogram. The methodology can also be applied to further tissue types and shows potential for the computational tissue analysis in health and disease.

  12. Depiction of blood vessels by x-ray phase contrast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Momose, Atsushi [School of Engineering, University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Takeda, Tohoru; Itai, Yuji [Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2001-04-01

    Blood vessels in livers of a mouse and a rat were depicted by phase-contrast x-ray imaging with an x-ray interferometer without using contrast agents. X-ray interference patterns were converted to image mapping x-ray phase shift caused by the livers using the technique of phase-shifting x-ray interferometry. The arteries and veins to and from the livers were tied before excision in order to prevent blood from flowing out of the liver. The x-ray phase shift caused by blood was substantially different from that caused by other soft sues, and consequently trees of blood vessels were revealed in the images. Vessels of diameter smaller than 0.1 mm were detected. This result suggests new possibilities for investigating vascular systems. (author)

  13. Evaluation of the adaptation of zirconia-based fixed partial dentures using micro-CT technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borba, Marcia; Bona, Alvaro Della, E-mail: marcia_borb@hotmail.com [Universidade de Passo Fundo (UPF), RS (Brazil). Fac. de Odontologia; Miranda Junior, Walter Gomes; Cesar, Paulo Francisco [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Odontologia. Dept. de Biomateriais e Bioquimica Oral; Griggs, Jason Allan [Department of Biomedical Materials Science, Dental School, University of Mississippi Medical Center - UMMC, Jackson, MS (United States)

    2013-09-15

    The objective of the study was to measure the marginal and internal fit of zirconia-based all-ceramic three-unit fixed partial dentures (FPDs) (Y-TZP - LAVA, 3M-ESPE), using a novel methodology based on micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) technology. Stainless steel models of prepared abutments were fabricated to design FPDs. Ten frameworks were produced with 9 mm² connector cross-sections using a LAVA® CAD-CAM system. All FPDs were veneered with a compatible porcelain. Each FPD was seated on the original model and scanned using micro-CT. Files were processed using NRecon and CTAn software. Adobe Photoshop and Image J software were used to analyze the cross sectional images. Five measuring points were selected, as follows: MG- marginal gap; CA - chamfer area; AW - axial wall; AOT - axio-occlusal transition area; OA - occlusal area. Results were statistically analyzed by Kruskall-Wallis and Tukey's post hoc test (α = 0.05). There were significant differences for the gap width between the measurement points evaluated. MG showed the smallest median gap width (42 μm). OA had the highest median gap dimension (125 μm), followed by the AOT point (105 μm). CA and AW gap width values were statistically similar, 66 and 65 μm respectively. Thus, it was possible to conclude that different levels of adaptation were observed within the FPD, at the different measuring points. In addition, the micro-CT technology seems to be a reliable tool to evaluate the fit of dental restorations. (author)

  14. Micro-CT features of intermediate gunshot wounds severely damaged by fire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fais, Paolo; Giraudo, Chiara; Boscolo-Berto, Rafael; Amagliani, Alessandro; Miotto, Diego; Feltrin, Giampietro; Viel, Guido; Ferrara, S Davide; Cecchetto, Giovanni

    2013-03-01

    Incineration or extensive burning of the body, causing changes in the content and distribution of fluids, fixation and shrinking processes of tissues, can alter the typical macroscopic and microscopic characteristics of firearm wounds, hampering or at least complicating the reconstruction of gunshot fatalities. The present study aims at evaluating the potential role of micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) for detecting and quantifying gunshot residue (GSR) particles in experimentally produced intermediate-range gunshot wounds severely damaged by fire. Eighteen experimental shootings were performed on 18 sections of human calves surgically amputated for medical reasons at three different firing distances (5, 15 and 30 cm). Six stab wounds produced with an ice pick were used as controls. Each calf section underwent a charring cycle, being placed in a wood-burning stove for 4 min at a temperature of 400 °C. At visual inspection, the charred entrance wounds could not be differentiated from the exit lesions and the stab wounds. On the contrary, micro-CT analysis showed the presence of GSR particles in all burnt entrance gunshot wounds, while GSR was absent in the exit and stab wounds. The GSR deposits of the firearm lesions inflicted at very close distance (5 cm) were mainly constituted of huge particles (diameter >150 μm) with an irregular shape and well-delineated edges; at greater distances (15 and 30 cm), agglomerates of tiny radiopaque particles scattered in the epidermis and dermis layers were evident. Statistical analysis demonstrated that also in charred firearm wounds the amount of GSR roughly correlates with the distance from which the gun was fired. The obtained results suggest that micro-CT analysis can be a valid screening tool for identifying entrance gunshot wounds and for differentiating firearm wounds from sharp-force injuries in bodies severely damaged by fire.

  15. Evaluation of the adaptation of zirconia-based fixed partial dentures using micro-CT technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borba, Marcia; Bona, Alvaro Della

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the study was to measure the marginal and internal fit of zirconia-based all-ceramic three-unit fixed partial dentures (FPDs) (Y-TZP - LAVA, 3M-ESPE), using a novel methodology based on micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) technology. Stainless steel models of prepared abutments were fabricated to design FPDs. Ten frameworks were produced with 9 mm² connector cross-sections using a LAVA® CAD-CAM system. All FPDs were veneered with a compatible porcelain. Each FPD was seated on the original model and scanned using micro-CT. Files were processed using NRecon and CTAn software. Adobe Photoshop and Image J software were used to analyze the cross sectional images. Five measuring points were selected, as follows: MG- marginal gap; CA - chamfer area; AW - axial wall; AOT - axio-occlusal transition area; OA - occlusal area. Results were statistically analyzed by Kruskall-Wallis and Tukey's post hoc test (α = 0.05). There were significant differences for the gap width between the measurement points evaluated. MG showed the smallest median gap width (42 μm). OA had the highest median gap dimension (125 μm), followed by the AOT point (105 μm). CA and AW gap width values were statistically similar, 66 and 65 μm respectively. Thus, it was possible to conclude that different levels of adaptation were observed within the FPD, at the different measuring points. In addition, the micro-CT technology seems to be a reliable tool to evaluate the fit of dental restorations. (author)

  16. Evaluation of the adaptation of zirconia-based fixed partial dentures using micro-CT technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Borba

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to measure the marginal and internal fit of zirconia-based all-ceramic three-unit fixed partial dentures (FPDs (Y-TZP - LAVA, 3M-ESPE, using a novel methodology based on micro-computed tomography (micro-CT technology. Stainless steel models of prepared abutments were fabricated to design FPDs. Ten frameworks were produced with 9 mm2 connector cross-sections using a LAVATM CAD-CAM system. All FPDs were veneered with a compatible porcelain. Each FPD was seated on the original model and scanned using micro-CT. Files were processed using NRecon and CTAn software. Adobe Photoshop and Image J software were used to analyze the cross-sectional images. Five measuring points were selected, as follows: MG - marginal gap; CA - chamfer area; AW - axial wall; AOT - axio-occlusal transition area; OA - occlusal area. Results were statistically analyzed by Kruskall-Wallis and Tukey's post hoc test (α= 0.05. There were significant differences for the gap width between the measurement points evaluated. MG showed the smallest median gap width (42 µm. OA had the highest median gap dimension (125 µm, followed by the AOT point (105 µm. CA and AW gap width values were statistically similar, 66 and 65 µm respectively. Thus, it was possible to conclude that different levels of adaptation were observed within the FPD, at the different measuring points. In addition, the micro-CT technology seems to be a reliable tool to evaluate the fit of dental restorations.

  17. Investigating the effect of longitudinal micro-CT imaging on tumour growth in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foster, W Kyle; Ford, Nancy L, E-mail: nlford@ryerson.ca [Department of Physics, Ryerson University, Toronto, Ontario M5B 2K3 (Canada)

    2011-01-21

    The aim of this study is to determine the impact of longitudinal micro-CT imaging on the growth of B16F1 tumours in C57BL/6 mice. Sixty mice received 2 x 10{sup 5} B16F1 cells subcutaneously in the hind flank and were divided into control (no scan), 'low-dose' (80 kVp, 70 mA, 8 s, 0.07 Gy), 'medium-dose' (80 kVp, 50 mA, 30 s, 0.18 Gy) and 'high-dose' (80 kVp, 50 mA, 50 s, 0.30 Gy) groups. All imaging was performed on a fast volumetric micro-CT scanner (GE Locus Ultra, London, Canada). Each mouse was imaged on days 4, 8, 12 and 16. After the final imaging session, each tumour was excised, weighed on an electronic balance, imaged to obtain the final tumour volume and processed for histology. Final tumour volume was used to evaluate the impact of longitudinal micro-CT imaging on the tumour growth. An ANOVA indicated no statistically significant difference in tumour volume (p = 0.331, {alpha} = {beta} = 0.1) when discriminating against a treatment-sized effect. Histological samples revealed no observable differences in apoptosis or cell proliferation. We conclude that four imaging sessions, using standard protocols, over the course of 16 days did not cause significant changes in final tumour volume for B16F1 tumours in female C57BL/6 mice (ANOVA, {alpha} = {beta} = 0.1, p = 0.331).

  18. Investigating the effect of longitudinal micro-CT imaging on tumour growth in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foster, W Kyle; Ford, Nancy L

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the impact of longitudinal micro-CT imaging on the growth of B16F1 tumours in C57BL/6 mice. Sixty mice received 2 x 10 5 B16F1 cells subcutaneously in the hind flank and were divided into control (no scan), 'low-dose' (80 kVp, 70 mA, 8 s, 0.07 Gy), 'medium-dose' (80 kVp, 50 mA, 30 s, 0.18 Gy) and 'high-dose' (80 kVp, 50 mA, 50 s, 0.30 Gy) groups. All imaging was performed on a fast volumetric micro-CT scanner (GE Locus Ultra, London, Canada). Each mouse was imaged on days 4, 8, 12 and 16. After the final imaging session, each tumour was excised, weighed on an electronic balance, imaged to obtain the final tumour volume and processed for histology. Final tumour volume was used to evaluate the impact of longitudinal micro-CT imaging on the tumour growth. An ANOVA indicated no statistically significant difference in tumour volume (p = 0.331, α = β = 0.1) when discriminating against a treatment-sized effect. Histological samples revealed no observable differences in apoptosis or cell proliferation. We conclude that four imaging sessions, using standard protocols, over the course of 16 days did not cause significant changes in final tumour volume for B16F1 tumours in female C57BL/6 mice (ANOVA, α = β = 0.1, p = 0.331).

  19. Micro-CT in situ study of carbonate rock microstructural evolution for geologic CO2 storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Yi; Yang, Yan; Rogowska, M.

    2017-01-01

    settings such as the carbonate reservoirs in the North Sea. The final aim of our project is to find out how to control the evolution of petrophysical parameters during CO2 injection using an optimal combination of flow rate, injection pressure and chemical composition of the influent. The first step...... to achieve this is to find a suitable condition to create a stable 3D space in carbonate rock by injecting liquid to prepare space for the later CO2 injection. Micro-CT imaging is a non-destructive 3D method that can be used to study the property changes of carbonate rocks during and after CO2 injection...

  20. Visualization of small lesions in rat cartilage by means of laboratory-based x-ray phase contrast imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marenzana, Massimo; Hagen, Charlotte K.; Das Neves Borges, Patricia; Endrizzi, Marco; Szafraniec, Magdalena B.; Ignatyev, Konstantin; Olivo, Alessandro

    2012-12-01

    Being able to quantitatively assess articular cartilage in three-dimensions (3D) in small rodent animal models, with a simple laboratory set-up, would prove extremely important for the development of pre-clinical research focusing on cartilage pathologies such as osteoarthritis (OA). These models are becoming essential tools for the development of new drugs for OA, a disease affecting up to 1/3 of the population older than 50 years for which there is no cure except prosthetic surgery. However, due to limitations in imaging technology, high-throughput 3D structural imaging has not been achievable in small rodent models, thereby limiting their translational potential and their efficiency as research tools. We show that a simple laboratory system based on coded-aperture x-ray phase contrast imaging (CAXPCi) can correctly visualize the cartilage layer in slices of an excised rat tibia imaged both in air and in saline solution. Moreover, we show that small, surgically induced lesions are also correctly detected by the CAXPCi system, and we support this finding with histopathology examination. Following these successful proof-of-concept results in rat cartilage, we expect that an upgrade of the system to higher resolutions (currently underway) will enable extending the method to the imaging of mouse cartilage as well. From a technological standpoint, by showing the capability of the system to detect cartilage also in water, we demonstrate phase sensitivity comparable to other lab-based phase methods (e.g. grating interferometry). In conclusion, CAXPCi holds a strong potential for being adopted as a routine laboratory tool for non-destructive, high throughput assessment of 3D structural changes in murine articular cartilage, with a possible impact in the field similar to the revolution that conventional microCT brought into bone research.

  1. Bone quality evaluation at dental implant site using multislice CT, micro-CT, and cone beam CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsa, Azin; Ibrahim, Norliza; Hassan, Bassam; van der Stelt, Paul; Wismeijer, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The first purpose of this study was to analyze the correlation between bone volume fraction (BV/TV) and calibrated radiographic bone density Hounsfield units (HU) in human jaws, derived from micro-CT and multislice computed tomography (MSCT), respectively. The second aim was to assess the accuracy of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) in evaluating trabecular bone density and microstructure using MSCT and micro-CT, respectively, as reference gold standards. Twenty partially edentulous human mandibular cadavers were scanned by three types of CT modalities: MSCT (Philips, Best, the Netherlands), CBCT (3D Accuitomo 170, J Morita, Kyoto, Japan), and micro-CT (SkyScan 1173, Kontich, Belgium). Image analysis was performed using Amira (v4.1, Visage Imaging Inc., Carlsbad, CA, USA), 3Diagnosis (v5.3.1, 3diemme, Cantu, Italy), Geomagic (studio(®) 2012, Morrisville, NC, USA), and CTAn (v1.11, SkyScan). MSCT, CBCT, and micro-CT scans of each mandible were matched to select the exact region of interest (ROI). MSCT HU, micro-CT BV/TV, and CBCT gray value and bone volume fraction of each ROI were derived. Statistical analysis was performed to assess the correlations between corresponding measurement parameters. Strong correlations were observed between CBCT and MSCT density (r = 0.89) and between CBCT and micro-CT BV/TV measurements (r = 0.82). Excellent correlation was observed between MSCT HU and micro-CT BV/TV (r = 0.91). However, significant differences were found between all comparisons pairs (P micro-CT BV/TV (P = 0.147). An excellent correlation exists between bone volume fraction and bone density as assessed on micro-CT and MSCT, respectively. This suggests that bone density measurements could be used to estimate bone microstructural parameters. A strong correlation also was found between CBCT gray values and BV/TV and their gold standards, suggesting the potential of this modality in bone quality assessment at implant site. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by

  2. Detecting metastasis of gastric carcinoma using high-resolution micro-CT system: in vivo small animal study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Junting; Tian, Jie; Liang, Jimin; Li, Xiangsi; Yang, Xiang; Chen, Xiaofeng; Chen, Yi; Zhou, Yuanfang; Wang, Xiaorui

    2011-03-01

    Immunocytochemical and immunofluorescence staining are used for identifying the characteristics of metastasis in traditional ways. Micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) is a useful tool for monitoring and longitudinal imaging of tumor in small animal in vivo. In present study, we evaluated the feasibility of the detection for metastasis of gastric carcinoma by high-resolution micro-CT system with omnipaque accumulative enhancement method in the organs. Firstly, a high-resolution micro-CT ZKKS-MCT-sharp micro-CT was developed by our research group and Guangzhou Zhongke Kaisheng Medical Technology Co., Ltd. Secondly, several gastric carcinoma models were established through inoculating 2x106 BGC-823 gastric carcinoma cells subcutaneously. Thirdly, micro-CT scanning was performed after accumulative enhancement method of intraperitoneal injection of omnipaque contrast agent containing 360 mg iodine with a concentration of 350 mg I/ml. Finally, we obtained high-resolution anatomical information of the metastasis in vivo in a BALB/c NuNu nude mouse, the 3D tumor architecture is revealed in exquisite detail at about 35 μm spatial resolution. In addition, the accurate shape and volume of the micrometastasis as small as 0.78 mm3 can be calculated with our software. Overall, our data suggest that this imaging approach and system could be used to enhance the understanding of tumor proliferation, metastasis and could be the basis for evaluating anti-tumor therapies.

  3. In vivo micro-CT assessment of airway remodeling in a flexible OVA-sensitized murine model of asthma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Lederlin

    Full Text Available Airway remodeling is a major pathological feature of asthma. Up to now, its quantification still requires invasive methods. In this study, we aimed at determining whether in vivo micro-computed tomography (micro-CT is able to demonstrate allergen-induced airway remodeling in a flexible mouse model of asthma. Sixty Balb/c mice were challenged intranasally with ovalbumin or saline at 3 different endpoints (Days 35, 75, and 110. All mice underwent plethysmography at baseline and just prior to respiratory-gated micro-CT. Mice were then sacrificed to assess bronchoalveolar lavage and lung histology. From micro-CT images (voxel size = 46×46×46 µm, the numerical values of total lung attenuation, peribronchial attenuation (PBA, and PBA normalized by total lung attenuation were extracted. Each parameter was compared between OVA and control mice and correlation coefficients were calculated between micro-CT and histological data. As compared to control animals, ovalbumin-sensitized mice exhibited inflammation alone (Day 35, remodeling alone (Day 110 or both inflammation and remodeling (Day 75. Normalized PBA was significantly greater in mice exhibiting bronchial remodeling either alone or in combination with inflammation. Normalized PBA correlated with various remodeling markers such as bronchial smooth muscle size or peribronchial fibrosis. These findings suggest that micro-CT may help monitor remodeling non-invasively in asthmatic mice when testing new drugs targeting airway remodeling in pre-clinical studies.

  4. Serial micro-CT assessment of the therapeutic effects of rosiglitazone in a bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis mouse model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Eun Jung; Jin, Gong Yong; Bok, Se Mi; Han, Young Min; Lee, Young Sun; Jung, Myung Ja; Kwon, Keun Sang [Research Institute of Clinical Medicine of Chonbuk National University, Biomedical Research Institute of Chonbuk National University Hospital, Institute for Medical Sciences, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-15

    The aim of this study was to assess the therapeutic effects of rosiglitazone with serial micro-CT findings before and after rosiglitazone administration in a lung fibrosis mouse model induced with bleomycin. We instilled the bleomycin solution directly into the trachea in twenty mice (female, C57BL/6 mice). After the instillation with bleomycin, mice were closely observed for 3 weeks and then all mice were scanned using micro-CT without sacrifice. At 3 weeks, the mice were treated with rosiglitazone on days 21 to 27 if they had abnormal CT findings (n = 9, 45%). For the mice treated with rosiglitazone, we performed micro-CT with mouse sacrifice 2 weeks after the rosiglitazone treatment completion. We assessed the abnormal CT findings (ground glass attenuation, consolidation, bronchiectasis, reticular opacity, and honeycombing) using a five-point scale at 3 and 6 weeks using Wilcoxon-signed ranked test. The micro-CT findings were correlated with the histopathologic results. One out of nine (11.1%) mice improved completely. In terms of consolidation, all mice (100%) showed marked decrease from 3.1 ± 1.4 at 3 weeks to 0.9 ± 0.9 at 6 weeks (p = 0.006). At 6 weeks, mild bronchiectasis (n = 6, 66.7%), mild reticular opacity (n 7, 77.8%) and mild honeycomb patterns (n = 3, 33.3%) appeared. A serial micro-CT enables the evaluation of drug effects in a lung fibrosis mouse model.

  5. Secure network for beamline control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohata, T.; Fukui, T.; Ishii, M.; Furukawa, Y.; Nakatani, T.; Matsushita, T.; Takeuchi, M.; Tanaka, R.; Ishikawa, T.

    2001-01-01

    In SPring-8, beamline control system is constructed with a highly available distributed network system. The socket based communication protocol is used for the beamline control mainly. Beamline users can control the equipment by sending simple control commands to a server process, which is running on a beamline-managing computer (Ohata et al., SPring-8 beamline control system, ICALEPCS'99, Trieste, Italy, 1999). At the beginning the network was based on the shared topology at all beamlines. Consequently, it has a risk for misapplication of the user's program to access different machines on the network system cross over beamlines. It is serious problem for the SPring-8 beamline control system, because all beamlines controlled with unified software interfaces. We introduced the switching technology and the firewalls to support network access control. Also the virtual networking (VLAN: IEEE 802.1Q) and the gigabit Ethernet technology (IEEE 802.3ab) are introduced. Thus the network security and the reliability are guaranteed at the higher level in SPring-8 beamline

  6. Phase-contrast X-ray imaging using an X-ray interferometer for biological imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Momose, Atsushi; Koyama, Ichiro [Tokyo Univ., Dept. of Applied Physics, Tokyo (Japan); Takeda, Tohoru; Itai, Yuji [Tsukuba Univ., Inst. of Clinical Medicine, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Yoneyama, Akio [Hitachi Ltd., Advanced Research Laboratory, Saitama (Japan)

    2002-04-01

    The potential of phase-contrast X-ray imaging using an X-ray interferometer is discussed comparing with other phase-contrast X-ray imaging methods, and its principle of contrast generation is presented including the case of phase-contrast X-ray computed tomography. The status of current instrumentation is described and perspectives for practical applications are discussed. (author)

  7. Low-dose quantitative phase contrast medical CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittone, A.; Bravin, A.; Coan, P.

    2018-02-01

    X-ray computed tomography (CT) is a powerful and routinely used clinical diagnostic technique, which is well tolerated by patients, and which provides high-resolution images and volumetric information about the body. However, two important limitations still affect this examination procedure: (1) its low sensitivity with respect to soft tissues, and (2) the hazards associated with x-ray exposure. Conventional radiology is based on the detection of the different photon absorption properties that characterize biological tissues, and thus the obtainable image contrast from soft and/or similar tissues is intrinsically limited. In this scenario, x-ray phase contrast imaging (XPCI) has been extensively tested and proven to overcome some of the main issues surrounding standard x-ray imaging. In addition to the absorption signal, XPCI relies on detecting the phase shifts induced by an object. Interestingly, as the order of magnitude of the phase contrast is higher than that of absorption, XPCI can, in principle, offer higher sensitivity at lower radiation doses. However, other technical aspects may counterbalance this gain, and an optimized setup and image processing solutions need to be implemented. The work presented here describes the strategies and developments we have realized, with the aim of controlling the radiation dose for the highly sensitive and quantitative XPCI-CT. Different algorithms for the phase retrieval and CT reconstruction of the XPCI data are presented. The CT algorithms we have implemented, namely the equally sloped tomography and the dictionary learning method, allow the image quality to be preserved while reducing the number of angular projections required by a factor of five. The results applied to breast imaging report accurate reconstructions at clinically compatible doses of the 3D distribution of the refractive properties of full human organs obtained by using three different phase retrieval methods. The described methodologies and the

  8. Effect of reciprocating systems and working lengths on apical microcrack development: a micro-CT Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Bruna Paloma de; Câmara, Andréa Cruz; Duarte, Daniel Amancio; Antonino, Antonio Celso Dantas; Aguiar, Carlos Menezes, E-mail: bruna_paloma@msn.com [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Heck, Richard John [Department of Land Resource Science, University of Guelph (Canada)

    2017-11-15

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of root canal preparation with single-file reciprocating systems at different working lengths on the development of apical microcracks using micro-computed tomographic (micro-CT) imaging. Forty extracted human mandibular incisors were randomly assigned to 4 groups (n=10) according to the systems and working length used to prepare the root canals: Group A - WaveOne Gold at apical foramen (AF), Group B - WaveOne Gold 1 mm short of the AF (AF-1 mm), Group C - Unicone (AF) and Group D - Unicone (AF-1 mm). Micro-CT scanning was performed before and after root canal preparation at an isotropic resolution of 14 μm. Then, three examiners assessed the cross-sectional images generated to detect microcracks in the apical portion of the roots. Apical microcracks were visualized in 3, 1, 1, and 3 specimens in groups A, B, C, and D, respectively. All these microcracks observed after root canal preparation already existed prior to instrumentation, and no new apical microcrack was detected. For all groups, the number of slices presenting microcracks after root canal preparation was the same as before canal preparation. Root canal preparation with WaveOne Gold and Unicone, regardless of the working length, was not associated with apical microcrack formation. (author)

  9. A Look from the Inside: MicroCT Analysis of Burned Bones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Boschin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available MicroCT imaging is increasingly used in paleoanthropological and zooarchaeological research to analyse the internal microstructure of bone, replacing comparatively invasive and destructive methods. Consequently the analytical potential of this relatively new 3D imaging technology can be enhanced by developing discipline specific protocols for archaeological analysis. Here we examine how the microstructure of mammal bone changes after burning and explore if X-ray computed microtomography (microCT can be used to obtain reliable information from burned specimens. We subjected domestic pig, roe deer, and red fox bones to burning at different temperatures and for different periods using an oven and an open fire. We observed significant changes in the three-dimensional microstructure of trabecular bone, suggesting that biomechanical studies or other analyses (for instance, determination of age-at-death can be compromised by burning. In addition, bone subjected to very high temperatures (600°C or more became cracked, posing challenges for quantifying characteristics of bone microstructure. Specimens burned at 600°C or greater temperatures, exhibit a characteristic criss-cross cracking pattern concentrated in the cortical region of the epiphyses. This feature, which can be readily observed on the surface of whole bone, could help the identification of heavily burned specimens that are small fragments, where color and surface texture are altered by diagenesis or weathering.

  10. Assessment of scaffold porosity: the new route of micro-CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertoldi, Serena; Farè, Silvia; Tanzi, Maria Cristina

    2011-01-01

    A complete morphologic characterization of porous scaffolds for tissue engineering application is fundamental, as the architectural parameters, in particular porosity, strongly affect the mechanical and biological performance of the structures. Therefore, appropriate techniques for this purpose need to be selected. Several techniques for the assessment of scaffold porosity have been proposed, including Scanning Electron Microscopy observation, mercury and liquid extrusion porosimetry, gas pycnometry, and capillary flow porometry. Each of these techniques has several drawbacks and, a combination of different techniques is often required so as to achieve an in depth study of the morphologic properties of the scaffold. A single technique is often limited and suitable only for the assessment of a specific parameter. To overcome this limit, the most attractive option would be a single nondestructive technique, yet capable of providing a comprehensive set of data. It appears that micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) can potentially fulfill this role. Initially developed to characterize the 3D trabecular microarchitecture of bone, its use has been recently exploited by researchers for the morphologic characterization of porous biomaterials, as it enables obtaining a full assessment of the porous structures both in terms of pore size and interconnected porosity. This review aims to explore the use of micro-CT in scaffold characterization, comparing it with other previously developed techniques; we also focus on the contribution of this innovative tool to the development of scaffold-based tissue engineering application.

  11. Effect of reciprocating systems and working lengths on apical microcrack development: a micro-CT Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Bruna Paloma de; Câmara, Andréa Cruz; Duarte, Daniel Amancio; Antonino, Antonio Celso Dantas; Aguiar, Carlos Menezes; Heck, Richard John

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of root canal preparation with single-file reciprocating systems at different working lengths on the development of apical microcracks using micro-computed tomographic (micro-CT) imaging. Forty extracted human mandibular incisors were randomly assigned to 4 groups (n=10) according to the systems and working length used to prepare the root canals: Group A - WaveOne Gold at apical foramen (AF), Group B - WaveOne Gold 1 mm short of the AF (AF-1 mm), Group C - Unicone (AF) and Group D - Unicone (AF-1 mm). Micro-CT scanning was performed before and after root canal preparation at an isotropic resolution of 14 μm. Then, three examiners assessed the cross-sectional images generated to detect microcracks in the apical portion of the roots. Apical microcracks were visualized in 3, 1, 1, and 3 specimens in groups A, B, C, and D, respectively. All these microcracks observed after root canal preparation already existed prior to instrumentation, and no new apical microcrack was detected. For all groups, the number of slices presenting microcracks after root canal preparation was the same as before canal preparation. Root canal preparation with WaveOne Gold and Unicone, regardless of the working length, was not associated with apical microcrack formation. (author)

  12. Micro-CT based finite element models for elastic properties of glass-ceramic scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagliabue, Stefano; Rossi, Erica; Baino, Francesco; Vitale-Brovarone, Chiara; Gastaldi, Dario; Vena, Pasquale

    2017-01-01

    In this study, the mechanical properties of porous glass-ceramic scaffolds are investigated by means of three-dimensional finite element models based on micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) scan data. In particular, the quantitative relationship between the morpho-architectural features of the obtained scaffolds, such as macroscopic porosity and strut thickness, and elastic properties, is sought. The macroscopic elastic properties of the scaffolds have been obtained through numerical homogenization approaches using the mechanical characteristics of the solid walls of the scaffolds (assessed through nanoindentation) as input parameters for the numerical simulations. Anisotropic mechanical properties of the produced scaffolds have also been investigated by defining a suitable anisotropy index. A comparison with morphological data obtained through the micro-CT scans is also presented. The proposed study shows that the produced glass-ceramic scaffolds exhibited a macroscopic porosity ranging between 29% and 97% which corresponds to an average stiffness ranging between 42.4GPa and 36MPa. A quantitative estimation of the isotropy of the macroscopic elastic properties has been performed showing that the samples with higher solid fractions were those closest to an isotropic material. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. In vivo micro-CT analysis of bone remodeling in a rat calvarial defect model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umoh, Joseph U; Holdsworth, David W [Pre-Clinical Imaging Research Centre, Robarts Research Institute, Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Western Ontario, PO Box 5015, 100 Perth Drive, London, ON N6A 5K8 (Canada); Sampaio, Arthur V; Underhill, T Michael [Laboratory of Molecular Skeletogenesis, Department of Cellular and Physiological Sciences, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Welch, Ian [Animal Care and Veterinary Services, University of Western Ontario, London, ON (Canada); Pitelka, Vasek; Goldberg, Harvey A [CIHR Group in Skeletal Development and Remodelling, University of Western Ontario, London, ON (Canada)], E-mail: jumoh@imaging.robarts.ca, E-mail: asampaio@interchange.ubc.ca, E-mail: tunderhi@interchange.ubc.ca, E-mail: iwelch@uwo.ca, E-mail: vasek.pitelka@schulich.uwo.ca, E-mail: hagoldbe@uwo.ca, E-mail: david.holdsworth@imaging.robarts.ca

    2009-04-07

    The rodent calvarial defect model is commonly used to investigate bone regeneration and wound healing. This study presents a micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) methodology for measuring the bone mineral content (BMC) in a rat calvarial defect and validates it by estimating its precision error. Two defect models were implemented. A single 6 mm diameter defect was created in 20 rats, which were imaged in vivo for longitudinal experiments. Three 5 mm diameter defects were created in three additional rats, which were repeatedly imaged ex vivo to determine precision. Four control rats and four rats treated with bone morphogenetic protein were imaged at 3, 6, 9 and 12 weeks post-surgery. Scan parameters were 80 kVp, 0.45 mA and 180 mAs. Images were reconstructed with an isotropic resolution of 45 {mu}m. At 6 weeks, the BMC in control animals (4.37 {+-} 0.66 mg) was significantly lower (p < 0.05) than that in treated rats (11.29 {+-} 1.01 mg). Linear regression between the BMC and bone fractional area, from 20 rats, showed a strong correlation (r{sup 2} = 0.70, p < 0.0001), indicating that the BMC can be used, in place of previous destructive analysis techniques, to characterize bone growth. The high precision (2.5%) of the micro-CT methodology indicates its utility in detecting small BMC changes in animals.

  14. Monte Carlo dosimetry of iodine contrast objects in a small animal microCT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez-Villafuerte, M., E-mail: mercedes@fisica.unam.mx [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, A.P. 20-364, 01000 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Martinez-Davalos, A. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, A.P. 20-364, 01000 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2011-08-21

    Small animal microcomputed tomography (microCT) studies with iodine-based contrast media are commonly used in preclinical research. While the use of contrast media improves the quality of the images, it can also result in an increase in the absorbed dose to organs with high concentration of the contrast agent, which might cause radiation damage to the animal. In this work we present the results of a Monte Carlo investigation of a microCT dosimetry study using mouse-sized cylindrical water phantoms with iodine contrast insets for different X-ray spectra (Mo and W targets, 30-80 kVp), iodine concentrations (0, 5, 10 and 15 mg mL{sup -1}) and contrast object sizes (3 and 10 mm diameter). Our results indicate an absorbed dose increase in the contrast-inset regions with respect to the absorbed dose distribution within a reference uniform water phantom. The calculated spatial absorbed dose distributions show large gradients due to beam hardening effects, and large absorbed dose enhancement as the mean energy of the beam and iodine concentration increase. We have found that absorbed doses in iodine contrast objects can increase by a factor of up to 12 for a realistic 80 kVp X-ray spectra and an iodine concentration of 15 mg mL{sup -1}.

  15. Influence of metal artifacts on in vivo micro-CT for orthodontic mini-implants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ejima, Ken-ichiro; Omasa, Saori; Motoyoshi, Mitsuru; Arai, Yoshinori; Kai, Yukiko; Amemiya, Toshihiko; Yamada, Hisaya; Honda, Kazuya; Shimizu, Noriyoshi

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to show the effects of metal artifacts on the in vivo micro-CT of mini-implants by measuring bone volume. We drilled a hole in the cortical bone of a rat tibia and embedded a titanium orthodontic mini-implant (diameter, 1.5 mm) in the hole. Twelve individually weighed hydroxyapatite grains (HA grains) were placed around the implant either by one dentist (method 1) or separately by 12 dentists (method 2). In vivo micro-CT was used to scan the model after placement of each grain to measure increases and decreases in bone volume voxel number. The subtracted bone voxel volume increased with HA weight in both methods. Simple linear regression analysis showed a significant correlation between weight and volume in both methods (method 1: regression coefficient: 516.502, P<0.05; method 2: regression coefficient: 4837.432, P<0.05). Metal artifacts did not appear to influence measurements of bone volume, although further studies are required to determine the effect of thicker implants. (author)

  16. Data Analysis of Medical Images: CT, MRI, Phase Contrast X-ray and PET

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anders Nymark

    of micro-CT images followed by a statistical analysis of homogeneity, contrast, degradation, and other qualities. By combining knowledge from the different professions in the project, a new application for one of the developed gels - in-vivo dosimetry in radiotherapy - has been studied. Analysis...

  17. Prospective respiratory-gated micro-CT of free breathing rodents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, Nancy L.; Nikolov, Hristo N.; Norley, Chris J.D.; Thornton, Michael M.; Foster, Paula J.; Drangova, Maria; Holdsworth, David W.

    2005-01-01

    Microcomputed tomography (Micro-CT) has the potential to noninvasively image the structure of organs in rodent models with high spatial resolution and relatively short image acquisition times. However, motion artifacts associated with the normal respiratory motion of the animal may arise when imaging the abdomen or thorax. To reduce these artifacts and the accompanying loss of spatial resolution, we propose a prospective respiratory gating technique for use with anaesthetized, free-breathing rodents. A custom-made bed with an embedded pressure chamber was connected to a pressure transducer. Anaesthetized animals were placed in the prone position on the bed with their abdomens located over the chamber. During inspiration, the motion of the diaphragm caused an increase in the chamber pressure, which was converted into a voltage signal by the transducer. An output voltage was used to trigger image acquisition at any desired time point in the respiratory cycle. Digital radiographic images were acquired of anaesthetized, free-breathing rats with a digital radiographic system to correlate the respiratory wave form with respiration-induced organ motion. The respiratory wave form was monitored and recorded simultaneously with the x-ray radiation pulses, and an imaging window was defined, beginning at end expiration. Phantom experiments were performed to verify that the respiratory gating apparatus was triggering the micro-CT system. Attached to the distensible phantom were 100 μm diameter copper wires and the measured full width at half maximum was used to assess differences in image quality between respiratory-gated and ungated imaging protocols. This experiment allowed us to quantify the improvement in the spatial resolution, and the reduction of motion artifacts caused by moving structures, in the images resulting from respiratory-gated image acquisitions. The measured wire diameters were 0.135 mm for the stationary phantom image, 0.137 mm for the image gated at end

  18. New developments in simulating X-ray phase contrast imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterzol, A.; Berthier, J.; Duvauchelle, P.; Babot, D.; Ferrero, C.

    2007-01-01

    A deterministic algorithm simulating phase contrast (PC) x-ray images for complex 3- dimensional (3D) objects is presented. This algorithm has been implemented in a simulation code named VXI (Virtual X-ray Imaging). The physical model chosen to account for PC technique is based on the Fresnel-Kirchhoff diffraction theory. The algorithm consists mainly of two parts. The first one exploits the VXI ray-tracing approach to compute the object transmission function. The second part simulates the PC image due to the wave front distortion introduced by the sample. In the first part, the use of computer-aided drawing (CAD) models enables simulations to be carried out with complex 3D objects. Differently from the VXI original version, which makes use of an object description via triangular facets, the new code requires a more 'sophisticated' object representation based on Non-Uniform Rational B-Splines (NURBS). As a first step we produce a spatial high resolution image by using a point and monochromatic source and an ideal detector. To simulate the polychromatic case, the intensity image is integrated over the considered x-ray energy spectrum. Then, in order to account for the system spatial resolution properties, the high spatial resolution image (mono or polychromatic) is convolved with the total point spread function of the imaging system under consideration. The results supplied by the presented algorithm are examined with the help of some relevant examples. (authors)

  19. Phase-contrast MR angiography of intracranial dural arteriovenous fistulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cellerini, M.; Mascalchi, M.; Mangiafico, S.; Ferrito, G.P.; Scardigli, V.; Pellicano, G.; Quilici, N.

    1999-01-01

    MRI and phase-contrast MR angiography (PC MRA) were obtained in 13 patients with angiographically confirmed intracranial dural arteriovenous fistulae (DAVF). Three- and two-dimensional PC MRA was obtained with low (6-20 cm/s) and high (>40 cm/s) velocity encoding along the three main body axes. MRI showed focal or diffuse signal abnormalities in the brain parenchyma in six patients, dilated cortical veins in seven, venous pouches in four with type IV DAVF and enlargement of the superior ophthalmic vein in three patients with DAVF of the cavernous sinus. However, it showed none of the fistula sites and did not allow reliable identification of feeding arteries. 3D PC MRA enabled identification of the fistula and enlarged feeding arteries in six cases each. Stenosis or occlusion of the dural sinuses was detected in six of eight cases on 3D PC MRA with low velocity encoding. In six patients with type II DAVF phase reconstruction of 2D PC MRA demonstrated flow reversal in the dural sinuses or superior ophthalmic vein. (orig.)

  20. Phase contrast imaging diagnostic for the Wendelstein 7-X stellarator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boettger, Lukas-Georg; Grulke, Olaf [Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, 17491 Greifswald (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    The phase contrast imaging (PCI) diagnostic allows for non-invasive measurements of density fluctuations in high temperature plasmas. Since the index of refraction in a plasma is a function of the electron density, an incoming laser beam experiences a phase shift, which can be converted to intensity variations via interference after passing a phase plate. Generally speaking, the signal contains only the line-integrated information along the beam path. This limitation can be circumvented by using the fact that the density fluctuations form filamentary structures that are well aligned with the local magnetic field. If the magnetic field direction significantly varies along the beam path, optical filtering allows for localization of the density fluctuations. In order to identify the best diagnostic position regarding localization performance three figures of merit are introduced. They allow for quantitative comparison of different lines of sight and different magnetic field configurations. The results of the optimization process and a comparison with other fusion experiments are shown in this contribution.

  1. Analyser-based phase contrast image reconstruction using geometrical optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitchen, M J; Pavlov, K M; Siu, K K W; Menk, R H; Tromba, G; Lewis, R A

    2007-01-01

    Analyser-based phase contrast imaging can provide radiographs of exceptional contrast at high resolution (<100 μm), whilst quantitative phase and attenuation information can be extracted using just two images when the approximations of geometrical optics are satisfied. Analytical phase retrieval can be performed by fitting the analyser rocking curve with a symmetric Pearson type VII function. The Pearson VII function provided at least a 10% better fit to experimentally measured rocking curves than linear or Gaussian functions. A test phantom, a hollow nylon cylinder, was imaged at 20 keV using a Si(1 1 1) analyser at the ELETTRA synchrotron radiation facility. Our phase retrieval method yielded a more accurate object reconstruction than methods based on a linear fit to the rocking curve. Where reconstructions failed to map expected values, calculations of the Takagi number permitted distinction between the violation of the geometrical optics conditions and the failure of curve fitting procedures. The need for synchronized object/detector translation stages was removed by using a large, divergent beam and imaging the object in segments. Our image acquisition and reconstruction procedure enables quantitative phase retrieval for systems with a divergent source and accounts for imperfections in the analyser

  2. Analyser-based phase contrast image reconstruction using geometrical optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitchen, M J; Pavlov, K M; Siu, K K W; Menk, R H; Tromba, G; Lewis, R A

    2007-07-21

    Analyser-based phase contrast imaging can provide radiographs of exceptional contrast at high resolution (geometrical optics are satisfied. Analytical phase retrieval can be performed by fitting the analyser rocking curve with a symmetric Pearson type VII function. The Pearson VII function provided at least a 10% better fit to experimentally measured rocking curves than linear or Gaussian functions. A test phantom, a hollow nylon cylinder, was imaged at 20 keV using a Si(1 1 1) analyser at the ELETTRA synchrotron radiation facility. Our phase retrieval method yielded a more accurate object reconstruction than methods based on a linear fit to the rocking curve. Where reconstructions failed to map expected values, calculations of the Takagi number permitted distinction between the violation of the geometrical optics conditions and the failure of curve fitting procedures. The need for synchronized object/detector translation stages was removed by using a large, divergent beam and imaging the object in segments. Our image acquisition and reconstruction procedure enables quantitative phase retrieval for systems with a divergent source and accounts for imperfections in the analyser.

  3. Coronary artery wall imaging in mice using osmium tetroxide and micro-computed tomography (micro-CT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pai, Vinay M.; Kozlowski, Megan; Donahue, Danielle; Miller, Elishiah; Xiao, Xianghui; Chen, Marcus Y.; Yu, Zu-Xi; Connelly, Patricia; Jeffries, Kenneth; Wen, Han

    2012-01-01

    The high spatial resolution of micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) is ideal for 3D imaging of coronary arteries in intact mouse heart specimens. Previously, micro-CT of mouse heart specimens utilized intravascular contrast agents that hardened within the vessel lumen and allowed a vascular cast to be made. However, for mouse coronary artery disease models, it is highly desirable to image coronary artery walls and highlight plaques. For this purpose, we describe an ex vivo contrast-enhanced micro-CT imaging technique based on tissue staining with osmium tetroxide (OsO 4 ) solution. As a tissue-staining contrast agent, OsO 4 is retained in the vessel wall and surrounding tissue during the fixation process and cleared from the vessel lumens. Its high X-ray attenuation makes the artery wall visible in CT. Additionally, since OsO 4 preferentially binds to lipids, it highlights lipid deposition in the artery wall. We performed micro-CT of heart specimens of 5- to 25-week-old C57BL/6 wild-type mice and 5- to 13-week-old apolipoprotein E knockout (apoE -/- ) mice at 10 μm resolution. The results show that walls of coronary arteries as small as 45 μm in diameter are visible using a table-top micro-CT scanner. Similar image clarity was achieved with 1/2000th the scan time using a synchrotron CT scanner. In 13-week-old apoE mice, lipid-rich plaques are visible in the aorta. Our study shows that the combination of OsO 4 and micro-CT permits the visualization of the coronary artery wall in intact mouse hearts.

  4. APS beamline standard components handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzay, T.M.

    1992-01-01

    It is clear that most Advanced Photon Source (APS) Collaborative Access Team (CAT) members would like to concentrate on designing specialized equipment related to their scientific programs rather than on routine or standard beamline components. Thus, an effort is in progress at the APS to identify standard and modular components of APS beamlines. Identifying standard components is a nontrivial task because these components should support diverse beamline objectives. To assist with this effort, the APS has obtained advice and help from a Beamline Standardization and Modularization Committee consisting of experts in beamline design, construction, and operation. The staff of the Experimental Facilities Division identified various components thought to be standard items for beamlines, regardless of the specific scientific objective of a particular beamline. A generic beamline layout formed the basis for this identification. This layout is based on a double-crystal monochromator as the first optical element, with the possibility of other elements to follow. Pre-engineering designs were then made of the identified standard components. The Beamline Standardization and Modularization Committee has reviewed these designs and provided very useful input regarding the specifications of these components. We realize that there will be other configurations that may require special or modified components. This Handbook in its current version (1.1) contains descriptions, specifications, and pre-engineering design drawings of these standard components. In the future, the APS plans to add engineering drawings of identified standard beamline components. Use of standard components should result in major cost reductions for CATs in the areas of beamline design and construction

  5. Phase contrast MRI assessment of pedal blood flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debatin, J.F.; Dalman, R.; Herfkens, R.J.; Harris, E.J.; Pelc, N.J.

    1995-01-01

    This study attempts to evaluate the reliability of cine phase contrast (PC) flow measurements in the assessment of normal pedal blood flow and quantitation of revascularisation-induced flow changes in patients with end-stage peripheral vascular occlusive disease (PVOD). Oblique axial cine-PC acquisitions were obtained on a 1.5 T MRI system at the level of the talotibial joints in 8 normal subjects on four separate occasions. Subsequently 8 patients with end-stage PVOD were examined before and after surgical revascularisation (bilateral, n = 2; unilateral, n = 6). Measured flow in the trifurcation vessels was highly variable among normal subjects. Total pedal flow ranged from 32 to 183 ml/min (mean 91 ml/min) and was significantly different between the subjects evaluated (P < 0.0001). Measurements in the same subject over time were considerably less variable (P < 0.005). Normal arterial flow patterns were consistently triphasic; those in patients with PVOD were either mono- or biphasic. Pedal flow measured by cine-PC in patients was reduced compared with normal subjects (mean 38.3 ml/min). Flow was slower in symptomatic limbs (26.7 ml/min) compared with asymptomatic ones (48.9 ml/min). Flow increases in revascularised limbs (mean 315%) were significantly different from those observed in non-affected limbs (P < 0.005). The ability to quantitate pedal blood flow and subsequent revascularisation-induced flow increases appears promising for the identification of optimal treatment options and monitoring of treatment results. (orig.)

  6. The Diamond Beamline I13L for Imaging and Coherence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rau, C.; Wagner, U.; Peach, A.; Singh, B.; Wilkin, G.; Jones, C.; Robinson, I. K.

    2010-01-01

    I13L is the first long beamline at Diamond dedicated to imaging and coherence. Two independent branches will operate in the energy range of 6-30 keV with spatial resolution on the micro- to nano-lengthscale. The Imaging branch is dedicated to imaging and tomography with In-line phase contrast and full-field microscopy on the micron to nano-length scale. Ultimate resolution will be achieved on the Coherence branch at I13L with imaging techniques in the reciprocal space. The experimental stations will be located about 250 m from the source, taking advantage of the coherence properties of the source. The beamline has some outstanding features such as the mini-beta layout of the storage ring's straight section. The optical layout is optimized for beam stability and high optical quality to preserve the coherent radiation. In the experimental stations several methods will be available, starting for the first user with in-line phase contrast imaging on the imaging branch and Coherent X-ray Diffraction (CXRD) on the coherence branch.

  7. Implementation and commissioning of an integrated micro-CT/RT system with computerized independent jaw collimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, Michael D.; Hrinivich, W. Thomas; Jung, Jongho A.; Holdsworth, David W.; Drangova, Maria; Chen, Jeff; Wong, Eugene

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To design, construct, and commission a set of computer-controlled motorized jaws for a micro-CT/RT system to perform conformal image-guided small animal radiotherapy.Methods: The authors designed and evaluated a system of custom-built motorized orthogonal jaws, which allows the delivery of off-axis rectangular fields on a GE eXplore CT 120 preclinical imaging system. The jaws in the x direction are independently driven, while the y-direction jaws are symmetric. All motors have backup encoders, verifying jaw positions. Mechanical performance of the jaws was characterized. Square beam profiles ranging from 2 × 2 to 60 × 60 mm 2 were measured using EBT2 film in the center of a 70 × 70 × 22 mm 3 solid water block. Similarly, absolute depth dose was measured in a solid water and EBT2 film stack 50 × 50 × 50 mm 3 . A calibrated Farmer ion chamber in a 70 × 70 × 20 mm 3 solid water block was used to measure the output of three field sizes: 50 × 50, 40 × 40, and 30 × 30 mm 2 . Elliptical target plans were delivered to films to assess overall system performance. Respiratory-gated treatment was implemented on the system and initially proved using a simple sinusoidal motion phantom. All films were scanned on a flatbed scanner (Epson 1000XL) and converted to dose using a fitted calibration curve. A Monte Carlo beam model of the micro-CT with the jaws has been created using BEAMnrc for comparison with the measurements. An example image-guided partial lung irradiation in a rat is demonstrated.Results: The averaged random error of positioning each jaw is less than 0.1 mm. Relative output factors measured with the ion chamber agree with Monte Carlo simulations within 2%. Beam profiles and absolute depth dose curves measured from the films agree with simulations within measurement uncertainty. Respiratory-gated treatments applied to a phantom moving with a peak-to-peak amplitude of 5 mm showed improved beam penumbra (80%–20%) from 3.9 to 0.8 mm.Conclusions: A

  8. Implementation and commissioning of an integrated micro-CT/RT system with computerized independent jaw collimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, Michael D. [Department of Medical Biophysics, The University of Western Ontario, 1151 Richmond Street, London, Ontario N6A 3K7 (Canada); Hrinivich, W. Thomas; Jung, Jongho A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Western Ontario, 1151 Richmond Street, London, Ontario N6A 3K7 (Canada); Holdsworth, David W. [Imaging Research Laboratories, Robarts Research Institute, 100 Perth Drive, London, Ontario N6A 5K8 (Canada); Department of Medical Biophysics, The University of Western Ontario, 1151 Richmond Street, London, Ontario N6A 3K7 (Canada); Department of Surgery, The University of Western Ontario, 1151 Richmond Street, London, Ontario N6A 3K7 (Canada); Drangova, Maria [Imaging Research Laboratories, Robarts Research Institute, 100 Perth Drive, London, Ontario N6A 5K8, Canada and Department of Medical Biophysics, The University of Western Ontario 1151 Richmond Street, London, Ontario N6A 3K7 (Canada); Chen, Jeff [Department of Physics and Engineering, London Regional Cancer Program, London Health Sciences Centre, 800 Commissioners Road East, London, Ontario N6A 5W9 (Canada); Department of Medical Biophysics, The University of Western Ontario, 1151 Richmond Street, London, Ontario N6A 3K7 (Canada); Department of Oncology, The University of Western Ontario, 1151 Richmond Street, London, Ontario N6A 3K7 (Canada); Wong, Eugene [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Western Ontario, 1151 Richmond Street, London, Ontario N6A 3K7 (Canada); Department of Medical Biophysics, The University of Western Ontario, 1151 Richmond Street, London, Ontario N6A 3K7 (Canada); Department of Oncology, The University of Western Ontario, 1151 Richmond Street, London, Ontario N6A 3K7 (Canada); Department of Physics and Engineering, London Regional Cancer Program, London Health Sciences Centre, 800 Commissioners Road East, London, Ontario N6A 5W9 (Canada)

    2013-08-15

    Purpose: To design, construct, and commission a set of computer-controlled motorized jaws for a micro-CT/RT system to perform conformal image-guided small animal radiotherapy.Methods: The authors designed and evaluated a system of custom-built motorized orthogonal jaws, which allows the delivery of off-axis rectangular fields on a GE eXplore CT 120 preclinical imaging system. The jaws in the x direction are independently driven, while the y-direction jaws are symmetric. All motors have backup encoders, verifying jaw positions. Mechanical performance of the jaws was characterized. Square beam profiles ranging from 2 × 2 to 60 × 60 mm{sup 2} were measured using EBT2 film in the center of a 70 × 70 × 22 mm{sup 3} solid water block. Similarly, absolute depth dose was measured in a solid water and EBT2 film stack 50 × 50 × 50 mm{sup 3}. A calibrated Farmer ion chamber in a 70 × 70 × 20 mm{sup 3} solid water block was used to measure the output of three field sizes: 50 × 50, 40 × 40, and 30 × 30 mm{sup 2}. Elliptical target plans were delivered to films to assess overall system performance. Respiratory-gated treatment was implemented on the system and initially proved using a simple sinusoidal motion phantom. All films were scanned on a flatbed scanner (Epson 1000XL) and converted to dose using a fitted calibration curve. A Monte Carlo beam model of the micro-CT with the jaws has been created using BEAMnrc for comparison with the measurements. An example image-guided partial lung irradiation in a rat is demonstrated.Results: The averaged random error of positioning each jaw is less than 0.1 mm. Relative output factors measured with the ion chamber agree with Monte Carlo simulations within 2%. Beam profiles and absolute depth dose curves measured from the films agree with simulations within measurement uncertainty. Respiratory-gated treatments applied to a phantom moving with a peak-to-peak amplitude of 5 mm showed improved beam penumbra (80%–20%) from 3.9 to

  9. Tumor volume in subcutaneous mouse xenografts measured by microCT is more accurate and reproducible than determined by 18F-FDG-microPET or external caliper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mette Munk; Jørgensen, Jesper Tranekjaer; Binderup, Tina

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In animal studies tumor size is used to assess responses to anticancer therapy. Current standard for volumetric measurement of xenografted tumors is by external caliper, a method often affected by error. The aim of the present study was to evaluate if microCT gives more accurate...... (n = 20) was determined in vivo by external caliper, microCT and 18F-FDG-PET and subsequently reference volume was determined ex vivo. Intra-observer reproducibility of the microCT and caliper methods were determined by acquiring 10 repeated volume measurements. Volumes of a group of tumors (n = 10......) were determined independently by two observers to assess inter-observer variation. RESULTS: Tumor volume measured by microCT, PET and caliper all correlated with reference volume. No significant bias of microCT measurements compared with the reference was found, whereas both PET and caliper had...

