Phase field model for the study of boiling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ruyer, P.
2006-07-01
This study concerns both the modeling and the numerical simulation of boiling flows. First we propose a review concerning nucleate boiling at high wall heat flux and focus more particularly on the current understanding of the boiling crisis. From this analysis we deduce a motivation for the numerical simulation of bubble growth dynamics. The main and remaining part of this study is then devoted to the development and analyze of a phase field model for the liquid-vapor flows with phase change. We propose a thermodynamic quasi-compressible formulation whose properties match the one required for the numerical study envisaged. The system of governing equations is a thermodynamically consistent regularization of the sharp interface model, that is the advantage of the di use interface models. We show that the thickness of the interface transition layer can be defined independently from the thermodynamic description of the bulk phases, a property that is numerically attractive. We derive the kinetic relation that allows to analyze the consequences of the phase field formulation on the model of the dissipative mechanisms. Finally we study the numerical resolution of the model with the help of simulations of phase transition in simple configurations as well as of isothermal bubble dynamics. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Radhakrishnan, B.; Gorti, S.B.; Clarno, K.; Tonks, M.R.
2015-01-01
In this work, the phase-field method and its application to microstructure evolution in reactor fuel and clad are discussed. The examples highlight the capability of the phase-field method to capture evolution processes that are influenced by both thermal and elastic stress fields that are caused by microstructural changes in the solid-state. The challenges that need to be overcome before the technique can become predictive and material-specific are discussed. (authors)
A phase-field and electron microscopy study of phase separation in Fe-Cr alloys
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hedstroem, Peter, E-mail: pheds@kth.se [Materials Science and Engineering, KTH (Royal Institute of Technology), SE-100 44 Stockholm (Sweden); Baghsheikhi, Saeed [Materials Science and Engineering, KTH (Royal Institute of Technology), SE-100 44 Stockholm (Sweden); Liu, Ping [Sandvik Materials Technology, R and D Centre, SE-81181 Sandviken (Sweden); Odqvist, Joakim [Materials Science and Engineering, KTH (Royal Institute of Technology), SE-100 44 Stockholm (Sweden); Sandvik Materials Technology, R and D Centre, SE-81181 Sandviken (Sweden)
2012-02-01
Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Experimental characterization and Phase-field modeling of phase separation in Fe-Cr. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Transition from particle-like to spinodal-like structure observed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Structural evolution generates increased hardness. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Results in agreement with recent thermodynamic description. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Quantitative kinetic modeling must include thermal noise and improved kinetic data. - Abstract: Phase separation in the binary Fe-Cr system, the basis for the entire stainless steel family, is considered responsible for the low temperature embrittlement in ferritic, martensitic and duplex stainless steels. These steels are often used in load-bearing applications with considerable service time at elevated temperature. Thus, understanding the effect of microstructure on mechanical properties and predicting dynamics of phase separation are key issues. In the present work, experimental evaluation of structure and mechanical properties in binary Fe-Cr alloys as well as phase-field modeling, using a new thermodynamic description of Fe-Cr, is conducted. A significant hardening evolution with time is found for alloys aged between 400 and 550 Degree-Sign C, and it can be attributed to phase separation. The decomposed structure changed with increasing Cr content at 500 Degree-Sign C, with a more particle-like structure at 25 wt% Cr and a more spinodal-like structure at 30 wt% Cr. The observed transition of structure agrees with the thermodynamically predicted spinodal, although the transition is expected to be gradual. The phase-field simulations qualitatively agree with experiments. However, to enable accurate quantitative predictions, the diffusional mobilities must be evaluated further and thermal fluctuations as well as 3D diffusion fields must be properly accounted for.
Anisotropy in wavelet-based phase field models
Korzec, Maciek; Mü nch, Andreas; Sü li, Endre; Wagner, Barbara
2016-01-01
When describing the anisotropic evolution of microstructures in solids using phase-field models, the anisotropy of the crystalline phases is usually introduced into the interfacial energy by directional dependencies of the gradient energy coefficients. We consider an alternative approach based on a wavelet analogue of the Laplace operator that is intrinsically anisotropic and linear. The paper focuses on the classical coupled temperature/Ginzburg--Landau type phase-field model for dendritic growth. For the model based on the wavelet analogue, existence, uniqueness and continuous dependence on initial data are proved for weak solutions. Numerical studies of the wavelet based phase-field model show dendritic growth similar to the results obtained for classical phase-field models.
Anisotropy in wavelet-based phase field models
Korzec, Maciek
2016-04-01
When describing the anisotropic evolution of microstructures in solids using phase-field models, the anisotropy of the crystalline phases is usually introduced into the interfacial energy by directional dependencies of the gradient energy coefficients. We consider an alternative approach based on a wavelet analogue of the Laplace operator that is intrinsically anisotropic and linear. The paper focuses on the classical coupled temperature/Ginzburg--Landau type phase-field model for dendritic growth. For the model based on the wavelet analogue, existence, uniqueness and continuous dependence on initial data are proved for weak solutions. Numerical studies of the wavelet based phase-field model show dendritic growth similar to the results obtained for classical phase-field models.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tian, Liang [Ames Laboratory; Russell, Alan [Ames Laboratory
2014-03-27
The phase field approach is a powerful computational technique to simulate morphological and microstructural evolution at the mesoscale. Spheroidization is a frequently observed morphological change of mesoscale heterogeneous structures during annealing. In this study, we used the diffuse interface phase field method to investigate the interfacial diffusion-driven spheroidization of cylindrical rod structures in a composite comprised of two mutually insoluble phases in a two-dimensional case. Perturbation of rod radius along a cylinder's axis has long been known to cause the necessary chemical potential gradient that drives spheroidization of the rod by Lord Rayleigh's instability theory. This theory indicates that a radius perturbation wavelength larger than the initial rod circumference would lead to cylindrical spheroidization. We investigated the effect of perturbation wavelength, interfacial energy, volume diffusion, phase composition, and interfacial percentage on the kinetics of spheroidization. The results match well with both the Rayleigh's instability criterion and experimental observations.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Acharyya, Muktish
2011-01-01
The dynamical responses of Ising metamagnet (layered antiferromagnet) in the presence of a sinusoidally oscillating magnetic field are studied by Monte Carlo simulation. The time average staggered magnetisation plays the role of dynamic order parameter. A dynamical phase transition was observed and a phase diagram was plotted in the plane formed by field amplitude and temperature. The dynamical phase boundary is observed to shrink inward as the relative antiferromagnetic strength decreases. The results are compared with that obtained from pure ferromagnetic system. The shape of dynamic phase boundary observed to be qualitatively similar to that obtained from previous meanfield calculations. - Highlights: → The time average staggered magnetisation plays the role of dynamic order parameter. → A dynamical phase transition was observed and a phase diagram was plotted in the plane formed by field amplitude and temperature. → The dynamical phase boundary is observed to shrink inward as the relative antiferromagnetic strength decreases. → The results are compared with that obtained from pure ferromagnetic system. → The shape of dynamic phase boundary observed to be qualitatively similar to that obtained from previous meanfield calculation.
Preliminary Phase Field Computational Model Development
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Li, Yulan [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hu, Shenyang Y. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Xu, Ke [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Suter, Jonathan D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); McCloy, John S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Johnson, Bradley R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ramuhalli, Pradeep [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
2014-12-15
experiments, special experimental methods were devised to create similar boundary conditions in the iron films. Preliminary MFM studies conducted on single and polycrystalline iron films with small sub-areas created with focused ion beam have correlated quite well qualitatively with phase-field simulations. However, phase-field model dimensions are still small relative to experiments thus far. We are in the process of increasing the size of the models and decreasing specimen size so both have identical dimensions. Ongoing research is focused on validation of the phase-field model. Validation is being accomplished through comparison with experimentally obtained MFM images (in progress), and planned measurements of major hysteresis loops and first order reversal curves. Extrapolation of simulation sizes to represent a more stochastic bulk-like system will require sampling of various simulations (i.e., with single non-magnetic defect, single magnetic defect, single grain boundary, single dislocation, etc.) with distributions of input parameters. These outputs can then be compared to laboratory magnetic measurements and ultimately to simulate magnetic Barkhausen noise signals.
Phase field model for the study of boiling; Modele de champ de phase pour l'etude de l'ebullition
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ruyer, P
2006-07-15
This study concerns both the modeling and the numerical simulation of boiling flows. First we propose a review concerning nucleate boiling at high wall heat flux and focus more particularly on the current understanding of the boiling crisis. From this analysis we deduce a motivation for the numerical simulation of bubble growth dynamics. The main and remaining part of this study is then devoted to the development and analyze of a phase field model for the liquid-vapor flows with phase change. We propose a thermodynamic quasi-compressible formulation whose properties match the one required for the numerical study envisaged. The system of governing equations is a thermodynamically consistent regularization of the sharp interface model, that is the advantage of the di use interface models. We show that the thickness of the interface transition layer can be defined independently from the thermodynamic description of the bulk phases, a property that is numerically attractive. We derive the kinetic relation that allows to analyze the consequences of the phase field formulation on the model of the dissipative mechanisms. Finally we study the numerical resolution of the model with the help of simulations of phase transition in simple configurations as well as of isothermal bubble dynamics. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ertas, Mehmet [Department of Physics, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey); Institute of Science, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey); Deviren, Bayram [Department of Physics, Nevsehir University, 50300 Nevsehir (Turkey); Keskin, Mustafa, E-mail: keskin@erciyes.edu.tr [Department of Physics, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey)
2012-03-15
The dynamic phase transitions are studied in the kinetic spin-2 Blume-Capel model under a time-dependent oscillating magnetic field using the effective-field theory with correlations. The effective-field dynamic equation for the average magnetization is derived by employing the Glauber transition rates and the phases in the system are obtained by solving this dynamic equation. The nature (first- or second-order) of the dynamic phase transition is characterized by investigating the thermal behavior of the dynamic magnetization and the dynamic phase transition temperatures are obtained. The dynamic phase diagrams are constructed in the reduced temperature and magnetic field amplitude plane and are of seven fundamental types. Phase diagrams contain the paramagnetic (P), ferromagnetic-2 (F{sub 2}) and three coexistence or mixed phase regions, namely the F{sub 2}+P, F{sub 1}+P and F{sub 2}+F{sub 1}+P, which strongly depend on the crystal-field interaction (D) parameter. The system also exhibits the dynamic tricritical behavior. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dynamic phase transitions are studied in spin-2 BC model using EFT. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dynamic phase diagrams are constructed in (T/zJ, h/zJ) plane. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Seven fundamental types of dynamic phase diagrams are found in the system. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer System exhibits dynamic tricritical behavior.
Phase-Field simulation of phase decomposition in Fe-Cr-Co alloy under an external magnetic field
Koyama, Toshiyuki; Onodera, Hidehiro
2004-07-01
Phase decomposition during isothermal aging of a Fe-Cr-Co ternary alloy under an external magnetic field is simulated based on the phase-field method. In this simulation, since the Gibbs energy available from the thermodynamic CALPHAD database of the equilibrium phase diagram is employed as a chemical free energy, the present calculation provides the quantitative microstructure changes directly linked to the phase diagram. The simulated microstructure evolution demonstrates that the lamella like microstructure elongated along the external magnetic field is evolved with the progress of aging. The morphological and temporal developments of the simulated microstructures are in good agreement with experimental results that have been obtained for this alloy system.
The phase field technique for modeling multiphase materials
Singer-Loginova, I.; Singer, H. M.
2008-10-01
This paper reviews methods and applications of the phase field technique, one of the fastest growing areas in computational materials science. The phase field method is used as a theory and computational tool for predictions of the evolution of arbitrarily shaped morphologies and complex microstructures in materials. In this method, the interface between two phases (e.g. solid and liquid) is treated as a region of finite width having a gradual variation of different physical quantities, i.e. it is a diffuse interface model. An auxiliary variable, the phase field or order parameter \\phi(\\vec{x}) , is introduced, which distinguishes one phase from the other. Interfaces are identified by the variation of the phase field. We begin with presenting the physical background of the phase field method and give a detailed thermodynamical derivation of the phase field equations. We demonstrate how equilibrium and non-equilibrium physical phenomena at the phase interface are incorporated into the phase field methods. Then we address in detail dendritic and directional solidification of pure and multicomponent alloys, effects of natural convection and forced flow, grain growth, nucleation, solid-solid phase transformation and highlight other applications of the phase field methods. In particular, we review the novel phase field crystal model, which combines atomistic length scales with diffusive time scales. We also discuss aspects of quantitative phase field modeling such as thin interface asymptotic analysis and coupling to thermodynamic databases. The phase field methods result in a set of partial differential equations, whose solutions require time-consuming large-scale computations and often limit the applicability of the method. Subsequently, we review numerical approaches to solve the phase field equations and present a finite difference discretization of the anisotropic Laplacian operator.
Phase transitions in the random field Ising model in the presence of a transverse field
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dutta, A.; Chakrabarti, B.K. [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Bidhannagar, Calcutta (India); Stinchcombe, R.B. [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Bidhannagar, Calcutta (India); Department of Physics, Oxford (United Kingdom)
1996-09-07
We have studied the phase transition behaviour of the random field Ising model in the presence of a transverse (or tunnelling) field. The mean field phase diagram has been studied in detail, and in particular the nature of the transition induced by the tunnelling (transverse) field at zero temperature. Modified hyper-scaling relation for the zero-temperature transition has been derived using the Suzuki-Trotter formalism and a modified 'Harris criterion'. Mapping of the model to a randomly diluted antiferromagnetic Ising model in uniform longitudinal and transverse field is also given. (author)
Phase-space quantization of field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Curtright, T.; Zachos, C.
1999-01-01
In this lecture, a limited introduction of gauge invariance in phase-space is provided, predicated on canonical transformations in quantum phase-space. Exact characteristic trajectories are also specified for the time-propagating Wigner phase-space distribution function: they are especially simple--indeed, classical--for the quantized simple harmonic oscillator. This serves as the underpinning of the field theoretic Wigner functional formulation introduced. Scalar field theory is thus reformulated in terms of distributions in field phase-space. This is a pedagogical selection from work published and reported at the Yukawa Institute Workshop ''Gauge Theory and Integrable Models'', 26-29 January, 1999
Visualization of velocity field and phase distribution in gas-liquid two-phase flow by NMR imaging
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Matsui, G.; Monji, H.; Obata, J.
2004-01-01
NMR imaging has been applied in the field of fluid mechanics, mainly single phase flow, to visualize the instantaneous flow velocity field. In the present study, NMR imaging was used to visualize simultaneously both the instantaneous phase structure and velocity field of gas-liquid two-phase flow. Two methods of NMR imaging were applied. One is useful to visualize both the one component of liquid velocity and the phase distribution. This method was applied to horizontal two-phase flow and a bubble rising in stagnant oil. It was successful in obtaining some pictures of velocity field and phase distribution on the cross section of the pipe. The other is used to visualize a two-dimensional velocity field. This method was applied to a bubble rising in a stagnant water. The velocity field was visualized after and before the passage of a bubble at the measuring cross section. Furthermore, the distribution of liquid velocity was obtained. (author)
Martinez-Veracoechea, Francisco J.
2009-11-24
Using self-consistent field theory, the Plumber\\'s Nightmare and the double diamond phases are predicted to be stable in a finite region of phase diagrams for blends of AB diblock copolymer (DBC) and A-component homopolymer. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that the P phase has been predicted to be stable using self-consistent field theory. The stabilization is achieved by tuning the composition or conformational asymmetry of the DBC chain, and the architecture or length of the homopolymer. The basic features of the phase diagrams are the same in all cases studied, suggesting a general type of behavior for these systems. Finally, it is noted that the homopolymer length should be a convenient variable to stabilize bicontinuous phases in experiments. © 2009 American Chemical Society.
Non-cyclic phases for neutrino oscillations in quantum field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Blasone, Massimo; Capolupo, Antonio; Celeghini, Enrico; Vitiello, Giuseppe
2009-01-01
We show the presence of non-cyclic phases for oscillating neutrinos in the context of quantum field theory. Such phases carry information about the non-perturbative vacuum structure associated with the field mixing. By subtracting the condensate contribution of the flavor vacuum, the previously studied quantum mechanics geometric phase is recovered.
Phase-field simulation study of the migration of recrystallization boundaries
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Moelans, Nele; Godfrey, Andy; Zhang, Yubin
2013-01-01
We present simulation results based on a phase-field model that describes the local migration of recrystallization boundaries into varying deformation energy fields. An important finding from the simulations is that the overall migration rate of the recrystallization front can be considerably...... amplitudes, however, the velocity scales with the maximum of the deformation energy density along the variation, resulting in a considerably larger velocity than that obtained from standard recrystallization models. The shape of the migrating grain boundary greatly depends on the local characteristics...... of the varying stored deformation energy field. For different deformation energy fields, the simulation results are in good qualitative agreement with experiments and add information which cannot be directly derived from experiments....
Phase Field Modeling Using PetIGA
Vignal, Philippe
2013-06-01
Phase field modeling has become a widely used framework in the computational material science community. Its ability to model different problems by defining appropriate phase field parameters and relating it to a free energy functional makes it highly versatile. Thermodynamically consistent partial differential equations can then be generated by assuming dissipative dynamics, and setting up the problem as one of minimizing this free energy. The equations are nonetheless challenging to solve, and having a highly efficient and parallel framework to solve them is necessary. In this work, a brief review on phase field models is given, followed by a short analysis of the Phase Field Crystal Model solved with Isogeometric Analysis us- ing PetIGA. We end with an introduction to a new modeling concept, where free energy functions are built with a periodic equilibrium structure in mind.
Phase Field Modeling Using PetIGA
Vignal, Philippe; Collier, Nathan; Calo, Victor M.
2013-01-01
, and having a highly efficient and parallel framework to solve them is necessary. In this work, a brief review on phase field models is given, followed by a short analysis of the Phase Field Crystal Model solved with Isogeometric Analysis us- ing PetIGA. We
High-performance phase-field modeling
Vignal, Philippe
2015-04-27
Many processes in engineering and sciences involve the evolution of interfaces. Among the mathematical frameworks developed to model these types of problems, the phase-field method has emerged as a possible solution. Phase-fields nonetheless lead to complex nonlinear, high-order partial differential equations, whose solution poses mathematical and computational challenges. Guaranteeing some of the physical properties of the equations has lead to the development of efficient algorithms and discretizations capable of recovering said properties by construction [2, 5]. This work builds-up on these ideas, and proposes novel discretization strategies that guarantee numerical energy dissipation for both conserved and non-conserved phase-field models. The temporal discretization is based on a novel method which relies on Taylor series and ensures strong energy stability. It is second-order accurate, and can also be rendered linear to speed-up the solution process [4]. The spatial discretization relies on Isogeometric Analysis, a finite element method that possesses the k-refinement technology and enables the generation of high-order, high-continuity basis functions. These basis functions are well suited to handle the high-order operators present in phase-field models. Two-dimensional and three dimensional results of the Allen-Cahn, Cahn-Hilliard, Swift-Hohenberg and phase-field crystal equation will be presented, which corroborate the theoretical findings, and illustrate the robustness of the method. Results related to more challenging examples, namely the Navier-Stokes Cahn-Hilliard and a diusion-reaction Cahn-Hilliard system, will also be presented. The implementation was done in PetIGA and PetIGA-MF, high-performance Isogeometric Analysis frameworks [1, 3], designed to handle non-linear, time-dependent problems.
Two-phase regime in the magnetic field-temperature phase diagram of a type-II superconductor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Adams, L.L.A.; Halterman, Klaus; Valls, Oriol T.; Goldman, A.M.
2004-01-01
The magnetic field and temperature dependencies of the magnetic moments of superconducting crystals of V 3 Si have been studied. In a constant magnetic field and at temperatures somewhat below the superconducting transition temperature, the moments are hysteretic in temperature. However, the magnetic moment-magnetic field isotherms are reversible and exhibit features that formally resemble the pressure-volume isotherms of the liquid-gas transition. This suggests the existence of a first-order phase transition, a two-phase regime, and a critical point in the superconducting phase diagram. The two phases are disordered vortex configurations with the same magnetization, but with different vortex densities. The entropy change, determined from the data using the Clausius-Clapeyron equation, is consistent with estimates based on the difference in the vortex densities of the two phases
Two-phase regime in the magnetic field-temperature phase diagram of a type-II superconductor
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Adams, L.L.A.; Halterman, Klaus; Valls, Oriol T.; Goldman, A.M
2004-01-01
The magnetic field and temperature dependencies of the magnetic moments of superconducting crystals of V{sub 3}Si have been studied. In a constant magnetic field and at temperatures somewhat below the superconducting transition temperature, the moments are hysteretic in temperature. However, the magnetic moment-magnetic field isotherms are reversible and exhibit features that formally resemble the pressure-volume isotherms of the liquid-gas transition. This suggests the existence of a first-order phase transition, a two-phase regime, and a critical point in the superconducting phase diagram. The two phases are disordered vortex configurations with the same magnetization, but with different vortex densities. The entropy change, determined from the data using the Clausius-Clapeyron equation, is consistent with estimates based on the difference in the vortex densities of the two phases.
Rigorous derivation of porous-media phase-field equations
Schmuck, Markus; Kalliadasis, Serafim
2017-11-01
The evolution of interfaces in Complex heterogeneous Multiphase Systems (CheMSs) plays a fundamental role in a wide range of scientific fields such as thermodynamic modelling of phase transitions, materials science, or as a computational tool for interfacial flow studies or material design. Here, we focus on phase-field equations in CheMSs such as porous media. To the best of our knowledge, we present the first rigorous derivation of error estimates for fourth order, upscaled, and nonlinear evolution equations. For CheMs with heterogeneity ɛ, we obtain the convergence rate ɛ 1 / 4 , which governs the error between the solution of the new upscaled formulation and the solution of the microscopic phase-field problem. This error behaviour has recently been validated computationally in. Due to the wide range of application of phase-field equations, we expect this upscaled formulation to allow for new modelling, analytic, and computational perspectives for interfacial transport and phase transformations in CheMSs. This work was supported by EPSRC, UK, through Grant Nos. EP/H034587/1, EP/L027186/1, EP/L025159/1, EP/L020564/1, EP/K008595/1, and EP/P011713/1 and from ERC via Advanced Grant No. 247031.
Temperature-field phase diagram of extreme magnetoresistance.
Fallah Tafti, Fazel; Gibson, Quinn; Kushwaha, Satya; Krizan, Jason W; Haldolaarachchige, Neel; Cava, Robert Joseph
2016-06-21
The recent discovery of extreme magnetoresistance (XMR) in LaSb introduced lanthanum monopnictides as a new platform to study this effect in the absence of broken inversion symmetry or protected linear band crossing. In this work, we report XMR in LaBi. Through a comparative study of magnetotransport effects in LaBi and LaSb, we construct a temperature-field phase diagram with triangular shape that illustrates how a magnetic field tunes the electronic behavior in these materials. We show that the triangular phase diagram can be generalized to other topological semimetals with different crystal structures and different chemical compositions. By comparing our experimental results to band structure calculations, we suggest that XMR in LaBi and LaSb originates from a combination of compensated electron-hole pockets and a particular orbital texture on the electron pocket. Such orbital texture is likely to be a generic feature of various topological semimetals, giving rise to their small residual resistivity at zero field and subject to strong scattering induced by a magnetic field.
Joshi, Vaibhav; Jaiman, Rajeev K.
2018-05-01
We present a positivity preserving variational scheme for the phase-field modeling of incompressible two-phase flows with high density ratio. The variational finite element technique relies on the Allen-Cahn phase-field equation for capturing the phase interface on a fixed Eulerian mesh with mass conservative and energy-stable discretization. The mass conservation is achieved by enforcing a Lagrange multiplier which has both temporal and spatial dependence on the underlying solution of the phase-field equation. To make the scheme energy-stable in a variational sense, we discretize the spatial part of the Lagrange multiplier in the phase-field equation by the mid-point approximation. The proposed variational technique is designed to reduce the spurious and unphysical oscillations in the solution while maintaining the second-order accuracy of both spatial and temporal discretizations. We integrate the Allen-Cahn phase-field equation with the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations for modeling a broad range of two-phase flow and fluid-fluid interface problems. The coupling of the implicit discretizations corresponding to the phase-field and the incompressible flow equations is achieved via nonlinear partitioned iterative procedure. Comparison of results between the standard linear stabilized finite element method and the present variational formulation shows a remarkable reduction of oscillations in the solution while retaining the boundedness of the phase-indicator field. We perform a standalone test to verify the accuracy and stability of the Allen-Cahn two-phase solver. We examine the convergence and accuracy properties of the coupled phase-field solver through the standard benchmarks of the Laplace-Young law and a sloshing tank problem. Two- and three-dimensional dam break problems are simulated to assess the capability of the phase-field solver for complex air-water interfaces involving topological changes on unstructured meshes. Finally, we demonstrate the phase-field
A stochastic phase-field model determined from molecular dynamics
von Schwerin, Erik
2010-03-17
The dynamics of dendritic growth of a crystal in an undercooled melt is determined by macroscopic diffusion-convection of heat and by capillary forces acting on the nanometer scale of the solid-liquid interface width. Its modelling is useful for instance in processing techniques based on casting. The phase-field method is widely used to study evolution of such microstructural phase transformations on a continuum level; it couples the energy equation to a phenomenological Allen-Cahn/Ginzburg-Landau equation modelling the dynamics of an order parameter determining the solid and liquid phases, including also stochastic fluctuations to obtain the qualitatively correct result of dendritic side branching. This work presents a method to determine stochastic phase-field models from atomistic formulations by coarse-graining molecular dynamics. It has three steps: (1) a precise quantitative atomistic definition of the phase-field variable, based on the local potential energy; (2) derivation of its coarse-grained dynamics model, from microscopic Smoluchowski molecular dynamics (that is Brownian or over damped Langevin dynamics); and (3) numerical computation of the coarse-grained model functions. The coarse-grained model approximates Gibbs ensemble averages of the atomistic phase-field, by choosing coarse-grained drift and diffusion functions that minimize the approximation error of observables in this ensemble average. © EDP Sciences, SMAI, 2010.
A stochastic phase-field model determined from molecular dynamics
von Schwerin, Erik; Szepessy, Anders
2010-01-01
The dynamics of dendritic growth of a crystal in an undercooled melt is determined by macroscopic diffusion-convection of heat and by capillary forces acting on the nanometer scale of the solid-liquid interface width. Its modelling is useful for instance in processing techniques based on casting. The phase-field method is widely used to study evolution of such microstructural phase transformations on a continuum level; it couples the energy equation to a phenomenological Allen-Cahn/Ginzburg-Landau equation modelling the dynamics of an order parameter determining the solid and liquid phases, including also stochastic fluctuations to obtain the qualitatively correct result of dendritic side branching. This work presents a method to determine stochastic phase-field models from atomistic formulations by coarse-graining molecular dynamics. It has three steps: (1) a precise quantitative atomistic definition of the phase-field variable, based on the local potential energy; (2) derivation of its coarse-grained dynamics model, from microscopic Smoluchowski molecular dynamics (that is Brownian or over damped Langevin dynamics); and (3) numerical computation of the coarse-grained model functions. The coarse-grained model approximates Gibbs ensemble averages of the atomistic phase-field, by choosing coarse-grained drift and diffusion functions that minimize the approximation error of observables in this ensemble average. © EDP Sciences, SMAI, 2010.
Global mean-field phase diagram of the spin-1 Ising ferromagnet in a random crystal field
Borelli, M. E. S.; Carneiro, C. E. I.
1996-02-01
We study the phase diagram of the mean-field spin-1 Ising ferromagnet in a uniform magnetic field H and a random crystal field Δi, with probability distribution P( Δi) = pδ( Δi - Δ) + (1 - p) δ( Δi). We analyse the effects of randomness on the first-order surfaces of the Δ- T- H phase diagram for different values of the concentration p and show how these surfaces are affected by the dilution of the crystal field.
Quantum field theoretic properties of nonabelian phase factors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wieczorek, E.
1984-01-01
The paper is concerned with quantum field theoretical properies of nonabelian phase factors. The phase factors defining parallel transport in fiber bundle space are the necessary tool for the construction of gauge invariant nonlocal operators describing bound states in QCD. General structures of such operators are discussed and renormalization properties as well as relations between meson and baryon operators are obtained from a study of the underlying phase factors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kumamaru, Hiroshige
1980-01-01
Brief review of the studies on the flow and heat transfer of two-component, two-phase flow of liquid metal in magnetic field is presented. R.J. Thome measured the distribution of void rate, slip ratio and pressure loss for the two-phase flow of NaK-N 2 under vertical magnetic field. The void rate distribution became even and the slip ratio increased with the increasing magnetic field. The experimental results of pressure loss was compared with the calculation by an equation derived from the homogeneous flow model. R.G. Owen et al. made the analytical studies of the MHD friction loss of two phase flow. Michiyoshi et al. made experimental studies on the hydrodynamic local properties of Hg-Ar two-phase flow of slug region in a vertically ascending tube under magnetic field, and Kimi et al. also made studies on the heat transfer of Hg-Ar flow under magnetic field. Saito et al. measured the slip ratio and pressure loss of NaK-N 2 flow. As a whole, it can be said that the average void rate decreases, and its distribution becomes even under magnetic field. The slip ratio increases, and the friction loss factor becomes nearly one. It was hard to make clear the heat transfer characteristics. (Kato, T.)
Accelerating large-scale phase-field simulations with GPU
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xiaoming Shi
2017-10-01
Full Text Available A new package for accelerating large-scale phase-field simulations was developed by using GPU based on the semi-implicit Fourier method. The package can solve a variety of equilibrium equations with different inhomogeneity including long-range elastic, magnetostatic, and electrostatic interactions. Through using specific algorithm in Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA, Fourier spectral iterative perturbation method was integrated in GPU package. The Allen-Cahn equation, Cahn-Hilliard equation, and phase-field model with long-range interaction were solved based on the algorithm running on GPU respectively to test the performance of the package. From the comparison of the calculation results between the solver executed in single CPU and the one on GPU, it was found that the speed on GPU is enormously elevated to 50 times faster. The present study therefore contributes to the acceleration of large-scale phase-field simulations and provides guidance for experiments to design large-scale functional devices.
Phase-Field Modeling of Sigma-Phase Precipitation in 25Cr7Ni4Mo Duplex Stainless Steel
Malik, Amer; Odqvist, Joakim; Höglund, Lars; Hertzman, Staffan; Ågren, John
2017-10-01
Phase-field modeling is used to simulate the formation of sigma phase in a model alloy mimicking a commercial super duplex stainless steel (SDSS) alloy, in order to study precipitation and growth of sigma phase under linear continuous cooling. The so-called Warren-Boettinger-McFadden (WBM) model is used to build the basis of the multiphase and multicomponent phase-field model. The thermodynamic inconsistency at the multiple junctions associated with the multiphase formulation of the WBM model is resolved by means of a numerical Cut-off algorithm. To make realistic simulations, all the kinetic and the thermodynamic quantities are derived from the CALPHAD databases at each numerical time step, using Thermo-Calc and TQ-Interface. The credibility of the phase-field model is verified by comparing the results from the phase-field simulations with the corresponding DICTRA simulations and also with the empirical data. 2D phase-field simulations are performed for three different cooling rates in two different initial microstructures. A simple model for the nucleation of sigma phase is also implemented in the first case. Simulation results show that the precipitation of sigma phase is characterized by the accumulation of Cr and Mo at the austenite-ferrite and the ferrite-ferrite boundaries. Moreover, it is observed that a slow cooling rate promotes the growth of sigma phase, while a higher cooling rate restricts it, eventually preserving the duplex structure in the SDSS alloy. Results from the phase-field simulations are also compared quantitatively with the experiments, performed on a commercial 2507 SDSS alloy. It is found that overall, the predicted morphological features of the transformation and the composition profiles show good conformity with the empirical data.
A phase-field simulation study of irregular grain boundary migration during recrystallization
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Moelans, N.; Zhang, Yubin; Godfrey, A.
2015-01-01
We present simulation results based on a phase-field model that describes the migration of recrystallization boundaries into spatially varying deformation energy fields. Energy fields with 2-dimensional variations representing 2 sets of dislocation boundaries lying at equal, but opposite, angles......, highly asymmetrical protrusions and retrusions can develop on the migrating recrystallization front resulting in a migration velocity considerably larger than that expected from standard recrystallization models. It is also seen that, when the wavelength of the variations in a deformation microstructure...
Yaqoob, Zahid; Choi, Wonshik; Oh, Seungeun; Lue, Niyom; Park, Yongkeun; Fang-Yen, Christopher; Dasari, Ramachandra R.; Badizadegan, Kamran; Feld, Michael S.
2010-01-01
We report a quantitative phase microscope based on spectral domain optical coherence tomography and line-field illumination. The line illumination allows self phase-referencing method to reject common-mode phase noise. The quantitative phase microscope also features a separate reference arm, permitting the use of high numerical aperture (NA > 1) microscope objectives for high resolution phase measurement at multiple points along the line of illumination. We demonstrate that the path-length sensitivity of the instrument can be as good as 41 pm/Hz, which makes it suitable for nanometer scale study of cell motility. We present the detection of natural motions of cell surface and two-dimensional surface profiling of a HeLa cell. PMID:19550464
The TITAN Reversed-Field Pinch fusion reactor study: Scoping phase report
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1987-01-01
The TITAN research program is a multi-institutional effort to determine the potential of the Reversed-Field Pinch (RFP) magnetic fusion concept as a compact, high-power-density, and ''attractive'' fusion energy system from economic (cost of electricity, COE), environmental, and operational viewpoints. In particular, a high neutron wall loading design (18 MW/m 2 ) has been chosen as the reference case in order to quantify the issue of engineering practicality, to determine the physics requirements and plasma operating mode, to assess significant benefits of compact systems, and to illuminate the main drawbacks. The program has been divided into two phases, each roughly one year in length: the Scoping Phase and the Design Phase. During the scoping phase, the TITAN design team has defined the parameter space for a high mass power density (MPD) RFP reactor, and explored a variety of approaches to the design of major subsystems. Two major design approaches consistent with high MPD and low COE, the lithium-vanadium blanket design and aqueous loop-in-pool design, have been selected for more detailed engineering evaluation in the design phase. The program has retained a balance in its approach to investigating high MPD systems. On the one hand, parametric investigations of both subsystems and overall system performance are carried out. On the other hand, more detailed analysis and engineering design and integration are performed, appropriate to determining the technical feasibility of the high MPD approach to RFP fusion reactors. This report describes the work of the scoping phase activities of the TITAN program. A synopsis of the principal technical findings and a brief description of the TITAN multiple-design approach is given. The individual chapters on Plasma Physics and Engineering, Parameter Systems Studies, Divertor, Reactor Engineering, and Fusion Power Core Engineering have been cataloged separately
The TITAN Reversed-Field Pinch fusion reactor study: Scoping phase report
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
1987-01-01
The TITAN research program is a multi-institutional effort to determine the potential of the Reversed-Field Pinch (RFP) magnetic fusion concept as a compact, high-power-density, and ''attractive'' fusion energy system from economic (cost of electricity, COE), environmental, and operational viewpoints. In particular, a high neutron wall loading design (18 MW/m/sup 2/) has been chosen as the reference case in order to quantify the issue of engineering practicality, to determine the physics requirements and plasma operating mode, to assess significant benefits of compact systems, and to illuminate the main drawbacks. The program has been divided into two phases, each roughly one year in length: the Scoping Phase and the Design Phase. During the scoping phase, the TITAN design team has defined the parameter space for a high mass power density (MPD) RFP reactor, and explored a variety of approaches to the design of major subsystems. Two major design approaches consistent with high MPD and low COE, the lithium-vanadium blanket design and aqueous loop-in-pool design, have been selected for more detailed engineering evaluation in the design phase. The program has retained a balance in its approach to investigating high MPD systems. On the one hand, parametric investigations of both subsystems and overall system performance are carried out. On the other hand, more detailed analysis and engineering design and integration are performed, appropriate to determining the technical feasibility of the high MPD approach to RFP fusion reactors. This report describes the work of the scoping phase activities of the TITAN program. A synopsis of the principal technical findings and a brief description of the TITAN multiple-design approach is given. The individual chapters on Plasma Physics and Engineering, Parameter Systems Studies, Divertor, Reactor Engineering, and Fusion Power Core Engineering have been cataloged separately.