  10. A micro-CT research on early faience:a case study of Peng state faience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Zhou; Yang Yimin; Wang Ning; Wang Changsui; Xie Yaoting; Xiao Tiqiao

    2012-01-01

    Faience is supposed to be the precursor of ancient glass. Studies on Chinese faience are of help in understanding the origin and development of Chinese ancient glass. In this paper, non-destructive methods of SR-μCT, XRD and EDXRF are used to analyze a faience bead from Peng state in Western Zhou period (BC1046-BC771). The results show that the bead body is composed of micro quartz particles, and the body is denser than that of Western faience. The manufacture procedure can be deduced as follows: based on a cylinder core, the quartz particles were piled to form the body, which was then glazed and heated; after that the core was stripped. This technology was influenced by the bronze and protoporcelain production. Micro CT has great potential to study microstructure of ancient faience. (authors)

  11. Micro-CT of sea urchin ossicles supplemented with microbeam diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Stuart R.; Ignatiev, Konstantin I.; Veis, Arthur; De Carlo, Francesco; Almer, J. D.

    2004-10-01

    Sea urchins employ as wide a range of composite reinforcement strategies as are seen in engineering composites. Besides tailoring reinforcement morphology and alignment to the functional demands of position, solid solution strengthening (high Mg calcite), inclusion toughening (macromolecules), functional gradients in mineral reinforcement morphology, composition and dimensions and mineral interface tailoring are other tactics important to achieving high toughness and high strength in sea urchin teeth. Teeth from different echinoid families illustrate combinations of reinforcement parameters and toughening mechanisms providing good functionality, a virtual probe of the available design space. This paper focuses on a multi-mode x-ray investigation of sea urchin teeth studied on scales approaching 1 μm in millimeter-sized samples, in particular mapping 3-D microarchitecture with synchrotron and laboratory microCT and mapping Ca1-xMgxCO3 crystal composition x and microstrain and crystallite size via microbeam diffraction.

  12. Response to 'Comments on 'Ionization chamber volume determination and quality assurance using micro-CT imaging''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNiven, Andrea L; Holdsworth, David W; Battista, Jerry J; Umoh, Joseph; Kron, Tomas

    2009-01-01

    Air ionization chamber dosimetry plays a crucial role in international dose calibration for the radiotherapy clinical environment. Micro-CT images of ion chambers can play an important role in quality assurance of these devices by detecting internal geometry, materials and defects non-invasively, as we demonstrated (McNiven et al 2008 Phys. Med. Biol. 53 5029-43). We also suggested that electric-field simulation based upon these accurate chamber-specific 3D images rather than manufacturer blueprints could be valuable in assessing ionometric sensitivity. As recently performed by Ross et al these electric field simulations play a vital role in understanding key components that contribute to the chamber sensitive volume and ionization calibration coefficients. (letter to the editor)

  13. Geometric Parameters Estimation and Calibration in Cone-Beam Micro-CT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jintao Zhao

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The quality of Computed Tomography (CT images crucially depends on the precise knowledge of the scanner geometry. Therefore, it is necessary to estimate and calibrate the misalignments before image acquisition. In this paper, a Two-Piece-Ball (TPB phantom is used to estimate a set of parameters that describe the geometry of a cone-beam CT system. Only multiple projections of the TPB phantom at one position are required, which can avoid the rotation errors when acquiring multi-angle projections. Also, a corresponding algorithm is derived. The performance of the method is evaluated through simulation and experimental data. The results demonstrated that the proposed method is valid and easy to implement. Furthermore, the experimental results from the Micro-CT system demonstrate the ability to reduce artifacts and improve image quality through geometric parameter calibration.

  14. Comparison of photon counting versus charge integration micro-CT within the irradiation setup PIXSCAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouamara, H.

    2013-01-01

    The pathway that has been followed by the imXgam team at CPPM was to adapt the hybrid pixel technology XPAD to biomedical imaging. It is in this context that the micro-CT PIXSCAN II based on the new generation of hybrid pixel detectors called XPAD3 has been developed. This thesis describes the process undertaken to assess the contribution of the hybrid pixel technology in X-ray computed tomography in terms of contrast and dose and to explore new opportunities for biomedical imaging at low doses. Performance evaluation as well as the validation of the results obtained with data acquired with the detector XPAD3 were compared to results obtained with the CCD camera DALSA XR-4 similar to detectors used in most conventional micro-CT systems. The detector XPAD3 allows to obtain reconstructed images of satisfactory quality close to that of images from the DALSA XR-4 camera, but with a better spatial resolution. At low doses, the images from the detector XPAD3 have a better quality that is those from CCD camera. From an instrumentation point of view, this project demonstrated the proper operations of the device PIXSCAN II for mouse imaging. We were able to reproduce an image quality similar to that obtained with a charge integration detector such as a CCD camera. To improve the performance of the detector XPAD3, we will have to optimize the stability of the thresholds and in order to obtain more homogeneous response curves of the pixels as a function as energy by using a denser sensor such as CdTe. (author)

  15. Direct microCT imaging of non-mineralized connective tissues at high resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naveh, Gili R S; Brumfeld, Vlad; Dean, Mason; Shahar, Ron; Weiner, Steve

    2014-01-01

    The 3D imaging of soft tissues in their native state is challenging, especially when high resolution is required. An X-ray-based microCT is, to date, the best choice for high resolution 3D imaging of soft tissues. However, since X-ray attenuation of soft tissues is very low, contrasting enhancement using different staining materials is needed. The staining procedure, which also usually involves tissue fixation, causes unwanted and to some extent unknown tissue alterations. Here, we demonstrate that a method that enables 3D imaging of soft tissues without fixing and staining using an X-ray-based bench-top microCT can be applied to a variety of different tissues. With the sample mounted in a custom-made loading device inside a humidity chamber, we obtained soft tissue contrast and generated 3D images of fresh, soft tissues with a resolution of 1 micron voxel size. We identified three critical conditions which make it possible to image soft tissues: humidified environment, mechanical stabilization of the sample and phase enhancement. We demonstrate the capability of the technique using different specimens: an intervertebral disc, the non-mineralized growth plate, stingray tessellated radials (calcified cartilage) and the collagenous network of the periodontal ligament. Since the scanned specimen is fresh an interesting advantage of this technique is the ability to scan a specimen under load and track the changes of the different structures. This method offers a unique opportunity for obtaining valuable insights into 3D structure-function relationships of soft tissues.

  16. MicroCT Bone Densitometry: Context Sensitivity, Beam Hardening Correction and the Effect of Surrounding Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip L. Salmon

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The context-sensitivity of microCT bone densitometry due to beam hardening artefacts was assessed. Bones and teeth are scanned with varying thickness of surrounding media (water, alcohol, biological tissue and it is important to understand how this affects reconstructed attenuation (“density” of the mineralized tissue. Aluminium tubes and rods with thickness 0.127mm–5mm were scanned both in air or surrounded by up to 2cm of water. Scans were performed with different energy filters and degrees of software beam hardening correction (BHC. Also tested were the effects of signal-to-noise ratio, magnification and truncation. The thickness of an aluminium tube significantly affected its mean reconstructed attenuation. This effect of thickness could be reduced substantially by BHC for scans in air, but not for scans in water. Varying thickness of surrounding water also changed the mean attenuation of an aluminium tube. This artefact could be almost eliminated by an optimal BHC value. The “cupping” artefact of heterogeneous attenuation (elevated at outer surfaces could be corrected if aluminium was scanned in air, but in water BHC was much less effective. Scan truncation, changes to magnification and signal-to-noise ratio also caused artificial changes to measured attenuation. Measurement of bone mineral density by microCT is highly context sensitive. A surrounding layer of liquid or biological tissue reduces the ability of software BHC to remove bone density artefacts. Sample thickness, truncation, magnification and signal to noise ratio also affect reconstructed attenuation. Thus it is important for densitometry that sample and calibration phantom dimensions and mounting materials are standardised.

  17. Relationships between age and microarchitectural descriptors of iliac trabecular bone determined by microCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deguette, C; Ramond-Roquin, A; Rougé-Maillart, C

    2017-06-01

    Estimation of age at death is a major issue in anthropology. The main anthropological histological methods propose studying the architecture of cortical bone. In bone histomorphometry, researches on metabolic bone diseases have provided normative tables for trabecular bone volume (BV/TV) according to age and gender of individuals on trans-iliac bone biopsies. We have used microCT, a non-destructive tool for measuring bone volume and trabecular descriptors to compare the French tables to a series of forensic anthropological population and if the two iliac bones could be used interchangeably. Coxal bone of a personal forensic collection whose age and gender were known (DNA identification) were used. Bone samples, centered on the same area than bone biopsy. MicroCT (pixel size: 36μm) was used to measure BV/TV and morphometric trabecular parameters of microarchitecture. An adjusted Z-score was calculated for BV/TV to compare with normative tables and a right/left comparison of trabecular parameters was provided. Twenty-seven iliac bones, which 20 forming 10 complete pelvises, aged between 24 and 73y.o. (average of 47.7 y.o.) were used. All adjusted Z-score were within normal values. There was a strong positive correlation between right and left sides for Tb.Th, Tb.N and Tb.Sp, but an insignificant correlation was obtained for BV/TV. Normative tables between age and BV/TV are valid and therefore usable in anthropology. They may represent an alternative to determine the age at death. Nevertheless, it requires a precise technique that could be a drawback in current practice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Evaluation of internal adaptation of dental adhesive restorations using micro-CT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oh-Hyun Kwon

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives The internal adaptation of composite restorations with or without resin modified glass ionomer cement (RMGIC was analyzed non-destructively using Microcomputed tomography (micro-CT. Materials and Methods Thirty intact human teeth were used. The specimens were divided into 3 groups. In the control group, the cavities were etched with 10% phosphoric acid for 15 sec. Composite resin was filled into the cavity without adhesive. In group 1, light cured glass ionomer cement (GIC, Fuji II LC, GC was applied as a base. The cavities were then etched, bonded, light cured and filled with composites. In group 2, the cavities were then etched, bonded, light cured and filled with composites without base application. They were immersed in a 25% silver nitrate solution. Micro-CT was performed before and after mechanical loading. One-way ANOVA with Duncan analysis was used to compare the internal adaptation between the groups before or after loading. A paired t-test was used to compare internal adaptation before and after mechanical loading. All statistical inferences were made within the 95% confidence interval. Results The silver nitrate solution successfully penetrated into the dentinal tubules from the pulp spaces, and infiltrated into the gap between restoration and pulpal floor. Group 2 showed a lower adaptation than the control group and group 1 (p < 0.05. There was no significant difference between the control group and group 1. For all groups, there was a significant difference between before and after mechanical loading (p < 0.05. Conclusions The internal adaptation before and after loading was better when composites were bonded to tooth using adhesive than composites based with RMGIC.

  19. Effects of alveolar bone displacement with segmental osteotomy: micro-CT and histomorphometric analysis in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taegun KIM

    Full Text Available Abstract The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of segmental osteotomy on the blood vessels and osteoclasts in rats using micro-computed tomography (micro-CT and histomorphometric analysis. After segmental osteotomy was performed around the maxillary first molars of 36 male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 72, the samples were divided into a control group (no displacement, 0.5 D group (0.5 mm buccal displacement and 1.0 D group (1.0 mm buccal displacement (n = 24/group. At 1, 2, 4 and 8 weeks after surgery, changes in the blood vessel volume were investigated using micro-CT with perfusion of radiopaque silicone rubber. Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP staining was used for histomorphometric analysis. Two-way repeated measures analysis of variance (rmANOVA was performed to compare the volume of blood vessels and number of TRAP-positive osteoclasts among the groups. Regarding blood vessel volume, the displacement groups had no significant effects, while the time points had significant effects (p = 0.014. The blood vessel volume at 1 week was significantly smaller than that at 2, 4, and 8 weeks (p = 0.004, p = 0.026, and p = 0.005, respectively. Regarding TRAP cell count, the displacement groups had no significant effects, while the time points had significant effects (p < 0.001. The number of TRAP-positive osteoclasts at 8 weeks was significantly smaller than that at 1, 2, and 4 weeks (p < 0.001, p < 0.001, and p = 0.002, respectively, and the count at 4 weeks was smaller than that at 1 week (p = 0.011. Therefore, a regional osteoclast-related acceleratory phenomenon was maintained until 4 weeks after surgery.

  20. Estimation of skull table thickness with clinical CT and validation with microCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillie, Elizabeth M; Urban, Jillian E; Weaver, Ashley A; Powers, Alexander K; Stitzel, Joel D

    2015-01-01

    Brain injuries resulting from motor vehicle crashes (MVC) are extremely common yet the details of the mechanism of injury remain to be well characterized. Skull deformation is believed to be a contributing factor to some types of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Understanding biomechanical contributors to skull deformation would provide further insight into the mechanism of head injury resulting from blunt trauma. In particular, skull thickness is thought be a very important factor governing deformation of the skull and its propensity for fracture. Current computed tomography (CT) technology is limited in its ability to accurately measure cortical thickness using standard techniques. A method to evaluate cortical thickness using cortical density measured from CT data has been developed previously. This effort validates this technique for measurement of skull table thickness in clinical head CT scans using two postmortem human specimens. Bone samples were harvested from the skulls of two cadavers and scanned with microCT to evaluate the accuracy of the estimated cortical thickness measured from clinical CT. Clinical scans were collected at 0.488 and 0.625 mm in plane resolution with 0.625 mm thickness. The overall cortical thickness error was determined to be 0.078 ± 0.58 mm for cortical samples thinner than 4 mm. It was determined that 91.3% of these differences fell within the scanner resolution. Color maps of clinical CT thickness estimations are comparable to color maps of microCT thickness measurements, indicating good quantitative agreement. These data confirm that the cortical density algorithm successfully estimates skull table thickness from clinical CT scans. The application of this technique to clinical CT scans enables evaluation of cortical thickness in population-based studies. © 2014 Anatomical Society.

  1. Bone quality evaluation at dental implant site using multislice CT, micro-CT, and cone beam CT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parsa, A.; Ibrahim, N.; Hassan, B.; van der Stelt, P.; Wismeijer, D.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The first purpose of this study was to analyze the correlation between bone volume fraction (BV/TV) and calibrated radiographic bone density Hounsfield units (HU) in human jaws, derived from micro-CT and multislice computed tomography (MSCT), respectively. The second aim was to assess the

  2. Random walks with statistical shape prior for cochlea and inner ear segmentation in micro-CT images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruiz Pujadas, Esmeralda; Piella, Gemma; Kjer, Hans Martin

    2017-01-01

    A cochlear implant is an electronic device which can restore sound to completely or partially deaf patients. For surgical planning, a patient-specific model of the inner ear must be built using high-resolution images accurately segmented. We propose a new framework for segmentation of micro-CT...

  3. Validation of micro-CT against the section method regarding the assessment of marginal leakage of sealants.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, X.; Cuijpers, V.M.J.I.; Fan, M.W.; Frencken, J.E.F.M.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to validate the micro-CT and related software against the section method using the stereomicroscope for marginal leakage assessment along the sealant-enamel interface. METHODS: Pits and fissures of the occlusal surface of 10 teeth were sealed with a

  4. Optimization of a retrospective technique for respiratory-gated high speed micro-CT of free-breathing rodents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, Nancy L; Wheatley, Andrew R; Holdsworth, David W; Drangova, Maria

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a technique for dynamic respiratory imaging using retrospectively gated high-speed micro-CT imaging of free-breathing mice. Free-breathing C57Bl6 mice were scanned using a dynamic micro-CT scanner, comprising a flat-panel detector mounted on a slip-ring gantry. Projection images were acquired over ten complete gantry rotations in 50 s, while monitoring the respiratory motion in synchrony with projection-image acquisition. Projection images belonging to a selected respiratory phase were retrospectively identified and used for 3D reconstruction. The effect of using fewer gantry rotations-which influences both image quality and the ability to quantify respiratory function-was evaluated. Images reconstructed using unique projections from six or more gantry rotations produced acceptable images for quantitative analysis of lung volume, CT density, functional residual capacity and tidal volume. The functional residual capacity (0.15 ± 0.03 mL) and tidal volumes (0.08 ± 0.03 mL) measured in this study agree with previously reported measurements made using prospectively gated micro-CT and at higher resolution (150 μm versus 90 μm voxel spacing). Retrospectively gated micro-CT imaging of free-breathing mice enables quantitative dynamic measurement of morphological and functional parameters in the mouse models of respiratory disease, with scan times as short as 30 s, based on the acquisition of projection images over six gantry rotations

  5. Optimization of a retrospective technique for respiratory-gated high speed micro-CT of free-breathing rodents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ford, Nancy L [Department of Physics, Ryerson University, 350 Victoria Street, Toronto, Ontario M5B 2K3 (Canada); Wheatley, Andrew R [Imaging Research Laboratories, Robarts Research Institute, 100 Perth Drive, PO Box 5015, London, Ontario N6A 5K8 (Canada); Holdsworth, David W [Imaging Research Laboratories, Robarts Research Institute, 100 Perth Drive, PO Box 5015, London, Ontario N6A 5K8 (Canada); Drangova, Maria [Imaging Research Laboratories, Robarts Research Institute, 100 Perth Drive, PO Box 5015, London, Ontario N6A 5K8 (Canada)

    2007-09-21

    The objective of this study was to develop a technique for dynamic respiratory imaging using retrospectively gated high-speed micro-CT imaging of free-breathing mice. Free-breathing C57Bl6 mice were scanned using a dynamic micro-CT scanner, comprising a flat-panel detector mounted on a slip-ring gantry. Projection images were acquired over ten complete gantry rotations in 50 s, while monitoring the respiratory motion in synchrony with projection-image acquisition. Projection images belonging to a selected respiratory phase were retrospectively identified and used for 3D reconstruction. The effect of using fewer gantry rotations-which influences both image quality and the ability to quantify respiratory function-was evaluated. Images reconstructed using unique projections from six or more gantry rotations produced acceptable images for quantitative analysis of lung volume, CT density, functional residual capacity and tidal volume. The functional residual capacity (0.15 {+-} 0.03 mL) and tidal volumes (0.08 {+-} 0.03 mL) measured in this study agree with previously reported measurements made using prospectively gated micro-CT and at higher resolution (150 {mu}m versus 90 {mu}m voxel spacing). Retrospectively gated micro-CT imaging of free-breathing mice enables quantitative dynamic measurement of morphological and functional parameters in the mouse models of respiratory disease, with scan times as short as 30 s, based on the acquisition of projection images over six gantry rotations.

  6. High resolution micro-CT scanning as an innovative tool for evaluation of the surgical positioning of cochlear implant electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postnov, A; Zarowski, A; De Clerck, N; Vanpoucke, F; Offeciers, F E; Van Dyck, D; Peeters, S

    2006-05-01

    X-ray microtomography (micro-CT) is a new technique allowing for visualization of the internal structure of opaque specimens with a quasi-histological quality. Among multiple potential applications, the use of this technique in otology is very promising. Micro-CT appears to be ideally suited for in vitro visualization of the inner ear tissues as well as for evaluation of the electrode damage and/or surgical insertion trauma during implantation of the cochlear implant electrodes. This technique can greatly aid in design and development of new cochlear implant electrodes and is applicable for temporal bone studies. The main advantage of micro-CT is the practically artefact-free preparation of the samples and the possibility of evaluation of the interesting parameters along the whole insertion depth of the electrode. This paper presents the results of the first application of micro-CT for visualization of the inner ear structures in human temporal bones and for evaluation of the surgical positioning of the cochlear implant electrodes relative to the intracochlear soft tissues.

  7. Verification of computed tomographic estimates of cochlear implant array position: a micro-CT and histologic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teymouri, Jessica; Hullar, Timothy E; Holden, Timothy A; Chole, Richard A

    2011-08-01

    To determine the efficacy of clinical computed tomographic (CT) imaging to verify postoperative electrode array placement in cochlear implant (CI) patients. Nine fresh cadaver heads underwent clinical CT scanning, followed by bilateral CI insertion and postoperative clinical CT scanning. Temporal bones were removed, trimmed, and scanned using micro-CT. Specimens were then dehydrated, embedded in either methyl methacrylate or LR White resin, and sectioned with a diamond wafering saw. Histology sections were examined by 3 blinded observers to determine the position of individual electrodes relative to soft tissue structures within the cochlea. Electrodes were judged to be within the scala tympani, scala vestibuli, or in an intermediate position between scalae. The position of the array could be estimated accurately from clinical CT scans in all specimens using micro-CT and histology as a criterion standard. Verification using micro-CT yielded 97% agreement, and histologic analysis revealed 95% agreement with clinical CT results. A composite, 3-dimensional image derived from a patient's preoperative and postoperative CT images using a clinical scanner accurately estimates the position of the electrode array as determined by micro-CT imaging and histologic analyses. Information obtained using the CT method provides valuable insight into numerous variables of interest to patient performance such as surgical technique, array design, and processor programming and troubleshooting.

  8. NMR multiple-echo phase-contrast blood flow imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Donnell, M.

    1986-01-01

    A method is described for magnetic resonance imaging of fluid flow in a sample, comprising the steps of: (a) immersing the sample in a static magnetic field disposed in a first direction; (b) applying a first sequence of magnetic field gradients and radio-frequency signals to the sample to both define a slab, of the sample to be imaged, in a plane substantially orthogonal to a selected direction for which flow velocity is to be measured, and to obtain a plurality N of spin-echo response signals form that slab; (c) processing the plurality of first sequence spin-echo signals to obtain a complex value A/sub 1/(X,Y,Z) relating both the spin density rho'(X,Y,Z),... and the phase rotation phi(X,Y,Z), induced by the first sequence, for each of a selected number of sequential locations (X,Y,Z) in the sample slab; (d) applying a second sequence of magnetic field gradient and radio-frequency signals to both define the same sample slab as in step (b) and to obtain another plurality N of spin-echo response signals from that slab; (e) including a waveform in at least one of the magnetic field gradient and radio-frequency signals applied in step (d) for imparting to each of the spin-echo signal components from each slab location having a flowing material therein a phase rotation dependent upon the magnitude of the flow velocity therein in the selected direction; (f) processing the plurality of second sequence spin-echo signals to obtain a complex value A/sub 2/(X,Y,Z) relating the spin density rho'(X,Y,Z) and the imparted phase rotation of the sample material along the selected flow measurement direction for each of the sequential locations (X,Y,Z) in the sample slab; and (g) processing the complex values A/sub 1/(X,Y,Z) and A/sub 2/(X,Y,Z) for each sample location to obtain a differential phase-contrast value related to the velocity of the flowing material therein in the selected measurement direction

  9. Origins of phase contrast in the atomic force microscope in liquids

    OpenAIRE

    Melcher, John; Carrasco, Carolina; Xu, Xianfan; Carrascosa, Jose L; Gomez-Herrero, Julio; Jose de Pablo, Pedro; Raman, Arvind

    2009-01-01

    We study the physical origins of phase contrast in dynamic atomic force microscopy (dAFM) in liquids where low-stiffness microcantilever probes are often used for nanoscale imaging of soft biological samples with gentle forces. Under these conditions, we show that the phase contrast derives primarily from a unique energy flow channel that opens up in liquids due to the momentary excitation of higher eigenmodes. Contrary to the common assumption, phase-contrast images in liquids using soft mic...

  10. Evaluation of physicochemical properties of root-end filling materials using conventional and Micro-CT tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Ferrari Esteves TORRES

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To evaluate solubility, dimensional stability, filling ability and volumetric change of root-end filling materials using conventional tests and new Micro-CT-based methods. Material and Methods Solubility (loss of mass after 7 and 30 days, and dimensional stability (in mm were evaluated in accordance with Carvalho-Junior, et al. 7 (2007. The filling ability and volumetric change (in mm3 were evaluated by Micro-CT (Bruker-MicroCT, Kontich, Belgium using resin models with cavities 3 mm deep and 1 mm in diameter. The cavities were filled with materials to evaluate filling ability, and then scanned by Micro-CT. After 7 and 30 days immersed in distilled water, the filled cavities were scanned again to evaluate the volumetric change. MTA Angelus (MTA, Biodentine (BIO and zinc oxide-eugenol cement (ZOE were evaluated. Data were submitted to analysis of variance (ANOVA and Tukey's test with 5% significance level. Results The results suggested correlated or complementary data between the proposed tests. At 7 days, BIO showed higher solubility and at 30 days, showed higher volumetric change in comparison with MTA (p0.05 at 7 days. At 30 days, they presented similar solubility. BIO and MTA showed higher dimensional stability than ZOE (p<0.05. ZOE and BIO showed higher filling ability (p<0.05. Conclusions ZOE presented a higher dimensional change, and BIO had greater solubility after 7 days. BIO presented filling ability and dimensional stability, but greater volumetric change than MTA after 30 days. Micro-CT can provide important data on the physicochemical properties of materials complementing conventional tests.

  11. Single particle analysis based on Zernike phase contrast transmission electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danev, Radostin; Nagayama, Kuniaki

    2008-02-01

    We present the first application of Zernike phase-contrast transmission electron microscopy to single-particle 3D reconstruction of a protein, using GroEL chaperonin as the test specimen. We evaluated the performance of the technique by comparing 3D models derived from Zernike phase contrast imaging, with models from conventional underfocus phase contrast imaging. The same resolution, about 12A, was achieved by both imaging methods. The reconstruction based on Zernike phase contrast data required about 30% fewer particles. The advantages and prospects of each technique are discussed.

  12. Estimation of visibility of phase contrast with extraction voltages for field emission gun electron microscopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng, Xing, E-mail: xmeng101@gmail.com

    2017-02-15

    Estimation was made for visibility of phase contrast with varying extraction voltages. The resulting decay rates of visibility show that images with low image contrast from cryo EM will be seriously impacted with high extraction voltages. - Highlights: • Cryo EM • Phase contrast • Extraction votage.

  13. The BEAR Beamline at Elettra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nannarone, S.; Pasquali, L.; Selvaggi, G.; Borgatti, F.; DeLuisa, A.; Doyle, B.P.; Gazzadi, G.C.; Giglia, A.; Finetti, P.; Pedio, M.; Mahne, N.; Naletto, G.; Pelizzo, M.G.; Tondello, G.

    2004-01-01

    The BEAR (Bending Magnet for Emission Absorption and Reflectivity) beamline is installed at the right exit of the 8.1 bending magnet at ELETTRA. The beamline - in operation since January 2003 - delivers linear and circularly polarized radiation in the 5 - 1600 eV energy range. The experimental station is composed of a UHV chamber for reflectivity, absorption, fluorescence and angle resolved photoemission measurements and a UHV chamber for in-situ sample preparation

  14. Micro-CT Pore Scale Study Of Flow In Porous Media: Effect Of Voxel Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, S.; Gray, F.; Crawshaw, J.; Boek, E.

    2014-12-01

    In the last few years, pore scale studies have become the key to understanding the complex fluid flow processes in the fields of groundwater remediation, hydrocarbon recovery and environmental issues related to carbon storage and capture. A pore scale study is often comprised of two key procedures: 3D pore scale imaging and numerical modelling techniques. The essence of a pore scale study is to test the physics implemented in a model of complicated fluid flow processes at one scale (microscopic) and then apply the model to solve the problems associated with water resources and oil recovery at other scales (macroscopic and field). However, the process of up-scaling from the pore scale to the macroscopic scale has encountered many challenges due to both pore scale imaging and modelling techniques. Due to the technical limitations in the imaging method, there is always a compromise between the spatial (voxel) resolution and the physical volume of the sample (field of view, FOV) to be scanned by the imaging methods, specifically X-ray micro-CT (XMT) in our case In this study, a careful analysis was done to understand the effect of voxel size, using XMT to image the 3D pore space of a variety of porous media from sandstones to carbonates scanned at different voxel resolution (4.5 μm, 6.2 μm, 8.3 μm and 10.2 μm) but keeping the scanned FOV constant for all the samples. We systematically segment the micro-CT images into three phases, the macro-pore phase, an intermediate phase (unresolved micro-pores + grains) and the grain phase and then study the effect of voxel size on the structure of the macro-pore and the intermediate phases and the fluid flow properties using lattice-Boltzmann (LB) and pore network (PN) modelling methods. We have also applied a numerical coarsening algorithm (up-scale method) to reduce the computational power and time required to accurately predict the flow properties using the LB and PN method.

  15. Nondestructive Analysis of Astromaterials by Micro-CT and Micro-XRF Analysis for PET Examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeigler, R. A.; Righter, K.; Allen, C. C.

    2013-01-01

    An integral part of any sample return mission is the initial description and classification of returned samples by the preliminary examination team (PET). The goal of the PET is to characterize and classify returned samples and make this information available to the larger research community who then conduct more in-depth studies on the samples. The PET tries to minimize the impact their work has on the sample suite, which has in the past limited the PET work to largely visual, nonquantitative measurements (e.g., optical microscopy). More modern techniques can also be utilized by a PET to nondestructively characterize astromaterials in much more rigorous way. Here we discuss our recent investigations into the applications of micro-CT and micro-XRF analyses with Apollo samples and ANSMET meteorites and assess the usefulness of these techniques in future PET. Results: The application of micro computerized tomography (micro-CT) to astromaterials is not a new concept. The technique involves scanning samples with high-energy x-rays and constructing 3-dimensional images of the density of materials within the sample. The technique can routinely measure large samples (up to approx. 2700 cu cm) with a small individual voxel size (approx. 30 cu m), and has the sensitivity to distinguish the major rock forming minerals and identify clast populations within brecciated samples. We have recently run a test sample of a terrestrial breccia with a carbonate matrix and multiple igneous clast lithologies. The test results are promising and we will soon analyze a approx. 600 g piece of Apollo sample 14321 to map out the clast population within the sample. Benchtop micro x-ray fluorescence (micro-XRF) instruments can rapidly scan large areas (approx. 100 sq cm) with a small pixel size (approx. 25 microns) and measure the (semi) quantitative composition of largely unprepared surfaces for all elements between Be and U, often with sensitivity on the order of a approx. 100 ppm. Our recent

  16. A simplified edge illumination set-up for quantitative phase contrast mammography with synchrotron radiation at clinical doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longo, Mariaconcetta; Rigon, Luigi; Lopez, Frances C M; Longo, Renata; Chen, Rongchang; Dreossi, Diego; Zanconati, Fabrizio

    2015-01-01

    This work presents the first study of x-ray phase contrast imaging based on a simple implementation of the edge illumination method (EIXPCi) in the field of mammography with synchrotron radiation. A simplified EIXPCi set-up was utilized to study a possible application in mammography at clinical doses. Moreover, through a novel algorithm capable of separating and quantifying absorption and phase perturbations of images acquired in EIXPCi modality, it is possible to extract quantitative information on breast images, allowing an accurate tissue identification. The study was carried out at the SYRMEP beamline of Elettra synchrotron radiation facility (Trieste, Italy), where a mastectomy specimen was investigated with the EIXPCi technique. The sample was exposed at three different energies suitable for mammography with synchrotron radiation in order to test the validity of the novel algorithm in extracting values of linear attenuation coefficients integrated over the sample thickness. It is demonstrated that the quantitative data are in good agreement with the theoretical values of linear attenuation coefficients calculated on the hypothesis of the breast with a given composition. The results are promising and encourage the current efforts to apply the method in mammography with synchrotron radiation. (note)

  17. Application of synchrotron radiation phase-contrast microtomography with iodine staining to Rhodnius prolixus head during ecdysis period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sena, G.; Nogueira, L. P.; Braz, D.; Colaço, M. V.; Azambuja, P.; Gonzalez, M. S.; Tromba, G.; Mantuano, A.; Costa, F. N.; Barroso, R. C.

    2018-05-01

    Synchrotron radiation phase-contrast microtomography (SR-PHC-CT) has become an important tool in studies of insects, mainly Rhodinius prolixus, the insect vector of Chagas disease. A previous work has shown that SR-PHC-CT is an excellent technique in studies about the ecdysis process of R.prolixus head. The term ecdysis refers to the set of behaviors by which an insect extracts itself from an old exoskeleton. The exoskeleton formation is indispensable for the evolutionary success of insect species, so failure to complete ecdysis will, in most cases result in death, making this process an excellent target in the search for new insect pest management strategies. Understanding the behavior of the ecdysis process is fundamental for the non-proliferation of Chagas disease. Despite it has been possible to identify the moulting process in the first work, main structures of the R.prolixus head could not be identified. In this work, it was developed a staining protocol which enabled the identification of these important structures using Iodine at SYRMEP beamline of ELETTRA. In the 3D images, it was possible to segment essential structures in the process of ecdysis. These structures have never been presented previously in the moulting period with SR-PHC-CT.

  18. 3D images of paper obtained by phase-contrast X-ray microtomography: image quality and binarisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antoine, Christine; Nygaard, Per; Gregersen, O.W.; Holmstad, Rune; Weitkamp, Timm; Rau, Christoph

    2002-01-01

    A series of paper samples was investigated using high-resolution phase-contrast microtomography at the beamline ID 22 of the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) in Grenoble, France. It was shown that X-ray microtomography is a non-destructive method suitable for high resolution depicting real 3D-paper structures. The method detects highly localised changes in the refractive index of the sample, such as fibre-pore interfaces. The resulting tomograms represented an outlined image of the fibre structure with an image resolution of 1 μm. Analyses were performed in dry state, but in addition some were done in wet state. The raw data obtained were transformed into 3D images. The reconstructed slices were in general of rather good quality, even if both noise and ring-like artifacts were observed. These required special filtering efforts before a segmented binary volume could be obtained for further use of the data. This approach was made up of semi-automatic routines to convert the structure into a binary format. The resulting binary volumes can be used for further characterisation of the 3D-paper structure

  19. When a 520 million-year-old Chengjiang fossil meets a modern micro-CT--a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu; Scholtz, Gerhard; Hou, Xianguang

    2015-08-04

    The 520 million-year-old Chengjiang biota of China (UNESCO World Heritage) presents the earliest known evidence of the so-called Cambrian Explosion. Studies, however, have mainly been limited to the information exposed on the surface of the slabs. Thus far, structures preserved inside the slabs were accessed by careful removal of the matrix, in many cases with the unfortunate sacrifice of some "less important" structures, which destroys elements of exceptionally preserved specimens. Here, we show for the first time that microtomography (micro-CT) can reveal structures situated inside a Chengjiang fossil slab without causing any damage. In the present study a trilobitomorph arthropod (Xandarella spectaculum) can be reliably identified only with the application of micro-CT. We propose that this technique is an important tool for studying three-dimensionally preserved Chengjiang fossils and, most likely, also those from other biota with a comparable type of preservation, specifically similar iron concentrations.

  20. When a 520 million-year-old Chengjiang fossil meets a modern micro-CT – a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu; Scholtz, Gerhard; Hou, Xianguang

    2015-01-01

    The 520 million-year-old Chengjiang biota of China (UNESCO World Heritage) presents the earliest known evidence of the so-called Cambrian Explosion. Studies, however, have mainly been limited to the information exposed on the surface of the slabs. Thus far, structures preserved inside the slabs were accessed by careful removal of the matrix, in many cases with the unfortunate sacrifice of some “less important” structures, which destroys elements of exceptionally preserved specimens. Here, we show for the first time that microtomography (micro-CT) can reveal structures situated inside a Chengjiang fossil slab without causing any damage. In the present study a trilobitomorph arthropod (Xandarella spectaculum) can be reliably identified only with the application of micro-CT. We propose that this technique is an important tool for studying three-dimensionally preserved Chengjiang fossils and, most likely, also those from other biota with a comparable type of preservation, specifically similar iron concentrations. PMID:26238773

  1. 3D printing from microfocus computed tomography (micro-CT) in human specimens: education and future implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelmerdine, Susan C; Simcock, Ian C; Hutchinson, John Ciaran; Aughwane, Rosalind; Melbourne, Andrew; Nikitichev, Daniil I; Ong, Ju-Ling; Borghi, Alessandro; Cole, Garrard; Kingham, Emilia; Calder, Alistair D; Capelli, Claudio; Akhtar, Aadam; Cook, Andrew C; Schievano, Silvia; David, Anna; Ourselin, Sebastian; Sebire, Neil J; Arthurs, Owen J

    2018-06-14

    Microfocus CT (micro-CT) is an imaging method that provides three-dimensional digital data sets with comparable resolution to light microscopy. Although it has traditionally been used for non-destructive testing in engineering, aerospace industries and in preclinical animal studies, new applications are rapidly becoming available in the clinical setting including post-mortem fetal imaging and pathological specimen analysis. Printing three-dimensional models from imaging data sets for educational purposes is well established in the medical literature, but typically using low resolution (0.7 mm voxel size) data acquired from CT or MR examinations. With higher resolution imaging (voxel sizes below 1 micron, printing of micro-CT imaged specimens can provide insight into craniofacial surgical applications, developmental cardiac anatomy, placental imaging, archaeological remains and high-resolution bone imaging. We conclude with other potential future usages of this emerging technique.

  2. Checking collagen preservation in archaeological bone by non-destructive studies (Micro-CT and IBA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, L.; Cuif, J.-P.; Pichon, L.; Vaubaillon, S.; Dambricourt Malassé, A.; Abel, R. L.

    2012-02-01

    The material to be studied is a piece of human skull discovered (1999) in Pleistocene sediments from the Orsang river (Gujarat state, India). From anatomical view point, this skull is highly composite: modern Homo sapiens characters are associated to undoubtedly more ancient features. Absolute dating by 14C is critical to understand this discovery. Prior to dating measurements, non-destructive studies have been carried out. Micro-CT reconstruction (X-ray microtomography) and Ion Beam Analysis (IBA) have been undertaken to check the structural preservation of the fossil and the collagen preservation. PIXE elemental map was used to select well-preserved bone area. RBS/EBS and NRA were used for light element quantification, in particular C, N and O contents. We also demonstrate that the PIXE-RBS/EBS combination is a effective tool for the whole characterization of archaeological and recent bones by analysing in one experiment both mineral and organic fractions. We have shown that the archaeological bone, a fragment of the potentially oldest modern Indian, is enough preserved for radiocarbon dating. We propose that Elastic Backscattering Spectrometry (EBS) using 3 MeV protons could be a good non destructive alternative to conventional CHN method using Carbon-Hydrogen-Nitrogen analyzer for measuring C and N before 14C dating.

  3. Active investigation of material damage under load using micro-CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navalgund, Megha; Zunjarrao, Suraj; Mishra, Debasish; Manoharan, V.

    2015-03-01

    Due the growth of composite materials across multiple industries such as Aviation, Wind there is an increasing need to not just standardize and improve manufacturing processes but also to design these materials for the specific applications. One of the things that this translates to is understanding how failure initiates and grows in these materials and at what loads, especially around internal flaws such as voids or features such as ply drops. Traditional methods of investigating internal damage such as CT lack the resolution to resolve ply level damage in composites. Interrupted testing with layer removal can be used to investigate internal damage using microscopy; however this is a destructive method. Advanced techniques such as such as DIC are useful for in-situ damage detection, however are limited to surface information and would not enable interrogating the volume. Computed tomography has become a state of the art technique for metrology and complete volumetric investigation especially for metallic components. However, its application to the composite world is still nascent. This paper demonstrates micro-CT's capability as a gauge to quantitatively estimate the extent of damage & understand the propagation of damage in PMC composites while the component is under stress.

  4. X-ray strain tensor imaging: FEM simulation and experiments with a micro-CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae G; Park, So E; Lee, Soo Y

    2014-01-01

    In tissue elasticity imaging, measuring the strain tensor components is necessary to solve the inverse problem. However, it is impractical to measure all the tensor components in ultrasound or MRI elastography because of their anisotropic spatial resolution. The objective of this study is to compute 3D strain tensor maps from the 3D CT images of a tissue-mimicking phantom. We took 3D micro-CT images of the phantom twice with applying two different mechanical compressions to it. Applying the 3D image correlation technique to the CT images under different compression, we computed 3D displacement vectors and strain tensors at every pixel. To evaluate the accuracy of the strain tensor maps, we made a 3D FEM model of the phantom, and we computed strain tensor maps through FEM simulation. Experimentally obtained strain tensor maps showed similar patterns to the FEM-simulated ones in visual inspection. The correlation between the strain tensor maps obtained from the experiment and the FEM simulation ranges from 0.03 to 0.93. Even though the strain tensor maps suffer from high level noise, we expect the x-ray strain tensor imaging may find some biomedical applications such as malignant tissue characterization and stress analysis inside the tissues.

  5. Measurement of anatomical structure of jaw bone trabecula with micro-CT and its accuracy evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Guangchun; Zhang Xiaoyan; Jiang Ling; Li Xianglin; Zhang Di; Li Weixing; Jin Xizhen; Jin Dongchun

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To measure the anatomic structures of the jaw and to discuss the accuracy of the method. Methods: The mandibular specimens were divided into ankle condylar group (3 specimens, regular trabecular architecture and mandibular body group (5 specimens, irregular trabecular trabecular architecture). Fifteen volumes of interests (VOI) were created in each group and the total of thirty were measured. The mean value and standard deviation of each parameter at each reconstruction voxel size were calculated. Repeated ANOVA test was used to determine whether the significant differences in the values existed between each parameter. Results: The structure model index (SMI) value in mandibular body group had significant difference (P<0.05) at all reconstruction voxel sizes compared with 18 μm group; but in condyle group, the reconstruction voxel size of 36 μm was not significant (P>0.05). The differences of trabecular thickness (Tb. Th), trabecular number (Tb. N) and trabecular separation (Tb. Sp) values between condyle and mandibular body groups were significant at all reconstruction voxel sizes (P<0.05). In condyle group, except for Tb. Th, Tb. N and Tb. Sp, the most parameter values were not significant at reconstruction pixel size of 36μm. In the mandible body group, the differences of all parameter values between different pixel sizes were significant. Conclusion: Micro-CT can reflect the anatomical changes of bone trabecula structure. (authors)

  6. Checking collagen preservation in archaeological bone by non-destructive studies (Micro-CT and IBA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, L., E-mail: lucile.beck@cea.fr [C2RMF - UMR171 CNRS, Centre de Recherche et de Restauration des Musees de France, Palais du Louvre, Porte des Lions, 14 quai Francois Mitterrand, 75001 Paris (France); CEA, DEN, Service de Recherches de Metallurgie Physique, Laboratoire JANNUS, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Cuif, J.-P. [UMR IDES 8148, Universite Paris XI-Orsay, 91405 Orsay cedex (France); Pichon, L. [C2RMF - UMR171 CNRS, Centre de Recherche et de Restauration des Musees de France, Palais du Louvre, Porte des Lions, 14 quai Francois Mitterrand, 75001 Paris (France); Vaubaillon, S. [CEA, INSTN, Laboratoire JANNUS, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Dambricourt Malasse, A. [Departement de Prehistoire, Museum national d' Histoire naturelle, UMR 7194 - CNRS, Institut de Paleontologie Humaine, 1, rue Rene Panhard, 75013 Paris (France); Abel, R.L. [The Natural History Museum, London (United Kingdom)

    2012-02-15

    The material to be studied is a piece of human skull discovered (1999) in Pleistocene sediments from the Orsang river (Gujarat state, India). From anatomical view point, this skull is highly composite: modern Homo sapiens characters are associated to undoubtedly more ancient features. Absolute dating by {sup 14}C is critical to understand this discovery. Prior to dating measurements, non-destructive studies have been carried out. Micro-CT reconstruction (X-ray microtomography) and Ion Beam Analysis (IBA) have been undertaken to check the structural preservation of the fossil and the collagen preservation. PIXE elemental map was used to select well-preserved bone area. RBS/EBS and NRA were used for light element quantification, in particular C, N and O contents. We also demonstrate that the PIXE-RBS/EBS combination is a effective tool for the whole characterization of archaeological and recent bones by analysing in one experiment both mineral and organic fractions. We have shown that the archaeological bone, a fragment of the potentially oldest modern Indian, is enough preserved for radiocarbon dating. We propose that Elastic Backscattering Spectrometry (EBS) using 3 MeV protons could be a good non destructive alternative to conventional CHN method using Carbon-Hydrogen-Nitrogen analyzer for measuring C and N before {sup 14}C dating.

  7. Checking collagen preservation in archaeological bone by non-destructive studies (Micro-CT and IBA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, L.; Cuif, J.-P.; Pichon, L.; Vaubaillon, S.; Dambricourt Malassé, A.; Abel, R.L.

    2012-01-01

    The material to be studied is a piece of human skull discovered (1999) in Pleistocene sediments from the Orsang river (Gujarat state, India). From anatomical view point, this skull is highly composite: modern Homo sapiens characters are associated to undoubtedly more ancient features. Absolute dating by 14 C is critical to understand this discovery. Prior to dating measurements, non-destructive studies have been carried out. Micro-CT reconstruction (X-ray microtomography) and Ion Beam Analysis (IBA) have been undertaken to check the structural preservation of the fossil and the collagen preservation. PIXE elemental map was used to select well-preserved bone area. RBS/EBS and NRA were used for light element quantification, in particular C, N and O contents. We also demonstrate that the PIXE-RBS/EBS combination is a effective tool for the whole characterization of archaeological and recent bones by analysing in one experiment both mineral and organic fractions. We have shown that the archaeological bone, a fragment of the potentially oldest modern Indian, is enough preserved for radiocarbon dating. We propose that Elastic Backscattering Spectrometry (EBS) using 3 MeV protons could be a good non destructive alternative to conventional CHN method using Carbon–Hydrogen–Nitrogen analyzer for measuring C and N before 14 C dating.

  8. Morphological evaluation of maxillary second molars with fused roots: a micro-CT study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordinola-Zapata, R; Martins, J N R; Bramante, C M; Villas-Boas, M H; Duarte, M H; Versiani, M A

    2017-12-01

    To evaluate the internal and external morphologies of fused-rooted maxillary second molars by means of micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) analysis. A total of 100 fused-rooted maxillary second molars from a Brazilian subpopulation were divided into six groups according to the root morphology. The samples were scanned at a resolution of 19.6 μm and evaluated with regard to the external morphology of the roots, the root canal configuration, the percentage frequency of C-shaped canals and isthmuses, as well as the morphology of the root canal system at 1, 2 and 3 mm from the anatomical apex of the fused roots. The most prevalent root canal fusions were type 1, mesiobuccal root fused with distobuccal root (32%), followed by type 3, DB root fused with P root (27%), and type 4, MB root fused with DB root, and P root fused with MB or DB roots (21%). The prevalence of C-shaped root canal systems were 22%. Depending on the type of root fusion, the percentage frequency of isthmuses in the apical level varied from 9.3% to 42.8%, whilst the presence of apical deltas ranged from 18.5% to 57.1% of teeth. The root canal system of maxillary second molars with fused roots may have a high incidence of merging canals, isthmuses, apical deltas and C-shaped configurations. © 2017 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Change of Pore-Fracture Structure of Anthracite Modified by Electrochemical Treatment Using Micro-CT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianfa Kong

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The electrochemical method can strengthen gas desorption and seepage from coal. The study on change of the pore-fracture structure of coal after electrochemical modification can help to reveal the mechanism. Anthracite was modified by the electrochemical method using our own self-developed experiment apparatus. The pore-fracture structure of modified samples was measured by micro-CT. Combined with the Matlab software, its characteristics such as pore number, porosity, and average pore diameter were analyzed. The results show that (1 the number of fractures in modified coal samples increases. The shape of new fractures in samples in the anodic and cathodic zones was irregular voids and striola, respectively. The effect of electrochemical treatment on the section of samples close to the electrode is relatively obvious. (2 With increasing pore size, the number of pores in samples changes according to negative exponential rules. After electrochemical modification, the porosity of modified samples in the anodic zone increases from 11.88% to 31.65%, and the porosity of modified samples in the cathodic zone increases from 12.13% to 36.71%. (3 The main reason for the increase in the number of pores of coal samples in the anodic and cathodic zones is the treatment of electrolytic dissolution of minerals and electrophoretic migration of charged particles, respectively.

  10. Reconstruction of Cochlea Based on Micro-CT and Histological Images of the Human Inner Ear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christos Bellos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of the normal function and pathology of the inner ear has unique difficulties as it is inaccessible during life and, so, conventional techniques of pathologic studies such as biopsy and surgical excision are not feasible, without further impairing function. Mathematical modelling is therefore particularly attractive as a tool in researching the cochlea and its pathology. The first step towards efficient mathematical modelling is the reconstruction of an accurate three dimensional (3D model of the cochlea that will be presented in this paper. The high quality of the histological images is being exploited in order to extract several sections of the cochlea that are not visible on the micro-CT (mCT images (i.e., scala media, spiral ligament, and organ of Corti as well as other important sections (i.e., basilar membrane, Reissner membrane, scala vestibule, and scala tympani. The reconstructed model is being projected in the centerline of the coiled cochlea, extracted from mCT images, and represented in the 3D space. The reconstruction activities are part of the SIFEM project, which will result in the delivery of an infrastructure, semantically interlinking various tools and libraries (i.e., segmentation, reconstruction, and visualization tools with the clinical knowledge, which is represented by existing data, towards the delivery of a robust multiscale model of the inner ear.

  11. MicroCT analysis of calcium/phosphorus ratio maps at different bone sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Speller, R.; Pani, S.; Tzaphlidou, M.; Horrocks, J.

    2005-01-01

    The Ca/P ratio was measured in cortical bone samples from the femoral neck, front and rear tibia of rats, rabbits and lambs using synchrotron microCT. Use of a monoenergetic X-ray beam, as provided by the synchrotron facility, generates accurate 3-D maps of the linear attenuation coefficient within the sample and hence gives the ability to map different chemical components. Data were taken at 20keV for each bone sample and calibration phantoms. From the 3-D data sets, multiple 2-D slices were reconstructed with a slice thickness of ∼28μm and converted to Ca/P ratios using the calibration phantom results. Average values for each animal and bone site were estimated. Differences between the same bone sites from different animals are not significant (0.3 -3 ) demonstrating a dependence upon lifestyle and bone use. The spatial distribution of Ca/P was found to be non-uniform for some bones and some animals possibly indicating the structural mechanism for obtaining bone strength

  12. MicroCT analysis of calcium/phosphorus ratio maps at different bone sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Speller, R. [Medical Physics and Bioengineering Department, UCL, London, WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: rspeller@medphys.ucl.ac.uk; Pani, S. [Department of Physics, University of Trieste (Italy); Tzaphlidou, M. [Lab Medical Physics, Medical School, University of Ioannina, 45110 Ioannina (Greece); Horrocks, J. [Clinical Physics Group, St Bartholomew' s Hospital, London, EC1A 6BT (United Kingdom)

    2005-08-11

    The Ca/P ratio was measured in cortical bone samples from the femoral neck, front and rear tibia of rats, rabbits and lambs using synchrotron microCT. Use of a monoenergetic X-ray beam, as provided by the synchrotron facility, generates accurate 3-D maps of the linear attenuation coefficient within the sample and hence gives the ability to map different chemical components. Data were taken at 20keV for each bone sample and calibration phantoms. From the 3-D data sets, multiple 2-D slices were reconstructed with a slice thickness of {approx}28{mu}m and converted to Ca/P ratios using the calibration phantom results. Average values for each animal and bone site were estimated. Differences between the same bone sites from different animals are not significant (0.3

  13. Mechanical Property Measurements and Fracture Propagation Analysis of Longmaxi Shale by Micro-CT Uniaxial Compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minyue Zhou

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The mechanical properties and fracture propagation of Longmaxi shale loading under uniaxial compression were measured using eight cylindrical shale specimens (4 mm in diameter and 8 mm in height, with the bedding plane oriented at 0° and 90° to the axial loading direction, respectively, by micro computed tomography (micro-CT. Based on the reconstructed three-dimensional (3-D CT images of cracks, different stages of the crack growth process in the 0° and 90° orientation specimen were revealed. The initial crack generally occurred at relatively smaller loading force in the 0° bedding direction specimen, mainly in the form of tensile splitting along weak bedding planes. Shear sliding fractures were dominant in the specimens oriented at 90°, with a small number of parallel cracks occurring on the bedding plane. The average thickness and volume of cracks in the 90° specimen is higher than those for the specimen oriented at 0°. The geometrical characterization of fractures segmented from CT scan binary images shows that a specific surface area correlates with tortuosity at the different load stages of each specimen. The 3-D box-counting dimension (BCD calculations can accurately reflect crack evolution law in the shale. The results indicate that the cracks have a more complex pattern and rough surface at an orientation of 90°, due to crossed secondary cracks and shear failure.

  14. MicroCT Analysis of Micro-Nano Titanium Implant Surface on the Osseointegration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ban, Jaesam; Kang, Seongsoo; Kim, Jihyun; Lee, Kwangmin; Hyunpil, Lim; Vang, Mongsook; Yang, Hongso; Oh, Gyejeong; Kim, Hyunseung; Hwang, Gabwoon; Jung, Yongho; Lee, Kyungku; Park, Sangwon; Yunl, Kwidug

    2015-01-01

    This study was to investigate the effects of micro-nano titanium implant surface on the osseointegration. A total of 36 screw-shaped implants were used. The implant surfaces were classified into 3 groups (n = 12): machined surface (M group), nanosurface which is nanotube formation on the machined surface (MA group) and nano-micro surface which is nanotube formation on the RBM surface (RA group). Anodic oxidation was performed at a 20 V for 10 min with 1 M H3PO4 and 1.5 wt% HF solutions. The implants were installed on the humerus on 6 beagles. After 4 and 12 weeks, the morphometric analysis with micro CT (skyscan 1172, SKYSCAN, Antwerpen, Belgium) was done. The data were statistically analyzed with two-way ANOVA. Bone mineral density and bone volume were significantly increased depending on time. RA group showed the highest bone mineral density and bone volume at 4 weeks and 12 weeks significantly. It indicated that nano-micro titanium implant surface showed faster and more mature osseointegration.

  15. In vivo micro-CT analysis of bone remodeling in a rat calvarial defect model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umoh, Joseph U.; Sampaio, Arthur V.; Welch, Ian; Pitelka, Vasek; Goldberg, Harvey A.; Underhill, T. Michael; Holdsworth, David W.