Phase Structure of Strong-Field Tunneling Wave Packets from Molecules.
Liu, Ming-Ming; Li, Min; Wu, Chengyin; Gong, Qihuang; Staudte, André; Liu, Yunquan
2016-04-22
We study the phase structure of the tunneling wave packets from strong-field ionization of molecules and present a molecular quantum-trajectory Monte Carlo model to describe the laser-driven dynamics of photoelectron momentum distributions of molecules. Using our model, we reproduce and explain the alignment-dependent molecular frame photoelectron spectra of strong-field tunneling ionization of N_{2} reported by M. Meckel et al. [Nat. Phys. 10, 594 (2014)]. In addition to modeling the low-energy photoelectron angular distributions quantitatively, we extract the phase structure of strong-field molecular tunneling wave packets, shedding light on its physical origin. The initial phase of the tunneling wave packets at the tunnel exit depends on both the initial transverse momentum distribution and the molecular internuclear distance. We further show that the ionizing molecular orbital has a critical effect on the initial phase of the tunneling wave packets. The phase structure of the photoelectron wave packet is a key ingredient for modeling strong-field molecular photoelectron holography, high-harmonic generation, and molecular orbital imaging.
Magnetic islands modelled by a phase-field-crystal approach
Faghihi, Niloufar; Mkhonta, Simiso; Elder, Ken R.; Grant, Martin
2018-03-01
Using a minimal model based on the phase-field-crystal formalism, we study the coupling between the density and magnetization in ferromagnetic solids. Analytical calculations for the square phase in two dimensions are presented and the small deformation properties of the system are examined. Furthermore, numerical simulations are conducted to study the influence of an external magnetic field on various phase transitions, the anisotropic properties of the free energy functional, and the scaling behaviour of the growth of the magnetic domains in a crystalline solid. It is shown that the energy of the system can depend on the direction of the magnetic moments, with respect to the crystalline direction. Furthermore, the growth of the magnetic domains in a crystalline solid is studied and is shown that the growth of domains is in agreement with expected behaviour.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ertas, Mehmet; Keskin, Mustafa; Deviren, Bayram
2010-01-01
The dynamic phase transitions are studied in the spin-2 Ising model under a time-dependent oscillating magnetic field by using the effective-field theory with correlations. The effective-field dynamic equation is derived by employing the Glauber transition rates and the phases in the system are obtained by solving this dynamic equation. The nature (first- or second-order) of the dynamic phase transition is characterized by investigating the thermal behavior of the dynamic order parameter and the dynamic phase transition temperatures are obtained. The dynamic phase diagrams are presented in (T/zJ, h/zJ) plane.
Phase-field model of eutectic growth
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Karma, A.
1994-01-01
A phase-field model which describes the solidification of a binary eutectic alloy with a simple symmetric phase diagram is introduced and the sharp-interface limit of this model is explored both analytically and numerically
Phase field modeling of rapid crystallization in the phase-change material AIST
Tabatabaei, Fatemeh; Boussinot, Guillaume; Spatschek, Robert; Brener, Efim A.; Apel, Markus
2017-07-01
We carry out phase field modeling as a continuum simulation technique in order to study rapid crystallization processes in the phase-change material AIST (Ag4In3Sb67Te26). In particular, we simulate the spatio-temporal evolution of the crystallization of a molten area of the phase-change material embedded in a layer stack. The simulation model is adapted to the experimental conditions used for recent measurements of crystallization rates by a laser pulse technique. Simulations are performed for substrate temperatures close to the melting temperature of AIST down to low temperatures when an amorphous state is involved. The design of the phase field model using the thin interface limit allows us to retrieve the two limiting regimes of interface controlled (low temperatures) and thermal transport controlled (high temperatures) dynamics. Our simulations show that, generically, the crystallization velocity presents a maximum in the intermediate regime where both the interface mobility and the thermal transport, through the molten area as well as through the layer stack, are important. Simulations reveal the complex interplay of all different contributions. This suggests that the maximum switching velocity depends not only on material properties but also on the precise design of the thin film structure into which the phase-change material is embedded.
Laser Light-field Fusion for Wide-field Lensfree On-chip Phase Contrast Microscopy of Nanoparticles
Kazemzadeh, Farnoud; Wong, Alexander
2016-12-01
Wide-field lensfree on-chip microscopy, which leverages holography principles to capture interferometric light-field encodings without lenses, is an emerging imaging modality with widespread interest given the large field-of-view compared to lens-based techniques. In this study, we introduce the idea of laser light-field fusion for lensfree on-chip phase contrast microscopy for detecting nanoparticles, where interferometric laser light-field encodings acquired using a lensfree, on-chip setup with laser pulsations at different wavelengths are fused to produce marker-free phase contrast images of particles at the nanometer scale. As a proof of concept, we demonstrate, for the first time, a wide-field lensfree on-chip instrument successfully detecting 300 nm particles across a large field-of-view of ~30 mm2 without any specialized or intricate sample preparation, or the use of synthetic aperture- or shift-based techniques.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Deviren, Bayram [Department of Physics, Nevsehir University, 50300 Nevsehir (Turkey); Institute of Science, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey); Keskin, Mustafa, E-mail: keskin@erciyes.edu.t [Department of Physics, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey)
2010-07-12
Dynamic aspects of a two-sublattice Ising metamagnet on honeycomb, square and hexagonal lattices under the presence of a time-dependent oscillating external magnetic field are studied by using the effective-field theory with correlations. The set of effective-field dynamic equations is derived by employing Glauber transition rates. The phases in the system are obtained by solving these dynamic equations. The thermal behavior of the dynamic staggered magnetization, the hysteresis loop area and correlation are investigated in order to characterize the nature of the dynamic transitions and to obtain dynamic phase transition temperatures. The phase diagrams are constructed in two different planes, and exhibit dynamic tricritical behavior, which strongly depends on interaction parameters. In order to investigate the spin correlation effect on the dynamic phase diagrams of the system, the results are also given within the framework of the dynamic mean-field approximation.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Deviren, Bayram; Keskin, Mustafa
2010-01-01
Dynamic aspects of a two-sublattice Ising metamagnet on honeycomb, square and hexagonal lattices under the presence of a time-dependent oscillating external magnetic field are studied by using the effective-field theory with correlations. The set of effective-field dynamic equations is derived by employing Glauber transition rates. The phases in the system are obtained by solving these dynamic equations. The thermal behavior of the dynamic staggered magnetization, the hysteresis loop area and correlation are investigated in order to characterize the nature of the dynamic transitions and to obtain dynamic phase transition temperatures. The phase diagrams are constructed in two different planes, and exhibit dynamic tricritical behavior, which strongly depends on interaction parameters. In order to investigate the spin correlation effect on the dynamic phase diagrams of the system, the results are also given within the framework of the dynamic mean-field approximation.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ertaş, Mehmet; Keskin, Mustafa; Deviren, Bayram
2012-01-01
Using an effective field theory with correlations, we study a kinetic spin-5/2 Blume–Capel model with bilinear exchange interaction and single-ion crystal field on a square lattice. The effective-field dynamic equation is derived by employing the Glauber transition rates. First, the phases in the kinetic system are obtained by solving this dynamic equation. Then, the thermal behavior of the dynamic magnetization, the hysteresis loop area and correlation are investigated in order to characterize the nature of the dynamic transitions and to obtain dynamic phase transition temperatures. Finally, we present the phase diagrams in two planes, namely (T/zJ, h 0 /zJ) and (T/zJ, D/zJ), where T absolute temperature, h 0 , the amplitude of the oscillating field, D, crystal field interaction or single-ion anisotropy constant and z denotes the nearest-neighbor sites of the central site. The phase diagrams exhibit four fundamental phases and ten mixed phases which are composed of binary, ternary and tetrad combination of fundamental phases, depending on the crystal field interaction parameter. Moreover, the phase diagrams contain a dynamic tricritical point (T), a double critical end point (B), a multicritical point (A) and zero-temperature critical point (Z). - Highlights: ► The effective-field theory is used to study the kinetic spin-5/2 Ising Blume–Capel model. ► Time variations of average order parameter have been studied to find phases in the system. ► The dynamic magnetization, hysteresis loop area and correlation have been calculated. ► The dynamic phase boundaries of the system depend on D/zJ. ► The dynamic phase diagrams are presented in the (T/zJ, h 0 /zJ) and (D/zJ, T/zJ) planes.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ertas, Mehmet [Department of Physics, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey); Keskin, Mustafa, E-mail: keskin@erciyes.edu.tr [Department of Physics, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey); Deviren, Bayram [Department of Physics, Nevsehir University, 50300 Nevsehir (Turkey)
2012-04-15
Using an effective field theory with correlations, we study a kinetic spin-5/2 Blume-Capel model with bilinear exchange interaction and single-ion crystal field on a square lattice. The effective-field dynamic equation is derived by employing the Glauber transition rates. First, the phases in the kinetic system are obtained by solving this dynamic equation. Then, the thermal behavior of the dynamic magnetization, the hysteresis loop area and correlation are investigated in order to characterize the nature of the dynamic transitions and to obtain dynamic phase transition temperatures. Finally, we present the phase diagrams in two planes, namely (T/zJ, h{sub 0}/zJ) and (T/zJ, D/zJ), where T absolute temperature, h{sub 0}, the amplitude of the oscillating field, D, crystal field interaction or single-ion anisotropy constant and z denotes the nearest-neighbor sites of the central site. The phase diagrams exhibit four fundamental phases and ten mixed phases which are composed of binary, ternary and tetrad combination of fundamental phases, depending on the crystal field interaction parameter. Moreover, the phase diagrams contain a dynamic tricritical point (T), a double critical end point (B), a multicritical point (A) and zero-temperature critical point (Z). - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effective-field theory is used to study the kinetic spin-5/2 Ising Blume-Capel model. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Time variations of average order parameter have been studied to find phases in the system. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The dynamic magnetization, hysteresis loop area and correlation have been calculated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The dynamic phase boundaries of the system depend on D/zJ. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The dynamic phase diagrams are presented in the (T/zJ, h{sub 0}/zJ) and (D/zJ, T/zJ) planes.
A fracture-controlled path-following technique for phase-field modeling of brittle fracture
Singh, N.; Verhoosel, C.V.; De Borst, R.; Van Brummelen, E.H.
2016-01-01
In the phase-field description of brittle fracture, the fracture-surface area can be expressed as a functional of the phase field (or damage field). In this work we study the applicability of this explicit expression as a (non-linear) path-following constraint to robustly track the equilibrium path
Dark-field electron holography for the measurement of geometric phase
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hytch, M.J.; Houdellier, F.; Huee, F.; Snoeck, E.
2011-01-01
The genesis, theoretical basis and practical application of the new electron holographic dark-field technique for mapping strain in nanostructures are presented. The development places geometric phase within a unified theoretical framework for phase measurements by electron holography. The total phase of the transmitted and diffracted beams is described as a sum of four contributions: crystalline, electrostatic, magnetic and geometric. Each contribution is outlined briefly and leads to the proposal to measure geometric phase by dark-field electron holography (DFEH). The experimental conditions, phase reconstruction and analysis are detailed for off-axis electron holography using examples from the field of semiconductors. A method for correcting for thickness variations will be proposed and demonstrated using the phase from the corresponding bright-field electron hologram. -- Highlights: → Unified description of phase measurements in electron holography. → Detailed description of dark-field electron holography for geometric phase measurements. → Correction procedure for systematic errors due to thickness variations.
Two applications of Berry's phase in fermionic field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Goff, W.E.
1989-01-01
When quantized fermions are coupled to a background field, nontrivial effects may arise due to the geometry and/or topology of the space of background field configurations. In this thesis, two examples of Berry's geometrical phase in a fermionic sea are studied: the anomalous commutator in gauge field theory and the intrinsic orbital angular momentum in superfluid 3 He-A. Chapter 1 is a brief introduction. Chapter 2 reviews Berry's Phase and several toy models. Effective actions are calculated for two models in gradient expansions and the role of a geometric term is discussed. Chapter 3 investigates the anomalous commutator in the generators of gauge symmetry in field theory. Using an idea introduced by Sonoda, the Berry phase of the vacuum state is found to be the sum of the Berry phases of the individual states in the sea plus a piece due to the infinite nature of the Dirac sea. The latter is the anomalous commutator. Also found is a relative minus sign between the commutator of the total gauge symmetry generators and the commutator of the fermionic charge generators. Examples are given. In Chapter 4, a geometric way of deriving the intrinsic orbital angular momentum term in the 3 He-A equations of motion is presented. Homogeneous, adiabatically evolving textures at zero temperature are found to pick up a nonzero groundstate Berry phase, where the ground state is taken to be a filled sea of Bogoliubov quasiparticles. Interpreting the phase as a Wess-Zumino effective action for the condensate provides a geometric origin for the intrinsic angular momentum. The idea of a ground-state phase is then extended to other gap functions and a more general result is obtained. Chapter 5 concludes with a discussion of the possibility of unifying the two problems in a more general framework and directions for further work
Matrix model approximations of fuzzy scalar field theories and their phase diagrams
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tekel, Juraj [Department of Theoretical Physics, Faculty of Mathematics, Physics and Informatics, Comenius University, Mlynska Dolina, Bratislava, 842 48 (Slovakia)
2015-12-29
We present an analysis of two different approximations to the scalar field theory on the fuzzy sphere, a nonperturbative and a perturbative one, which are both multitrace matrix models. We show that the former reproduces a phase diagram with correct features in a qualitative agreement with the previous numerical studies and that the latter gives a phase diagram with features not expected in the phase diagram of the field theory.
Radiation phase of a dipole field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shunovsky, A.S.
1998-01-01
In the case of a dipole electromagnetic radiation, the operator of the 'radiation phase' is defined. It is shown that this operator has a discrete spectrum with eigenvalues, lying in the segment [0,2π]. Some properties of the radiation phase and polarization are discussed. Seventy years of investigation of the problem of quantum phase led to the conclusion that there is no unique quantum variable, determining universally the measured phase properties of electromagnetic radiation. The operator constructions, describing cosine and sine of the phase, could be different schemes of measurement. This fact has accurately been confirmed by a number of recent experiments. Thus, it seems to be quite plausible that the quantum phase properties of an electromagnetic radiation are determined by interaction photons with a macroscopic detecting device. It is pertinent to ask the following question. Are the quantum phase properties of radiation completely determined by such an interaction or the photons have their own inherent phase properties which might be measured even if they are modified by interaction with a detecting device? The universally recognized fact is that the vacuum state of field is degenerated with respect to phase. If a quantum radiation has its inherent phase properties, it means that the degeneration is taken off in the process of generation which is an interaction of the vacuum field with excited states of atoms or molecules. By virtue of this picture proposed in, what all one can expect is that the inherent quantum phase properties of radiation are completely determined by a source via the conservation laws, describing the generation process. Even in this way, it seems to determine a unique quantum phase of radiation. As a matter of fact, there are two conservation laws, admitting a nontrivial angular dependence
A novel phase-sensitive scanning near-field optical microscope
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wu Xiao-Yu; Lin Sun; Tan Qiao-Feng; Wang Jia
2015-01-01
Phase is one of the most important parameters of electromagnetic waves. It is the phase distribution that determines the propagation, reflection, refraction, focusing, divergence, and coupling features of light, and further affects the intensity distribution. In recent years, the designs of surface plasmon polariton (SPP) devices have mostly been based on the phase modulation and manipulation. Here we demonstrate a phase sensitive multi-parameter heterodyne scanning near-field optical microscope (SNOM) with an aperture probe in the visible range, with which the near field optical phase and amplitude distributions can be simultaneously obtained. A novel architecture combining a spatial optical path and a fiber optical path is employed for stability and flexibility. Two kinds of typical nano-photonic devices are tested with the system. With the phase-sensitive SNOM, the phase and amplitude distributions of any nano-optical field and localized field generated with any SPP nano-structures and irregular phase modulation surfaces can be investigated. The phase distribution and the interference pattern will help us to gain a better understanding of how light interacts with SPP structures and how SPP waves generate, localize, convert, and propagate on an SPP surface. This will be a significant guidance on SPP nano-structure design and optimization. (paper)
Discrete phase space based on finite fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gibbons, Kathleen S.; Hoffman, Matthew J.; Wootters, William K.
2004-01-01
The original Wigner function provides a way of representing in phase space the quantum states of systems with continuous degrees of freedom. Wigner functions have also been developed for discrete quantum systems, one popular version being defined on a 2Nx2N discrete phase space for a system with N orthogonal states. Here we investigate an alternative class of discrete Wigner functions, in which the field of real numbers that labels the axes of continuous phase space is replaced by a finite field having N elements. There exists such a field if and only if N is a power of a prime; so our formulation can be applied directly only to systems for which the state-space dimension takes such a value. Though this condition may seem limiting, we note that any quantum computer based on qubits meets the condition and can thus be accommodated within our scheme. The geometry of our NxN phase space also leads naturally to a method of constructing a complete set of N+1 mutually unbiased bases for the state space
Phase microscopy using light-field reconstruction method for cell observation.
Xiu, Peng; Zhou, Xin; Kuang, Cuifang; Xu, Yingke; Liu, Xu
2015-08-01
The refractive index (RI) distribution can serve as a natural label for undyed cell imaging. However, the majority of images obtained through quantitative phase microscopy is integrated along the illumination angle and cannot reflect additional information about the refractive map on a certain plane. Herein, a light-field reconstruction method to image the RI map within a depth of 0.2 μm is proposed. It records quantitative phase-delay images using a four-step phase shifting method in different directions and then reconstructs a similar scattered light field for the refractive sample on the focus plane. It can image the RI of samples, transparent cell samples in particular, in a manner similar to the observation of scattering characteristics. The light-field reconstruction method is therefore a powerful tool for use in cytobiology studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Study of vapour phase dynamics with nitrogen boiling in the field of centrifugal forces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Levchenko, N.M.; Kolod'ko, I.M.
1987-01-01
The vapour phase dynamics during film boiling of liquid nitrogen on horizontal wire in the field of centrifugal forces has been studied experimentally in a wide range of overloads(1 ≤ η ≤ 375) and heat fluxes (q kp2 ≤ q ≤ 4q kpi ). The available data confirmed and the theoretical relationships suggested make it possible to calculate the hydrodynamic film boiling parameters (wave length, bubble departure diameter and frequency) for other liquids
Dynamics of a quantum two-level system under the action of phase-diffusion field
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sobakinskaya, E.A. [Institute for Physics of Microstructures of RAS, Nizhny Novgorod, 603950 (Russian Federation); Pankratov, A.L., E-mail: alp@ipm.sci-nnov.ru [Institute for Physics of Microstructures of RAS, Nizhny Novgorod, 603950 (Russian Federation); Vaks, V.L. [Institute for Physics of Microstructures of RAS, Nizhny Novgorod, 603950 (Russian Federation)
2012-01-09
We study a behavior of quantum two-level system, interacting with noisy phase-diffusion field. The dynamics is shown to split into two regimes, determined by the coherence time of the phase-diffusion field. For both regimes we present a model of quantum system behavior and discuss possible applications of the obtained effect for spectroscopy. In particular, the obtained analytical formula for the macroscopic polarization demonstrates that the phase-diffusion field does not affect the absorption line shape, which opens up an intriguing possibility of noisy spectroscopy, based on broadband sources with Lorentzian line shape. -- Highlights: ► We study dynamics of quantum system interacting with noisy phase-diffusion field. ► At short times the phase-diffusion field induces polarization in the quantum system. ► At long times the noise leads to polarization decay and heating of a quantum system. ► Simple model of interaction is derived. ► Application of the described effects for spectroscopy is discussed.
Regularity of solutions of a phase field model
Amler, Thomas
2013-01-01
Phase field models are widely-used for modelling phase transition processes such as solidification, freezing or CO2 sequestration. In this paper, a phase field model proposed by G. Caginalp is considered. The existence and uniqueness of solutions are proved in the case of nonsmooth initial data. Continuity of solutions with respect to time is established. In particular, it is shown that the governing initial boundary value problem can be considered as a dynamical system. © 2013 International Press.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gedik, Engin; Recebli, Ziyaddin; Kurt, Hueseyin; Kecebas, Ali
2012-01-01
The unsteady viscous incompressible and electrically conducting of two-phase fluid flow in circular pipes with external magnetic and electrical field is considered in this present study. Effects of both uniform transverse external magnetic and electrical fields applied perpendicular to the fluid and each other on the two-phase (solid/liquid) unsteady flow is investigated numerically. While iron powders are being used as the first phase of two-phase fluid, pure water was used as the second phase. The system of the derived governing equations, which are based on the Navier-Stokes equations including Maxwell equations, are solved numerically by using Pdex4 function on the Matlab for both phases. The originality of this study is that, in addition to magnetic field, the effect of electrical field on two-phase unsteady fluids is being examined. The magnetic field which is applied on flow decreases the velocity of both phases, whereas the electrical field applied along with magnetic field acted to increase and decrease the velocity values depending on the direction of electrical field. Electrical field alone did not display any impact on two-phase flow. On the other hand, analytical and numerical results are compared and favorable agreements have been obtained. (authors)
Phase retrieval in near-field measurements by array synthesis
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wu, Jian; Larsen, Flemming Holm
1991-01-01
The phase retrieval problem in near-field antenna measurements is formulated as an array synthesis problem. As a test case, a particular synthesis algorithm has been used to retrieve the phase of a linear array......The phase retrieval problem in near-field antenna measurements is formulated as an array synthesis problem. As a test case, a particular synthesis algorithm has been used to retrieve the phase of a linear array...
Ta, Na; Zhang, Lijun; Du, Yong
2014-04-01
An attempt to design the heat treatment schedule for binary Ni-Al alloys with optimal mechanical properties was made in the present work. A series of quantitative three-dimensional (3-D) phase-field simulations of microstructure evolution in Ni-Al alloys during the precipitation process were first performed using MICRESS (MICRostructure Evolution Simulation Software) package developed in the formalism of the multi-phase field model. The coupling to CALPHAD (CALculation of PHAse Diagram) thermodynamic and atomic mobility databases was realized via TQ interface. Moreover, the temperature-dependent lattice misfits and elastic constants were utilized for simulation. The effect of the alloy composition and aging temperature on microstructure evolution was extensively studied with the aid of statistical analysis. After that, an evaluation function was proposed for evaluating the optimal heat treatment schedule by choosing the phase fraction, grain size, and shape factor of γ' precipitate as the evaluation indicators. Based on 50 groups of phase-field-simulated and experimental microstructure information, as well as the proposed evaluation function, the optimal alloy composition, aging temperature, and aging time for binary Ni-Al alloy with optimal mechanical properties were finally chosen. The successful application in the present Ni-Al alloys indicates that it is possible to design the optimal alloy composition and heat treatment for other binary and even multicomponent alloys with optimal mechanical properties based on the evaluation function and the sufficient microstructure information. Additionally, the combination of the present method and the key experiments can definitely accelerate the material design and improve the efficiency and accuracy.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Keskin, M.; Canko, O.; Temizer, U.
2007-01-01
Within a mean-field approach, the stationary states of the kinetic spin-1 Blume-Capel model in the presence of a time-dependent oscillating external magnetic field is studied. The Glauber-type stochastic dynamics is used to describe the time evolution of the system and obtain the mean-field dynamic equation of motion. The dynamic phase-transition points are calculated and phase diagrams are presented in the temperature and crystal-field interaction plane. According to the values of the magnetic field amplitude, three fundamental types of phase diagrams are found: One exhibits a dynamic tricritical point, while the other two exhibit a dynamic zero-temperature critical point
Magnetic Phase Transitions of CeSb. II: Effects of Applied Magnetic Fields
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Meier, G.; Fischer, P.; Hälg, W.
1978-01-01
For pt.I see ibid., vol.11, p.345 (1978). The metamagnetic phase transition and the associated phase diagram of the anomalous antiferromagnet CeSb were determined in a neutron diffraction study of the magnetic ordering of CeSb single crystals in applied magnetic fields parallel to the (001...... magnetic fields. The observed magnetic structures do not correspond to the stable configurations expected from the molecular field theory of the face-centred cubic lattice. The change from a first-order transition at the Neel temperature in zero field to second-order transition at high fields points...
Study of SmS properties in the low pressure phase (black phase)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bordier, G.
1986-01-01
SmS was studied for the transition from low pressure phase (black phase) to high pressure phase with an intermediate valence. But the study of the black phase is very rich. The variations of electron transport properties with pressure at low temperature show a semi-metal phase located, in the pressure-temperature diagram in the black phase for pressure over 4 kbars, corresponding to the phase B'of the doping-temperature diagram. Electron spin resonance shows a lack of sulfur and nearby this defect a samarium ion, magnetically coupled with the matrix, presents a divalent trivalent transition. Resonance lines are broadened with temperature. Conductivity relaxations occur at low pressure and low temperature by trapping a conduction electron, by magnetic exchange giving a bounded magnetic polaron. The relaxation time at null magnetic field is activated. An approximation of trapping barrier and critical field corresponding the maximum magnetoresistance is given by a model [fr
Phase-field modelling of microstructural evolution and properties
Zhu, Jingzhi
externally applied strain. Specifically the effects of elastic inhomogeneity on the coarsening of a two-phase microstructure were investigated. It was generally found that the hard phase tends to form precipitates surrounded by the soft matrix phase to reduce the elastic energy, in agreement with prior studies using first-order approximations. Increasing the elastic inhomogeneity will reduce the growth exponent. A three-dimensional phase-field model was developed which can be linked with the CALPHAD method through the local free energy construction as a function of field variables. The model takes most important thermodynamic and kinetic parameters, such as lattice parameters, interfacial energy and elastic constants, from either a database or independent experimental measurements. The Ni 3Al precipitate shape evolution in a binary Ni-Al system was studied as an example. Depending on the balance between interfacial energy and elastic energy relaxation, the simulated microstructures developed different shapes at different sizes. The diffuse-interface model can also be employed for modelling temporal mass diffusion transport through an arbitrary microstructure as well as the corresponding effective properties. From the comparison results in a wide variety of examples including the three kinetic regimes of grain boundary diffusion, the effective property prediction obtained by the diffuse-interface model was in good agreement with that obtained by using a conventional sharp-interface model.
Prediction of transport phenomena in near and far field: interaction solid phase/fluid phase
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mingarro, E.
1995-01-01
The prediction of transport phenomena in near and far field is presented in the present report. The study begins with the analysis of solid phases stability: solubility of storage waste: UO 2 and solubility of radionuclides the redox and sorption-desorption conditions are the last aspects studied to predict the transport phenomena
Far-field and Fresnel Liquid Crystal Geometric Phase Holograms via Direct-Write Photo-Alignment
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xiao Xiang
2017-12-01
Full Text Available We study computer-generated geometric-phase holograms (GPHs realized by photo-aligned liquid crystals, in both simulation and experiment. We demonstrate both far-field and Fresnel holograms capable of producing far-field and near-field images with preserved fidelity for all wavelengths. The GPHs are fabricated by patterning a photo-alignment layer (PAL using a direct-write laser scanner and coating the surface with a polymerizable liquid crystal (i.e., a reactive mesogen. We study various recording pixel sizes, down to 3 μm, that are easily recorded in the PAL. We characterize the fabricated elements and find good agreement with theory and numerical simulation. Because of the wavelength independent geometric phase, the (phase fidelity of the replay images is preserved for all wavelengths, unlike conventional dynamic phase holograms. However, governed by the diffraction equation, the size and location of a reconstructed image depends on the replay wavelength for far-field and near-field GPHs, respectively. These offer interesting opportunities for white-light holography.
Dual-scale phase-field simulation of Mg-Al alloy solidification
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Monas, A; Shchyglo, O; Tegeler, M; Steinbach, I; Höche, D
2015-01-01
Phase-field simulations of the nucleation and growth of primary α-Mg phase as well as secondary, β-phase of a Mg-Al alloy are presented. The nucleation model for α- and β-Mg phases is based on the “free growth model” by Greer et al.. After the α-Mg phase solidification we study a divorced eutectic growth of α- and β-Mg phases in a zoomed in melt channel between α-phase dendrites. The simulated cooling curves and final microstructures of α-grains are compared with experiments. In order to further enhance the resolution of the interdendritic region a high-performance computing approach has been used allowing significant simulation speed gain when using supercomputing facilities. (paper)
Luckhurst, G. R.; Saielli, G.
2000-03-01
Molecular field theory predicts the induction of a smectic A phase by the application of a field, either magnetic or electric, to a nematic phase. This intriguing behavior results from an enhancement of the orientational order which is coupled to the translational order and so shifts the smectic A-nematic transition. To test this prediction we have investigated a system of Gay-Berne mesogenic molecules subject to an applied field of second rank using isothermal-isobaric Monte Carlo simulations. The results of our calculations are compared with the Kventsel-Luckhurst-Zewdie molecular field theory of smectogens, modified to include the effect of an external field. We have also used the simulations to explore the possibility of inducing more ordered smectic phases with stronger fields.
Phase-Field Simulation of Microstructure Evolution in Industrial A2214 Alloy During Solidification
Wei, Ming; Tang, Ying; Zhang, Lijun; Sun, Weihua; Du, Yong
2015-07-01
By linking to the thermodynamic and atomic mobility databases in Al alloys well established in our research group, the microstructure evolution in industrial A2214 alloy (Al-4.5Cu-0.5Mg-1.0Si, in wt pct) during solidification process was studied by means of two-dimensional phase-field simulation via MICRostructure Evolution Simulation Software in the framework of the multi-phase-field formalism. The thermophysical parameters including interfacial energies and interfacial mobilities were carefully chosen for reproducing the experimental features. The solidification sequence due to the present phase-field simulation conforms to both equilibrium calculation and Scheil simulation. The predicted microstructure reproduces the experimental data very well. These facts indicate that a quantitative phase-field simulation was achieved in the present work. Moreover, the mechanisms of characteristic patterns and microstructure formation were revealed with the aid of the phase-field simulation. In addition, the effect of cooling rate on the secondary dendrite arm spacing and microsegregation was also investigated through comprehensive comparison with the experimental data.
The average action for scalar fields near phase transitions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wetterich, C.
1991-08-01
We compute the average action for fields in two, three and four dimensions, including the effects of wave function renormalization. A study of the one loop evolution equations for the scale dependence of the average action gives a unified picture of the qualitatively different behaviour in various dimensions for discrete as well as abelian and nonabelian continuous symmetry. The different phases and the phase transitions can be infered from the evolution equation. (orig.)
Phase-field simulation of lenticular martensite and inheritance of the accommodation dislocations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kundin Julia
2015-01-01
Full Text Available A phase-field simulation is performed to study the substructure evolution of lenticular martensite in TRIP steels. The evolution of martensitic phase variants and dislocations is calculated by a coupled phase-field micro-elasticity model. The simulations at isothermal conditions show that during the phase transformation, the accommodation dislocations evolving in the austenite are inherited by the martensitic phase and cause the further evolution of a single martensitic variant in the direction of the dislocation slip. As a result of the interaction, a change of the growth mode from twining to slip can be observed in accordance to the substructure formation of lenticular martensite. This interaction between the dislocations and martensitic phase depends on dislocation slip systems and the orientation of the martensitic variants as well as on the energy barriers for the phase transformation and for the dislocation motion.
Benchmark problems for numerical implementations of phase field models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jokisaari, A. M.; Voorhees, P. W.; Guyer, J. E.; Warren, J.; Heinonen, O. G.
2016-01-01
Here, we present the first set of benchmark problems for phase field models that are being developed by the Center for Hierarchical Materials Design (CHiMaD) and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). While many scientific research areas use a limited set of well-established software, the growing phase field community continues to develop a wide variety of codes and lacks benchmark problems to consistently evaluate the numerical performance of new implementations. Phase field modeling has become significantly more popular as computational power has increased and is now becoming mainstream, driving the need for benchmark problems to validate and verify new implementations. We follow the example set by the micromagnetics community to develop an evolving set of benchmark problems that test the usability, computational resources, numerical capabilities and physical scope of phase field simulation codes. In this paper, we propose two benchmark problems that cover the physics of solute diffusion and growth and coarsening of a second phase via a simple spinodal decomposition model and a more complex Ostwald ripening model. We demonstrate the utility of benchmark problems by comparing the results of simulations performed with two different adaptive time stepping techniques, and we discuss the needs of future benchmark problems. The development of benchmark problems will enable the results of quantitative phase field models to be confidently incorporated into integrated computational materials science and engineering (ICME), an important goal of the Materials Genome Initiative.
Martinez-Veracoechea, Francisco J.; Escobedo, Fernando A.
2009-01-01
Using self-consistent field theory, the Plumber's Nightmare and the double diamond phases are predicted to be stable in a finite region of phase diagrams for blends of AB diblock copolymer (DBC) and A-component homopolymer. To the best of our
Phase diagram and tricritical behavior of an metamagnet in uniform and random fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liang Yaqiu; Wei Guozhu; Xu Xiaojuan; Song Guoli
2010-01-01
A two-sublattice Ising metamagnet in both uniform and random fields is studied within the mean-field approach based on Bogoliubov's inequality for the Gibbs free energy. We show that the qualitative features of the phase diagrams are dependent on the parameters of the model and the uniform field values. The tricritical point and reentrant phenomenon can be observed on the phase diagram. The reentrance is due to the competition between uniform and random interactions.
Phase-field models of microstructure evolution in a system with elastic inhomogeneity and defects
Hu, Shenyang
In this thesis, the phase-field approach is employed to study the effect of elastic inhomogeneity and structural defects on phase separation kinetics and morphological evolution in bulk and film systems, the precipitation of theta ' phase (Al2Cu) in Al-Cu alloys, and solute strengthening of alloys. By combining the iteration method for calculating the elastic energy and a semi-implicit spectral method for solving the Cahn-Hilliard equation an extremely efficient phase-field model is developed for studying morphological evolution in coherent systems with large elastic inhomogeneity. Spinodal decomposition in a thin film with periodically distributed arrays of interfacial dislocations is simulated. The results show that the periodic stress field associated with the array of interfacial dislocations leads to a directional phase separation and the formation of ordered microstructures. The metastable theta' (Al2Cu) precipitates are one of the primary strengthening precipitates in Al-Cu alloys. They are of a plate-like shape with strong interfacial energy and mobility anisotropies. A phase-field model which can automatically incorporate the thermodynamic and kinetic information from databases is developed. The relationships between phase-field model parameters and material thermodynamic and kinetic properties are established. Systematic simulations of theta' growth in 1D, 2D and 3D are carried out. The growth of a single theta ' precipitate in 1D exactly reproduces the results from analytical solutions. The phase-filed model can serve as a basis for quantitative understanding of the influence of elastic energy, interface energy anisotropy and interface mobility anisotropy on the precipitation of theta' in Al-Cu alloys. Precipitates and solutes are commonly used to strengthen alloys. A phase field model of dislocation dynamics, which employs 12 order parameter fields to describe the dislocation distribution in a single fcc crystal, and one composition field to describe
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cavalcanti, E.; Castro, E.; Malbouisson, A.P.C. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas/MCTI, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Linhares, C.A. [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Fisica, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)
2017-10-15
A scalar model is built, as a quantum field theory defined on a toroidal topology, to describe a phase transition in films subjected to periodic boundary conditions and influenced by an external and constant magnetic field. Criticality is studied and the relations between the critical temperature, the film thickness, the magnetic field strength and the chemical potential are investigated. Since the model describes a second-order phase transition a comparison with the Ginzburg-Landau theory is made. (orig.)
Phase-field model of insulator-to-metal transition in VO2 under an electric field
Shi, Yin; Chen, Long-Qing
2018-05-01
The roles of an electric field and electronic doping in insulator-to-metal transitions are still not well understood. Here we formulated a phase-field model of insulator-to-metal transitions by taking into account both structural and electronic instabilities as well as free electrons and holes in VO2, a strongly correlated transition-metal oxide. Our phase-field simulations demonstrate that in a VO2 slab under a uniform electric field, an abrupt universal resistive transition occurs inside the supercooling region, in sharp contrast to the conventional Landau-Zener smooth electric breakdown. We also show that hole doping may decouple the structural and electronic phase transitions in VO2, leading to a metastable metallic monoclinic phase which could be stabilized through a geometrical confinement and the size effect. This work provides a general mesoscale thermodynamic framework for understanding the influences of electric field, electronic doping, and stress and strain on insulator-to-metal transitions and the corresponding mesoscale domain structure evolution in VO2 and related strongly correlated systems.
Derivation of the phase field equations from the thermodynamic extremal principle
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Svoboda, J.; Fischer, F.D.; McDowell, D.L.
2012-01-01
Thermodynamics employs quantities that characterize the state of the system and provides driving forces for system evolution. These quantities can be applied by means of the thermodynamic extremal principle to obtain models and consequently constitutive equations for the evolution of the thermodynamic systems. The phase field method is a promising tool for simulation of the microstructure evolution in complex systems but introduces several parameters that are not standard in thermodynamics. The purpose of this paper is to show how the phase field method equations can be derived from the thermodynamic extremal principle, allowing the common treatment of the phase field parameters together with standard thermodynamic parameters in future applications. Fixed values of the phase field parameters may, however, not guarantee fixed values of thermodynamic parameters. Conditions are determined, for which relatively stable values of the thermodynamic parameters are guaranteed during phase field method simulations of interface migration. Finally, analytical relations between the thermodynamic and phase field parameters are found and verified for these simulations. A slight dependence of the thermodynamic parameters on the driving force is determined for the cases examined.
Field-oriented control of five-phase induction motor with open-end stator winding
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Listwan Jacek
2016-09-01
Full Text Available The mathematical model of the five-phase squirrel-cage induction motor and the system of the dual five-phase voltage source inverter have been presented. The control methods and control systems of the field-oriented control of the five-phase induction motor with an open-end stator winding are described. The structures of the direct fieldoriented control system (DFOC and the Indirect Field-oriented control system (IFOC with PI controllers in outer and inner control loops are analyzed. A method of space vector modulation used to control the system of the dual five-phase voltage source inverter has been discussed. The results of simulation studies of the field-oriented control methods are presented. Comparative analysis of the simulation results was carried out.
Phase separation in fluids exposed to spatially periodic external fields.
Vink, R L C; Archer, A J
2012-03-01
When a fluid is confined within a spatially periodic external field, the liquid-vapor transition is replaced by a different transition called laser-induced condensation (LIC) [Götze et al., Mol. Phys. 101, 1651 (2003)]. In d=3 dimensions, the periodic field induces an additional phase, characterized by large density modulations along the field direction. At the triple point, all three phases (modulated, vapor, and liquid) coexist. At temperatures slightly above the triple point and for low (high) values of the chemical potential, two-phase coexistence between the modulated phase and the vapor (liquid) is observed; by increasing the temperature further, both coexistence regions terminate in critical points. In this paper, we reconsider LIC using the Ising model to resolve a number of open issues. To be specific, we (1) determine the universality class of the LIC critical points and elucidate the nature of the correlations along the field direction, (2) present a mean-field analysis to show how the LIC phase diagram changes as a function of the field wavelength and amplitude, (3) develop a simulation method by which the extremely low tension of the interface between modulated and vapor or liquid phase can be measured, (4) present a finite-size scaling analysis to accurately extract the LIC triple point from finite-size simulation data, and (5) consider the fate of LIC in d=2 dimensions.
Degenerate four-wave mixing with the phase diffusion field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anderson, M.H.; Chen, CE.; Elliott, D.S.; Cooper, J.; Smith, S.J.
1993-01-01
We report measurements of the effect of laser fluctuations on a strong-field degenerate four-wave mixing interaction, carried out in a nearly Doppler-free, two-level system using a single laser with statistically well-defined phase fluctuations. The counterpropagating pump beams and the probe beam, each split from this phase-noise-modulated source, were fully correlated. The nonlinear medium was an optically-pumped diffuse beam of atomic sodium. By time-delaying the probe with respect to the pump beams, the composite field becomes non-Markovian. Four-wave mixing results in the generation of a phase-conjugate beam anti-parallel to the probe beam. With the laser field spectrum nearly Lorentzian in shape, and with a field linewidth greater (and, for comparison, much narrower) than the natural linewidth of the sodium, we measured the intensity of the phase-conjugate beam as the pump and probe beams were tuned through the D2 resonance, as a function of intensity of die pump beam (up to intensities several times the saturation intensity), and for varying delay between the pump and probe fields. This experiment provides a cleaner measurement of this interaction than any previously available
Study of vapour phase dynamics with nitrogen boiling in the field of centrifugal forces
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Levchenko, N M; Kolod' ko, I M
1987-07-01
The vapour phase dynamics during film boiling of liquid nitrogen on horizontal wire in the field of centrifugal forces has been studied experimentally in a wide range of overloads(1 less than or equal to eta less than or equal to 375) and heat fluxes (q/sub kp2/ less than or equal to q less than or equal to 4q/sub kpi/). The available data confirmed and the theoretical relationships suggested make it possible to calculate the hydrodynamic film boiling parameters (wave length, bubble departure diameter and frequency) for other liquids.
Electric field tuning of phase separation in manganite thin films
Lourembam, James; Wu, Jianchun; Ding, Junfeng; Lin, Weinan; Wu, Tao
2014-01-01
In this paper, we investigate the electric field effect on epitaxial Pr0.65(Ca0.75Sr0.25)0.35MnO3 thin films in electric double-layer transistors. Different from the conventional transistors with semiconducting channels, the sub(micrometer)-scale phase separation in the manganite channels is expected to result in inhomogeneous distribution of mobile carriers and local enhancement of electric field. The field effect is much larger in the low-temperature phase separation region compared to that in the high-temperature polaron transport region. Further enhancement of electroresistance is achieved by applying a magnetic field, and a 250% modulation of resistance is observed at 80 K, equivalent to an increase of the ferromagnetic metallic phase fraction by 0.51%, as estimated by the general effective medium model. Our results illustrate the complementary nature of electric and magnetic field effects in phase-separated manganites, providing insights on such novel electronic devices based on complex oxides.
Electric field tuning of phase separation in manganite thin films
Lourembam, James
2014-01-29
In this paper, we investigate the electric field effect on epitaxial Pr0.65(Ca0.75Sr0.25)0.35MnO3 thin films in electric double-layer transistors. Different from the conventional transistors with semiconducting channels, the sub(micrometer)-scale phase separation in the manganite channels is expected to result in inhomogeneous distribution of mobile carriers and local enhancement of electric field. The field effect is much larger in the low-temperature phase separation region compared to that in the high-temperature polaron transport region. Further enhancement of electroresistance is achieved by applying a magnetic field, and a 250% modulation of resistance is observed at 80 K, equivalent to an increase of the ferromagnetic metallic phase fraction by 0.51%, as estimated by the general effective medium model. Our results illustrate the complementary nature of electric and magnetic field effects in phase-separated manganites, providing insights on such novel electronic devices based on complex oxides.
Thermodynamically Consistent Algorithms for the Solution of Phase-Field Models
Vignal, Philippe
2016-02-11
Phase-field models are emerging as a promising strategy to simulate interfacial phenomena. Rather than tracking interfaces explicitly as done in sharp interface descriptions, these models use a diffuse order parameter to monitor interfaces implicitly. This implicit description, as well as solid physical and mathematical footings, allow phase-field models to overcome problems found by predecessors. Nonetheless, the method has significant drawbacks. The phase-field framework relies on the solution of high-order, nonlinear partial differential equations. Solving these equations entails a considerable computational cost, so finding efficient strategies to handle them is important. Also, standard discretization strategies can many times lead to incorrect solutions. This happens because, for numerical solutions to phase-field equations to be valid, physical conditions such as mass conservation and free energy monotonicity need to be guaranteed. In this work, we focus on the development of thermodynamically consistent algorithms for time integration of phase-field models. The first part of this thesis focuses on an energy-stable numerical strategy developed for the phase-field crystal equation. This model was put forward to model microstructure evolution. The algorithm developed conserves, guarantees energy stability and is second order accurate in time. The second part of the thesis presents two numerical schemes that generalize literature regarding energy-stable methods for conserved and non-conserved phase-field models. The time discretization strategies can conserve mass if needed, are energy-stable, and second order accurate in time. We also develop an adaptive time-stepping strategy, which can be applied to any second-order accurate scheme. This time-adaptive strategy relies on a backward approximation to give an accurate error estimator. The spatial discretization, in both parts, relies on a mixed finite element formulation and isogeometric analysis. The codes are
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Yeddu, Hemantha Kumar; Shaw, Brian A.; Somers, Marcel A. J.
2017-01-01
A 3D elastoplastic phase-field model is used to study the effect of thermal cycling on martensitic transformationas well as on mechanical strengthening of both austenite and martensite in stainless steel. The results show that with an increasing number of thermal cycles, martensite becomes more...
Finite-deformation phase-field chemomechanics for multiphase, multicomponent solids
Svendsen, Bob; Shanthraj, Pratheek; Raabe, Dierk
2018-03-01
The purpose of this work is the development of a framework for the formulation of geometrically non-linear inelastic chemomechanical models for a mixture of multiple chemical components diffusing among multiple transforming solid phases. The focus here is on general model formulation. No specific model or application is pursued in this work. To this end, basic balance and constitutive relations from non-equilibrium thermodynamics and continuum mixture theory are combined with a phase-field-based description of multicomponent solid phases and their interfaces. Solid phase modeling is based in particular on a chemomechanical free energy and stress relaxation via the evolution of phase-specific concentration fields, order-parameter fields (e.g., related to chemical ordering, structural ordering, or defects), and local internal variables. At the mixture level, differences or contrasts in phase composition and phase local deformation in phase interface regions are treated as mixture internal variables. In this context, various phase interface models are considered. In the equilibrium limit, phase contrasts in composition and local deformation in the phase interface region are determined via bulk energy minimization. On the chemical side, the equilibrium limit of the current model formulation reduces to a multicomponent, multiphase, generalization of existing two-phase binary alloy interface equilibrium conditions (e.g., KKS). On the mechanical side, the equilibrium limit of one interface model considered represents a multiphase generalization of Reuss-Sachs conditions from mechanical homogenization theory. Analogously, other interface models considered represent generalizations of interface equilibrium conditions consistent with laminate and sharp-interface theory. In the last part of the work, selected existing models are formulated within the current framework as special cases and discussed in detail.
Thermodynamically Consistent Algorithms for the Solution of Phase-Field Models
Vignal, Philippe
2016-01-01
of thermodynamically consistent algorithms for time integration of phase-field models. The first part of this thesis focuses on an energy-stable numerical strategy developed for the phase-field crystal equation. This model was put forward to model microstructure
A strong electroweak phase transition from the inflaton field
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tenkanen, Tommi; Tuominen, Kimmo [Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 64, FI-00014, Helsinki (Finland); Helsinki Institute of Physics, P.O. Box 64, FI-00014, Helsinki (Finland); Vaskonen, Ville [Helsinki Institute of Physics, P.O. Box 64, FI-00014, Helsinki (Finland); Department of Physics, University of Jyvaskyla, P.O.Box 35 (YFL), FI-40014 University of Jyvaskyla (Finland)
2016-09-22
We study a singlet scalar extension of the Standard Model. The singlet scalar is coupled non-minimally to gravity and assumed to drive inflation, and also couple sufficiently strongly with the SM Higgs field in order to provide for a strong first order electroweak phase transition. Requiring the model to describe inflation successfully, be compatible with the LHC data, and yield a strong first order electroweak phase transition, we identify the regions of the parameter space where the model is viable. We also include a singlet fermion with scalar coupling to the singlet scalar to probe the sensitivity of the constraints on additional degrees of freedom and their couplings in the singlet sector. We also comment on the general feasibility of these fields to act as dark matter.
Computation of multiphase systems with phase field models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Badalassi, V.E.; Ceniceros, H.D.; Banerjee, S.
2003-01-01
Phase field models offer a systematic physical approach for investigating complex multiphase systems behaviors such as near-critical interfacial phenomena, phase separation under shear, and microstructure evolution during solidification. However, because interfaces are replaced by thin transition regions (diffuse interfaces), phase field simulations require resolution of very thin layers to capture the physics of the problems studied. This demands robust numerical methods that can efficiently achieve high resolution and accuracy, especially in three dimensions. We present here an accurate and efficient numerical method to solve the coupled Cahn-Hilliard/Navier-Stokes system, known as Model H, that constitutes a phase field model for density-matched binary fluids with variable mobility and viscosity. The numerical method is a time-split scheme that combines a novel semi-implicit discretization for the convective Cahn-Hilliard equation with an innovative application of high-resolution schemes employed for direct numerical simulations of turbulence. This new semi-implicit discretization is simple but effective since it removes the stability constraint due to the nonlinearity of the Cahn-Hilliard equation at the same cost as that of an explicit scheme. It is derived from a discretization used for diffusive problems that we further enhance to efficiently solve flow problems with variable mobility and viscosity. Moreover, we solve the Navier-Stokes equations with a robust time-discretization of the projection method that guarantees better stability properties than those for Crank-Nicolson-based projection methods. For channel geometries, the method uses a spectral discretization in the streamwise and spanwise directions and a combination of spectral and high order compact finite difference discretizations in the wall normal direction. The capabilities of the method are demonstrated with several examples including phase separation with, and without, shear in two and three
Investigating heterogeneous nucleation in peritectic materials via the phase-field method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Emmerich, Heike; Siquieri, Ricardo
2006-01-01
Here we propose a phase-field approach to investigate the influence of convection on peritectic growth as well as the heterogeneous nucleation kinetics of peritectic systems. For this purpose we derive a phase-field model for peritectic growth taking into account fluid flow in the melt, which is convergent to the underlying sharp interface problem in the thin interface limit (Karma and Rappel 1996 Phys. Rev. E 53 R3017). Moreover, we employ our new phase-field model to study the heterogeneous nucleation kinetics of peritectic material systems. Our approach is based on a similar approach towards homogeneous nucleation in Granasy et al (2003 Interface and Transport Dynamics (Springer Lecture Notes in Computational Science and Engineering vol 32) ed Emmerich et al (Berlin: Springer) p 190). We applied our model successfully to extend the nucleation rate predicted by classical nucleation theory for an additional morphological term relevant for peritectic growth. Further applications to understand the mechanisms and consequences of heterogeneous nucleation kinetics in more detail are discussed
Mean field theory of dynamic phase transitions in ferromagnets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Idigoras, O.; Vavassori, P.; Berger, A.
2012-01-01
We have studied the second order dynamic phase transition (DPT) of the two-dimensional kinetic Ising model by means of numerical calculations. While it is well established that the order parameter Q of the DPT is the average magnetization per external field oscillation cycle, the possible identity of the conjugate field has been addressed only recently. In this work, we demonstrate that our entire set of numerical data is fully consistent with the applied bias field H b being the conjugate field of order parameter Q. For this purpose, we have analyzed the Q(H b )-dependence and we have found that it follows the expected power law behavior with the same critical exponent as the mean field equilibrium case.
A phase transition between small- and large-field models of inflation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Itzhaki, Nissan; Kovetz, Ely D
2009-01-01
We show that models of inflection point inflation exhibit a phase transition from a region in parameter space where they are of large-field type to a region where they are of small-field type. The phase transition is between a universal behavior, with respect to the initial condition, at the large-field region and non-universal behavior at the small-field region. The order parameter is the number of e-foldings. We find integer critical exponents at the transition between the two phases.
Phases of a polar spin-1 Bose gas in a magnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kis-Szabo, Krisztian; Szepfalusy, Peter; Szirmai, Gergely
2007-01-01
The two Bose-Einstein condensed phases of a polar spin-1 gas at nonzero magnetizations and temperatures are investigated. The Hugenholtz-Pines theorem is generalized to this system. Crossover to a quantum phase transition is also studied. Results are discussed in a mean field approximation
Phase-field-lattice Boltzmann study for lamellar eutectic growth in a natural convection melt
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ang Zhang
2017-11-01
Full Text Available In the present study, the influence of natural convection on the lamellar eutectic growth is determined by a phase-field-lattice Boltzmann study for Al-Cu eutectic alloy. The mass difference resulting from concentration difference led to the fluid flow, and a robust parallel and adaptive mesh refinement algorithm was employed to improve the computational efficiency without any compromising accuracy. Results show that the existence of natural convection would affect the growth undercooling and thus control the interface shape by adjusting the lamellar width. In particular, by alternating the magnitude of the solute expansion coefficient, the strength of the natural convection is changed. Corresponding microstructure patterns are discussed and compared with those under no-convection conditions.
Finite element simulation of pressure-loaded phase-field fractures
Singh, N.; Verhoosel, C.V.; van Brummelen, E.H.
2018-01-01
A non-standard aspect of phase-field fracture formulations for pressurized cracks is the application of the pressure loading, due to the fact that a direct notion of the fracture surfaces is absent. In this work we study the possibility to apply the pressure loading through a traction boundary
Liu, Hao; Lin, Lingfang; Yu, Yang; Lin, Hanxuan; Zhu, Yinyan; Miao, Tian; Bai, Yu; Shi, Qian; Cai, Peng; Kou, Yunfang; Lan, Fanli; Wang, Wenbin; Zhou, Xiaodong; Dong, Shuai; Yin, Lifeng; Shen, Jian
2017-11-01
Electronic phase separation (EPS) is a common phenomenon in strongly correlated oxides. For colossal magnetoresistive (CMR) manganites, the EPS is so pronounced that not only does it govern the CMR behavior, but also raises a question whether EPS exists as a ground state for systems or a metastable state. While it has been well known that a magnetic field can drive the transition of the EPS state into a single-phase state in manganites, the reversibility of this transition is not well studied. In this work we use magnetic force microscopy (MFM) to directly visualize the reversibility of the field driven transition between the EPS state and the single-phase state at different temperatures. The MFM images correspond well with the global magnetic and transport property measurements, uncovering the underlying mechanism of the field driven transition between the EPS state and the single-phase state. We argue that EPS state is a consequence of system quenching whose response to an external magnetic field is governed by a local energy landscape.
Phase-space analysis of the Schwinger effect in inhomogeneous electromagnetic fields
Kohlfürst, Christian
2018-05-01
Schwinger pair production in spatially and temporally inhomogeneous electric and magnetic fields is studied. The focus is on the particle phase-space distribution within a high-intensity few-cycle pulse. Accurate numerical solutions of a quantum kinetic theory (DHW formalism) are presented in momentum space and, with the aid of coarse-graining techniques, in a mixed spatial-momentum representation. Additionally, signatures of the carrier-envelope phase as well as spin-field interactions are discussed on the basis of a trajectory-based model taking into account instantaneous pair production and relativistic single-particle dynamics. Although our simple semi-classical single-particle model cannot describe every aspect of the particle production process (quantum interferences), essential features such as spin-field interactions are captured.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu, D.M.; Nie, Z.H.; Wang, G.; Wang, Y.D.; Brown, D.E.; Pearson, J.; Liaw, P.K.; Ren, Y.
2010-01-01
A polymer-bonded Ni 45 Co 5 Mn 36.6 In 13.4 ferromagnetic shape-memory composite was fabricated, having magnetic-field-driven shape recovery properties. The thermo-magnetization curves of the composite suggested that the magnetic-field-induced reverse martensitic transformation occurs in the composite. The effects of temperature, stress, and magnetic-field on the phase transformation properties were systematically investigated using an in-situ high-energy X-ray diffraction technique. A temperature-induced reversible martensitic phase transformation was confirmed within the composite, showing a broad phase transformation interval. Stress-induced highly textured martensite was observed in the composite during uniaxial compressive loading, with a residual strain after unloading. The origin of the textured martensite can be explained by the grain-orientation-dependent Bain distortion energy. A recovery strain of ∼1.76% along the compression direction was evidenced in the pre-strained composite with an applied magnetic-field of 5 T. This recovery was caused by the magnetic-field-induced reverse martensitic phase transformation. The phase transformation properties of the ferromagnetic shape-memory composite, different from its bulk alloys, can be well explained by the Clausius-Clapeyron relation. The large magnetic-field-induced strain, together with good ductility and low cost, make the polymer-bonded Ni-Co-Mn-In composites potential candidates for magnetic-field-driven actuators.
Synthesis Of Ultrasound Field Sources Based on Phase Screen Approximation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sukhanov Dmitry
2018-01-01
Full Text Available Here is proposed the method for synthesizing the sources of an acoustic field on the basis of an approximation of the phase screen. The technology of manufacturing ultrasonic phased arrays providing the formation of a field of a given distribution is proposed. An experimental setup has been developed for the formation of a vortex field at a distance of 10 cm.
Grassmann phase space methods for fermions. II. Field theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dalton, B.J., E-mail: bdalton@swin.edu.au [Centre for Quantum and Optical Science, Swinburne University of Technology, Melbourne, Victoria 3122 (Australia); Jeffers, J. [Department of Physics, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G4ONG (United Kingdom); Barnett, S.M. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom)
2017-02-15
In both quantum optics and cold atom physics, the behaviour of bosonic photons and atoms is often treated using phase space methods, where mode annihilation and creation operators are represented by c-number phase space variables, with the density operator equivalent to a distribution function of these variables. The anti-commutation rules for fermion annihilation, creation operators suggests the possibility of using anti-commuting Grassmann variables to represent these operators. However, in spite of the seminal work by Cahill and Glauber and a few applications, the use of Grassmann phase space methods in quantum-atom optics to treat fermionic systems is rather rare, though fermion coherent states using Grassmann variables are widely used in particle physics. This paper presents a phase space theory for fermion systems based on distribution functionals, which replace the density operator and involve Grassmann fields representing anti-commuting fermion field annihilation, creation operators. It is an extension of a previous phase space theory paper for fermions (Paper I) based on separate modes, in which the density operator is replaced by a distribution function depending on Grassmann phase space variables which represent the mode annihilation and creation operators. This further development of the theory is important for the situation when large numbers of fermions are involved, resulting in too many modes to treat separately. Here Grassmann fields, distribution functionals, functional Fokker–Planck equations and Ito stochastic field equations are involved. Typical applications to a trapped Fermi gas of interacting spin 1/2 fermionic atoms and to multi-component Fermi gases with non-zero range interactions are presented, showing that the Ito stochastic field equations are local in these cases. For the spin 1/2 case we also show how simple solutions can be obtained both for the untrapped case and for an optical lattice trapping potential.
Grassmann phase space methods for fermions. II. Field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dalton, B.J.; Jeffers, J.; Barnett, S.M.
2017-01-01
In both quantum optics and cold atom physics, the behaviour of bosonic photons and atoms is often treated using phase space methods, where mode annihilation and creation operators are represented by c-number phase space variables, with the density operator equivalent to a distribution function of these variables. The anti-commutation rules for fermion annihilation, creation operators suggests the possibility of using anti-commuting Grassmann variables to represent these operators. However, in spite of the seminal work by Cahill and Glauber and a few applications, the use of Grassmann phase space methods in quantum-atom optics to treat fermionic systems is rather rare, though fermion coherent states using Grassmann variables are widely used in particle physics. This paper presents a phase space theory for fermion systems based on distribution functionals, which replace the density operator and involve Grassmann fields representing anti-commuting fermion field annihilation, creation operators. It is an extension of a previous phase space theory paper for fermions (Paper I) based on separate modes, in which the density operator is replaced by a distribution function depending on Grassmann phase space variables which represent the mode annihilation and creation operators. This further development of the theory is important for the situation when large numbers of fermions are involved, resulting in too many modes to treat separately. Here Grassmann fields, distribution functionals, functional Fokker–Planck equations and Ito stochastic field equations are involved. Typical applications to a trapped Fermi gas of interacting spin 1/2 fermionic atoms and to multi-component Fermi gases with non-zero range interactions are presented, showing that the Ito stochastic field equations are local in these cases. For the spin 1/2 case we also show how simple solutions can be obtained both for the untrapped case and for an optical lattice trapping potential.
Phase field approaches of bone remodeling based on TIP
Ganghoffer, Jean-François; Rahouadj, Rachid; Boisse, Julien; Forest, Samuel
2016-01-01
The process of bone remodeling includes a cycle of repair, renewal, and optimization. This adaptation process, in response to variations in external loads and chemical driving factors, involves three main types of bone cells: osteoclasts, which remove the old pre-existing bone; osteoblasts, which form the new bone in a second phase; osteocytes, which are sensing cells embedded into the bone matrix, trigger the aforementioned sequence of events. The remodeling process involves mineralization of the bone in the diffuse interface separating the marrow, which contains all specialized cells, from the newly formed bone. The main objective advocated in this contribution is the setting up of a modeling and simulation framework relying on the phase field method to capture the evolution of the diffuse interface between the new bone and the marrow at the scale of individual trabeculae. The phase field describes the degree of mineralization of this diffuse interface; it varies continuously between the lower value (no mineral) and unity (fully mineralized phase, e.g. new bone), allowing the consideration of a diffuse moving interface. The modeling framework is the theory of continuous media, for which field equations for the mechanical, chemical, and interfacial phenomena are written, based on the thermodynamics of irreversible processes. Additional models for the cellular activity are formulated to describe the coupling of the cell activity responsible for bone production/resorption to the kinetics of the internal variables. Kinetic equations for the internal variables are obtained from a pseudo-potential of dissipation. The combination of the balance equations for the microforce associated to the phase field and the kinetic equations lead to the Ginzburg-Landau equation satisfied by the phase field with a source term accounting for the dissipative microforce. Simulations illustrating the proposed framework are performed in a one-dimensional situation showing the evolution of
Three-dimensional phase-field simulations of directional solidification
Plapp, Mathis
2007-05-01
The phase-field method has become the method of choice for simulating microstructural pattern formation during solidification. One of its main advantages is that time-dependent three-dimensional simulations become feasible, which makes it possible to address long-standing questions of pattern stability and pattern selection. Here, a brief introduction to the phase-field model and its implementation is given, and its capabilities are illustrated by examples taken from the directional solidification of binary alloys. In particular, the morphological stability of hexagonal cellular arrays and of eutectic lamellar patterns is investigated.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Leist, Jeannis-Nicos
2009-01-01
In the framework of this thesis the influence of an electric field on the ferroelectric model systems potassium selenate and strontium titanate was studied. The kinetics of the field-induced phase transformations were observed with stroboscopic scattering methods on a millisecond time scale. In potassium selenate thereby with elastic neutron scattering could be detected that an intense third-order satellite is only to be observed up to 10 K above the lock-in transformation. In this temperature intervall the incommensurable phase consists of a domain structure with well defined discommensurations. At slow cooling under the influence of the electric field a field-induced intermediate phase is formed. It is assumed that charged defects agglomerate and hinder the mechanism of the phase transformation. Both with inelastic neutron scattering and with Raman spectroscopy no dependence of the lattice dynamics on an electric field could be stated. The kinetics of the lock-in transformation in K 2 SeO 4 is by an order of magnitude faster than in the isostructural Rb 2 ZnCl 4 . The time constants vary temperature-independently between 0.2 and 1.2 milliseconds. The faster transformation results possibly from a smaller decommmensuration density and a smaller interaction with defects. With highly resolving γ-diffractometry in could moreover be shown that beside the volume parts of the modulated phases also the modulation coherence changes timely. It is in the stroboscopic experiments moreover a dynamic stabilization of the intermediate phase observed, which is attributed to the generation of mechanical stresses by the fast alternating field. The studies on strontium titanate yielded a distinct dependence of the lattice dynamics on the sample history. Real-time studies with inelastic neutron scattering show that the field-induced ferroelectric phase transformation runs very fastly. The frequency of the soft mode follows directly the alteration of the electric field. From
Martínez-Veracoechea, Francisco J.; Escobedo, Fernando A.
2009-01-01
A combination of particle-based simulations and self-consistent field theory (SCFT) is used to study the stabilization of multiple ordered bicontinuous phases in blends of a diblock copolymer (DBC) and a homopolymer. The double-diamond phase (DD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hua Jinsong; Lin Ping; Liu Chun; Wang Qi
2011-01-01
Highlights: → We study phase-field models for multi-phase flow computation. → We develop an energy-law preserving C0 FEM. → We show that the energy-law preserving method work better. → We overcome unphysical oscillation associated with the Cahn-Hilliard model. - Abstract: We use the idea in to develop the energy law preserving method and compute the diffusive interface (phase-field) models of Allen-Cahn and Cahn-Hilliard type, respectively, governing the motion of two-phase incompressible flows. We discretize these two models using a C 0 finite element in space and a modified midpoint scheme in time. To increase the stability in the pressure variable we treat the divergence free condition by a penalty formulation, under which the discrete energy law can still be derived for these diffusive interface models. Through an example we demonstrate that the energy law preserving method is beneficial for computing these multi-phase flow models. We also demonstrate that when applying the energy law preserving method to the model of Cahn-Hilliard type, un-physical interfacial oscillations may occur. We examine the source of such oscillations and a remedy is presented to eliminate the oscillations. A few two-phase incompressible flow examples are computed to show the good performance of our method.
Athreya, C. N.; Mukilventhan, A.; Suwas, Satyam; Vedantam, Srikanth; Subramanya Sarma, V.
2018-04-01
The influence of the mode of deformation on recrystallisation behaviour of Ti was studied by experiments and modelling. Ti samples were deformed through torsion and rolling to the same equivalent strain of 0.5. The deformed samples were annealed at different temperatures for different time durations and the recrystallisation kinetics were compared. Recrystallisation is found to be faster in the rolled samples compared to the torsion deformed samples. This is attributed to the differences in stored energy and number of nuclei per unit area in the two modes of deformation. Considering decay in stored energy during recrystallisation, the grain boundary mobility was estimated through a mean field model. The activation energy for recrystallisation obtained from experiments matched with the activation energy for grain boundary migration obtained from mobility calculation. A multi-phase field model (with mobility estimated from the mean field model as a constitutive input) was used to simulate the kinetics, microstructure and texture evolution. The recrystallisation kinetics and grain size distributions obtained from experiments matched reasonably well with the phase field simulations. The recrystallisation texture predicted through phase field simulations compares well with experiments though few additional texture components are present in simulations. This is attributed to the anisotropy in grain boundary mobility, which is not accounted for in the present study.
High-performance phase-field modeling
Vignal, Philippe; Sarmiento, Adel; Cortes, Adriano Mauricio; Dalcin, L.; Collier, N.; Calo, Victor M.