    2009-04-01

    The rodent calvarial defect model is commonly used to investigate bone regeneration and wound healing. This study presents a micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) methodology for measuring the bone mineral content (BMC) in a rat calvarial defect and validates it by estimating its precision error. Two defect models were implemented. A single 6 mm diameter defect was created in 20 rats, which were imaged in vivo for longitudinal experiments. Three 5 mm diameter defects were created in three additional rats, which were repeatedly imaged ex vivo to determine precision. Four control rats and four rats treated with bone morphogenetic protein were imaged at 3, 6, 9 and 12 weeks post-surgery. Scan parameters were 80 kVp, 0.45 mA and 180 mAs. Images were reconstructed with an isotropic resolution of 45 µm. At 6 weeks, the BMC in control animals (4.37 ± 0.66 mg) was significantly lower (p small BMC changes in animals.

  16. Micro-CT evaluation and histological analysis of screw-bone interface of expansive pedicle screw in osteoporotic sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Shi-yong; Lei, Wei; Wu, Zi-xiang; Lv, Rong; Wang, Jun; Fu, Suo-chao; Li, Bo; Zhan, Ce

    2008-04-01

    To investigate the properties of screw-bone interface of expansive pedicle screw (EPS) in osteoporotic sheep by micro-CT and histological observation. Six female sheep with bilateral ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis were employed in this experiment. After EPS insertion in each femoral condyle, the sheep were randomly divided into two groups: 3 sheep were bred for 3 months (Group A), while the other 3 were bred for 6 months (Group B). After the animals being killed, the femoral condyles with EPS were obtained, which were three-dimensionally-imaged and reconstructed by micro-CT. Histological evaluation was made thereafter. The trabecular microstructure was denser at the screw-bone interface than in the distant parts in expansive section, especially within the spiral marking. In the non-expansive section, however, there was no significant difference between the interface and the distant parts. The regions of interest (ROI) adjacent to EPS were reconstructed and analyzed by micro-CT with the same thresholds. The three-dimensional (3-D) parameters, including tissue mineral density (TMD), bone volume fraction (BVF, BV/TV), bone surface/bone volume (BS/BV) ratio, trabecular thickness (Tb.Th), and trabecular separation (Tb.Sp), were significantly better in expansive sections than non-expansive sections (P less than 0.05). Histologically, newly-formed bony trabeculae crawled along the expansive fissures and into the center of EPS. The newly-formed bones, as well as the bones at the bone-screw interface, closely contacted with the EPS and constructed four compartments. The findings of the current study, based on micro-CT and histological evaluation, suggest that EPS can significantly provide stabilization in osteoporotic cancellous bones.

  17. Automated assessment of bone changes in cross-sectional micro-CT studies of murine experimental osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das Neves Borges, Patricia; Vincent, Tonia L; Marenzana, Massimo

    2017-01-01

    The degradation of articular cartilage, which characterises osteoarthritis (OA), is usually paired with excessive bone remodelling, including subchondral bone sclerosis, cysts, and osteophyte formation. Experimental models of OA are widely used to investigate pathogenesis, yet few validated methodologies for assessing periarticular bone morphology exist and quantitative measurements are limited by manual segmentation of micro-CT scans. The aim of this work was to chart the temporal changes in periarticular bone in murine OA by novel, automated micro-CT methods. OA was induced by destabilisation of the medial meniscus (DMM) in 10-week old male mice and disease assessed cross-sectionally from 1- to 20-weeks post-surgery. A novel approach was developed to automatically segment subchondral bone compartments into plate and trabecular bone in micro-CT scans of tibial epiphyses. Osteophyte volume, as assessed by shape differences using 3D image registration, and by measuring total epiphyseal volume was performed. Significant linear and volumetric structural modifications in subchondral bone compartments and osteophytes were measured from 4-weeks post-surgery and showed progressive changes at all time points; by 20 weeks, medial subchondral bone plate thickness increased by 160±19.5 μm and the medial osteophyte grew by 0.124±0.028 μm3. Excellent agreement was found when automated measurements were compared with manual assessments. Our automated methods for assessing bone changes in murine periarticular bone are rapid, quantitative, and highly accurate, and promise to be a useful tool in future preclinical studies of OA progression and treatment. The current approaches were developed specifically for cross-sectional micro-CT studies but could be applied to longitudinal studies.

  18. Automated assessment of bone changes in cross-sectional micro-CT studies of murine experimental osteoarthritis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Das Neves Borges

    Full Text Available The degradation of articular cartilage, which characterises osteoarthritis (OA, is usually paired with excessive bone remodelling, including subchondral bone sclerosis, cysts, and osteophyte formation. Experimental models of OA are widely used to investigate pathogenesis, yet few validated methodologies for assessing periarticular bone morphology exist and quantitative measurements are limited by manual segmentation of micro-CT scans. The aim of this work was to chart the temporal changes in periarticular bone in murine OA by novel, automated micro-CT methods.OA was induced by destabilisation of the medial meniscus (DMM in 10-week old male mice and disease assessed cross-sectionally from 1- to 20-weeks post-surgery. A novel approach was developed to automatically segment subchondral bone compartments into plate and trabecular bone in micro-CT scans of tibial epiphyses. Osteophyte volume, as assessed by shape differences using 3D image registration, and by measuring total epiphyseal volume was performed.Significant linear and volumetric structural modifications in subchondral bone compartments and osteophytes were measured from 4-weeks post-surgery and showed progressive changes at all time points; by 20 weeks, medial subchondral bone plate thickness increased by 160±19.5 μm and the medial osteophyte grew by 0.124±0.028 μm3. Excellent agreement was found when automated measurements were compared with manual assessments.Our automated methods for assessing bone changes in murine periarticular bone are rapid, quantitative, and highly accurate, and promise to be a useful tool in future preclinical studies of OA progression and treatment. The current approaches were developed specifically for cross-sectional micro-CT studies but could be applied to longitudinal studies.

  19. Automated assessment of bone changes in cross-sectional micro-CT studies of murine experimental osteoarthritis

    OpenAIRE

    Das Neves Borges, P; Vincent, TL; Marenzana, M; Espinoza Orías, AA

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The degradation of articular cartilage, which characterises osteoarthritis (OA), is usually paired with excessive bone remodelling, including subchondral bone sclerosis, cysts, and osteophyte formation. Experimental models of OA are widely used to investigate pathogenesis, yet few validated methodologies for assessing periarticular bone morphology exist and quantitative measurements are limited by manual segmentation of micro-CT scans. The aim of this work was to chart the temporal...

  20. Using Micro-CT Derived Bone Microarchitecture to Analyze Bone Stiffness - A Case Study on Osteoporosis Rat Bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuchin eWu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Micro-computed tomography images can be used to quantitatively represent bone geometry through a range of computed attenuation-based parameters. Nonetheless, those parameters remain indirect indices of bone micro-architectural strength and require further computational tools to interpret bone structural stiffness and potential for mechanical failure. Finite element analysis (FEA can be applied to measure trabecular bone stiffness and potentially predict the location of structural failure in preclinical animal models of osteoporosis, although that procedure from image segmentation of micro-CT derived bone geometry to FEA is often challenging and computationally expensive, resulting in failure of the model to build. Notably, the selection of resolution and threshold for bone segmentation are key steps that greatly affect computational complexity and validity. In the following study, we evaluated an approach whereby Micro-CT derived greyscale attenuation and segmentation data guided the selection of trabecular bone for analysis by FEA. We further correlated those FEA results to both two and three dimensional bone microarchitecture from sham and ovariectomized (OVX rats (n=10/group. A virtual cylinder of vertebral trabecular bone 40% in length from the caudal side was selected for FEA because micro-CT based image analysis indicated the largest differences in microarchitecture between the two groups resided there. Bone stiffness was calculated using FEA and statistically correlated with the three dimensional values of bone volume/tissue volume, bone mineral density, fractal dimension, trabecular separation and trabecular bone pattern factor. Our method simplified the process for the assessment of trabecular bone stiffness by FEA from Micro-CT images and highlighted the importance of bone microarchitecture in conferring significantly increased bone quality capable of resisting failure due to increased mechanical loading.

  1. Agreement and precision of periprosthetic bone density measurements in micro-CT, single and dual energy CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mussmann, Bo; Overgaard, Søren; Torfing, Trine; Traise, Peter; Gerke, Oke; Andersen, Poul Erik

    2017-07-01

    The objective of this study was to test the precision and agreement between bone mineral density measurements performed in micro CT, single and dual energy computed tomography, to determine how the keV level influences density measurements and to assess the usefulness of quantitative dual energy computed tomography as a research tool for longitudinal studies aiming to measure bone loss adjacent to total hip replacements. Samples from 10 fresh-frozen porcine femoral heads were placed in a Perspex phantom and computed tomography was performed with two acquisition modes. Bone mineral density was calculated and compared with measurements derived from micro CT. Repeated scans and dual measurements were performed in order to measure between- and within-scan precision. Mean density difference between micro CT and single energy computed tomography was 72 mg HA/cm 3 . For dual energy CT, the mean difference at 100 keV was 128 mg HA/cm 3 while the mean difference at 110-140 keV ranged from -84 to -67 mg HA/cm 3 compared with micro CT. Rescanning the samples resulted in a non-significant overall between-scan difference of 13 mg HA/cm 3 . Bland-Altman limits of agreement were wide and intraclass correlation coefficients ranged from 0.29 to 0.72, while 95% confidence intervals covered almost the full possible range. Repeating the density measurements for within-scan precision resulted in ICCs >0.99 and narrow limits of agreement. Single and dual energy quantitative CT showed excellent within-scan precision, but poor between-scan precision. No significant density differences were found in dual energy quantitative CT at keV-levels above 110 keV. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 35:1470-1477, 2017. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Preliminary study on X-ray phase contrast imaging using synchrotron radiation facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong Zhuang; Wang Jianhua; Yu Yongqiang; Jiang Shiping; Chen Yang; Tian Yulian

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To study the methodology of X-ray phase contrast imaging using synchrotron radiation, and evaluate the quality of phase contrast images. Methods: Several experiments to obtain phase contrast images and absorption contrast images of various biological samples were conducted in Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility (BSRF), and then these images were interpreted to find out the difference between the two kinds of imaging methods. Results: Satisfactory phase contrast images of these various samples were obtained, and the quality of these images was superior to that obtained with absorption contrast imaging. The phase contrast formation is based on the phenomenon of fresnel diffraction which transforms phase shifts into intensity variations upon a simple act of free-space propagation, so it requires highly coherent X-rays and appropriate distance between sample and detector. This method of imaging is very useful in imaging of low-absorption objects or objects with little absorption variation, and its resolution is far higher than that of the conventional X-ray imaging. The photographs obtained showed very fine inner microstructure of the biological samples, and the smallest microstructure to be distinguished is within 30-40 μm. There is no doubt that phase contrast imaging has a practical applicability in medicine. Moreover, it improves greatly the efficiency and the resolution of the existing X-ray diagnostic techniques. Conclusions: X-ray phase contrast imaging can be performed with synchrotron radiation source and has some advantages over the conventional absorption contrast imaging. (authors)

  3. Application of microCT to the non-destructive testing of an additive manufactured titanium component

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton du Plessis

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the application of X-ray microCT to the non-destructive testing of an additive manufactured titanium alloy component of complex geometry is demonstrated. Additive manufacturing of metal components is fast growing and shows great promise, yet these parts may contain defects which affect mechanical properties of the components. In this work a layered form of defect is found by microCT, which would have been very difficult or impossible to detect by other non-destructive testing methods due to the object complexity, defect size and shape and because the pores are entirely contained inside the object and not connected to the surface. Additionally, this test part was subjected to hot isostatic pressing (HIPPING and subsequently scanned. Comparing before and after scans by alignment of the volumes allows visualization and quantification of the pore size changes. The application of X-ray microCT to additive manufacturing is thus demonstrated in this example to be an ideal combination, especially for process improvements and for high value components.

  4. Molar cusp deformation evaluated by micro-CT and enamel crack formation to compare incremental and bulk-filling techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Laís Rani Sales; Braga, Stella Sueli Lourenço; Bicalho, Aline Arêdes; Ribeiro, Maria Tereza Hordones; Price, Richard Bengt; Soares, Carlos José

    2018-07-01

    To describe a method of measuring the molar cusp deformation using micro-computed tomography (micro-CT), the propagation of enamel cracks using transillumination, and the effects of hygroscopic expansion after incremental and bulk-filling resin composite restorations. Twenty human molars received standardized Class II mesio-occlusal-distal cavity preparations. They were restored with either a bulk-fill resin composite, X-tra fil (XTRA), or a conventional resin composite, Filtek Z100 (Z100). The resin composites were tested for post-gel shrinkage using a strain gauge method. Cusp deformation (CD) was evaluated using the images obtained using a micro-CT protocol and using a strain-gauge method. Enamel cracks were detected using transillumination. The post-gel shrinkage of Z100 was higher than XTRA (P cracks than XTRA (P = 0.012). Micro-CT was an effective method for evaluating the cusp deformation. Transillumination was effective for detecting enamel cracks. There were fewer negative effects of polymerization shrinkage in bulk-fill resin restorations using XTRA than for the conventional incremental filling technique using conventional composite resin Z100. Shrinkage and cusp deformation are directly related to the formation of enamel cracks. Cusp deformation and crack propagation may increase the risk of tooth fracture. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Evaluation of Mucociliary Clearance by Three Dimension Micro-CT-SPECT in Guinea Pig: Role of Bitter Taste Agonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Jose Luis; Ortiz, Amparo; Milara, Javier; Armengot, Miguel; Sanz, Celia; Compañ, Desamparados; Morcillo, Esteban; Cortijo, Julio

    2016-01-01

    Different image techniques have been used to analyze mucociliary clearance (MCC) in humans, but current small animal MCC analysis using in vivo imaging has not been well defined. Bitter taste receptor (T2R) agonists increase ciliary beat frequency (CBF) and cause bronchodilation but their effects in vivo are not well understood. This work analyzes in vivo nasal and bronchial MCC in guinea pig animals using three dimension (3D) micro-CT-SPECT images and evaluates the effect of T2R agonists. Intranasal macroaggreggates of albumin-Technetium 99 metastable (MAA-Tc99m) and lung nebulized Tc99m albumin nanocolloids were used to analyze the effect of T2R agonists on nasal and bronchial MCC respectively, using 3D micro-CT-SPECT in guinea pig. MAA-Tc99m showed a nasal mucociliary transport rate of 0.36 mm/min that was increased in presence of T2R agonist to 0.66 mm/min. Tc99m albumin nanocolloids were homogeneously distributed in the lung of guinea pig and cleared with time-dependence through the bronchi and trachea of guinea pig. T2R agonist increased bronchial MCC of Tc99m albumin nanocolloids. T2R agonists increased CBF in human nasal ciliated cells in vitro and induced bronchodilation in human bronchi ex vivo. In summary, T2R agonists increase MCC in vivo as assessed by 3D micro-CT-SPECT analysis.

  6. Three-dimensional analysis of mesiobuccal root canal of Japanese maxillary first molar using Micro-CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Masashi; Ide, Yoshinobu; Matsunaga, Satoru; Kato, Hiroshi; Nakagawa, Kan-Ichi

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to three-dimensionally observe the morphological characteristics of mesiobuccal root canals of Japanese maxillary first molars using microcomputed tomography (Micro-CT) and classify root canal variations. This study used 90 maxillary first molars. Three-dimensional reconstruction was performed using data obtained by Micro-CT, and cross-sections of the root canals were observed. Moreover, the root canal morphology was classified by the configuration and root canal diameter, and was evaluated for occurrence using the classification by Weine et al. (1969) as a reference. Overall, single root canals were observed in 44.4%, incomplete separation root canals in 22.3%, and completely separate root canals (upper and lower separation root canals) in 33.3%. Mesiobuccal root canals often had intricate configurations, and accessory root canals (lateral canals and apical ramifications) were observed in most of the mesiobuccal root canals (76.7%), irrespective of whether there were ramifications of the main root canals. While there were no marked differences in the incidence of root canal ramifications between this study and earlier reports, the incidence of accessory root canals was higher in this study. This result may be explained by the far more superior visualization ability of Micro-CT than conventional methods, which allowed the detection of microscopic apical ramifications previously difficult to observe. (author)

  7. Micro-CT scan reveals an unexpected high-volume and interconnected pore network in a Cretaceous Sanagasta dinosaur eggshell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hechenleitner, E Martín; Grellet-Tinner, Gerald; Foley, Matthew; Fiorelli, Lucas E; Thompson, Michael B

    2016-03-01

    The Cretaceous Sanagasta neosauropod nesting site (La Rioja, Argentina) was the first confirmed instance of extinct dinosaurs using geothermal-generated heat to incubate their eggs. The nesting strategy and hydrothermal activities at this site led to the conclusion that the surprisingly 7 mm thick-shelled eggs were adapted to harsh hydrothermal microenvironments. We used micro-CT scans in this study to obtain the first three-dimensional microcharacterization of these eggshells. Micro-CT-based analyses provide a robust assessment of gas conductance in fossil dinosaur eggshells with complex pore canal systems, allowing calculation, for the first time, of the shell conductance through its thickness. This novel approach suggests that the shell conductance could have risen during incubation to seven times more than previously estimated as the eggshell erodes. In addition, micro-CT observations reveal that the constant widening and branching of pore canals form a complex funnel-like pore canal system. Furthermore, the high density of pore canals and the presence of a lateral canal network in the shell reduce the risks of pore obstruction during the extended incubation of these eggs in a relatively highly humid and muddy nesting environment. © 2016 The Author(s).

  8. Grating-based X-ray phase contrast for biomedical imaging applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfeiffer, Franz; Willner, Marian; Chabior, Michael; Herzen, Julia; Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, Geesthacht; Auweter, Sigrid; Reiser, Maximilian; Bamberg, Fabian

    2013-01-01

    In this review article we describe the development of grating-based X-ray phase-contrast imaging, with particular emphasis on potential biomedical applications of the technology. We review the basics of image formation in grating-based phase-contrast and dark-field radiography and present some exemplary multimodal radiography results obtained with laboratory X-ray sources. Furthermore, we discuss the theoretical concepts to extend grating-based multimodal radiography to quantitative transmission, phase-contrast, and dark-field scattering computed tomography. (orig.)

  9. Present and future in the use of micro-CT scanner 3D analysis for the study of dental and root canal morphology

    OpenAIRE

    Nicola M. Grande; Gianluca Plotino; Gianluca Gambarini; Luca Testarelli; Ferdinando D’Ambrosio; Raffaella Pecci; Rossella Bedini

    2012-01-01

    The goal of the present article is to illustrate and analyze the applications and the potential of microcomputed tomography (micro-CT) in the analysis of tooth anatomy and root canal morphology. The authors performed a micro-CT analysis of the following different teeth: maxillary first molars with a second canal in the mesiobuccal (MB) root, mandibular first molars with complex anatomy in the mesial root, premolars with single and double roots and with complicated apical anatomy. The hardware...

  10. Phenotypic characterization of skeletal abnormalities of osteopotentia mutant mice by micro-CT: a descriptive approach with emphasis on reconstruction techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roemer, Frank W. [Department of Radiology, Klinikum Augsburg, Augsburg (Germany); Boston University School of Medicine, Quantitative Imaging Center, Boston, MA (United States); University of California, San Francisco, Osteoporosis and Arthritis Research Group, San Francisco, CA (United States); Boston University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Mohr, Andreas [University of California, San Francisco, Osteoporosis and Arthritis Research Group, San Francisco, CA (United States); Sligo General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Sligo (Ireland); Guermazi, Ali [Boston University School of Medicine, Quantitative Imaging Center, Boston, MA (United States); University of California, San Francisco, Osteoporosis and Arthritis Research Group, San Francisco, CA (United States); Jiang, Yebin [University of California, San Francisco, Osteoporosis and Arthritis Research Group, San Francisco, CA (United States); University of Michigan Medical School, Osteoporosis and Arthritis Laboratory, Musculoskeletal Division, Department of Radiology, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Schlechtweg, Philipp [University of Erlangen, Department of Radiology, Erlangen (Germany); Genant, Harry K. [University of California, San Francisco, Osteoporosis and Arthritis Research Group, San Francisco, CA (United States); CCBR-SYNARC, Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States); Sohaskey, Michael L. [University of California, Berkeley, Department of Molecular and Cell Biology and Center for Integrative Genomics, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2011-08-15

    The novel protein osteopotentia (Opt) has recently been described as an essential regulator of postnatal osteoblast maturation and might possibly be responsible for some of the rarer types of osteogenesis imperfecta. Our aim was the evaluation of micro CT for the qualitative morphological assessment of skeletal abnormalities of Osteopotentia-mutant mice in comparison to radiography and histology. Four homozygous mice with insertional mutations in the Opt gene and three wild-type controls were examined ex vivo using radiography and micro-CT. Two of the homozygous animals were evaluated histologically (trichrome reagent). For the micro-CT evaluation three-dimensional (3D) surface reconstructions and two-dimensional (2D) multiplanar reformations (MPRs) were applied. The Opt-homozygous mice exhibited severe growth. The radiographic examinations showed osteopenia and fractures with hypertrophic callus formation and pseudarthroses of the forelimbs and ribs. Micro-CT confirmed these findings and was able to demonstrate additional fractures especially at smaller bones such as the metacarpals and phalanges. Additional characterization and superior delineation of cortices and fracture fragments was achieved by 2D MPRs. Histological correlation verified several of these imaging findings. Micro-CT is able to screen Opt-mutant mice for osseous pathologies and furthermore characterize these anomalies. The modality seems superior to conventional radiography, but is not able to demonstrate cellular pathology. However, histology is destructive and more time- and material-consuming than micro-CT. Additional information may be gathered by 2D MPRs. (orig.)

  11. Phenotypic characterization of skeletal abnormalities of osteopotentia mutant mice by micro-CT: a descriptive approach with emphasis on reconstruction techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roemer, Frank W.; Mohr, Andreas; Guermazi, Ali; Jiang, Yebin; Schlechtweg, Philipp; Genant, Harry K.; Sohaskey, Michael L.

    2011-01-01

    The novel protein osteopotentia (Opt) has recently been described as an essential regulator of postnatal osteoblast maturation and might possibly be responsible for some of the rarer types of osteogenesis imperfecta. Our aim was the evaluation of micro CT for the qualitative morphological assessment of skeletal abnormalities of Osteopotentia-mutant mice in comparison to radiography and histology. Four homozygous mice with insertional mutations in the Opt gene and three wild-type controls were examined ex vivo using radiography and micro-CT. Two of the homozygous animals were evaluated histologically (trichrome reagent). For the micro-CT evaluation three-dimensional (3D) surface reconstructions and two-dimensional (2D) multiplanar reformations (MPRs) were applied. The Opt-homozygous mice exhibited severe growth. The radiographic examinations showed osteopenia and fractures with hypertrophic callus formation and pseudarthroses of the forelimbs and ribs. Micro-CT confirmed these findings and was able to demonstrate additional fractures especially at smaller bones such as the metacarpals and phalanges. Additional characterization and superior delineation of cortices and fracture fragments was achieved by 2D MPRs. Histological correlation verified several of these imaging findings. Micro-CT is able to screen Opt-mutant mice for osseous pathologies and furthermore characterize these anomalies. The modality seems superior to conventional radiography, but is not able to demonstrate cellular pathology. However, histology is destructive and more time- and material-consuming than micro-CT. Additional information may be gathered by 2D MPRs. (orig.)

  12. Estimation of mouse organ locations through registration of a statistical mouse atlas with micro-CT images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongkai; Stout, David B; Chatziioannou, Arion F

    2012-01-01

    Micro-CT is widely used in preclinical studies of small animals. Due to the low soft-tissue contrast in typical studies, segmentation of soft tissue organs from noncontrast enhanced micro-CT images is a challenging problem. Here, we propose an atlas-based approach for estimating the major organs in mouse micro-CT images. A statistical atlas of major trunk organs was constructed based on 45 training subjects. The statistical shape model technique was used to include inter-subject anatomical variations. The shape correlations between different organs were described using a conditional Gaussian model. For registration, first the high-contrast organs in micro-CT images were registered by fitting the statistical shape model, while the low-contrast organs were subsequently estimated from the high-contrast organs using the conditional Gaussian model. The registration accuracy was validated based on 23 noncontrast-enhanced and 45 contrast-enhanced micro-CT images. Three different accuracy metrics (Dice coefficient, organ volume recovery coefficient, and surface distance) were used for evaluation. The Dice coefficients vary from 0.45 ± 0.18 for the spleen to 0.90 ± 0.02 for the lungs, the volume recovery coefficients vary from 0.96 ± 0.10 for the liver to 1.30 ± 0.75 for the spleen, the surface distances vary from 0.18 ± 0.01 mm for the lungs to 0.72 ± 0.42 mm for the spleen. The registration accuracy of the statistical atlas was compared with two publicly available single-subject mouse atlases, i.e., the MOBY phantom and the DIGIMOUSE atlas, and the results proved that the statistical atlas is more accurate than the single atlases. To evaluate the influence of the training subject size, different numbers of training subjects were used for atlas construction and registration. The results showed an improvement of the registration accuracy when more training subjects were used for the atlas construction. The statistical atlas-based registration was also compared with

  13. Delayed contrast enhancement imaging of a murine model for ischemia reperfusion with carbon nanotube micro-CT.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurel M Burk

    Full Text Available We aim to demonstrate the application of free-breathing prospectively gated carbon nanotube (CNT micro-CT by evaluating a myocardial infarction model with a delayed contrast enhancement technique. Evaluation of murine cardiac models using micro-CT imaging has historically been limited by extreme imaging requirements. Newly-developed CNT-based x-ray sources offer precise temporal resolution, allowing elimination of physiological motion through prospective gating. Using free-breathing, cardiac-gated CNT micro-CT, a myocardial infarction model can be studied non-invasively and with high resolution. Myocardial infarction was induced in eight male C57BL/6 mice aged 8-12 weeks. The ischemia reperfusion model was achieved by surgically occluding the LAD artery for 30 minutes followed by 24 hours of reperfusion. Tail vein catheters were placed for contrast administration. Iohexol 300 mgI/mL was administered followed by images obtained in diastole. Iodinated lipid blood pool contrast agent was then administered, followed with images at systole and diastole. Respiratory and cardiac signals were monitored externally and used to gate the scans of free-breathing subjects. Seven control animals were scanned using the same imaging protocol. After imaging, the heart was harvested, cut into 1mm slices and stained with TTC. Post-processing analysis was performed using ITK-Snap and MATLAB. All animals demonstrated obvious delayed contrast enhancement in the left ventricular wall following the Iohexol injection. The blood pool contrast agent revealed significant changes in cardiac function quantified by 3-D volume ejection fractions. All subjects demonstrated areas of myocardial infarct in the LAD distribution on both TTC staining and micro-CT imaging. The CNT micro-CT system aids straightforward, free-breathing, prospectively-gated 3-D murine cardiac imaging. Delayed contrast enhancement allows identification of infarcted myocardium after a myocardial ischemic

  14. Monte Carlo simulations of the dose from imaging with GE eXplore 120 micro-CT using GATE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bretin, Florian; Bahri, Mohamed Ali; Luxen, André; Phillips, Christophe; Plenevaux, Alain; Seret, Alain, E-mail: aseret@ulg.ac.be [Cyclotron Research Centre, University of Liège, Sart Tilman B30, Liège 4000 (Belgium)

    2015-10-15

    Purpose: Small animals are increasingly used as translational models in preclinical imaging studies involving microCT, during which the subjects can be exposed to large amounts of radiation. While the radiation levels are generally sublethal, studies have shown that low-level radiation can change physiological parameters in mice. In order to rule out any influence of radiation on the outcome of such experiments, or resulting deterministic effects in the subjects, the levels of radiation involved need to be addressed. The aim of this study was to investigate the radiation dose delivered by the GE eXplore 120 microCT non-invasively using Monte Carlo simulations in GATE and to compare results to previously obtained experimental values. Methods: Tungsten X-ray spectra were simulated at 70, 80, and 97 kVp using an analytical tool and their half-value layers were simulated for spectra validation against experimentally measured values of the physical X-ray tube. A Monte Carlo model of the microCT system was set up and four protocols that are regularly applied to live animal scanning were implemented. The computed tomography dose index (CTDI) inside a PMMA phantom was derived and multiple field of view acquisitions were simulated using the PMMA phantom, a representative mouse and rat. Results: Simulated half-value layers agreed with experimentally obtained results within a 7% error window. The CTDI ranged from 20 to 56 mGy and closely matched experimental values. Derived organ doses in mice reached 459 mGy in bones and up to 200 mGy in soft tissue organs using the highest energy protocol. Dose levels in rats were lower due to the increased mass of the animal compared to mice. The uncertainty of all dose simulations was below 14%. Conclusions: Monte Carlo simulations proved a valuable tool to investigate the 3D dose distribution in animals from microCT. Small animals, especially mice (due to their small volume), receive large amounts of radiation from the GE eXplore 120

  15. Quantifying shape changes of silicone breast implants in a murine model using in vivo micro-CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Emily E; Perilli, Egon; Carati, Colin J; Reynolds, Karen J

    2017-08-01

    A major complication of silicone breast implants is the formation of a capsule around the implant known as capsular contracture which results in the distortion of the implant. Recently, a mouse model for studying capsular contracture was examined using micro-computed tomography (micro-CT), however, only qualitative changes were reported. The aim of this study was to develop a quantitative method for comparing the shape changes of silicone implants using in vivo micro-CT. Mice were bilaterally implanted with silicone implants and underwent ionizing radiation to induce capsular contracture. On day 28 post-surgery mice were examined in vivo using micro-CT. The reconstructed cross-section images were visually inspected to identify distortion. Measurements were taken in 2D and 3D to quantify the shape of the implants in the normal (n = 11) and distorted (n = 5) groups. The degree of anisotropy was significantly higher in the distorted implants in the transaxial view (0.99 vs. 1.19, p = 0.002) and the y-axis lengths were significantly shorter in the sagittal (9.27 mm vs. 8.55 mm, p = 0.015) and coronal (9.24 mm vs. 8.76 mm, p = 0.031) views, indicating a deviation from the circular cross-section and shortening of the long axis. The 3D analysis revealed a significantly lower average thickness (sphere-fitting method) in distorted implants (6.86 mm vs. 5.49 mm, p = 0.002), whereas the volume and surface area did not show significant changes. Statistically significant differences between normal and distorted implants were found in 2D and 3D using distance measurements performed via micro-CT. This objective analysis method can be useful for a range of studies involving deformable implants using in vivo micro-CT. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 105B: 1447-1452, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Concomitant use of polarization and positive phase contrast microscopy for the study of microbial cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Žižka, Zdeněk; Gabriel, Jiří

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 6 (2015), s. 545-550 ISSN 0015-5632 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : polarization microscopy * microbial cells * positive phase contrast Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.335, year: 2015

  17. Origins of phase contrast in the atomic force microscope in liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melcher, John; Carrasco, Carolina; Xu, Xin; Carrascosa, José L; Gómez-Herrero, Julio; José de Pablo, Pedro; Raman, Arvind

    2009-08-18

    We study the physical origins of phase contrast in dynamic atomic force microscopy (dAFM) in liquids where low-stiffness microcantilever probes are often used for nanoscale imaging of soft biological samples with gentle forces. Under these conditions, we show that the phase contrast derives primarily from a unique energy flow channel that opens up in liquids due to the momentary excitation of higher eigenmodes. Contrary to the common assumption, phase-contrast images in liquids using soft microcantilevers are often maps of short-range conservative interactions, such as local elastic response, rather than tip-sample dissipation. The theory is used to demonstrate variations in local elasticity of purple membrane and bacteriophage 29 virions in buffer solutions using the phase-contrast images.

  18. Fully automated segmentation of callus by micro-CT compared to biomechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissinger, Oliver; Götz, Carolin; Wolff, Klaus-Dietrich; Hapfelmeier, Alexander; Prodinger, Peter Michael; Tischer, Thomas

    2017-07-11

    A high percentage of closed femur fractures have slight comminution. Using micro-CT (μCT), multiple fragment segmentation is much more difficult than segmentation of unfractured or osteotomied bone. Manual or semi-automated segmentation has been performed to date. However, such segmentation is extremely laborious, time-consuming and error-prone. Our aim was to therefore apply a fully automated segmentation algorithm to determine μCT parameters and examine their association with biomechanics. The femura of 64 rats taken after randomised inhibitory or neutral medication, in terms of the effect on fracture healing, and controls were closed fractured after a Kirschner wire was inserted. After 21 days, μCT and biomechanical parameters were determined by a fully automated method and correlated (Pearson's correlation). The fully automated segmentation algorithm automatically detected bone and simultaneously separated cortical bone from callus without requiring ROI selection for each single bony structure. We found an association of structural callus parameters obtained by μCT to the biomechanical properties. However, results were only explicable by additionally considering the callus location. A large number of slightly comminuted fractures in combination with therapies that influence the callus qualitatively and/or quantitatively considerably affects the association between μCT and biomechanics. In the future, contrast-enhanced μCT imaging of the callus cartilage might provide more information to improve the non-destructive and non-invasive prediction of callus mechanical properties. As studies evaluating such important drugs increase, fully automated segmentation appears to be clinically important.

  19. Micro-CT Imaging of Denatured Chitin by Silver to Explore Honey Bee and Insect Pathologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butzloff, Peter R.

    2011-01-01

    Background Chitin and cuticle coatings are important to the environmental and immune defense of honey bees and insect pollinators. Pesticides or environmental effects may target the biochemistry of insect chitin and cuticle coating. Denaturing of chitin involves a combination of deacetylation, intercalation, oxidation, Schweiger-peeling, and the formation of amine hydrochloride salt. The term “denatured chitin” calls attention to structural and property changes to the internal membranes and external carapace of organisms so that some properties affecting biological activities are diminished. Methodology/Principal Findings A case study was performed on honey bees using silver staining and microscopic computer-tomographic x-ray radiography (micro-CT). Silver nitrate formed counter-ion complexes with labile ammonium cations and reacted with amine hydrochloride. Silver was concentrated in the peritrophic membrane, on the abdomen, in the glossa, at intersegmental joints (tarsi), at wing attachments, and in tracheal air sacs. Imaged mono-esters and fatty acids from cuticle coating on external surfaces were apparently reduced by an alcohol pretreatment. Conclusions/Significance The technique provides 3-dimensional and sectional images of individual honey bees consistent with the chemistries of silver reaction and complex formation with denatured chitin. Environmental exposures and influences such as gaseous nitric oxide intercalant, trace oxidants such as ozone gas, oligosachharide salt conversion, exposure to acid rain, and chemical or biochemical denaturing by pesticides may be studied using this technique. Peritrophic membranes, which protect against food abrasion, microorganisms, and permit efficient digestion, were imaged. Apparent surface damage to the corneal lenses of compound eyes by dilute acid exposure consistent with chitin amine hydrochloride formation was imaged. The technique can contribute to existing insect pathology research, and may provide an

  20. Micro-CT evaluation of root and canal morphology of mandibular first premolars with radicular grooves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boschetti, Emanuele; Mazzi-Chaves, Jardel Francisco; Versiani, Marco Aurélio; Pécora, Jesus Djalma; Saquy, Paulo Cesar; Sousa Neto, Manoel Damião de, E-mail: sousanet@forp.usp.br [Universidade de São Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Departamento de Odontologia Restauradora; Silva-Sousa, Yara Terezinha Correa; Leoni, Graziela Bianchi [Universidade de Ribeirão Preto (UNAERP), Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil). Departmento de Endodontia

    2017-09-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate morphological features of 70 single-rooted mandibular first premolars with radicular grooves (RG) using micro-CT technology. Teeth were scanned and evaluated regarding the morphology of the roots and root canals as well as length, depth and percentage frequency location of the RG. Volume, surface area and Structure Model Index (SMI) of the canals were measured for the full root length. Two-dimensional parameters and frequency of canal orifices were evaluated at 1, 2, and 3 mm levels from the apical foramen. The number of accessory canals, the dentin thickness, and cross-sectional appearance of the canal at different root levels were also recorded. Expression of deep grooves was observed in 21.42% of the sample. Mean lengths of root and RG were 13.43 mm and 8.5 mm, respectively, while depth of the RG ranged from 0.75 to 1.13 mm. Mean canal volume, surface area and SMI were 10.78 mm{sup 3}, 58.51 mm{sup 2}, and 2.84, respectively. Apical delta was present in 4.35% of the sample and accessory canals were observed mostly at the middle and apical thirds. Two-dimensional parameters indicated an oval-shaped cross-sectional appearance of the root canal with a high percentage frequency of canal divisions (87.15%). Canal configuration type V (58.57%) was the most prevalent. C-shaped configuration was observed in 13 premolars (18.57%), whereas dentin thickness ranged from 1.0 to 1.31 mm. Radicular grooves in mandibular first premolars was associated with the occurrence of several anatomical complexities, including C-shaped canals and divisions of the main root canal. (author)

  1. Micro-CT evaluation of root and canal morphology of mandibular first premolars with radicular grooves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boschetti, Emanuele; Mazzi-Chaves, Jardel Francisco; Versiani, Marco Aurélio; Pécora, Jesus Djalma; Saquy, Paulo Cesar; Sousa Neto, Manoel Damião de; Silva-Sousa, Yara Terezinha Correa; Leoni, Graziela Bianchi

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate morphological features of 70 single-rooted mandibular first premolars with radicular grooves (RG) using micro-CT technology. Teeth were scanned and evaluated regarding the morphology of the roots and root canals as well as length, depth and percentage frequency location of the RG. Volume, surface area and Structure Model Index (SMI) of the canals were measured for the full root length. Two-dimensional parameters and frequency of canal orifices were evaluated at 1, 2, and 3 mm levels from the apical foramen. The number of accessory canals, the dentin thickness, and cross-sectional appearance of the canal at different root levels were also recorded. Expression of deep grooves was observed in 21.42% of the sample. Mean lengths of root and RG were 13.43 mm and 8.5 mm, respectively, while depth of the RG ranged from 0.75 to 1.13 mm. Mean canal volume, surface area and SMI were 10.78 mm 3 , 58.51 mm 2 , and 2.84, respectively. Apical delta was present in 4.35% of the sample and accessory canals were observed mostly at the middle and apical thirds. Two-dimensional parameters indicated an oval-shaped cross-sectional appearance of the root canal with a high percentage frequency of canal divisions (87.15%). Canal configuration type V (58.57%) was the most prevalent. C-shaped configuration was observed in 13 premolars (18.57%), whereas dentin thickness ranged from 1.0 to 1.31 mm. Radicular grooves in mandibular first premolars was associated with the occurrence of several anatomical complexities, including C-shaped canals and divisions of the main root canal. (author)

  2. Micro-CT imaging of denatured chitin by silver to explore honey bee and insect pathologies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter R Butzloff

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chitin and cuticle coatings are important to the environmental and immune defense of honey bees and insect pollinators. Pesticides or environmental effects may target the biochemistry of insect chitin and cuticle coating. Denaturing of chitin involves a combination of deacetylation, intercalation, oxidation, Schweiger-peeling, and the formation of amine hydrochloride salt. The term "denatured chitin" calls attention to structural and property changes to the internal membranes and external carapace of organisms so that some properties affecting biological activities are diminished. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A case study was performed on honey bees using silver staining and microscopic computer-tomographic x-ray radiography (micro-CT. Silver nitrate formed counter-ion complexes with labile ammonium cations and reacted with amine hydrochloride. Silver was concentrated in the peritrophic membrane, on the abdomen, in the glossa, at intersegmental joints (tarsi, at wing attachments, and in tracheal air sacs. Imaged mono-esters and fatty acids from cuticle coating on external surfaces were apparently reduced by an alcohol pretreatment. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The technique provides 3-dimensional and sectional images of individual honey bees consistent with the chemistries of silver reaction and complex formation with denatured chitin. Environmental exposures and influences such as gaseous nitric oxide intercalant, trace oxidants such as ozone gas, oligosachharide salt conversion, exposure to acid rain, and chemical or biochemical denaturing by pesticides may be studied using this technique. Peritrophic membranes, which protect against food abrasion, microorganisms, and permit efficient digestion, were imaged. Apparent surface damage to the corneal lenses of compound eyes by dilute acid exposure consistent with chitin amine hydrochloride formation was imaged. The technique can contribute to existing insect pathology research, and may

  3. Micro-CT evaluation of internal adaptation in resin fillings with different dentin adhesives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Hoon Han

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives The purpose of present study was to evaluate the internal adaptation of composite restorations using different adhesive systems. Materials and Methods Typical class I cavities were prepared in 32 human third molars. The teeth were divided into the following four groups: 3-step etch-and-rinse, 2-step etch-and-rinse, 2-step self-etch and 1-step self-etch system were used. After the dentin adhesives were applied, composite resins were filled and light-cured in two layers. Then, silver nitrate solution was infiltrated, and all of the samples were scanned by micro-CT before and after thermo-mechanical load cycling. For each image, the length to which silver nitrate infiltrated, as a percentage of the whole pulpal floor length, was calculated (%SP. To evaluate the internal adaptation using conventional method, the samples were cut into 3 pieces by two sectioning at an interval of 1 mm in the middle of the cavity and they were dyed with Rhodamine-B. The cross sections of the specimens were examined by stereomicroscope. The lengths of the parts where actual leakage was shown were measured and calculated as a percentage of real leakage (%RP. The values for %SP and %RP were compared. Results After thermo-mechanical loading, all specimens showed significantly increased %SP compared to before thermo-mechanical loading and 1-step self-etch system had the highest %SP (p < 0.05. There was a tendency for %SP and %RP to show similar microleakage percentage depending on its sectioning. Conclusions After thermo-mechanical load cycling, there were differences in internal adaptation among the groups using different adhesive systems.

  4. Contrast agent comparison for three-dimensional micro-CT angiography: A cadaveric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingston, Mitchell J; Perriman, Diana M; Neeman, Teresa; Smith, Paul N; Webb, Alexandra L

    2016-07-01

    Barium sulfate and lead oxide contrast media are frequently used for cadaver-based angiography studies. These contrast media have not previously been compared to determine which is optimal for the visualisation and measurement of blood vessels. In this study, the lower limb vessels of 16 embalmed Wistar rats, and four sets of cannulae of known diameter, were injected with one of three different contrast agents (barium sulfate and resin, barium sulfate and gelatin, and lead oxide combined with milk powder). All were then scanned using micro-computed tomography (CT) angiography and 3-D reconstructions generated. The number of branching generations of the rat lower limb vessels were counted and compared between the contrast agents using ANOVA. The diameter of the contrast-filled cannulae, were measured and used to calculate the accuracy of the measurements by comparing the bias and variance of the estimates. Intra- and inter-observer reliability were calculated using intra-class correlation coefficients. There was no significant difference (mean difference [MD] 0.05; MD 95% confidence interval [CI] -0.83 to 0.93) between the number of branching generations for barium sulfate-resin and lead oxide-milk powder. Barium sulfate-resin demonstrated less bias and less variance of the estimates (MD 0.03; standard deviation [SD] 1.96 mm) compared to lead oxide-milk powder (MD 0.11; SD 1.96 mm) for measurements of contrast-filled cannulae scanned at high resolution. Barium sulfate-resin proved to be more accurate than lead oxide-milk powder for high resolution micro-CT scans and is preferred due to its non-toxicity. This technique could be applied to any embalmed specimen model. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. HECTOR: A 240kV micro-CT setup optimized for research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masschaele, Bert; Dierick, Manuel; Van Loo, Denis; Boone, Matthieu N.; Brabant, Loes; Pauwels, Elin; Cnudde, Veerle; Van Hoorebeke, Luc

    2013-10-01

    X-ray micro-CT has become a very powerful and common tool for non-destructive three-dimensional (3D) visualization and analysis of objects. Many systems are commercially available, but they are typically limited in terms of operational freedom both from a mechanical point of view as well as for acquisition routines. HECTOR is the latest system developed by the Ghent University Centre for X-ray Tomography (http://www.ugct.ugent.be) in collaboration with X-Ray Engineering (XRE bvba, Ghent, Belgium). It consists of a mechanical setup with nine motorized axes and a modular acquisition software package and combines a microfocus directional target X-ray source up to 240 kV with a large flat-panel detector. Provisions are made to install a line-detector for a maximal operational range. The system can accommodate samples up to 80 kg, 1 m long and 80 cm in diameter while it is also suited for high resolution (down to 4 μm) tomography. The bi-directional detector tiling is suited for large samples while the variable source-detector distance optimizes the signal to noise ratio (SNR) for every type of sample, even with peripheral equipment such as compression stages or climate chambers. The large vertical travel of 1 m can be used for helical scanning and a vertical detector rotation axis allows laminography experiments. The setup is installed in a large concrete bunker to allow accommodation of peripheral equipment such as pumps, chillers, etc., which can be integrated in the modular acquisition software to obtain a maximal correlation between the environmental control and the CT data taken. The acquisition software does not only allow good coupling with the peripheral equipment but its scripting feature is also particularly interesting for testing new and exotic acquisition routines.

  6. X-ray imaging with monochromatic synchrotron radiation. Fluorescent and phase-contrast method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda, Tohoru; Itai, Yuji [Tsukuba Univ., Ibaraki (Japan). Inst. of Clinical Medicine

    2002-05-01

    To obtain the high sensitive x-ray images of biomedical object, new x-ray imaging techniques using fluorescent x-ray and phase-contrast x-ray are being developed in Japan. Fluorescent x-ray CT can detect very small amounts of specific elements in the order of ppm at one pixel, whereas phase-contrast x-ray imaging with interferometer can detect minute differences of biological object. Here, our recent experimental results are presented. (author)

  7. In-Line Phase-Contrast X-ray Imaging and Tomography for Materials Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, Sheridan C; Stevenson, Andrew W; Wilkins, Stephen W

    2012-05-24

    X-ray phase-contrast imaging and tomography make use of the refraction of X-rays by the sample in image formation. This provides considerable additional information in the image compared to conventional X-ray imaging methods, which rely solely on X-ray absorption by the sample. Phase-contrast imaging highlights edges and internal boundaries of a sample and is thus complementary to absorption contrast, which is more sensitive to the bulk of the sample. Phase-contrast can also be used to image low-density materials, which do not absorb X-rays sufficiently to form a conventional X-ray image. In the context of materials science, X-ray phase-contrast imaging and tomography have particular value in the 2D and 3D characterization of low-density materials, the detection of cracks and voids and the analysis of composites and multiphase materials where the different components have similar X-ray attenuation coefficients. Here we review the use of phase-contrast imaging and tomography for a wide variety of materials science characterization problems using both synchrotron and laboratory sources and further demonstrate the particular benefits of phase contrast in the laboratory setting with a series of case studies.

  8. Image fusion in x-ray differential phase-contrast imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, W.; Polyanskaya, M.; Bayer, F.; Gödel, K.; Hofmann, H.; Rieger, J.; Ritter, A.; Weber, T.; Wucherer, L.; Durst, J.; Michel, T.; Anton, G.; Hornegger, J.

    2012-02-01

    Phase-contrast imaging is a novel modality in the field of medical X-ray imaging. The pioneer method is the grating-based interferometry which has no special requirements to the X-ray source and object size. Furthermore, it provides three different types of information of an investigated object simultaneously - absorption, differential phase-contrast and dark-field images. Differential phase-contrast and dark-field images represent a completely new information which has not yet been investigated and studied in context of medical imaging. In order to introduce phase-contrast imaging as a new modality into medical environment the resulting information about the object has to be correctly interpreted. The three output images reflect different properties of the same object the main challenge is to combine and visualize these data in such a way that it diminish the information explosion and reduce the complexity of its interpretation. This paper presents an intuitive image fusion approach which allows to operate with grating-based phase-contrast images. It combines information of the three different images and provides a single image. The approach is implemented in a fusion framework which is aimed to support physicians in study and analysis. The framework provides the user with an intuitive graphical user interface allowing to control the fusion process. The example given in this work shows the functionality of the proposed method and the great potential of phase-contrast imaging in medical practice.

  9. Application of phase-contrast cine magnetic resonance imaging in endoscopic aqueductoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guoqiang; Zheng, Jiaping; Xiao, Qing; Liu, Yunsheng

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the application of phase-contrast cine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in endoscopic aqueductoplasty (EA) for patients with obstructive hydrocephalus. The clinical diagnosis of hydrocephalus caused by aqueduct obstruction in 23 patients was confirmed by phase-contrast cine MRI examination. The patients were treated with EA and MRI was repeated during the follow-up. The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow velocity in the aqueduct was measured to determine whether the aqueduct was obstructed. The results of phase-contrast cine MRI examinations indicated that there was no CSF flow in the aqueduct for all patients prior to surgery. Aqueductoplasty was successfully performed in all patients. The results of phase-contrast cine MRI examinations performed a week after surgery demonstrated an average CSF flow velocity of 4.74±1.77 cm/sec. During the follow-up, intracranial hypertension recurred in two patients in whom CSF flow was not observed in the aqueduct by the phase-contrast cine MRI scan. Aqueduct re-occlusion was revealed by an endoscopic exploration. By measuring the CSF flow velocity, phase-contrast cine MRI accurately identifies aqueduct obstruction. Cine MRI is a nontraumatic, simple and reliable method for determining whether the aqueduct is successfully opened following aqueductoplasty.

  10. Quantitative breast tissue characterization using grating-based x-ray phase-contrast imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willner, M.; Herzen, J.; Grandl, S.; Auweter, S.; Mayr, D.; Hipp, A.; Chabior, M.; Sarapata, A.; Achterhold, K.; Zanette, I.; Weitkamp, T.; Sztrókay, A.; Hellerhoff, K.; Reiser, M.; Pfeiffer, F.

    2014-04-01

    X-ray phase-contrast imaging has received growing interest in recent years due to its high capability in visualizing soft tissue. Breast imaging became the focus of particular attention as it is considered the most promising candidate for a first clinical application of this contrast modality. In this study, we investigate quantitative breast tissue characterization using grating-based phase-contrast computed tomography (CT) at conventional polychromatic x-ray sources. Different breast specimens have been scanned at a laboratory phase-contrast imaging setup and were correlated to histopathology. Ascertained tumor types include phylloides tumor, fibroadenoma and infiltrating lobular carcinoma. Identified tissue types comprising adipose, fibroglandular and tumor tissue have been analyzed in terms of phase-contrast Hounsfield units and are compared to high-quality, high-resolution data obtained with monochromatic synchrotron radiation, as well as calculated values based on tabulated tissue properties. The results give a good impression of the method’s prospects and limitations for potential tumor detection and the associated demands on such a phase-contrast breast CT system. Furthermore, the evaluated quantitative tissue values serve as a reference for simulations and the design of dedicated phantoms for phase-contrast mammography.

  11. Experimental validation of the Wigner distributions theory of phase-contrast imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donnelly, Edwin F.; Price, Ronald R.; Pickens, David R.

    2005-01-01

    Recently, a new theory of phase-contrast imaging has been proposed by Wu and Liu [Med. Phys. 31, 2378-2384 (2004)]. This theory, based upon Wigner distributions, provides a much stronger foundation for the evaluation of phase-contrast imaging systems than did the prior theories based upon Fresnel-Kirchhoff diffraction theory. In this paper, we compare results of measurements made in our laboratory of phase contrast for different geometries and tube voltages to the predictions of the Wu and Liu model. In our previous publications, we have used an empirical measurement (the edge enhancement index) to parametrize the degree of phase-contrast effects in an image. While the Wu and Liu model itself does not predict image contrast, it does measure the degree of phase contrast that the system can image for a given spatial frequency. We have found that our previously published experimental results relating phase-contrast effects to geometry and x-ray tube voltage are consistent with the predictions of the Wu and Liu model

  12. X-ray phase-contrast CT of a pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma mouse model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne Tapfer

    Full Text Available To explore the potential of grating-based x-ray phase-contrast computed tomography (CT for preclinical research, a genetically engineered mouse model of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC was investigated. One ex-vivo mouse specimen was scanned with different grating-based phase-contrast CT imaging setups covering two different settings: i high-resolution synchrotron radiation (SR imaging and ii dose-reduced imaging using either synchrotron radiation or a conventional x-ray tube source. These experimental settings were chosen to assess the potential of phase-contrast imaging for two different types of application: i high-performance imaging for virtual microscopy applications and ii biomedical imaging with increased soft-tissue contrast for in-vivo applications. For validation and as a reference, histological slicing and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI were performed on the same mouse specimen. For each x-ray imaging setup, attenuation and phase-contrast images were compared visually with regard to contrast in general, and specifically concerning the recognizability of lesions and cancerous tissue. To quantitatively assess contrast, the contrast-to-noise ratios (CNR of selected regions of interest (ROI in the attenuation images and the phase images were analyzed and compared. It was found that both for virtual microscopy and for in-vivo applications, there is great potential for phase-contrast imaging: in the SR-based benchmarking data, fine details about tissue composition are accessible in the phase images and the visibility of solid tumor tissue under dose-reduced conditions is markedly superior in the phase images. The present study hence demonstrates improved diagnostic value with phase-contrast CT in a mouse model of a complex endogenous cancer, promoting the use and further development of grating-based phase-contrast CT for biomedical imaging applications.

  13. MicroCT evaluation of bone mineral density loss in human bones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nogueira, Liebert P.; Braz, Delson; Lopes, Ricardo T.; Barroso, Regina C.; Oliveira, Luis F.