2015-01-01
and phase-field crystal equation will be presented, which corroborate the theoretical findings, and illustrate the robustness of the method. Results related to more challenging examples, namely the Navier-Stokes Cahn-Hilliard and a diusion-reaction Cahn-Hilliard system, will also be presented. The implementation was done in PetIGA and PetIGA-MF, high-performance Isogeometric Analysis frameworks [1, 3], designed to handle non-linear, time-dependent problems.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Acharyya, Muktish, E-mail: muktish.physics@presiuniv.ac.in; Halder, Ajay, E-mail: ajay.rs@presiuniv.ac.in
2017-03-15
The dynamical responses of Blume-Capel (S=1) ferromagnet to the plane propagating (with fixed frequency and wavelength) and standing magnetic field waves are studied separately in two dimensions by extensive Monte Carlo simulation. Depending on the values of temperature, amplitude of the propagating magnetic field and the strength of anisotropy, two different dynamical phases are observed. For a fixed value of anisotropy and the amplitude of the propagating magnetic field, the system undergoes a dynamical phase transition from a driven spin wave propagating phase to a pinned or spin frozen state as the system is cooled down. The time averaged magnetisation over a full cycle of the propagating magnetic field plays the role of the dynamic order parameter. A comprehensive phase diagram is plotted in the plane formed by the amplitude of the propagating wave and the temperature of the system. It is found that the phase boundary shrinks inward as the anisotropy increases. The phase boundary, in the plane described by the strength of the anisotropy and temperature, is also drawn. This phase boundary was observed to shrink inward as the field amplitude increases. - Highlights: • The Blume-Capel ferromagnet in propagating and standing magnetic wave. • Monte Carlo single spin flip Metropolis algorithm is employed. • The dynamical modes are observed. • The nonequilibrium phase transitions are studied. • The phase boundaries are drawn.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shahee, Aga, E-mail: agashahee@gmail.com [UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientific Research, University Campus, Khandwa Road, Indore 452001 (India); Department of Physics, IIT Bombay, Powai, Mumbai 400076 (India); Sharma, Shivani; Singh, K.; Lalla, N.P. [UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientific Research, University Campus, Khandwa Road, Indore 452001 (India)
2017-07-15
Highlights: • Temperature and magnetic field driven coupled magneto-structural phase transition in Nd{sub 0.49}Sr{sub 0.51}MnO{sub 3+δ}. • Microscopic evidence of strong spin-charge-lattice coupling. • Iso-thermal magnetic field driven structure phase transition. • Field-driven structural phase transition origin of observed 1st order type CMR effect. - Abstract: Comprehensive X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies have been performed at different temperature (T) (4.2–300 K) and magnetic field (H) (0–8 T) to understand the evolution of crystal structure of Nd{sub 0.49}Sr{sub 0.51}MnO{sub 3+δ} (NSMO) under non ambient conditions. The T dependent XRD results show the abrupt change in the lattice parameters without any change in lattice symmetry at ∼200 K, which is associated with the first order structural phase transition from ferromagnetic to antiferromagnetic phase. This phase transition is strongly H dependent and shifted to lower temperature (∼150 K) on the application of 8 T field with phase coexistence (high temperature phase ∼18%), even down to 4.2 K. Isothermal XRD results at 150 K under different H clearly illustrate the H induced first order structural phase transition. The critical H at which this phase transformation starts is ∼1 T, with rapid growth above 4 T with hysteretic nature during increasing and decreasing H. These results are supported with the resistivity and magnetoresistance results and affirm the strong spin-lattice coupling in NSMO. Our detail studies reveal the structural correlations to the observed colossal magnetoresistance and magnetocaloric effect in this material.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tanaka, Nobuatsu; Maseguchi, Ryo; Ogawara, Takuya
2008-01-01
This study is concerned with improvement of numerical code called CRIMSON (Civa RefIned Multiphase SimulatiON), which has been developed to evaluate multi-phase flow behaviors based on the recent CFD (computational fluid dynamics) technologies. The CRIMSON employs a finite-volume method combined with the high order interpolation scheme, CIVA (cubic-interpolation with area/volume coordinates). The CRIMSON solves gas-liquid two phases by a unified scheme of CUP (combined unified procedure). The conventional CIVA method has two problems of interface blurring in long-term calculation and non-conservativeness. In this study, the problems were solved by introducing the ideas of the level set method and the phase field method. We verified out method by applying it to some popular benchmark problems of single bubble rising and collapse of water column problems. (author)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Berning, Torsten; Odgaard, Madeleine; Kær, Søren Knudsen
2010-01-01
This work presents a study of multi-phase flow through the cathode side of a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell employing an interdigitated flow field plate. A previously published model has been extended in order to account for phase change kinetics, and a comparison between the interdigitated...... flow field design and a conventional straight channel design has been conducted. It is found that the parasitic pressure drop in the interdigitated design is in the range of a few thousand Pa and could be reduced to a few hundred Pa by choosing diffusion media with high in-plane permeability....... In the interdigitated design more product water is carried out of the cell in the vapor phase compared to the straight channel design which indicates that liquid water management might be less problematic. This effect also leads to the finding that in the interdigitated design more waste heat is carried out of the cell...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ertaş, Mehmet [Department of Physics, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey); Kocakaplan, Yusuf [Institute of Science, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey); Keskin, Mustafa, E-mail: keskin@erciyes.edu.tr [Department of Physics, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey)
2013-12-15
Dynamic phase diagrams are presented for the kinetic spin-3/2 Blume–Capel model under a time oscillating longitudinal field by use of the effective-field theory with correlations. The dynamic equation of the average magnetization is obtained for the square lattice by utilizing the Glauber-type stochastic process. Dynamic phase diagrams are presented in the reduced temperature and the magnetic field amplitude plane. We also investigated the effect of longitudinal field frequency. Finally, the discussion and comparison of the phase diagrams are given. - Highlights: • Dynamic behaviors in the spin-3/2 Blume–Capel system is investigated by the effective-field theory based on the Glauber-type stochastic dynamics. • The dynamic phase transitions and dynamic phase diagrams are obtained. • The effects of the longitudinal field frequency on the dynamic phase diagrams of the system are investigated. • Dynamic phase diagrams exhibit several ordered phases, coexistence phase regions and several critical points as well as a re-entrant behavior.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ertaş, Mehmet; Kocakaplan, Yusuf; Keskin, Mustafa
2013-01-01
Dynamic phase diagrams are presented for the kinetic spin-3/2 Blume–Capel model under a time oscillating longitudinal field by use of the effective-field theory with correlations. The dynamic equation of the average magnetization is obtained for the square lattice by utilizing the Glauber-type stochastic process. Dynamic phase diagrams are presented in the reduced temperature and the magnetic field amplitude plane. We also investigated the effect of longitudinal field frequency. Finally, the discussion and comparison of the phase diagrams are given. - Highlights: • Dynamic behaviors in the spin-3/2 Blume–Capel system is investigated by the effective-field theory based on the Glauber-type stochastic dynamics. • The dynamic phase transitions and dynamic phase diagrams are obtained. • The effects of the longitudinal field frequency on the dynamic phase diagrams of the system are investigated. • Dynamic phase diagrams exhibit several ordered phases, coexistence phase regions and several critical points as well as a re-entrant behavior
Geometric Phase of the Gyromotion for Charged Particles in a Time-dependent Magnetic Field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu, Jian; Qin, Hong
2011-01-01
We study the dynamics of the gyrophase of a charged particle in a magnetic field which is uniform in space but changes slowly with time. As the magnetic field evolves slowly with time, the changing of the gyrophase is composed of two parts. The rst part is the dynamical phase, which is the time integral of the instantaneous gyrofrequency. The second part, called geometric gyrophase, is more interesting, and it is an example of the geometric phase which has found many important applications in different branches of physics. If the magnetic field returns to the initial value after a loop in the parameter space, then the geometric gyrophase equals the solid angle spanned by the loop in the parameter space. This classical geometric gyrophase is compared with the geometric phase (the Berry phase) of the spin wave function of an electron placed in the same adiabatically changing magnetic field. Even though gyromotion is not the classical counterpart of the quantum spin, the similarities between the geometric phases of the two cases nevertheless reveal the similar geometric nature of the different physics laws governing these two physics phenomena.
The Berry phase in GaAs semiconductor with a quantized field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen Gang; Chen Zidong; Yu Lixian
2007-01-01
In this paper we investigate the Berry phase in GaAs semiconductor with a quantized magnetic field in the rotating wave approximation. The eigenfunctions of the nuclear spin in the quantized external field are obtained and thus the Berry phase is evaluated explicitly in terms of the introduction of the phase shift. It is shown that the Berry phase can be easily controlled by the coupling strength, the anisotropy constant and the frequency of the electromagnetic wave, which can be important in applications in geometric quantum computing
Phase structure of (φ4)3 field theory at finite temperature
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Efimov, G.V.
1992-01-01
Phase structure of φ 4 field theory in the space-time R 3 is investigated at arbitrary coupling constant and temperature. The critical values of the coupling constant and temperature, corresponding to the phase transitions in the system, are calculated by the canonical transformation method within formalism of thermo field dynamics. The Hamiltonians describing the system in each phase are obtained straightforwardly. Comparison with the two-dimensional case shows a crucial influence of higher order renormalization on the phase structure of the model. 13 refs.; 5 figs
Discrete phase space - II: The second quantization of free relativistic wave fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Das, A.
2010-01-01
The Klein-Gordon equation, the Maxwell equation, and the Dirac equation are presented as partial difference equations in the eight-dimensional covariant discrete phase space. These equations are also furnished as difference-differential equations in the arena of discrete phase space and continuous time. The scalar field and electromagnetic fields are quantized with commutation relations. The spin-1/2 field is quantized with anti-commutation relations. Moreover, the total momentum, energy and charge of these free relativisitic quantized fields in the discrete phase space and continuous time are computed exactly. The results agree completely with those computed from the relativisitic fields defined on the space-time continuum. (author)
Nonperturbative approach to quantum field theories: phase transitions and confinement
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yankielowicz, S.
1976-08-01
Lectures are given on a nonperturbative approach to quantum field theories. Phenomena are discussed for which the usual weak coupling perturbative approach in terms of Feynman diagrams is of no assistance. Properties associated with large distance behavior, i.e., phase transitions, low lying spectra, coherent excitations which are presumably built out of the long wave structure of the theory are described. These methods are important for the study of strong coupling field theories and the question of quarks confinement. 25 references
Mashiko, Hiroki; Yamaguchi, Tomohiko; Oguri, Katsuya; Suda, Akira; Gotoh, Hideki
2014-01-01
In many atomic, molecular and solid systems, Lorentzian and Fano profiles are commonly observed in a broad research fields throughout a variety of spectroscopies. As the profile structure is related to the phase of the time-dependent dipole moment, it plays an important role in the study of quantum properties. Here we determine the dipole phase in the inner-shell transition using spectral phase interferometry for direct electric-field reconstruction (SPIDER) with isolated attosecond pulses (IAPs). In addition, we propose a scheme for pulse generation and compression by manipulating the inner-shell transition. The electromagnetic radiation generated by the transition is temporally compressed to a few femtoseconds in the extreme ultraviolet (XUV) region. The proposed pulse-compression scheme may provide an alternative route to producing attosecond pulses of light. PMID:25510971
Field theory of absorbing phase transitions with a non-diffusive conserved field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pastor-Satorras, R.; Vespignani, A.
2000-04-01
We investigate the critical behavior of a reaction-diffusion system exhibiting a continuous absorbing-state phase transition. The reaction-diffusion system strictly conserves the total density of particles, represented as a non-diffusive conserved field, and allows an infinite number of absorbing configurations. Numerical results show that it belongs to a wide universality class that also includes stochastic sandpile models. We derive microscopically the field theory representing this universality class. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Keskin, Mustafa; Canko, Osman; Deviren, Bayram
2007-01-01
We analyze, within a mean-field approach, the stationary states of the kinetic spin-32 Blume-Capel (BC) model by the Glauber-type stochastic dynamics and subject to a time-dependent oscillating external magnetic field. The dynamic phase transition (DPT) points are obtained by investigating the behavior of the dynamic magnetization as a function of temperature and as well as calculating the Liapunov exponent. Phase diagrams are constructed in the temperature and crystal-field interaction plane. We find five fundamental types of phase diagrams for the different values of the reduced magnetic field amplitude parameter (h) in which they present a disordered, two ordered phases and the coexistences phase regions. The phase diagrams also exhibit a dynamic double-critical end point for 0 5.06
Classical nucleation theory in the phase-field crystal model.
Jreidini, Paul; Kocher, Gabriel; Provatas, Nikolas
2018-04-01
A full understanding of polycrystalline materials requires studying the process of nucleation, a thermally activated phase transition that typically occurs at atomistic scales. The numerical modeling of this process is problematic for traditional numerical techniques: commonly used phase-field methods' resolution does not extend to the atomic scales at which nucleation takes places, while atomistic methods such as molecular dynamics are incapable of scaling to the mesoscale regime where late-stage growth and structure formation takes place following earlier nucleation. Consequently, it is of interest to examine nucleation in the more recently proposed phase-field crystal (PFC) model, which attempts to bridge the atomic and mesoscale regimes in microstructure simulations. In this work, we numerically calculate homogeneous liquid-to-solid nucleation rates and incubation times in the simplest version of the PFC model, for various parameter choices. We show that the model naturally exhibits qualitative agreement with the predictions of classical nucleation theory (CNT) despite a lack of some explicit atomistic features presumed in CNT. We also examine the early appearance of lattice structure in nucleating grains, finding disagreement with some basic assumptions of CNT. We then argue that a quantitatively correct nucleation theory for the PFC model would require extending CNT to a multivariable theory.
Classical nucleation theory in the phase-field crystal model
Jreidini, Paul; Kocher, Gabriel; Provatas, Nikolas
2018-04-01
A full understanding of polycrystalline materials requires studying the process of nucleation, a thermally activated phase transition that typically occurs at atomistic scales. The numerical modeling of this process is problematic for traditional numerical techniques: commonly used phase-field methods' resolution does not extend to the atomic scales at which nucleation takes places, while atomistic methods such as molecular dynamics are incapable of scaling to the mesoscale regime where late-stage growth and structure formation takes place following earlier nucleation. Consequently, it is of interest to examine nucleation in the more recently proposed phase-field crystal (PFC) model, which attempts to bridge the atomic and mesoscale regimes in microstructure simulations. In this work, we numerically calculate homogeneous liquid-to-solid nucleation rates and incubation times in the simplest version of the PFC model, for various parameter choices. We show that the model naturally exhibits qualitative agreement with the predictions of classical nucleation theory (CNT) despite a lack of some explicit atomistic features presumed in CNT. We also examine the early appearance of lattice structure in nucleating grains, finding disagreement with some basic assumptions of CNT. We then argue that a quantitatively correct nucleation theory for the PFC model would require extending CNT to a multivariable theory.
Phase space properties of charged fields in theories of local observables
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Buchholz, D.; D'Antoni, C.
1994-10-01
Within the setting of algebraic quantum field theory a relation between phase-space properties of observables and charged fields is established. These properties are expressed in terms of compactness and nuclarity conditions which are the basis for the characterization of theories with physically reasonable causal and thermal features. Relevant concepts and results of phase space analysis in algebraic qunatum field theory are reviewed and the underlying ideas are outlined. (orig.)
Häusler, Ines; Schwarze, Christian; Bilal, Muhammad Umer; Valencia Ramirez, Daniela; Hetaba, Walid; Darvishi Kamachali, Reza; Skrotzki, Birgit
2017-01-01
Experimental and phase field studies of age hardening response of a high purity Al-4Cu-1Li-0.25Mn-alloy (mass %) during isothermal aging are conducted. In the experiments, two hardening phases are identified: the tetragonal θ′ (Al2Cu) phase and the hexagonal T1 (Al2CuLi) phase. Both are plate shaped and of nm size. They are analyzed with respect to the development of their size, number density and volume fraction during aging by applying different analysis techniques in TEM in combination with quantitative microstructural analysis. 3D phase-field simulations of formation and growth of θ′ phase are performed in which the full interfacial, chemical and elastic energy contributions are taken into account. 2D simulations of T1 phase are also investigated using multi-component diffusion without elasticity. This is a first step toward a complex phase-field study of T1 phase in the ternary alloy. The comparison between experimental and simulated data shows similar trends. The still unsaturated volume fraction indicates that the precipitates are in the growth stage and that the coarsening/ripening stage has not yet been reached. PMID:28772481
Multi-phase-field method for surface tension induced elasticity
Schiedung, Raphael; Steinbach, Ingo; Varnik, Fathollah
2018-01-01
A method, based on the multi-phase-field framework, is proposed that adequately accounts for the effects of a coupling between surface free energy and elastic deformation in solids. The method is validated via a number of analytically solvable problems. In addition to stress states at mechanical equilibrium in complex geometries, the underlying multi-phase-field framework naturally allows us to account for the influence of surface energy induced stresses on phase transformation kinetics. This issue, which is of fundamental importance on the nanoscale, is demonstrated in the limit of fast diffusion for a solid sphere, which melts due to the well-known Gibbs-Thompson effect. This melting process is slowed down when coupled to surface energy induced elastic deformation.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sakane, S; Takaki, T; Ohno, M; Shimokawabe, T; Aoki, T
2015-01-01
Phase-field method has emerged as the most powerful numerical scheme to simulate dendrite growth. However, most phase-field simulations of dendrite growth performed so far are limited to two-dimension or single dendrite in three-dimension because of the large computational cost involved. To express actual solidification microstructures, multiple dendrites with different preferred growth directions should be computed at the same time. In this study, in order to enable large-scale phase-field dendrite growth simulations, we developed a phase-field code using multiple graphics processing units in which a quantitative phase-field method for binary alloy solidification and moving frame algorithm for directional solidification were employed. First, we performed strong and weak scaling tests for the developed parallel code. Then, dendrite competitive growth simulations in three-dimensional binary alloy bicrystal were performed and the dendrite interactions in three-dimensional space were investigated. (paper)
The phase diagrams of a ferromagnetic thin film in a random magnetic field
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zaim, N.; Zaim, A., E-mail: ah_zaim@yahoo.fr; Kerouad, M., E-mail: m.kerouad@fs-umi.ac.ma
2016-10-07
In this paper, the magnetic properties and the phase diagrams of a ferromagnetic thin film with a thickness N in a random magnetic field (RMF) are investigated by using the Monte Carlo simulation technique based on the Metropolis algorithm. The effects of the RMF and the surface exchange interaction on the critical behavior are studied. A variety of multicritical points such as tricritical points, isolated critical points, and triple points are obtained. It is also found that the double reentrant phenomenon can appear for appropriate values of the system parameters. - Highlights: • Phase diagrams of a ferromagnetic thin film are examined by the Monte Carlo simulation. • The effect of the random magnetic field on the magnetic properties is studied. • Different types of the phase diagrams are obtained. • The dependence of the magnetization and susceptibility on the temperature are investigated.
Partial phase transition and quantum effects in helimagnetic films under an applied magnetic field
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
El Hog, Sahbi, E-mail: sahbi.el-hog@u-cergy.fr; Diep, H.T., E-mail: diep@u-cergy.fr
2017-05-01
We study the phase transition in a helimagnetic film with Heisenberg spins under an applied magnetic field in the c direction perpendicular to the film. The helical structure is due to the antiferromagnetic interaction between next-nearest neighbors in the c direction. Helimagnetic films in zero field are known to have a strong modification of the in-plane helical angle near the film surfaces. We show that spins react to a moderate applied magnetic field by creating a particular spin configuration along the c axis. With increasing temperature (T), using Monte Carlo simulations we show that the system undergoes a phase transition triggered by the destruction of the ordering of a number of layers. This partial phase transition is shown to be intimately related to the ground-state spin structure. We show why some layers undergo a phase transition while others do not. The Green's function method for non collinear magnets is also carried out to investigate effects of quantum fluctuations. Non-uniform zero-point spin contractions and a crossover of layer magnetizations at low T are shown and discussed. - Highlights: • Monte Carlo simulations were carried out to study a helimagnetic film in a field. • Partial phase transition is found in some layers of the film. • Mechanism leading to the partial disordering is analyzed using the ground state symmetry. • Quantum fluctuations at surface are calculated using the Green's function.
Automatic NMR field-frequency lock-pulsed phase locked loop approach.
Kan, S; Gonord, P; Fan, M; Sauzade, M; Courtieu, J
1978-06-01
A self-contained deuterium frequency-field lock scheme for a high-resolution NMR spectrometer is described. It is based on phase locked loop techniques in which the free induction decay signal behaves as a voltage-controlled oscillator. By pulsing the spins at an offset frequency of a few hundred hertz and using a digital phase-frequency discriminator this method not only eliminates the usual phase, rf power, offset adjustments needed in conventional lock systems but also possesses the automatic pull-in characteristics that dispense with the use of field sweeps to locate the NMR line prior to closure of the lock loop.
Phase diagram of the mean field model of simplicial gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bialas, P.; Burda, Z.; Johnston, D.
1999-01-01
We discuss the phase diagram of the balls in boxes model, with a varying number of boxes. The model can be regarded as a mean-field model of simplicial gravity. We analyse in detail the case of weights of the form p(q) = q -β , which correspond to the measure term introduced in the simplicial quantum gravity simulations. The system has two phases: elongated (fluid) and crumpled. For β ε (2, ∞) the transition between these two phases is first-order, while for β ε (1, 2) it is continuous. The transition becomes softer when β approaches unity and eventually disappears at β = 1. We then generalise the discussion to an arbitrary set of weights. Finally, we show that if one introduces an additional kinematic bound on the average density of balls per box then a new condensed phase appears in the phase diagram. It bears some similarity to the crinkled phase of simplicial gravity discussed recently in models of gravity interacting with matter fields
Turchi, Patrice E. A.; Fattebert, Jean-Luc; Dorr, Milo R.; Wickett, Michael E.; Belak, James F.
2011-03-01
We describe an algorithm for the numerical solution of a phase-field model (PFM) of microstructure evolution in alloys using physical parameters from thermodynamic (CALPHAD) and kinetic databases. The coupled system of PFM equations includes a local order parameter, a quaternion representation of local crystal orientation and a species composition parameter. Time evolution of microstructures and alloy composition is obtained using an implicit time integration of the system. Physical parameters in databases can be obtained either through experiment or first-principles calculations. Application to coring studies and microstructure evolution of Au-Ni will be presented. Prepared by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344
Dynamic phase transition in the kinetic spin-3/2 Blume-Emery-Griffiths model in an oscillating field
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Canko, Osman; Deviren, Bayram; Keskin, Mustafa [Department of Physics, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey)
2006-07-26
The dynamic phase transitions are studied, within a mean-field approach, in the kinetic Blume-Emery-Griffiths model under the presence of a time varying (sinusoidal) magnetic field by using the Glauber-type stochastic dynamics. The behaviour of the time-dependence of the order parameters and the behaviour of the average order parameters in a period, which is also called the dynamic order parameters, as a function of reduced temperature, are investigated. The nature (continuous and discontinuous) of transition is characterized by studying the average order parameters in a period. The dynamic phase transition points are obtained and the phase diagrams are presented in the reduced magnetic field amplitude and reduced temperature plane. The phase diagrams exhibit one, two, or three dynamic tricritical points and a dynamic double critical end point, and besides a disordered and two ordered phases, seven coexistence phase regions exist, which strongly depend on interaction parameters. We also calculate the Liapunov exponent to verify the stability of solutions and the dynamic phase transition points.
Dynamic phase transition in the kinetic spin-3/2 Blume-Emery-Griffiths model in an oscillating field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Canko, Osman; Deviren, Bayram; Keskin, Mustafa
2006-01-01
The dynamic phase transitions are studied, within a mean-field approach, in the kinetic Blume-Emery-Griffiths model under the presence of a time varying (sinusoidal) magnetic field by using the Glauber-type stochastic dynamics. The behaviour of the time-dependence of the order parameters and the behaviour of the average order parameters in a period, which is also called the dynamic order parameters, as a function of reduced temperature, are investigated. The nature (continuous and discontinuous) of transition is characterized by studying the average order parameters in a period. The dynamic phase transition points are obtained and the phase diagrams are presented in the reduced magnetic field amplitude and reduced temperature plane. The phase diagrams exhibit one, two, or three dynamic tricritical points and a dynamic double critical end point, and besides a disordered and two ordered phases, seven coexistence phase regions exist, which strongly depend on interaction parameters. We also calculate the Liapunov exponent to verify the stability of solutions and the dynamic phase transition points
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li Yongsheng; Zhu Hao; Zhang Lei; Cheng Xiaoling
2012-01-01
Highlights: ► Effects of variation mobility and applied strain on phase decomposition of Fe–Cr alloy were studied. ► Rate of phase decomposition rises as aging temperature and concentration increase. ► Phase transformation mechanism affects the volume fraction of equilibrium phase. ► Elongate morphology is intensified at higher aging temperature under applied strain. - Abstract: The phase decomposition and morphology evolution in thermal aging Fe–Cr alloys were investigated using the phase field method. In the simulation, the effects of atomic mobility, applied strain, alloy concentration and aging temperature were studied. The simulation results show that the rate of phase decomposition is influenced by the aging temperature and the alloy concentration, the equilibrium volume fractions (V f e ) of Cr-rich phase increases as aging temperature rises for the alloys of lower concentration, and the V f e decreases for the alloys with higher concentration. Under the applied strain, the orientation of Cr-rich phase is intensified as the aging temperature rises, and the stripe morphology is formed for the middle concentration alloys. The simulation results are helpful for understanding the phase decomposition in Fe–Cr alloys and the designing of duplex stainless steels working at high temperature.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Thiessen, R.G.; Sietsma, J.; Palmer, T.A.; Elmer, J.W.; Richardson, I.M.
2007-01-01
A thermodynamically based method to describe the phase transformations during heating and cooling of martensitic dual-phase steel has been developed, and in situ synchrotron measurements of phase transformations have been undertaken to support the model experimentally. Nucleation routines are governed by a novel implementation of the classical nucleation theory in a general phase-field code. Physically-based expressions for the temperature-dependent interface mobility and the driving forces for transformation have also been constructed. Modelling of martensite was accomplished by assuming a carbon supersaturation of the body-centred-cubic ferrite lattice. The simulations predict kinetic aspects of the austenite formation during heating and ferrite formation upon cooling. Simulations of partial austenitising thermal cycles predicted peak and retained austenite percentages of 38.2% and 6.7%, respectively, while measurements yielded peak and retained austenite percentages of 31.0% and 7.2% (±1%). Simulations of a complete austenitisation thermal cycle predicted the measured complete austenitisation and, upon cooling, a retained austenite percentage of 10.3% while 9.8% (±1%) retained austenite was measured
Gauge-field topology in two dimensions: θ-vacuum, topological phases and composite fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ilieva, N.; Pervushin, V.N.
1990-06-01
In the framework of the minimal quantization method, the residual 'longitudinal' vacuum dynamics of the Abelian gauge field, that is described by a new pair of canonical variables, is revealed. This dynamics is shown to give origin to the θ-vacuum, thus providing a field analogy of the Josephson effect. The destructive interference of the topological phases - that the fermion fields are shown to acquire - is considered as a reason for the charge screening in the two-dimensional massless QED. (author). 11 refs
Low-field anomalous magnetic phase in the kagome-lattice shandite Co3Sn2S2
Kassem, Mohamed A.; Tabata, Yoshikazu; Waki, Takeshi; Nakamura, Hiroyuki
2017-01-01
The magnetization process of single crystals of the metallic kagom\\'e ferromagnet Co3Sn2S2 was carefully measured via magnetization and AC susceptibility. Field-dependent anomalous transitions in the magnetization indicate a low-field unconventionally ordered phase stabilized just below TC. The magnetic phase diagrams in applied fields along different crystallographic directions were determined. The magnetic relaxation process studied in frequencies covering five orders of magnitude from 0.01...
Magnetic field effect on Gd2(MoO4)3 domain structure formation in the phase transformation range
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Flerova, S.A.; Tsinman, I.L.
1987-01-01
The behaviour of ferroelastic-ferroelectric domain structure of gadolinium molybdate crystal (GMO)during its formation in the magnetic field in the vicinity of phase transformation is studied.It is shown that the formation of domain structure in the presence of a temperature gradient occurs in the field of mechanical stresses whose mainly stretching effect is concentrated near phase boundaries.The magnetic field intensifies summary mechanical stresses where a domain structure in a ferroelectric phase is formed due to interaction with the elements of inhomogeneous and differently oriented currents near phase boundaries
Topics in phase-shift analysis and higher spin field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Reisen, J.C.J.M.
1983-01-01
The first part of this thesis considers several aspects of the existence of phase-shift ambiguities. The subject is introduced with a few remarks on scattering theory and previous work in this area is discussed. The mathematical restrictions of presenting such problems clearly are considered and the construction of different unitary amplitudes which correspond to the same differential cross section is described. So far, examples of phase-shift ambiguities have only been found for rather special cases but the author shows that these results can be considerably generalized for spinless elastic scattering, leading to properties of phase-shift ambiguities being revealed that were previously absent. These properties are discussed in detail. Phase-shift ambiguities for the spin-0-spin-1/2 elastic scattering are then considered and again generalized. The second part of this thesis is concerned with the investigation of a free field theory for both massive and massless particles with higher spin (1, 2 and 3). A root method has been used which is described and shown to lead to the free field equations and the subsidiary conditions. A field equation and Lagrangian are constructed for massive particles and the former is then used to derive a massless field equation and Lagrangian. The relation between massive and massless field equations is investigated in more detail and particularly the expressions for the amplitude describing exchange of a particle between two external sources are compared. (Auth./C.F.)
Modeling of Eutectic Formation in Al-Si Alloy Using A Phase-Field Method
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ebrahimi Z.
2017-12-01
Full Text Available We have utilized a phase-field model to investigate the evolution of eutectic silicon in Al-Si alloy. The interfacial fluctuations are included into a phase-field model of two-phase solidification, as stochastic noise terms and their dominant role in eutectic silicon formation is discussed. We have observed that silicon spherical particles nucleate on the foundation of primary aluminum phase and their nucleation continues on concentric rings, through the Al matrix. The nucleation of silicon particles is attributed to the inclusion of fluctuations into the phase-field equations. The simulation results have shown needle-like, fish-bone like and flakes of silicon phase by adjusting the noise coefficients to larger values. Moreover, the role of primary Al phase on nucleation of silicon particles in Al-Si alloy is elaborated. We have found that the addition of fluctuations plays the role of modifiers in our simulations and is essential for phase-field modeling of eutectic growth in Al-Si system. The simulated finger-like Al phases and spherical Si particles are very similar to those of experimental eutectic growth in modified Al-Si alloy.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Frohlich, J.
1976-01-01
We prove that a Symanzik--Nelson positive quantum field theory, i.e., a quantum field theory derived from a Euclidean field theory, has a unique decomposition into pure phases which preserves Symanzik--Nelson positivity and Poincare covariance. We derive useful sufficient conditions for the breakdown of an internal symmetry of such a theory in its pure phases, for the self-adjointness and nontrivially (in the sense of Borchers classes) of its quantum fields, and the existence of time-ordered and retarded products. All these general results are then applied to the P (phi) 2 and the phi 3 4 quantum field models
On the stress calculation within phase-field approaches: a model for finite deformations
Schneider, Daniel; Schwab, Felix; Schoof, Ephraim; Reiter, Andreas; Herrmann, Christoph; Selzer, Michael; Böhlke, Thomas; Nestler, Britta
2017-08-01
Numerical simulations based on phase-field methods are indispensable in order to investigate interesting and important phenomena in the evolution of microstructures. Microscopic phase transitions are highly affected by mechanical driving forces and therefore the accurate calculation of the stresses in the transition region is essential. We present a method for stress calculations within the phase-field framework, which satisfies the mechanical jump conditions corresponding to sharp interfaces, although the sharp interface is represented as a volumetric region using the phase-field approach. This model is formulated for finite deformations, is independent of constitutive laws, and allows using any type of phase inherent inelastic strains.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ichiro Hieda
2013-01-01
Full Text Available The authors are developing a technique for conducting measurements inside the human body by applying a weak electric field at a radio frequency (RF. Low RF power is fed to a small antenna, and a similar antenna located 15–50 cm away measures the electric field intensity. Although the resolution of the method is low, it is simple, safe, cost-effective, and able to be used for biomedical applications. One of the technical issues suggested by the authors' previous studies was that the signal pattern acquired from measurement of a human body was essentially different from that acquired from a phantom. To trace the causes of this difference, the accuracy of the phase measurements was improved. This paper describes the new experimental system that can measure the signal phase and amplitude and reports the results of experiments measuring a human body and a phantom. The results were analyzed and then discussed in terms of their contribution to the phase measurement.
Coherent cancellation of geometric phase for the OH molecule in external fields
Bhattacharya, M.; Marin, S.; Kleinert, M.
2014-05-01
The OH molecule in its ground state presents a versatile platform for precision measurement and quantum information processing. These applications vitally depend on the accurate measurement of transition energies between the OH levels. Significant sources of systematic errors in these measurements are shifts based on the geometric phase arising from the magnetic and electric fields used for manipulating OH. In this article, we present these geometric phases for fields that vary harmonically in time, as in the Ramsey technique. Our calculation of the phases is exact within the description provided by our recent analytic solution of an effective Stark-Zeeman Hamiltonian for the OH ground state. This Hamiltonian has been shown to model experimental data accurately. We find that the OH geometric phases exhibit rich structure as a function of the field rotation rate. Remarkably, we find rotation rates where the geometric phase accumulated by a specific state is zero, or where the relative geometric phase between two states vanishes. We expect these findings to be of importance to precision experiments on OH involving time-varying fields. More specifically, our analysis quantitatively characterizes an important item in the error budget for precision spectroscopy of ground-state OH.
Effect of a uniform magnetic field on dielectric two-phase bubbly flows using the level set method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ansari, M.R.; Hadidi, A.; Nimvari, M.E.
2012-01-01
In this study, the behavior of a single bubble in a dielectric viscous fluid under a uniform magnetic field has been simulated numerically using the Level Set method in two-phase bubbly flow. The two-phase bubbly flow was considered to be laminar and homogeneous. Deformation of the bubble was considered to be due to buoyancy and magnetic forces induced from the external applied magnetic field. A computer code was developed to solve the problem using the flow field, the interface of two phases, and the magnetic field. The Finite Volume method was applied using the SIMPLE algorithm to discretize the governing equations. Using this algorithm enables us to calculate the pressure parameter, which has been eliminated by previous researchers because of the complexity of the two-phase flow. The finite difference method was used to solve the magnetic field equation. The results outlined in the present study agree well with the existing experimental data and numerical results. These results show that the magnetic field affects and controls the shape, size, velocity, and location of the bubble. - Highlights: ►A bubble behavior was simulated numerically. ► A single bubble behavior was considered in a dielectric viscous fluid. ► A uniform magnetic field is used to study a bubble behavior. ► Deformation of the bubble was considered using the Level Set method. ► The magnetic field affects the shape, size, velocity, and location of the bubble.
Quantum Phase Shift of a Moving Dipole under a Magnetic Field at a Distance
Lee, Kang-Ho; Kim, Young-Wan; Kang, Kicheon
2018-03-01
We predict a quantum phase shift of a moving electric dipole in the presence of an external magnetic field at a distance. On the basis of the Lorentz-covariant field interaction approach, we show that a phase shift appears in the internal dipole state under the condition that the dipole is moving in the field-free region, which is distinct from the topological He-McKellar-Wilkens phase generated by a direct overlap of the dipole and the field. We discuss the experimental feasibility of detecting this phase with atomic interferometry and argue that detection of this phase will resolve the question of the locality in quantum electromagnetic interaction.
Study of incommensurable phases in quantum chains
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vollmer, J.
1990-12-01
The phases of quantum chains with spin-1/2 and spin-1-respresentations of the SU(2) algebra and the phases of a mixed spin-1/2 / spin-1 chain are reported and investigated. These chains are models with an XX-interaction in a magnetic field. In a certain range of the magnetic field the groundstate magnetisation depends continuously on the magnetic field and the energy gaps vanish, this is a so called 'floating phase'. Within this phase the energy spectrum is a conformal spectrum, comparable to the spectrum of the Gauss-model, but the momenta have a macroscopic part. These macroscopic momenta are connected to oscillating correlation functions, whose periods are determined by the magnetic field. The transition from the floating phase to an existing phase with constant groundstate magnetisation is a Pokrovsky-Talapov-transition, it is a universal transition in all three models. (orig.) [de
Numerical Simulation on Flow Field of Oilfield Three-Phase Separator
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yong-tu Liang
2013-01-01
Full Text Available The conventional measurement method can no longer guarantee the accuracy requirement after the oilfield development entering high water cut stage, due to the water content and gas phase in the flow. In order to overcome the impact of measurement deviation the oilfield production management, the flow field of three-phase separator is studied numerically in this paper using Fluent 6.3.26. Taking into consideration the production situation of PetroChina Huabei Oilfield and the characteristics of three-phase separator, the effect of internal flow status as well as other factors such as varying flow rate, gas fraction, and water content on the separation efficiency is analyzed. The results show that the separation efficiencies under all operation conditions are larger than 95%, which satisfy the accuracy requirement and also provide the theoretical foundation for the application of three-phase separators at oilfields.
Higgs and confinement phases in the fundamental SU(2) Higgs model: Mean field analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Damgaard, P.H.; Heller, U.M.
1985-01-01
The phase diagram of the four-dimensional SU(2) gauge-Higgs model with Higgs field in the fundamental representation is derived by mean field techniques. When the Higgs field is allowed to fluctuate in. Magnitude, the analytic connection between Higgs and confinement phases breaks down for sufficiently small values of the quark Higgs coupling, indicating that the Higgs and confinement phases for these couplings are strictly distinct phases. (orig.)
Electric-field control of tri-state phase transformation with a selective dual-ion switch
Lu, Nianpeng; Zhang, Pengfei; Zhang, Qinghua; Qiao, Ruimin; He, Qing; Li, Hao-Bo; Wang, Yujia; Guo, Jingwen; Zhang, Ding; Duan, Zheng; Li, Zhuolu; Wang, Meng; Yang, Shuzhen; Yan, Mingzhe; Arenholz, Elke; Zhou, Shuyun; Yang, Wanli; Gu, Lin; Nan, Ce-Wen; Wu, Jian; Tokura, Yoshinori; Yu, Pu
2017-06-01
Materials can be transformed from one crystalline phase to another by using an electric field to control ion transfer, in a process that can be harnessed in applications such as batteries, smart windows and fuel cells. Increasing the number of transferrable ion species and of accessible crystalline phases could in principle greatly enrich material functionality. However, studies have so far focused mainly on the evolution and control of single ionic species (for example, oxygen, hydrogen or lithium ions). Here we describe the reversible and non-volatile electric-field control of dual-ion (oxygen and hydrogen) phase transformations, with associated electrochromic and magnetoelectric effects. We show that controlling the insertion and extraction of oxygen and hydrogen ions independently of each other can direct reversible phase transformations among three different material phases: the perovskite SrCoO3-δ (ref. 12), the brownmillerite SrCoO2.5 (ref. 13), and a hitherto-unexplored phase, HSrCoO2.5. By analysing the distinct optical absorption properties of these phases, we demonstrate selective manipulation of spectral transparency in the visible-light and infrared regions, revealing a dual-band electrochromic effect that could see application in smart windows. Moreover, the starkly different magnetic and electric properties of the three phases—HSrCoO2.5 is a weakly ferromagnetic insulator, SrCoO3-δ is a ferromagnetic metal, and SrCoO2.5 is an antiferromagnetic insulator—enable an unusual form of magnetoelectric coupling, allowing electric-field control of three different magnetic ground states. These findings open up opportunities for the electric-field control of multistate phase transformations with rich functionalities.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Keskin, Mustafa [Department of Physics, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey)]. E-mail: keskin@erciyes.edu.tr; Canko, Osman [Department of Physics, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey); Deviren, Bayram [Department of Physics, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey)
2007-06-15
We analyze, within a mean-field approach, the stationary states of the kinetic spin-32 Blume-Capel (BC) model by the Glauber-type stochastic dynamics and subject to a time-dependent oscillating external magnetic field. The dynamic phase transition (DPT) points are obtained by investigating the behavior of the dynamic magnetization as a function of temperature and as well as calculating the Liapunov exponent. Phase diagrams are constructed in the temperature and crystal-field interaction plane. We find five fundamental types of phase diagrams for the different values of the reduced magnetic field amplitude parameter (h) in which they present a disordered, two ordered phases and the coexistences phase regions. The phase diagrams also exhibit a dynamic double-critical end point for 0
Yu, Li-Li; Shou, Wen-De; Hui, Chun
2012-02-01
A theoretical model of focused acoustic field for a multi-annular phased array on concave spherical surface is proposed. In this model, the source boundary conditions of the spheroidal beam equation (SBE) for multi-annular phased elements are studied. Acoustic field calculated by the dynamic focusing model of SBE is compared with numerical results of the O'Neil and Khokhlov—Zabolotskaya—Kuznetsov (KZK) model, respectively. Axial dynamic focusing and the harmonic effects are presented. The results demonstrate that the dynamic focusing model of SBE is good valid for a concave multi-annular phased array with a large aperture angle in the linear or nonlinear field.
Superconducting-normal phase boundary of quasicrystalline arrays in a magnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nori, F.; Niu, Q.; Fradkin, E.; Chang, S.
1987-01-01
We study the effect of frustration, induced by a mangnetic field, on the superconducting diamagnetic properties of two-dimensional quasicrystalline arrays. In particular, we calculate the superconducting-normal phase boundary, T/sub c/(H), for several geometries with quasicrystalline order. The agreement between our theoretically obtained phase boundaries and the experimentally obtained ones is very good. We also propose a new way of analytically analyzing the overall and the fine structure of T/sub c/(H) in terms of short- and long-range correlations among tiles
A phase field study of strain energy effects on solute–grain boundary interactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Heo, Tae Wook; Bhattacharyya, Saswata; Chen Longqing
2011-01-01
We have studied strain-induced solute segregation at a grain boundary and the solute drag effect on boundary migration using a phase field model integrating grain boundary segregation and grain structure evolution. The elastic strain energy of a solid solution due to the atomic size mismatch and the coherency elastic strain energy caused by the inhomogeneity of the composition distribution are obtained using Khachaturyan’s microelasticity theory. Strain-induced grain boundary segregation at a static planar boundary is studied numerically and the equilibrium segregation composition profiles are validated using analytical solutions. We then systematically studied the effect of misfit strain on grain boundary migration with solute drag. Our theoretical analysis based on Cahn’s analytical theory shows that enhancement of the drag force with increasing atomic size mismatch stems from both an increase in grain boundary segregation due to the strain energy reduction and misfit strain relaxation near the grain boundary. The results were analyzed based on a theoretical analysis in terms of elastic and chemical drag forces. The optimum condition for solute diffusivity to maximize the drag force under a given driving force was identified.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tsui, Y.; Bruehl, A.; Removic-Langer, K.; Pashchenko, V.; Wolf, B.; Donath, G.; Pikul, A.; Kretz, T.; Lerner, H.-W.; Wagner, M.; Salguero, A.; Saha-Dasgupta, T.; Rahaman, B.; Valenti, R.; Lang, M.
2007-01-01
We report on the results obtained from studying electron spin resonance, magnetic susceptibility, specific heat and thermal expansion experiments on a metalorganic spin-dimer system, C 36 H 48 Cu 2 F 6 N 8 O 12 S 2 (TK91). According to the first principle Density Functional Theory calculations, the compound represents a 3D-coupled dimer system with intradimer coupling J 1 /k B ∼ 10K and interdimer couplings J 2 /k B ∼J 3 /k B ∼ 1K. The measurements have been performed on both pressed powder and single-crystal samples in external magnetic fields up to 12T and at low temperatures down to ∼ 0.2K. Susceptibility measurements reveal a spin-gap behavior consistent with the theoretical results. Furthermore, clear indications of a field-induced phase transition have been observed. A similar field-induced phase transition was also detected in an inorganic compound TlCuCl 3 and was interpreted as Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) of magnons. The possibility of changing both the intradimer and interdimer couplings in TK91 by chemical substitutions makes the system a potentially good system to study BEC of magnons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yu Lili; Shou Wende; Hui Chun
2012-01-01
A theoretical model of focused acoustic field for a multi-annular phased array on concave spherical surface is proposed. In this model, the source boundary conditions of the spheroidal beam equation (SBE) for multi-annular phased elements are studied. Acoustic field calculated by the dynamic focusing model of SBE is compared with numerical results of the O'Neil and Khokhlov-Zabolotskaya-Kuznetsov (KZK) model, respectively. Axial dynamic focusing and the harmonic effects are presented. The results demonstrate that the dynamic focusing model of SBE is good valid for a concave multi-annular phased array with a large aperture angle in the linear or nonlinear field. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)
Whole-Home Dehumidifiers: Field-Monitoring Study
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Burke, Tom; Willem, Henry; Ni, Chun Chun; Stratton, Hannah; Whitehead, Camilla Dunham; Johnson, Russell
2014-09-23
Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) initiated a WHD field-metering study to expand current knowledge of and obtain data on WHD operation and energy consumption in real-world applications. The field study collected real-time data on WHD energy consumption, along with information regarding housing characteristics, consumer behavior, and various outdoor conditions expected to affect WHD performance and efficiency. Although the metering study collected similar data regarding air conditioner operation, this report discusses only WHDs. The primary objectives of the LBNL field-metering study are to (1) expand knowledge of the configurations, energy consumption profiles, consumer patterns of use (e.g., relative humidity [RH] settings), and environmental parameters of whole-home dehumidification systems; and (2) develop distributions of hours of dehumidifier operation in four operating modes: off, standby, fan-only, and compressor (also called dehumidification mode). Profiling energy consumption entails documenting the power consumption, duration of power consumption in different modes, condensate generation, and properties of output air of an installed system under field conditions of varying inlet air temperature and RH, as well as system configuration. This profiling provides a more detailed and deeper understanding of WHD operation and its complexities. This report describes LBNL’s whole-home dehumidification field-metering study conducted at four homes in Wisconsin and Florida. The initial phase of the WHD field-metering study was conducted on one home in Madison, Wisconsin, from June to December of 2013. During a second phase, three Florida homes were metered from June to October of 2014. This report presents and examines data from the Wisconsin site and from the three Florida sites.
Tunable phase transition in single-layer TiSe2 via electric field
Liu, Lei; Zhuang, Houlong L.
2018-06-01
Phase transition represents an intriguing physical phenomenon that exists in a number of single-layer transition-metal dichalcogenides. This phenomenon often occurs below a critical temperature and breaks the long-range crystalline order leading to a reconstructed superstructure called the charge-density wave (CDW) structure, which can therefore be recovered by external stimuli such as temperature. Alternatively, we show here that another external stimulation, electric field can also result in the phase transition between the regular and CDW structures of a single-layer transition-metal dichalcogenide. We used single-layer TiSe2 as an example to elucidate the mechanism of the CDW followed by calculations of the electronic structure using a hybrid density functional. We found that applying electric field can tune the phase transition between the 1T and CDW phases of single-layer TiSe2. Our work opens up a route of tuning the phase transition of single-layer materials via electric field.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tsukada, Yuhki, E-mail: tsukada@silky.numse.nagoya-u.ac.j [Department of Materials, Physics and Energy Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Shiraki, Atsuhiro; Murata, Yoshinori [Department of Materials, Physics and Energy Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Takaya, Shigeru [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 4002 Narita-cho, O-arai-machi, Higashi-ibaraki-gun, Ibaraki 311-1393 (Japan); Koyama, Toshiyuki [National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan); Morinaga, Masahiko [Department of Materials, Physics and Energy Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan)
2010-06-15
A phase-field method was applied to the simulation of simultaneous nucleation and growth of both M{sub 23}C{sub 6} carbide and ferromagnetic {alpha} phases during the creep process in Type 304 steel. Nucleation events of these product phases were explicitly introduced through a probabilistic Poisson seeding process based on local nucleation rates that were calculated as a function of local concentration. The defect energy of the creep dislocations near the carbides, which increases during creep, was integrated into the nucleation driving force for the {alpha} phase. The simulation used in this study accurately reproduced changes in the amounts of the precipitated phases as a function of creep time. Furthermore, we examine the effect of the dislocation density on precipitation of the {alpha} phase, and show that the phase-field method is useful for examining the stochastic and kinetic phenomenon of phase transformation.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tang Sai; Wang Zhijun; Guo Yaolin; Wang Jincheng; Yu Yanmei; Zhou Yaohe
2012-01-01
Using the phase-field crystal model, we investigate the orientation selection of the cubic dendrite growth at the atomic scale. Our simulation results reproduce how a face-centered cubic (fcc) octahedral nucleus and a body-centered cubic (bcc) truncated-rhombic dodecahedral nucleus choose the preferred growth direction and then evolve into the dendrite pattern. The interface energy anisotropy inherent in the fcc crystal structure leads to the fastest growth velocity in the 〈1 0 0〉 directions. New { 1 1 1} atomic layers prefer to nucleate at positions near the tips of the fcc octahedron, which leads to the directed growth of the fcc dendrite tips in the 〈1 0 0〉 directions. A similar orientation selection process is also found during the early stage of bcc dendrite growth. The orientation selection regime obtained by phase-field crystal simulation is helpful for understanding the orientation selection processes of real dendrite growth.
Phase-field modeling of corrosion kinetics under dual-oxidants
Wen, You-Hai; Chen, Long-Qing; Hawk, Jeffrey A.
2012-04-01
A phase-field model is proposed to simulate corrosion kinetics under a dual-oxidant atmosphere. It will be demonstrated that the model can be applied to simulate corrosion kinetics under oxidation, sulfidation and simultaneous oxidation/sulfidation processes. Phase-dependent diffusivities are incorporated in a natural manner and allow more realistic modeling as the diffusivities usually differ by many orders of magnitude in different phases. Simple free energy models are then used for testing the model while calibrated free energy models can be implemented for quantitative modeling.
Topological phases of silicene and germanene in an external magnetic field: Quantitative results
Singh, Nirpendra; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo
2014-01-01
We investigate the topological phases of silicene and germanene that arise due to the strong spin-orbit interaction in an external perpendicular magnetic field. Below and above a critical field of 10 T, respectively, we demonstrate for silicene under 3% tensile strain quantum spin Hall and quantum anomalous Hall phases. Not far above the critical field, and therefore in the experimentally accessible regime, we obtain an energy gap in the meV range, which shows that the quantum anomalous Hall phase can be realized experimentally in silicene, in contrast to graphene (tiny energy gap) and germanene (enormous field required). © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Topological phases of silicene and germanene in an external magnetic field: Quantitative results
Singh, Nirpendra
2014-03-17
We investigate the topological phases of silicene and germanene that arise due to the strong spin-orbit interaction in an external perpendicular magnetic field. Below and above a critical field of 10 T, respectively, we demonstrate for silicene under 3% tensile strain quantum spin Hall and quantum anomalous Hall phases. Not far above the critical field, and therefore in the experimentally accessible regime, we obtain an energy gap in the meV range, which shows that the quantum anomalous Hall phase can be realized experimentally in silicene, in contrast to graphene (tiny energy gap) and germanene (enormous field required). © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Second order phase transition in two dimensional sine-Gordon field theory - lattice model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Babu Joseph, K.; Kuriakose, V.C.
1978-01-01
Two dimensional sine-Gordon (SG) field theory on a lattice is studied using the single-site basis variational method of Drell and others. The nature of the phase transition associated with the spontaneous symmetry breakdown in a SG field system is clarified to be of second order. A generalisation is offered for a SG-type field theory in two dimensions with a potential of the form [cossup(n)((square root of lambda)/m)phi-1].(author)
High-field magnetic phase transitions and spin excitations in magnetoelectric LiNiPO4
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Toft-Petersen, Rasmus; Jensen, Jens; Jensen, Thomas Bagger Stibius
2011-01-01
The magnetically ordered phases and spin dynamics of magnetoelectric LiNiPO4 have been studied in fields up to 17.3 T along the c axis. Using neutron diffraction, we show that a previously proposed linearly polarized incommensurate (IC) structure exists only for temperatures just below the Neel...... temperature T-N. The ordered IC structure at the lowest temperatures is shown instead to be an elliptically polarized canted spiral for fields larger than 12 T. The transition between the two IC phases is of second order and takes place about 2 K below T-N. For mu H-0 > 16 T and temperatures below 10 K......, the spiral structure is found to lock in to a period of five crystallographic unit cells along the b axis. Based on the neutron-diffraction data, combined with detailed magnetization measurements along all three crystallographic axes, we establish the magnetic phase diagrams for fields up to 17.3 T along c...
Phase Structure Of Fuzzy Field Theories And Multi trace Matrix Models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tekel, J.
2015-01-01
We review the interplay of fuzzy field theories and matrix models, with an emphasis on the phase structure of fuzzy scalar field theories. We give a self-contained introduction to these topics and give the details concerning the saddle point approach for the usual single trace and multi trace matrix models. We then review the attempts to explain the phase structure of the fuzzy field theory using a corresponding random matrix ensemble, showing the strength and weaknesses of this approach. We conclude with a list of challenges one needs to overcome and the most interesting open problems one can try to solve. (author)
Zero-field-cooled/field-cooled magnetization study of Dendrimer model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Arejdal, M., E-mail: arejdal.achdad@gmail.com [Laboratory of Magnetism and Physics of High Energies, Department of Physics, L.M.P.H.E (URAC-12), Faculty of Sciences, Mohammed V University, Rabat (Morocco); Bahmad, L. [Laboratory of Magnetism and Physics of High Energies, Department of Physics, L.M.P.H.E (URAC-12), Faculty of Sciences, Mohammed V University, Rabat (Morocco); Benyoussef, A. [Hassan II Academy of Science and Technology, Rabat (Morocco)
2017-01-01
Being motivated by Dendrimer model with mixed spins σ=3 and S=7/2, we investigated the magnetic nanoparticle system in this study. We analyzed and discussed the ground-state phase diagrams and the stable phases. Then, we elaborated and explained the magnetic properties of the system by using Monte Carlo Simulations (MCS) in the framework of the Ising model. In this way, we determined the blocking temperature, which is deduced through studying the partial-total magnetization and susceptibility as a function of the temperature, and we established the effects of both the exchange coupling interaction and the crystal field on the hysteresis loop.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ertaş, Mehmet, E-mail: mehmetertas@erciyes.edu.tr; Keskin, Mustafa
2015-08-15
Herein we study the dynamic phase transition properties for the mixed spin-(1/2, 1) Ising model on a square lattice under a time-dependent magnetic field by means of the effective-field theory (EFT) with correlations based on Glauber dynamics. We present the dynamic phase diagrams in the reduced magnetic field amplitude and reduced temperature plane and find that the phase diagrams exhibit dynamic tricitical behavior, multicritical and zero-temperature critical points as well as reentrant behavior. We also investigate the influence of frequency (ω) and observe that for small values of ω the mixed phase disappears, but for high values it appears and the system displays reentrant behavior as well as a critical end point. - Highlights: • Dynamic behaviors of a ferrimagnetic mixed spin (1/2, 1) Ising system are studied. • We examined the effects of the Hamiltonian parameters on the dynamic behaviors. • The phase diagrams are obtained in (T-h) plane. • The dynamic phase diagrams exhibit the dynamic tricritical and reentrant behaviors.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ertaş, Mehmet; Keskin, Mustafa
2015-01-01
Herein we study the dynamic phase transition properties for the mixed spin-(1/2, 1) Ising model on a square lattice under a time-dependent magnetic field by means of the effective-field theory (EFT) with correlations based on Glauber dynamics. We present the dynamic phase diagrams in the reduced magnetic field amplitude and reduced temperature plane and find that the phase diagrams exhibit dynamic tricitical behavior, multicritical and zero-temperature critical points as well as reentrant behavior. We also investigate the influence of frequency (ω) and observe that for small values of ω the mixed phase disappears, but for high values it appears and the system displays reentrant behavior as well as a critical end point. - Highlights: • Dynamic behaviors of a ferrimagnetic mixed spin (1/2, 1) Ising system are studied. • We examined the effects of the Hamiltonian parameters on the dynamic behaviors. • The phase diagrams are obtained in (T-h) plane. • The dynamic phase diagrams exhibit the dynamic tricritical and reentrant behaviors
Rate-independent dissipation in phase-field modelling of displacive transformations
Tůma, K.; Stupkiewicz, S.; Petryk, H.
2018-05-01
In this paper, rate-independent dissipation is introduced into the phase-field framework for modelling of displacive transformations, such as martensitic phase transformation and twinning. The finite-strain phase-field model developed recently by the present authors is here extended beyond the limitations of purely viscous dissipation. The variational formulation, in which the evolution problem is formulated as a constrained minimization problem for a global rate-potential, is enhanced by including a mixed-type dissipation potential that combines viscous and rate-independent contributions. Effective computational treatment of the resulting incremental problem of non-smooth optimization is developed by employing the augmented Lagrangian method. It is demonstrated that a single Lagrange multiplier field suffices to handle the dissipation potential vertex and simultaneously to enforce physical constraints on the order parameter. In this way, the initially non-smooth problem of evolution is converted into a smooth stationarity problem. The model is implemented in a finite-element code and applied to solve two- and three-dimensional boundary value problems representative for shape memory alloys.
Study of Strange Quark Mass in CFL Phase
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LI Xin; L(U) Xiao-Fu
2006-01-01
In this paper we introduce bilocal fields in the global color symmetry model and consider color and electrical neutrality conditions simultaneously to study the effect of strange quark mass Ms for the momentum-dependent condensate of color-flavor locked phase. Consequently we find that there will be a quantum phase transition occurring.
Three-dimensional propagation in near-field tomographic X-ray phase retrieval
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ruhlandt, Aike; Salditt, Tim
2016-01-01
An extension of phase retrieval algorithms for near-field X-ray (propagation) imaging to three dimensions is presented, enhancing the quality of the reconstruction by exploiting previously unused three-dimensional consistency constraints. This paper presents an extension of phase retrieval algorithms for near-field X-ray (propagation) imaging to three dimensions, enhancing the quality of the reconstruction by exploiting previously unused three-dimensional consistency constraints. The approach is based on a novel three-dimensional propagator and is derived for the case of optically weak objects. It can be easily implemented in current phase retrieval architectures, is computationally efficient and reduces the need for restrictive prior assumptions, resulting in superior reconstruction quality
Phase-field-crystal model for magnetocrystalline interactions in isotropic ferromagnetic solids
Faghihi, Niloufar; Provatas, Nikolas; Elder, K. R.; Grant, Martin; Karttunen, Mikko
2013-09-01
An isotropic magnetoelastic phase-field-crystal model to study the relation between morphological structure and magnetic properties of pure ferromagnetic solids is introduced. Analytic calculations in two dimensions were used to determine the phase diagram and obtain the relationship between elastic strains and magnetization. Time-dependent numerical simulations in two dimensions were used to demonstrate the effect of grain boundaries on the formation of magnetic domains. It was shown that the grain boundaries act as nucleating sites for domains of reverse magnetization. Finally, we derive a relation for coercivity versus grain misorientation in the isotropic limit.
Numerical approach of multi-field two-phase flow models in the OVAP code
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anela Kumbaro
2005-01-01
Full text of publication follows: A significant progress has been made in modeling the complexity of vapor-liquid two-phase flow. Different three-dimensional models exist in order to simulate the evolution of parameters which characterize a two-phase model. These models can be classified into various groups depending on the inter-field coupling. A hierarchy of increasing physical complexity can be defined. The simplest group corresponds to the homogeneous mixture models where no interactions are taken into account. Another group is constituted by the two-fluid models employing physically important interfacial forces between two-phases, liquid, and water. The last group is multi-field modeling where inter-field couplings can be taken into account at different degrees, such as the MUltiple Size Group modeling [2], the consideration of separate equations for the transport and generation of mass and momentum for each field under the assumption of the same energy for all the fields of the same phase, and a full multi-field two-phase model [1]. The numerical approach of the general three-dimensional two-phase flow is by complexity of the phenomena a very challenging task; the ideal numerical method should be at the same time simple in order to apply to any model, from equilibrium to multi-field model and conservative in order to respect the fundamental conservation physical laws. The approximate Riemann solvers have the good properties of conservation of mass, momentum and energy balance and have been extended successfully to two-fluid models [3]- [5]. But, the up-winding of the flux is based on the Eigen-decomposition of the two-phase flow model and the computation of the Eigen-structure of a multi-field model can be a high cost procedure. Our contribution will present a short review of the above two-phase models, and show numerical results obtained for some of them with an approximate Riemann solver and with lower-complexity alternative numerical methods that do not
Extracting flat-field images from scene-based image sequences using phase correlation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Caron, James N., E-mail: Caron@RSImd.com [Research Support Instruments, 4325-B Forbes Boulevard, Lanham, Maryland 20706 (United States); Montes, Marcos J. [Naval Research Laboratory, Code 7231, 4555 Overlook Avenue, SW, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Obermark, Jerome L. [Naval Research Laboratory, Code 8231, 4555 Overlook Avenue, SW, Washington, DC 20375 (United States)
2016-06-15
Flat-field image processing is an essential step in producing high-quality and radiometrically calibrated images. Flat-fielding corrects for variations in the gain of focal plane array electronics and unequal illumination from the system optics. Typically, a flat-field image is captured by imaging a radiometrically uniform surface. The flat-field image is normalized and removed from the images. There are circumstances, such as with remote sensing, where a flat-field image cannot be acquired in this manner. For these cases, we developed a phase-correlation method that allows the extraction of an effective flat-field image from a sequence of scene-based displaced images. The method uses sub-pixel phase correlation image registration to align the sequence to estimate the static scene. The scene is removed from sequence producing a sequence of misaligned flat-field images. An average flat-field image is derived from the realigned flat-field sequence.
Quantum field theory and phase transitions: universality and renormalization group
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zinn-Justin, J.
2003-08-01
In the quantum field theory the problem of infinite values has been solved empirically through a method called renormalization, this method is satisfying only in the framework of renormalization group. It is in the domain of statistical physics and continuous phase transitions that these issues are the easiest to discuss. Within the framework of a course in theoretical physics the author introduces the notions of continuous limits and universality in stochastic systems operating with a high number of freedom degrees. It is shown that quasi-Gaussian and mean field approximation are unable to describe phase transitions in a satisfying manner. A new concept is required: it is the notion of renormalization group whose fixed points allow us to understand universality beyond mean field. The renormalization group implies the idea that long distance correlations near the transition temperature might be described by a statistical field theory that is a quantum field in imaginary time. Various forms of renormalization group equations are presented and solved in particular boundary limits, namely for fields with high numbers of components near the dimensions 4 and 2. The particular case of exact renormalization group is also introduced. (A.C.)
Yang, Fan; Liu, Ren-Bao
2013-03-01
Quantum evolution of particles under strong fields can be approximated by the quantum trajectories that satisfy the stationary phase condition in the Dirac-Feynmann path integrals. The quantum trajectories are the key concept to understand strong-field optics phenomena, such as high-order harmonic generation (HHG), above-threshold ionization (ATI), and high-order terahertz siedeband generation (HSG). The HSG in semiconductors may have a wealth of physics due to the possible nontrivial ``vacuum'' states of band materials. We find that in a spin-orbit-coupled semiconductor, the cyclic quantum trajectories of an electron-hole pair under a strong terahertz field accumulates nontrivial Berry phases. We study the monolayer MoS2 as a model system and find that the Berry phases are given by the Faraday rotation angles of the pulse emission from the material under short-pulse excitation. This result demonstrates an interesting Berry phase dependent effect in the extremely nonlinear optics of semiconductors. This work is supported by Hong Kong RGC/GRF 401512 and the CUHK Focused Investments Scheme.
Dynamic phase transition in the kinetic spin-2 Blume-Emery-Griffiths model in an oscillating field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ertas, Mehmet; Canko, Osman; Keskin, Mustafa
2008-01-01
We extend our recent paper [M. Keskin, O. Canko, M. Ertas, J. Exp. Theor. Phys. (Sov. Phys. JETP) 105 (2007) 1190.] to present a study, within a mean-field approach, the stationary states of the kinetic spin-2 Blume-Emery-Griffiths model in the presence of a time-dependent oscillating magnetic field by using the Glauber-type of stochastic dynamics. We found 20 fundamental types of dynamic phase diagrams where exhibit more complex and richer phase diagrams than our recent paper. Especially, the obtained dynamic phase diagrams show the dynamic triple, quadruple and dynamic double critical end points besides dynamic tricritical points that depending on interaction parameters. The phase diagrams also exhibit a disordered (d) and the ferromagnetic-2 (f 2 ) phases, and the f 2 +d, f 2 +fq, fq+d, f 2 +f 1 +fq and f 2 +fq+d, where f 1 are fq the ferromagnetic-1 and ferroquadrupolar or simply quadrupolar phases respectively, coexistence phase regions that strongly depend on interaction parameters
Dynamic phase transition in the kinetic spin-2 Blume-Emery-Griffiths model in an oscillating field
Ertaş, Mehmet; Canko, Osman; Keskin, Mustafa
We extend our recent paper [M. Keskin, O. Canko, M. Ertaş, J. Exp. Theor. Phys. (Sov. Phys. JETP) 105 (2007) 1190.] to present a study, within a mean-field approach, the stationary states of the kinetic spin-2 Blume-Emery-Griffiths model in the presence of a time-dependent oscillating magnetic field by using the Glauber-type of stochastic dynamics. We found 20 fundamental types of dynamic phase diagrams where exhibit more complex and richer phase diagrams than our recent paper. Especially, the obtained dynamic phase diagrams show the dynamic triple, quadruple and dynamic double critical end points besides dynamic tricritical points that depending on interaction parameters. The phase diagrams also exhibit a disordered ( d) and the ferromagnetic-2 ( f2) phases, and the f2+ d, f2+ fq, fq+ d, f2+ f1+ fq and f2+ fq+ d, where f1 are fq the ferromagnetic-1 and ferroquadrupolar or simply quadrupolar phases respectively, coexistence phase regions that strongly depend on interaction parameters.
Phase separation in La-Ca manganites: Magnetic field effects
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tovar, M.; Causa, M.T.; Ramos, C.A.; Laura-Ccahuana, D.
2008-01-01
The coexistence of magnetic phases seems to be a characteristic of the La-Ca family of in colossal magnetoresistant manganites. We have analyzed this phenomenon in terms of a free energy, F, where magnetic and electronic contributions of two coexistent phases are included. Three order parameters describe the behavior of the mixed material: the magnetization of each phase and the metallic fraction. Due to the coupling between order parameters there is a range: T**≤T≤T* where coexistence is possible. Values for the phenomenological parameters are obtained from the experiment. In this paper we analyze the effects of an applied magnetic field on the range of T where the phase coexistence takes place, based on results obtained from dc-magnetization and ESR measurements
Phase separation in La-Ca manganites: Magnetic field effects
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tovar, M; Causa, M T [Centro Atomico Bariloche and Instituto Balseiro, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica and Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, 8400 San Carlos de Bariloche, Rio Negro (Argentina); Ramos, C.A. [Centro Atomico Bariloche and Instituto Balseiro, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica and Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, 8400 San Carlos de Bariloche, Rio Negro (Argentina)], E-mail: cramos@cab.cnea.gov.ar; Laura-Ccahuana, D [Centro Atomico Bariloche and Instituto Balseiro, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica and Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, 8400 San Carlos de Bariloche, Rio Negro (Argentina); Universidad Nacional de Ingenieria, Av. Tupac Amaru 210, Rimac/Lima 25 (Peru)
2008-02-15
The coexistence of magnetic phases seems to be a characteristic of the La-Ca family of in colossal magnetoresistant manganites. We have analyzed this phenomenon in terms of a free energy, F, where magnetic and electronic contributions of two coexistent phases are included. Three order parameters describe the behavior of the mixed material: the magnetization of each phase and the metallic fraction. Due to the coupling between order parameters there is a range: T**{<=}T{<=}T* where coexistence is possible. Values for the phenomenological parameters are obtained from the experiment. In this paper we analyze the effects of an applied magnetic field on the range of T where the phase coexistence takes place, based on results obtained from dc-magnetization and ESR measurements.
Ray calibration and phase mapping for structured-light-field 3D reconstruction.
Cai, Zewei; Liu, Xiaoli; Peng, Xiang; Gao, Bruce Z
2018-03-19
In previous work, we presented a structured light field (SLF) method combining light field imaging with structured illumination to perform multi-view depth measurement. However, the previous work just accomplishes depth rather than 3D reconstruction. In this paper, we propose a novel active method involving ray calibration and phase mapping, to achieve SLF 3D reconstruction. We performed the ray calibration for the first time to determine each light field ray with metric spatio-angular parameters, making the SLF realize multi-view 3D reconstruction. Based on the ray parametric equation, we further derived the phase mapping in the SLF that spatial coordinates can be directly mapped from phase. A flexible calibration strategy was correspondently designed to determine mapping coefficients for each light field ray, achieving high-efficiency SLF 3D reconstruction. Experimental results demonstrated that the proposed method was suitable for high-efficiency multi-view 3D reconstruction in the SLF.
New mean-field calculations for the phase diagram of the Annni model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tome, T.; Salinas, S.R.A.
1987-01-01
A variational procedure, with the inclusion of some spin fluctuations, to go beyond the standard layer-by-layer mean-field calculations for the T-p phase diagram of the ANNNI model is used. The high temperature region is studied analytically. The transition lines meet smoothly at the Lifshitz point, which is an inflection point of the second-order paramagnetic border. At low temperature, these numerical resuls confirm the stability of the main commensurate phases and show a quantitative trend towards the preductions f the Monte Carlo analyses. (author) [pt
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Siquieri, R; Emmerich, H
2009-01-01
The application of phase-field modeling to nucleation as a phenomenon at the nanoscale is justified, if one takes into account the great success of continuum approaches in nanofluidics as proven by the many comparisons to experiments. Employed in this manner it provides an approach allowing us to account for effects of the physical diffuseness of a nucleus' interface and thereby go beyond classical nucleation theory (Granasy and James 2000 J. Chem. Phys. 113 9810; Emmerich and Siquieri 2006 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 18 11121). Here we extend the focus of previous work in this field and address the question of how far the phase-field method can also be applied to gain further insight into nucleation statistics, in particular the nucleation prefactor appearing in the nucleation rate. In this context we describe in detail a morphology-dependent crossover effect noticeable for the nucleation rate at small driving forces.
Direct imaging of phase objects enables conventional deconvolution in bright field light microscopy.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Carmen Noemí Hernández Candia
Full Text Available In transmitted optical microscopy, absorption structure and phase structure of the specimen determine the three-dimensional intensity distribution of the image. The elementary impulse responses of the bright field microscope therefore consist of separate absorptive and phase components, precluding general application of linear, conventional deconvolution processing methods to improve image contrast and resolution. However, conventional deconvolution can be applied in the case of pure phase (or pure absorptive objects if the corresponding phase (or absorptive impulse responses of the microscope are known. In this work, we present direct measurements of the phase point- and line-spread functions of a high-aperture microscope operating in transmitted bright field. Polystyrene nanoparticles and microtubules (biological polymer filaments serve as the pure phase point and line objects, respectively, that are imaged with high contrast and low noise using standard microscopy plus digital image processing. Our experimental results agree with a proposed model for the response functions, and confirm previous theoretical predictions. Finally, we use the measured phase point-spread function to apply conventional deconvolution on the bright field images of living, unstained bacteria, resulting in improved definition of cell boundaries and sub-cellular features. These developments demonstrate practical application of standard restoration methods to improve imaging of phase objects such as cells in transmitted light microscopy.
1H NMR studies in the regime of the field-induced spin-density wave phases of (TMTSF)2PF6
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brown, S.E.; Pieper, M.; Clark, W.G.; Chow, D.S.; Alavi, B.
1999-01-01
We report 1 H proton spin-lattice relaxation measurements T 1 -1 on pressurized (TMTSF) 2 PF 6 in high magnetic fields. Maxima in T 1 -1 identify the phase transition to the field-induced spin-density wave (FISDW) state. Fluctuation effects are evident at temperatures above the transition, and vanish continuously in strength as the field is lowered to the critical field B c for the onset of the FISDW cascade. (orig.)
Berry phase in superconducting charge qubits interacting with a cavity field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abdel-Aty, Mahmoud
2009-01-01
We propose a method for analyzing Berry phase for a multi-qubit system of superconducting charge qubits interacting with a microwave field. By suitably choosing the system parameters and precisely controlling the dynamics, novel connection found between the Berry phase and entanglement creations.
Phase coexistence and electric-field control of toroidal order in oxide superlattices.