    2007-01-01

    Bone is a connective tissue largely composed of an organic protein, collagen and the inorganic mineral hydroxyapatite [Ca 10 (PO 4 ) 6 OH 2 ], which combine to provide a mechanical and supportive role in the body. Depending on the orientation of collagen fibers, two types of bone can be distinguished: trabecular and cortical bone. Degree of mineralization is considered an important feature of bone quality. Changes in the degree of mineralization is generally due to osteoporosis, but many recent studies have already shown that alterations in degree of mineralization can occur due to a large variety of factors. The transmission X-ray microtomography is one of the most popular methods, which provides the spatial distribution of the total absorption coefficient inside the sample. The aim of this study was to investigate the suitability of using microCT as a supplementary tool for the diagnosis of the health status of human bones. Eleven samples were constructed simulating the physiological range of bone mineral density (BMD) found in cortical human bone. The samples represent healthy mixtures of swine compact bone dried at room temperature, powdered and mixed with fat (0 - 100 % by mass). The samples were imaged by a microfocus tube (Fein-Focus) with focal size of about 60 μm (±5%), and a CCD camera (0.143 mm pixel size) coupled with an intensifier tube with fluoroscope screen at the Nuclear Instrumentation Laboratory (COPPE/UFRJ), Brazil. The images were reconstructed and treated with suitable software developed at the Nuclear Instrumentation Laboratory. The mineral content in cortical bone is defined by the volume of dry, fat-free bone per unit bulk volume of the bone. The volumes were calculated from the bone density using the relationship between volume and density. The densities of fat and bone were taken to be 0.95 g.cm -3 and 1.92 g.cm -3 respectively. The correlation of the measured absorption coefficient with the mineral content in the samples was then

  14. MicroCT evaluation of bone mineral density loss in human bones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogueira, Liebert P.; Braz, Delson; Lopes, Ricardo T. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE). Lab. de Instrumentacao Nuclear]. E-mails: lnogueira@con.ufrj.br; Barroso, Regina C.; Oliveira, Luis F. [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica]. E-mail: cely@uerj.br

    2007-07-01

    Bone is a connective tissue largely composed of an organic protein, collagen and the inorganic mineral hydroxyapatite [Ca{sub 10}(PO{sub 4}){sub 6}OH{sub 2}], which combine to provide a mechanical and supportive role in the body. Depending on the orientation of collagen fibers, two types of bone can be distinguished: trabecular and cortical bone. Degree of mineralization is considered an important feature of bone quality. Changes in the degree of mineralization is generally due to osteoporosis, but many recent studies have already shown that alterations in degree of mineralization can occur due to a large variety of factors. The transmission X-ray microtomography is one of the most popular methods, which provides the spatial distribution of the total absorption coefficient inside the sample. The aim of this study was to investigate the suitability of using microCT as a supplementary tool for the diagnosis of the health status of human bones. Eleven samples were constructed simulating the physiological range of bone mineral density (BMD) found in cortical human bone. The samples represent healthy mixtures of swine compact bone dried at room temperature, powdered and mixed with fat (0 - 100 % by mass). The samples were imaged by a microfocus tube (Fein-Focus) with focal size of about 60 {mu}m ({+-}5%), and a CCD camera (0.143 mm pixel size) coupled with an intensifier tube with fluoroscope screen at the Nuclear Instrumentation Laboratory (COPPE/UFRJ), Brazil. The images were reconstructed and treated with suitable software developed at the Nuclear Instrumentation Laboratory. The mineral content in cortical bone is defined by the volume of dry, fat-free bone per unit bulk volume of the bone. The volumes were calculated from the bone density using the relationship between volume and density. The densities of fat and bone were taken to be 0.95 g.cm{sup -3} and 1.92 g.cm{sup -3} respectively. The correlation of the measured absorption coefficient with the mineral content

  15. Self-calibration of a cone-beam micro-CT system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, V.; Chityala, R. N.; Hoffmann, K. R.; Ionita, C. N.; Bednarek, D. R.; Rudin, S.

    2009-01-01

    Use of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) is becoming more frequent. For proper reconstruction, the geometry of the CBCT systems must be known. While the system can be designed to reduce errors in the geometry, calibration measurements must still be performed and corrections applied. Investigators have proposed techniques using calibration objects for system calibration. In this study, the authors present methods to calibrate a rotary-stage CB micro-CT (CBμCT) system using only the images acquired of the object to be reconstructed, i.e., without the use of calibration objects. Projection images are acquired using a CBμCT system constructed in the authors' laboratories. Dark- and flat-field corrections are performed. Exposure variations are detected and quantified using analysis of image regions with an unobstructed view of the x-ray source. Translations that occur during the acquisition in the horizontal direction are detected, quantified, and corrected based on sinogram analysis. The axis of rotation is determined using registration of antiposed projection images. These techniques were evaluated using data obtained with calibration objects and phantoms. The physical geometric axis of rotation is determined and aligned with the rotational axis (assumed to be the center of the detector plane) used in the reconstruction process. The parameters describing this axis agree to within 0.1 mm and 0.3 deg with those determined using other techniques. Blurring due to residual calibration errors has a point-spread function in the reconstructed planes with a full-width-at-half-maximum of less than 125 μm in a tangential direction and essentially zero in the radial direction for the rotating object. The authors have used this approach on over 100 acquisitions over the past 2 years and have regularly obtained high-quality reconstructions, i.e., without artifacts and no detectable blurring of the reconstructed objects. This self-calibrating approach not only obviates

  16. Collimator optimization for small animal radiation therapy at a micro-CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felix, Manuela C. [Heidelberg Univ., Mannheim (Germany). Medical Radiation Physics/Radiation Protection; Heidelberg Univ., Mannheim (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Glatting, Gerhard [Heidelberg Univ., Mannheim (Germany). Medical Radiation Physics/Radiation Protection; Giordano, Frank A.; Wenz, Frederik; Fleckenstein, Jens [Heidelberg Univ., Mannheim (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Brockmann, Marc A. [Heidelberg Univ., Mannheim (Germany). Dept. of Neuroradiology; University Medical Center Mainz (Germany). Dept. of Neuroradiology

    2017-05-01

    In radiation therapy of small animals treatment depths range from a few millimetres to several centimetres. In order to spare surrounding organs at risk steep dose gradients are necessary. To minimize the treatment time, and therefore the strain to the animals, a high dose rate is required. A description how these parameters can be optimized through an appropriate choice of collimators with different source surface distances (SSD) as well as different materials and geometries is presented. An industrial micro-CT unit (Y.Fox, YXLON GmbH, Hamburg, Germany) was converted into a precision irradiator for small animals. Different collimators of either stainless steel (Fe) with cylindrical bores (SSD = 42 mm) or tungsten (W) with conical bores (SSD = 14 mm) were evaluated. The dosimetry of very small radiation fields presents a challenge and was performed with GafChromic EBT3 films (Ashland, Vayne, KY, USA) in a water phantom. The films were calibrated with an ionization chamber in the uncollimated field. Treatments were performed via a rotation of the objects with a fixed radiation source. As expected, the shorter SSD of the W-collimators resulted in a (4.5 ± 1.6)-fold increase of the dose rates compared to the corresponding Fe-collimators. The ratios of the dose rates at 1 mm and 10 mm depth in the water phantom was (2.6 ± 0.2) for the Fe- and (4.5 ± 0.1) for the W-collimators. For rotational treatments in a cylindrical plastic phantom maximum dose rates of up to 1.2 Gy/min for Fe- and 5.1 Gy/min for W-collimators were measured. Choosing the smallest possible SSD leads to a high dose rate and a high surface dose, which is of advantage for the treatment of superficial target volumes. For larger SSD the dose rate is lower and the depth dose curve is shallower. This leads to a reduction of the surface dose and is best suited for treatments of deeper seated target volumes. Divergent collimator bores have, due to the reduced scatter within the collimators, a steeper

  17. MicroCT and microMRI imaging of a prenatal mouse model of increased brain size

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Elisabeth K. N.; Stock, Stuart R.; Taketo, Makoto M.; Chenn, Anjen; Ravosa, Matthew J.

    2008-08-01

    There are surprisingly few experimental models of neural growth and cranial integration. This and the dearth of information regarding fetal brain development detract from a mechanistic understanding of cranial integration and its relevance to the patterning of skull form, specifically the role of encephalization on basicranial flexion. To address this shortcoming, our research uses transgenic mice expressing a stabilized form of β-catenin to isolate the effects of relative brain size on craniofacial development. These mice develop highly enlarged brains due to an increase in neural precursors, and differences between transgenic and wild-type mice are predicted to result solely from variation in brain size. Comparisons of wild-type and transgenic mice at several prenatal ages were performed using microCT (Scanco Medical MicroCT 40) and microMRI (Avance 600 WB MR spectrometer). Statistical analyses show that the larger brain of the transgenic mice is associated with a larger neurocranium and an altered basicranial morphology. However, body size and postcranial ossification do not seem to be affected by the transgene. Comparisons of the rate of postcranial and cranial ossification using microCT also point to an unexpected effect of neural growth on skull development: increased fetal encephalization may result in a compensatory decrease in the level of cranial ossification. Therefore, if other life history factors are held constant, the ontogeny of a metabolically costly structure such as a brain may occur at the expense of other cranial structures. These analyses indicate the benefits of a multifactorial approach to cranial integration using a mouse model.

  18. Exploiting the potential of free software to evaluate root canal biomechanical preparation outcomes through micro-CT images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, A A; Silva, E J; Roter, J M; Belladona, F G; Alves, H D; Lopes, R T; Paciornik, S; De-Deus, G A

    2015-11-01

    To propose an automated image processing routine based on free software to quantify root canal preparation outcomes in pairs of sound and instrumented roots after micro-CT scanning procedures. Seven mesial roots of human mandibular molars with different canal configuration systems were studied: (i) Vertucci's type 1, (ii) Vertucci's type 2, (iii) two individual canals, (iv) Vertucci's type 6, canals (v) with and (vi) without debris, and (vii) canal with visible pulp calcification. All teeth were instrumented with the BioRaCe system and scanned in a Skyscan 1173 micro-CT before and after canal preparation. After reconstruction, the instrumented stack of images (IS) was registered against the preoperative sound stack of images (SS). Image processing included contrast equalization and noise filtering. Sound canal volumes were obtained by a minimum threshold. For the IS, a fixed conservative threshold was chosen as the best compromise between instrumented canal and dentine whilst avoiding debris, resulting in instrumented canal plus empty spaces. Arithmetic and logical operations between sound and instrumented stacks were used to identify debris. Noninstrumented dentine was calculated using a minimum threshold in the IS and subtracting from the SS and total debris. Removed dentine volume was obtained by subtracting SS from IS. Quantitative data on total debris present in the root canal space after instrumentation, noninstrumented areas and removed dentine volume were obtained for each test case, as well as three-dimensional volume renderings. After standardization of acquisition, reconstruction and image processing micro-CT images, a quantitative approach for calculation of root canal biomechanical outcomes was achieved using free software. © 2014 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Dynamic contrast-enhanced micro-CT on mice with mammary carcinoma for the assessment of antiangiogenic therapy response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisa, Fabian [University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Institute of Medical Physics, Erlangen (Germany); University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Graduate School in Advanced Optical Technologies (SAOT), Erlangen (Germany); Brauweiler, Robert; Hupfer, Martin; Nowak, Tristan; Kalender, Willi A. [University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Institute of Medical Physics, Erlangen (Germany); Lotz, Laura; Hoffmann, Inge; Dittrich, Ralf; Beckmann, Matthias W. [University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, OB/GYN, University Hospital Erlangen, Erlangen (Germany); Wachter, David [University Hospital Erlangen, Institute of Pathology, Erlangen (Germany); Jost, Gregor; Pietsch, Hubertus [Bayer Pharma AG, Berlin (Germany)

    2012-04-15

    To evaluate the potential of in vivo dynamic contrast-enhanced micro-computed tomography (DCE micro-CT) for the assessment of antiangiogenic drug therapy response of mice with mammary carcinoma. 20 female mice with implanted MCF7 tumours were split into control group and therapy group treated with a known effective antiangiogenic drug. All mice underwent DCE micro-CT for the 3D analysis of functional parameters (relative blood volume [rBV], vascular permeability [K], area under the time-enhancement curve [AUC]) and morphology. All parameters were determined for total, peripheral and central tumour volumes of interest (VOIs). Immunohistochemistry was performed to characterise tumour vascularisation. 3D dose distributions were determined. The mean AUCs were significantly lower in therapy with P values of 0.012, 0.007 and 0.023 for total, peripheral and central tumour VOIs. K and rBV showed significant differences for the peripheral (P{sub per}{sup K} = 0.032, P{sub per}{sup rBV} = 0.029), but not for the total and central tumour VOIs (P{sub total}{sup K} = 0.108, P{sub central}{sup K} = 0.246, P{sub total}{sup rBV} = 0.093, P{sub central}{sup rBV} = 0.136). Mean tumour volume was significantly smaller in therapy (P{sub in} {sub vivo} = 0.001, P{sub ex} {sub vivo} = 0.005). Histology revealed greater vascularisation in the controls and central tumour necrosis. Doses ranged from 150 to 300 mGy. This study indicates the great potential of DCE micro-CT for early in vivo assessment of antiangiogenic drug therapy response. (orig.)

  20. Serial CT Findings of Paragonimus Infested Dogs and the Micro-CT Findings of the Worm Cysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chang Hyun; Im, Jung Gi; Goo, Jin Mo; Lee, Hyun Ju; Hong, Sung Tae; Shen, Cheng Hua; Chung, Doo Hyun; Son, Kyu Ri; Chang, Jung Min; Eo, Hong

    2007-01-01

    To investigate the serial CT findings of Paragonimus westermani infected dogs and the microscopic structures of the worm cysts using Micro-CT. This study was approved by the committee on animal research at our institution. Fifteen dogs infected with P. westermani underwent serial contrast-enhanced CT scans at pre-infection, after 10 days of infection, and monthly thereafter until six months for determining the radiologic-pathologic correlation. Three dogs (one dog each time) were sacrificed at 1, 3 and 6 months, respectively. After fixation of the lungs, both multi-detector CT and Micro-CT were performed for examining the worm cysts. The initial findings were pleural effusion and/or subpleural groundglass opacities or linear opacities at day 10. At day 30, subpleural and peribronchial nodules appeared with hydropneumothorax and abdominal or chest wall air bubbles. Cavitary change and bronchial dilatation began to be seen on CT scan at day 30 and this was mostly seen together with mediastinal lymphadenopathy at day 60. Thereafter, subpleural ground-glass opacities and nodules with or without cavitary changes were persistently observed until day 180. After cavitary change of the nodules, the migratory features of the subpleural or peribronchial nodules were seen on all the serial CT scans. Micro-CT showed that the cyst wall contained dilated interconnected tubular structures, which had communications with the cavity and the adjacent distal bronchus. The CT findings of paragonimiasis depend on the migratory stage of the worms. The worm cyst can have numerous interconnected tubular channels within its own wall and these channels have connections with the cavity and the adjacent distal bronchus

  1. Full-field measurement of micromotion around a cementless femoral stem using micro-CT imaging and radiopaque markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malfroy Camine, V; Rüdiger, H A; Pioletti, D P; Terrier, A

    2016-12-08

    A good primary stability of cementless femoral stems is essential for the long-term success of total hip arthroplasty. Experimental measurement of implant micromotion with linear variable differential transformers is commonly used to assess implant primary stability in pre-clinical testing. But these measurements are often limited to a few distinct points at the interface. New techniques based on micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) have recently been introduced, such as Digital Volume Correlation (DVC) or markers-based approaches. DVC is however limited to measurement around non-metallic implants due to metal-induced imaging artifacts, and markers-based techniques are confined to a small portion of the implant. In this paper, we present a technique based on micro-CT imaging and radiopaque markers to provide the first full-field micromotion measurement at the entire bone-implant interface of a cementless femoral stem implanted in a cadaveric femur. Micromotion was measured during compression and torsion. Over 300 simultaneous measurement points were obtained. Micromotion amplitude ranged from 0 to 24µm in compression and from 0 to 49µm in torsion. Peak micromotion was distal in compression and proximal in torsion. The technique bias was 5.1µm and its repeatability standard deviation was 4µm. The method was thus highly reliable and compared well with results obtained with linear variable differential transformers (LVDTs) reported in the literature. These results indicate that this micro-CT based technique is perfectly relevant to observe local variations in primary stability around metallic implants. Possible applications include pre-clinical testing of implants and validation of patient-specific models for pre-operative planning. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Micro-CT application for infiltration technology in paedodontics and orthodontics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogodescu, Alexandru; Manescu, Adrian; Ogodescu, Ana Emilia; Giuliani, Alessandra; Todea, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    White spot lesions are an early evidence of the demineralization of the enamel surface and are the first step of future caries that will develop on those spots. Recently, a new and innovative biotechnology was developed - Icon, a caries infiltrant to be introduced in early tooth lesions, able to achieve a very good preservation of dental structures. In order to assess the infiltrant penetration level inside the white spot lesions, a non-destructive 3D visualization method is needed. Phase-contrast micro computed tomography using synchrotron radiation proved to be a powerful technique, allowing a 3D morphological investigation of all the components of interest: tooth structure, white spot lesions extension, infiltrant penetration inside the lesions, without the need of slicing the specimens. From our clinical experience and the conducted research we can conclude that this technology is effective and useful in many clinical situations encountered in pediatric dentistry.

  3. X-ray phase-contrast tomosynthesis for improved breast tissue discrimination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schleede, Simone; Bech, Martin; Grandl, Susanne; Sztrókay, Aniko; Herzen, Julia; Mayr, Doris; Stockmar, Marco; Potdevin, Guillaume

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Attenuation-based tomosynthesis has proven to successfully resolve the glandular tissue overlap present in mammography. However, the ability of tomosynthesis to differentiate tumorous and glandular tissue remains limited, due to the small differences in X-ray attenuation in breast tissue. One possibility to overcome this limitation and to further increase the diagnostic value of tomosynthesis exams, is the application of recently developed grating-based phase-contrast methods, which provide complementary information on the phase shift and the local scattering power of the sample. In this study, we report on first phase-contrast breast tomosynthesis results of a mastectomy sample slice with an invasive ductal carcinoma. Material and methods: A slice of a mastectomy sample with histologically proven invasive ductal cancer was imaged at the synchrotron radiation source ESRF (Grenoble, France). We used a two-grating interferometer setup at the ninth fractional Talbot distance and with an X-ray energy of 23 keV. In grating interferometry absorption, differential phase, and scattering images are recorded simultaneously. The tomosynthesis scan comprises 61 projections. Multimodal tomosynthesis results were reconstructed using a standard filtered back-projection approach. Our findings are supported by a comparison of tomographic views to histopathology. Results: Phase-contrast tomosynthesis combines the advantage of improved soft-tissue discrimination in phase-contrast imaging with the ability of tomosynthesis to provide a third dimension so that improved feature visibility is not hampered by superposition artifacts. Our results indicate superior diagnostic value due to the depth resolution supplied in tomosynthesis imaging; a region of necrotic tissue that is obscured in a projection image can clearly be depicted in one single tomosynthesis slice. Compared to absorption tomosynthesis alone, soft tissue contrast is significantly enhanced in phase-contrast

  4. X-ray phase-contrast tomosynthesis for improved breast tissue discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleede, Simone; Bech, Martin; Grandl, Susanne; Sztrókay, Aniko; Herzen, Julia; Mayr, Doris; Stockmar, Marco; Potdevin, Guillaume; Zanette, Irene; Rack, Alexander; Weitkamp, Timm; Pfeiffer, Franz

    2014-03-01

    Attenuation-based tomosynthesis has proven to successfully resolve the glandular tissue overlap present in mammography. However, the ability of tomosynthesis to differentiate tumorous and glandular tissue remains limited, due to the small differences in X-ray attenuation in breast tissue. One possibility to overcome this limitation and to further increase the diagnostic value of tomosynthesis exams, is the application of recently developed grating-based phase-contrast methods, which provide complementary information on the phase shift and the local scattering power of the sample. In this study, we report on first phase-contrast breast tomosynthesis results of a mastectomy sample slice with an invasive ductal carcinoma. A slice of a mastectomy sample with histologically proven invasive ductal cancer was imaged at the synchrotron radiation source ESRF (Grenoble, France). We used a two-grating interferometer setup at the ninth fractional Talbot distance and with an X-ray energy of 23 keV. In grating interferometry absorption, differential phase, and scattering images are recorded simultaneously. The tomosynthesis scan comprises 61 projections. Multimodal tomosynthesis results were reconstructed using a standard filtered back-projection approach. Our findings are supported by a comparison of tomographic views to histopathology. Phase-contrast tomosynthesis combines the advantage of improved soft-tissue discrimination in phase-contrast imaging with the ability of tomosynthesis to provide a third dimension so that improved feature visibility is not hampered by superposition artifacts. Our results indicate superior diagnostic value due to the depth resolution supplied in tomosynthesis imaging; a region of necrotic tissue that is obscured in a projection image can clearly be depicted in one single tomosynthesis slice. Compared to absorption tomosynthesis alone, soft tissue contrast is significantly enhanced in phase-contrast tomosynthesis views, where fibrous structures

  5. Visualizing Typical Features of Breast Fibroadenomas Using Phase-Contrast CT: An Ex-Vivo Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandl, Susanne; Willner, Marian; Herzen, Julia; Sztrókay-Gaul, Anikó; Mayr, Doris; Auweter, Sigrid D.; Hipp, Alexander; Birnbacher, Lorenz; Marschner, Mathias; Chabior, Michael; Reiser, Maximilian; Pfeiffer, Franz; Bamberg, Fabian; Hellerhoff, Karin

    2014-01-01

    Background Fibroadenoma is the most common benign solid breast lesion type and a very common cause for histologic assessment. To justify a conservative therapy, a highly specific discrimination between fibroadenomas and other breast lesions is crucial. Phase-contrast imaging offers improved soft-tissue contrast and differentiability of fine structures combined with the potential of 3-dimensional imaging. In this study we assessed the potential of grating-based phase-contrast CT imaging for visualizing diagnostically relevant features of fibroadenomas. Materials and Methods Grating-based phase-contrast CT was performed on six ex-vivo formalin-fixed breast specimens containing a fibroadenoma and three samples containing benign changes that resemble fibroadenomas using Talbot Lau interferometry and a polychromatic X-ray source. Phase-contrast and simultaneously acquired absorption-based 3D-datasets were manually matched with corresponding histological slices. The visibility of diagnostically valuable features was assessed in comparison with histology as the gold-standard. Results In all cases, matching of grating-based phase-contrast CT images and histology was successfully completed. Grating-based phase-contrast CT showed greatly improved differentiation of fine structures and provided accurate depiction of strands of fibrous tissue within the fibroadenomas as well as of the diagnostically valuable dilated, branched ductuli of the fibroadenomas. A clear demarcation of tumor boundaries in all cases was provided by phase- but not absorption-contrast CT. Conclusions Pending successful translation of the technology to a clinical setting and considerable reduction of the required dose, the data presented here suggest that grating-based phase-contrast CT may be used as a supplementary non-invasive diagnostic tool in breast diagnostics. Phase-contrast CT may thus contribute to the reduction of false positive findings and reduce the recall and core biopsy rate in population

  6. X-ray absorption microtomography (microCT) and small beam diffraction mapping of sea urchin teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, S R; Barss, J; Dahl, T; Veis, A; Almer, J D

    2002-07-01

    Two noninvasive X-ray techniques, laboratory X-ray absorption microtomography (microCT) and X-ray diffraction mapping, were used to study teeth of the sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus. MicroCT revealed low attenuation regions at near the tooth's stone part and along the carinar process-central prism boundary; this latter observation appears to be novel. The expected variation of Mg fraction x in the mineral phase (calcite, Ca(1-x)Mg(x)CO(3)) cannot account for all of the linear attenuation coefficient decrease in the two zones: this suggested that soft tissue is localized there. Transmission diffraction mapping (synchrotron X-radiation, 80.8 keV, 0.1 x 0.1mm(2) beam area, 0.1mm translation grid, image plate area detector) simultaneously probed variations in 3-D and showed that the crystal elements of the "T"-shaped tooth were very highly aligned. Diffraction patterns from the keel (adaxial web) and from the abaxial flange (containing primary plates and the stone part) differed markedly. The flange contained two populations of identically oriented crystal elements with lattice parameters corresponding to x=0.13 and x=0.32. The keel produced one set of diffraction spots corresponding to the lower x. The compositions were more or less equivalent to those determined by others for camarodont teeth, and the high Mg phase is expected to be disks of secondary mineral epitaxially related to the underlying primary mineral element. Lattice parameter gradients were not noted in the keel or flange. Taken together, the microCT and diffraction results indicated that there was a band of relatively high protein content, of up to approximately 0.25 volume fraction, in the central part of the flange and paralleling its adaxial and abaxial faces. X-ray microCT and microdiffraction data used in conjunction with protein distribution data will be crucial for understanding the properties of various biocomposites and their mechanical functions.

  7. Identification of dental root canals and their medial line from micro-CT and cone-beam CT records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benyó Balázs

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Shape of the dental root canal is highly patient specific. Automated identification methods of the medial line of dental root canals and the reproduction of their 3D shape can be beneficial for planning endodontic interventions as severely curved root canals or multi-rooted teeth may pose treatment challenges. Accurate shape information of the root canals may also be used by manufacturers of endodontic instruments in order to make more efficient clinical tools. Method Novel image processing procedures dedicated to the automated detection of the medial axis of the root canal from dental micro-CT and cone-beam CT records are developed. For micro-CT, the 3D model of the root canal is built up from several hundred parallel cross sections, using image enhancement, histogram based fuzzy c-means clustering, center point detection in the segmented slice, three dimensional inner surface reconstruction, and potential field driven curve skeleton extraction in three dimensions. Cone-beam CT records are processed with image enhancement filters and fuzzy chain based regional segmentation, followed by the reconstruction of the root canal surface and detecting its skeleton via a mesh contraction algorithm. Results The proposed medial line identification and root canal detection algorithms are validated on clinical data sets. 25 micro-CT and 36 cone-beam-CT records are used in the validation procedure. The overall success rate of the automatic dental root canal identification was about 92% in both procedures. The algorithms proved to be accurate enough for endodontic therapy planning. Conclusions Accurate medial line identification and shape detection algorithms of dental root canal have been developed. Different procedures are defined for micro-CT and cone-beam CT records. The automated execution of the subsequent processing steps allows easy application of the algorithms in the dental care. The output data of the image processing procedures

  8. Breast tumor segmentation in high resolution x-ray phase contrast analyzer based computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brun, E., E-mail: emmanuel.brun@esrf.fr [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), Grenoble 380000, France and Department of Physics, Ludwig-Maximilians University, Garching 85748 (Germany); Grandl, S.; Sztrókay-Gaul, A.; Gasilov, S. [Institute for Clinical Radiology, Ludwig-Maximilians-University Hospital Munich, 81377 Munich (Germany); Barbone, G. [Department of Physics, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States); Mittone, A.; Coan, P. [Department of Physics, Ludwig-Maximilians University, Garching 85748, Germany and Institute for Clinical Radiology, Ludwig-Maximilians-University Hospital Munich, 81377 Munich (Germany); Bravin, A. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), Grenoble 380000 (France)

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: Phase contrast computed tomography has emerged as an imaging method, which is able to outperform present day clinical mammography in breast tumor visualization while maintaining an equivalent average dose. To this day, no segmentation technique takes into account the specificity of the phase contrast signal. In this study, the authors propose a new mathematical framework for human-guided breast tumor segmentation. This method has been applied to high-resolution images of excised human organs, each of several gigabytes. Methods: The authors present a segmentation procedure based on the viscous watershed transform and demonstrate the efficacy of this method on analyzer based phase contrast images. The segmentation of tumors inside two full human breasts is then shown as an example of this procedure’s possible applications. Results: A correct and precise identification of the tumor boundaries was obtained and confirmed by manual contouring performed independently by four experienced radiologists. Conclusions: The authors demonstrate that applying the watershed viscous transform allows them to perform the segmentation of tumors in high-resolution x-ray analyzer based phase contrast breast computed tomography images. Combining the additional information provided by the segmentation procedure with the already high definition of morphological details and tissue boundaries offered by phase contrast imaging techniques, will represent a valuable multistep procedure to be used in future medical diagnostic applications.

  9. Breast tumor segmentation in high resolution x-ray phase contrast analyzer based computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brun, E; Grandl, S; Sztrókay-Gaul, A; Barbone, G; Mittone, A; Gasilov, S; Bravin, A; Coan, P

    2014-11-01

    Phase contrast computed tomography has emerged as an imaging method, which is able to outperform present day clinical mammography in breast tumor visualization while maintaining an equivalent average dose. To this day, no segmentation technique takes into account the specificity of the phase contrast signal. In this study, the authors propose a new mathematical framework for human-guided breast tumor segmentation. This method has been applied to high-resolution images of excised human organs, each of several gigabytes. The authors present a segmentation procedure based on the viscous watershed transform and demonstrate the efficacy of this method on analyzer based phase contrast images. The segmentation of tumors inside two full human breasts is then shown as an example of this procedure's possible applications. A correct and precise identification of the tumor boundaries was obtained and confirmed by manual contouring performed independently by four experienced radiologists. The authors demonstrate that applying the watershed viscous transform allows them to perform the segmentation of tumors in high-resolution x-ray analyzer based phase contrast breast computed tomography images. Combining the additional information provided by the segmentation procedure with the already high definition of morphological details and tissue boundaries offered by phase contrast imaging techniques, will represent a valuable multistep procedure to be used in future medical diagnostic applications.

  10. Imaging of metastatic lymph nodes by X-ray phase-contrast micro-tomography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torben Haugaard Jensen

    Full Text Available Invasive cancer causes a change in density in the affected tissue, which can be visualized by x-ray phase-contrast tomography. However, the diagnostic value of this method has so far not been investigated in detail. Therefore, the purpose of this study was, in a blinded manner, to investigate whether malignancy could be revealed by non-invasive x-ray phase-contrast tomography in lymph nodes from breast cancer patients. Seventeen formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded lymph nodes from 10 female patients (age range 37-83 years diagnosed with invasive ductal carcinomas were analyzed by X-ray phase-contrast tomography. Ten lymph nodes had metastatic deposits and 7 were benign. The phase-contrast images were analyzed according to standards for conventional CT images looking for characteristics usually only visible by pathological examinations. Histopathology was used as reference. The result of this study was that the diagnostic sensitivity of the image analysis for detecting malignancy was 100% and the specificity was 87%. The positive predictive value was 91% for detecting malignancy and the negative predictive value was 100%. We conclude that x-ray phase-contrast imaging can accurately detect density variations to obtain information regarding lymph node involvement previously inaccessible with standard absorption x-ray imaging.

  11. Radiation protection of a proton beamline at ELI-Beamlines

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bechet, Sabrina; Versaci, Roberto; Rollet, S.; Olšovcová, Veronika; Fajstavr, Antonín; Žáková, Martina; Margarone, Daniele

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 12 (2016), 1-5, č. článku C12019. ISSN 1748-0221 R&D Projects: GA MŠk EF15_008/0000162 Grant - others:ELI Beamlines(XE) CZ.02.1.01/0.0/0.0/15_008/0000162 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : models * simulations * wake-field acceleration Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 1.220, year: 2016

  12. ALS beamline design requirements: A guide for beamline designers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-06-01

    This manual is written as a guide for researchers in designing beamlines and endstations acceptable for use at the ALS. It contains guidelines and policies related to personnel safety and equipment and vacuum protection. All equipment and procedures must ultimately satisfy the safety requirements set aside in the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) Health and Safety Manual (PUB-3000) which is available from the ALS User Office or on the World WideWeb from the LBNL Homepage (http:// www.lbl.gov).

  13. Applying microCT and 3D visualization to Jurassic silicified conifer seed cones: A virtual advantage over thin-sectioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, Carole T

    2013-11-01

    As an alternative to conventional thin-sectioning, which destroys fossil material, high-resolution X-ray computed tomography (also called microtomography or microCT) integrated with scientific visualization, three-dimensional (3D) image segmentation, size analysis, and computer animation is explored as a nondestructive method of imaging the internal anatomy of 150-million-year-old conifer seed cones from the Late Jurassic Morrison Formation, USA, and of recent and other fossil cones. • MicroCT was carried out on cones using a General Electric phoenix v|tome|x s 240D, and resulting projections were processed with visualization software to produce image stacks of serial single sections for two-dimensional (2D) visualization, 3D segmented reconstructions with targeted structures in color, and computer animations. • If preserved in differing densities, microCT produced images of internal fossil tissues that showed important characters such as seed phyllotaxy or number of seeds per cone scale. Color segmentation of deeply embedded seeds highlighted the arrangement of seeds in spirals. MicroCT of recent cones was even more effective. • This is the first paper on microCT integrated with 3D segmentation and computer animation applied to silicified seed cones, which resulted in excellent 2D serial sections and segmented 3D reconstructions, revealing features requisite to cone identification and understanding of strobilus construction.

  14. Applying microCT and 3D visualization to Jurassic silicified conifer seed cones: A virtual advantage over thin-sectioning1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, Carole T.

    2013-01-01

    • Premise of the study: As an alternative to conventional thin-sectioning, which destroys fossil material, high-resolution X-ray computed tomography (also called microtomography or microCT) integrated with scientific visualization, three-dimensional (3D) image segmentation, size analysis, and computer animation is explored as a nondestructive method of imaging the internal anatomy of 150-million-year-old conifer seed cones from the Late Jurassic Morrison Formation, USA, and of recent and other fossil cones. • Methods: MicroCT was carried out on cones using a General Electric phoenix v|tome|x s 240D, and resulting projections were processed with visualization software to produce image stacks of serial single sections for two-dimensional (2D) visualization, 3D segmented reconstructions with targeted structures in color, and computer animations. • Results: If preserved in differing densities, microCT produced images of internal fossil tissues that showed important characters such as seed phyllotaxy or number of seeds per cone scale. Color segmentation of deeply embedded seeds highlighted the arrangement of seeds in spirals. MicroCT of recent cones was even more effective. • Conclusions: This is the first paper on microCT integrated with 3D segmentation and computer animation applied to silicified seed cones, which resulted in excellent 2D serial sections and segmented 3D reconstructions, revealing features requisite to cone identification and understanding of strobilus construction. PMID:25202495

  15. Phase-contrast tomographic imaging using an X-ray interferometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Momose, A. [Hitachi Ltd, Advanced Research Lab., Saitama (Japan); Takeda, T.; Itai, Y. [Univ. of Tsukuba, Inst. of Clinical Medicine, Ibaraki (Japan); Yoneyama, A. [Hitachi Ltd, Central Resarch Lab., Tokyo (Japan); Hirano, K. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, Inst. of Materials Structure Science, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1998-05-01

    Apparatus for phase-contrast X-ray computed tomography using a monolithic X-ray interferometer is presented with some observational results for human breast tissues. Structures characteristic of the tissues were revealed in the phase-contrast tomograms. The procedure of image analysis consists of phase retrieval from X-ray interference patterns and tomographic image reconstruction from the retrieved phase shift. Next, feasibility of phase-contrast imaging using a two-crystal X-ray interferometer was studied aiming at in vivo observation in the future. In a preliminary study, the two-crystal X-ray interferometer was capable of generating fringes of 70% visibility using synchrotron X-rays. 35 refs.

  16. Phase-contrast tomographic imaging using an X-ray interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Momose, A.; Takeda, T.; Itai, Y.; Yoneyama, A.; Hirano, K.

    1998-01-01

    Apparatus for phase-contrast X-ray computed tomography using a monolithic X-ray interferometer is presented with some observational results for human breast tissues. Structures characteristic of the tissues were revealed in the phase-contrast tomograms. The procedure of image analysis consists of phase retrieval from X-ray interference patterns and tomographic image reconstruction from the retrieved phase shift. Next, feasibility of phase-contrast imaging using a two-crystal X-ray interferometer was studied aiming at in vivo observation in the future. In a preliminary study, the two-crystal X-ray interferometer was capable of generating fringes of 70% visibility using synchrotron X-rays

  17. Clinical implementation of x-ray phase-contrast imaging: Theoretical foundations and design considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Xizeng; Liu Hong

    2003-01-01

    Theoretical foundation and design considerations of a clinical feasible x-ray phase contrast imaging technique were presented in this paper. Different from the analysis of imaging phase object with weak absorption in literature, we proposed a new formalism for in-line phase-contrast imaging to analyze the effects of four clinically important factors on the phase contrast. These are the body parts attenuation, the spatial coherence of spherical waves from a finite-size focal spot, and polychromatic x-ray and radiation doses to patients for clinical applications. The theory presented in this paper can be applied widely in diagnostic x-ray imaging procedures. As an example, computer simulations were conducted and optimal design parameters were derived for clinical mammography. The results of phantom experiments were also presented which validated the theoretical analysis and computer simulations

  18. Combined fluorescence and phase contrast imaging at the Advanced Photon Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hornberger, B.; Feser, M.; Jacobsen, C.; Vogt, S.; Legnini, D.; Paterson, D.; Rehak, P.; DeGeronimo, G.; Palmer, B.M.; Experimental Facilities Division; State Univ. of New York at Stony Brook Univ.; BNL; Univ. of Vermont

    2006-01-01

    X-ray fluorescence microprobes excel at detecting and quantifying trace metals in biological and environmental science samples, but typically do not detect low Z elements such as carbon and nitrogen. Therefore, it is hard to put the trace metals into context with their natural environment. We are implementing phase contrast capabilities with a segmented detector into several microprobes at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) to address this problem. Qualitative differential phase contrast images from a modified soft x-ray detector already provide very useful information for general users. We are also implementing a quantitative method to recover the absolute phase shift by Fourier filtering detector images. New detectors are under development which are optimized for the signal levels present at the APS. In this paper, we concentrate on fundamental signal to noise considerations comparing absorption and differential phase contrast

  19. Characterisation of phase evolution under load by means of phase contrast imaging using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besseghini, S.; Stortiero, F.; Carcano, G.; Villa, E.; Mancini, L.; Tromba, G.; Zanini, F.; Montanari, F.; Airoldi, G.

    2003-01-01

    Phase contrast radiography (PCR) is a quite novel technique that is collecting increasing attention due to the possibility to obtain image information in presence of very small differences in the densities of the materials under analysis. Phase contrast imaging (PCI) has some specific advantage when compared with common microscopic techniques: (a) no special preparation of the sample is needed (b) the simultaneously investigated area is very large and (c) it allows the setting up of complex experimental apparatus. The results here presented are a good evidence of these three advantages. In this paper, we report on the application of phase contrast imaging in the study of the phase evolution during pseudoelastic transformation in the NiTiCu shape memory alloys (SMAs). The investigation was undertaken with the aim to identify some modification of the structure taking place at the end of the transformation plateau in the pseudoelastic behaviour of the alloy

  20. Recent advances in synchrotron-based hard x-ray phase contrast imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y.; Nelson, J.; Holzner, C.; Andrews, J. C.; Pianetta, P.

    2013-12-01

    Ever since the first demonstration of phase contrast imaging (PCI) in the 1930s by Frits Zernike, people have realized the significant advantage of phase contrast over conventional absorption-based imaging in terms of sensitivity to ‘transparent’ features within specimens. Thus, x-ray phase contrast imaging (XPCI) holds great potential in studies of soft biological tissues, typically containing low Z elements such as C, H, O and N. Particularly when synchrotron hard x-rays are employed, the favourable brightness, energy tunability, monochromatic characteristics and penetration depth have dramatically enhanced the quality and variety of XPCI methods, which permit detection of the phase shift associated with 3D geometry of relatively large samples in a non-destructive manner. In this paper, we review recent advances in several synchrotron-based hard x-ray XPCI methods. Challenges and key factors in methodological development are discussed, and biological and medical applications are presented.

  1. Noninvasive 3D Structural Analysis of Arthropod by Synchrotron X-Ray Phase Contrast Tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, S.; Zong, Y.; Fan, J.; Sun, Z.; Jiang, H.

    2015-01-01

    X-ray imaging techniques significantly advanced our understanding of materials and biology, among which phase contrast X-ray microscopy has obvious advantages in imaging biological specimens which have low contrast by conventional absorption contrast microscopy. In this paper, three-dimensional microstructure of arthropod with high contrast has been demonstrated by synchrotron X-ray in-line phase contrast tomography. The external morphology and internal structures of an earthworm were analyzed based upon tomographic reconstructions with and without phase retrieval. We also identified and characterized various fine structural details such as the musculature system, the digestive system, the nervous system, and the circulatory system. This work exhibited the high efficiency, high precision, and wide potential applications of synchrotron X-ray phase contrast tomography in nondestructive investigation of low-density materials and biology.

  2. X-ray elastography: Modification of x-ray phase contrast images using ultrasonic radiation pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, Theron J.; Bailat, Claude; Rose-Petruck, Christoph; Diebold, Gerald J.; Gehring, Stephan; Laperle, Christopher M.; Wands, Jack

    2009-01-01

    The high resolution characteristic of in-line x-ray phase contrast imaging can be used in conjunction with directed ultrasound to detect small displacements in soft tissue generated by differential acoustic radiation pressure. The imaging method is based on subtraction of two x-ray images, the first image taken with, and the second taken without the presence of ultrasound. The subtraction enhances phase contrast features and, to a large extent, removes absorption contrast so that differential movement of tissues with different acoustic impedances or relative ultrasonic absorption is highlighted in the image. Interfacial features of objects with differing densities are delineated in the image as a result of both the displacement introduced by the ultrasound and the inherent sensitivity of x-ray phase contrast imaging to density variations. Experiments with ex vivo murine tumors and human tumor phantoms point out a diagnostic capability of the method for identifying tumors.

  3. Recent advances in synchrotron-based hard x-ray phase contrast imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Y; Nelson, J; Andrews, J C; Pianetta, P; Holzner, C

    2013-01-01

    Ever since the first demonstration of phase contrast imaging (PCI) in the 1930s by Frits Zernike, people have realized the significant advantage of phase contrast over conventional absorption-based imaging in terms of sensitivity to ‘transparent’ features within specimens. Thus, x-ray phase contrast imaging (XPCI) holds great potential in studies of soft biological tissues, typically containing low Z elements such as C, H, O and N. Particularly when synchrotron hard x-rays are employed, the favourable brightness, energy tunability, monochromatic characteristics and penetration depth have dramatically enhanced the quality and variety of XPCI methods, which permit detection of the phase shift associated with 3D geometry of relatively large samples in a non-destructive manner. In this paper, we review recent advances in several synchrotron-based hard x-ray XPCI methods. Challenges and key factors in methodological development are discussed, and biological and medical applications are presented. (paper)

  4. Single-shot quantitative phase microscopy with color-multiplexed differential phase contrast (cDPC.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary F Phillips

    Full Text Available We present a new technique for quantitative phase and amplitude microscopy from a single color image with coded illumination. Our system consists of a commercial brightfield microscope with one hardware modification-an inexpensive 3D printed condenser insert. The method, color-multiplexed Differential Phase Contrast (cDPC, is a single-shot variant of Differential Phase Contrast (DPC, which recovers the phase of a sample from images with asymmetric illumination. We employ partially coherent illumination to achieve resolution corresponding to 2× the objective NA. Quantitative phase can then be used to synthesize DIC and phase contrast images or extract shape and density. We demonstrate amplitude and phase recovery at camera-limited frame rates (50 fps for various in vitro cell samples and c. elegans in a micro-fluidic channel.

  5. Fast X-ray imaging at beamline I13L at Diamond Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fanis, A De; Pešić, Z D; Wagner, U; Rau, C

    2013-01-01

    The imaging branch of the dual-branch beamline I13L at Diamond Light Source has been operational since April 2012. This branch is dedicated to hard X-ray imaging (in-line phase contrast radiography and tomography, and full-field microscopy), with energies in the ranges 6-30keV. At present we aim to achieve spatial resolution of the order of 1 μm over a field of view of l-20mm 2 . This branch aims to excel at imaging experiment of fast dynamic processes, where it is of interest to have short exposure times and high frame rates. To accommodate for this, we prepared for the beamline to operate with 'pink' beam to provide higher flux, an efficient detection system, and rapid data acquisition, transfer, and saving to storage. This contributed paper describes the present situation and illustrate the author's goal for the mid-future.

  6. Fast X-ray imaging at beamline I13L at Diamond Light Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Fanis, A.; Pešić, Z. D.; Wagner, U.; Rau, C.

    2013-03-01

    The imaging branch of the dual-branch beamline I13L at Diamond Light Source has been operational since April 2012. This branch is dedicated to hard X-ray imaging (in-line phase contrast radiography and tomography, and full-field microscopy), with energies in the ranges 6-30keV. At present we aim to achieve spatial resolution of the order of 1 μm over a field of view of l-20mm2. This branch aims to excel at imaging experiment of fast dynamic processes, where it is of interest to have short exposure times and high frame rates. To accommodate for this, we prepared for the beamline to operate with "pink" beam to provide higher flux, an efficient detection system, and rapid data acquisition, transfer, and saving to storage. This contributed paper describes the present situation and illustrate the author's goal for the mid-future.

  7. Dual focal-spot imaging for phase extraction in phase-contrast radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donnelly, Edwin F.; Price, Ronald R.; Pickens, David R.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate dual focal spot imaging as a method for extracting the phase component from a phase-contrast radiography image. All measurements were performed using a microfocus tungsten-target x-ray tube with an adjustable focal-spot size (0.01 mm to 0.045 mm). For each object, high-resolution digital radiographs were obtained with two different focal spot sizes to produce matched image pairs in which all other geometric variables as well as total exposure and tube kVp were held constant. For each image pair, a phase extraction was performed using pixel-wise division. The phase-extracted image resulted in an image similar to the standard image processing tool commonly referred to as 'unsharp masking' but with the additional edge-enhancement produced by phase-contrast effects. The phase-extracted image illustrates the differences between the two images whose imaging parameters differ only in focal spot size. The resulting image shows effects from both phase contrast as well as geometric unsharpness. In weakly attenuating materials the phase-contrast effect predominates, while in strongly attenuating materials the phase effects are so small that they are not detectable. The phase-extracted image in the strongly attenuating object reflects differences in geometric unsharpness. The degree of phase extraction depends strongly on the size of the smallest focal spot used. This technique of dual-focal spot phase-contrast radiography provides a simple technique for phase-component (edge) extraction in phase-contrast radiography. In strongly attenuating materials the phase-component is overwhelmed by differences in geometric unsharpness. In these cases the technique provides a form of unsharp masking which also accentuates the edges. Thus, the two effects are complimentary and may be useful in the detection of small objects

  8. TARA beamline and injection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Post, R.S.; Brindza, P.; Coleman, J.W.; Torti, R.P.; Blackfield, D.T.; Goodrich, P.

    1983-01-01

    The TARA beamline for neutral beam injection will permit one to three sources to fire into each plug (60 degree or optional 90 degree injection with respect to the TARA axis) or into each anchor (90 degree injection only). The sources, pre-aimed on their mounting plate at the NB test stand, may be fired into neutralizer ducts or optionally through a magnesium curtain, and the unneutralized fraction is dumped by the TARA fringing field onto a receiver plate. The beamline is housed in a cylindrical tank with the beam axis along the tank diameter at the midplane. The tank will be sorption pumped using LN + T/sub I/ or N/sub B/ and/or e-beam gettering. The beam burial tank contains sed arrays and a thin foil dump which reaches sufficiently high temperatures during the shot to boil out gas between shots

  9. Phase-contrast enhanced mammography: A new diagnostic tool for breast imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhentian; Thuering, Thomas; David, Christian; Roessl, Ewald; Trippel, Mafalda; Kubik-Huch, Rahel A.; Singer, Gad; Hohl, Michael K.; Hauser, Nik; Stampanoni, Marco

    2012-01-01

    Phase contrast and scattering-based X-ray imaging can potentially revolutionize the radiological approach to breast imaging by providing additional and complementary information to conventional, absorption-based methods. We investigated native, non-fixed whole breast samples using a grating interferometer with an X-ray tube-based configuration. Our approach simultaneously recorded absorption, differential phase contrast and small-angle scattering signals. The results show that this novel technique - combined with a dedicated image fusion algorithm - has the potential to deliver enhanced breast imaging with complementary information for an improved diagnostic process.

  10. Phase-contrast enhanced mammography: A new diagnostic tool for breast imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Zhentian; Thuering, Thomas; David, Christian; Roessl, Ewald; Trippel, Mafalda; Kubik-Huch, Rahel A.; Singer, Gad; Hohl, Michael K.; Hauser, Nik; Stampanoni, Marco [Swiss Light Source, Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Laboratory for Micro and Nanotechnology, Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Philips Technologie GmbH, Roentgenstrasse 24, 22335 Hamburg (Germany); Institute of Pathology, Kantonsspital Baden, 5404 Baden (Switzerland); Department of Radiology, Kantonsspital Baden, 5404 Baden (Switzerland); Institute of Pathology, Kantonsspital Baden, 5404 Baden (Switzerland); Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Interdisciplinary Breast Center Baden, Kantonsspital Baden, 5404 Baden (Switzerland); Swiss Light Source, Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen, Switzerland and Institute for Biomedical Engineering, University and ETH Zuerich, 8092 Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2012-07-31

    Phase contrast and scattering-based X-ray imaging can potentially revolutionize the radiological approach to breast imaging by providing additional and complementary information to conventional, absorption-based methods. We investigated native, non-fixed whole breast samples using a grating interferometer with an X-ray tube-based configuration. Our approach simultaneously recorded absorption, differential phase contrast and small-angle scattering signals. The results show that this novel technique - combined with a dedicated image fusion algorithm - has the potential to deliver enhanced breast imaging with complementary information for an improved diagnostic process.

  11. Observation of human tissue with phase-contrast x-ray computed tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momose, Atsushi; Takeda, Tohoru; Itai, Yuji; Tu, Jinhong; Hirano, Keiichi

    1999-05-01

    Human tissues obtained from cancerous kidneys fixed in formalin were observed with phase-contrast X-ray computed tomography (CT) using 17.7-keV synchrotron X-rays. By measuring the distributions of the X-ray phase shift caused by samples using an X-ray interferometer, sectional images that map the distribution of the refractive index were reconstructed. Because of the high sensitivity of phase- contrast X-ray CT, a cancerous lesion was differentiated from normal tissue and a variety of other structures were revealed without the need for staining.

  12. Phase-contrast x-ray computed tomography for observing biological specimens and organic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momose, Atsushi; Takeda, Tohoru; Itai, Yuji

    1995-02-01

    A novel three-dimensional x-ray imaging method has been developed by combining a phase-contrast x-ray imaging technique with x-ray computed tomography. This phase-contrast x-ray computed tomography (PCX-CT) provides sectional images of organic specimens that would produce absorption-contrast x-ray CT images with little contrast. Comparing PCX-CT images of rat cerebellum and cancerous rabbit liver specimens with corresponding absorption-contrast CT images shows that PCX-CT is much more sensitive to the internal structure of organic specimens.

  13. High-resolution observation of phase contrast at 1MeV. Amorphous or crystalline objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourret, A.; Desseaux, J.

    1975-01-01

    Many authors have stressed the possibilities of high voltage to improve resolution, but owing to numerous experimental difficulties the resolution limit at 1MeV, which lies around 1A for conventional lenses, has so far been unattainable. Thus the phase contrast at 1MeV has not been studied on evaporated objects. On the other hand the fringes of crystal planes have been observed at 1MeV. the CEN-G microscope having been considerably modified it has been possible to observe the phase contrast of amorphous or crystalline objects [fr

  14. Initial studies of synchrotron radiation phase-contrast imaging in the field of medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Shaoliang; Zhang Xi; Peng Yifeng; Li Beilei; Cheng Aiping; Zhu Peiping; Yuan Xiqing; Huang Wanxia

    2010-01-01

    Recently,research on using X-ray phase information in medicine has been growing remarkably fast. Phase-contrast imaging with synchrotron radiation can reveal inner soft tissues such as tendons, cartilage, ligaments, adipose tissue, vessels and nerves without a contrast agent. We have visualized the liver, bile duct, lung, kidney, stomach and intestine, heart, blood vessel, bone and arthrosis, and tumor tissues using 'in-line' phase contrast imaging and diffraction-enhanced imaging. It is seen that the synchrotron radiation graphs show much higher resolution. This method is especially suitable for studying soft tissue structure and blood vessels. (authors)

  15. Volume of sealer in the apical region of teeth filled by different techniques: a micro-CT analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Vanessa Lessa; Souza-Gabriel, Aline Evangelista; Cruz Filho, Antonio Miranda da; Pecora, Jesus Djalma; Silva, Ricardo Gariba, E-mail: vanessalessa@usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Escola de Odontologia. Departamento de Odontologia Restauradora

    2016-05-01

    The volume of sealer in the apical 1 mm of teeth filled using different techniques was evaluated by micro-commuted tomography (micro-CT). Sixty-four maxillary central incisors were prepared using NiTi rotary instruments. Teeth were randomly distributed into four groups according to root canal sealers (AH Plus, Endofill, Sealapex, and Sealer 26) and subdivided into two subgroups according to the filling techniques (active and passive lateral condensation; n = 8 each). Subsequently, teeth were examined using the 1174 SkyScan micro-CT device. Images were reconstructed using the NRecon software, and the sealer volume (mm{sup 3}) in the apical region was analyzed using the two-way ANOVA and post-hoc Student-Newman-Keuls test (α = 0.05). The lowest volume of sealer was observed in teeth filled with Sealapex (0.100 ± 0.009) and Endofill (0.103 ± 0.010). The highest volume was observed in teeth filled with AH Plus (0.112 ± 0.008) and Sealer 26 (0.109 ± 0.018) (p > 0.05). Regarding the filling technique, a lower sealer volume was observed using the active lateral condensation technique compared with that using the passive lateral condensation technique (0.100 ± 0.010 vs. 0.111 ± 0.012) (p < 0.05). Therefore, the lowest volume of sealer was observed in teeth filled with Sealapex and Endofill using the active lateral condensation technique. (author)

  16. Micro-CT evaluation of the effectiveness of the combined use of rotary and hand instrumentation in removal of Resilon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asheibi, Fatma; Qualtrough, Alison J E; Mellor, Anthony; Withers, Philip J; Lowe, Tristan

    2014-01-01

    This study compares the effectiveness of ProTaper rotary files with ProTaper retreatment and K-files in the removal of Resilon or gutta percha (GP) from canals filled either by cold lateral condensation or thermal obturation using micro-CT. Ninety-six teeth were prepared using ProTaper files and allocated into four groups (n=24): Group-1 was filled with GP/AH-Plus and Group-2 with Resilon/RealSeal using cold lateral condensation. Group-3 was filled with GP/AH-Plus and Group-4 with Resilon/RealSeal using System B and Obtura II. The roots were scanned by micro-CT. Each group was divided into two subgroups (n=12): A, retreated using ProTaper files and B, using ProTaper retreatment and K-files. The roots were scanned to calculate the volume of the remaining material. With thermal obturation, roots filled with Resilon had significantly more remaining material than GP. Obturation using thermal technique resulted in significantly less remaining material than cold condensation except Resilon retreated using ProTaper retreatment and K-files.

  17. Volume of sealer in the apical region of teeth filled by different techniques: a micro-CT analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, Vanessa Lessa; Souza-Gabriel, Aline Evangelista; Cruz Filho, Antonio Miranda da; Pecora, Jesus Djalma; Silva, Ricardo Gariba

    2016-01-01

    The volume of sealer in the apical 1 mm of teeth filled using different techniques was evaluated by micro-commuted tomography (micro-CT). Sixty-four maxillary central incisors were prepared using NiTi rotary instruments. Teeth were randomly distributed into four groups according to root canal sealers (AH Plus, Endofill, Sealapex, and Sealer 26) and subdivided into two subgroups according to the filling techniques (active and passive lateral condensation; n = 8 each). Subsequently, teeth were examined using the 1174 SkyScan micro-CT device. Images were reconstructed using the NRecon software, and the sealer volume (mm 3 ) in the apical region was analyzed using the two-way ANOVA and post-hoc Student-Newman-Keuls test (α = 0.05). The lowest volume of sealer was observed in teeth filled with Sealapex (0.100 ± 0.009) and Endofill (0.103 ± 0.010). The highest volume was observed in teeth filled with AH Plus (0.112 ± 0.008) and Sealer 26 (0.109 ± 0.018) (p > 0.05). Regarding the filling technique, a lower sealer volume was observed using the active lateral condensation technique compared with that using the passive lateral condensation technique (0.100 ± 0.010 vs. 0.111 ± 0.012) (p < 0.05). Therefore, the lowest volume of sealer was observed in teeth filled with Sealapex and Endofill using the active lateral condensation technique. (author)

  18. Dual-energy attenuation coefficient decomposition with differential filtration and application to a microCT scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taschereau, R; Silverman, R W; Chatziioannou, A F

    2010-01-01

    Dual-energy x-ray computed tomography (DECT) has the capability to decompose attenuation coefficients using two basis functions and has proved its potential in reducing beam-hardening artifacts from reconstructed images. The method typically involves two successive scans with different x-ray tube voltage settings. This work proposes an approach to dual-energy imaging through x-ray beam filtration that requires only one scan and a single tube voltage setting. It has been implemented in a preclinical microCT tomograph with minor modifications. Retrofitting of the microCT scanner involved the addition of an automated filter wheel and modifications to the acquisition and reconstruction software. Results show that beam-hardening artifacts are reduced to noise level. Acquisition of a μ-Compton image is well suited for attenuation-correction of PET images while dynamic energy selection (4D viewing) offers flexibility in image viewing by adjusting contrast and noise levels to suit the task at hand. All dual-energy and single energy reference scans were acquired at the same soft tissue dose level of 50 mGy.

  19. Dual-energy attenuation coefficient decomposition with differential filtration and application to a microCT scanner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taschereau, R; Silverman, R W; Chatziioannou, A F [Crump Institute for Molecular Imaging, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)], E-mail: rtaschereau@mednet.ucla.edu

    2010-02-21

    Dual-energy x-ray computed tomography (DECT) has the capability to decompose attenuation coefficients using two basis functions and has proved its potential in reducing beam-hardening artifacts from reconstructed images. The method typically involves two successive scans with different x-ray tube voltage settings. This work proposes an approach to dual-energy imaging through x-ray beam filtration that requires only one scan and a single tube voltage setting. It has been implemented in a preclinical microCT tomograph with minor modifications. Retrofitting of the microCT scanner involved the addition of an automated filter wheel and modifications to the acquisition and reconstruction software. Results show that beam-hardening artifacts are reduced to noise level. Acquisition of a {mu}-Compton image is well suited for attenuation-correction of PET images while dynamic energy selection (4D viewing) offers flexibility in image viewing by adjusting contrast and noise levels to suit the task at hand. All dual-energy and single energy reference scans were acquired at the same soft tissue dose level of 50 mGy.

  20. Modeling and Reconstruction of Micro-structured 3D Chitosan/Gelatin Porous Scaffolds Using Micro-CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Haibo; Li, Dichen; He, Jiankang; Liu, Yaxiong; Lian, Qin; Zhao, Jinna

    2008-09-01

    Three dimensional (3D) channel networks are the key to promise the uniform distribution of nutrients inside 3D hepatic tissue engineering scaffolds and prompt elimination of metabolic products out of the scaffolds. 3D chitosan/gelatin porous scaffolds with predefined internal channels were fabricated and a combination of light microscope, laser confocal microscopy and micro-CT were employed to characterize the structure of porous scaffolds. In order to evaluate the flow field distribution inside the micro-structured 3D scaffolds, a computer reconstructing method based on Micro-CT was proposed. According to this evaluating method, a contrast between 3D porous scaffolds with and without predefined internal channels was also performed to assess scaffolds' fluid characters. Results showed that the internal channel of the 3D scaffolds formed the 3D fluid channel network; the uniformity of flow field distribution of the scaffolds fabricated in this paper was better than the simple porous scaffold without micro-fluid channels.

  1. SPring-8 beamline control system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohata, T; Konishi, H; Kimura, H; Furukawa, Y; Tamasaku, K; Nakatani, T; Tanabe, T; Matsumoto, N; Ishii, M; Ishikawa, T

    1998-05-01

    The SPring-8 beamline control system is now taking part in the control of the insertion device (ID), front end, beam transportation channel and all interlock systems of the beamline: it will supply a highly standardized environment of apparatus control for collaborative researchers. In particular, ID operation is very important in a third-generation synchrotron light source facility. It is also very important to consider the security system because the ID is part of the storage ring and is therefore governed by the synchrotron ring control system. The progress of computer networking systems and the technology of security control require the development of a highly flexible control system. An interlock system that is independent of the control system has increased the reliability. For the beamline control system the so-called standard model concept has been adopted. VME-bus (VME) is used as the front-end control system and a UNIX workstation as the operator console. CPU boards of the VME-bus are RISC processor-based board computers operated by a LynxOS-based HP-RT real-time operating system. The workstation and the VME are linked to each other by a network, and form the distributed system. The HP 9000/700 series with HP-UX and the HP 9000/743rt series with HP-RT are used. All the controllable apparatus may be operated from any workstation.

  2. Evaluation of occurring complications after flow diverter treatment of elastase-induced aneurysm in rabbits using micro-CT and MRI at 9.4 T

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simgen, Andreas; Ley, Desiree; Muehl-Benninghaus, Ruben; Koerner, Heiko; Reith, Wolfgang; Yilmaz, Umut [Saarland University Hospital, Department of Neuroradiology, Homburg, Saar (Germany); Roth, Christian [Clinic Bremen-Mitte, Department of Neuroradiology, Bremen (Germany); Cattaneo, Giorgio Franco Maria [Acandis GmbH, Pforzheim (Germany); Mueller, Andreas [Saarland University Hospital, Department of Experimental Surgery, Homburg, Saar (Germany); Kim, Yoo-Jin [Saarland University Hospital, Department of Pathology, Homburg, Saar (Germany); Scheller, Bruno [Saarland University Hospital, Department of Cardiology, Homburg, Saar (Germany)

    2016-10-15

    Flow diverters are increasingly being used to treat intracranial aneurysms. This study evaluates occurring complications of flow-diverting devices in the treatment of experimental aneurysms, involving the use of micro-CT and small animal MRI at 9.4 T, in correlation to angiographic and histological findings. We previously published two preclinical studies, in which we assessed two different flow diverters in the treatment of elastase-induced aneurysms. Devices have been implanted across the aneurysm neck as well as in the abdominal aorta. From these studies, a total of 65 devices (prototype FD (n = 30) and Derivo embolization device (n = 35)) additionally underwent micro-CT and MRI after angiographic follow-up and before being histologically examined. The different architectures of both devices were precisely comparable due to high-resolution micro-CT imaging. Micro-CT revealed wire fractures in nine cases (30 %) only with the prototype FD. In three cases (10 %), severe wire fractures correlated with an in-stent stenosis due to intimal hyperplasia. Other complications, like distal stent occlusions and post-stent stenosis, were seen in both groups and verified with both imaging techniques. Osseous metaplasia were correlated to calcifications seen with micro-CT. MRI enabled visualization of the position of the implanted devices relative to the aneurysm and revealed incomplete aneurysm neck coverage with the prototype FD in two cases (6.7 %). Micro-CT and 9.4-T MRI are valid to discover and understand occurring complications of flow diverters in the preclinical phase and can serve as evaluation tools to minimize complication rates of endovascular devices in the future. (orig.)

  3. Diffractive generalized phase contrast for adaptive phase imaging and optical security

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palima, Darwin; Glückstad, Jesper

    2012-01-01

    We analyze the properties of Generalized Phase Contrast (GPC) when the input phase modulation is implemented using diffractive gratings. In GPC applications for patterned illumination, the use of a dynamic diffractive optical element for encoding the GPC input phase allows for onthe- fly optimiza...... security applications and can be used to create phasebased information channels for enhanced information security....

  4. Combining Generalized Phase Contrast with matched filtering into a versatile beam shaping approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glückstad, Jesper; Palima, Darwin

    2010-01-01

    We adapt concepts from matched filtering to propose a method for generating reconfigurable multiple beams. Combined with the Generalized Phase Contrast (GPC) technique, the proposed method coined mGPC can yield dynamically reconfigurable optical beam arrays with high light efficiency for optical...... manipulation, high-speed sorting and other parallel spatial light applications [1]....

  5. Phase-Contrast Hounsfield Units of Fixated and Non-Fixated Soft-Tissue Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willner, Marian; Fior, Gabriel; Marschner, Mathias; Birnbacher, Lorenz; Schock, Jonathan; Braun, Christian; Fingerle, Alexander A.; Noël, Peter B.; Rummeny, Ernst J.; Pfeiffer, Franz; Herzen, Julia

    2015-01-01

    X-ray phase-contrast imaging is a novel technology that achieves high soft-tissue contrast. Although its clinical impact is still under investigation, the technique may potentially improve clinical diagnostics. In conventional attenuation-based X-ray computed tomography, radiological diagnostics are quantified by Hounsfield units. Corresponding Hounsfield units for phase-contrast imaging have been recently introduced, enabling a setup-independent comparison and standardized interpretation of imaging results. Thus far, the experimental values of few tissue types have been reported; these values have been determined from fixated tissue samples. This study presents phase-contrast Hounsfield units for various types of non-fixated human soft tissues. A large variety of tissue specimens ranging from adipose, muscle and connective tissues to liver, kidney and pancreas tissues were imaged by a grating interferometer with a rotating-anode X-ray tube and a photon-counting detector. Furthermore, we investigated the effects of formalin fixation on the quantitative phase-contrast imaging results. PMID:26322638

  6. Wide-area phase-contrast X-ray imaging using large X-ray interferometers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Momose, Atsushi E-mail: momose@exp.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp; Takeda, Tohoru; Yoneyama, Akio; Koyama, Ichiro; Itai, Yuji

    2001-07-21

    Large X-ray interferometers are developed for phase-contrast X-ray imaging aiming at medical applications. A monolithic X-ray interferometer and a separate one are studied, and currently a 25 mmx20 mm view area can be generated. This paper describes the strategy of our research program and some recent developments.

  7. Phase-contrast X-ray computed tomography of non-formalin fixed biological objects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda, Tohoru E-mail: ttakeda@md.tsukuba.ac.jp; Momose, Atsushi; Wu, Jin; Zeniya, Tsutomu; Yu Quanwen; Thet Thet Lwin; Itai, Yuji

    2001-07-21

    Using a monolithic X-ray interferometer having the view size of 25 mmx25 mm, phase-contrast X-ray CT (PCCT) was performed for non-formalin fixed livers of two normal rats and a rabbit transplanted with VX-2 cancer. PCCT images of liver and cancer lesions resembled well those obtained by formalin fixed samples.

  8. Wide-area phase-contrast X-ray imaging using large X-ray interferometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momose, Atsushi; Takeda, Tohoru; Yoneyama, Akio; Koyama, Ichiro; Itai, Yuji

    2001-07-01

    Large X-ray interferometers are developed for phase-contrast X-ray imaging aiming at medical applications. A monolithic X-ray interferometer and a separate one are studied, and currently a 25 mm×20 mm view area can be generated. This paper describes the strategy of our research program and some recent developments.

  9. Phase-contrast X-ray computed tomography of non-formalin fixed biological objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Tohoru; Momose, Atsushi; Wu, Jin; Zeniya, Tsutomu; Yu, Quanwen; Thet-Thet-Lwin; Itai, Yuji

    2001-07-01

    Using a monolithic X-ray interferometer having the view size of 25 mm×25 mm, phase-contrast X-ray CT (PCCT) was performed for non-formalin fixed livers of two normal rats and a rabbit transplanted with VX-2 cancer. PCCT images of liver and cancer lesions resembled well those obtained by formalin fixed samples.

  10. Volumetric Arterial Wall Shear Stress Calculation Based on Cine Phase Contrast MRI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Potters, Wouter V.; van Ooij, Pim; Marquering, Henk; VanBavel, Ed; Nederveen, Aart J.

    2015-01-01

    PurposeTo assess the accuracy and precision of a volumetric wall shear stress (WSS) calculation method applied to cine phase contrast magnetic resonance imaging (PC-MRI) data. Materials and MethodsVolumetric WSS vectors were calculated in software phantoms. WSS algorithm parameters were optimized

  11. Hard X-Ray Phase-Contrast Imaging for Medical Applications - Physicist's Dream or Radiologist's Mainstream?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkins, S. W.; Gureyev, T. E.; Mayo, S. C.; Nesterets, Ya. I.; Pogany, A.; Stevenson, A. W.; Paganin, D. M.

    2007-01-01

    We briefly review currently practiced methods of X-ray phase contrast imaging and consider some of their relative features, especially in regard to applicability to clinical medical studies. Various related technological issues and promising future areas of development are also briefly discussed

  12. Computational fluid dynamics simulations of blood flow regularized by 3D phase contrast MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rispoli, Vinicius C; Nielsen, Jon; Nayak, Krishna S

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Phase contrast magnetic resonance imaging (PC-MRI) is used clinically for quantitative assessment of cardiovascular flow and function, as it is capable of providing directly-measured 3D velocity maps. Alternatively, vascular flow can be estimated from model-based computation fluid dyn...

  13. Holography microscopy as an artifact-free alternative to phase-contrast

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pastorek, Lukáš; Venit, Tomáš; Hozák, Pavel

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 149, č. 2 (2018), s. 179-186 ISSN 0948-6143 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015062 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : Holography microscopy * Phase-contrast * Halo effect Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Cell biology Impact factor: 2.553, year: 2016

  14. In-line X-ray phase-contrast imaging of murine liver microvasculature ex vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Beilei; Xu Min; Shi Hongcheng; Chen Shaoliang; Wu Weizhong; Peng Guanyun; Zhang Xi; Peng Yifeng

    2012-01-01

    Imaging blood vessels is of importance for determining the vascular distribution of organs and tumors. Phase-contrast X-ray imaging can reveal the vessels in much more detail than conventional X-ray absorption method. Visualizing murine liver microvasculature ex vivo with phase-contrast X-ray imaging was performed at Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility. Barium sulfate and physiological saline were used as contrast agents for the blood vessels. Blood vessels of <Φ20 μm could be detected by replacing resident blood with physiological saline or barium sulfate. An entire branch of the portal vein (from the main axial portal vein to the ninth generation of branching) could be captured in a single phase-contrast image. It is demonstrated that selective angiography based on phase contrast X-ray imaging, with a physiological material of low Z elements (such as saline) being the contrast agent, is a viable imaging strategy. Further efforts will be focused on using the technique to image tumor angiogenesis. (authors)

  15. Complete staining of human spermatozoa and immature germ cells combined with phase contrast microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michael, A Y; Drejer, J O; Bagger, P V

    1987-01-01

    A method combining Janus green B and Thymol blue stains the anterior part of the head, the nuclear membrane, middle piece, and tail of spermatozoa light green and the nucleus deep purple. The method provides excellent stained preparations for the evaluation of sperm morphology by phase contrast...

  16. Monte Carlo simulation of grating-based neutron phase contrast imaging at CPHS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Ran; Chen Zhiqiang; Huang Zhifeng; Xiao Yongshun; Wang Xuewu; Wie Jie; Loong, C.-K.

    2011-01-01

    Since the launching of the Compact Pulsed Hadron Source (CPHS) project of Tsinghua University in 2009, works have begun on the design and engineering of an imaging/radiography instrument for the neutron source provided by CPHS. The instrument will perform basic tasks such as transmission imaging and computerized tomography. Additionally, we include in the design the utilization of coded-aperture and grating-based phase contrast methodology, as well as the options of prompt gamma-ray analysis and neutron-energy selective imaging. Previously, we had implemented the hardware and data-analysis software for grating-based X-ray phase contrast imaging. Here, we investigate Geant4-based Monte Carlo simulations of neutron refraction phenomena and then model the grating-based neutron phase contrast imaging system according to the classic-optics-based method. The simulated experimental results of the retrieving phase shift gradient information by five-step phase-stepping approach indicate the feasibility of grating-based neutron phase contrast imaging as an option for the cold neutron imaging instrument at the CPHS.

  17. Imaging of metastatic lymph nodes by X-ray phase-contrast micro-tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Torben Haugaard; Bech, Martin; Binderup, Tina

    2013-01-01

    -contrast tomography. Ten lymph nodes had metastatic deposits and 7 were benign. The phase-contrast images were analyzed according to standards for conventional CT images looking for characteristics usually only visible by pathological examinations. Histopathology was used as reference. The result of this study...

  18. Benchmarking the x-ray phase contrast imaging for ICF DT ice characterization using roughened surrogates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dewald, E; Kozioziemski, B; Moody, J; Koch, J; Mapoles, E; Montesanti, R; Youngblood, K; Letts, S; Nikroo, A; Sater, J; Atherton, J

    2008-06-26

    We use x-ray phase contrast imaging to characterize the inner surface roughness of DT ice layers in capsules planned for future ignition experiments. It is therefore important to quantify how well the x-ray data correlates with the actual ice roughness. We benchmarked the accuracy of our system using surrogates with fabricated roughness characterized with high precision standard techniques. Cylindrical artifacts with azimuthally uniform sinusoidal perturbations with 100 um period and 1 um amplitude demonstrated 0.02 um accuracy limited by the resolution of the imager and the source size of our phase contrast system. Spherical surrogates with random roughness close to that required for the DT ice for a successful ignition experiment were used to correlate the actual surface roughness to that obtained from the x-ray measurements. When comparing average power spectra of individual measurements, the accuracy mode number limits of the x-ray phase contrast system benchmarked against surface characterization performed by Atomic Force Microscopy are 60 and 90 for surrogates smoother and rougher than the required roughness for the ice. These agreement mode number limits are >100 when comparing matching individual measurements. We will discuss the implications for interpreting DT ice roughness data derived from phase-contrast x-ray imaging.

  19. Phase-contrast versus off-axis illumination: is a more complex microscope always more powerful?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hostounský, Z.; Pelc, Radek

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 2 (2007), s. 232-235 ISSN 1043-4046 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : microscope * relief contrast * phase contrast Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 0.984, year: 2007

  20. Ex vivo characterization of pathologic fluids with quantitative phase-contrast computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richter, Vivien, E-mail: vivien.richter@med.uni-tuebingen.de [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Eberhard Karls Universität Tübingen, Hoppe-Seyler-Weg 3, 72076 Tuebingen (Germany); Willner, Marian S., E-mail: marian.willner@ph.tum.de [Department of Physics & Institute of Medical Engineering, Technische Universität München, James-Franck-Strasse 1, 85748 Garching (Germany); Henningsen, John, E-mail: john.henningsen@tum.de [Department of Physics & Institute of Medical Engineering, Technische Universität München, James-Franck-Strasse 1, 85748 Garching (Germany); Birnbacher, Lorenz, E-mail: lorenz.birnbacher@ph.tum.de [Department of Physics & Institute of Medical Engineering, Technische Universität München, James-Franck-Strasse 1, 85748 Garching (Germany); Marschner, Mathias, E-mail: mathias.marschner@ph.tum.de [Department of Physics & Institute of Medical Engineering, Technische Universität München, James-Franck-Strasse 1, 85748 Garching (Germany); Herzen, Julia, E-mail: julia.herzen@ph.tum.de [Department of Physics & Institute of Medical Engineering, Technische Universität München, James-Franck-Strasse 1, 85748 Garching (Germany); Kimm, Melanie A., E-mail: melanie.kimm@tum.de [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Technische Universität München, Ismaninger Str. 22, 81675 Munich (Germany); and others

    2017-01-15

    Purpose: X-ray phase-contrast imaging (PCI) provides additional information beyond absorption characteristics by detecting the phase shift of the X-ray beam passing through material. The grating-based system works with standard polychromatic X-ray sources, promising a possible clinical implementation. PCI has been shown to provide additional information in soft-tissue samples. The aim of this study was to determine if ex vivo quantitative phase-contrast computed tomography (PCCT) may differentiate between pathologic fluid collections. Materials and methods: PCCT was performed with the grating interferometry method. A protein serial dilution, human blood samples and 17 clinical samples of pathologic fluid retentions were imaged and correlated with clinical chemistry measurements. Conventional and phase-contrast tomography images were reconstructed. Phase-contrast Hounsfield Units (HUp) were used for quantitative analysis analogously to conventional HU. The imaging was analyzed using overall means, ROI values as well as whole-volume-histograms and vertical gradients. Contrast to noise ratios were calculated between different probes and between imaging methods. Results: HUp showed a very good linear correlation with protein concentration in vitro. In clinical samples, HUp correlated rather well with cell count and triglyceride content. PCI was better than absorption imaging at differentiating protein concentrations in the protein samples as well as at differentiating blood plasma from cellular components. PCI also allowed for differentiation of watery samples (such as lymphoceles) from pus. Conclusion: Phase-contrast computed tomography is a promising tool for the differentiation of pathologic fluids that appear homogenous with conventional attenuation imaging.

  1. Beamlines on the SPring-8 project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohno, Hideo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Kamigori, Hyogo (Japan). Kansai Research Establishment

    1997-03-01

    SPring-8 project is going to construct a ultrahigh-brilliance X-ray synchrotron radiation facility and commissioning of the storage ring is expected in Spring 1977. The facility will be available to scientists and engineers of universities, national laboratories and industries not only from Japan but also from abroad. 20 proposals for public beamlines are submitted to the Beamline Committee and the ten public beamlines are scheduled for completion by the end of 1997. (author)

  2. Beamline 9.0.1 - a high-resolution undulator beamline for gas-phase spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bozek, J.D.; Heimann, P.A.; Mossessian, D. [Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)

    1997-04-01

    Beamline 9.0.1 at the Advanced Light Source is an undulator beamline with a Spherical Grating Monochromator (SGM) which provides very high resolution and flux over the photon energy range 20-320eV. The beamline has been used primarily by the atomic and molecular science community to conduct spectroscopy experiments using electron, ion and fluorescence photon detection. A description of the beamline and its performance will be provided in this abstract.

  3. SPring-8 Structural Biology Beamlines / Current Status of Public Beamlines for Protein Crystallography at SPring-8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamoto, Masahide; Hasegawa, Kazuya; Shimizu, Nobutaka; Sakai, Hisanobu; Shimizu, Tetsuya; Nisawa, Atsushi; Yamamoto, Masaki

    2007-01-01

    SPring-8 has 2 protein crystallography beamlines for public use, BL38B1 (Structural Biology III) and BL41XU (Structural Biology I). The BL38B1 is a bending magnet beamline for routine data collection, and the BL41XU is an undulator beamline specially customized for micro beam and ultra-high resolutional experiment. The designs and the performances of each beamline are presented

  4. An object model for beamline descriptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, B.W.; Martono, H.; Gillespie, J.S.

    1997-01-01

    Translation of beamline model descriptions between different accelerator codes presents a unique challenge due to the different representations used for various elements and subsystems. These differences range from simple units conversions to more complex translations involving multiple beamline components. A representation of basic accelerator components is being developed in order to define a meta-structure from which beamline models, in different codes, can be described and to facilitate the translation of models between these codes. Sublines of basic components will be used to represent more complex beamline descriptions and bridge the gap between codes which may represent a beamline element as a single entity, and those which use multiple elements to describe the same physical device. A C++ object model for supporting this beamline description and a grammar for describing beamlines in terms of these components is being developed. The object model will support a common graphic user interface and translation filters for representing native beamline descriptions for a variety of accelerator codes. An overview of our work on the object model for beamline descriptions is presented here. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  5. From the sample preparation to the volume rendering images of small animals: A step by step example of a procedure to carry out the micro-CT study of the leafhopper insect Homalodisca vitripennis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Advances in micro-CT, digital computed tomography (CT) scan uses X-rays to make detailed pictures of structures inside of the body. Combining micro-CT with Digital Video Library systems, and linking this to Big Data, will change the way researchers, entomologist, and the public search and use anato...

  6. Nondestructive Analysis of Apollo Samples by Micro-CT and Micro-XRF Analysis: A PET Style Examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeigler, Ryan A.

    2014-01-01

    An integral part of any sample return mission is the initial description and classification of returned samples by the preliminary examination team (PET). The goal of a PET is to characterize and classify the returned samples, making this information available to the general research community who can then conduct more in-depth studies on the samples. A PET strives to minimize the impact their work has on the sample suite, which often limits the PET work to largely visual measurements and observations like optical microscopy. More modern techniques can also be utilized by future PET to nondestructively characterize astromaterials in a more rigorous way. Here we present our recent analyses of Apollo samples 14321 and 14305 by micro-CT and micro-XRF (respectively), assess the potential for discovery of "new" Apollo samples for scientific study, and evaluate the usefulness of these techniques in future PET efforts.

  7. Establishing a process of irradiating small animal brain using a CyberKnife and a microCT scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Haksoo; Welford, Scott; Fabien, Jeffrey; Zheng, Yiran; Yuan, Jake; Brindle, James; Yao, Min; Lo, Simon; Wessels, Barry; Machtay, Mitchell; Sohn, Jason W.; Sloan, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Establish and validate a process of accurately irradiating small animals using the CyberKnife G4 System (version 8.5) with treatment plans designed to irradiate a hemisphere of a mouse brain based on microCT scanner images. Methods: These experiments consisted of four parts: (1) building a mouse phantom for intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) quality assurance (QA), (2) proving usability of a microCT for treatment planning, (3) fabricating a small animal positioning system for use with the CyberKnife's image guided radiotherapy (IGRT) system, and (4)in vivo verification of targeting accuracy. A set of solid water mouse phantoms was designed and fabricated, with radiochromic films (RCF) positioned in selected planes to measure delivered doses. After down-sampling for treatment planning compatibility, a CT image set of a phantom was imported into the CyberKnife treatment planning system—MultiPlan (ver. 3.5.2). A 0.5 cm diameter sphere was contoured within the phantom to represent a hemispherical section of a mouse brain. A nude mouse was scanned in an alpha cradle using a microCT scanner (cone-beam, 157 × 149 pixels slices, 0.2 mm longitudinal slice thickness). Based on the results of our positional accuracy study, a planning treatment volume (PTV) was created. A stereotactic body mold of the mouse was “printed” using a 3D printer laying UV curable acrylic plastic. Printer instructions were based on exported contours of the mouse's skin. Positional reproducibility in the mold was checked by measuring ten CT scans. To verify accurate dose delivery in vivo, six mice were irradiated in the mold with a 4 mm target contour and a 2 mm PTV margin to 3 Gy and sacrificed within 20 min to avoid DNA repair. The brain was sliced and stained for analysis. Results: For the IMRT QA using a set of phantoms, the planned dose (6 Gy to the calculation point) was compared to the delivered dose measured via film and analyzed using Gamma analysis (3% and 3 mm). A

  8. X-ray microtomography (microCT of male genitalia of Nothybus kuznetsovorum (Nothybidae and Cothornobata sp. (Micropezidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana V. Galinskaya

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The results of manual dissection of the musculature of the male genitalia in Nothybus kuznetsovorum are fully confirmed by the modern methods of Micro-CT. A comparative analysis of Neria commutata and Cothornobata sp. shows that an increase in the flexion in the genitalia of males and the displacement of syntergosternite VII to the ventral side in Cothornobata sp. caused the disappearance of the muscles ITM6–7r and ITM7–8r. In addition, this increase in flexion apparently caused the fusion of the M18 muscles into one bundle. The muscle ISM5-6c goes on to moving the second segment of the forcipate appendages of sternite V.

  9. Establishing a process of irradiating small animal brain using a CyberKnife and a microCT scanner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Haksoo; Welford, Scott [Department of Radiation Oncology, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, 10900 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, Ohio 44106 (United States); Fabien, Jeffrey; Zheng, Yiran; Yuan, Jake; Brindle, James; Yao, Min; Lo, Simon; Wessels, Barry; Machtay, Mitchell; Sohn, Jason W., E-mail: jason.sohn@case.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, 10900 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, Ohio 44106 and University Hospitals of Cleveland, 11100 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, Ohio 44106 (United States); Sloan, Andrew [Department of Neurosurgery, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, 10900 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, Ohio 44106 (United States)

    2014-02-15

    Purpose: Establish and validate a process of accurately irradiating small animals using the CyberKnife G4 System (version 8.5) with treatment plans designed to irradiate a hemisphere of a mouse brain based on microCT scanner images. Methods: These experiments consisted of four parts: (1) building a mouse phantom for intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) quality assurance (QA), (2) proving usability of a microCT for treatment planning, (3) fabricating a small animal positioning system for use with the CyberKnife's image guided radiotherapy (IGRT) system, and (4)in vivo verification of targeting accuracy. A set of solid water mouse phantoms was designed and fabricated, with radiochromic films (RCF) positioned in selected planes to measure delivered doses. After down-sampling for treatment planning compatibility, a CT image set of a phantom was imported into the CyberKnife treatment planning system—MultiPlan (ver. 3.5.2). A 0.5 cm diameter sphere was contoured within the phantom to represent a hemispherical section of a mouse brain. A nude mouse was scanned in an alpha cradle using a microCT scanner (cone-beam, 157 × 149 pixels slices, 0.2 mm longitudinal slice thickness). Based on the results of our positional accuracy study, a planning treatment volume (PTV) was created. A stereotactic body mold of the mouse was “printed” using a 3D printer laying UV curable acrylic plastic. Printer instructions were based on exported contours of the mouse's skin. Positional reproducibility in the mold was checked by measuring ten CT scans. To verify accurate dose delivery in vivo, six mice were irradiated in the mold with a 4 mm target contour and a 2 mm PTV margin to 3 Gy and sacrificed within 20 min to avoid DNA repair. The brain was sliced and stained for analysis. Results: For the IMRT QA using a set of phantoms, the planned dose (6 Gy to the calculation point) was compared to the delivered dose measured via film and analyzed using Gamma analysis (3% and 3 mm

  10. Quantifying the degradation of degradable implants and bone formation in the femoral condyle using micro-CT 3D reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yichi; Meng, Haoye; Yin, Heyong; Sun, Zhen; Peng, Jiang; Xu, Xiaolong; Guo, Quanyi; Xu, Wenjing; Yu, Xiaoming; Yuan, Zhiguo; Xiao, Bo; Wang, Cheng; Wang, Yu; Liu, Shuyun; Lu, Shibi; Wang, Zhaoxu; Wang, Aiyuan

    2018-01-01

    Degradation limits the application of magnesium alloys, and evaluation methods for non-traumatic in vivo quantification of implant degradation and bone formation are imperfect. In the present study, a micro-arc-oxidized AZ31 magnesium alloy was used to evaluate the degradation of implants and new bone formation in 60 male New Zealand white rabbits. Degradation was monitored by weighing the implants prior to and following implantation, and by performing micro-computed tomography (CT) scans and histological analysis after 1, 4, 12, 24, 36, and 48 weeks of implantation. The results indicated that the implants underwent slow degradation in the first 4 weeks, with negligible degradation in the first week, followed by significantly increased degradation during weeks 12-24 (Pformation increased as the implant degraded. The findings concluded that micro-CT, which is useful for providing non-traumatic, in vivo , quantitative and precise data, has great value for exploring the degradation of implants and novel bone formation.

  11. Micro-CT evaluation of microleakage under orthodontic ceramic brackets bonded with different bonding techniques and adhesives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öztürk, Fırat; Ersöz, Mustafa; Öztürk, Seyit Ahmet; Hatunoğlu, Erdem; Malkoç, Sıddık

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate microleakage under orthodontic ceramic brackets bonded with direct and different indirect bonding techniques and adhesives using micro-computed tomography. A total of 30 human maxillary premolars were randomly separated into five groups with six teeth in each group. In group I, teeth were bonded directly with Transbond XT (3M Unitek). In group II, group III, group IV, and group V, teeth were bonded through an indirect technique with Custom I.Q. (Reliance Orthodontic Products), Sondhi Rapid-Set (3M Unitek), RMbond (RMO), and Transbond IDB (3M Unitek), respectively, following the manufacturer's instructions. Micro-CT system model 1172 of Skyscan (Kontich, Belgium) was used to scan all samples. NRecon (Skyscan) version 1.6, CT-Analyser V.1.11 (Skyscan), and TView (SkyScan, Bvba) software programs were used for microleakage evaluation. Microleakage values between the test groups were assessed using the Kruskal-Wallis test, while the Wilcoxon signed rank test was used for within-group comparisons. The level of significance was set at P Kruskal-Wallis analysis of variance test, there were no significant differences among the tested groups, with regard to volume and percentage (microleakage/region of interest × 100) of microleakage values (P test showed that coronal microleakage volume and percentage values significantly differed for RMbond and Transbond IDB groups. In the study, only ceramic brackets were used and microleakage into mini gaps did not show up on the micro-CT image because 50% silver nitrate solution could not penetrate into mini gaps which are smaller than silver nitrate particles. Use of direct and indirect bonding techniques with different adhesives did not significantly affect the amount of microleakage. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Orthodontic Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Volume of sealer in the apical region of teeth filled by different techniques: a micro-CT analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Lessa ARAÚJO

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The volume of sealer in the apical 1 mm of teeth filled using different techniques was evaluated by micro-commuted tomography (micro-CT. Sixty-four maxillary central incisors were prepared using NiTi rotary instruments. Teeth were randomly distributed into four groups according to root canal sealers (AH Plus, Endofill, Sealapex, and Sealer 26 and subdivided into two subgroups according to the filling techniques (active and passive lateral condensation; n = 8 each. Subsequently, teeth were examined using the 1174 SkyScan micro-CT device. Images were reconstructed using the NRecon software, and the sealer volume (mm3 in the apical region was analyzed using the two-way ANOVA and post-hoc Student–Newman–Keuls test (α = ٠.٠٥. The lowest volume of sealer was observed in teeth filled with Sealapex (0.100 ± 0.009 and Endofill (0.103 ± 0.010. The highest volume was observed in teeth filled with AH Plus (0.112 ± 0.008 and Sealer 26 (0.109 ± 0.018 (p > 0.05. Regarding the filling technique, a lower sealer volume was observed using the active lateral condensation technique compared with that using the passive lateral condensation technique (0.100 ± 0.010 vs. 0.111 ± 0.012 (p < 0.05. Therefore, the lowest volume of sealer was observed in teeth filled with Sealapex and Endofill using the active lateral condensation technique.

  13. Implementation and assessment of an animal management system for small-animal micro-CT / micro-SPECT imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdsworth, David W.; Detombe, Sarah A.; Chiodo, Chris; Fricke, Stanley T.; Drangova, Maria

    2011-03-01

    Advances in laboratory imaging systems for CT, SPECT, MRI, and PET facilitate routine micro-imaging during pre-clinical investigations. Challenges still arise when dealing with immune-compromised animals, biohazardous agents, and multi-modality imaging. These challenges can be overcome with an appropriate animal management system (AMS), with the capability for supporting and monitoring a rat or mouse during micro-imaging. We report the implementation and assessment of a new AMS system for mice (PRA-3000 / AHS-2750, ASI Instruments, Warren MI), designed to be compatible with a commercial micro-CT / micro-SPECT imaging system (eXplore speCZT, GE Healthcare, London ON). The AMS was assessed under the following criteria: 1) compatibility with the imaging system (i.e. artifact generation, geometric dimensions); 2) compatibility with live animals (i.e. positioning, temperature regulation, anesthetic supply); 3) monitoring capabilities (i.e. rectal temperature, respiratory and cardiac monitoring); 4) stability of co-registration; and 5) containment. Micro-CT scans performed using a standardized live-animal protocol (90 kVp, 40 mA, 900 views, 16 ms per view) exhibited low noise (+/-19 HU) and acceptable artifact from high-density components within the AMS (e.g. ECG pad contacts). Live mice were imaged repeatedly (with removal and replacement of the AMS) and spatial registration was found to be stable to within +/-0.07 mm. All animals tolerated enclosure within the AMS for extended periods (i.e. > one hour) without distress, based on continuous recordings of rectal temperature, ECG waveform and respiratory rate. A sealed AMS system extends the capability of a conventional micro-imaging system to include immune-compromised and biosafety level 2 mouse-imaging protocols.

  14. Skull shape differentiation of black and white olms (Proteus anguinus anguinus and Proteus a. parkelj): an exploratory analysis with micro-CT scanning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ivanović, A.; Aljančič, G.; Artzen, J.W.

    2013-01-01

    We performed an exploratory analysis of the morphology of the cranium in the white olm (Proteus anguinus anguinus) and the black olm (P. a. parkelj) with micro-CT scanning and geometric morphometrics. The mudpuppy (Necturus maculosus) was used as an outgroup. The black olm falls outside the white

  15. Longitudinal in vivo evaluation of bone regeneration by combined measurement of multi-pinhole SPECT and micro-CT for tissue engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lienemann, Philipp S.; Metzger, Stéphanie; Kiveliö, Anna-Sofia; Blanc, Alain; Papageorgiou, Panagiota; Astolfo, Alberto; Pinzer, Bernd R.; Cinelli, Paolo; Weber, Franz E.; Schibli, Roger; Béhé, Martin; Ehrbar, Martin

    2015-05-01

    Over the last decades, great strides were made in the development of novel implants for the treatment of bone defects. The increasing versatility and complexity of these implant designs request for concurrent advances in means to assess in vivo the course of induced bone formation in preclinical models. Since its discovery, micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) has excelled as powerful high-resolution technique for non-invasive assessment of newly formed bone tissue. However, micro-CT fails to provide spatiotemporal information on biological processes ongoing during bone regeneration. Conversely, due to the versatile applicability and cost-effectiveness, single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) would be an ideal technique for assessing such biological processes with high sensitivity and for nuclear imaging comparably high resolution (designed poly(ethylene glycol)-based hydrogels that release bone morphogenetic protein to guide the healing of critical sized calvarial bone defects. By combined in vivo longitudinal multi-pinhole SPECT and micro-CT evaluations we determine the spatiotemporal course of bone formation and remodeling within this synthetic hydrogel implant. End point evaluations by high resolution micro-CT and histological evaluation confirm the value of this approach to follow and optimize bone-inducing biomaterials.

  16. BNL ATF II beamlines design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fedurin, M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Jing, Y. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Stratakis, D. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Swinson, C. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2015-05-03

    The Brookhaven National Laboratory. Accelerator Test Facility (BNL ATF) is currently undergoing a major upgrade (ATF-II). Together with a new location and much improved facilities, the ATF will see an upgrade in its major capabilities: electron beam energy and quality and CO2 laser power. The electron beam energy will be increased in stages, first to 100-150 MeV followed by a further increase to 500 MeV. Combined with the planned increase in CO2 laser power (from 1-100 TW), the ATF-II will be a powerful tool for Advanced Accelerator research. A high-brightness electron beam, produced by a photocathode gun, will be accelerated and optionally delivered to multiple beamlines. Besides the energy range (up to a possible 500 MeV in the final stage) the electron beam can be tailored to each experiment with options such as: small transverse beam size (<10 um), short bunch length (<100 fsec) and, combined short and small bunch options. This report gives a detailed overview of the ATFII capabilities and beamlines configuration.

  17. Nanoscopium: a Scanning Hard X-ray Nanoprobe Beamline at Synchrotron Soleil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somogyi, A.; Polack, F.; Moreno, T.

    2010-06-01

    Nanoscopium is the single scanning hard X-ray nano-probe beamline planned at SOLEIL. This ˜155 m long beamline will fully exploit the high brilliance and coherence characteristics of the X-ray beam both for diffraction limited focusing and for contrast formation. It will offer the most advanced imaging techniques in multimodal mode and will be a research tool for a wide user community working in the fields of earth-, environmental-, and life-sciences. The different μ-μnano-probe techniques offered by the beamline will permit elemental mapping at trace (ppm) levels (scanning XRF), speciation mapping (XANES), phase gradient mapping (scanning differential phase contrast), and density-contrast based imaging of internal structures (coherent diffraction imaging) in the 30 nm to 1 μm spatial resolution range, also in "in situ conditions". Nanoscopium will cover the 5-20 keV energy range. The stability of the nanobeam will be ensured by horizontally reflecting beamline optics (a sagitally and a tangentially pre-focusing mirror, horizontally reflecting monochromators) in front of the overfilled secondary source. Trade-off between high energy resolution (ΔE/E˜10-4) and high flux (1011 ph/s with ΔE/E˜10-2) will be achieved by two interchangeable monochromators (a double crystal and a double multilayer one). KB mirror and FZP lenses will be used as focusing devices. The beamline is in the design and construction phase. It is foreseen to be open for users at the beginning of 2013.

  18. Spline based iterative phase retrieval algorithm for X-ray differential phase contrast radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilchian, Masih; Wang, Zhentian; Thuering, Thomas; Unser, Michael; Stampanoni, Marco

    2015-04-20

    Differential phase contrast imaging using grating interferometer is a promising alternative to conventional X-ray radiographic methods. It provides the absorption, differential phase and scattering information of the underlying sample simultaneously. Phase retrieval from the differential phase signal is an essential problem for quantitative analysis in medical imaging. In this paper, we formalize the phase retrieval as a regularized inverse problem, and propose a novel discretization scheme for the derivative operator based on B-spline calculus. The inverse problem is then solved by a constrained regularized weighted-norm algorithm (CRWN) which adopts the properties of B-spline and ensures a fast implementation. The method is evaluated with a tomographic dataset and differential phase contrast mammography data. We demonstrate that the proposed method is able to produce phase image with enhanced and higher soft tissue contrast compared to conventional absorption-based approach, which can potentially provide useful information to mammographic investigations.

  19. Evaluation on correction factor for in-line X-ray phase contrast computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Mingli; Huang, Zhifeng; Zhang, Li; Zhang, Ran [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China). Dept. of Engineering Physics; Ministry of Education, Beijing (China). Key Laboratory of Particle and Radiation Imaging; Yin, Hongxia; Liu, Yunfu; Wang, Zhenchang [Capital Medical Univ., Beijing (China). Medical Imaging Center; Xiao, Tiqiao [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai (China). Shanghai Inst. of Applied Physics

    2011-07-01

    X-ray in-line phase contrast computed tomography (CT) is an effective nondestructive tool, providing 3D distribution of the refractive index of weakly absorbing low-Z object with high resolution and image contrast, especially with high-brilliance third-generation synchrotron radiation sources. Modified Bronnikov's algorithm (MBA), one of the in-line phase contrast CT reconstruction algorithms, can reconstruct the refractive index distribution of a pure phase object with a single computed tomographic data set. The key idea of the MBA is to use a correction factor in the filter function to stabilize the behavior at low frequencies. In this paper, we evaluate the influences of the correction factor to the final reconstruction results of the absorption-phase-mixed objects with analytical simulation and actual experiments. The limitations of the MBA are discussed finally. (orig.)

  20. Phase contrast X-ray imaging at the bone-cartilage interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Che Ismail, E.; Gundogdu, O.; Bradley, D.A.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Phase contrast X-ray imaging is a simple technique to investigate various biological samples. At Surrey, the bone-cartilage interface is one of the biological samples which actively been studied. Bone-cartilage interface study gives a particular interest in this research as the degeneration of cartilage is the hallmark of the degenerative joint disease such as osteoarthritis. We have been applying the phase contrast imaging technique in studying the bone-cartilage interface, obtaining information on anatomical features such as the cartilage, blood vessel, tide mark and cement line. Our samples range from dry bone-cartilage to wet bone-cartilage tissue. This work will briefly review the basic supporting physics of the study. It also shows some of the images and other results that we have obtained to-date. Fig. 1 shows examples obtained using the X-ray tube system at the University of Surrey

  1. Zernike phase contrast cryo-electron tomography of whole bacterial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero-Ferreira, Ricardo C; Wright, Elizabeth R

    2014-01-01

    Cryo-electron tomography (cryo-ET) provides three-dimensional (3D) structural information of bacteria preserved in a native, frozen-hydrated state. The typical low contrast of tilt-series images, a result of both the need for a low electron dose and the use of conventional defocus phase-contrast imaging, is a challenge for high-quality tomograms. We show that Zernike phase-contrast imaging allows the electron dose to be reduced. This limits movement of gold fiducials during the tilt series, which leads to better alignment and a higher-resolution reconstruction. Contrast is also enhanced, improving visibility of weak features. The reduced electron dose also means that more images at more tilt angles could be recorded, further increasing resolution. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Diamond Beamline I16 (Materials and Magnetism)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, S. P.; Bombardi, A.; Marshall, A. R.; Williams, J. H.; Barlow, G.; Day, A. G.; Pearson, M. R.; Woolliscroft, R. J.; Walton, R. D.; Beutier, G.; Nisbet, G.

    2010-01-01

    We describe the key features and performance specifications of a facility for high-resolution single-crystal x-ray diffraction at Diamond Light Source. The scientific emphasis of the beamline is materials- and x-ray-physics, including resonant and magnetic scattering. We highlight some of the more novel aspects of the beamline design.

  3. Beamline for Schools Safety Awareness Day

    CERN Multimedia

    Photo Service, CERN

    2014-01-01

    The first two teams to participate in CERN's Beamline for Schools project spent their first day at CERN at the Safety Training Center in Prévessin. They covered amongst others radiation protection, cryogenics and fire-fighting. The teams will spend the rest of the week at the T9 beamline.

  4. Radiation-resistant beamline components at LAMPF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macek, R.J.; Grisham, D.L.; Lambert, J.e.; Werbeck, R.

    1983-01-01

    A variety of highly radiation-resistant beamline components have been successfully developed at LAMPF primarily for use in the target cells and beam stop area of the intense proton beamline. Design features and operating experience are reviewed for magnets, instrumentation, targets, vacuum seals, vacuum windows, collimators, and beam stops

  5. A method to implement the reservoir-wave hypothesis using phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Gray, Robert D.M.; Parker, Kim H.; Quail, Michael A.; Taylor, Andrew M.; Biglino, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    The reservoir-wave hypothesis states that the blood pressure waveform can be usefully divided into a “reservoir pressure” related to the global compliance and resistance of the arterial system, and an “excess pressure” that depends on local conditions. The formulation of the reservoir-wave hypothesis applied to the area waveform is shown, and the analysis is applied to area and velocity data from high-resolution phase-contrast cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging. A validation stud...

  6. Synchrotron radiation phase-contrast X-ray CT imaging of acupuncture points

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Dongming; Yan, Xiaohui; Zhang, Xinyi [Fudan University, Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, State Key Laboratory of Surface Physics and Department of Physics, Shanghai (China); Liu, Chenglin [Physics Department of Yancheng Teachers' College, Yancheng (China); Dang, Ruishan [The Second Military Medical University, Shanghai (China); Xiao, Tiqiao [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Shanghai (China); Zhu, Peiping [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Institute of High Energy Physics, Beijing (China)

    2011-08-15

    Three-dimensional (3D) topographic structures of acupuncture points were investigated by using synchrotron radiation in-line X-ray phase contrast computerized tomography. Two acupuncture points, named Zhongji (RN3) and Zusanli (ST36), were studied. We found an accumulation of microvessels at each acupuncture point region. Images of the tissues surrounding the acupuncture points do not show such kinds of structure. This is the first time that 3D images have revealed the specific structures of acupuncture points. (orig.)

  7. Synchrotron radiation phase-contrast X-ray CT imaging of acupuncture points

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Dongming; Yan, Xiaohui; Zhang, Xinyi; Liu, Chenglin; Dang, Ruishan; Xiao, Tiqiao; Zhu, Peiping

    2011-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) topographic structures of acupuncture points were investigated by using synchrotron radiation in-line X-ray phase contrast computerized tomography. Two acupuncture points, named Zhongji (RN3) and Zusanli (ST36), were studied. We found an accumulation of microvessels at each acupuncture point region. Images of the tissues surrounding the acupuncture points do not show such kinds of structure. This is the first time that 3D images have revealed the specific structures of acupuncture points. (orig.)

  8. Simulation of single grid-based phase-contrast x-ray imaging (g-PCXI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, H.W.; Lee, H.W. [Department of Radiation Convergence Engineering, iTOMO Group, Yonsei University, 1 Yonseidae-gil, Wonju, Gangwon-do 26493 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, H.S., E-mail: hscho1@yonsei.ac.kr [Department of Radiation Convergence Engineering, iTOMO Group, Yonsei University, 1 Yonseidae-gil, Wonju, Gangwon-do 26493 (Korea, Republic of); Je, U.K.; Park, C.K.; Kim, K.S.; Kim, G.A.; Park, S.Y.; Lee, D.Y.; Park, Y.O.; Woo, T.H. [Department of Radiation Convergence Engineering, iTOMO Group, Yonsei University, 1 Yonseidae-gil, Wonju, Gangwon-do 26493 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, S.H.; Chung, W.H.; Kim, J.W.; Kim, J.G. [R& D Center, JPI Healthcare Co., Ltd., Ansan 425-833 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-01

    Single grid-based phase-contrast x-ray imaging (g-PCXI) technique, which was recently proposed by Wen et al. to retrieve absorption, scattering, and phase-gradient images from the raw image of the examined object, seems a practical method for phase-contrast imaging with great simplicity and minimal requirements on the setup alignment. In this work, we developed a useful simulation platform for g-PCXI and performed a simulation to demonstrate its viability. We also established a table-top setup for g-PCXI which consists of a focused-linear grid (200-lines/in strip density), an x-ray tube (100-μm focal spot size), and a flat-panel detector (48-μm pixel size) and performed a preliminary experiment with some samples to show the performance of the simulation platform. We successfully obtained phase-contrast x-ray images of much enhanced contrast from both the simulation and experiment and the simulated contract seemed similar to the experimental contrast, which shows the performance of the developed simulation platform. We expect that the simulation platform will be useful for designing an optimal g-PCXI system. - Highlights: • It is proposed for the single grid-based phase-contrast x-ray imaging (g-PCXI) technique. • We implemented for a numerical simulation code. • The preliminary experiment with several samples to compare is performed. • It is expected to be useful to design an optimal g-PCXI system.

  9. Functional analysis of third ventriculostomy patency with phase-contrast MRI velocity measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lev, S.; Bhadelia, R.A.; Estin, D.; Heilman, C.B.; Wolpert, S.M.

    1997-01-01

    Our purpose was to explore the utility of cine phase-contrast MRI velocity measurements in determining the functional status of third ventriculostomies, and to correlate the quantitative velocity data with clinical follow-up. We examined six patients with third ventriculostomies and 12 normal subjects by phase-contrast MRI. The maximum craniocaudal to maximum caudocranial velocity range was measured at regions of interest near the third ventricular floor, and in cerebrospinal fluid anterior to the upper pons and spinal cord on midline sagittal images. Ratios of the velocities of both the third ventricle and prepontine space to the space anterior to the spinal cord were obtained. The velocities near the third ventricular floor and in the pontine cistern were significantly higher in patients than in normal subjects, but the velocity anterior to the spinal cord was similar between the groups. The velocity ratios, used to normalize individual differences, were also higher in patients than in controls. Two patients had lower velocity ratios than their fellows at the third ventricular floor and in the pontine cistern; one required a shunt 11 months later, while in the other, who had a third ventricular/thalamic tumor, the lower values probably reflect distortion of the third ventricular floor. We conclude that phase-contrast MR velocity measurements, specifically the velocity ratio between the high pontine cistern and the space anterior to the spinal cord, can help determine the functional status of third ventriculostomies. (orig.)

  10. Investigation of the imaging quality of synchrotron-based phase-contrast mammographic tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gureyev, T E; Mayo, S C; Nesterets, Ya I; Mohammadi, S; Menk, R H; Arfelli, F; Tromba, G; Lockie, D; Pavlov, K M; Kitchen, M J; Zanconati, F; Dullin, C

    2014-01-01

    We report the results of a systematic study of phase-contrast x-ray computed tomography in the propagation-based and analyser-based modes using specially designed phantoms and excised breast tissue samples. The study is aimed at the quantitative evaluation and subsequent optimization, with respect to detection of small tumours in breast tissue, of the effects of phase contrast and phase retrieval on key imaging parameters, such as spatial resolution, contrast-to-noise ratio, x-ray dose and a recently proposed ‘intrinsic quality’ characteristic which combines the image noise with the spatial resolution. We demonstrate that some of the methods evaluated in this work lead to substantial (more than 20-fold) improvement in the contrast-to-noise and intrinsic quality of the reconstructed tomographic images compared with conventional techniques, with the measured characteristics being in good agreement with the corresponding theoretical estimations. This improvement also corresponds to an approximately 400-fold reduction in the x-ray dose, compared with conventional absorption-based tomography, without a loss in the imaging quality. The results of this study confirm and quantify the significant potential benefits achievable in three-dimensional mammography using x-ray phase-contrast imaging and phase-retrieval techniques. (paper)

  11. Phase contrast imaging using a micro focus x-ray source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wei; Majidi, Keivan; Brankov, Jovan G.