Damodaran, A R; Clarkson, J D; Hong, Z; Liu, H; Yadav, A K; Nelson, C T; Hsu, S-L; McCarter, M R; Park, K-D; Kravtsov, V; Farhan, A; Dong, Y; Cai, Z; Zhou, H; Aguado-Puente, P; García-Fernández, P; Íñiguez, J; Junquera, J; Scholl, A; Raschke, M B; Chen, L-Q; Fong, D D; Ramesh, R; Martin, L W
2017-10-01
Systems that exhibit phase competition, order parameter coexistence, and emergent order parameter topologies constitute a major part of modern condensed-matter physics. Here, by applying a range of characterization techniques, and simulations, we observe that in PbTiO 3 /SrTiO 3 superlattices all of these effects can be found. By exploring superlattice period-, temperature- and field-dependent evolution of these structures, we observe several new features. First, it is possible to engineer phase coexistence mediated by a first-order phase transition between an emergent, low-temperature vortex phase with electric toroidal order and a high-temperature ferroelectric a 1 /a 2 phase. At room temperature, the coexisting vortex and ferroelectric phases form a mesoscale, fibre-textured hierarchical superstructure. The vortex phase possesses an axial polarization, set by the net polarization of the surrounding ferroelectric domains, such that it possesses a multi-order-parameter state and belongs to a class of gyrotropic electrotoroidal compounds. Finally, application of electric fields to this mixed-phase system permits interconversion between the vortex and the ferroelectric phases concomitant with order-of-magnitude changes in piezoelectric and nonlinear optical responses. Our findings suggest new cross-coupled functionalities.
Phase coexistence and electric-field control of toroidal order in oxide superlattices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Damodaran, A. R.; Clarkson, J. D.; Hong, Z.
2017-01-01
Systems that exhibit phase competition, order parameter coexistence, and emergent order parameter topologies constitute a major part of modern condensed-matter physics. Here, by applying a range of characterization techniques, and simulations, we observe that in PbTiO 3 /SrTiO 3 superlattices all of these effects can be found. By exploring superlattice period-, temperature- and field-dependent evolution of these structures, we observe several new features. First, it is possible to engineer phase coexistence mediated by a first-order phase transition between an emergent, low-temperature vortex phase with electric toroidal order and a high-temperature ferroelectric a 1 /a 2 phase. At room temperature, the coexisting vortex and ferroelectric phases form a mesoscale, fibre-textured hierarchical superstructure. The vortex phase possesses an axial polarization, set by the net polarization of the surrounding ferroelectric domains, such that it possesses a multi-order-parameter state and belongs to a class of gyrotropic electrotoroidal compounds. Finally, application of electric fields to this mixed-phase system permits interconversion between the vortex and the ferroelectric phases concomitant with order-of-magnitude changes in piezoelectric and nonlinear optical responses. Here, our findings suggest new cross-coupled functionalities.
Phase-of-flight method for setting the accelerating fields in the ion linear accelerator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dvortsov, S.V.; Lomize, L.G.
1983-01-01
For setting amplitudes and phases of accelerating fields in multiresonator ion accelerators presently Δt-procedure is used. The determination and setting of two unknown parameters of RF-field (amplitude and phase) in n-resonator is made according to the two increments of particle time-of-flight, measured experimentally: according to the change of the particle time-of-flight Δt 1 in the n-resonator, during the field switching in the resonator, and according to the change of Δt 2 of the time-of-flight in (n+1) resonator without RF-field with the switching of accelerating field in the n-resonator. When approaching the accelerator exit the particle energy increases, relative energy increment decreases and the accuracy of setting decreases. To enchance the accuracy of accelerating fields setting in a linear ion accelerator a phase-of-flight method is developed, in which for the setting of accelerating fields the measured time-of-flight increment Δt only in one resonator is used (the one in which the change of amplitude and phase is performed). Results of simulation of point bunch motion in the IYaI AN USSR linear accelerator are presented
Decomposition of Composite Electric Field in a Three-Phase D-Dot Voltage Transducer Measuring System
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xueqi Hu
2016-10-01
Full Text Available In line with the wider application of non-contact voltage transducers in the engineering field, transducers are required to have better performance for different measuring environments. In the present study, the D-dot voltage transducer is further improved based on previous research in order to meet the requirements for long-distance measurement of electric transmission lines. When measuring three-phase electric transmission lines, problems such as synchronous data collection and composite electric field need to be resolved. A decomposition method is proposed with respect to the superimposed electric field generated between neighboring phases. The charge simulation method is utilized to deduce the decomposition equation of the composite electric field and the validity of the proposed method is verified by simulation calculation software. With the deduced equation as the algorithm foundation, this paper improves hardware circuits, establishes a measuring system and constructs an experimental platform for examination. Under experimental conditions, a 10 kV electric transmission line was tested for steady-state errors, and the measuring results of the transducer and the high-voltage detection head were compared. Ansoft Maxwell Stimulation Software was adopted to obtain the electric field intensity in different positions under transmission lines; its values and the measuring values of the transducer were also compared. Experimental results show that the three-phase transducer is characterized by a relatively good synchronization for data measurement, measuring results with high precision, and an error ratio within a prescribed limit. Therefore, the proposed three-phase transducer can be broadly applied and popularized in the engineering field.
Field-induced reentrant magnetoelectric phase in LiNiPO_{4}
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Toft-Petersen, Rasmus; Fogh, Ellen; Kihara, Takumi
2017-01-01
Using pulsed magnetic fields up to 30 T we have measured the bulk magnetization and electrical polarization of LiNiPO4 and have studied its magnetic structure by time-of-flight neutron Laue diffraction. Our data establish the existence of a reentrant magnetoelectric phase between 19 T and 21 T. W...
Generalized phase transformations of spinor fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mikhov, S.G.
1993-09-01
In this paper some generalized four parameter phase transformations of a Dirac spinor are considered. It is shown that a corresponding compensating transformation of the electromagnetic field which restores the invariance of the Dirac-Maxwell equation might exist, provided some consistency conditions are satisfied by the parameters of the transformations. These transformations are used further to consider the Maxwell equations under the assumption that a Bosonization takes place. Only one of the considered cases proves to have a solution (the other cases show to be trivial) which although unphysical is obtained explicitly. (author). 10 refs
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Poulsen, Stefan Othmar; Voorhees, P.W.; Lauridsen, Erik Mejdal
2012-01-01
A phase field model to study the microstructural evolution of a polycrystalline dual-phase material with conserved phase fraction has been implemented, and 2D simulations have been performed. For 2D simulations, the model predicts the cubic growth well-known for diffusion-controlled systems. Some...... interphase boundaries are found to show a persistent non-constant curvature, which seems to be a feature of multi-phase materials. Finally, it is briefly outlined how this model is to be applied to investigate microstructural evolution in duplex steel. © (2012) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland....
The phase diagram of scalar field theory on the fuzzy disc
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rea, Simone; Sämann, Christian [Maxwell Institute for Mathematical Sciences, Department of Mathematics,Heriot-Watt University,Colin Maclaurin Building, Riccarton, Edinburgh EH14 4AS (United Kingdom)
2015-11-17
Using a recently developed bootstrapping method, we compute the phase diagram of scalar field theory on the fuzzy disc with quartic even potential. We find three distinct phases with second and third order phase transitions between them. In particular, we find that the second order phase transition happens approximately at a fixed ratio of the two coupling constants defining the potential. We compute this ratio analytically in the limit of large coupling constants. Our results qualitatively agree with previously obtained numerical results.
Two-phase flow field simulation of horizontal steam generators
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rabiee, Ataollah; Kamalinia, Amir Hossein; Hadad, Kamal [School of Mechanical Engineering, Shiraz University, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2017-02-15
The analysis of steam generators as an interface between primary and secondary circuits in light water nuclear power plants is crucial in terms of safety and design issues. VVER-1000 nuclear power plants use horizontal steam generators which demand a detailed thermal hydraulics investigation in order to predict their behavior during normal and transient operational conditions. Two phase flow field simulation on adjacent tube bundles is important in obtaining logical numerical results. However, the complexity of the tube bundles, due to geometry and arrangement, makes it complicated. Employment of porous media is suggested to simplify numerical modeling. This study presents the use of porous media to simulate the tube bundles within a general-purpose computational fluid dynamics code. Solved governing equations are generalized phase continuity, momentum, and energy equations. Boundary conditions, as one of the main challenges in this numerical analysis, are optimized. The model has been verified and tuned by simple two-dimensional geometry. It is shown that the obtained vapor volume fraction near the cold and hot collectors predict the experimental results more accurately than in previous studies.
Lang, Johannes; Frank, Bernhard; Halimeh, Jad C.
2018-05-01
We construct the finite-temperature dynamical phase diagram of the fully connected transverse-field Ising model from the vantage point of two disparate concepts of dynamical criticality. An analytical derivation of the classical dynamics and exact diagonalization simulations are used to study the dynamics after a quantum quench in the system prepared in a thermal equilibrium state. The different dynamical phases characterized by the type of nonanalyticities that emerge in an appropriately defined Loschmidt-echo return rate directly correspond to the dynamical phases determined by the spontaneous breaking of Z2 symmetry in the long-time steady state. The dynamical phase diagram is qualitatively different depending on whether the initial thermal state is ferromagnetic or paramagnetic. Whereas the former leads to a dynamical phase diagram that can be directly related to its equilibrium counterpart, the latter gives rise to a divergent dynamical critical temperature at vanishing final transverse-field strength.
A nonlocal phase-field system with inertial term
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Grasselli, M.; Petzeltová, Hana; Schimperna, G.
2007-01-01
Roč. 65, č. 3 (2007), s. 451-469 ISSN 0033-569X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA100190606 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : nonlocal phase-field system * Lojasiewicz inequality * convergence to equilibria Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.463, year: 2007
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Huang, H. B.; Hu, J. M.; Yang, T. N.; Chen, L. Q.; Ma, X. Q.
2014-01-01
Effect of substrate misfit strain on current-induced in-plane magnetization reversal in CoFeB-MgO based magnetic tunnel junctions is investigated by combining micromagnetic simulations with phase-field microelasticity theory. It is found that the critical current density for in-plane magnetization reversal decreases dramatically with an increasing substrate strain, since the effective elastic field can drag the magnetization to one of the four in-plane diagonal directions. A potential strain-assisted multilevel bit spin transfer magnetization switching device using substrate misfit strain is also proposed.
Measurement of Two-Phase Flow Fields by Application of Dynamic Electrical Impedance Imaging
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, KyungYoun; Kang, Sook In; Kim, Ho Chan; Kim, Sin; Lee, Yoon Joon; Kim, Min Chan; Anghaie, Samim
2002-01-01
This study presents a visualization technique for the phase distribution in a two-phase flow field with an electrical impedance imaging technique, which reconstructs the resistivity distribution with electrical responses that are determined by corresponding excitations. Special emphasis is placed on the development of dynamic imaging technique for two-phase system undergoing a rapid transient, which could not be visualized with conventional static imaging techniques. The proposed algorithm treats the image reconstruction problem as a nonlinear state estimation problem and the unknown state (resistivity distribution, i.e. phase distribution) is estimated with the aid of a Kalman filter in a minimum mean square error sense. Several illustrative examples with computer simulations are successfully provided to verify the reconstruction performance of the proposed algorithm. (authors)
Dynamic phase transition in the kinetic spin-2 Blume-Emery-Griffiths model in an oscillating field
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ertas, Mehmet [Institute of Science, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey); Canko, Osman [Department of Physics, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey); Keskin, Mustafa [Department of Physics, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey)], E-mail: keskin@erciyes.edu.tr
2008-06-15
We extend our recent paper [M. Keskin, O. Canko, M. Ertas, J. Exp. Theor. Phys. (Sov. Phys. JETP) 105 (2007) 1190.] to present a study, within a mean-field approach, the stationary states of the kinetic spin-2 Blume-Emery-Griffiths model in the presence of a time-dependent oscillating magnetic field by using the Glauber-type of stochastic dynamics. We found 20 fundamental types of dynamic phase diagrams where exhibit more complex and richer phase diagrams than our recent paper. Especially, the obtained dynamic phase diagrams show the dynamic triple, quadruple and dynamic double critical end points besides dynamic tricritical points that depending on interaction parameters. The phase diagrams also exhibit a disordered (d) and the ferromagnetic-2 (f{sub 2}) phases, and the f{sub 2}+d, f{sub 2}+fq, fq+d, f{sub 2}+f{sub 1}+fq and f{sub 2}+fq+d, where f{sub 1} are fq the ferromagnetic-1 and ferroquadrupolar or simply quadrupolar phases respectively, coexistence phase regions that strongly depend on interaction parameters.
Study of the low pressure (Black Phase) SmS properties
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bordier, G.
1987-03-01
SmS has been studied for its transition from the low pressure black phase to the high pressure intermediate valence phase; but the black phase properties seem to be very rich. The variations which pressure of the low-temperature electronic transport properties show the existence of a semi-metallic phase within the black phase domain in a pressure-temperature diagram, for a pressure above 4 kbar, which corresponds to the so-called B'phase. We study the insulating low pressure phase with a model involving acceptor like states. Using electronic paramagnetic resonance experiments we observe a square symmetry trivalent samarium ion neighbour of a sulfure defect, and magnetically coupled with the lattice. This defect exists in two nearly symmetric configurations and the resonance line broadens with temperature in an actived way. It gives rise to metastable effects yielding conductivity relaxations, analysed with stretched exponential laws, because the defect traps magnetically conduction electrons forming a bound magnetic polaron. The relaxation time at zero field is temperature actived. We develop a phenomenological model that gives the good orders of magnitude for the trapping barrier and for the critical field corresponding to the maximum of the low temperature magnetoresistance [fr
Zijian Hong
Ferroelectrics are materials that exhibit spontaneous electric polarization which can be switched between energy-degenerated states by external stimuli (e.g., mechanical force and electric field) that exceeds a critical value. They have wide potential applications in memories, capacitors, piezoelectric and pyroelectric sensors, and nanomechanical systems. Topological structures and topological phase transitions have been introduced to the condensed matter physics in the past few decades and have attracted broad attentions in various disciplines due to the rich physical insights and broad potential applications. Ferromagnetic topological structures such as vortex and skyrmion are known to be stabilized by the antisymmetric chiral interaction (e.g., Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction). Without such interaction, ferroelectric topological structures (i.e., vortex, flux-closure, skyrmions, and merons) have been studied only recently with other designing strategies, such as reducing the dimension of the ferroelectrics. The overarching goal of this dissertation is to investigate the topological structures in ferroelectric oxide perovskites as well as the topological phase transitions under external applied forces. Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 (PZT) with morphotropic phase boundary is widely explored for high piezoelectric and dielectric properties. The domain structure of PZT tetragonal/rhombohedral (T/R) bilayer is investigated. Strong interfacial coupling is shown, with large polarization rotation to a lower symmetry phase near the T/R interface. Interlayer domain growth can also be captured, with T-domains in the R layer and R-domains in the T layer. For thin PZT bilayer with 5nm of T-layer and 20 nm of R-layer, the a1/a 2 twin domain structure is formed in the top T layer, which could be fully switched to R domains under applied bias. While a unique flux-closure pattern is observed both theoretically and experimentally in the thick bilayer film with 50 nm of thickness for both T and R
The Quantum Space Phase Transitions for Particles and Force Fields
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chung D.-Y.
2006-07-01
Full Text Available We introduce a phenomenological formalism in which the space structure is treated in terms of attachment space and detachment space. Attachment space attaches to an object, while detachment space detaches from the object. The combination of these spaces results in three quantum space phases: binary partition space, miscible space and binary lattice space. Binary lattice space consists of repetitive units of alternative attachment space and detachment space. In miscible space, attachment space is miscible to detachment space, and there is no separation between attachment space and detachment spaces. In binary partition space, detachment space and attachment space are in two separat continuous regions. The transition from wavefunction to the collapse of wavefuction under interference becomes the quantum space phase transition from binary lattice space to miscible space. At extremely conditions, the gauge boson force field undergoes a quantum space phase transition to a "hedge boson force field", consisting of a "vacuum" core surrounded by a hedge boson shell, like a bubble with boundary.
A phase-field model for non-equilibrium solidification of intermetallics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Assadi, H.
2007-01-01
Intermetallics may exhibit unique solidification behaviour-including slow growth kinetics, anomalous partitioning and formation of unusual growth morphologies-because of departure from local equilibrium. A phase-field model is developed and used to illustrate these non-equilibrium effects in solidification of a prototype B2 intermetallic phase. The model takes sublattice compositions as primary field variables, from which chemical long-range order is derived. The diffusive reactions between the two sublattices, and those between each sublattice and the liquid phase are taken as 'internal' kinetic processes, which take place within control volumes of the system. The model can thus capture solute and disorder trapping effects, which are consistent-over a wide range of the solid/liquid interface thickness-with the predictions of the sharp-interface theory of solute and disorder trapping. The present model can also take account of solid-state ordering and thus illustrate the effects of chemical ordering on microstructure formation and crystal growth kinetics
Phase diagrams of a spin-1 Ising superlattice with alternating transverse field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Saber, A.; Ez-Zahraouy, H.; Lo Russo, S.; Mattei, G.; Ainane, A.
2003-01-01
The effects of alternating transverse fields Ω a and Ω b on the critical behavior of an alternating spin-1 Ising superlattice are studied within an effective field theory with a probability distribution technique that accounts for the single-site spin correlation. Critical temperatures are calculated as a function of the thickness of the superlattice and the strength of the transverse field. Depending on the values of the transverse fields Ω a and Ω b , the critical temperature can increase or decrease with increasing the thickness of the film, such result is not obtained in the uniform transverse field case (Ω a = Ω b ). Furthermore, for each thickness L of the film, a long range ordered phase persist at low temperature for selected values of the transverse field Ω a and arbitrary values of Ω b . The effects of interlayer and intralayer exchange interactions are also examined
Phase diagrams of a spin-1 Ising superlattice with alternating transverse field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Saber, A.; Ez-Zahraouy, H.
2000-09-01
The effects of alternating transverse fields Ω a and Ω b on the critical behavior of an alternating spin-1 Ising superlattice are studied within an effective field theory with a probability distribution technique that accounts for the single-site spin correlations. Critical temperatures are calculated as a function of the thickness of the superlattice and the strength of the transverse field. Depending on the values of the transverse fields Ω a and Ω b , the critical temperature can increase or decrease with increasing the thickness of the film, such result is not obtained in the uniform transverse field case (Ω a = Ω b ). Furthermore, for each thickness L of the film, a long range ordered phase persists at low temperature for selected values of the transverse field Ω a and arbitrary values of Ω b . The effects of interlayer and intralayer exchange interactions are also examined. (author)
Modeling of microstructure evolution in direct metal laser sintering: A phase field approach
Nandy, Jyotirmoy; Sarangi, Hrushikesh; Sahoo, Seshadev
2017-02-01
Direct Metal Laser Sintering (DMLS) is a new technology in the field of additive manufacturing, which builds metal parts in a layer by layer fashion directly from the powder bed. The process occurs within a very short time period with rapid solidification rate. Slight variations in the process parameters may cause enormous change in the final build parts. The physical and mechanical properties of the final build parts are dependent on the solidification rate which directly affects the microstructure of the material. Thus, the evolving of microstructure plays a vital role in the process parameters optimization. Nowadays, the increase in computational power allows for direct simulations of microstructures during materials processing for specific manufacturing conditions. In this study, modeling of microstructure evolution of Al-Si-10Mg powder in DMLS process was carried out by using a phase field approach. A MATLAB code was developed to solve the set of phase field equations, where simulation parameters include temperature gradient, laser scan speed and laser power. The effects of temperature gradient on microstructure evolution were studied and found that with increase in temperature gradient, the dendritic tip grows at a faster rate.
Xu, Xianmin; Wang, Xiaoping
2010-01-01
In this paper, the equilibrium behavior of an immiscible two phase fluid on a rough surface is studied from a phase field equation derived from minimizing the total free energy of the system. When the size of the roughness becomes small, we derive the effective boundary condition for the equation by the multiple scale expansion homogenization technique. The Wenzel and Cassie equations for the apparent contact angles on the rough surfaces are then derived from the effective boundary condition. The homogenization results are proved rigorously by the F-convergence theory. © 2010 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.
Relaxation rates of low-field gas-phase ^129Xe storage cells
Limes, Mark; Saam, Brian
2010-10-01
A study of longitudinal nuclear relaxation rates T1 of ^129Xe and Xe-N2 mixtures in a magnetic field of 3.8 mT is presented. In this regime, intrinsic spin relaxation is dominated by the intramolecular spin-rotation interaction due to persistent xenon dimers, a mechanism that can be quelled by introducing large amounts of N2 into the storage cell. Extrinsic spin relaxation is dominated by the wall-relaxation rate, which is the primary quantity of interest for the various low-field storage cells and coatings that we have tested. Previous group work has shown that extremely long gas-phase relaxation times T1 can be obtained, but only at large magnetic fields and low xenon densities. The current work is motivated by the practical benefits of retaining hyperpolarized ^129Xe for extended periods of time in a small magnetic field.
Phase diagrams of a spin-1/2 transverse Ising model with three-peak random field distribution
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bassir, A.; Bassir, C.E.; Benyoussef, A.; Ez-Zahraouy, H.
1996-07-01
The effect of the transverse magnetic field on the phase diagrams structures of the Ising model in a random longitudinal magnetic field with a trimodal symmetric distribution is investigated within a finite cluster approximation. We find that a small magnetizations ordered phase (small ordered phase) disappears completely for a sufficiently large value of the transverse field or/and large value of the concentration of the disorder of the magnetic field. Multicritical behaviour and reentrant phenomena are discussed. The regions where the tricritical, reentrant phenomena and the small ordered phase persist are delimited as a function of the transverse field and the concentration p. Longitudinal magnetizations are also presented. (author). 33 refs, 6 figs
Dislocations via incompatibilities in phase-field models of microstructure evolution
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Gröger, Roman; Marchand, B.; Lookman, T.
2016-01-01
Roč. 94, č. 5 (2016), 054105-1-054105-13 ISSN 2469-9950 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-13797S; GA MŠk(CZ) LQ1601 Grant - others:Marie Curie Actions(CZ) 247705 MesoPhysDel Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : dislocation * incompatibility * phase field * Nye tensor * phase transition Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.836, year: 2016
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ertaş, Mehmet, E-mail: mehmetertas@erciyes.edu.tr; Keskin, Mustafa
2015-03-01
By using the path probability method (PPM) with point distribution, we study the dynamic phase transitions (DPTs) in the Blume–Emery–Griffiths (BEG) model under an oscillating external magnetic field. The phases in the model are obtained by solving the dynamic equations for the average order parameters and a disordered phase, ordered phase and four mixed phases are found. We also investigate the thermal behavior of the dynamic order parameters to analyze the nature dynamic transitions as well as to obtain the DPT temperatures. The dynamic phase diagrams are presented in three different planes in which exhibit the dynamic tricritical point, double critical end point, critical end point, quadrupole point, triple point as well as the reentrant behavior, strongly depending on the values of the system parameters. We compare and discuss the dynamic phase diagrams with dynamic phase diagrams that were obtained within the Glauber-type stochastic dynamics based on the mean-field theory. - Highlights: • Dynamic magnetic behavior of the Blume–Emery–Griffiths system is investigated by using the path probability method. • The time variations of average magnetizations are studied to find the phases. • The temperature dependence of the dynamic magnetizations is investigated to obtain the dynamic phase transition points. • We compare and discuss the dynamic phase diagrams with dynamic phase diagrams that were obtained within the Glauber-type stochastic dynamics based on the mean-field theory.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ertaş, Mehmet; Keskin, Mustafa
2015-01-01
By using the path probability method (PPM) with point distribution, we study the dynamic phase transitions (DPTs) in the Blume–Emery–Griffiths (BEG) model under an oscillating external magnetic field. The phases in the model are obtained by solving the dynamic equations for the average order parameters and a disordered phase, ordered phase and four mixed phases are found. We also investigate the thermal behavior of the dynamic order parameters to analyze the nature dynamic transitions as well as to obtain the DPT temperatures. The dynamic phase diagrams are presented in three different planes in which exhibit the dynamic tricritical point, double critical end point, critical end point, quadrupole point, triple point as well as the reentrant behavior, strongly depending on the values of the system parameters. We compare and discuss the dynamic phase diagrams with dynamic phase diagrams that were obtained within the Glauber-type stochastic dynamics based on the mean-field theory. - Highlights: • Dynamic magnetic behavior of the Blume–Emery–Griffiths system is investigated by using the path probability method. • The time variations of average magnetizations are studied to find the phases. • The temperature dependence of the dynamic magnetizations is investigated to obtain the dynamic phase transition points. • We compare and discuss the dynamic phase diagrams with dynamic phase diagrams that were obtained within the Glauber-type stochastic dynamics based on the mean-field theory
Magnetic phase diagram of UNi2Si2 under magnetic field and high-pressure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Honda, F.; Oomi, G.; Svoboda, P.; Syshchenko, A.; Sechovsky, V.; Khmelevski, S.; Divis, M.; Andreev, A.V.; Takeshita, N.; Mori, N.; Menovsky, A.A.
2001-01-01
Measurements of electrical resistance under high pressure and neutron diffraction in high-magnetic field of single crystalline UNi 2 Si 2 have been performed. We have found the analogy between the p-T and B-T magnetic phase diagrams. It is also found that the propagation vector q Z of incommensurate antiferromagnetic phase decreases with increasing magnetic field. A new pronounced pressure-induced incommensurate-commensurate magnetic phase transition has been detected
Wang, Dan; Du, Haoyuan; Wang, Linxiang; Melnik, Roderick
2018-05-01
The fully coupled thermo-electro-mechanical properties of nanoscale ferroelectric actuators are investigated by a phase field model. Firstly, the thermal effect is incorporated into the commonly-used phase field model for ferroelectric materials in a thermodynamic consistent way and the governing equation for the temperature field is derived. Afterwards, the modified model is numerically implemented to study a selected prototype of the ferroelectric actuators, where strain associated with electric field-induced non-180° domain switching is employed. The temperature variation and energy flow in the actuation process are presented, which enhances our understanding of the working mechanism of the actuators. Furthermore, the influences of the input voltage frequency and the thermal boundary condition on the temperature variation are demonstrated and carefully discussed in the context of thermal management for real applications.
The phase accumulation and antenna near field of microscopic propagating spin wave devices
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chang, Crosby S.; Kostylev, Mikhail, E-mail: mikhail.kostylev@uwa.edu.au; Ivanov, Eugene [School of Physics M013, The University of Western Australia, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia); Ding, Junjia; Adeyeye, Adekunle O. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, 117576 Singapore (Singapore)
2014-01-20
We studied phase accumulation by the highly non-reciprocal magnetostatic surface spin waves in thin Permalloy microstripes excited and received by microscopic coplanar antennae. We find that the experimentally measured characteristic length of the near field of the antenna is smaller than the total width of the coplanar. This is confirmed by our numerical simulations. Consequently, the distance over which the spin wave accumulates its phase while travelling between the input and output antennae coincides with the distance between the antennae symmetry axes with good accuracy.
The phase accumulation and antenna near field of microscopic propagating spin wave devices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chang, Crosby S.; Kostylev, Mikhail; Ivanov, Eugene; Ding, Junjia; Adeyeye, Adekunle O.
2014-01-01
We studied phase accumulation by the highly non-reciprocal magnetostatic surface spin waves in thin Permalloy microstripes excited and received by microscopic coplanar antennae. We find that the experimentally measured characteristic length of the near field of the antenna is smaller than the total width of the coplanar. This is confirmed by our numerical simulations. Consequently, the distance over which the spin wave accumulates its phase while travelling between the input and output antennae coincides with the distance between the antennae symmetry axes with good accuracy
Initial studies of synchrotron radiation phase-contrast imaging in the field of medicine
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen Shaoliang; Zhang Xi; Peng Yifeng; Li Beilei; Cheng Aiping; Zhu Peiping; Yuan Xiqing; Huang Wanxia
2010-01-01
Recently,research on using X-ray phase information in medicine has been growing remarkably fast. Phase-contrast imaging with synchrotron radiation can reveal inner soft tissues such as tendons, cartilage, ligaments, adipose tissue, vessels and nerves without a contrast agent. We have visualized the liver, bile duct, lung, kidney, stomach and intestine, heart, blood vessel, bone and arthrosis, and tumor tissues using 'in-line' phase contrast imaging and diffraction-enhanced imaging. It is seen that the synchrotron radiation graphs show much higher resolution. This method is especially suitable for studying soft tissue structure and blood vessels. (authors)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dong, Wen D.; Carlos Valadez, J.; Gallagher, John A.; Jo, Hwan R.; Lynch, Christopher S., E-mail: cslynch@seas.ucla.edu [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, The University of California, Los Angeles, 420 Westwood Plaza, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Sahul, Raffi; Hackenberger, Wes [TRS Technologies, 2820 East College Avenue, State College, Pennsylvania 16801 (United States)
2015-06-28
Ceramic niobium modified 95/5 lead zirconate-lead titanate (PZT) undergoes a pressure induced ferroelectric to antiferroelectric phase transformation accompanied by an elimination of polarization and a volume reduction. Electric field and temperature drive the reverse transformation from the antiferroelectric to ferroelectric phase. The phase transformation was monitored under pressure, temperature, and electric field loading. Pressures and temperatures were varied in discrete steps from 0 MPa to 500 MPa and 25 °C to 125 °C, respectively. Cyclic bipolar electric fields were applied with peak amplitudes of up to 6 MV m{sup −1} at each pressure and temperature combination. The resulting electric displacement–electric field hysteresis loops were open “D” shaped at low pressure, characteristic of soft ferroelectric PZT. Just below the phase transformation pressure, the hysteresis loops took on an “S” shape, which split into a double hysteresis loop just above the phase transformation pressure. Far above the phase transformation pressure, when the applied electric field is insufficient to drive an antiferroelectric to ferroelectric phase transformation, the hysteresis loops collapse to linear dielectric behavior. Phase stability maps were generated from the experimental data at each of the temperature steps and used to form a three dimensional pressure–temperature–electric field phase diagram.
Magnetic field dependence of Griffith phase and magnetocaloric effect in Ca0.85Dy0.15MnO3
Nag, Ripan; Sarkar, Bidyut; Pal, Sudipta
2018-03-01
Temperature and Magnetic field dependent magnetization properties of electron doped polycrystalline sample Ca0.85Dy0.15MnO3 (CDMO) prepared by solid state reaction method have been studied. The sample undergoes ferromagnetic to paramagnetic phase transition at about 111k. From the study of magnetic properties in terms of Arrot plots it is observed that the phase transition is of 2nd order. The Griffith phase behavior of the sample is suppressed with the increase of the applied magnetic field strength H. We have estimated the magnetic entropy change from experimental magnetization and temperature data. For a magnetic field change of 8000 Oe, the maximum value of magnetic entropy change arrives at a value of 1.126 J-kg-1 k-1 in this magnetocaloric material.
Phase-field model for deposition process of platinum nanoparticles on carbon substrate
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yamakawa, S; Hyodo, S; Okazaki-Maeda, K; Kohyama, M
2008-01-01
Platinum supported on a carbon carrier is widely used as a catalyst for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells. The catalytic activity is significantly affected by the size distribution and morphologies of the platinum particles. The objective of this study is to extend the phase-field approach to describe the formation process of platinum particles onto the substrate. The microstructural evolution of a nanoparticle was represented by the temporal evolution of the field variables related to the platinum concentration, long-range crystallographic ordering and phase transition. First-principles calculations were performed in order to estimate the interaction energies between several different types of platinum clusters and a graphene sheet. The platinum density profile concentrated over the substrate surface led to the formation of three-dimensional islands in accordance with the Volmer-Weber mode of growth. The size distributions of the platinum particles were sensitive to the heterogeneity of the substrate surface and to the competitive nucleation and growth processes
Combining phase-field crystal methods with a Cahn-Hilliard model for binary alloys
Balakrishna, Ananya Renuka; Carter, W. Craig
2018-04-01
Diffusion-induced phase transitions typically change the lattice symmetry of the host material. In battery electrodes, for example, Li ions (diffusing species) are inserted between layers in a crystalline electrode material (host). This diffusion induces lattice distortions and defect formations in the electrode. The structural changes to the lattice symmetry affect the host material's properties. Here, we propose a 2D theoretical framework that couples a Cahn-Hilliard (CH) model, which describes the composition field of a diffusing species, with a phase-field crystal (PFC) model, which describes the host-material lattice symmetry. We couple the two continuum models via coordinate transformation coefficients. We introduce the transformation coefficients in the PFC method to describe affine lattice deformations. These transformation coefficients are modeled as functions of the composition field. Using this coupled approach, we explore the effects of coarse-grained lattice symmetry and distortions on a diffusion-induced phase transition process. In this paper, we demonstrate the working of the CH-PFC model through three representative examples: First, we describe base cases with hexagonal and square symmetries for two composition fields. Next, we illustrate how the CH-PFC method interpolates lattice symmetry across a diffuse phase boundary. Finally, we compute a Cahn-Hilliard type of diffusion and model the accompanying changes to lattice symmetry during a phase transition process.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Temizer, Umuet [Department of Physics, Bozok University, 66100 Yozgat (Turkey); Kantar, Ersin [Institute of Science, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey); Keskin, Mustafa [Department of Physics, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey)], E-mail: keskin@erciyes.edu.tr; Canko, Osman [Department of Physics, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey)
2008-06-15
We study, within a mean-field approach, the stationary states of the kinetic Blume-Emery-Griffiths model with repulsive biquadratic coupling under the presence of a time-varying (sinusoidal) magnetic field. We employ the Glauber-type stochastic dynamics to construct set of dynamic equations of motion. The behavior of the time dependence of the order parameters and the behavior of the average order parameters in a period, which is also called the dynamic order parameters, as functions of the reduced temperature are investigated. The dynamic phase transition points are calculated and phase diagrams are presented in the reduced magnetic field amplitude and reduced temperature plane. The dynamical transition from one regime to the other can be of first- or second order depending on the region in the phase diagram. According to the values of the crystal field interaction or single-ion anisotropy constant and biquadratic exchange constant, we find 20 fundamental types of phase diagrams which exhibit many dynamic critical points, such as tricritical points, zero-temperature critical points, double critical end points, critical end point, triple point and multicritical point. Moreover, besides a disordered and ordered phases, seven coexistence phase regions exist in the system.
Kholmetskii, A. L.; Missevitch, O. V.; Yarman, T.
2018-05-01
We point out that the known quantum phases for an electric/magnetic dipole moving in an electromagnetic (EM) field must be presented as the superposition of more fundamental quantum phases emerging for elementary charges. Using this idea, we find two new fundamental quantum phases for point-like charges, next to the known electric and magnetic Aharonov-Bohm (A-B) phases, named by us as the complementary electric and magnetic phases, correspondingly. We further demonstrate that these new phases can indeed be derived via the Schrödinger equation for a particle in an EM field, where however the operator of momentum is re-defined via the replacement of the canonical momentum of particle by the sum of its mechanical momentum and interactional field momentum for a system "charged particle and a macroscopic source of EM field". The implications of the obtained results are discussed.
Phase-field model of vapor-liquid-solid nanowire growth
Wang, Nan; Upmanyu, Moneesh; Karma, Alain
2018-03-01
We present a multiphase-field model to describe quantitatively nanowire growth by the vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) process. The free-energy functional of this model depends on three nonconserved order parameters that distinguish the vapor, liquid, and solid phases and describe the energetic properties of various interfaces, including arbitrary forms of anisotropic γ plots for the solid-vapor and solid-liquid interfaces. The evolution equations for those order parameters describe basic kinetic processes including the rapid (quasi-instantaneous) equilibration of the liquid catalyst to a droplet shape with constant mean curvature, the slow incorporation of growth atoms at the droplet surface, and crystallization within the droplet. The standard constraint that the sum of the phase fields equals unity and the conservation of the number of catalyst atoms, which relates the catalyst volume to the concentration of growth atoms inside the droplet, are handled via separate Lagrange multipliers. An analysis of the model is presented that rigorously maps the phase-field equations to a desired set of sharp-interface equations for the evolution of the phase boundaries under the constraint of force balance at three-phase junctions (triple points) given by the Young-Herring relation that includes torque term related to the anisotropy of the solid-liquid and solid-vapor interface excess free energies. Numerical examples of growth in two dimensions are presented for the simplest case of vanishing crystalline anisotropy and the more realistic case of a solid-liquid γ plot with cusped minima corresponding to two sets of (10 ) and (11 ) facets. The simulations reproduce many of the salient features of nanowire growth observed experimentally, including growth normal to the substrate with tapering of the side walls, transitions between different growth orientations, and crawling growth along the substrate. They also reproduce different observed relationships between the nanowire growth
Phased Array Excitations For Efficient Near Field Wireless Power Transmission
2016-09-01
channeled to the battery or power plant. Figure 2. WPT System Block Diagram for Battery Charging. Source : [2]. Wireless power transfer has gained...EXCITATIONS FOR EFFICIENT NEAR-FIELD WIRELESS POWER TRANSMISSION by Sean X. Hong September 2016 Thesis Advisor: David Jenn Second Reader...TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE PHASED ARRAY EXCITATIONS FOR EFFICIENT NEAR-FIELD WIRELESS POWER TRANSMISSION 5
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lim, Hojun [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Owen, Steven J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Abdeljawad, Fadi F. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hanks, Byron [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Battaile, Corbett Chandler [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
2015-09-01
In order to better incorporate microstructures in continuum scale models, we use a novel finite element (FE) meshing technique to generate three-dimensional polycrystalline aggregates from a phase field grain growth model of grain microstructures. The proposed meshing technique creates hexahedral FE meshes that capture smooth interfaces between adjacent grains. Three dimensional realizations of grain microstructures from the phase field model are used in crystal plasticity-finite element (CP-FE) simulations of polycrystalline a -iron. We show that the interface conformal meshes significantly reduce artificial stress localizations in voxelated meshes that exhibit the so-called "wedding cake" interfaces. This framework provides a direct link between two mesoscale models - phase field and crystal plasticity - and for the first time allows mechanics simulations of polycrystalline materials using three-dimensional hexahedral finite element meshes with realistic topological features.
Full-field stress determination in photoelasticity with phase shifting technique
Guo, Enhai; Liu, Yonggang; Han, Yongsheng; Arola, Dwayne; Zhang, Dongsheng
2018-04-01
Photoelasticity is an effective method for evaluating the stress and its spatial variations within a stressed body. In the present study, a method to determine the stress distribution by means of phase shifting and a modified shear-difference is proposed. First, the orientation of the first principal stress and the retardation between the principal stresses are determined in the full-field through phase shifting. Then, through bicubic interpolation and derivation of a modified shear-difference method, the internal stress is calculated from the point with a free boundary along its normal direction. A method to reduce integration error in the shear difference scheme is proposed and compared to the existing methods; the integration error is reduced when using theoretical photoelastic parameters to calculate the stress component with the same points. Results show that when the value of Δx/Δy approaches one, the error is minimum, and although the interpolation error is inevitable, it has limited influence on the accuracy of the result. Finally, examples are presented for determining the stresses in a circular plate and ring subjected to diametric loading. Results show that the proposed approach provides a complete solution for determining the full-field stresses in photoelastic models.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chung, Ting-Yi, E-mail: chung.albert@nsrrc.org.tw [National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, Hsinchu Science Park, Hsinchu 30076, Taiwan (China); Yang, Chih-Sheng; Chu, Yun-Liang; Lin, Fu-Yuan; Jan, Jyh-Chyuan [National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, Hsinchu Science Park, Hsinchu 30076, Taiwan (China); Hwang, Ching-Shiang [National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, Hsinchu Science Park, Hsinchu 30076, Taiwan (China); Department of Electrophysics, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu 30050, Taiwan (China)
2017-04-01
To enhance the flux density or to control polarization, a phase shifter was designed and used to modulate the phase matching between segmented undulators. A larger hysteresis loop causes, however, a repeatability issue in the phase matching; the fringe field of the phase shifter creates an extra magnetic-field error. The design of the phase shifter must therefore minimize the hysteresis loop and fringe field to maintain the phases exact and to ignore the crosstalk effect. Two critical issues are the hysteresis-loop problem and the fringe-field effect, which determine the radiation performance and the stability of the ring. To investigate these issues, a phase shifter was constructed to operate in accordance with electromagnetic- and permanent-type magnets; the results from the field measurements and shims are discussed here. The shimming algorithm and a compact permanent-magnet phase shifter that eliminates the issues are also presented.
Field-induced magnetic phases and electric polarization in LiNiPO4
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Thomas Bagger Stibius; Christensen, Niels Bech; Kenzelmann, M.
2009-01-01
Neutron diffraction is used to probe the (H,T) phase diagram of magnetoelectric (ME) LiNiPO4 for magnetic fields along the c axis. At zero field the Ni spins order in two antiferromagnetic phases. One has commensurate (C) structures and general ordering vectors k(C)=(0,0,0); the other one...... is incommensurate (IC) with k(IC)=(0,q,0). At low temperatures the C order collapses above mu H-0=12 T and adopts an IC structure with modulation vector parallel to k(IC). We show that C order is required for the ME effect and establish how electric polarization results from a field-induced reduction in the total...
Unconventional field induced phases in a quantum magnet formed by free radical tetramers
Saúl, Andrés; Gauthier, Nicolas; Askari, Reza Moosavi; Côté, Michel; Maris, Thierry; Reber, Christian; Lannes, Anthony; Luneau, Dominique; Nicklas, Michael; Law, Joseph M.; Green, Elizabeth Lauren; Wosnitza, Jochen; Bianchi, Andrea Daniele; Feiguin, Adrian
2018-02-01
We report experimental and theoretical studies on the magnetic and thermodynamic properties of NIT-2Py, a free radical based organic magnet. From magnetization and specific-heat measurements we establish the temperature versus magnetic field phase diagram which includes two Bose-Einstein condensates (BEC) and an infrequent half-magnetization plateau. Calculations based on density functional theory demonstrate that magnetically this system can be mapped to a quasi-two-dimensional structure of weakly coupled tetramers. Density matrix renormalization group calculations show the unusual characteristics of the BECs where the spins forming the low-field condensate are different than those participating in the high-field one.
Born iterative reconstruction using perturbed-phase field estimates.
Astheimer, Jeffrey P; Waag, Robert C
2008-10-01
A method of image reconstruction from scattering measurements for use in ultrasonic imaging is presented. The method employs distorted-wave Born iteration but does not require using a forward-problem solver or solving large systems of equations. These calculations are avoided by limiting intermediate estimates of medium variations to smooth functions in which the propagated fields can be approximated by phase perturbations derived from variations in a geometric path along rays. The reconstruction itself is formed by a modification of the filtered-backpropagation formula that includes correction terms to account for propagation through an estimated background. Numerical studies that validate the method for parameter ranges of interest in medical applications are presented. The efficiency of this method offers the possibility of real-time imaging from scattering measurements.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Parkhomenko, A.I.; Shalagin, A.M.
2006-01-01
One studied theoretically spectrum of absorption (intensification) of a weak sounding field by two-level atoms moving in a strong resonance laser field and colliding with buffer gas atoms. The analysis was performed for the case of small frequencies of collisions in contrast to the Doppler width of absorption line (gas low pressure) with regard to the arbitrary variation of a radiation induced dipole moment phase at elastic collisions of gas particles. The effects of phase memory are found to result in very strong quantitative and qualitative transformation of a test field spectrum even in case of infrequent collisions when the well-known Dike mechanism of manifestation of phase memory effects (elimination of the Doppler widening due to limitation of spatial motion of particles by collisions) does not work. Strong influence of phase memory effects on spectral resonances at gas low pressure results from the fact that phase retaining collisions change dependence on velocity of the partial index of refraction n(v) (index of refraction for particles moving with v velocity) [ru
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Levin, E.M.; Gschneidner, K.A.; Pecharsky, V.K.
2001-01-01
The temperature (from 5 to 300 K) and DC magnetic field (from 0 to 90 kOe) dependencies of the DC magnetization and magnetic susceptibility, and the temperature (from 5 to 350 K) dependency of the AC magnetic susceptibility of Gd 5 (Si 1.5 Ge 2.5 ) have been studied. The temperature and/or magnetic field induced magnetic phase transition in Gd 5 (Si 1.5 Ge 2.5 ) is a first order ferromagnet-paramagnet transition. The temperature of the magnetic transition in low AC magnetic field is 206 and 217 K for cooling and heating, respectively. The DC magnetic field increases the transition temperature by ∼0.36 K/kOe indicating that the paramagnetic phase can be reversibly transformed into the ferromagnetic phase. When the magnetic field is removed, the ferromagnetic phase transforms into the paramagnetic phase showing a large remanence-free hysteresis. The magnetic phase diagram based on the isothermal magnetic field dependence of the DC magnetization at various temperatures for Gd 5 (Si 1.5 Ge 2.5 ) is proposed. The magnetic field dependence of the magnetization in the vicinity of the first order phase transition shows evidence for the formation of a magnetically heterogeneous system in the volume of Gd 5 (Si 1.5 Ge 2.5 ) specimen where the magnetically ordered (ferromagnetic) and disordered (paramagnetic) phases co-exist
Predictions of Phase Separation in Three-Component Lipid Membranes by the MARTINI Force Field
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Davis, Ryan S.; Sunil Kumar, P. B.; Sperotto, Maria Maddalena
2013-01-01
The phase behavior of the coarse-grained MARTINI model for three-component lipid bilayers composed of dipalmytoyl-phosphatidylcholine (DPPC), cholesterol (Chol), and an unsaturated phosphatidylcholine (PC) was systematically investigated by molecular dynamics simulations. The aim of this study...... is to understand which types of unsaturated PC induce the formation of thermodynamically stable coexisting phases when added to mixtures of DPPC and Chol and to unravel the mechanisms that drive phase separation in such three-component mixtures. Our simulations indicate that the currently used MARTINI force field...... PCs, such as dilinoleyl-phosphatidylcholine (DUPC) and diarachidonoyl-phosphatidylcholine (DAPC). Through systematic tweaking of the interactions between the hydrophobic groups of the PC molecules, we show that the appearance of phase separation in three-component lipid bilayers, as modeled through...
Virgo, Simon; Ankit, Kumar; Nestler, Britta; Urai, Janos L.
2016-04-01
Crack-seal veins form in a complex interplay of coupled thermal, hydraulic, mechanical and chemical processes. Their formation and cyclic growth involves brittle fracturing and dilatancy, phases of increased fluid flow and the growth of crystals that fill the voids and reestablish the mechanical strength. Existing numerical models of vein formation focus on selected aspects of the coupled process. Until today, no model exists that is able to use a realistic representation of the fracturing AND sealing processes, simultaneously. To address this challenge, we propose the bidirectional coupling of two numerical methods that have proven themselves as very powerful to model the fundamental processes acting in crack-seal systems: Phase-field and the Discrete Element Method (DEM). The phase-field Method was recently successfully extended to model the precipitation of quartz crystals from an aqueous solution and applied to model the sealing of a vein over multiple opening events (Ankit et al., 2013; Ankit et al., 2015a; Ankit et al., 2015b). The advantage over former, purely kinematic approaches is that in phase-field, the crystal growth is modeled based on thermodynamic and kinetic principles. Different driving forces for microstructure evolution, such as chemical bulk free energy, interfacial energy, elastic strain energy and different transport processes, such as mass diffusion and advection, can be coupled and the effect on the evolution process can be studied in 3D. The Discrete Element Method was already used in several studies to model the fracturing of rocks and the incremental growth of veins by repeated fracturing (Virgo et al., 2013; Virgo et al., 2014). Materials in DEM are represented by volumes of packed spherical particles and the response to the material to stress is modeled by interaction of the particles with their nearest neighbours. For rocks, in 3D, the method provides a realistic brittle failure behaviour. Exchange Routines are being developed that
Effect of multiple Higgs fields on the phase structure of the SU(2)-Higgs model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wurtz, Mark; Steele, T. G.; Lewis, Randy
2009-01-01
The SU(2)-Higgs model, with a single Higgs field in the fundamental representation and a quartic self-interaction, has a Higgs region and a confinement region which are analytically connected in the parameter space of the theory; these regions thus represent a single phase. The effect of multiple Higgs fields on this phase structure is examined via Monte Carlo lattice simulations. For the case of N≥2 identical Higgs fields, there is no remaining analytic connection between the Higgs and confinement regions, at least when Lagrangian terms that directly couple different Higgs flavors are omitted. An explanation of this result in terms of enhancement from overlapping phase transitions is explored for N=2 by introducing an asymmetry in the hopping parameters of the Higgs fields. It is found that an enhancement of the phase transitions can still occur for a moderate (10%) asymmetry in the resulting hopping parameters.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Iamsasri, Thanakorn; Jones, Jacob L., E-mail: jacobjones@ncsu.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611 (United States); Tutuncu, Goknur [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611 (United States); Uthaisar, Chunmanus; Pojprapai, Soodkhet [School of Ceramic Engineering, Institute of Engineering, Suranaree University of Technology, Nakorn Ratchasima 30000 (Thailand); Wongsaenmai, Supattra [Program in Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Maejo University, Chiang Mai 50290 (Thailand)
2015-01-14
The electric field-induced phase transitions in Li-modified Na{sub 0.5}K{sub 0.5}NbO{sub 3} at the polymorphic phase boundary (PPB) were observed using in situ X-ray diffraction. The ratio of monoclinic to tetragonal phase fraction was used as an indicator of the extent and reversibility of the phase transitions. The reversibility of the phase transition was greater in compositions further from the PPB. These results demonstrate that the field-induced phase transition is one of the origins of high piezoelectric properties in lead-free ferroelectric materials.
Angular intensity of a gas-phase field ionization source
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Orloff, J.; Swanson, L.W.
1979-01-01
Angular intensities of 1 μA sr -1 have been measured for a gas-phase field ionization source in an optical column under practical operating conditions. The source, which was differentially pumped and cooled to 77 K, utilized a -oriented iridium emitter and precooled hydrogen gas at 10 -2 Torr. The ion beam was collimated with an electrostatic lens and detected below an aperture subtending 0.164 msr. A transmitted current of approx.10 -10 A was measured at voltages corresponding to a field of approx. =2.2 V/A at the emitter
A phase-field study of the physical concepts of martensitic transformations in steels
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yeddu, Hemantha Kumar; Borgenstam, Annika; Hedström, Peter; Ågren, John
2012-01-01
Highlights: ► Critical driving forces associated with martensitic transformation are estimated. ► Plastic relaxation rate affects the transformation and microstructure evolution. ► Low relaxation rate promotes multi-domained martensitic microstructure. ► High relaxation rate promotes growth of a single martensite domain. ► The model predicts the final habit plane of martensite to be (−2 1 1) γ . - Abstract: A 3D elastoplastic phase-field model is employed to study various driving forces associated with martensitic transformations, plastic deformation behavior as well as the habit plane concept. Usage of thermodynamic parameters corresponding to Fe–0.3%C alloy in conjunction with anisotropic physical parameters of steels as the simulation parameters have yielded the results in reasonable agreement with experimental observations. From the simulation results, it is concluded that there exist three critical driving forces that control the transformation and also that the plastic deformation behavior of the material greatly affects the transformation. The model predicts the initial habit plane of the first infinitesimal unit of martensite as (−1 1 1). The model also predicts that, as the transformation progresses, the above mentioned martensite domain rotates and finally orients along the new habit plane of (−2 1 1).
Phase fields of nickel silicides obtained by mechanical alloying in the nanocrystalline state
Datta, M. K.; Pabi, S. K.; Murty, B. S.
2000-06-01
Solid state reactions induced by mechanical alloying (MA) of elemental blends of Ni and Si have been studied over the entire composition range of the Ni-Si system. A monotonous increase of the lattice parameter of the Ni rich solid solution, Ni(Si), is observed with refinement of crystallite size. Nanocrystalline phase/phase mixtures of Ni(Si), Ni(Si)+Ni31Si12, Ni31Si12+Ni2Si, Ni2Si+NiSi and NiSi+Si, have been obtained during MA, over the composition ranges of 0-10, 10-28, 28-33, 33-50, and >50 at. % Si, respectively. The results clearly suggest that only congruent melting phases, Ni31Si12, Ni2Si, and NiSi form, while the formation of noncongruent melting phases, Ni3Si, Ni3Si2, and NiSi2, is bypassed in the nanocrystalline state. The phase formation during MA has been discussed based on thermodynamic arguments. The predicted phase fields obtained from effective free energy calculations are quite consistent with those obtained during MA.
Effective field study of ising model on a double perovskite structure
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ngantso, G. Dimitri; El Amraoui, Y. [LMPHE, (URAC 12), Faculté des Sciences, Université Mohammed V, Rabat (Morocco); Benyoussef, A. [LMPHE, (URAC 12), Faculté des Sciences, Université Mohammed V, Rabat (Morocco); Center of Materials and Nanomaterials, MAScIR, Rabat (Morocco); Hassan II Academy of Science and Technology, Rabat (Morocco); El Kenz, A., E-mail: elkenz@fsr.ac.ma [LMPHE, (URAC 12), Faculté des Sciences, Université Mohammed V, Rabat (Morocco)
2017-02-01
By using the effective field theory (EFT), the mixed spin-1/2 and spin-3/2 Ising ferrimagnetic model adapted to a double perovskite structure has been studied. The EFT calculations have been carried out from Ising Hamiltonian by taking into account first and second nearest-neighbors interactions and the crystal and external magnetic fields. Both first- and second-order phase transitions have been found in phase diagrams of interest. Depending on crystal-field values, the thermodynamic behavior of total magnetization indicated the compensation phenomenon existence. The hysteresis behaviors are studied by investigating the reduced magnetic field dependence of total magnetization and a series of hysteresis loops are shown for different reduced temperatures around the critical one. - Highlights: • Magnetic properties of double perovskite Structure have been studied. • Compensation temperature has been observed below the critical temperature. • Hysteresis behaviors have been studied.
Effective field study of ising model on a double perovskite structure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ngantso, G. Dimitri; El Amraoui, Y.; Benyoussef, A.; El Kenz, A.
2017-01-01
By using the effective field theory (EFT), the mixed spin-1/2 and spin-3/2 Ising ferrimagnetic model adapted to a double perovskite structure has been studied. The EFT calculations have been carried out from Ising Hamiltonian by taking into account first and second nearest-neighbors interactions and the crystal and external magnetic fields. Both first- and second-order phase transitions have been found in phase diagrams of interest. Depending on crystal-field values, the thermodynamic behavior of total magnetization indicated the compensation phenomenon existence. The hysteresis behaviors are studied by investigating the reduced magnetic field dependence of total magnetization and a series of hysteresis loops are shown for different reduced temperatures around the critical one. - Highlights: • Magnetic properties of double perovskite Structure have been studied. • Compensation temperature has been observed below the critical temperature. • Hysteresis behaviors have been studied.
Phase conjugation of gap solitons: A numerical study
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
We study the effect of a nearby phase-conjugate mirror (PCM) on the gap soliton of a. Kerr non-linear ... They are characterized by a sech field distribution corresponding to the ... It is a generalization of the earlier model proposed by Jose et.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kantar, Ersin; Ertaş, Mehmet; Keskin, Mustafa
2014-01-01
The dynamic phase diagrams of a cylindrical Ising nanowire in the presence of a time dependent magnetic field are obtained by using the effective-field theory with correlations based on the Glauber-type stochastic dynamics. According to the values of interaction parameters, a number of interesting properties have been found in the dynamic phase diagrams, such as many dynamic critical points (tricritical point, double critical end point, critical end point, zero temperature critical point, multicritical point, tetracritical point, and triple point) as well as reentrant phenomena. - Highlights: • The cylindrical Ising nanowire is investigated within the Glauber dynamics based on EFT. • The time variations of average order parameters to find phases are studied. • The dynamic phase diagrams are found for the different interaction parameters. • The system displays the critical points as well as a reentrant behavior
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kantar, Ersin; Ertaş, Mehmet, E-mail: mehmetertas@erciyes.edu.tr; Keskin, Mustafa
2014-06-01
The dynamic phase diagrams of a cylindrical Ising nanowire in the presence of a time dependent magnetic field are obtained by using the effective-field theory with correlations based on the Glauber-type stochastic dynamics. According to the values of interaction parameters, a number of interesting properties have been found in the dynamic phase diagrams, such as many dynamic critical points (tricritical point, double critical end point, critical end point, zero temperature critical point, multicritical point, tetracritical point, and triple point) as well as reentrant phenomena. - Highlights: • The cylindrical Ising nanowire is investigated within the Glauber dynamics based on EFT. • The time variations of average order parameters to find phases are studied. • The dynamic phase diagrams are found for the different interaction parameters. • The system displays the critical points as well as a reentrant behavior.
Superfluid and insulating phases in an interacting-boson model: mean-field theory and the RPA
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sheshadri, K.; Pandit, R.; Krishnamurthy, H.R.; Ramakrishnan, T.V.
1993-01-01
The bosonic Hubbard model is studied via a simple mean-field theory. At zero temperature, in addition to yielding a phase diagram that is qualitatively correct, namely a superfluid phase for non-integer fillings and a Mott transition from a superfluid to an insulating phase for integer fillings, this theory gives results that are in good agreement with Monte Carlo simulations. In particular, the superfluid fraction obtained as a function of the interaction strength U for both integer and non-integer fillings is close to the simulation results. In all phases the excitation spectra are obtained by using the random phase approximation (RPA): the spectrum has a gap in the insulating phase and is gapless (and linear at small wave vectors) in the superfluid phase. Analytic results are presented in the limits of large U and small superfluid density. Finite-temperature phase diagrams and the Mott-insulator-normal-phase crossover are also described. (orig.)
Yang, Yuan; Yang, Jian; Li, Xiaobing; Zhao, Yue
2018-03-01
We investigate the topological phase transitions in an anisotropic square-octagon lattice in the presence of spin-orbit coupling and exchange field. On the basis of the Chern number and spin Chern number, we find a number of topologically distinct phases with tuning the exchange field, including time-reversal-symmetry-broken quantum spin Hall phases, quantum anomalous Hall phases and a topologically trivial phase. Particularly, we observe a coexistent state of both the quantum spin Hall effect and quantum anomalous Hall effect. Besides, by adjusting the exchange filed, we find the phase transition from time-reversal-symmetry-broken quantum spin Hall phase to spin-imbalanced and spin-polarized quantum anomalous Hall phases, providing an opportunity for quantum spin manipulation. The bulk band gap closes when topological phase transitions occur between different topological phases. Furthermore, the energy and spin spectra of the edge states corresponding to different topological phases are consistent with the topological characterization based on the Chern and spin Chern numbers.
Application of Phase-Field Techniques to Hydraulically- and Deformation-Induced Fracture.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Culp, David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Miller, Nathan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Schweizer, Laura [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
2017-08-01
Phase-field techniques provide an alternative approach to fracture problems which mitigate some of the computational expense associated with tracking the crack interface and the coalescence of individual fractures. The technique is extended to apply to hydraulically driven fracture such as would occur during fracking or CO_{2} sequestration. Additionally, the technique is applied to a stainless steel specimen used in the Sandia Fracture Challenge. It was found that the phase-field model performs very well, at least qualitatively, in both deformation-induced fracture and hydraulically-induced fracture, though spurious hourglassing modes were observed during coupled hydralically-induced fracture. Future work would include performing additional quantitative benchmark tests and updating the model as needed.
Quantum phase transition of the transverse-field quantum Ising model on scale-free networks.
Yi, Hangmo
2015-01-01
I investigate the quantum phase transition of the transverse-field quantum Ising model in which nearest neighbors are defined according to the connectivity of scale-free networks. Using a continuous-time quantum Monte Carlo simulation method and the finite-size scaling analysis, I identify the quantum critical point and study its scaling characteristics. For the degree exponent λ=6, I obtain results that are consistent with the mean-field theory. For λ=4.5 and 4, however, the results suggest that the quantum critical point belongs to a non-mean-field universality class. Further simulations indicate that the quantum critical point remains mean-field-like if λ>5, but it continuously deviates from the mean-field theory as λ becomes smaller.
Steinmetz, Philipp; Kellner, Michael; Hötzer, Johannes; Nestler, Britta
2018-02-01
For the analytical description of the relationship between undercoolings, lamellar spacings and growth velocities during the directional solidification of ternary eutectics in 2D and 3D, different extensions based on the theory of Jackson and Hunt are reported in the literature. Besides analytical approaches, the phase-field method has been established to study the spatially complex microstructure evolution during the solidification of eutectic alloys. The understanding of the fundamental mechanisms controlling the morphology development in multiphase, multicomponent systems is of high interest. For this purpose, a comparison is made between the analytical extensions and three-dimensional phase-field simulations of directional solidification in an ideal ternary eutectic system. Based on the observed accordance in two-dimensional validation cases, the experimentally reported, inherently three-dimensional chain-like pattern is investigated in extensive simulation studies. The results are quantitatively compared with the analytical results reported in the literature, and with a newly derived approach which uses equal undercoolings. A good accordance of the undercooling-spacing characteristics between simulations and the analytical Jackson-Hunt apporaches are found. The results show that the applied phase-field model, which is based on the Grand potential approach, is able to describe the analytically predicted relationship between the undercooling and the lamellar arrangements during the directional solidification of a ternary eutectic system in 3D.
String phase transitions in a strong magnetic field
Ferrara, Sergio; Ferrara, Sergio; Porrati, Massimo
1993-01-01
We consider open strings in an external constant magnetic field $H$. For an (infinite) sequence of critical values of $H$ an increasing number of (highest spin component) states lying on the first Regge trajectory becomes tachyonic. In the limit of infinite $H$ all these states are tachyons (with a common tachyonic mass) both in the case of the bosonic string and for the Neveu-Schwarz sector of the fermionic string. This result generalizes to extended object the same instability which occurs in ordinary non-Abelian gauge theories. The Ramond states have always positive square masses as is the case for ordinary QED. The weak field limit of the mass spectrum is the same as for a field theory with gyromagnetic ratio $g_S=2$ for all charged spin states. This behavior suggests a phase transition of the string as it has been argued for the ordinary electroweak theory.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, Zhiyang; Hinterstein, Manuel; Daniels, John E.; Webber, Kyle G.; Hudspeth, Jessica M.
2014-01-01
An electric-field-induced paraelectric cubic to ferroelectric tetragonal phase transformation has been directly observed in prototypical polycrystalline BaTiO 3 at temperatures above the Curie point (T C ) using in situ high-energy synchrotron X-ray diffraction. The transformation persisted to a maximum temperature of 4 °C above T C . The nature of the observed field-induced transformation and the resulting development of domain texture within the induced phase were dependent on the proximity to the transition temperature, corresponding well to previous macroscopic measurements. The transition electric field increased with increasing temperature above T C , while the magnitude of the resultant tetragonal domain texture at the maximum electric field (4 kV mm −1 ) decreased at higher temperatures. These results provide insights into the phase transformation behavior of a prototypical ferroelectric and have important implications for the development of future large-strain phase-change actuator materials.
Peco, C.; Rosolen, A.; Arroyo, M.
2013-01-01
We present a Lagrangian phase-field method to study the low Reynolds number dynamics of vesicles embedded in a viscous fluid. In contrast to previous approaches, where the field variables are the phase-field and the fluid velocity, here we exploit the fact that the phasefield tracks a material interface to reformulate the problem in terms of the Lagrangian motion of a background medium, containing both the biomembrane and the fluid. We discretize the equations in space with maximum-entr...
Full-Field Calibration of Color Camera Chromatic Aberration using Absolute Phase Maps.
Liu, Xiaohong; Huang, Shujun; Zhang, Zonghua; Gao, Feng; Jiang, Xiangqian
2017-05-06
The refractive index of a lens varies for different wavelengths of light, and thus the same incident light with different wavelengths has different outgoing light. This characteristic of lenses causes images captured by a color camera to display chromatic aberration (CA), which seriously reduces image quality. Based on an analysis of the distribution of CA, a full-field calibration method based on absolute phase maps is proposed in this paper. Red, green, and blue closed sinusoidal fringe patterns are generated, consecutively displayed on an LCD (liquid crystal display), and captured by a color camera from the front viewpoint. The phase information of each color fringe is obtained using a four-step phase-shifting algorithm and optimum fringe number selection method. CA causes the unwrapped phase of the three channels to differ. These pixel deviations can be computed by comparing the unwrapped phase data of the red, blue, and green channels in polar coordinates. CA calibration is accomplished in Cartesian coordinates. The systematic errors introduced by the LCD are analyzed and corrected. Simulated results show the validity of the proposed method and experimental results demonstrate that the proposed full-field calibration method based on absolute phase maps will be useful for practical software-based CA calibration.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhokhov, R.N.; Kolmakov, P. B.; Zhukovsky, V.Ch.; Klimenko, K.G.
2016-01-01
In the paper there have been studied Gross-Neveu model in (2+1)-dimensional space-time with one compactified dimension in presence of external magnetic field at finite temperature. Magnetic field is directed along the uncompactified dimension that is along the axis of the cylinder on which the system lives. Chiral symmetry breaking and corresponding phase structure of the model is investigated in the leading order of (1/N) expansion
Field induced ferromagnetic fraction enlargement in phase separated La_0.5Ca_0.5MnO_3
Ghivelder, Luis; Freitas, R. S.; Sacanel, J.; Parisi, F.; Levy, P.
2001-03-01
A systematic study of the magnetic and transport properties of a series of phase separated La_0.5Ca_0.5MnO3 compounds is reported. The investigated samples all have the same composition but different grain sizes, which modifies the volume fraction of the coexisting ferromagnetic (FM) and antiferromagnetic charge-ordered (AFM-CO) phases. Magnetoresistance and magnetization measurements were performed with two different experimental procedures: a standard field-cooled cooling (FC) mode, and a second method in which the field is turned on only while measuring each data point, and switched off while cooling the samples. Magnetization and magnetoresistance measurements display big differences when comparing the data obtained with the different procedures. The overall results are interpret in terms of a field induced FM fraction enlargement. In transport measurements this effect yield a percolative transition. Magnetization data shows evidence for the formation of AFM-CO regions within the FM phase. * e-mail: luisghiv@if.ufrj.br
Sharma, Shivani; Shahee, Aga; Yadav, Poonam; da Silva, Ivan; Lalla, N. P.
2017-11-01
Low-temperature high-magnetic field (2 K, 8 T) (LTHM) powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and time of flight powder neutron diffraction (NPD), low-temperature transmission electron microscopic (TEM), and resistivity and magnetization measurements have been carried out to investigate the re-entrant charge ordering (CO), field induced structural phase transitions, and metastability in phase-separated La0.175Pr0.45Ca0.375MnO3-δ (LPCMO). Low-temperature TEM and XRD studies reveal that on cooling under zero-field, paramagnetic Pnma phase transforms to P21/m CO antiferromagnetic (AFM) insulating phase below ˜233 K. Unlike reported literature, no structural signature of CO AFM P21/m to ferromagnetic (FM) Pnma phase-transition during cooling down to 2 K under zero-field was observed. However, the CO phase was found to undergo a re-entrant transition at ˜40 K. Neutron diffraction studies revealed a pseudo CE type spin arrangement of the observed CO phase. The low-temperature resistance, while cooled under zero-field, shows insulator to metal like transition below ˜105 K with minima at ˜25 K. On application of field, the CO P21/m phase was found to undergo field-induced transition to FM Pnma phase, which shows irreversibility on field removal below ˜40 K. Zero-field warming XRD and NPD studies reveal that field-induced FM Pnma phase is a metastable phase, which arise due to the arrest of kinetics of the first-order phase transition of FM Pnma to CO-AFM P21/m phase, below 40 K. Thus, a strong magneto-structural coupling is observed for this system. A field-temperature (H-T) phase-diagram has been constructed based on the LTHM-XRD, which matches very nicely with the reported H-T phase-diagram constructed based on magnetic measurements. Due to the occurrence of gradual growth of the re-entrant CO phase and the absence of a clear structural signature of phase-separation of CO-AFM P21/m and FM Pnma phases, the H-T minima in the phase-diagram of the present LPCMO sample has been
Leahy, Ian; Bornstein, Alex; Choi, Kwang-Yong; Lee, Minhyea
α -RuCl3, a quasi -two-dimensional honeycomb lattice is known to be a candidate material to realize the Heisenberg-Kitaev spin model of a highly anisotropic bond-dependent exchange interaction. We investigate in-plane thermal conductivity (κ) as a function of temperature (T) and in-plane applied field (H). At H = 0 , the onset of a strong increase in κ marks the spontaneous long range ordering temperature, Tc = 6 . 5 K , corresponding to ``zigzag'' antiferromagnetic ordering. A broad peak appearing below Tc in κ was found to be suppressed significantly as H increases up to ~ 7 T , implying the system undergoes a field-induced transition from ordered to a new spin-disordered state analogous to the transverse-field Ising model. Further increasing H above 7 . 1 T , the large field seems to begin polarizing spins thus increasing the phonon mean free path, resulting in a significant rise in κ. This tendency is clearly shown in the field dependence of κ below Tc, which has a pronounced minimum at Hmin = 7 . 1 T . We will discuss our scaling analysis to characterize this field-induced phase transition and compare to the transverse-field Ising spin system. Work at the University of Colorado was supported by the US DOE Basic Energy Sciences under Award No. DE-SC0006888.
Herschel-ATLAS : Planck sources in the phase 1 fields
Herranz, D.; González-Nuevo, J.; Clements, D.; De, Zotti G.; Lopez-Caniego, M.; Lapi, A.; Rodighiero, G.; Danese, L.; Fu, H.; Cooray, A.; Baes, M.; Bendo, G.; Bonavera, L.; Carrera, F.; Dole, H.; Eales, S.; Ivison, R.; Jarvis, M.; Lagache, G.; Massardi, M.; Michalowski, M.; Negrello, M.; Rigby, E.E.; Scott, D.; Valiante, E.; Valtchanov, I.; Werf, van der P.P.; Auld, R.; Buttiglione, S.; Dariush, A.; Dunne, L.; Hopwood, R.; Hoyos, C.; Ibar, E.; Maddox, S.