    2014-09-01

    Phase contrast x-ray imaging, a new technique to increase the imaging contrast for the tissues with close attenuation coefficients, has been studied since mid 1990s. This technique reveals the possibility to show the clear details of the soft tissues and tumors in small scale resolution. A compact and low cost phase contrast imaging system using a conventional x-ray source is described in this paper. Using the conventional x-ray source is of great importance, because it provides the possibility to use the method in hospitals and clinical offices. Simple materials and components are used in the setup to keep the cost in a reasonable and affordable range.Tungsten Kα1 line with the photon energy 59.3 keV was used for imaging. Some of the system design details are discussed. The method that was used to stabilize the system is introduced. A chicken thigh bone tissue sample was used for imaging followed by the image quality, image acquisition time and the potential clinical application discussion. High energy x-ray beam can be used in phase contrast imaging. Therefore the radiation dose to the patients can be greatly decreased compared to the traditional x-ray radiography.

  12. Trial on MR portal blood flow measurement with phase contrast technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsunoda, Masatoshi; Kimoto, Shin; Togami, Izumi

    1991-01-01

    Portal blood flow measurement is considered to be important for the analysis of hemodynamics in various liver diseases. The Doppler ultrasound method has been used extensively during the past several years for measuring portal blood flow, as a non-invasive method. However, the Doppler ultrasound technique do not allow the portal blood flow to be measured in cases of obesity, with much intestinal gas, and so on. In this study, we attempted to measure the blood flow in the main trunk of portal vein as an application of MR phase contrast technique to the abdominal region. In the flow phantom study, the flow volumes and the velocities measured by phase contrast technique showed a close correlation with those measured by electromagnetic flowmeter. In the clinical study with 10 healthy volunteers, various values of portal blood flow were obtained. Mean portal blood flow could be measured within the measuring time (about 8 minutes) under natural breathing conditions. Phase contrast technique is considered to be useful for the non-invasive measurement of portal blood flow. (author)

  13. Optimization of X-ray phase-contrast imaging based on in-line holography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Xizeng; Liu Hong; Yan Aimin

    2005-01-01

    This paper introduces a newly conceived formalism for clinical in-line phase-contrast X-ray imaging. The new formalism applies not only to ideal 'thin' objects analyzed in previous studies, but also applies to the real-world tissues used in actual clinical practice. Moreover we have identified the four clinically important factors that affect phase-contrast characteristics. These factors are: (1) body part attenuation (2) the spatial coherence of incident X-rays from an X-ray tube (3) the polychromatic nature of the X-ray source and (4) radiation dose to patients for clinical applications. Techniques of phase image-reconstruction based on the new X-ray in-line holography theory are discussed. Numerical simulations are described which were used to validate the theory. The design parameters of an optimal clinical phase-contrast mammographic imaging system which were determined based on the new theory, and validated in the simulations, are presented. The theory, image reconstruction algorithms, and numerical simulation techniques presented in this paper can be applied widely to clinical diagnostic X-ray imaging applications

  14. Quantitative tracking of tumor cells in phase-contrast microscopy exploiting halo artifact pattern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Mi-Sun; Song, Soo-Min; Lee, Hana; Kim, Myoung-Hee

    2012-03-01

    Tumor cell morphology is closely related to its invasiveness characteristics and migratory behaviors. An invasive tumor cell has a highly irregular shape, whereas a spherical cell is non-metastatic. Thus, quantitative analysis of cell features is crucial to determine tumor malignancy or to test the efficacy of anticancer treatment. We use phase-contrast microscopy to analyze single cell morphology and to monitor its change because it enables observation of long-term activity of living cells without photobleaching and phototoxicity, which is common in other fluorescence-labeled microscopy. Despite this advantage, there are image-level drawbacks to phase-contrast microscopy, such as local light effect and contrast interference ring, among others. Thus, we first applied a local filter to compensate for non-uniform illumination. Then, we used intensity distribution information to detect the cell boundary. In phase-contrast microscopy images, the cell normally appears as a dark region surrounded by a bright halo. As the halo artifact around the cell body is minimal and has an asymmetric diffusion pattern, we calculated the cross-sectional plane that intersected the center of each cell and was orthogonal to the first principal axis. Then, we extracted the dark cell region by level set. However, a dense population of cultured cells still rendered single-cell analysis difficult. Finally, we measured roundness and size to classify tumor cells into malignant and benign groups. We validated segmentation accuracy by comparing our findings with manually obtained results.

  15. Enhanced renal image contrast by ethanol fixation in phase-contrast X-ray computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirai, Ryota; Kunii, Takuya; Yoneyama, Akio; Ooizumi, Takahito; Maruyama, Hiroko; Lwin, Thet Thet; Hyodo, Kazuyuki; Takeda, Tohoru

    2014-07-01

    Phase-contrast X-ray imaging using a crystal X-ray interferometer can depict the fine structures of biological objects without the use of a contrast agent. To obtain higher image contrast, fixation techniques have been examined with 100% ethanol and the commonly used 10% formalin, since ethanol causes increased density differences against background due to its physical properties and greater dehydration of soft tissue. Histological comparison was also performed. A phase-contrast X-ray system was used, fitted with a two-crystal X-ray interferometer at 35 keV X-ray energy. Fine structures, including cortex, tubules in the medulla, and the vessels of ethanol-fixed kidney could be visualized more clearly than that of formalin-fixed tissues. In the optical microscopic images, shrinkage of soft tissue and decreased luminal space were observed in ethanol-fixed kidney; and this change was significantly shown in the cortex and outer stripe of the outer medulla. The ethanol fixation technique enhances image contrast by approximately 2.7-3.2 times in the cortex and the outer stripe of the outer medulla; the effect of shrinkage and the physical effect of ethanol cause an increment of approximately 78% and 22%, respectively. Thus, the ethanol-fixation technique enables the image contrast to be enhanced in phase-contrast X-ray imaging.

  16. Advantages of intermediate X-ray energies in Zernike phase contrast X-ray microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhili; Gao, Kun; Chen, Jian; Hong, Youli; Ge, Xin; Wang, Dajiang; Pan, Zhiyun; Zhu, Peiping; Yun, Wenbing; Jacobsen, Chris; Wu, Ziyu

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the hierarchical organizations of molecules and organelles within the interior of large eukaryotic cells is a challenge of fundamental interest in cell biology. Light microscopy is a powerful tool for observations of the dynamics of live cells, its resolution attainable is limited and insufficient. While electron microscopy can produce images with astonishing resolution and clarity of ultra-thin (3D images of cryo-preserved cells. The relatively low X-ray energy (3D imaging (e.g., ~1 μm DoF for 20 nm resolution). An X-ray microscope operating at intermediate energy around 2.5 keV using Zernike phase contrast can overcome the above limitations and reduces radiation dose to the specimen. Using a hydrated model cell with an average chemical composition reported in literature, we calculated the image contrast and the radiation dose for absorption and Zernike phase contrast, respectively. The results show that an X-ray microscope operating at ~2.5 keV using Zernike phase contrast offers substantial advantages in terms of specimen size, radiation dose and depth-of-focus. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. High-energy x-ray grating-based phase-contrast radiography of human anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Florian; Hauke, Christian; Lachner, Sebastian; Ludwig, Veronika; Pelzer, Georg; Rieger, Jens; Schuster, Max; Seifert, Maria; Wandner, Johannes; Wolf, Andreas; Michel, Thilo; Anton, Gisela

    2016-03-01

    X-ray grating-based phase-contrast Talbot-Lau interferometry is a promising imaging technology that has the potential to raise soft tissue contrast in comparison to conventional attenuation-based imaging. Additionally, it is sensitive to attenuation, refraction and scattering of the radiation and thus provides complementary and otherwise inaccessible information due to the dark-field image, which shows the sub-pixel size granularity of the measured object. Until recent progress the method has been mainly limited to photon energies below 40 keV. Scaling the method to photon energies that are sufficient to pass large and spacious objects represents a challenging task. This is caused by increasing demands regarding the fabrication process of the gratings and the broad spectra that come along with the use of polychromatic X-ray sources operated at high acceleration voltages. We designed a setup that is capable to reach high visibilities in the range from 50 to 120 kV. Therefore, spacious and dense parts of the human body with high attenuation can be measured, such as a human knee. The authors will show investigations on the resulting attenuation, differential phase-contrast and dark-field images. The images experimentally show that X-ray grating-based phase-contrast radiography is feasible with highly absorbing parts of the human body containing massive bones.

  18. A reconstruction method for cone-beam differential x-ray phase-contrast computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Jian; Velroyen, Astrid; Tan, Renbo; Zhang, Junwei; Chen, Liyuan; Tapfer, Arne; Bech, Martin; Pfeiffer, Franz

    2012-09-10

    Most existing differential phase-contrast computed tomography (DPC-CT) approaches are based on three kinds of scanning geometries, described by parallel-beam, fan-beam and cone-beam. Due to the potential of compact imaging systems with magnified spatial resolution, cone-beam DPC-CT has attracted significant interest. In this paper, we report a reconstruction method based on a back-projection filtration (BPF) algorithm for cone-beam DPC-CT. Due to the differential nature of phase contrast projections, the algorithm restrains from differentiation of the projection data prior to back-projection, unlike BPF algorithms commonly used for absorption-based CT data. This work comprises a numerical study of the algorithm and its experimental verification using a dataset measured with a three-grating interferometer and a micro-focus x-ray tube source. Moreover, the numerical simulation and experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method can deal with several classes of truncated cone-beam datasets. We believe that this feature is of particular interest for future medical cone-beam phase-contrast CT imaging applications.

  19. Limiting effects in double EEX beamline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, G.; Power, J. G.; Conde, M.; Doran, D. S.; Gai, W.

    2017-07-01

    The double emittance exchange (EEX) beamline is suggested to overcome the large horizontal emittance and transverse jitter issues associated with the single EEX beamline while preserving its powerful phase-space manipulation capability. However, the double EEX beamline also has potential limitations due to coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) and transverse jitter. The former limitation arises because double EEX uses twice as many bending magnets as single EEX which means stronger CSR effects degrading the beam quality. The latter limitation arises because a longitudinal jitter in front of the first EEX beamline is converted into a transverse jitter in the middle section (between the EEX beamlines) which can cause beam loss or beam degradation. In this paper, we numerically explore the effects of these two limitations on the emittance and beam transport.

  20. Limiting effects in double EEX beamline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha, G; Power, J G; Conde, M; Doran, D S; Gai, W

    2017-01-01

    The double emittance exchange (EEX) beamline is suggested to overcome the large horizontal emittance and transverse jitter issues associated with the single EEX beamline while preserving its powerful phase-space manipulation capability. However, the double EEX beamline also has potential limitations due to coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) and transverse jitter. The former limitation arises because double EEX uses twice as many bending magnets as single EEX which means stronger CSR effects degrading the beam quality. The latter limitation arises because a longitudinal jitter in front of the first EEX beamline is converted into a transverse jitter in the middle section (between the EEX beamlines) which can cause beam loss or beam degradation. In this paper, we numerically explore the effects of these two limitations on the emittance and beam transport. (paper)

  1. Identification of infusion strategy for achieving repeatable nanoparticle distribution and quantification of thermal dosage using micro-CT Hounsfield unit in magnetic nanoparticle hyperthermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBrun, Alexander; Joglekar, Tejashree; Bieberich, Charles; Ma, Ronghui; Zhu, Liang

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify an injection strategy leading to repeatable nanoparticle deposition patterns in tumours and to quantify volumetric heat generation rate distribution based on micro-CT Hounsfield unit (HU) in magnetic nanoparticle hyperthermia. In vivo animal experiments were performed on graft prostatic cancer (PC3) tumours in immunodeficient mice to investigate whether lowering ferrofluid infusion rate improves control of the distribution of magnetic nanoparticles in tumour tissue. Nanoparticle distribution volume obtained from micro-CT scan was used to evaluate spreading of the nanoparticles from the injection site in tumours. Heating experiments were performed to quantify relationships among micro-CT HU values, local nanoparticle concentrations in the tumours, and the ferrofluid-induced volumetric heat generation rate (q(MNH)) when nanoparticles were subject to an alternating magnetic field. An infusion rate of 3 µL/min was identified to result in the most repeatable nanoparticle distribution in PC3 tumours. Linear relationships have been obtained to first convert micro-CT greyscale values to HU values, then to local nanoparticle concentrations, and finally to nanoparticle-induced q(MNH) values. The total energy deposition rate in tumours was calculated and the observed similarity in total energy deposition rates in all three infusion rate groups suggests improvement in minimising nanoparticle leakage from the tumours. The results of this study demonstrate that micro-CT generated q(MNH) distribution and tumour physical models improve predicting capability of heat transfer simulation for designing reliable treatment protocols using magnetic nanoparticle hyperthermia.

  2. Detection of the anatomic structure and pathology in animal lung specimens: comparison of micro CT and multi-detector row CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Kun Young [National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hyun Ju; Lee, Chang Hyun; Son, Kyu Ri; Goo, Jin Mo; Im, Jung Gi [Seoul National University Hospital and the Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Joon Beom [Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-05-15

    We wanted to compare the capability of micro CT and the clinically available thin-slice multi-detector row CT (MDCT) for demonstrating fine anatomic structures and pathological lesions in formalin-fixed lung specimens. The porcine lung with shark liver oil-induced lipoid pneumonia and the canine lung with pulmonary paragonimiasis were fixed by ventilating them with formalin vapor, and they were then sliced into one-centimeter thick sections. Micro CT (section thickness, 18 micrometer) and MDCT (section thickness, 0.75 mm) images were acquired in four of the lung slices of the lipoid pneumonia specimen and in five of the lung slices of the paragonimiasis specimen. On 62 pairs of micro CT and MDCT images, 169 pairs of rectangular ROIs were manually drawn in the corresponding locations. Two chest radiologists recorded the detectability of three kinds of anatomic structures (lobular core structure, interlobular septum and small bronchiolar lumen) and two kinds of pathological lesions (ground-glass opacity and consolidation) with using a five-point scale. The statistical comparison was performed by using the Wilcoxon signed rank test. Interobserver agreement was evaluated with kappa statistics. For all observers, all the kinds of anatomic structures and pathological lesions were detected better on the micro CT images than on the MDCT images ({rho} < 0.01). Agreement was fair between two observers ({kappa} = 0.38, {rho} < 0.001). The fine anatomic structures and pathological lesions of the lung were more accurately demonstrated on micro CT than on thin-slice MDCT in the inflated and fixed lung specimens.

  3. Detection of the anatomic structure and pathology in animal lung specimens: comparison of micro CT and multi-detector row CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Kun Young; Lee, Hyun Ju; Lee, Chang Hyun; Son, Kyu Ri; Goo, Jin Mo; Im, Jung Gi; Seo, Joon Beom

    2006-01-01

    We wanted to compare the capability of micro CT and the clinically available thin-slice multi-detector row CT (MDCT) for demonstrating fine anatomic structures and pathological lesions in formalin-fixed lung specimens. The porcine lung with shark liver oil-induced lipoid pneumonia and the canine lung with pulmonary paragonimiasis were fixed by ventilating them with formalin vapor, and they were then sliced into one-centimeter thick sections. Micro CT (section thickness, 18 micrometer) and MDCT (section thickness, 0.75 mm) images were acquired in four of the lung slices of the lipoid pneumonia specimen and in five of the lung slices of the paragonimiasis specimen. On 62 pairs of micro CT and MDCT images, 169 pairs of rectangular ROIs were manually drawn in the corresponding locations. Two chest radiologists recorded the detectability of three kinds of anatomic structures (lobular core structure, interlobular septum and small bronchiolar lumen) and two kinds of pathological lesions (ground-glass opacity and consolidation) with using a five-point scale. The statistical comparison was performed by using the Wilcoxon signed rank test. Interobserver agreement was evaluated with kappa statistics. For all observers, all the kinds of anatomic structures and pathological lesions were detected better on the micro CT images than on the MDCT images (ρ < 0.01). Agreement was fair between two observers (κ = 0.38, ρ < 0.001). The fine anatomic structures and pathological lesions of the lung were more accurately demonstrated on micro CT than on thin-slice MDCT in the inflated and fixed lung specimens

  4. Grating-based phase contrast tomosynthesis imaging: Proof-of-concept experimental studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Ke; Ge, Yongshuai; Garrett, John; Bevins, Nicholas; Zambelli, Joseph; Chen, Guang-Hong

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This paper concerns the feasibility of x-ray differential phase contrast (DPC) tomosynthesis imaging using a grating-based DPC benchtop experimental system, which is equipped with a commercial digital flat-panel detector and a medical-grade rotating-anode x-ray tube. An extensive system characterization was performed to quantify its imaging performance. Methods: The major components of the benchtop system include a diagnostic x-ray tube with a 1.0 mm nominal focal spot size, a flat-panel detector with 96 μm pixel pitch, a sample stage that rotates within a limited angular span of ±30°, and a Talbot-Lau interferometer with three x-ray gratings. A total of 21 projection views acquired with 3° increments were used to reconstruct three sets of tomosynthetic image volumes, including the conventional absorption contrast tomosynthesis image volume (AC-tomo) reconstructed using the filtered-backprojection (FBP) algorithm with the ramp kernel, the phase contrast tomosynthesis image volume (PC-tomo) reconstructed using FBP with a Hilbert kernel, and the differential phase contrast tomosynthesis image volume (DPC-tomo) reconstructed using the shift-and-add algorithm. Three inhouse physical phantoms containing tissue-surrogate materials were used to characterize the signal linearity, the signal difference-to-noise ratio (SDNR), the three-dimensional noise power spectrum (3D NPS), and the through-plane artifact spread function (ASF). Results: While DPC-tomo highlights edges and interfaces in the image object, PC-tomo removes the differential nature of the DPC projection data and its pixel values are linearly related to the decrement of the real part of the x-ray refractive index. The SDNR values of polyoxymethylene in water and polystyrene in oil are 1.5 and 1.0, respectively, in AC-tomo, and the values were improved to 3.0 and 2.0, respectively, in PC-tomo. PC-tomo and AC-tomo demonstrate equivalent ASF, but their noise characteristics quantified by the 3D NPS

  5. Grating-based phase contrast tomosynthesis imaging: Proof-of-concept experimental studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ke; Ge, Yongshuai; Garrett, John; Bevins, Nicholas; Zambelli, Joseph; Chen, Guang-Hong

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This paper concerns the feasibility of x-ray differential phase contrast (DPC) tomosynthesis imaging using a grating-based DPC benchtop experimental system, which is equipped with a commercial digital flat-panel detector and a medical-grade rotating-anode x-ray tube. An extensive system characterization was performed to quantify its imaging performance. Methods: The major components of the benchtop system include a diagnostic x-ray tube with a 1.0 mm nominal focal spot size, a flat-panel detector with 96 μm pixel pitch, a sample stage that rotates within a limited angular span of ±30°, and a Talbot-Lau interferometer with three x-ray gratings. A total of 21 projection views acquired with 3° increments were used to reconstruct three sets of tomosynthetic image volumes, including the conventional absorption contrast tomosynthesis image volume (AC-tomo) reconstructed using the filtered-backprojection (FBP) algorithm with the ramp kernel, the phase contrast tomosynthesis image volume (PC-tomo) reconstructed using FBP with a Hilbert kernel, and the differential phase contrast tomosynthesis image volume (DPC-tomo) reconstructed using the shift-and-add algorithm. Three inhouse physical phantoms containing tissue-surrogate materials were used to characterize the signal linearity, the signal difference-to-noise ratio (SDNR), the three-dimensional noise power spectrum (3D NPS), and the through-plane artifact spread function (ASF). Results: While DPC-tomo highlights edges and interfaces in the image object, PC-tomo removes the differential nature of the DPC projection data and its pixel values are linearly related to the decrement of the real part of the x-ray refractive index. The SDNR values of polyoxymethylene in water and polystyrene in oil are 1.5 and 1.0, respectively, in AC-tomo, and the values were improved to 3.0 and 2.0, respectively, in PC-tomo. PC-tomo and AC-tomo demonstrate equivalent ASF, but their noise characteristics quantified by the 3D NPS

  6. Variation in supratentorial cerebrospinal fluid production rate in one day. Measurement by nontriggered phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Hiroto; Tanaka, Hisashi; Fujita, Norihiko; Murase, Kenya; Tomiyama, Noriyuki

    2011-01-01

    Measuring the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) production rate is important for understanding the physiology related to normal conditions and neurological disorders. Triggered phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been used to measure CSF production rate, but the use of nontriggered phase-contrast MRI has not been reported. The purposes of this study were to assess the feasibility of using nontriggered phase-contrast MRI to measure CSF flow and to determine whether CSF production exhibits circadian rhythm. The feasibility of phase-contrast MRI was assessed with a phantom simulated human cerebral aqueduct. CSF flow through the cerebral aqueduct was measured with nontriggered phase-contrast MRI four times during 1 day in 10 normal volunteers. In the phantom study, linear regression analysis gave the following measured values (ml/h): 0.80 x (value of steady flow)-10.0 for triggered phase-contrast MRI and 1.27 x (value of steady flow)-12.2 for nontriggered phase-contrast MRI. One-factor analysis of variance showed no significant effect of the time of the measurements (P=0.47). The supratentorial CSF production rate was 510±549 ml/day (mean ± SD). Nontriggered phase-contrast MRI provided good estimates of the flow rate in the phantom study. We observed no circadian rhythm in CSF production. (author)

  7. Simulation of beamline alignment operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Annese, C; Miller, M G.

    1999-01-01

    The CORBA-based Simulator was a Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project that applied simulation techniques to explore critical questions about distributed control systems. The simulator project used a three-prong approach that studied object-oriented distribution tools, computer network modeling, and simulation of key control system scenarios. The National Ignition Facility's (NIF) optical alignment system was modeled to study control system operations. The alignment of NIF's 192 beamlines is a large complex operation involving more than 100 computer systems and 8000 mechanized devices. The alignment process is defined by a detailed set of procedures; however, many of the steps are deterministic. The alignment steps for a poorly aligned component are similar to that of a nearly aligned component; however, additional operations/iterations are required to complete the process. Thus, the same alignment operations will require variable amounts of time to perform depending on the current alignment condition as well as other factors. Simulation of the alignment process is necessary to understand beamline alignment time requirements and how shared resources such as the Output Sensor and Target Alignment Sensor effect alignment efficiency. The simulation has provided alignment time estimates and other results based on documented alignment procedures and alignment experience gained in the laboratory. Computer communication time, mechanical hardware actuation times, image processing algorithm execution times, etc. have been experimentally determined and incorporated into the model. Previous analysis of alignment operations utilized average implementation times for all alignment operations. Resource sharing becomes rather simple to model when only average values are used. The time required to actually implement the many individual alignment operations will be quite dynamic. The simulation model estimates the time to complete an operation using

  8. Crystal analyser-based X-ray phase contrast imaging in the dark field: implementation and evaluation using excised tissue specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ando, Masami; Sunaguchi, Naoki; Wu, Yanlin; Do, Synho; Sung, Yongjin; Gupta, Rajiv; Louissaint, Abner; Yuasa, Tetsuya; Ichihara, Shu

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate the soft tissue discrimination capability of X-ray dark-field imaging (XDFI) using a variety of human tissue specimens. The experimental setup for XDFI comprises an X-ray source, an asymmetrically cut Bragg-type monochromator-collimator (MC), a Laue-case angle analyser (LAA) and a CCD camera. The specimen is placed between the MC and the LAA. For the light source, we used the beamline BL14C on a 2.5-GeV storage ring in the KEK Photon Factory, Tsukuba, Japan. In the eye specimen, phase contrast images from XDFI were able to discriminate soft-tissue structures, such as the iris, separated by aqueous humour on both sides, which have nearly equal absorption. Superiority of XDFI in imaging soft tissue was further demonstrated with a diseased iliac artery containing atherosclerotic plaque and breast samples with benign and malignant tumours. XDFI on breast tumours discriminated between the normal and diseased terminal duct lobular unit and between invasive and in-situ cancer. X-ray phase, as detected by XDFI, has superior contrast over absorption for soft tissue processes such as atherosclerotic plaque and breast cancer. (orig.)

  9. Crystal analyser-based X-ray phase contrast imaging in the dark field: implementation and evaluation using excised tissue specimens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ando, Masami [RIST, Tokyo University of Science, Noda, Chiba (Japan); Sunaguchi, Naoki [Gunma University, Graduate School of Engineering, Kiryu, Gunma (Japan); Wu, Yanlin [The Graduate University for Advanced Studies, Department of Materials Structure Science, School of High Energy Accelerator Science, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Do, Synho; Sung, Yongjin; Gupta, Rajiv [Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Louissaint, Abner [Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Department of Pathology, Boston, MA (United States); Yuasa, Tetsuya [Yamagata University, Faculty of Engineering, Yonezawa, Yamagata (Japan); Ichihara, Shu [Nagoya Medical Center, Department of Pathology, Nagoya, Aichi (Japan)

    2014-02-15

    We demonstrate the soft tissue discrimination capability of X-ray dark-field imaging (XDFI) using a variety of human tissue specimens. The experimental setup for XDFI comprises an X-ray source, an asymmetrically cut Bragg-type monochromator-collimator (MC), a Laue-case angle analyser (LAA) and a CCD camera. The specimen is placed between the MC and the LAA. For the light source, we used the beamline BL14C on a 2.5-GeV storage ring in the KEK Photon Factory, Tsukuba, Japan. In the eye specimen, phase contrast images from XDFI were able to discriminate soft-tissue structures, such as the iris, separated by aqueous humour on both sides, which have nearly equal absorption. Superiority of XDFI in imaging soft tissue was further demonstrated with a diseased iliac artery containing atherosclerotic plaque and breast samples with benign and malignant tumours. XDFI on breast tumours discriminated between the normal and diseased terminal duct lobular unit and between invasive and in-situ cancer. X-ray phase, as detected by XDFI, has superior contrast over absorption for soft tissue processes such as atherosclerotic plaque and breast cancer. (orig.)

  10. Petrographic characterization to build an accurate rock model using micro-CT: Case study on low-permeable to tight turbidite sandstone from Eocene Shahejie Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munawar, Muhammad Jawad; Lin, Chengyan; Cnudde, Veerle; Bultreys, Tom; Dong, Chunmei; Zhang, Xianguo; De Boever, Wesley; Zahid, Muhammad Aleem; Wu, Yuqi

    2018-03-26

    Pore scale flow simulations heavily depend on petrographic characterizing and modeling of reservoir rocks. Mineral phase segmentation and pore network modeling are crucial stages in micro-CT based rock modeling. The success of the pore network model (PNM) to predict petrophysical properties relies on image segmentation, image resolution and most importantly nature of rock (homogenous, complex or microporous). The pore network modeling has experienced extensive research and development during last decade, however the application of these models to a variety of naturally heterogenous reservoir rock is still a challenge. In this paper, four samples from a low permeable to tight sandstone reservoir were used to characterize their petrographic and petrophysical properties using high-resolution micro-CT imaging. The phase segmentation analysis from micro-CT images shows that 5-6% microporous regions are present in kaolinite rich sandstone (E3 and E4), while 1.7-1.8% are present in illite rich sandstone (E1 and E2). The pore system percolates without micropores in E1 and E2 while it does not percolate without micropores in E3 and E4. In E1 and E2, total MICP porosity is equal to the volume percent of macrospores determined from micro-CT images, which indicate that the macropores are well connected and microspores do not play any role in non-wetting fluid (mercury) displacement process. Whereas in E3 and E4 sandstones, the volume percent of micropores is far less (almost 50%) than the total MICP porosity which means that almost half of the pore space was not detected by the micro-CT scan. PNM behaved well in E1 and E2 where better agreement exists in PNM and MICP measurements. While E3 and E4 exhibit multiscale pore space which cannot be addressed with single scale PNM method, a multiscale approach is needed to characterize such complex rocks. This study provides helpful insights towards the application of existing micro-CT based petrographic characterization methodology

  11. The effect of spatial micro-CT image resolution and surface complexity on the morphological 3D analysis of open porous structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pyka, Grzegorz, E-mail: gregory.pyka@mtm.kuleuven.be [Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, KU Leuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 44 – PB2450, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Kerckhofs, Greet [Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, KU Leuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 44 – PB2450, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Biomechanics Research Unit, Université de Liege, Chemin des Chevreuils 1 - BAT 52/3, B-4000 Liège (Belgium); Schrooten, Jan; Wevers, Martine [Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, KU Leuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 44 – PB2450, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium)

    2014-01-15

    In material science microfocus X-ray computed tomography (micro-CT) is one of the most popular non-destructive techniques to visualise and quantify the internal structure of materials in 3D. Despite constant system improvements, state-of-the-art micro-CT images can still hold several artefacts typical for X-ray CT imaging that hinder further image-based processing, structural and quantitative analysis. For example spatial resolution is crucial for an appropriate characterisation as the voxel size essentially influences the partial volume effect. However, defining the adequate image resolution is not a trivial aspect and understanding the correlation between scan parameters like voxel size and the structural properties is crucial for comprehensive material characterisation using micro-CT. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of the spatial image resolution on the micro-CT based morphological analysis of three-dimensional (3D) open porous structures with a high surface complexity. In particular the correlation between the local surface properties and the accuracy of the micro-CT-based macro-morphology of 3D open porous Ti6Al4V structures produced by selective laser melting (SLM) was targeted and revealed for rough surfaces a strong dependence of the resulting structure characteristics on the scan resolution. Reducing the surface complexity by chemical etching decreased the sensitivity of the overall morphological analysis to the spatial image resolution and increased the detection limit. This study showed that scan settings and image processing parameters need to be customized to the material properties, morphological parameters under investigation and the desired final characteristics (in relation to the intended functional use). Customization of the scan resolution can increase the reliability of the micro-CT based analysis and at the same time reduce its operating costs. - Highlights: • We examine influence of the image resolution

  12. Design of a compact high-energy setup for x-ray phase-contrast imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüttler, Markus; Yaroshenko, Andre; Bech, Martin; Potdevin, Guillaume; Malecki, Andreas; Chabior, Michael; Wolf, Johannes; Tapfer, Arne; Meiser, Jan; Kunka, Danays; Amberger, Maximilian; Mohr, Jürgen; Pfeiffer, Franz

    2014-03-01

    The main shortcoming of conventional biomedical x-ray imaging is the weak soft-tissue contrast caused by the small differences in the absorption coefficients between different materials. This issue can be addressed by x-ray phasesensitive imaging approaches, e.g. x-ray Talbot-Lau grating interferometry. The advantage of the three-grating Talbot-Lau approach is that it allows to acquire x-ray phase-contrast and dark-field images with a conventional lab source. However, through the introduction of the grating interferometer some constraints are imposed on the setup geometry. In general, the grating pitch and the mean x-ray energy determine the setup dimensions. The minimal length of the setup increases linearly with energy and is proportional to p2, where p is the grating pitch. Thus, a high-energy (100 keV) compact grating-based setup for x-ray imaging can be realized only if gratings with aspect-ratio of approximately 300 and a pitch of 1-2 μm were available. However, production challenges limit the availability of such gratings. In this study we consider the use of non-binary phase-gratings as means of designing a more compact grating interferometer for phase-contrast imaging. We present simulation and experimental data for both monochromatic and polychromatic case. The results reveal that phase-gratings with triangular-shaped structures yield visibilities that can be used for imaging purposes at significantly shorter distances than binary gratings. This opens the possibility to design a high-energy compact setup for x-ray phase-contrast imaging. Furthermore, we discuss different techniques to achieve triangular-shaped phase-shifting structures.

  13. Slit-scanning differential phase-contrast mammography: first experimental results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roessl, Ewald; Daerr, Heiner; Koehler, Thomas; Martens, Gerhard; van Stevendaal, Udo

    2014-03-01

    The demands for a large field-of-view (FOV) and the stringent requirements for a stable acquisition geometry rank among the major obstacles for the translation of grating-based, differential phase-contrast techniques from the laboratory to clinical applications. While for state-of-the-art Full-Field-Digital Mammography (FFDM) FOVs of 24 cm x 30 cm are common practice, the specifications for mechanical stability are naturally derived from the detector pixel size which ranges between 50 and 100 μm. However, in grating-based, phasecontrast imaging, the relative placement of the gratings in the interferometer must be guaranteed to within micro-meter precision. In this work we report on first experimental results on a phase-contrast x-ray imaging system based on the Philips MicroDose L30 mammography unit. With the proposed approach we achieve a FOV of about 65 mm x 175 mm by the use of the slit-scanning technique. The demand for mechanical stability on a micrometer scale was relaxed by the specific interferometer design, i.e., a rigid, actuator-free mount of the phase-grating G1 with respect to the analyzer-grating G2 onto a common steel frame. The image acquisition and formation processes are described and first phase-contrast images of a test object are presented. A brief discussion of the shortcomings of the current approach is given, including the level of remaining image artifacts and the relatively inefficient usage of the total available x-ray source output.

  14. Contrast-to-noise ratio optimization for a prototype phase-contrast computed tomography scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Müller, Mark; Yaroshenko, Andre; Velroyen, Astrid; Tapfer, Arne; Bech, Martin; Pauwels, Bart; Bruyndonckx, Peter; Sasov, Alexander; Pfeiffer, Franz

    2015-01-01

    In the field of biomedical X-ray imaging, novel techniques, such as phase-contrast and dark-field imaging, have the potential to enhance the contrast and provide complementary structural information about a specimen. In this paper, a first prototype of a preclinical X-ray phase-contrast CT scanner based on a Talbot-Lau interferometer is characterized. We present a study of the contrast-to-noise ratios for attenuation and phase-contrast images acquired with the prototype scanner. The shown results are based on a series of projection images and tomographic data sets of a plastic phantom in phase and attenuation-contrast recorded with varying acquisition settings. Subsequently, the signal and noise distribution of different regions in the phantom were determined. We present a novel method for estimation of contrast-to-noise ratios for projection images based on the cylindrical geometry of the phantom. Analytical functions, representing the expected signal in phase and attenuation-contrast for a circular object, are fitted to individual line profiles of the projection data. The free parameter of the fit function is used to estimate the contrast and the goodness of the fit is determined to assess the noise in the respective signal. The results depict the dependence of the contrast-to-noise ratios on the applied source voltages, the number of steps of the phase stepping routine, and the exposure times for an individual step. Moreover, the influence of the number of projection angles on the image quality of CT slices is investigated. Finally, the implications for future imaging purposes with the scanner are discussed

  15. Using machine-learning to optimize phase contrast in a low-cost cellphone microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wartmann, Rolf; Schadwinkel, Harald; Heintzmann, Rainer

    2018-01-01

    Cellphones equipped with high-quality cameras and powerful CPUs as well as GPUs are widespread. This opens new prospects to use such existing computational and imaging resources to perform medical diagnosis in developing countries at a very low cost. Many relevant samples, like biological cells or waterborn parasites, are almost fully transparent. As they do not exhibit absorption, but alter the light’s phase only, they are almost invisible in brightfield microscopy. Expensive equipment and procedures for microscopic contrasting or sample staining often are not available. Dedicated illumination approaches, tailored to the sample under investigation help to boost the contrast. This is achieved by a programmable illumination source, which also allows to measure the phase gradient using the differential phase contrast (DPC) [1, 2] or even the quantitative phase using the derived qDPC approach [3]. By applying machine-learning techniques, such as a convolutional neural network (CNN), it is possible to learn a relationship between samples to be examined and its optimal light source shapes, in order to increase e.g. phase contrast, from a given dataset to enable real-time applications. For the experimental setup, we developed a 3D-printed smartphone microscope for less than 100 $ using off-the-shelf components only such as a low-cost video projector. The fully automated system assures true Koehler illumination with an LCD as the condenser aperture and a reversed smartphone lens as the microscope objective. We show that the effect of a varied light source shape, using the pre-trained CNN, does not only improve the phase contrast, but also the impression of an improvement in optical resolution without adding any special optics, as demonstrated by measurements. PMID:29494620

  16. Quantitative measurement of normal and hydrocephalic cerebrospinal fluid flow using phase contrast cine MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katayama, Shinji; Asari, Shoji; Ohmoto, Takashi

    1993-01-01

    Measurements of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow using phase contrast cine magnetic resonance (MR) imaging were performed on a phantom, 12 normal subjects and 20 patients with normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH). The phantom study demonstrated the applicability of phase contrast in quantitative measurement of the slow flow. The CSF flows of the normal subjects showed a consistent pattern with a to-and-fro movement of the flow in the anterior subarachnoid space at the C2/3 level, and they were dependent on the cardiac cycle in all subjects. However, the patients with NPH showed variable patterns of the CSF pulsatile flow and these patterns could be divided into four types according to velocity and amplitude. The amplitudes of each type were as follows: type 0 (n=1), 87.6 mm; type I (n=2), 58.2 mm (mean); type II (n=6), 48.0±5.0 mm (mean±SEM); and type III (n=11), 19.9±1.8 mm (mean±SEM). The decrease of the amplitudes correlated to a worsening of the clinical symptoms. After the shunting operation, the amplitude of to-and-fro movement of the CSF increased again in the patients with NPH who improved clinically. Some of the type III cases were reclassified type II, I and 0 and also one of the type II cases changed type I after the shunting operation. We conclude that the phase contrast cine MR imaging is a practically and clinically applicable technique for the quantitative measurement of the CSF flow. (author)

  17. Low-dose cardio-respiratory phase-correlated cone-beam micro-CT of small animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawall, Stefan; Bergner, Frank; Lapp, Robert; Mronz, Markus; Karolczak, Marek; Hess, Andreas; Kachelriess, Marc

    2011-03-01

    Micro-CT imaging of animal hearts typically requires a double gating procedure because scans during a breath-hold are not possible due to the long scan times and the high respiratory rates, Simultaneous respiratory and cardiac gating can either be done prospectively or retrospectively. True five-dimensional information can be either retrieved with retrospective gating or with prospective gating if several prospective gates are acquired. In any case, the amount of information available to reconstruct one volume for a given respiratory and cardiac phase is orders of magnitud lower than the total amount of information acquired. For example, the reconstruction of a volume from a 10% wide respiratory and a 20% wide cardiac window uses only 2% of the data acquired. Achieving a similar image quality as a nongated scan would therefore require to increase the amount of data and thereby the dose to the animal by up to a factor of 50. To achieve the goal of low-dose phase-correlated (LDPC) imaging, the authors propose to use a highly efficient combination of slightly modified existing algorithms. In particular, the authors developed a variant of the McKinnon-Bates image reconstruction algorithm and combined it with bilateral filtering in up to five dimensions to significantly reduce image noise without impairing spatial or temporal resolution. The preliminary results indicate that the proposed LDPC reconstruction method typically reduces image noise by a factor of up to 6 (e.g., from 170 to 30 HU), while the dose values lie in a range from 60 to 500 mGy. Compared to other publications that apply 250-1800 mGy for the same task [C. T. Badea et al., "4D micro-CT of the mouse heart," Mol. Imaging 4(2), 110-116 (2005); M. Drangova et al., "Fast retrospectively gated quantitative four-dimensional (4D) cardiac micro computed tomography imaging of free-breathing mice," Invest. Radiol. 42(2), 85-94 (2007); S. H. Bartling et al., "Retrospective motion gating in small animal CT of mice

  18. 3D osteocyte lacunar morphometric properties and distributions in human femoral cortical bone using synchrotron radiation micro-CT images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Pei; Haupert, Sylvain; Hesse, Bernhard; Langer, Max; Gouttenoire, Pierre-Jean; Bousson, Valérie; Peyrin, Françoise

    2014-03-01

    Osteocytes, the most numerous bone cells, are thought to be actively involved in the bone modeling and remodeling processes. The morphology of osteocyte is hypothesized to adapt according to the physiological mechanical loading. Three-dimensional micro-CT has recently been used to study osteocyte lacunae. In this work, we proposed a computationally efficient and validated automated image analysis method to quantify the 3D shape descriptors of osteocyte lacunae and their distribution in human femurs. Thirteen samples were imaged using Synchrotron Radiation (SR) micro-CT at ID19 of the ESRF with 1.4μm isotropic voxel resolution. With a field of view of about 2.9×2.9×1.4mm(3), the 3D images include several tens of thousands of osteocyte lacunae. We designed an automated quantification method to segment and extract 3D cell descriptors from osteocyte lacunae. An image moment-based approach was used to calculate the volume, length, width, height and anisotropy of each osteocyte lacuna. We employed a fast algorithm to further efficiently calculate the surface area, the Euler number and the structure model index (SMI) of each lacuna. We also introduced the 3D lacunar density map to directly visualize the lacunar density variation over a large field of view. We reported the lacunar morphometric properties and distributions as well as cortical bone histomorphometric indices on the 13 bone samples. The mean volume and surface were found to be 409.5±149.7μm(3) and 336.2±94.5μm(2). The average dimensions were of 18.9±4.9μm in length, 9.2±2.1μm in width and 4.8±1.1μm in depth. We found lacunar number density and six osteocyte lacunar descriptors, three axis lengths, two anisotropy ratios and SMI, that are significantly correlated to bone porosity at a same local region. The proposed method allowed an automatic and efficient direct 3D analysis of a large population of bone cells and is expected to provide reliable biological information for better understanding the

  19. New generation quantitative x-ray microscopy encompassing phase-contrast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkins, S.W.; Mayo, S.C.; Gureyev, T.E.; Miller, P.R.; Pogany, A.; Stevenson, A.W.; Gao, D.; Davis, T.J.; Parry, D.J.; Paganin, D.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: We briefly outline a new approach to X-ray ultramicroscopy using projection imaging in a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Compared to earlier approaches, the new approach offers spatial resolution of ≤0.1 micron and includes novel features such as: i) phase contrast to give additional sample information over a wide energy range, rapid phase/amplitude extraction algorithms to enable new real-time modes of microscopic imaging widespread applications are envisaged to fields such as materials science, biomedical research, and microelectronics device inspection. Some illustrative examples are presented. The quantitative methods described here are also very relevant to X-ray projection microscopy using synchrotron sources

  20. Characterization of a high-energy in-line phase contrast tomosynthesis prototype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Di; Yan, Aimin; Li, Yuhua; Wong, Molly D; Zheng, Bin; Wu, Xizeng; Liu, Hong

    2015-05-01

    In this research, a high-energy in-line phase contrast tomosynthesis prototype was developed and characterized through quantitative investigations and phantom studies. The prototype system consists of an x-ray source, a motorized rotation stage, and a CMOS detector with a pixel pitch of 0.05 mm. The x-ray source was operated at 120 kVp for this study, and the objects were mounted on the rotation stage 76.2 cm (R1) from the source and 114.3 cm (R2) from the detector. The large air gap between the object and detector guarantees sufficient phase-shift effects. The quantitative evaluation of this prototype included modulation transfer function and noise power spectrum measurements conducted under both projection mode and tomosynthesis mode. Phantom studies were performed including three custom designed phantoms with complex structures: a five-layer bubble wrap phantom, a fishbone phantom, and a chicken breast phantom with embedded fibrils and mass structures extracted from an ACR phantom. In-plane images of the phantoms were acquired to investigate their image qualities through observation, intensity profile plots, edge enhancement evaluations, and/or contrast-to-noise ratio calculations. In addition, the robust phase-attenuation duality (PAD)-based phase retrieval method was applied to tomosynthesis for the first time in this research. It was utilized as a preprocessing method to fully exhibit phase contrast on the angular projection before reconstruction. The resolution and noise characteristics of this high-energy in-line phase contrast tomosynthesis prototype were successfully investigated and demonstrated. The phantom studies demonstrated that this imaging prototype can successfully remove the structure overlapping in phantom projections, obtain delineate interfaces, and achieve better contrast-to-noise ratio after applying phase retrieval to the angular projections. This research successfully demonstrated a high-energy in-line phase contrast tomosynthesis

  1. Wide-Field Vibrational Phase Contrast Imaging Based on Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering Holography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lv Yong-Gang; Ji Zi-Heng; Dong Da-Shan; Gong Qi-Huang; Shi Ke-Bin

    2015-01-01

    We propose and implement a wide-field vibrational phase contrast detection to obtain imaging of imaginary components of third-order nonlinear susceptibility in a coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscope with full suppression of the non-resonant background. This technique is based on the unique ability of recovering the phase of the generated CARS signal based on holographic recording. By capturing the phase distributions of the generated CARS field from the sample and from the environment under resonant illumination, we demonstrate the retrieval of imaginary components in the CARS microscope and achieve background free coherent Raman imaging. (paper)

  2. Generalized phase contrast-enhanced diffractive coupling to light-driven microtools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villangca, Mark Jayson; Bañas, Andrew Rafael; Palima, Darwin

    2015-01-01

    capability of the microtools, the applied spatial light modulator has been illuminated with a properly matched input beam cross section based on the generalized phase contrast method. Our results show a significant gain in the output at the tip of each microtool as measured from the fluorescence signal...... of the coupling spots is done in real time following the position of each microtool with the aid of an object tracking routine. This approach allows continuous coupling of light through the microtools which can be useful in a variety of biophotonics applications. To complement the targeted-light delivery...

  3. Microscopy imaging and quantitative phase contrast mapping in turbid microfluidic channels by digital holography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paturzo, Melania; Finizio, Andrea; Memmolo, Pasquale; Puglisi, Roberto; Balduzzi, Donatella; Galli, Andrea; Ferraro, Pietro

    2012-09-07

    We show that sharp imaging and quantitative phase-contrast microcopy is possible in microfluidics in flowing turbid media by digital holography. In fact, in flowing liquids with suspended colloidal particles, clear vision is hindered and cannot be recovered by any other microscopic imaging technique. On the contrary, using digital holography, clear imaging is possible thanks to the Doppler frequency shift experienced by the photons scattered by the flowing colloidal particles, which do not contribute to the interference process, i.e. the recorded hologram. The method is illustrated and imaging results are demonstrated for pure phase objects, i.e. biological cells in microfluidic channels.

  4. Three-dimensional rendering of otolith growth using phase contrast synchrotron tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mapp, J J I; Fisher, M H; Atwood, R C; Bell, G D; Greco, M K; Songer, S; Hunter, E

    2016-05-01

    A three-dimensional computer reconstruction of a plaice Pleuronectes platessa otolith is presented from data acquired by the Diamond Light synchrotron, beamline I12, X-ray source, a high energy (53-150 keV) source particularly well suited to the study of dense objects. The data allowed non-destructive rendering of otolith structure, and for the first time allows otolith annuli (internal ring structures) to be analysed in X-ray tomographic images. © 2016 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  5. Microspectroscopy At Beamline 73 MAX-lab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engdahl, Anders

    2010-01-01

    Presentation of some projects at the infrared microspectroscopy experimental station at beamline 73 MAX-lab. Among the subjects are found identification of organic residues in fossil material and examination of the chemistry in an old oak wood wreck.

  6. A Test Beamline on Diamond Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawhney, K. J. S.; Dolbnya, I. P.; Tiwari, M. K.; Alianelli, L.; Scott, S. M.; Preece, G. M.; Pedersen, U. K.; Walton, R. D.

    2010-01-01

    A Test beamline B16 has been built on the 3 GeV Diamond synchrotron radiation source. The beamline covers a wide photon energy range from 2 to 25 keV. The beamline is highly flexible and versatile in terms of the available beam size (a micron to 100 mm) and the range of energy resolution and photon flux; by virtue of its several operational modes, and the different inter-changeable instruments available in the experiments hutch. Diverse experimental configurations can be flexibly configured using a five-circle diffractometer, a versatile optics test bench, and a suite of detectors. Several experimental techniques including reflectivity, diffraction and imaging are routinely available. Details of the beamline and its measured performance are presented.

  7. Doublet III beamline: as-built

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harder, C.R.; Holland, M.M.; Parker, J.W.; Gunn, J.; Resnick, L.

    1980-03-01

    In order to fully exploit Doublet III capabilities and to study new plasma physics regimes, a Neutral Beam Injector System has been constructed. Initially, a two beamline system will supply 7 MW of heat to the plasma. The system is currently being expanded to inject approx. 20 MW of power (6 beamlines). Each beamline is equipped with two Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory type rectangular ion sources with 10 cm x 40 cm extraction grids. These sources will accelerate hydrogen ions to 80 keV, with extracted beam currents in excess of 80 A per source expected. The first completed source is currently being tested and conditioned on the High Voltage Test Stand at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. This paper pictorially reviews the as-built Doublet III neutral beamline with emphasis on component relation and configuration relative to spatial and source imposed design constraints

  8. Phase-contrast imaging and tomography at 60 keV using a conventional x-ray tube source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donath, Tilman; Bunk, Oliver; Groot, Waldemar; Bednarzik, Martin; Gruenzweig, Christian; David, Christian; Pfeiffer, Franz; Hempel, Eckhard; Popescu, Stefan; Hoheisel, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Phase-contrast imaging at laboratory-based x-ray sources using grating interferometers has been developed over the last few years for x-ray energies of up to 28 keV. Here, we show first phase-contrast projection and tomographic images recorded at significantly higher x-ray energies, produced by an x-ray tube source operated at 100 kV acceleration voltage. We find our measured tomographic phase images in good agreement with tabulated data. The extension of phase-contrast imaging to this significantly higher x-ray energy opens up many applications of the technique in medicine and industrial nondestructive testing.

  9. High sensitivity phase retrieval method in grating-based x-ray phase contrast imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Zhao; Gao, Kun; Chen, Jian; Wang, Dajiang; Wang, Shenghao; Chen, Heng; Bao, Yuan; Shao, Qigang; Wang, Zhili, E-mail: wangnsrl@ustc.edu.cn [National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230029 (China); Zhang, Kai [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Zhu, Peiping; Wu, Ziyu, E-mail: wuzy@ustc.edu.cn [National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230029, China and Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2015-02-15

    Purpose: Grating-based x-ray phase contrast imaging is considered as one of the most promising techniques for future medical imaging. Many different methods have been developed to retrieve phase signal, among which the phase stepping (PS) method is widely used. However, further practical implementations are hindered, due to its complex scanning mode and high radiation dose. In contrast, the reverse projection (RP) method is a novel fast and low dose extraction approach. In this contribution, the authors present a quantitative analysis of the noise properties of the refraction signals retrieved by the two methods and compare their sensitivities. Methods: Using the error propagation formula, the authors analyze theoretically the signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) of the refraction images retrieved by the two methods. Then, the sensitivities of the two extraction methods are compared under an identical exposure dose. Numerical experiments are performed to validate the theoretical results and provide some quantitative insight. Results: The SNRs of the two methods are both dependent on the system parameters, but in different ways. Comparison between their sensitivities reveals that for the refraction signal, the RP method possesses a higher sensitivity, especially in the case of high visibility and/or at the edge of the object. Conclusions: Compared with the PS method, the RP method has a superior sensitivity and provides refraction images with a higher SNR. Therefore, one can obtain highly sensitive refraction images in grating-based phase contrast imaging. This is very important for future preclinical and clinical implementations.

  10. High sensitivity phase retrieval method in grating-based x-ray phase contrast imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Zhao; Gao, Kun; Chen, Jian; Wang, Dajiang; Wang, Shenghao; Chen, Heng; Bao, Yuan; Shao, Qigang; Wang, Zhili; Zhang, Kai; Zhu, Peiping; Wu, Ziyu

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Grating-based x-ray phase contrast imaging is considered as one of the most promising techniques for future medical imaging. Many different methods have been developed to retrieve phase signal, among which the phase stepping (PS) method is widely used. However, further practical implementations are hindered, due to its complex scanning mode and high radiation dose. In contrast, the reverse projection (RP) method is a novel fast and low dose extraction approach. In this contribution, the authors present a quantitative analysis of the noise properties of the refraction signals retrieved by the two methods and compare their sensitivities. Methods: Using the error propagation formula, the authors analyze theoretically the signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) of the refraction images retrieved by the two methods. Then, the sensitivities of the two extraction methods are compared under an identical exposure dose. Numerical experiments are performed to validate the theoretical results and provide some quantitative insight. Results: The SNRs of the two methods are both dependent on the system parameters, but in different ways. Comparison between their sensitivities reveals that for the refraction signal, the RP method possesses a higher sensitivity, especially in the case of high visibility and/or at the edge of the object. Conclusions: Compared with the PS method, the RP method has a superior sensitivity and provides refraction images with a higher SNR. Therefore, one can obtain highly sensitive refraction images in grating-based phase contrast imaging. This is very important for future preclinical and clinical implementations

  11. Phase retrieval for X-ray in-line phase contrast imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scattarella, F.; Bellotti, R.; Tangaro, S.; Gargano, G.; Giannini, C.

    2011-01-01

    A review article about phase retrieval problem in X-ray phase contrast imaging is presented. A simple theoretical framework of Fresnel diffraction imaging by X-rays is introduced. A review of the most important methods for phase retrieval in free-propagation-based X-ray imaging and a new method developed by our collaboration are shown. The proposed algorithm, Combined Mixed Approach (CMA) is based on a mixed transfer function and transport of intensity approach, and it requires at most an initial approximate estimate of the average phase shift introduced by the object as prior knowledge. The accuracy with which this initial estimate is known determines the convenience speed of algorithm. The new proposed algorithm is based on the retrieval of both the object phase and its complex conjugate. The results obtained by the algorithm on simulated data have shown that the obtained reconstructed phase maps are characterized by particularly low normalized mean square errors. The algorithm was also tested on noisy experimental phase contrast data, showing a good efficiency in recovering phase information and enhancing the visibility of details inside soft tissues.

  12. X-ray phase contrast imaging: From synchrotrons to conventional sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olivo, A.; Castelli, E.

    2014-01-01

    Phase-based approaches can revolutionize X-ray imaging and remove its main limitation: poor image contrast arising from low attenuation differences. They exploit the unit decrement of the real part of the refractive index, typically 1000 times larger than the imaginary part driving attenuation. This increases the contrast of all details, and enables the detection of features classically considered 'X-ray invisible'. Following pioneering experiments dating back to the mid-sixties, X-ray phase contrast imaging 'exploded' in the mid-nineties, when third generation synchrotron sources became more widely available. Applications were proposed in fields as diverse as material science, palaeontology, biology, food science, cultural heritage preservation, and many others. Among these applications, medicine has been constantly considered the most important; among medical applications, mammography is arguably the one that attracted most attention. Applications to mammography were pioneered by the SYRMEP (SYnchrotron Radiation for MEdical Physics) group in Trieste, which was already active in the area through a combination of innovative ways to do imaging at synchrotrons and development of novel X-ray detectors. This pioneering phase led to the only clinical experience of phase contrast mammography on human patients, and spawned a number of ideas as to how these advances could be translated into clinical practice.

  13. Quantitative hard x-ray phase contrast imaging of micropipes in SiC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohn, V. G.; Argunova, T. S.; Je, J. H.

    2013-01-01

    Peculiarities of quantitative hard x-ray phase contrast imaging of micropipes in SiC are discussed. The micropipe is assumed as a hollow cylinder with an elliptical cross section. The major and minor diameters can be restored using the least square fitting procedure by comparing the experimental data, i.e. the profile across the micropipe axis, with those calculated based on phase contrast theory. It is shown that one projection image gives an information which does not allow a complete determination of the elliptical cross section, if an orientation of micropipe is not known. Another problem is a weak accuracy in estimating the diameters, partly because of using pink synchrotron radiation, which is necessary because a monochromatic beam intensity is not sufficient to reveal the weak contrast from a very small object. The general problems of accuracy in estimating the two diameters using the least square procedure are discussed. Two experimental examples are considered to demonstrate small as well as modest accuracies in estimating the diameters

  14. Phase-only optical encryption based on the zeroth-order phase-contrast technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizolato, José Carlos; Neto, Luiz Gonçalves

    2009-09-01

    A phase-only encryption/decryption scheme with the readout based on the zeroth-order phase-contrast technique (ZOPCT), without the use of a phase-changing plate on the Fourier plane of an optical system based on the 4f optical correlator, is proposed. The encryption of a gray-level image is achieved by multiplying the phase distribution obtained directly from the gray-level image by a random phase distribution. The robustness of the encoding is assured by the nonlinearity intrinsic to the proposed phase-contrast method and the random phase distribution used in the encryption process. The experimental system has been implemented with liquid-crystal spatial modulators to generate phase-encrypted masks and a decrypting key. The advantage of this method is the easy scheme to recover the gray-level information from the decrypted phase-only mask applying the ZOPCT. An analysis of this decryption method was performed against brute force attacks.

  15. Radial k-t SPIRiT: autocalibrated parallel imaging for generalized phase-contrast MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santelli, Claudio; Schaeffter, Tobias; Kozerke, Sebastian

    2014-11-01

    To extend SPIRiT to additionally exploit temporal correlations for highly accelerated generalized phase-contrast MRI and to compare the performance of the proposed radial k-t SPIRiT method relative to frame-by-frame SPIRiT and radial k-t GRAPPA reconstruction for velocity and turbulence mapping in the aortic arch. Free-breathing navigator-gated two-dimensional radial cine imaging with three-directional multi-point velocity encoding was implemented and fully sampled data were obtained in the aortic arch of healthy volunteers. Velocities were encoded with three different first gradient moments per axis to permit quantification of mean velocity and turbulent kinetic energy. Velocity and turbulent kinetic energy maps from up to 14-fold undersampled data were compared for k-t SPIRiT, frame-by-frame SPIRiT, and k-t GRAPPA relative to the fully sampled reference. Using k-t SPIRiT, improvements in magnitude and velocity reconstruction accuracy were found. Temporally resolved magnitude profiles revealed a reduction in spatial blurring with k-t SPIRiT compared with frame-by-frame SPIRiT and k-t GRAPPA for all velocity encodings, leading to improved estimates of turbulent kinetic energy. k-t SPIRiT offers improved reconstruction accuracy at high radial undersampling factors and hence facilitates the use of generalized phase-contrast MRI for routine use. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Isotropic differential phase contrast microscopy for quantitative phase bio-imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsi-Hsun; Lin, Yu-Zi; Luo, Yuan

    2018-05-16

    Quantitative phase imaging (QPI) has been investigated to retrieve optical phase information of an object and applied to biological microscopy and related medical studies. In recent examples, differential phase contrast (DPC) microscopy can recover phase image of thin sample under multi-axis intensity measurements in wide-field scheme. Unlike conventional DPC, based on theoretical approach under partially coherent condition, we propose a new method to achieve isotropic differential phase contrast (iDPC) with high accuracy and stability for phase recovery in simple and high-speed fashion. The iDPC is simply implemented with a partially coherent microscopy and a programmable thin-film transistor (TFT) shield to digitally modulate structured illumination patterns for QPI. In this article, simulation results show consistency of our theoretical approach for iDPC under partial coherence. In addition, we further demonstrate experiments of quantitative phase images of a standard micro-lens array, as well as label-free live human cell samples. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Preliminary research on dual-energy X-ray phase-contrast imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Hua-Jie; Wang, Sheng-Hao; Gao, Kun; Wang, Zhi-Li; Zhang, Can; Yang, Meng; Zhang, Kai; Zhu, Pei-Ping

    2016-04-01

    Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) has been widely applied to measure the bone mineral density (BMD) and soft-tissue composition of the human body. However, the use of DEXA is greatly limited for low-Z materials such as soft tissues due to their weak absorption, while X-ray phase-contrast imaging (XPCI) shows significantly improved contrast in comparison with the conventional standard absorption-based X-ray imaging for soft tissues. In this paper, we propose a novel X-ray phase-contrast method to measure the area density of low-Z materials, including a single-energy method and a dual-energy method. The single-energy method is for the area density calculation of one low-Z material, while the dual-energy method aims to calculate the area densities of two low-Z materials simultaneously. Comparing the experimental and simulation results with the theoretical ones, the new method proves to have the potential to replace DEXA in area density measurement. The new method sets the prerequisites for a future precise and low-dose area density calculation method for low-Z materials. Supported by Major State Basic Research Development Program (2012CB825800), Science Fund for Creative Research Groups (11321503) and National Natural Science Foundation of China (11179004, 10979055, 11205189, 11205157)

  18. Segmentation of the Clustered Cells with Optimized Boundary Detection in Negative Phase Contrast Images.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuliang Wang

    Full Text Available Cell image segmentation plays a central role in numerous biology studies and clinical applications. As a result, the development of cell image segmentation algorithms with high robustness and accuracy is attracting more and more attention. In this study, an automated cell image segmentation algorithm is developed to get improved cell image segmentation with respect to cell boundary detection and segmentation of the clustered cells for all cells in the field of view in negative phase contrast images. A new method which combines the thresholding method and edge based active contour method was proposed to optimize cell boundary detection. In order to segment clustered cells, the geographic peaks of cell light intensity were utilized to detect numbers and locations of the clustered cells. In this paper, the working principles of the algorithms are described. The influence of parameters in cell boundary detection and the selection of the threshold value on the final segmentation results are investigated. At last, the proposed algorithm is applied to the negative phase contrast images from different experiments. The performance of the proposed method is evaluated. Results show that the proposed method can achieve optimized cell boundary detection and highly accurate segmentation for clustered cells.

  19. Segmentation of the Clustered Cells with Optimized Boundary Detection in Negative Phase Contrast Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuliang; Zhang, Zaicheng; Wang, Huimin; Bi, Shusheng

    2015-01-01

    Cell image segmentation plays a central role in numerous biology studies and clinical applications. As a result, the development of cell image segmentation algorithms with high robustness and accuracy is attracting more and more attention. In this study, an automated cell image segmentation algorithm is developed to get improved cell image segmentation with respect to cell boundary detection and segmentation of the clustered cells for all cells in the field of view in negative phase contrast images. A new method which combines the thresholding method and edge based active contour method was proposed to optimize cell boundary detection. In order to segment clustered cells, the geographic peaks of cell light intensity were utilized to detect numbers and locations of the clustered cells. In this paper, the working principles of the algorithms are described. The influence of parameters in cell boundary detection and the selection of the threshold value on the final segmentation results are investigated. At last, the proposed algorithm is applied to the negative phase contrast images from different experiments. The performance of the proposed method is evaluated. Results show that the proposed method can achieve optimized cell boundary detection and highly accurate segmentation for clustered cells.

  20. Systolically gated 3D phase contrast MRA of mesenteric arteries in suspected mesenteric ischemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wasser, M.N.; Schultze Kool, L.J.; Roos, A. de [Leiden Univ. Hospital (Netherlands)] [and others

    1996-03-01

    Our goal was to assess the value of MRA for detecting stenoses in the celiac (CA) and superior mesenteric (SMA) arteries in patients suspected of having chronic mesenteric ischemia, using an optimized systolically gated 3D phase contrast technique. In an initial study in 24 patients who underwent conventional angiography of the abdominal vessels for different clinical indications, a 3D phase contrast MRA technique (3D-PCA) was evaluated and optimized to image the CAs and SMAs. Subsequently, a prospective study was performed to assess the value of systolically gated 3D-PCA in evaluation of the mesenteric arteries in 10 patients with signs and symptoms of chronic mesenteric ischemia. Intraarterial digital subtraction angiography and surgical findings were used as the reference standard. In the initial study, systolic gating appeared to be essential in imaging the SMA on 3D-PCA. In 10 patients suspected of mesenteric ischemia, systolically gated 3D-PCA identified significant proximal disease in the two mesenteric vessels in 4 patients. These patients underwent successful reconstruction of their stenotic vessels. Cardiac-gated MRA may become a useful tool in selection of patients suspected of having mesenteric ischemia who may benefit from surgery. 16 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  1. Teachable, high-content analytics for live-cell, phase contrast movies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alworth, Samuel V; Watanabe, Hirotada; Lee, James S J

    2010-09-01

    CL-Quant is a new solution platform for broad, high-content, live-cell image analysis. Powered by novel machine learning technologies and teach-by-example interfaces, CL-Quant provides a platform for the rapid development and application of scalable, high-performance, and fully automated analytics for a broad range of live-cell microscopy imaging applications, including label-free phase contrast imaging. The authors used CL-Quant to teach off-the-shelf universal analytics, called standard recipes, for cell proliferation, wound healing, cell counting, and cell motility assays using phase contrast movies collected on the BioStation CT and BioStation IM platforms. Similar to application modules, standard recipes are intended to work robustly across a wide range of imaging conditions without requiring customization by the end user. The authors validated the performance of the standard recipes by comparing their performance with truth created manually, or by custom analytics optimized for each individual movie (and therefore yielding the best possible result for the image), and validated by independent review. The validation data show that the standard recipes' performance is comparable with the validated truth with low variation. The data validate that the CL-Quant standard recipes can provide robust results without customization for live-cell assays in broad cell types and laboratory settings.

  2. A theoretically exact reconstruction algorithm for helical cone-beam differential phase-contrast computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jing; Sun Yi; Zhu Peiping

    2013-01-01

    Differential phase-contrast computed tomography (DPC-CT) reconstruction problems are usually solved by using parallel-, fan- or cone-beam algorithms. For rod-shaped objects, the x-ray beams cannot recover all the slices of the sample at the same time. Thus, if a rod-shaped sample is required to be reconstructed by the above algorithms, one should alternately perform translation and rotation on this sample, which leads to lower efficiency. The helical cone-beam CT may significantly improve scanning efficiency for rod-shaped objects over other algorithms. In this paper, we propose a theoretically exact filter-backprojection algorithm for helical cone-beam DPC-CT, which can be applied to reconstruct the refractive index decrement distribution of the samples directly from two-dimensional differential phase-contrast images. Numerical simulations are conducted to verify the proposed algorithm. Our work provides a potential solution for inspecting the rod-shaped samples using DPC-CT, which may be applicable with the evolution of DPC-CT equipments. (paper)

  3. Characterization of Mechanical Properties of Tissue Scaffolds by Phase Contrast Imaging and Finite Element Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bawolin, Nahshon K; Dolovich, Allan T; Chen, Daniel X B; Zhang, Chris W J

    2015-08-01

    In tissue engineering, the cell and scaffold approach has shown promise as a treatment to regenerate diseased and/or damaged tissue. In this treatment, an artificial construct (scaffold) is seeded with cells, which organize and proliferate into new tissue. The scaffold itself biodegrades with time, leaving behind only newly formed tissue. The degradation qualities of the scaffold are critical during the treatment period, since the change in the mechanical properties of the scaffold with time can influence cell behavior. To observe in time the scaffold's mechanical properties, a straightforward method is to deform the scaffold and then characterize scaffold deflection accordingly. However, experimentally observing the scaffold deflection is challenging. This paper presents a novel study on characterization of mechanical properties of scaffolds by phase contrast imaging and finite element modeling, which specifically includes scaffold fabrication, scaffold imaging, image analysis, and finite elements (FEs) modeling of the scaffold mechanical properties. The innovation of the work rests on the use of in-line phase contrast X-ray imaging at 20 KeV to characterize tissue scaffold deformation caused by ultrasound radiation forces and the use of the Fourier transform to identify movement. Once deformation has been determined experimentally, it is then compared with the predictions given by the forward solution of a finite element model. A consideration of the number of separate loading conditions necessary to uniquely identify the material properties of transversely isotropic and fully orthotropic scaffolds is also presented, along with the use of an FE as a form of regularization.

  4. X-ray phase-contrast tomography for high-spatial-resolution zebrafish muscle imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vågberg, William; Larsson, Daniel H.; Li, Mei; Arner, Anders; Hertz, Hans M.

    2015-11-01

    Imaging of muscular structure with cellular or subcellular detail in whole-body animal models is of key importance for understanding muscular disease and assessing interventions. Classical histological methods for high-resolution imaging methods require excision, fixation and staining. Here we show that the three-dimensional muscular structure of unstained whole zebrafish can be imaged with sub-5 μm detail with X-ray phase-contrast tomography. Our method relies on a laboratory propagation-based phase-contrast system tailored for detection of low-contrast 4-6 μm subcellular myofibrils. The method is demonstrated on 20 days post fertilization zebrafish larvae and comparative histology confirms that we resolve individual myofibrils in the whole-body animal. X-ray imaging of healthy zebrafish show the expected structured muscle pattern while specimen with a dystrophin deficiency (sapje) displays an unstructured pattern, typical of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. The method opens up for whole-body imaging with sub-cellular detail also of other types of soft tissue and in different animal models.

  5. X-ray phase contrast imaging of the bone-cartilage interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismail, Elna Che; Kaabar, W.; Garrity, D.; Gundogdu, O.; Bunk, O.; Pfeiffer, F.; Farquharson, M.J.; Bradley, D.A.

    2010-01-01

    Synovial joints articulate in a lubricating environment, the system providing for smooth articulation. The articular cartilage overlying the bone consists of a network of collagen fibres. This network is essential to cartilage integrity, suffering damage in degenerative joint disease such as osteoarthritis. At Surrey and also in work conducted by this group at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) synchrotron site we have been applying a number of techniques to study the bone-cartilage interface and of changes occurring in this with disease. One of the techniques attracting particular interest is X-ray phase contrast imaging, yielding information on anatomical features that manifest from the large scale organisation of collagen and the mineralised phase contained within the collagen fibres in the deep cartilage zone. This work briefly reviews some of the basic supporting physics of X-ray phase contrast imaging and then shows example images of the articular surface and subchondral bone and other supporting results obtained to-date. Present results have been obtained on sections of bone not displaying evidence of an osteoarthritic lesion and can be used as a baseline against which diseased bone can be compared.

  6. X-ray phase contrast imaging of the bone-cartilage interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ismail, Elna Che; Kaabar, W.; Garrity, D.; Gundogdu, O. [Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Bunk, O. [Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Pfeiffer, F. [Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Farquharson, M.J. [Department of Radiography, City University, London EC1V OHB (United Kingdom); Bradley, D.A. [Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)], E-mail: d.a.bradley@surrey.ac.uk

    2010-04-15

    Synovial joints articulate in a lubricating environment, the system providing for smooth articulation. The articular cartilage overlying the bone consists of a network of collagen fibres. This network is essential to cartilage integrity, suffering damage in degenerative joint disease such as osteoarthritis. At Surrey and also in work conducted by this group at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) synchrotron site we have been applying a number of techniques to study the bone-cartilage interface and of changes occurring in this with disease. One of the techniques attracting particular interest is X-ray phase contrast imaging, yielding information on anatomical features that manifest from the large scale organisation of collagen and the mineralised phase contained within the collagen fibres in the deep cartilage zone. This work briefly reviews some of the basic supporting physics of X-ray phase contrast imaging and then shows example images of the articular surface and subchondral bone and other supporting results obtained to-date. Present results have been obtained on sections of bone not displaying evidence of an osteoarthritic lesion and can be used as a baseline against which diseased bone can be compared.

  7. Absorption and Phase Contrast X-Ray Imaging in Paleontology Using Laboratory and Synchrotron Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bidola, Pidassa; Stockmar, Marco; Achterhold, Klaus; Pfeiffer, Franz; Pacheco, Mirian L.A.F.; Soriano, Carmen; Beckmann, Felix; Herzen, Julia

    2015-10-01

    X-ray micro-computed tomography (CT) is commonly used for imaging of samples in biomedical or materials science research. Owing to the ability to visualize a sample in a nondestructive way, X-ray CT is perfectly suited to inspect fossilized specimens, which are mostly unique or rare. In certain regions of the world where important sedimentation events occurred in the Precambrian geological time, several fossilized animals are studied to understand questions related to their origin, environment, and life evolution. This article demonstrates the advantages of applying absorption and phase-contrast CT on the enigmatic fossil Corumbella werneri, one of the oldest known animals capable of building hard parts, originally discovered in Corumba (Brazil). Different tomographic setups were tested to visualize the fossilized inner structures: a commercial laboratory-based CT device, two synchrotron-based imaging setups using conventional absorption and propagation-based phase contrast, and a commercial X-ray microscope with a lens-coupled detector system, dedicated for radiography and tomography. Based on our results we discuss the strengths and weaknesses of the different imaging setups for paleontological studies.

  8. MR flow velocity measurement using 2D phase contrast, assessment of imaging parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akata, Soichi; Fukushima, Akihiro; Abe, Kimihiko; Darkanzanli, A.; Gmitro, A.F.; Unger, E.C.; Capp, M.P.

    1999-01-01

    The two-dimensional (2D) phase contrast technique using balanced gradient pulses is utilized to measure flow velocities of cerebrospinal fluid and blood. Various imaging parameters affect the accuracy of flow velocity measurements to varying degrees. Assessment of the errors introduced by changing the imaging parameters are presented and discussed in this paper. A constant flow phantom consisting of a pump, a polyethylene tube and a flow meter was assembled. A clinical 1.5 Tesla MR imager was used to perform flow velocity measurements. The phase contrast technique was used to estimate the flow velocity of saline through the phantom. The effects of changes in matrix size, flip angle, flow compensation, and velocity encoding (VENC) value were tested in the pulse sequence. Gd-DTPA doped saline was used to study the effect of changing T1 on the accuracy of flow velocity measurement. Matrix size (within practical values), flip angle, and flow compensation had minimum impact on flow velocity measurements. T1 of the solution also had no effect on the accuracy of measuring the flow velocity. On the other hand, it was concluded that errors as high as 20% can be expected in the flow velocity measurements if the VENC value is not properly chosen. (author)

  9. MR flow velocity measurement using 2D phase contrast, assessment of imaging parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akata, Soichi; Fukushima, Akihiro; Abe, Kimihiko [Tokyo Medical Coll. (Japan); Darkanzanli, A.; Gmitro, A.F.; Unger, E.C.; Capp, M.P.

    1999-11-01

    The two-dimensional (2D) phase contrast technique using balanced gradient pulses is utilized to measure flow velocities of cerebrospinal fluid and blood. Various imaging parameters affect the accuracy of flow velocity measurements to varying degrees. Assessment of the errors introduced by changing the imaging parameters are presented and discussed in this paper. A constant flow phantom consisting of a pump, a polyethylene tube and a flow meter was assembled. A clinical 1.5 Tesla MR imager was used to perform flow velocity measurements. The phase contrast technique was used to estimate the flow velocity of saline through the phantom. The effects of changes in matrix size, flip angle, flow compensation, and velocity encoding (VENC) value were tested in the pulse sequence. Gd-DTPA doped saline was used to study the effect of changing T1 on the accuracy of flow velocity measurement. Matrix size (within practical values), flip angle, and flow compensation had minimum impact on flow velocity measurements. T1 of the solution also had no effect on the accuracy of measuring the flow velocity. On the other hand, it was concluded that errors as high as 20% can be expected in the flow velocity measurements if the VENC value is not properly chosen. (author)

  10. Accuracy and reliability of different cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) devices for structural analysis of alveolar bone in comparison with multislice CT and micro-CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dessel, Jeroen; Nicolielo, Laura Ferreira Pinheiro; Huang, Yan; Coudyzer, Walter; Salmon, Benjamin; Lambrichts, Ivo; Jacobs, Reinhilde

    The aim of this study was to assess whether cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) may be used for clinically reliable alveolar bone quality assessment in comparison to its clinical alternatives, multislice computed tomography and the gold standard (micro-CT). Six dentate mandibular bone samples were scanned with seven CBCT devices (ProMax 3D Max, NewTom GiANO, Cranex 3D, 3D Accuitomo 170, Carestream 9300, Scanora 3D, I-CAT Next generation), one micro-CT scanner (SkyScan 1174) and one MSCT machine (Somatom Definition Flash) using two protocols (standard and high-resolution). MSCT and CBCT images were automatically spatially aligned on the micro-CT scan of the corresponding sample. A volume of interest was manually delineated on the micro-CT image and overlaid on the other scanning devices. Alveolar bone structures were automatically extracted using the adaptive thresholding algorithm. Based on the resulting binary images, an automatic 3D morphometric quantification was performed in a CT-Analyser (Bruker, Kontich, Belgium). The reliability and measurement errors were calculated for each modality compared to the gold standard micro-CT. Both MSCT and CBCT were associated with a clinically and statistically (P max, bone surface density -0.47 mm-1 min to 0.16 mm-1 max and trabecular thickness 0.15 mm min to 0.31 mm max) were significantly (P max and fractal dimension 0.08 min to 0.17 max) in all scanners compared to micro-CT. However, the structural pattern of the alveolar bone remained similar compared to that of the micro-CT for the ProMax 3D Max, NewTom GiANO, Cranex 3D, 3D Accuitomo 170 and Carestream 9300. On the other hand, the Scanora 3D, i-CAT Next Generation, standard and high-resolution MSCT displayed an overrated bone quantity and aberrant structural pattern compared to other scanning devices. The calculation of morphometric indices had an overall high reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC] 0.62 min to 0.99 max), except

  11. Volume of myocardium perfused by coronary artery branches as estimated from 3D micro-CT images of rat hearts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Patricia E.; Naessens, Lauren C.; Seaman, Catherine A.; Reyes, Denise A.; Ritman, Erik L.

    2000-04-01

    Average myocardial perfusion is remarkably consistent throughout the heart wall under resting conditions and the velocity of blood flow is fairly reproducible from artery to artery. Based on these observations, and the fact that flow through an artery is the product of arterial cross-sectional area and blood flow velocity, we would expect the volume of myocardium perfused to be proportional to the cross-sectional area of the coronary artery perfusing that volume of myocardium. This relationship has been confirmed by others in pigs, dogs and humans. To test the body size-dependence of this relationship we used the hearts from rats, 3 through 25 weeks of age. The coronary arteries were infused with radiopaque microfil polymer and the hearts scanned in a micro- CT scanner. Using these 3D images we measured the volume of myocardium and the arterial cross-sectional area of the artery that perfused that volume of myocardium. The average constant of proportionality was found to be 0.15 +/- 0.08 cm3/mm2. Our data showed no statistically different estimates of the constant of proportionality in the rat hearts of different ages nor between the left and right coronary arteries. This constant is smaller than that observed in large animals and humans, but this difference is consistent with the body mass-dependence on metabolic rate.

  12. High-resolution three-dimensional visualization of the rat spinal cord microvasculature by synchrotron radiation micro-CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Jianzhong; Cao, Yong; Wu, Tianding; Li, Dongzhe [Department of Spine Surgery, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha 410008 (China); Lu, Hongbin, E-mail: hongbinlu@hotmail.com [Department of Sports Medicine, Research Centre of Sports Medicine, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha 410008 (China)

    2014-10-15

    Purpose: Understanding the three-dimensional (3D) morphology of the spinal cord microvasculature has been limited by the lack of an effective high-resolution imaging technique. In this study, synchrotron radiation microcomputed tomography (SRµCT), a novel imaging technique based on absorption imaging, was evaluated with regard to the detection of the 3D morphology of the rat spinal cord microvasculature. Methods: Ten Sprague-Dawley rats were used in this ex vivo study. After contrast agent perfusion, their spinal cords were isolated and scanned using conventional x-rays, conventional micro-CT (CµCT), and SRµCT. Results: Based on contrast agent perfusion, the microvasculature of the rat spinal cord was clearly visualized for the first time ex vivo in 3D by means of SRµCT scanning. Compared to conventional imaging techniques, SRµCT achieved higher resolution 3D vascular imaging, with the smallest vessel that could be distinguished approximately 7.4 μm in diameter. Additionally, a 3D pseudocolored image of the spinal cord microvasculature was generated in a single session of SRµCT imaging, which was conducive to detailed observation of the vessel morphology. Conclusions: The results of this study indicated that SRµCT scanning could provide higher resolution images of the vascular network of the spinal cord. This modality also has the potential to serve as a powerful imaging tool for the investigation of morphology changes in the 3D angioarchitecture of the neurovasculature in preclinical research.

  13. Comparison of automatic and visual methods used for image segmentation in Endodontics: a microCT study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queiroz, Polyane Mazucatto; Rovaris, Karla; Santaella, Gustavo Machado; Haiter-Neto, Francisco; Freitas, Deborah Queiroz

    2017-01-01

    To calculate root canal volume and surface area in microCT images, an image segmentation by selecting threshold values is required, which can be determined by visual or automatic methods. Visual determination is influenced by the operator's visual acuity, while the automatic method is done entirely by computer algorithms. To compare between visual and automatic segmentation, and to determine the influence of the operator's visual acuity on the reproducibility of root canal volume and area measurements. Images from 31 extracted human anterior teeth were scanned with a μCT scanner. Three experienced examiners performed visual image segmentation, and threshold values were recorded. Automatic segmentation was done using the "Automatic Threshold Tool" available in the dedicated software provided by the scanner's manufacturer. Volume and area measurements were performed using the threshold values determined both visually and automatically. The paired Student's t-test showed no significant difference between visual and automatic segmentation methods regarding root canal volume measurements (p=0.93) and root canal surface (p=0.79). Although visual and automatic segmentation methods can be used to determine the threshold and calculate root canal volume and surface, the automatic method may be the most suitable for ensuring the reproducibility of threshold determination.

  14. Classification of micro-CT images using 3D characterization of bone canal patterns in human osteogenesis imperfecta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abidin, Anas Z.; Jameson, John; Molthen, Robert; Wismüller, Axel

    2017-03-01

    Few studies have analyzed the microstructural properties of bone in cases of Osteogenenis Imperfecta (OI), or `brittle bone disease'. Current approaches mainly focus on bone mineral density measurements as an indirect indicator of bone strength and quality. It has been shown that bone strength would depend not only on composition but also structural organization. This study aims to characterize 3D structure of the cortical bone in high-resolution micro CT images. A total of 40 bone fragments from 28 subjects (13 with OI and 15 healthy controls) were imaged using micro tomography using a synchrotron light source (SRµCT). Minkowski functionals - volume, surface, curvature, and Euler characteristics - describing the topological organization of the bone were computed from the images. The features were used in a machine learning task to classify between healthy and OI bone. The best classification performance (mean AUC - 0.96) was achieved with a combined 4-dimensional feature of all Minkowski functionals. Individually, the best feature performance was seen using curvature (mean AUC - 0.85), which characterizes the edges within a binary object. These results show that quantitative analysis of cortical bone microstructure, in a computer-aided diagnostics framework, can be used to distinguish between healthy and OI bone with high accuracy.

  15. Distributional variations in trabecular architecture of the mandibular bone: an in vivo micro-CT analysis in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongshuang Liu

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effect of trabecular thickness and trabecular separation on modulating the trabecular architecture of the mandibular bone in ovariectomized rats.Fourteen 12-week-old adult female Wistar rats were divided into an ovariectomy group (OVX and a sham-ovariectomy group (sham. Five months after the surgery, the mandibles from 14 rats (seven OVX and seven sham were analyzed by micro-CT. Images of inter-radicular alveolar bone of the mandibular first molars underwent three-dimensional reconstruction and were analyzed.Compared to the sham group, trabecular thickness in OVX alveolar bone decreased by 27% (P = 0.012, but trabecular separation in OVX alveolar bone increased by 59% (P = 0.005. A thickness and separation map showed that trabeculae of less than 100 μm increased by 46%, whereas trabeculae of more than 200 μm decreased by more than 40% in the OVX group compared to those in the sham group. Furthermore, the OVX separation of those trabecular of more than 200 μm was 65% higher compared to the sham group. Bone mineral density (P = 0.028 and bone volume fraction (p = 0.001 were also significantly decreased in the OVX group compared to the sham group.Ovariectomy-induced bone loss in mandibular bone may be related to the distributional variations in trabecular thickness and separation which profoundly impact the modulation of the trabecular architecture.

  16. A Semiautomatic Segmentation Algorithm for Extracting the Complete Structure of Acini from Synchrotron Micro-CT Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luosha Xiao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary acinus is the largest airway unit provided with alveoli where blood/gas exchange takes place. Understanding the complete structure of acinus is necessary to measure the pathway of gas exchange and to simulate various mechanical phenomena in the lungs. The usual manual segmentation of a complete acinus structure from their experimentally obtained images is difficult and extremely time-consuming, which hampers the statistical analysis. In this study, we develop a semiautomatic segmentation algorithm for extracting the complete structure of acinus from synchrotron micro-CT images of the closed chest of mouse lungs. The algorithm uses a combination of conventional binary image processing techniques based on the multiscale and hierarchical nature of lung structures. Specifically, larger structures are removed, while smaller structures are isolated from the image by repeatedly applying erosion and dilation operators in order, adjusting the parameter referencing to previously obtained morphometric data. A cluster of isolated acini belonging to the same terminal bronchiole is obtained without floating voxels. The extracted acinar models above 98% agree well with those extracted manually. The run time is drastically shortened compared with manual methods. These findings suggest that our method may be useful for taking samples used in the statistical analysis of acinus.

  17. A faster ordered-subset convex algorithm for iterative reconstruction in a rotation-free micro-CT system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quan, E; Lalush, D S

    2009-01-01

    We present a faster iterative reconstruction algorithm based on the ordered-subset convex (OSC) algorithm for transmission CT. The OSC algorithm was modified such that it calculates the normalization term before the iterative process in order to save computational cost. The modified version requires only one backprojection per iteration as compared to two required for the original OSC. We applied the modified OSC (MOSC) algorithm to a rotation-free micro-CT system that we proposed previously, observed its performance, and compared with the OSC algorithm for 3D cone-beam reconstruction. Measurements on the reconstructed images as well as the point spread functions show that MOSC is quite similar to OSC; in noise-resolution trade-off, MOSC is comparable with OSC in a regular-noise situation and it is slightly worse than OSC in an extremely high-noise situation. The timing record shows that MOSC saves 25-30% CPU time, depending on the number of iterations used. We conclude that the MOSC algorithm is more efficient than OSC and provides comparable images.

  18. Textures in spinel peridotite mantle xenoliths using micro-CT scanning: Examples from Canary Islands and France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhanot, K. K.; Downes, H.; Petrone, C. M.; Humphreys-Williams, E.

    2017-04-01

    Spinel pyroxene-clusters, which are intergrowths of spinel, orthopyroxene and clinopyroxene in mantle xenoliths, have been investigated through the use of micro-CT (μ-CT) in this study. Samples have been studied from two different tectonic settings: (1) the northern Massif Central, France, an uplifted and rifted plateau on continental lithosphere and (2) Lanzarote in the Canary Islands, an intraplate volcanic island on old oceanic lithosphere. μ-CT analysis of samples from both locations has revealed a range of spinel textures from small Lanzarote are regions that have experienced significant lithospheric thinning. This process provides a mechanism where the sub-solidus reaction of olivine + garnet = orthopyroxene + clinopyroxene + spinel is satisfied by providing a pathway from garnet peridotite to spinel peridotite. We predict that such textures would only occur in the mantle beneath regions that show evidence of thinning of the lithospheric mantle. Metasomatic reactions are seen around spinel-pyroxene clusters in some Lanzarote xenoliths, so metasomatism post-dated cluster formation.

  19. Influence of Manufacturing Methods of Implant-Supported Crowns on External and Internal Marginal Fit: A Micro-CT Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moris, Izabela C M; Monteiro, Silas Borges; Martins, Raíssa; Ribeiro, Ricardo Faria; Gomes, Erica A

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate the influence of different manufacturing methods of single implant-supported metallic crowns on the internal and external marginal fit through computed microtomography. Forty external hexagon implants were divided into 4 groups ( n = 8), according to the manufacturing method: GC, conventional casting; GI, induction casting; GP, plasma casting; and GCAD, CAD/CAM machining. The crowns were attached to the implants with insertion torque of 30 N·cm. The external (vertical and horizontal) marginal fit and internal fit were assessed through computed microtomography. Internal and external marginal fit data ( μ m) were submitted to a one-way ANOVA and Tukey's test ( α = .05). Qualitative evaluation of the images was conducted by using micro-CT. The statistical analysis revealed no significant difference between the groups for vertical misfit ( P = 0.721). There was no significant difference ( P > 0.05) for the internal and horizontal marginal misfit in the groups GC, GI, and GP, but it was found for the group GCAD ( P ≤ 0.05). Qualitative analysis revealed that most of the samples of cast groups exhibited crowns underextension while the group GCAD showed overextension. The manufacturing method of the crowns influenced the accuracy of marginal fit between the prosthesis and implant. The best results were found for the crowns fabricated through CAD/CAM machining.

  20. Influence of Manufacturing Methods of Implant-Supported Crowns on External and Internal Marginal Fit: A Micro-CT Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela C. M. Moris

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To evaluate the influence of different manufacturing methods of single implant-supported metallic crowns on the internal and external marginal fit through computed microtomography. Methods. Forty external hexagon implants were divided into 4 groups (n=8, according to the manufacturing method: GC, conventional casting; GI, induction casting; GP, plasma casting; and GCAD, CAD/CAM machining. The crowns were attached to the implants with insertion torque of 30 N·cm. The external (vertical and horizontal marginal fit and internal fit were assessed through computed microtomography. Internal and external marginal fit data (μm were submitted to a one-way ANOVA and Tukey’s test (α=.05. Qualitative evaluation of the images was conducted by using micro-CT. Results. The statistical analysis revealed no significant difference between the groups for vertical misfit (P=0.721. There was no significant difference (P>0.05 for the internal and horizontal marginal misfit in the groups GC, GI, and GP, but it was found for the group GCAD (P≤0.05. Qualitative analysis revealed that most of the samples of cast groups exhibited crowns underextension while the group GCAD showed overextension. Conclusions. The manufacturing method of the crowns influenced the accuracy of marginal fit between the prosthesis and implant. The best results were found for the crowns fabricated through CAD/CAM machining.

  1. A Novel Procedure for Rapid Imaging of Adult Mouse Brains with MicroCT Using Iodine-Based Contrast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Anderson

    Full Text Available High-resolution Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI has been the primary modality for obtaining 3D cross-sectional anatomical information in animals for soft tissue, particularly brain. However, costs associated with MRI can be considerably high for large phenotypic screens for gross differences in the structure of the brain due to pathology and/or experimental manipulations. MicroCT (mCT, especially benchtop mCT, is becoming a common laboratory equipment with throughput rates equal or faster than any form of high-resolution MRI at lower costs. Here we explore adapting previously developed contrast based mCT to image adult mouse brains in-situ. We show that 2% weight per volume (w/v iodine-potassium iodide solution can be successfully used to image adult mouse brains within 48 hours post-mortem when a structural support matrix is used. We demonstrate that hydrogel can be effectively used as a perfusant which limits the tissue shrinkage due to iodine.

  2. [Ex vivo microCT analysis of possible microfractures of the femoral head during implantation of a cementless hip resurfacing femoral component].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerch, M; Olender, G; von der Höh, N; Thorey, F; von Lewinski, G; Meyer-Lindenberg, A; Windhagen, H; Hurschler, C

    2009-01-01

    Microfractures of the femoral head during implantation of the femoral components are suspected to be a cause of fractures at the implant/neck junction which represent a common failure mode in hip resurfacing arthroplasty. Callus formation observed in femoral head retrievals suggests the occurrence of microfractures inside the femoral head, which might be inadvertently caused by the surgeon during implantation. The aim of this biomechanical study was to analyse whether or not the implantation of a cementless femoral component hip resurfacing system causes microfractures in the femoral head. After the preparation of 20 paired human cadaveric femoral heads, the cementless femoral component ESKA Typ BS (ESKA Implants GmbH & Co., Lübeck) was implanted on 9 specimens with an impaction device that generates 4.5 kN impaction force. On 9 specimens the femoral component was implanted by hand. One head was used as a fracture model, 1 specimen served as control without manipulation. The femoral component used for impaction was equipped with hinges to enable its removal without further interfering with the bone stock. Specimens were scanned with a microCT device before and after impaction and the microCT datasets before and after impaction were compared to identify possible microfractures. Twenty strikes per hand or with the impaction device provided sufficient implant seating. Neither the macroscopic examination nor the 2-dimensional microCT analysis revealed any fractures of the femoral heads after impaction. At least macroscopically and in the 2-dimensional microCT analysis, implantation of the cementless hip resurfacing femoral component ESKA Typ BS with 4.5 kN or by hand does not seem to cause fractures of the femoral head. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart, New York.

  3. Iodine and freeze-drying enhanced high-resolution MicroCT imaging for reconstructing 3D intraneural topography of human peripheral nerve fascicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Liwei; Guo, Yongze; Qi, Jian; Zhu, Qingtang; Gu, Liqiang; Zheng, Canbin; Lin, Tao; Lu, Yutong; Zeng, Zitao; Yu, Sha; Zhu, Shuang; Zhou, Xiang; Zhang, Xi; Du, Yunfei; Yao, Zhi; Lu, Yao; Liu, Xiaolin

    2017-08-01

    The precise annotation and accurate identification of the topography of fascicles to the end organs are prerequisites for studying human peripheral nerves. In this study, we present a feasible imaging method that acquires 3D high-resolution (HR) topography of peripheral nerve fascicles using an iodine and freeze-drying (IFD) micro-computed tomography (microCT) method to greatly increase the contrast of fascicle images. The enhanced microCT imaging method can facilitate the reconstruction of high-contrast HR fascicle images, fascicle segmentation and extraction, feature analysis, and the tracing of fascicle topography to end organs, which define fascicle functions. The complex intraneural aggregation and distribution of fascicles is typically assessed using histological techniques or MR imaging to acquire coarse axial three-dimensional (3D) maps. However, the disadvantages of histological techniques (static, axial manual registration, and data instability) and MR imaging (low-resolution) limit these applications in reconstructing the topography of nerve fascicles. Thus, enhanced microCT is a new technique for acquiring 3D intraneural topography of the human peripheral nerve fascicles both to improve our understanding of neurobiological principles and to guide accurate repair in the clinic. Additionally, 3D microstructure data can be used as a biofabrication model, which in turn can be used to fabricate scaffolds to repair long nerve gaps. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Synchrotron x-ray studies of the keel of the short-spined sea urchin lytechinus variegatus: absorption microtomography (microCT) and small beam diffraction mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stock, S.R.; Barss, J.; Dahl, T.; Veis, A.; Almer, J.D.; De Carlo, F.

    2003-01-01

    In sea urchin teeth, the keel plays an important structural role, and this paper reports results of microstructural characterization of the keel of Lytechinus variegatus using two noninvasive synchrotron x-ray techniques: x-ray absorption microtomography (microCT) and x-ray diffraction mapping. MicroCT with 14 keV x-rays mapped the spatial distribution of mineral at the 1.3 microm level in a millimeter-sized fragment of a mature portion of the keel. Two rows of low absorption channels (i.e., primary channels) slightly less than 10 microm in diameter were found running linearly from the flange to the base of the keel and parallel to its sides. The primary channels paralleled the oral edge of the keel, and the microCT slices revealed a planar secondary channel leading from each primary channel to the side of the keel. The primary and secondary channels were more or less coplanar and may correspond to the soft tissue between plates of the carinar process. Transmission x-ray diffraction with 80.8 keV x-rays and a 0.1 mm beam mapped the distribution of calcite crystal orientations and the composition Ca(1-x)Mg(x)CO(3) of the calcite. Unlike the variable Mg concentration and highly curved prisms found in the keel of Paracentrotus lividus, a constant Mg content (x = 0.13) and relatively little prism curvature was found in the keel of Lytechinus variegatus.

  5. Adaptation Measurement of CAD/CAM Dental Crowns with X-Ray Micro-CT: Metrological Chain Standardization and 3D Gap Size Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Tapie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Computer-Aided Design and Manufacturing systems are increasingly used to produce dental prostheses, but the parts produced suffer from a lack of evaluation, especially concerning the internal gap of the final assembly, that is, the space between the prepared tooth and the prosthesis. X-ray micro-Computed Tomography (micro-CT is a noninvasive imaging technique enabling the internal inspection of the assembly. It has proved to be an efficient tool for measuring the gap. In this study, a critical review of the protocols using micro-CT to quantify the gap is proposed as an introduction to a new protocol aimed at minimizing errors and enabling comparison between CAD/CAM systems. To compare different systems, a standardized protocol is proposed including two reference geometries. Micro-CT is used to acquire the reference geometries. A new 3D method is then proposed and a new indicator is defined (Gap Size Distribution (GSD. In addition, the usual 2D measurements are described and discussed. The 3D gap measurement method proposed can be used in clinical case geometries and has the considerable advantage of minimizing the data processing steps before performing the measurements.

  6. In vivo quantification of plant starch reserves at micrometer resolution using X-ray microCT imaging and machine learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earles, J Mason; Knipfer, Thorsten; Tixier, Aude; Orozco, Jessica; Reyes, Clarissa; Zwieniecki, Maciej A; Brodersen, Craig R; McElrone, Andrew J

    2018-03-08

    Starch is the primary energy storage molecule used by most terrestrial plants to fuel respiration and growth during periods of limited to no photosynthesis, and its depletion can drive plant mortality. Destructive techniques at coarse spatial scales exist to quantify starch, but these techniques face methodological challenges that can lead to uncertainty about the lability of tissue-specific starch pools and their role in plant survival. Here, we demonstrate how X-ray microcomputed tomography (microCT) and a machine learning algorithm can be coupled to quantify plant starch content in vivo, repeatedly and nondestructively over time in grapevine stems (Vitis spp.). Starch content estimated for xylem axial and ray parenchyma cells from microCT images was correlated strongly with enzymatically measured bulk-tissue starch concentration on the same stems. After validating our machine learning algorithm, we then characterized the spatial distribution of starch concentration in living stems at micrometer resolution, and identified starch depletion in live plants under experimental conditions designed to halt photosynthesis and starch production, initiating the drawdown of stored starch pools. Using X-ray microCT technology for in vivo starch monitoring should enable novel research directed at resolving the spatial and temporal patterns of starch accumulation and depletion in woody plant species. No claim to original US Government works New Phytologist © 2018 New Phytologist Trust.

  7. A Bone Metastasis Nude Mouse Model Created by Ultrasound Guided Intracardiac Injection of Breast Cancer Cells: the Micro-CT, MRI and Bioluminescence Imaging Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Young Jin; Song, Eun Hye; Kim, Seol Hwa; Song, Ho Taek; Suh, Jin Suck [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Sang Hyun [Korean Minjok Leadership Academy, Heongsung (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-01-15

    The purpose of this study was to develop a nude mouse model of bone metastasis by performing intracardiac injection of breast cancer cells under ultrasonography guidance and we wanted to evaluate the development and the distribution of metastasis in vivo using micro-CT, MRI and bioluminescence imaging. Animal experiments were performed in 6-week-old female nude mice. The animals underwent left ventricular injection of 2x105 MDA-MB-231Bo-Luc cells. After injection of the tumor cells, serial bioluminescence imaging was performed for 7 weeks. The findings of micro-CT, MRI and the histology were correlated with the 'hot' lesions seen on the bioluminescence imaging. Metastasis was found in 62.3% of the animals. Two weeks after intracardiac injection, metastasis to the brain, spine and femur was detected with bioluminescence imaging with an increasing intensity by week 7. Micro-CT scan confirmed multiple osteolytic lesions at the femur, spine and skull. MRI and the histology were able to show metastasis in the brain and extraskeletal metastasis around the femur. The intracardiac injection of cancer cells under ultrasonography guidance is a safe and highly reproducible method to produce bone metastasis in nude mice. This bone metastasis nude mouse model will be useful to study the mechanism of bone metastasis and to validate new therapeutics

  8. Present and future in the use of micro-CT scanner 3D analysis for the study of dental and root canal morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grande, Nicola M; Plotino, Gianluca; Gambarini, Gianluca; Testarelli, Luca; D'Ambrosio, Ferdinando; Pecci, Raffaella; Bedini, Rossella

    2012-01-01

    The goal of the present article is to illustrate and analyze the applications and the potential of microcomputed tomography (micro-CT) in the analysis of tooth anatomy and root canal morphology. The authors performed a micro-CT analysis of the following different teeth: maxillary first molars with a second canal in the mesiobuccal (MB) root, mandibular first molars with complex anatomy in the mesial root, premolars with single and double roots and with complicated apical anatomy. The hardware device used in this study was a desktop X-ray microfocus CT scanner (SkyScan 1072, SkyScan bvba, Aartselaar, Belgium). A specific software ResolveRT Amira (Visage Imaging) was used for the 3D analysis and imaging. The authors obtained three-dimensional images from 15 teeth. It was possible to precisely visualize and analyze external and internal anatomy of teeth, showing the finest details. Among the 5 upper molars analyzed, in three cases, the MB canals joined into one canal, while in the other two molars the two mesial canals were separate. Among the lower molars two of the five samples exhibited a single canal in the mesial root, which had a broad, flat appearance in a mesiodistal dimension. In the five premolar teeth, the canals were independent; however, the apical delta and ramifications of the root canals were quite complex. Micro-CT offers a simple and reproducible technique for 3D noninvasive assessment of the anatomy of root canal systems.

  9. Surface and bulk 3D analysis of natural and processed ruby using electron probe micro analyzer and X-ray micro CT scan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahoo, Rakesh K., E-mail: rakesh.materialscience@gmail.com; Singh, Saroj K.; Mishra, B.K.

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • Firm linking between two advance techniques: Micro-CT and EPMA for mineral analysis. • Attempt to identify and differentiate the treated gem stone from natural counterpart. • 3D structural and surface elemental analysis of the natural gem stone. - Abstract: The change in surface compositional and bulk structural characteristics of the natural ruby stone, before and after heat treatment with lead oxide has been analyzed using two advance characterization techniques like: X-ray micro CT scan (μ-CT) and electron probe micro analyzer (EPMA). The analytical correlation between these two techniques in identification as well as in depth study of the ores and minerals before and after processing has been presented. Also, we describe the aesthetic enhancement of a low quality defective ruby stone by lead oxide filling and the sequential analysis of this ruby stone before and after treatment using these two advanced techniques to identify and to confirm the change in its aesthetic value. The cracks healing and pores filling by the metal oxide on the surface of the ruby have been analyzed using μ-CT and EPMA. Moreover, in this work we describe the advance characterization of the repaired gem stones especially ruby stones. This work will light up the path for in-depth understanding of diffusion mechanism and abstract information of impurity particles inside the minerals. Based on these observations, EPMA and micro CT are shown to be powerful tools for the identification as well as research in gem stones.

  10. Present and future in the use of micro-CT scanner 3D analysis for the study of dental and root canal morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola M. Grande

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the present article is to illustrate and analyze the applications and the potential of microcomputed tomography (micro-CT in the analysis of tooth anatomy and root canal morphology. The authors performed a micro-CT analysis of the following different teeth: maxillary first molars with a second canal in the mesiobuccal (MB root, mandibular first molars with complex anatomy in the mesial root, premolars with single and double roots and with complicated apical anatomy. The hardware device used in this study was a desktop X-ray microfocus CT scanner (SkyScan 1072, SkyScan bvba, Aartselaar, Belgium. A specific software ResolveRT Amira (Visage Imaging was used for the 3D analysis and imaging. The authors obtained three-dimensional images from 15 teeth. It was possible to precisely visualize and analyze external and internal anatomy of teeth, showing the finest details. Among the 5 upper molars analyzed, in three cases, the MB canals joined into one canal, while in the other two molars the two mesial canals were separate. Among the lower molars two of the five samples exhibited a single canal in the mesial root, which had a broad, flat appearance in a mesiodistal dimension. In the five premolar teeth, the canals were independent; however, the apical delta and ramifications of the root canals were quite complex. Micro-CT offers a simple and reproducible technique for 3D noninvasive assessment of the anatomy of root canal systems.

  11. Regularized iterative integration combined with non-linear diffusion filtering for phase-contrast x-ray computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Karin; Koehler, Thomas; Chabior, Michael; Allner, Sebastian; Marschner, Mathias; Fehringer, Andreas; Willner, Marian; Pfeiffer, Franz; Noël, Peter

    2014-12-29

    Phase-contrast x-ray computed tomography has a high potential to become clinically implemented because of its complementarity to conventional absorption-contrast.In this study, we investigate noise-reducing but resolution-preserving analytical reconstruction methods to improve differential phase-contrast imaging. We apply the non-linear Perona-Malik filter on phase-contrast data prior or post filtered backprojected reconstruction. Secondly, the Hilbert kernel is replaced by regularized iterative integration followed by ramp filtered backprojection as used for absorption-contrast imaging. Combining the Perona-Malik filter with this integration algorithm allows to successfully reveal relevant sample features, quantitatively confirmed by significantly increased structural similarity indices and contrast-to-noise ratios. With this concept, phase-contrast imaging can be performed at considerably lower dose.

  12. Numerical design of in-line X-ray phase-contrast imaging based on ellipsoidal single-bounce monocapillary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Weiyuan; Liu, Zhiguo; Sun, Tianxi; Peng, Song; Ma, Yongzhong; Ding, Xunliang

    2014-01-01

    A new device using an ellipsoidal single-bounce monocapillary X-ray optics was numerically designed to realize in-line X-ray phase-contrast imaging by using conventional laboratory X-ray source with a large spot. Numerical simulation results validated the effectiveness of the proposed device and approach. The ellipsoidal single-bounce monocapillary X-ray optics had potential applications in the in-line phase contrast imaging with polychromatic X-rays

  13. Numerical design of in-line X-ray phase-contrast imaging based on ellipsoidal single-bounce monocapillary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Weiyuan; Liu, Zhiguo [The Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Materials Modification of the Ministry of Education, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Beijing Radiation Center, Beijing 100875 (China); Sun, Tianxi, E-mail: stx@bnu.edu.cn [The Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Materials Modification of the Ministry of Education, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Beijing Radiation Center, Beijing 100875 (China); Peng, Song [The Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Materials Modification of the Ministry of Education, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Beijing Radiation Center, Beijing 100875 (China); Ma, Yongzhong [Center for Disease Control and Prevention of Beijing, Beijing 100013 (China); Ding, Xunliang [The Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Materials Modification of the Ministry of Education, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Beijing Radiation Center, Beijing 100875 (China)

    2014-05-11

    A new device using an ellipsoidal single-bounce monocapillary X-ray optics was numerically designed to realize in-line X-ray phase-contrast imaging by using conventional laboratory X-ray source with a large spot. Numerical simulation results validated the effectiveness of the proposed device and approach. The ellipsoidal single-bounce monocapillary X-ray optics had potential applications in the in-line phase contrast imaging with polychromatic X-rays.

  14. Combined mixed approach algorithm for in-line phase-contrast x-ray imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Caro, Liberato; Scattarella, Francesco; Giannini, Cinzia; Tangaro, Sabina; Rigon, Luigi; Longo, Renata; Bellotti, Roberto

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: In the past decade, phase-contrast imaging (PCI) has been applied to study different kinds of tissues and human body parts, with an increased improvement of the image quality with respect to simple absorption radiography. A technique closely related to PCI is phase-retrieval imaging (PRI). Indeed, PCI is an imaging modality thought to enhance the total contrast of the images through the phase shift introduced by the object (human body part); PRI is a mathematical technique to extract the quantitative phase-shift map from PCI. A new phase-retrieval algorithm for the in-line phase-contrast x-ray imaging is here proposed. Methods: The proposed algorithm is based on a mixed transfer-function and transport-of-intensity approach (MA) and it requires, at most, an initial approximate estimate of the average phase shift introduced by the object as prior knowledge. The accuracy in the initial estimate determines the convergence speed of the algorithm. The proposed algorithm retrieves both the object phase and its complex conjugate in a combined MA (CMA). Results: Although slightly less computationally effective with respect to other mixed-approach algorithms, as two phases have to be retrieved, the results obtained by the CMA on simulated data have shown that the obtained reconstructed phase maps are characterized by particularly low normalized mean square errors. The authors have also tested the CMA on noisy experimental phase-contrast data obtained by a suitable weakly absorbing sample consisting of a grid of submillimetric nylon fibers as well as on a strongly absorbing object made of a 0.03 mm thick lead x-ray resolution star pattern. The CMA has shown a good efficiency in recovering phase information, also in presence of noisy data, characterized by peak-to-peak signal-to-noise ratios down to a few dBs, showing the possibility to enhance with phase radiography the signal-to-noise ratio for features in the submillimetric scale with respect to the attenuation

  15. Optimization of in-line phase contrast particle image velocimetry using a laboratory x-ray source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng, I.; Fouras, A.; Paganin, D. M.

    2012-01-01

    Phase contrast particle image velocimetry (PIV) using a laboratory x-ray microfocus source is investigated using a numerical model. Phase contrast images of 75 μm air bubbles, embedded within water exhibiting steady-state vortical flow, are generated under the paraxial approximation using a tungsten x-ray spectrum at 30 kVp. Propagation-based x-ray phase-contrast speckle images at a range of source-object and object-detector distances are generated, and used as input into a simulated PIV measurement. The effects of source-size-induced penumbral blurring, together with the finite dynamic range of the detector, are accounted for in the simulation. The PIV measurement procedure involves using the cross-correlation between temporally sequential speckle images to estimate the transverse displacement field for the fluid. The global error in the PIV reconstruction, for the set of simulations that was performed, suggests that geometric magnification is the key parameter for designing a laboratory-based x-ray phase-contrast PIV system. For the modeled system, x-ray phase-contrast PIV data measurement can be optimized to obtain low error ( 15 μm) of the detector, high geometric magnification (>2.5) is desired, while for large source size system (FWHM > 30 μm), low magnification (<1.5) would be suggested instead. The methods developed in this paper can be applied to optimizing phase-contrast velocimetry using a variety of laboratory x-ray sources.

  16. X-ray phase-contrast CT imaging of the acupoints based on synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chenglin, Liu; Xiaohua, Wang; Hua, Xu; Fang, Liu; Ruishan, Dang; Dongming, Zhang; Xinyi, Zhang; Honglan, Xie; Tiqiao, Xiao

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the morphology of the acupuncture point (abbreviated as acupoint hereafter) or tissue where there were no acupoints in the fractional rabbit hind limb was studied by in-line phase contrast CT imaging (PCI-CT) methods based on synchrotron radiation. The density of micro-vessels was calculated for tissues with acupoints or without acupoints. Differences between acupoints area and non-acupoint areas determined by the density of the micro-vessels propose a strong evidence of the existence of acupoints. Our results showed that there were two significantly higher densities of the micro-vessels, where two acupoints were located, respectively. In addition, there were large numbers of involutedly microvascular structure in the acupoint areas. Nevertheless, in non-acupoints area, the microvascular structure was relatively simple and flat

  17. X-ray phase-contrast CT imaging of the acupoints based on synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chenglin, Liu, E-mail: lclyctc@163.com [Physics Department of Yancheng Teachers’ College, Yancheng 224051 (China); Xiaohua, Wang; Hua, Xu [Physics Department of Yancheng Teachers’ College, Yancheng 224051 (China); Fang, Liu; Ruishan, Dang [Anatomy Department of Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Dongming, Zhang; Xinyi, Zhang [Synchrotron Radiation Research Center of Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Honglan, Xie; Tiqiao, Xiao [Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility of Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, CAS, Shanghai 201800 (China)

    2014-10-15

    In this paper, the morphology of the acupuncture point (abbreviated as acupoint hereafter) or tissue where there were no acupoints in the fractional rabbit hind limb was studied by in-line phase contrast CT imaging (PCI-CT) methods based on synchrotron radiation. The density of micro-vessels was calculated for tissues with acupoints or without acupoints. Differences between acupoints area and non-acupoint areas determined by the density of the micro-vessels propose a strong evidence of the existence of acupoints. Our results showed that there were two significantly higher densities of the micro-vessels, where two acupoints were located, respectively. In addition, there were large numbers of involutedly microvascular structure in the acupoint areas. Nevertheless, in non-acupoints area, the microvascular structure was relatively simple and flat.

  18. Quantitative differential phase contrast imaging at high resolution with radially asymmetric illumination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Zi; Huang, Kuang-Yuh; Luo, Yuan

    2018-06-15

    Half-circle illumination-based differential phase contrast (DPC) microscopy has been utilized to recover phase images through a pair of images along multiple axes. Recently, the half-circle based DPC using 12-axis measurements significantly provides a circularly symmetric phase transfer function to improve accuracy for more stable phase recovery. Instead of using half-circle-based DPC, we propose a new scheme of DPC under radially asymmetric illumination to achieve circularly symmetric phase transfer function and enhance the accuracy of phase recovery in a more stable and efficient fashion. We present the design, implementation, and experimental image data demonstrating the ability of our method to obtain quantitative phase images of microspheres, as well as live fibroblast cell samples.

  19. Fourier domain image fusion for differential X-ray phase-contrast breast imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coello, Eduardo; Sperl, Jonathan I.; Bequé, Dirk; Benz, Tobias; Scherer, Kai; Herzen, Julia; Sztrókay-Gaul, Anikó; Hellerhoff, Karin; Pfeiffer, Franz; Cozzini, Cristina; Grandl, Susanne

    2017-01-01

    X-Ray Phase-Contrast (XPC) imaging is a novel technology with a great potential for applications in clinical practice, with breast imaging being of special interest. This work introduces an intuitive methodology to combine and visualize relevant diagnostic features, present in the X-ray attenuation, phase shift and scattering information retrieved in XPC imaging, using a Fourier domain fusion algorithm. The method allows to present complementary information from the three acquired signals in one single image, minimizing the noise component and maintaining visual similarity to a conventional X-ray image, but with noticeable enhancement in diagnostic features, details and resolution. Radiologists experienced in mammography applied the image fusion method to XPC measurements of mastectomy samples and evaluated the feature content of each input and the fused image. This assessment validated that the combination of all the relevant diagnostic features, contained in the XPC images, was present in the fused image as well.

  20. Generalized Phase contrast and matched filtering for speckle‐free patterned illumination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palima, Darwin; Bañas, Andrew Rafael; Villangca, Mark Jayson

    2013-01-01

    Generalized Phase Contrast (GPC) and matched‐filtering GPC use tandem diffractive phase elements on Fourier‐conjugate planes of a 4f optical processor to efficiently reshape incident light into a pattern that resembles the input phase modulation pattern. The synthesized patterns are inherently...... to optically trap and mechanically manipulate microparticles, GPC has also been applied for laser beamshaping, optical phase cryptography, and greyscale image projection. Recent reports from our collaborators highlight that GPC‐based spatial lightshaping, when combined with temporal focusing and multiphoton...... excitation, exhibits some robustness against light scattering and, hence, makes a promising tool for spatially precise targeting of deeper subsurface neurons using minimally speckled patterned illumination for multiphoton excitation....

  1. Phase-contrast x-ray computed tomography for biological imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momose, Atsushi; Takeda, Tohoru; Itai, Yuji

    1997-10-01

    We have shown so far that 3D structures in biological sot tissues such as cancer can be revealed by phase-contrast x- ray computed tomography using an x-ray interferometer. As a next step, we aim at applications of this technique to in vivo observation, including radiographic applications. For this purpose, the size of view field is desired to be more than a few centimeters. Therefore, a larger x-ray interferometer should be used with x-rays of higher energy. We have evaluated the optimal x-ray energy from an aspect of does as a function of sample size. Moreover, desired spatial resolution to an image sensor is discussed as functions of x-ray energy and sample size, basing on a requirement in the analysis of interference fringes.

  2. Recent observations with phase-contrast x-ray computed tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momose, Atsushi; Takeda, Tohoru; Itai, Yuji; Tu, Jinhong; Hirano, Keiichi

    1999-09-01

    Recent development in phase-contrast X-ray computed tomography using an X-ray interferometer is reported. To observe larger samples than is possible with our previous X-ray interferometer, a large monolithic X-ray interferometer and a separated-type X-ray interferometer were studied. At the present time, 2.5 cm X 1.5 cm interference patterns have been generated with the X-ray interferometers using synchrotron X-rays. The large monolithic X-ray interferometer has produced interference fringes with 80% visibility, and has been used to measure various tissues. To produce images with higher spatial resolution, we fabricated another X-ray interferometer whose wafer was partially thinned by chemical etching. A preliminary test suggested that the spatial resolution has been improved.

  3. Overcoming pitfalls in the diagnosis of aortic dissection with phase-contrast cine MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herfkens, R.J.; Trefelner, E.C.; Jeffrey, R.B.; Pelc, N.J.; Steiner, R.M.; Francis, I.R.

    1991-01-01

    This paper evaluates whether phase contrast cine MR imaging improves the diagnostic accuracy in aortic dissection. Fifty-five MR examinations in 49 patients were analyzed. Gated coronal and axial spin-echo (SE) images and axial velocity encoded cine images were collected through the thoracic aorta. Blinded interpretations were obtained by first evaluating SE images, then SE and cine (magnitude) images, and finally with the addition of the velocity data for whether there was increase or decreased diagnostic confidence of aortic dissection. Comparisons were made with CT, angiography, and follow-up (including surgery). Fisher discriminant analysis showed that a statistically significant improvement in diagnostic accuracy was made by the addition of the velocity data in cases where a definite diagnosis of aortic dissection could not be made from the SE images alone

  4. Analysis of flow dynamics of main pulmonary artery by cine phase contrast MR angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honda, Norinari; Machida, Kikuo; Mamiya, Toshio

    1996-01-01

    Nineteen studies of cine phase contrast MR angiography (PCMRA) of main pulmonary artery (MPA) entered the study. Cine PCMRA was obtained by a 1.5T MR imager with a gradient echo sequence coupled with velocity encoding bipolar pulses. Retrospective EKG gating was used. Mean velocity, maximum velocity, and maximum flow rate of MPA were 6.2 to 28 cm/s (mean/SD 13/5.1, n=18), 61 to 148 cm/s (mean/SD 102/30, n=13), and 12,561 to 30,113 ml/min (mean/SD 18,730/5,464, n=18), respectively. Retrograde flow in the MPA was noted to begin at late-to mid-systole. Retrograde flow occurred first in the posterior part (15/19) or occurred from periphery (4/19). Thus hemodynamic parameters and velocity maps of MPA can be obtained by cine PCMRA. (author)

  5. An iterative method for near-field Fresnel region polychromatic phase contrast imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Aidan J.; van Riessen, Grant A.; Balaur, Eugeniu; Dolbnya, Igor P.; Tran, Giang N.; Peele, Andrew G.

    2017-07-01

    We present an iterative method for polychromatic phase contrast imaging that is suitable for broadband illumination and which allows for the quantitative determination of the thickness of an object given the refractive index of the sample material. Experimental and simulation results suggest the iterative method provides comparable image quality and quantitative object thickness determination when compared to the analytical polychromatic transport of intensity and contrast transfer function methods. The ability of the iterative method to work over a wider range of experimental conditions means the iterative method is a suitable candidate for use with polychromatic illumination and may deliver more utility for laboratory-based x-ray sources, which typically have a broad spectrum.

  6. Turbulent stress measurements with phase-contrast magnetic resonance through tilted slices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacKenzie, Jordan; Soederberg, Daniel; Lundell, Fredrik [Linne FLOW Centre, KTH Mechanics, Stockholm (Sweden); Swerin, Agne [SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden-Chemistry, Materials and Surfaces, Stockholm (Sweden); KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Surface and Corrosion Science, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2017-05-15

    Aiming at turbulent measurements in opaque suspensions, a simplistic methodology for measuring the turbulent stresses with phase-contrast magnetic resonance velocimetry is described. The method relies on flow-compensated and flow-encoding protocols with the flow encoding gradient normal to the slice. The experimental data is compared with direct numerical simulations (DNS), both directly but also, more importantly, after spatial averaging of the DNS data that resembles the measurement and data treatment of the experimental data. The results show that the most important MRI data (streamwise velocity, streamwise variance and Reynolds shear stress) is reliable up to at least anti r = 0.75 without any correction, paving the way for dearly needed turbulence and stress measurements in opaque suspensions. (orig.)

  7. Automatic neuron segmentation and neural network analysis method for phase contrast microscopy images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Jincheng; Özkucur, Nurdan; Ren, Michael; Kaplan, David L; Levin, Michael; Miller, Eric L

    2015-11-01

    Phase Contrast Microscopy (PCM) is an important tool for the long term study of living cells. Unlike fluorescence methods which suffer from photobleaching of fluorophore or dye molecules, PCM image contrast is generated by the natural variations in optical index of refraction. Unfortunately, the same physical principles which allow for these studies give rise to complex artifacts in the raw PCM imagery. Of particular interest in this paper are neuron images where these image imperfections manifest in very different ways for the two structures of specific interest: cell bodies (somas) and dendrites. To address these challenges, we introduce a novel parametric image model using the level set framework and an associated variational approach which simultaneously restores and segments this class of images. Using this technique as the basis for an automated image analysis pipeline, results for both the synthetic and real images validate and demonstrate the advantages of our approach.

  8. A resolution-enhancing image reconstruction method for few-view differential phase-contrast tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Huifeng; Anastasio, Mark A.

    2017-03-01

    It is well-known that properly designed image reconstruction methods can facilitate reductions in imaging doses and data-acquisition times in tomographic imaging. The ability to do so is particularly important for emerging modalities such as differential X-ray phase-contrast tomography (D-XPCT), which are currently limited by these factors. An important application of D-XPCT is high-resolution imaging of biomedical samples. However, reconstructing high-resolution images from few-view tomographic measurements remains a challenging task. In this work, a two-step sub-space reconstruction strategy is proposed and investigated for use in few-view D-XPCT image reconstruction. It is demonstrated that the resulting iterative algorithm can mitigate the high-frequency information loss caused by data incompleteness and produce images that have better preserved high spatial frequency content than those produced by use of a conventional penalized least squares (PLS) estimator.

  9. An algebraic iterative reconstruction technique for differential X-ray phase-contrast computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Jian; Schleede, Simone; Tan, Renbo; Chen, Liyuan; Bech, Martin; Achterhold, Klaus; Gifford, Martin; Loewen, Rod; Ruth, Ronald; Pfeiffer, Franz

    2013-09-01

    Iterative reconstruction has a wide spectrum of proven advantages in the field of conventional X-ray absorption-based computed tomography (CT). In this paper, we report on an algebraic iterative reconstruction technique for grating-based differential phase-contrast CT (DPC-CT). Due to the differential nature of DPC-CT projections, a differential operator and a smoothing operator are added to the iterative reconstruction, compared to the one commonly used for absorption-based CT data. This work comprises a numerical study of the algorithm and its experimental verification using a dataset measured at a two-grating interferometer setup. Since the algorithm is easy to implement and allows for the extension to various regularization possibilities, we expect a significant impact of the method for improving future medical and industrial DPC-CT applications. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  10. Microbubbles as contrast agent for in-line x-ray phase-contrast imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xi Yan; Zhao Jun; Tang Rongbiao; Wang Yujie

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the potential of gas-filled microbubbles as contrast agents for in-line x-ray phase-contrast imaging (PCI) in biomedical applications. When imaging parameters are optimized, the microbubbles function as microlenses that focus the incoming x-rays to form bright spots, which can significantly enhance the image contrast. Since microbubbles have been shown to be safe contrast agents in clinical ultrasonography, this contrast-enhancement procedure for PCI may have promising utility in biomedical applications, especially when the dose of radiation is a serious concern. In this study, we performed both numerical simulations and ex vivo experiments to investigate the formation of the contrast and the effectiveness of microbubbles as contrast agents in PCI.

  11. SR phase contrast imaging to address the evolution of defects during SiC growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Argunova, Tatiana S.; Gutkin, Mikhail Yu.; Je, Jung Ho; Mokhov, Evgeniy N.; Nagalyuk, Sergey S.; Hwu, Yeukuang

    2011-01-01

    Sliced SiC boule grown by physical vapor transport is investigated using synchrotron white beam phase contrast imaging combined with Bragg diffraction. The evolution of defects is revealed. In the early growth stage, foreign polytype inclusions not only induce massive generation of full-core dislocations and dislocated micropipes but also attract them, forming slit-type pores at the boundaries of inclusions. In the intermediate stage, when inclusions stop to grow and become overgrown by the matrix, the pore density significantly reduces, which is attributed to their transformation into new micropipes. In the later stage, the micropipe density decreases, providing evidence for their partial annihilation and healing. Mechanisms for the evolution from inclusions to pores and finally to micropipes during the crystal growth are further discussed. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  12. Fourier domain image fusion for differential X-ray phase-contrast breast imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coello, Eduardo, E-mail: eduardo.coello@tum.de [GE Global Research, Garching (Germany); Lehrstuhl für Informatikanwendungen in der Medizin & Augmented Reality, Institut für Informatik, Technische Universität München, Garching (Germany); Sperl, Jonathan I.; Bequé, Dirk [GE Global Research, Garching (Germany); Benz, Tobias [Lehrstuhl für Informatikanwendungen in der Medizin & Augmented Reality, Institut für Informatik, Technische Universität München, Garching (Germany); Scherer, Kai; Herzen, Julia [Lehrstuhl für Biomedizinische Physik, Physik-Department & Institut für Medizintechnik, Technische Universität München, Garching (Germany); Sztrókay-Gaul, Anikó; Hellerhoff, Karin [Institute for Clinical Radiology, Ludwig-Maximilians-University Hospital, Munich (Germany); Pfeiffer, Franz [Lehrstuhl für Biomedizinische Physik, Physik-Department & Institut für Medizintechnik, Technische Universität München, Garching (Germany); Cozzini, Cristina [GE Global Research, Garching (Germany); Grandl, Susanne [Institute for Clinical Radiology, Ludwig-Maximilians-University Hospital, Munich (Germany)

    2017-04-15

    X-Ray Phase-Contrast (XPC) imaging is a novel technology with a great potential for applications in clinical practice, with breast imaging being of special interest. This work introduces an intuitive methodology to combine and visualize relevant diagnostic features, present in the X-ray attenuation, phase shift and scattering information retrieved in XPC imaging, using a Fourier domain fusion algorithm. The method allows to present complementary information from the three acquired signals in one single image, minimizing the noise component and maintaining visual similarity to a conventional X-ray image, but with noticeable enhancement in diagnostic features, details and resolution. Radiologists experienced in mammography applied the image fusion method to XPC measurements of mastectomy samples and evaluated the feature content of each input and the fused image. This assessment validated that the combination of all the relevant diagnostic features, contained in the XPC images, was present in the fused image as well.

  13. Zernike phase-contrast electron cryotomography applied to marine cyanobacteria infected with cyanophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Wei; Fu, Caroline; Khant, Htet A; Ludtke, Steven J; Schmid, Michael F; Chiu, Wah

    2014-11-01

    Advances in electron cryotomography have provided new opportunities to visualize the internal 3D structures of a bacterium. An electron microscope equipped with Zernike phase-contrast optics produces images with markedly increased contrast compared with images obtained by conventional electron microscopy. Here we describe a protocol to apply Zernike phase plate technology for acquiring electron tomographic tilt series of cyanophage-infected cyanobacterial cells embedded in ice, without staining or chemical fixation. We detail the procedures for aligning and assessing phase plates for data collection, and methods for obtaining 3D structures of cyanophage assembly intermediates in the host by subtomogram alignment, classification and averaging. Acquiring three or four tomographic tilt series takes ∼12 h on a JEM2200FS electron microscope. We expect this time requirement to decrease substantially as the technique matures. The time required for annotation and subtomogram averaging varies widely depending on the project goals and data volume.

  14. Zernike Phase Contrast Electron Cryo-Tomography Applied to Marine Cyanobacteria Infected with Cyanophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Wei; Fu, Caroline; Khant, Htet A.; Ludtke, Steven J.; Schmid, Michael F.; Chiu, Wah

    2015-01-01

    Advances in electron cryo-tomography have provided a new opportunity to visualize the internal 3D structures of a bacterium. An electron microscope equipped with Zernike phase contrast optics produces images with dramatically increased contrast compared to images obtained by conventional electron microscopy. Here we describe a protocol to apply Zernike phase plate technology for acquiring electron tomographic tilt series of cyanophage-infected cyanobacterial cells embedded in ice, without staining or chemical fixation. We detail the procedures for aligning and assessing phase plates for data collection, and methods to obtain 3D structures of cyanophage assembly intermediates in the host, by subtomogram alignment, classification and averaging. Acquiring three to four tomographic tilt series takes approximately 12 h on a JEM2200FS electron microscope. We expect this time requirement to decrease substantially as the technique matures. Time required for annotation and subtomogram averaging varies widely depending on the project goals and data volume. PMID:25321408

  15. Phase contrast enhanced high resolution X-ray imaging and tomography of soft tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakubek, Jan; Granja, Carlos; Dammer, Jiri; Hanus, Robert; Holy, Tomas; Pospisil, Stanislav; Tykva, Richard; Uher, Josef; Vykydal, Zdenek

    2007-01-01

    A tabletop system for digital high resolution and high sensitivity X-ray micro-radiography has been developed for small-animal and soft-tissue imaging. The system is based on a micro-focus X-ray tube and the semiconductor hybrid position sensitive Medipix2 pixel detector. Transmission radiography imaging, conventionally based only on absorption, is enhanced by exploiting phase-shift effects induced in the X-ray beam traversing the sample. Phase contrast imaging is realized by object edge enhancement. DAQ is done by a novel fully integrated USB-based readout with online image generation. Improved signal reconstruction techniques make use of advanced statistical data analysis, enhanced beam hardening correction and direct thickness calibration of individual pixels. 2D and 3D micro-tomography images of several biological samples demonstrate the applicability of the system for biological and medical purposes including in-vivo and time dependent physiological studies in the life sciences

  16. Inpainting approaches to fill in detector gaps in phase contrast computed tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brun, F.; Delogu, P.; Longo, R.; Dreossi, D.; Rigon, L.

    2018-01-01

    Photon counting semiconductor detectors in radiation imaging present attractive properties, such as high efficiency, low noise, and energy sensitivity. The very complex electronics limits the sensitive area of current devices to a few square cm. This disadvantage is often compensated by tiling a larger matrix with an adequate number of detector units but this usually results in non-negligible insensitive gaps between two adjacent modules. When considering the case of Computed Tomography (CT), these gaps lead to degraded reconstructed images with severe streak and ring artifacts. This work presents two digital image processing solutions to fill in these gaps when considering the specific case of synchrotron radiation x-ray parallel beam phase contrast CT. While not discussed with experimental data, other CT modalities, such as spectral, cone beam and other geometries might benefit from the presented approaches.

  17. X-ray phase-contrast micro-tomography and image analysis of wood microstructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayo, Sheridan; Evans, Robert; Chen, Fiona; Lagerstrom, Ryan

    2009-01-01

    A number of commercially important properties of wood depend on details of the wood micro- and nano- structure. CSIRO Forest Biosciences have developed SilviScan, an analytical instrument which uses a number of high-speed techniques for analyzing these properties. X-ray micro-tomographic analysis of wood samples provides detailed 3D reconstructions of the wood microstructure which can be used to validate results from SilviScan measurements. A series of wood samples was analysed using laboratory-based phase-contrast x-ray micro-tomography. Image analysis techniques were applied to the 3D data sets to extract significant features and statistical properties of the specimens. These data provide a means of verification of results from the more rapid SilviScan techniques, and will clarify the results of micro-diffraction studies of wood microfibrils.

  18. Scaling law for noise variance and spatial resolution in differential phase contrast computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Guanghong; Zambelli, Joseph; Li Ke; Bevins, Nicholas; Qi Zhihua

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The noise variance versus spatial resolution relationship in differential phase contrast (DPC) projection imaging and computed tomography (CT) are derived and compared to conventional absorption-based x-ray projection imaging and CT. Methods: The scaling law for DPC-CT is theoretically derived and subsequently validated with phantom results from an experimental Talbot-Lau interferometer system. Results: For the DPC imaging method, the noise variance in the differential projection images follows the same inverse-square law with spatial resolution as in conventional absorption-based x-ray imaging projections. However, both in theory and experimental results, in DPC-CT the noise variance scales with spatial resolution following an inverse linear relationship with fixed slice thickness. Conclusions: The scaling law in DPC-CT implies a lesser noise, and therefore dose, penalty for moving to higher spatial resolutions when compared to conventional absorption-based CT in order to maintain the same contrast-to-noise ratio.

  19. Design of tangential viewing phase contrast imaging for turbulence measurements in JT-60SA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, K., E-mail: ktanaka@nifs.ac.jp [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan); Department of Advanced Energy Engineering, Kyushu University, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); Coda, S. [EPFL–SPC, Lausanne (Switzerland); Yoshida, M.; Sasao, H.; Kawano, Y.; Imazawa, R.; Kubo, H.; Kamada, Y. [National Institutes for Quantum and Radiological Science and Technology, Naka, Ibaraki 311-0193 (Japan)

    2016-11-15

    A tangential viewing phase contrast imaging system is being designed for the JT-60SA tokamak to investigate microturbulence. In order to obtain localized information on the turbulence, a spatial-filtering technique is applied, based on magnetic shearing. The tangential viewing geometry enhances the radial localization. The probing laser beam is injected tangentially and traverses the entire plasma region including both low and high field sides. The spatial resolution for an Internal Transport Barrier discharge is estimated at 30%–70% of the minor radius at k = 5 cm{sup −1}, which is the typical expected wave number of ion scale turbulence such as ion temperature gradient/trapped electron mode.

  20. X-ray phase contrast imaging of the bone-cartilage interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismail, E.C.; Kaabar, W.; Garrity, D.; Gundogdu, O.; Bradley, D.A.; Bunk, O.; Pfeiffer, F.; Farquharson, M.J.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Synovial joints articulate in a lubricating environment, the system providing for smooth articulation. The articular cartilage overlying the bone consists of a network of collagen fibres. This network is essential to cartilage integrity, suffering damage in degenerative joint disease such as osteoarthritis. At Surrey and also in work conducted by this group at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) synchrotron site we have been applying a number of techniques in studying the bone-cartilage interface and of changes occurring in this with disease. One technique attracting particular interest is X-ray phase contrast imaging, yielding information on anatomical features that manifest from the large scale organisation of collagen and the mineralised phase contained within the collagen fibres in the deep cartilage zone. This work will briefly review some of the basic supporting physics and then shows some of the images and other results that we have obtained to-date

  1. Theory and preliminary experimental verification of quantitative edge illumination x-ray phase contrast tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, C K; Diemoz, P C; Endrizzi, M; Rigon, L; Dreossi, D; Arfelli, F; Lopez, F C M; Longo, R; Olivo, A

    2014-04-07

    X-ray phase contrast imaging (XPCi) methods are sensitive to phase in addition to attenuation effects and, therefore, can achieve improved image contrast for weakly attenuating materials, such as often encountered in biomedical applications. Several XPCi methods exist, most of which have already been implemented in computed tomographic (CT) modality, thus allowing volumetric imaging. The Edge Illumination (EI) XPCi method had, until now, not been implemented as a CT modality. This article provides indications that quantitative 3D maps of an object's phase and attenuation can be reconstructed from EI XPCi measurements. Moreover, a theory for the reconstruction of combined phase and attenuation maps is presented. Both reconstruction strategies find applications in tissue characterisation and the identification of faint, weakly attenuating details. Experimental results for wires of known materials and for a biological object validate the theory and confirm the superiority of the phase over conventional, attenuation-based image contrast.

  2. Cardiac magnetic resonance: is phonocardiogram gating reliable in velocity-encoded phase contrast imaging?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nassenstein, Kai; Schlosser, Thomas; Orzada, Stephan; Ladd, Mark E.; Maderwald, Stefan; Haering, Lars; Czylwik, Andreas; Jensen, Christoph; Bruder, Oliver

    2012-01-01

    To assess the diagnostic accuracy of phonocardiogram (PCG) gated velocity-encoded phase contrast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Flow quantification above the aortic valve was performed in 68 patients by acquiring a retrospectively PCG- and a retrospectively ECG-gated velocity-encoded GE-sequence at 1.5 T. Peak velocity (PV), average velocity (AV), forward volume (FV), reverse volume (RV), net forward volume (NFV), as well as the regurgitant fraction (RF) were assessed for both datasets, as well as for the PCG-gated datasets after compensation for the PCG trigger delay. PCG-gated image acquisition was feasible in 64 patients, ECG-gated in all patients. PCG-gated flow quantification overestimated PV (Δ 3.8 ± 14.1 cm/s; P = 0.037) and underestimated FV (Δ -4.9 ± 15.7 ml; P = 0.015) and NFV (Δ -4.5 ± 16.5 ml; P = 0.033) compared with ECG-gated imaging. After compensation for the PCG trigger delay, differences were only observed for PV (Δ 3.8 ± 14.1 cm/s; P = 0.037). Wide limits of agreement between PCG- and ECG-gated flow quantification were observed for all variables (PV: -23.9 to 31.4 cm/s; AV: -4.5 to 3.9 cm/s; FV: -35.6 to 25.9 ml; RV: -8.0 to 7.2 ml; NFV: -36.8 to 27.8 ml; RF: -10.4 to 10.2 %). The present study demonstrates that PCG gating in its current form is not reliable enough for flow quantification based on velocity-encoded phase contrast gradient echo (GE) sequences. (orig.)

  3. Analyzer-based phase-contrast imaging system using a micro focus x-ray source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Wei; Majidi, Keivan; Brankov, Jovan G.

    2014-01-01

    Here we describe a new in-laboratory analyzer based phase contrast-imaging (ABI) instrument using a conventional X-ray tube source (CXS) aimed at bio-medical imaging applications. Phase contrast-imaging allows visualization of soft tissue details usually obscured in conventional X-ray imaging. The ABI system design and major features are described in detail. The key advantage of the presented system, over the few existing CXS ABI systems, is that it does not require high precision components, i.e., CXS, X-ray detector, and electro-mechanical components. To overcome a main problem introduced by these components, identified as temperature stability, the system components are kept at a constant temperature inside of three enclosures, thus minimizing the electrical and mechanical thermal drifts. This is achieved by using thermoelectric (Peltier) cooling/heating modules that are easy to control precisely. For CXS we utilized a microfocus X-ray source with tungsten (W) anode material. In addition the proposed system eliminates tungsten's multiple spectral lines by selecting monochromator crystal size appropriately therefore eliminating need for the costly mismatched, two-crystal monochromator. The system imaging was fine-tuned for tungsten Kα 1 line with the energy of 59.3 keV since it has been shown to be of great clinical significance by a number of researchers at synchrotron facilities. In this way a laboratory system that can be used for evaluating and quantifying tissue properties, initially explored at synchrotron facilities, would be of great interest to a larger research community. To demonstrate the imaging capability of our instrument we use a chicken thigh tissue sample

  4. Analyzer-based phase-contrast imaging system using a micro focus x-ray source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wei; Majidi, Keivan; Brankov, Jovan G.

    2014-08-01

    Here we describe a new in-laboratory analyzer based phase contrast-imaging (ABI) instrument using a conventional X-ray tube source (CXS) aimed at bio-medical imaging applications. Phase contrast-imaging allows visualization of soft tissue details usually obscured in conventional X-ray imaging. The ABI system design and major features are described in detail. The key advantage of the presented system, over the few existing CXS ABI systems, is that it does not require high precision components, i.e., CXS, X-ray detector, and electro-mechanical components. To overcome a main problem introduced by these components, identified as temperature stability, the system components are kept at a constant temperature inside of three enclosures, thus minimizing the electrical and mechanical thermal drifts. This is achieved by using thermoelectric (Peltier) cooling/heating modules that are easy to control precisely. For CXS we utilized a microfocus X-ray source with tungsten (W) anode material. In addition the proposed system eliminates tungsten's multiple spectral lines by selecting monochromator crystal size appropriately therefore eliminating need for the costly mismatched, two-crystal monochromator. The system imaging was fine-tuned for tungsten Kα1 line with the energy of 59.3 keV since it has been shown to be of great clinical significance by a number of researchers at synchrotron facilities. In this way a laboratory system that can be used for evaluating and quantifying tissue properties, initially explored at synchrotron facilities, would be of great interest to a larger research community. To demonstrate the imaging capability of our instrument we use a chicken thigh tissue sample.

  5. Low-dose x-ray phase-contrast and absorption CT using equally sloped tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fahimian, Benjamin P; Miao Jianwei; Mao Yu; Cloetens, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Tomographic reconstruction from undersampled and noisy projections is often desirable in transmission CT modalities for purposes of low-dose tomography and fast acquisition imaging. However under such conditions, due to the violation of the Nyquist sampling criteria and the presence of noise, reconstructions with acceptable accuracy may not be possible. Recent experiments in transmission electron tomography and coherent diffraction microscopy have shown that the technique of equally sloped tomography (EST), an exact tomographic method utilizing an oversampling iterative Fourier-based reconstruction, provides more accurate image reconstructions when the number of projections is significantly undersampled relative to filtered back projection and algebraic iterative methods. Here we extend this technique by developing new reconstruction algorithms which allow for the incorporation of advanced mathematical regularization constraints, such as the nonlocal means total variational model, in a manner that is consistent with experimental projections. We then evaluate the resulting image quality of the developed algorithm through simulations and experiments at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility on image quality phantoms using the x-ray absorption and phase contrast CT modalities. Both our simulation and experimental results have indicated that the method can reduce the number of projections by 60-75% in parallel beam modalities, while achieving comparable or better image quality than the conventional reconstructions. As large-scale and compact synchrotron radiation facilities are currently under rapid development worldwide, the implementation of low-dose x-ray absorption and phase-contrast CT can find broad applications in biology and medicine using these advanced x-ray sources.

  6. Baseline correction of phase-contrast images in congenital cardiovascular magnetic resonance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lai Wyman W

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One potential source of error in phase contrast (PC congenital CMR flow measurements is caused by phase offsets due to local non-compensated eddy currents. Phantom correction of these phase offset errors has been shown to result in more accurate measurements of blood flow in adults with structurally normal hearts. We report the effect of phantom correction on PC flow measurements at a clinical congenital CMR program. Results Flow was measured in the ascending aorta, main pulmonary artery, and right and left pulmonary arteries as clinically indicated, and additional values such as Qp/Qs were derived from these measurements. Phantom correction in our study population of 149 patients resulted in clinically significant changes in 13% to 48% of these phase-contrast measurements in patients with known or suspected heart disease. Overall, 640 measurements or calculated values were analyzed, and clinically significant changes were found in 31%. Larger vessels were associated with greater phase offset errors, with 22% of the changes in PC flow measurements attributed to the size of the vessel measured. In patients with structurally normal hearts, the pulmonary-to-systemic flow ratio after phantom correction was closer to 1.0 than before phantom correction. There was no significant difference in the effect of phantom correction for patients with tetralogy of Fallot as compared to the group as a whole. Conclusions Phantom correction often resulted in clinically significant changes in PC blood flow measurements in patients with known or suspected congenital heart disease. In laboratories performing clinical CMR with suspected phase offset errors of significance, the routine use of phantom correction for PC flow measurements should be considered.

  7. Evaluation of edge enhancement effect of phase contrast imaging using newly-developed photostimulable phosphor plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuo, Satoru; Morishita, Junji; Katafuchi, Tetsuro; Fujita, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    We investigated whether the use of a newly developed columnar-crystal-type photostimulable-phosphor plate (CP1M200, referred to as system C) helps to provide improved edge-enhanced effect in phase contrast imaging. Physical characteristics of 2 conventional particulate-crystal-type photostimulable-phosphor plates (RP-5PM, referred to as system A and RP-6M, referred to as system B) and system C were measured. Then, an acrylic plate phantom and RMI152 phantom were imaged using 3 types of plates, and the edge-enhancement effects were evaluated based on the profile curve of the acrylic plate phantom. Visual evaluation of the RMI152 phantom images was conducted. The results showed that the modulation transfer function (MTF) of system C was superior to those of the other systems. The WS of system C was superior to those of the other systems in the low frequency band region, and inferior to those of the other systems in the high frequency band region. The presence of an edge-enhanced image was not detectable in the profile curve of the acrylic plate in system A, although that was shown in systems B and C due to their excellent sharpness. In the visual image evaluation of the RMI152 phantom, image quality of system C was superior to those of the other systems. Phase contrast imaging with a digital detector of a columnar-crystal-type photostimulable-phosphor plate is considered to provide improved edge-enhancement over that of conventional plates. (author)

  8. Analyzer-based phase-contrast imaging system using a micro focus x-ray source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Wei [BME Department, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, Illinois 60616 (United States); Majidi, Keivan; Brankov, Jovan G., E-mail: brankov@iit.edu [ECE Department, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, Illinois 60616 (United States)

    2014-08-15

    Here we describe a new in-laboratory analyzer based phase contrast-imaging (ABI) instrument using a conventional X-ray tube source (CXS) aimed at bio-medical imaging applications. Phase contrast-imaging allows visualization of soft tissue details usually obscured in conventional X-ray imaging. The ABI system design and major features are described in detail. The key advantage of the presented system, over the few existing CXS ABI systems, is that it does not require high precision components, i.e., CXS, X-ray detector, and electro-mechanical components. To overcome a main problem introduced by these components, identified as temperature stability, the system components are kept at a constant temperature inside of three enclosures, thus minimizing the electrical and mechanical thermal drifts. This is achieved by using thermoelectric (Peltier) cooling/heating modules that are easy to control precisely. For CXS we utilized a microfocus X-ray source with tungsten (W) anode material. In addition the proposed system eliminates tungsten's multiple spectral lines by selecting monochromator crystal size appropriately therefore eliminating need for the costly mismatched, two-crystal monochromator. The system imaging was fine-tuned for tungsten Kα{sub 1} line with the energy of 59.3 keV since it has been shown to be of great clinical significance by a number of researchers at synchrotron facilities. In this way a laboratory system that can be used for evaluating and quantifying tissue properties, initially explored at synchrotron facilities, would be of great interest to a larger research community. To demonstrate the imaging capability of our instrument we use a chicken thigh tissue sample.

  9. An experimental study of turbulence by phase-contrast imaging in the DIII-D tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coda, Stefano

    1997-10-01

    A CO2-laser imaging system employing the Zernike phase-contrast technique was designed, built, installed, and operated on the DIII-D tokamak. This system measures the line integrals of plasma density fluctuations along 16 vertical chords at the outer edge of the tokamak (0.85 Mechanical vibrations are damped by a novel dual-axis focal-spot feedback stabilization system. The theoretical treatment of scattering and imaging techniques was extended to finite-frequency fluctuations in the Rytov approximation. An extensive comparative analysis of the properties of phase-contrast imaging (PCI) and of other imaging and scintillation techniques was also carried out. Studies of edge turbulence were performed. The radial- wave-number spectrum peaks at finite wave numbers, both positive and negative. This first observation of radial modes is in agreement with recent predictions from theoretical and numerical work. The dependence of the correlation length and peak wave number on plasma parameters and on the frequency was studied in detail. Frequency spectra typically obey an inverse square law, consistent with a Lorentzian distribution. At the transition from L to H mode the amplitude and correlation length of the turbulence decrease, while the decorrelation time remains approximately constant. The Biglari-Diamond-Terry shear-decorrelation criterion was verified quantitatively; theoretical scaling laws for the correlation parameters were also tested. The turbulence amplitude follows a mixing-length scaling in L mode only: the lower level seen in H mode may indicate a weaker turbulence regime. The fluctuation content of Edge Localized Modes (ELMs) was thoroughly characterized, and systematic differences between type-I and type-III ELMs were discovered. Future applications of PCI, including crossed-beam localization and heterodyne radio-frequency-wave detection, are also discussed. (Copies available exclusively from MIT Libraries, Rm. 14-0551, Cambridge, MA 02139-4307. Ph. 617

  10. Holography microscopy as an artifact-free alternative to phase-contrast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastorek, Lukáš; Venit, Tomáš; Hozák, Pavel

    2018-02-01

    Artifact-free microscopic images represent a key requirement of multi-parametric image analysis in modern biomedical research. Holography microscopy (HM) is one of the quantitative phase imaging techniques, which has been finding new applications in life science, especially in morphological screening, cell migration, and cancer research. Rather than the classical imaging of absorbing (typically stained) specimens by bright-field microscopy, the information about the light-wave's phase shifts induced by the biological sample is employed for final image reconstruction. In this comparative study, we investigated the usability and the reported advantage of the holography imaging. The claimed halo-free imaging was analyzed compared to the widely used Zernike phase-contrast microscopy. The intensity and phase cross-membrane profiles at the periphery of the cell were quantified. The intensity profile for cells in the phase-contrast images suffers from the significant increase in intensity values around the cell border. On the contrary, no distorted profile is present outside the cell membrane in holography images. The gradual increase in phase shift values is present in the internal part of the cell body projection in holography image. This increase may be related to the increase in the cell internal material according to the dry mass theory. Our experimental data proved the halo-free nature of the holography imaging, which is an important prerequisite of the correct thresholding and cell segmentation, nowadays frequently required in high-content screening and other image-based analysis. Consequently, HM is a method of choice whenever the image analysis relies on the accurate data on cell boundaries.

  11. Non-invasive assessment of pulsatile intracranial pressure with phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geir Ringstad

    Full Text Available Invasive monitoring of pulsatile intracranial pressure can accurately predict shunt response in patients with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus, but may potentially cause complications such as bleeding and infection. We tested how a proposed surrogate parameter for pulsatile intracranial pressure, the phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging derived pulse pressure gradient, compared with its invasive counterpart. In 22 patients with suspected idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus, preceding invasive intracranial pressure monitoring, and any surgical shunt procedure, we calculated the pulse pressure gradient from phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging derived cerebrospinal fluid flow velocities obtained at the upper cervical spinal canal using a simplified Navier-Stokes equation. Repeated measurements of the pulse pressure gradient were also undertaken in four healthy controls. Of 17 shunted patients, 16 responded, indicating high proportion of "true" normal pressure hydrocephalus in the patient cohort. However, there was no correlation between the magnetic resonance imaging derived pulse pressure gradient and pulsatile intracranial pressure (R = -.18, P = .43. Pulse pressure gradients were also similar in patients and healthy controls (P = .26, and did not differ between individuals with pulsatile intracranial pressure above or below established thresholds for shunt treatment (P = .97. Assessment of pulse pressure gradient at level C2 was therefore not found feasible to replace invasive monitoring of pulsatile intracranial pressure in selection of patients with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus for surgical shunting. Unlike invasive, overnight monitoring, the pulse pressure gradient from magnetic resonance imaging comprises short-term pressure fluctuations only. Moreover, complexity of cervical cerebrospinal fluid flow and -pulsatility at the upper cervical spinal canal may render the pulse pressure gradient a poor surrogate

  12. Analysis of image sharpness reproducibility on a novel engineered micro-CT scanner with variable geometry and embedded recalibration software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panetta, D; Belcari, N; Del Guerra, A; Bartolomei, A; Salvadori, P A

    2012-04-01

    This study investigates the reproducibility of the reconstructed image sharpness, after modifications of the geometry setup, for a variable magnification micro-CT (μCT) scanner. All the measurements were performed on a novel engineered μCT scanner for in vivo imaging of small animals (Xalt), which has been recently built at the Institute of Clinical Physiology of the National Research Council (IFC-CNR, Pisa, Italy), in partnership with the University of Pisa. The Xalt scanner is equipped with an integrated software for on-line geometric recalibration, which will be used throughout the experiments. In order to evaluate the losses of image quality due to modifications of the geometry setup, we have made 22 consecutive acquisitions by changing alternatively the system geometry between two different setups (Large FoV - LF, and High Resolution - HR). For each acquisition, the tomographic images have been reconstructed before and after the on-line geometric recalibration. For each reconstruction, the image sharpness was evaluated using two different figures of merit: (i) the percentage contrast on a small bar pattern of fixed frequency (f = 5.5 lp/mm for the LF setup and f = 10 lp/mm for the HR setup) and (ii) the image entropy. We have found that, due to the small-scale mechanical uncertainty (in the order of the voxel size), a recalibration is necessary for each geometric setup after repositioning of the system's components; the resolution losses due to the lack of recalibration are worse for the HR setup (voxel size = 18.4 μm). The integrated on-line recalibration algorithm of the Xalt scanner allowed to perform the recalibration quickly, by restoring the spatial resolution of the system to the reference resolution obtained after the initial (off-line) calibration. Copyright © 2011 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Efficacy of reciprocating and rotary NiTi instruments for retreatment of curved root canals assessed by micro-CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rödig, T; Reicherts, P; Konietschke, F; Dullin, C; Hahn, W; Hülsmann, M

    2014-10-01

    To compare the efficacy of reciprocating and rotary NiTi-instruments in removing filling material from curved root canals using micro-computed tomography. Sixty curved root canals were prepared and filled with gutta-percha and sealer. After determination of root canal curvatures and radii in two directions as well as volumes of filling material, the teeth were assigned to three comparable groups (n = 20). Retreatment was performed using Reciproc, ProTaper Universal Retreatment or Hedström files. Percentages of residual filling material and dentine removal were assessed using micro-CT imaging. Working time and procedural errors were recorded. Statistical analysis was performed by variance procedures. No significant differences amongst the three retreatment techniques concerning residual filling material were detected (P > 0.05). Hedström files removed significantly more dentine than ProTaper Universal Retreatment (P  0.05). Reciproc and ProTaper Universal Retreatment were significantly faster than Hedström files (P = 0.0001). No procedural errors such as instrument fracture, blockage, ledging or perforation were detected for Hedström files. Three perforations were recorded for ProTaper Universal Retreatment, and in both NiTi groups, one instrument fracture occured. Remnants of filling material were observed in all samples with no significant differences between the three techniques. Hedström files removed significantly more dentine than ProTaper Universal Retreatment, but no significant differences between both NiTi systems were detected. Procedural errors were observed with ProTaper Universal Retreatment and Reciproc. © 2014 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Shaping ability of single-file reciprocating and heat-treated multifile rotary systems: a micro-CT study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marceliano-Alves, M F V; Sousa-Neto, M D; Fidel, S R; Steier, L; Robinson, J P; Pécora, J D; Versiani, M A

    2015-12-01

    To investigate changes in three-dimensional geometry, in various cross-sectional morphological parameters and in the centring ability of root canals prepared with different preparation systems using microcomputed tomographic imaging technology. Sixty-four mesial canals of mandibular molars were matched based on similar morphological dimensions using micro-CT evaluation and assigned to four experimental groups (n = 16), according to the canal preparation technique: Reciproc, WaveOne, Twisted File and HyFlex CM systems. Changes in several 2D (area, perimeter, form factor, roundness, minor and major diameter) and 3D [volume, surface area, structure model index (SMI)] morphological parameters, as well as canal transportation, were compared with preoperative values using Kruskal-Wallis and anovapost hoc Tukey's tests with the significance level set at 5%. Preparation significantly increased all tested parameters in the experimental groups. No significant differences were observed between groups regarding changes in volume, surface area, SMI, form factor and roundness of the root canal after preparation (P > 0.05). In the apical third, the Reciproc group had significantly greater changes in canal area, perimeter, major and minor diameters than the other groups (P File and HyFlex CM systems were associated with significantly less transportation than the reciprocating instruments, Reciproc and WaveOne (P File and HyFlex CM systems were able to maintain the original canal anatomy with less canal transportation than Reciproc and WaveOne; however, these differences are unlikely to be of clinical significance. © 2014 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. A role for subchondral bone changes in the process of osteoarthritis; a micro-CT study of two canine models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sniekers, Yvonne H; Intema, Femke; Lafeber, Floris P J G; van Osch, Gerjo J V M; van Leeuwen, Johannes P T M; Weinans, Harrie; Mastbergen, Simon C

    2008-02-12

    This study evaluates changes in peri-articular bone in two canine models for osteoarthritis: the groove model and the anterior cruciate ligament transection (ACLT) model. Evaluation was performed at 10 and 20 weeks post-surgery and in addition a 3-weeks time point was studied for the groove model. Cartilage was analysed, and architecture of the subchondral plate and trabecular bone of epiphyses was quantified using micro-CT. At 10 and 20 weeks cartilage histology and biochemistry demonstrated characteristic features of osteoarthritis in both models (very mild changes at 3 weeks). The groove model presented osteophytes only at 20 weeks, whereas the ACLT model showed osteophytes already at 10 weeks. Trabecular bone changes in the groove model were small and not consistent. This contrasts the ACLT model in which bone volume fraction was clearly reduced at 10 and 20 weeks (15-20%). However, changes in metaphyseal bone indicate unloading in the ACLT model, not in the groove model. For both models the subchondral plate thickness was strongly reduced (25-40%) and plate porosity was strongly increased (25-85%) at all time points studied. These findings show differential regulation of subchondral trabecular bone in the groove and ACLT model, with mild changes in the groove model and more severe changes in the ACLT model. In the ACLT model, part of these changes may be explained by unloading of the treated leg. In contrast, subchondral plate thinning and increased porosity were very consistent in both models, independent of loading conditions, indicating that this thinning is an early response in the osteoarthritis process.

  16. High resolution micro-CT of low attenuating organic materials using large area photon-counting detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumpová, I.; Jandejsek, I.; Jakůbek, J.; Vopálenský, M.; Vavřík, D.; Fíla, T.; Koudelka, P.; Kytýř, D.; Zlámal, P.; Gantar, A.

    2016-01-01

    To overcome certain limitations of contemporary materials used for bone tissue engineering, such as inflammatory response after implantation, a whole new class of materials based on polysaccharide compounds is being developed. Here, nanoparticulate bioactive glass reinforced gelan-gum (GG-BAG) has recently been proposed for the production of bone scaffolds. This material offers promising biocompatibility properties, including bioactivity and biodegradability, with the possibility of producing scaffolds with directly controlled microgeometry. However, to utilize such a scaffold with application-optimized properties, large sets of complex numerical simulations using the real microgeometry of the material have to be carried out during the development process. Because the GG-BAG is a material with intrinsically very low attenuation to X-rays, its radiographical imaging, including tomographical scanning and reconstructions, with resolution required by numerical simulations might be a very challenging task. In this paper, we present a study on X-ray imaging of GG-BAG samples. High-resolution volumetric images of investigated specimens were generated on the basis of micro-CT measurements using a large area flat-panel detector and a large area photon-counting detector. The photon-counting detector was composed of a 010× 1 matrix of Timepix edgeless silicon pixelated detectors with tiling based on overlaying rows (i.e. assembled so that no gap is present between individual rows of detectors). We compare the results from both detectors with the scanning electron microscopy on selected slices in transversal plane. It has been shown that the photon counting detector can provide approx. 3× better resolution of the details in low-attenuating materials than the integrating flat panel detectors. We demonstrate that employment of a large area photon counting detector is a good choice for imaging of low attenuating materials with the resolution sufficient for numerical

  17. High resolution micro-CT of low attenuating organic materials using large area photon-counting detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumpová, I.; Vavřík, D.; Fíla, T.; Koudelka, P.; Jandejsek, I.; Jakůbek, J.; Kytýř, D.; Zlámal, P.; Vopálenský, M.; Gantar, A.

    2016-02-01

    To overcome certain limitations of contemporary materials used for bone tissue engineering, such as inflammatory response after implantation, a whole new class of materials based on polysaccharide compounds is being developed. Here, nanoparticulate bioactive glass reinforced gelan-gum (GG-BAG) has recently been proposed for the production of bone scaffolds. This material offers promising biocompatibility properties, including bioactivity and biodegradability, with the possibility of producing scaffolds with directly controlled microgeometry. However, to utilize such a scaffold with application-optimized properties, large sets of complex numerical simulations using the real microgeometry of the material have to be carried out during the development process. Because the GG-BAG is a material with intrinsically very low attenuation to X-rays, its radiographical imaging, including tomographical scanning and reconstructions, with resolution required by numerical simulations might be a very challenging task. In this paper, we present a study on X-ray imaging of GG-BAG samples. High-resolution volumetric images of investigated specimens were generated on the basis of micro-CT measurements using a large area flat-panel detector and a large area photon-counting detector. The photon-counting detector was composed of a 010× 1 matrix of Timepix edgeless silicon pixelated detectors with tiling based on overlaying rows (i.e. assembled so that no gap is present between individual rows of detectors). We compare the results from both detectors with the scanning electron microscopy on selected slices in transversal plane. It has been shown that the photon counting detector can provide approx. 3× better resolution of the details in low-attenuating materials than the integrating flat panel detectors. We demonstrate that employment of a large area photon counting detector is a good choice for imaging of low attenuating materials with the resolution sufficient for numerical simulations.

  18. Constant strain rate and peri-implant bone modeling: an in vivo longitudinal micro-CT analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Smet, Els; Jaecques, Siegfried V N; Wevers, Martine; Sloten, Jos Vander; Naert, Ignace E

    2013-06-01

    Strain, frequency, loading time, and strain rate, among others, determine mechanical parameters in osteogenic loading. We showed a significant osteogenic effect on bone mass (BM) by daily peri-implant loading at 1.600µε.s(-1) after 4 weeks. To study the peri-implant osteogenic effect of frequency and strain in the guinea pig tibia by in vivo longitudinal micro-computed tomography (CT) analysis. One week after implant installation in both hind limb tibiae, one implant was loaded daily for 10' during 4 weeks, while the other served as control. Frequencies (3, 10, and 30Hz) and strains varied alike in the three series to keep the strain rate constant at 1.600µε.s(-1) . In vivo micro-CT scans were taken of both tibiae: 1 week after implantation but before loading (v1) and after 2 (v2) and 4 weeks (v3) of loading as well as postmortem (pm). BM (BM (%) bone-occupied area fraction) was calculated as well as the difference between test and control sides (delta BM) RESULTS: All implants (n=78) were clinically stable at 4 weeks. Significant increase in BM was measured between v1 and v2 (pimplant marrow 500 Region of Interest already 2 weeks after loading (p=.01) and was significantly larger (11%) in series 1 compared with series 2 (p=.006) and 3 (p=.016). Within the constraints of constant loading time and strain rate, the effect of early implant loading on the peri-implant bone is strongly dependent on strain and frequency. This cortical bone model has shown to be most sensitive for high force loading at low frequency. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Baking controller for synchrotron beamline vacuum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garg, C.K.; Kane, S.R.; Dhamgaye, V.P.

    2003-01-01

    The 2.5 GeV electron storage ring Indus-2 is a hard X-ray Synchrotron Radiation (SR) Source. Nearly 27 beamlines will be installed on Indus-2 and they will cater to different experiments and applications. Most of the beamlines will be in Ultra High Vacuum (UHV) the only exception being hard X-rays beamlines. However the front ends of all the beamlines will be in UHV. Practicing UHV requires efforts and patience. Evacuating any chamber, volume gases can be removed easily. However, outgassing phenomena like desorption, diffusion and permeation restricts the system to attain UHV. All processes except the volume gas removal are temperature dependent. At ambient temperature, gas pressure decreases so slowly that outgassing limit (i.e. 10 -10 1/s/cm 2 ) can hardly be achieved on a practical time scale. Also there are three orders of magnitude difference in outgassing between baked and unbaked systems. Depending on the vacuum chamber and the components inside it, the thermal outgassing (baking) of system is required and can be done at various temperatures between 150 degC to 450 deg C. For whole baking cycle, constant monitoring and controlling of the systems is required which takes tens of hours. This paper describes the automation for such baking system, which will be used for SR beamlines

  20. Modeling of X-ray beamlines and devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ice, G.E.

    1996-01-01

    X-ray beamlines on synchrotron sources are similar in size and complexity to beamlines at state-of-the-art neutron sources. The design principles, tools, and optimization strategies