2013-01-01
We present the results of a cross-correlation of the Planck Early Release Compact Source catalogue (ERCSC) with the catalogue of Herschel-ATLAS sources detected in the phase 1 fields, covering 134.55{deg}$^{2}$. There are 28 ERCSC sources detected by Planck at 857 GHz in this area. As many as 16 of
Dynamic of Ising model with transverse field for two coupled sublattices in disordered phase
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sa Motta, C.E.H. de.
1984-02-01
The dynamics of the two coupled sublattices tridimensional Ising model in a transverse field was studied by means of a continued fraction expansion for coupled operators. The static Correlation Functions necessary for studying the dynamics were calculated with the Green's Functions Method in the Random Phase Approximation (RPA). The spectral function was calculated in the region T c → . (Author) [pt
A Cosserat crystal plasticity and phase field theory for grain boundary migration
Ask, Anna; Forest, Samuel; Appolaire, Benoit; Ammar, Kais; Salman, Oguz Umut
2018-06-01
The microstructure evolution due to thermomechanical treatment of metals can largely be described by viscoplastic deformation, nucleation and grain growth. These processes take place over different length and time scales which present significant challenges when formulating simulation models. In particular, no overall unified field framework exists to model concurrent viscoplastic deformation and recrystallization and grain growth in metal polycrystals. In this work a thermodynamically consistent diffuse interface framework incorporating crystal viscoplasticity and grain boundary migration is elaborated. The Kobayashi-Warren-Carter (KWC) phase field model is extended to incorporate the full mechanical coupling with material and lattice rotations and evolution of dislocation densities. The Cosserat crystal plasticity theory is shown to be the appropriate framework to formulate the coupling between phase field and mechanics with proper distinction between bulk and grain boundary behaviour.
Phase-field simulation of microstructure evolution in Ni-based superalloys
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tsukada, Yuhki; Murata, Yoshinori; Morinaga, Masahiko [Nagoya Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Materials, Physics and Energy Engineering; Koyama, Toshiyuki [National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)
2010-07-01
The morphological evolution of the ({gamma} + {gamma}') microstructure in Ni-based superalloys is investigated by a series of phase-field simulations. In the simulation for simple aging heat treatment, the effect of elastic constant inhomogeneity between the {gamma} and {gamma}' phases is investigated. The elastic anisotropy or the shear modulus is changed independently in the simulation. The variation of the anisotropy affects the morphology, particle size distribution and coarsening kinetics of the {gamma}' phase, whereas the variation of the shear modulus does not affect them. In the simulation for high temperature creep, formation and collapse of the rafted structure are reproduced under the assumption that the creep strain in the {gamma} matrix increases with creep time. This morphological evolution is related to the change in the energetically stable morphology of the {gamma}' phase with increasing the creep strain. (orig.)
A phase field model for segregation and precipitation induced by irradiation in alloys
Badillo, A.; Bellon, P.; Averback, R. S.
2015-04-01
A phase field model is introduced to model the evolution of multicomponent alloys under irradiation, including radiation-induced segregation and precipitation. The thermodynamic and kinetic components of this model are derived using a mean-field model. The mobility coefficient and the contribution of chemical heterogeneity to free energy are rescaled by the cell size used in the phase field model, yielding microstructural evolutions that are independent of the cell size. A new treatment is proposed for point defect clusters, using a mixed discrete-continuous approach to capture the stochastic character of defect cluster production in displacement cascades, while retaining the efficient modeling of the fate of these clusters using diffusion equations. The model is tested on unary and binary alloy systems using two-dimensional simulations. In a unary system, the evolution of point defects under irradiation is studied in the presence of defect clusters, either pre-existing ones or those created by irradiation, and compared with rate theory calculations. Binary alloys with zero and positive heats of mixing are then studied to investigate the effect of point defect clustering on radiation-induced segregation and precipitation in undersaturated solid solutions. Lastly, irradiation conditions and alloy parameters leading to irradiation-induced homogeneous precipitation are investigated. The results are discussed in the context of experimental results reported for Ni-Si and Al-Zn undersaturated solid solutions subjected to irradiation.
A phase field model for segregation and precipitation induced by irradiation in alloys
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Badillo, A; Bellon, P; Averback, R S
2015-01-01
A phase field model is introduced to model the evolution of multicomponent alloys under irradiation, including radiation-induced segregation and precipitation. The thermodynamic and kinetic components of this model are derived using a mean-field model. The mobility coefficient and the contribution of chemical heterogeneity to free energy are rescaled by the cell size used in the phase field model, yielding microstructural evolutions that are independent of the cell size. A new treatment is proposed for point defect clusters, using a mixed discrete-continuous approach to capture the stochastic character of defect cluster production in displacement cascades, while retaining the efficient modeling of the fate of these clusters using diffusion equations. The model is tested on unary and binary alloy systems using two-dimensional simulations. In a unary system, the evolution of point defects under irradiation is studied in the presence of defect clusters, either pre-existing ones or those created by irradiation, and compared with rate theory calculations. Binary alloys with zero and positive heats of mixing are then studied to investigate the effect of point defect clustering on radiation-induced segregation and precipitation in undersaturated solid solutions. Lastly, irradiation conditions and alloy parameters leading to irradiation-induced homogeneous precipitation are investigated. The results are discussed in the context of experimental results reported for Ni–Si and Al–Zn undersaturated solid solutions subjected to irradiation. (paper)
Magnetic Fields at First Order Phase Transition: A Threat to Electroweak Baryogenesis
De Simone, Andrea; Quiros, Mariano; Riotto, Antonio
2011-01-01
The generation of the observed baryon asymmetry may have taken place during the electroweak phase transition, thus involving physics testable at LHC, a scenario dubbed electroweak baryogenesis. In this paper we point out that the magnetic field which is produced in the bubbles of a first order phase transition endangers the baryon asymmetry produced in the bubble walls. The reason being that the produced magnetic field couples to the sphaleron magnetic moment and lowers the sphaleron energy; this strengthens the sphaleron transitions inside the bubbles and triggers a more effective wash out of the baryon asymmetry. We apply this scenario to the Minimal Supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model (MSSM) where, in the absence of a magnetic field, successful electroweak baryogenesis requires the lightest CP-even Higgs and the right-handed stop masses to be lighter than about 127 GeV and 120 GeV, respectively. We show that even for moderate values of the magnetic field, the Higgs mass required to preserve the ...
2D phase field modeling of sintering of silver nanoparticles
Chockalingam, K.; Kouznetsova, V.; van der Sluis, O.; Geers, M.G.D.
2016-01-01
The sintering mechanism of silver nanoparticles is modelled by incorporating surface, volume and grain boundary diffusion in a phase field model. A direction-dependent tensorial mobility formulation is adopted, capturing the fact that diffusion mainly occurs along the directions tangential to the
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gorthi, Sai Siva; Rastogi, Pramod
2009-01-01
A noisy wrapped phase map is the end-output of commonly employed phase estimation methods in digital holographic interferometry. Hence filtering and unwrapping are necessary to obtain continuous phase distributions. This paper introduces a new approach for phase estimation in digital holographic interferometry using the polynomial phase transform. The proposed approach directly provides an accurate estimation of the unwrapped phase distribution from a noisy reconstructed interference field, thereby bypassing cumbersome and error-prone filtering and 2D phase unwrapping procedures
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gammelmark, Søren; Mølmer, Klaus
2011-01-01
We investigate the thermodynamics of a combined Dicke and Ising model that exhibits a rich phenomenology arising from the second-order and quantum phase transitions from the respective models. The partition function is calculated using mean-field theory, and the free energy is analyzed in detail...... to determine the complete phase diagram of the system. The analysis reveals both first- and second-order Dicke phase transitions into a super-radiant state, and the cavity mean field in this regime acts as an effective magnetic field, which restricts the Ising chain dynamics to parameter ranges away from...... the Ising phase transition. Physical systems with first-order phase transitions are natural candidates for metrology and calibration purposes, and we apply filter theory to show that the sensitivity of the physical system to temperature and external fields reaches the 1/N Heisenberg limit....
Effect of grain size on void swelling in irradiated materials: A phase-field approach
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chang, Kunok; Lee, Gyeonggeun; Kwon, Junhyun
2014-01-01
The progress of swelling is retarded as the average grain diameter increases in a pure copper case. Within the framework of the production bias model (PBM), their experimental results were quantitatively explained. The phase-field method has already been used to investigate the void/bubble behavior in the irradiated materials. In particular, Millett et al. already incorporated the interaction between the point defect and the grain boundary in their study. Therefore, they described the void denuded zones and void peaked zones adjacent to the grain boundaries, which are already observed in the experimental investigations. We performed the phase-field simulation in order to verify the role of the grain diameter on the void swelling in the cascade damage condition. In addition, our results will be compared with the experimental observations or the theoretical works, such as PBM. Two-dimensional phase-field simulations were performed to investigate the void swelling process in the irradiated materials. We clearly observed the void denuded and void peaked zones, which were already observed in formal experimental and computational approaches. We also found that the progress of swelling was retarded as the average grain diameter increased. The triple junctions, which are believed to be a critical factor t affecting the fracture, are the main cites for the void nucleation and growth in our simulations
Lan, Xi; Gao, Jintao; Huang, Zili; Guo, Zhancheng
2018-06-01
A novel approach for quickly separating a metal copper phase and iron-rich phase from copper slag at low temperature is proposed based on a super-gravity method. The morphology and mineral evolution of the copper slag with increasing temperature were studied using in situ high-temperature confocal laser scanning microscopy and ex situ scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction methods. Fe3O4 particles dispersed among the copper slag were transformed into FeO by adding an appropriate amount of carbon as a reducing agent, forming the slag melt with SiO2 at low temperature and assisting separation of the copper phase from the slag. Consequently, in a super-gravity field, the metallic copper and copper matte were concentrated as the copper phase along the super-gravity direction, whereas the iron-rich slag migrated in the opposite direction and was quickly separated from the copper phase. Increasing the gravity coefficient (G) significantly enhanced the separation efficiency. After super-gravity separation at G = 1000 and 1473 K (1200 °C) for 3 minutes, the mass fraction of Cu in the separated copper phase reached 86.11 wt pct, while that in the separated iron-rich phase was reduced to 0.105 wt pct. The recovery ratio of Cu in the copper phase was as high as up to 97.47 pct.
Hubbard interaction in the arbitrary Chern number insulator: A mean-field study
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wang, Yi-Xiang, E-mail: wangyixiang@jiangnan.edu.cn [School of Science, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122 (China); Cao, Jie [College of Science, Hohai University, Nanjing 210098 (China)
2017-05-10
The low-dimensional electron gas owing topological property has attracted many interests recently. In this work, we study the influence of the electron-electron interaction on the arbitrary Chern number insulator. Using the mean-field method, we approximately solve the Hubbard model in the half-filling case and obtain the phase diagrams in different parametric spaces. We further verify the results by calculating the entanglement spectrum, which contains C chiral modes and corresponds to a real space partitioning. - Highlights: • In this work, we made a mean-field study of the Hubbard interaction in the arbitrary Chern number insulator. • We point out that how the Zeeman splitting, the local magnetization and the Hubbard interaction are intimately related. • The mean-field phase diagrams are obtained in different parametric spaces. • The Chern number phase is demonstrated by calculating the entanglement spectrum.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lv Yong-Gang; Ji Zi-Heng; Dong Da-Shan; Gong Qi-Huang; Shi Ke-Bin
2015-01-01
We propose and implement a wide-field vibrational phase contrast detection to obtain imaging of imaginary components of third-order nonlinear susceptibility in a coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscope with full suppression of the non-resonant background. This technique is based on the unique ability of recovering the phase of the generated CARS signal based on holographic recording. By capturing the phase distributions of the generated CARS field from the sample and from the environment under resonant illumination, we demonstrate the retrieval of imaginary components in the CARS microscope and achieve background free coherent Raman imaging. (paper)
Basak, Anup; Levitas, Valery I.
2018-04-01
A thermodynamically consistent, novel multiphase phase field approach for stress- and temperature-induced martensitic phase transformations at finite strains and with interfacial stresses has been developed. The model considers a single order parameter to describe the austenite↔martensitic transformations, and another N order parameters describing N variants and constrained to a plane in an N-dimensional order parameter space. In the free energy model coexistence of three or more phases at a single material point (multiphase junction), and deviation of each variant-variant transformation path from a straight line have been penalized. Some shortcomings of the existing models are resolved. Three different kinematic models (KMs) for the transformation deformation gradient tensors are assumed: (i) In KM-I the transformation deformation gradient tensor is a linear function of the Bain tensors for the variants. (ii) In KM-II the natural logarithms of the transformation deformation gradient is taken as a linear combination of the natural logarithm of the Bain tensors multiplied with the interpolation functions. (iii) In KM-III it is derived using the twinning equation from the crystallographic theory. The instability criteria for all the phase transformations have been derived for all the kinematic models, and their comparative study is presented. A large strain finite element procedure has been developed and used for studying the evolution of some complex microstructures in nanoscale samples under various loading conditions. Also, the stresses within variant-variant boundaries, the sample size effect, effect of penalizing the triple junctions, and twinned microstructures have been studied. The present approach can be extended for studying grain growth, solidifications, para↔ferro electric transformations, and diffusive phase transformations.
Sookhak Lari, Kaveh; Johnston, Colin D; Rayner, John L; Davis, Greg B
2018-03-05
Remediation of subsurface systems, including groundwater, soil and soil gas, contaminated with light non-aqueous phase liquids (LNAPLs) is challenging. Field-scale pilot trials of multi-phase remediation were undertaken at a site to determine the effectiveness of recovery options. Sequential LNAPL skimming and vacuum-enhanced skimming, with and without water table drawdown were trialled over 78days; in total extracting over 5m 3 of LNAPL. For the first time, a multi-component simulation framework (including the multi-phase multi-component code TMVOC-MP and processing codes) was developed and applied to simulate the broad range of multi-phase remediation and recovery methods used in the field trials. This framework was validated against the sequential pilot trials by comparing predicted and measured LNAPL mass removal rates and compositional changes. The framework was tested on both a Cray supercomputer and a cluster. Simulations mimicked trends in LNAPL recovery rates (from 0.14 to 3mL/s) across all remediation techniques each operating over periods of 4-14days over the 78day trial. The code also approximated order of magnitude compositional changes of hazardous chemical concentrations in extracted gas during vacuum-enhanced recovery. The verified framework enables longer term prediction of the effectiveness of remediation approaches allowing better determination of remediation endpoints and long-term risks. Copyright © 2017 Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Phase-Field Modeling of Polycrystalline Solidification: From Needle Crystals to Spherulites—A Review
Gránásy, László; Rátkai, László; Szállás, Attila; Korbuly, Bálint; Tóth, Gyula I.; Környei, László; Pusztai, Tamás
2014-04-01
Advances in the orientation-field-based phase-field (PF) models made in the past are reviewed. The models applied incorporate homogeneous and heterogeneous nucleation of growth centers and several mechanisms to form new grains at the perimeter of growing crystals, a phenomenon termed growth front nucleation. Examples for PF modeling of such complex polycrystalline structures are shown as impinging symmetric dendrites, polycrystalline growth forms (ranging from disordered dendrites to spherulitic patterns), and various eutectic structures, including spiraling two-phase dendrites. Simulations exploring possible control of solidification patterns in thin films via external fields, confined geometry, particle additives, scratching/piercing the films, etc. are also displayed. Advantages, problems, and possible solutions associated with quantitative PF simulations are discussed briefly.
Enhanced deterministic phase retrieval using a partially developed speckle field
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Almoro, Percival F.; Waller, Laura; Agour, Mostafa
2012-01-01
A technique for enhanced deterministic phase retrieval using a partially developed speckle field (PDSF) and a spatial light modulator (SLM) is demonstrated experimentally. A smooth test wavefront impinges on a phase diffuser, forming a PDSF that is directed to a 4f setup. Two defocused speckle...... intensity measurements are recorded at the output plane corresponding to axially-propagated representations of the PDSF in the input plane. The speckle intensity measurements are then used in a conventional transport of intensity equation (TIE) to reconstruct directly the test wavefront. The PDSF in our...
Quantum phases for a charged particle and electric/magnetic dipole in an electromagnetic field
Kholmetskii, Alexander; Yarman, Tolga
2017-11-01
We point out that the known quantum phases for an electric/magnetic dipole moving in an electromagnetic field must be composed from more fundamental quantum phases emerging for moving elementary charges. Using this idea, we have found two new fundamental quantum phases, next to the known magnetic and electric Aharonov-Bohm phases, and discuss their general properties and physical meaning.
Use of field ripple for burn phase control in short-pulse tokamak reactors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Davidson, J.N.; Stacey, W.M. Jr.
1979-05-01
The possible use of toroidal field ripple to control temperature excursions was investigated. In particular, the magnitude of the power savings necessary to control the ion temperature for about 120 seconds during the burn phase of an ETF tokamak was determined through the use of a global dynamics code. Then the amount of field ripple necessary to effect that control was calculated for each case. In the next section the basic properties of the simulation code are given and the various plasma cases investigated are described in some detail. There follows a discussion of the field ripple control mechanisms and their application to the problem at hand. Finally, the results of the study are presented along with the conclusions drawn from them
Martínez-Veracoechea, Francisco J.
2009-03-10
A combination of particle-based simulations and self-consistent field theory (SCFT) is used to study the stabilization of multiple ordered bicontinuous phases in blends of a diblock copolymer (DBC) and a homopolymer. The double-diamond phase (DD) and plumber\\'s nightmare phase (P) were spontaneously formed in the range of homopolymer volume fraction simulated via coarse-grained molecular dynamics. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that such phases have been obtained in continuum-space molecular simulations of DBC systems. Though tentative phase boundaries were delineated via free-energy calculations, macrophase separation could not be satisfactorily assessed within the framework of particle-based simulations. Therefore, SCFT was used to explore the DBC/homopolymer phase diagram in more detail, showing that although in many cases two-phase coexistence of a DBC-rich phase and a homopolymer-rich phase does precede the stability of complex bicontinuous phases the DD phase can be stable in a relatively wide region of the phase diagram. Whereas the P phase was always metastable with respect to macrophase separation under the thermodynamic conditions explored with SCFT, it was sometimes nearly stable, suggesting that full stability could be achieved in other unexplored regions of parameter space. Moreover, even the predicted DD- and P-phase metastability regions were located significantly far from the spinodal line, suggesting that these phases could be observed in experiments as "long-lived" metastable phases under those conditions. This conjecture is also consistent with large-system molecular dynamics simulations that showed that the time scale of mesophase formation is much faster than that of macrophase separation. © 2009 American Chemical Society.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Daniel J Franzbach
2014-02-01
Full Text Available The strain- and polarization-electric field behavior was characterized at room temperature for Pb0.98Ba0.01(Zr1−xTix0.98Nb0.02O3, 0.40 ≤ x ≤ 0.60. The investigated compositions were located in the vicinity of the morphotropic phase boundary, giving insight into the influence of crystal structure on the hysteretic ferroelectric behavior. The remanent strain of particular compositions is shown to be larger than theoretically allowed by ferroelectric switching alone, indicating the presence of additional remanent strain mechanisms. A phenomenological free energy analysis was used to simulate the effect of an applied electric field on the initial equilibrium phase. It is shown that electric-field-induced phase transitions in polycrystalline ferroelectrics can account for the experimental observations. The experimental and simulation results are contrasted to neutron diffraction measurements performed on representative compositions in the virgin and remanent states.
Phase conjugation with random fields and with deterministic and random scatterers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gbur, G.; Wolf, E.
1999-01-01
The theory of distortion correction by phase conjugation, developed since the discovery of this phenomenon many years ago, applies to situations when the field that is conjugated is monochromatic and the medium with which it interacts is deterministic. In this Letter a generalization of the theory is presented that applies to phase conjugation of partially coherent waves interacting with either deterministic or random weakly scattering nonabsorbing media. copyright 1999 Optical Society of America
Transportable and vibration-free full-field low-coherent quantitative phase microscope
Yamauchi, Toyohiko; Yamada, Hidenao; Goto, Kentaro; Matsui, Hisayuki; Yasuhiko, Osamu; Ueda, Yukio
2018-02-01
We developed a transportable Linnik-type full-field low-coherent quantitative phase microscope that is able to compensate for optical path length (OPL) disturbance due to environmental mechanical noises. Though two-beam interferometers such as Linnik ones suffer from unstable OPL difference, we overcame this problem with a mechanical feedback system based on digital signal-processing that controls the OPL difference in sub-nanometer resolution precisely with a feedback bandwidth of 4 kHz. The developed setup has a footprint of 200 mm by 200 mm, a height of 500 mm, and a weight of 4.5 kilograms. In the transmission imaging mode, cells were cultured on a reflection-enhanced glass-bottom dish, and we obtained interference images sequentially while performing stepwise quarter-wavelength phase-shifting. Real-time image processing, including retrieval of the unwrapped phase from interference images and its background correction, along with the acquisition of interference images, was performed on a laptop computer. Emulation of the phase contrast (PhC) images and the differential interference contrast (DIC) images was also performed in real time. Moreover, our setup was applied for full-field cell membrane imaging in the reflection mode, where the cells were cultured on an anti-reflection (AR)-coated glass-bottom dish. The phase and intensity of the light reflected by the membrane revealed the outer shape of the cells independent of the refractive index. In this paper, we show imaging results on cultured cells in both transmission and reflection modes.
Near-field ptychography: phase retrieval for inline holography using a structured illumination.
Stockmar, Marco; Cloetens, Peter; Zanette, Irene; Enders, Bjoern; Dierolf, Martin; Pfeiffer, Franz; Thibault, Pierre
2013-01-01
Inline holography is a common phase-contrast imaging method which uses free-space propagation to encode the phase signal into measured intensities. However, quantitative retrieval of the sample's image remains challenging, imposing constraints on the nature of the sample or on the propagation distance. Here, we present a way of simultaneously retrieving the sample's complex-valued transmission function and the incident illumination function from near-field diffraction patterns. The procedure relies on the measurement diversity created by lateral translations of the sample with respect to a structured illumination. The reconstruction approach, in essence identical to that employed in ptychography, is applied to hard X-ray synchrotron measurements and to simulations. Compared to other inline holography techniques, we expect near-field ptychography to reduce reconstruction artefacts by factoring out wavefront imperfections and relaxing constraints on the sample's scattering properties, thus ultimately improving the robustness of propagation-based X-ray phase tomography.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guo, Xiaoyong; Ren, Xiaobin; Wang, Gangzhi; Peng, Jie
2014-01-01
We investigate the impact of a time-reversal invariant external field on the topological phases of a three-dimensional (3D) topological insulator. By taking the momentum k z as a parameter, we calculate the spin-Chern number analytically. It is shown that both the quantum spin Hall phase and the integer quantum Hall phase can be realized in our system. When the strength of the external field is varied, a series of topological phase transitions occurs with the closing of the energy gap or the spin-spectrum gap. In a tight-binding form, the surface modes are discussed numerically to confirm the analytically results. (paper)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Demange, Gilles
2015-01-01
It is of dramatic matter for industry to be able to predict the evolution of material microstructure under working conditions. This requires a clear understanding of the underlying mechanisms, which act on numerous space and time scales. Because it intrinsically performs a scale jump, we chose to use a phase field approach, which is widely used amidst the condensed matter community to study the aging of materials. The first challenge of this work was to extend this formalism beyond its thermodynamic scope and embrace the case of far from equilibrium systems when subjected to irradiation. For that purpose, we adopted the model of ion mixing, developed by Gras Marti to account for ballistic exchanges within a displacements cascade. Based on a numerical scheme and analytical method, we were able to describe the generic microstructure signature for materials under irradiation.We then applied this formalism to the particular case of the immiscible binary alloy AgCu.With the joined use of the phase field approach and atomistic methods, we managed to predict how the temperature and the irradiation flux tailor the main microstructure features such as the size, the concentration and the distribution of copper precipitates. This eventually allowed us to simulate a diffraction pattern in grazing incidence, which is directly comparable to experimental ones. (author) [fr
Zero energy gauge fields and the phases of a gauge theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guendelman, E.I.
1990-01-01
A new approach to the definition of the phases of a Poincare invariant gauge theory is developed. It is based on the role of gauge transformations that change the asymptotic value of the gauge fields from zero to a constant. In the context of theories without Higgs fields, this symmetry can be spontaneously broken when the gauge fields are massless particles, explicitly broken when the gauge fields develop a mass. Finally, the vacuum can be invariant under this transformation, this last case can be achieved when the theory has a violent infrared behavior, which in some theories can be connected to a confinement mechanism
Effect of a spiral phase on a vector optical field with hybrid polarization states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen, Rui-Pin; Zhao, Tingyu; Zhong, Li-Xin; Chew, Khian-Hooi; Gu, Bing; Zhou, Guoquan
2015-01-01
The propagation dynamics of a vector field with inhomogeneous states of polarization (SoP) imposed a vortex is studied using the angular spectrum method. The evolution of SoP in the cross section of the field during propagation is analyzed numerically by the Stokes polarization parameters. The results indicate that SoP in the field cross section rotate along the propagation axis during propagation due to the existence of a vortex. In addition, the interaction between the phase singularity and the polarization singularity leads to the creation or annihilation of the optical field in the central region. In particular, the distributions of the transverse energy flow and both spin and orbital optical angular momentum fluxes in the cross section of the vortex vector optical field depend sensitively on both the vortex and polarization topology charges. (paper)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ru-wei Geng
2017-11-01
Full Text Available The mechanical properties of metal components are determined by the solidification behaviour and microstructure. A quantitative phase field model is used to investigate the microstructure evolution of fused-coating additive manufacturing, by which to improve the quality of deposition. During the fused-coating process, the molten metal in a crucible flows out of a nozzle and then reaches the substrate. The solidification happens at the moment when the molten metal comes into contact with substrate moving in three-dimensional space. The macroscopic heat transfer model of fused-coating is established to get the temperature field considered as the initial temperature boundary conditions in the phase field model. The numerical and experimental results show that the morphology of grains varies with different solidification environments. Columnar grains are observed during the early period at the bottom of fused-coating layer and the equiaxed grains appear subsequently ahead of the columnar grains. Columnar dendrites phase field simulations about the grains morphology and solute distribution are conducted considering the solidification environments. The simulation results are in good agreement with experimental results.
Wu, Tao; Li, Hua
2017-08-09
In this study, a model was multiphysically developed for the simulation of the phase transition of physical hydrogels between liquid solution and solid gel states, subject to an electro-chemo-mechanically coupled field, with the effect of the mobile ionic species in the solution. The present model consists of the governing equations for the equilibrium of forces and the conservation of mass, Maxwell's equations, and an evolution equation for the interface. Based on the second law of thermodynamics, the constitutive equations are formulated from the energy viewpoint, including a novel formulation of free energy with the effect of crosslink density. The present model may be reduced to Suo's non-equilibrium thermodynamic theory if the interface is ignored when only a single phase exists. It may also be reduced to Dolbow's model for gel-gel phase transition when the electric field is ignored. Therefore, the present model becomes more generalized since it is able to represent both the bulk phase and the interface behaviors, and the mechanical field is simultaneously coupled with both the electric and chemical fields. In the first case study, the system at equilibrium state was numerically investigated for analysis of the influences of the electrical and chemical potentials as well as the mechanical pressure externally imposed on the boundary of the system domain. The second case study presents a spherically symmetrical solution-gel phase transition at non-equilibrium states, with the emphasis on the evolution of both the interface and electrochemical potentials.
Phase field simulations of ice crystal growth in sugar solutions
Sman, Van Der R.G.M.
2016-01-01
We present the first model ever, that describes explicitly ice crystal growth in a sugar solution during freezing. This 2-D model uses the phase field method, supplemented with realistic, and predictive theories on the thermodynamics and (diffusion) kinetics of this food system. We have to make
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kinoshita, Takehiro; Fujiyama, Shinya; Idogaki, Toshihiro; Tokita, Masahiko
2009-01-01
The non-equilibrium phase transition in a ferromagnetic Ising model is investigated by use of a new type of effective field theory (EFT) which correctly accounts for all the single-site kinematic relations by differential operator technique. In the presence of a time dependent oscillating external field, with decrease of the temperature the system undergoes a dynamic phase transition, which is characterized by the period averaged magnetization Q, from a dynamically disordered state Q = 0 to the dynamically ordered state Q ≠ 0. The results of the dynamic phase transition point T c determined from the behavior of the dynamic magnetization and the Liapunov exponent provided by EFT are improved than that of the standard mean field theory (MFT), especially for the one dimensional lattice where the standard MFT gives incorrect result of T c = 0 even in the case of zero external field.
Picosecond Electric-Field-Induced Threshold Switching in Phase-Change Materials.
Zalden, Peter; Shu, Michael J; Chen, Frank; Wu, Xiaoxi; Zhu, Yi; Wen, Haidan; Johnston, Scott; Shen, Zhi-Xun; Landreman, Patrick; Brongersma, Mark; Fong, Scott W; Wong, H-S Philip; Sher, Meng-Ju; Jost, Peter; Kaes, Matthias; Salinga, Martin; von Hoegen, Alexander; Wuttig, Matthias; Lindenberg, Aaron M
2016-08-05
Many chalcogenide glasses undergo a breakdown in electronic resistance above a critical field strength. Known as threshold switching, this mechanism enables field-induced crystallization in emerging phase-change memory. Purely electronic as well as crystal nucleation assisted models have been employed to explain the electronic breakdown. Here, picosecond electric pulses are used to excite amorphous Ag_{4}In_{3}Sb_{67}Te_{26}. Field-dependent reversible changes in conductivity and pulse-driven crystallization are observed. The present results show that threshold switching can take place within the electric pulse on subpicosecond time scales-faster than crystals can nucleate. This supports purely electronic models of threshold switching and reveals potential applications as an ultrafast electronic switch.
Phase-field crystal simulation facet and branch crystal growth
Chen, Zhi; Wang, Zhaoyang; Gu, Xinrui; Chen, Yufei; Hao, Limei; de Wit, Jos; Jin, Kexin
2018-05-01
Phase-field crystal model with one mode is introduced to describe morphological transition. The relationship between growth morphology and smooth density distribution was investigated. The results indicate that the pattern selection of dendrite growth is caused by the competition between interface energy anisotropy and interface kinetic anisotropy based on the 2D phase diagram. When the calculation time increases, the crystal grows to secondary dendrite at the dimensionless undercooling equal to - 0.4. Moreover, when noise is introduced in the growth progress, the symmetry is broken in the growth mode, and there becomes irregular fractal-like growth morphology. Furthermore, the single crystal shape develops into polycrystalline when the noise amplitude is large enough. When the dimensionless undercooling is less than - 0.3, the noise has a significant effect on the growth shape. In addition, the growth velocity of crystal near to liquid phase line is slow, while the shape far away from the liquid adapts to fast growth. Based on the simulation results, the method was proved to be effective, and it can easily obtain different crystal shapes by choosing the different points in 2D phase diagram.
On the phase velocity of plasma waves in a self-modulated laser wake-field accelerator
Andreev, N. E.; Kirsanov, V. I.; Sakharov, A. S.; van Amersfoort, P. W.; Goloviznin, V. V.
1996-01-01
The properties of the wake field excited by a flattop laser pulse with a sharp leading edge and a power below the critical one for relativistic self-focusing are studied analytically and numerically with emphasis on the phase velocity of the plasma wave. The paraxial model describing modulation of
Equivariant topological quantum field theory and symmetry protected topological phases
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kapustin, Anton [Division of Physics, California Institute of Technology,1200 E California Blvd, Pasadena, CA, 91125 (United States); Turzillo, Alex [Simons Center for Geometry and Physics, State University of New York,Stony Brook, NY, 11794 (United States)
2017-03-01
Short-Range Entangled topological phases of matter are closely related to Topological Quantum Field Theory. We use this connection to classify Symmetry Protected Topological phases in low dimensions, including the case when the symmetry involves time-reversal. To accomplish this, we generalize Turaev’s description of equivariant TQFT to the unoriented case. We show that invertible unoriented equivariant TQFTs in one or fewer spatial dimensions are classified by twisted group cohomology, in agreement with the proposal of Chen, Gu, Liu and Wen. We also show that invertible oriented equivariant TQFTs in spatial dimension two or fewer are classified by ordinary group cohomology.
Thermodynamic study of the A-B phase transition in superfluid 3He: Phase diagram and consequences
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hahn, I.
1993-01-01
The authors have measured the A-B phase transition temperature of superfluid 3 He at pressures from zero to 29 bars, and in all magnetic fields up to the high field limit of the B phase (0.59 Tesla). This work is the first precision measurement of the A-B phase transition over the entire phase diagram (P, T, B). Measurements at low magnetic fields can be related to microscopic interactions in liquid 3 He. The results show that all current microscopic models of normal liquid 3 He are incomplete. Also, the results suggest the possibility that the conventional identification of the order parameter of superfluid 3 He-A is incorrect. The measurements at high magnetic fields can be related through thermodynamic identities to quantities which are immeasurable directly, such as the molar volume changes at the A-B phase transition, and the specific heat of the A-phase of superfluid 3 He in the limit T → 0. The authors detect the phase transition by monitoring the attenuation of zero around traversing a 4-mm path in the superfluid. Because thermometry is so crucial to the success of the measurements, the authors elected to use two independent thermometers. The authors use a pulsed NMR measurement of the susceptibility of Pt nuclei, which varies as 1/T, to guarantee linearity of the temperature scale. In order to achieve the high resolution required by the experiment, the authors also use an LCMN thermometer driven by a unique digital bridge which the authors constructed
Marston, Philip L; Zhang, Likun
2017-05-01
When investigating the radiation forces on spheres in complicated wave-fields, the interpretation of analytical results can be simplified by retaining the s-function notation and associated phase shifts imported into acoustics from quantum scattering theory. For situations in which dissipation is negligible, as taken to be the case in the present investigation, there is an additional simplification in that partial-wave phase shifts become real numbers that vanish when the partial-wave index becomes large and when the wave-number-sphere-radius product vanishes. By restricting attention to monopole and dipole phase shifts, transitions in the axial radiation force for axisymmetric wave-fields are found to be related to wave-field parameters for traveling and standing Bessel wave-fields by considering the ratio of the phase shifts. For traveling waves, the special force conditions concern negative forces while for standing waves, the special force conditions concern vanishing radiation forces. An intermediate step involves considering the functional dependence on phase shifts. An appendix gives an approximation for zero-force plane standing wave conditions. Connections with early investigations of acoustic levitation are mentioned and some complications associated with viscosity are briefly noted.
Sink efficiency calculation of dislocations in irradiated materials by phase-field modelling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rouchette, Adrien
2015-01-01
The aim of this work is to develop a modelling technique for diffusion of crystallographic migrating defects in irradiated metals and absorption by sinks to better predict the microstructural evolution in those materials.The phase field technique is well suited for this problem, since it naturally takes into account the elastic effects of dislocations on point defect diffusion in the most complex cases. The phase field model presented in this work has been adapted to simulate the generation of defects by irradiation and their absorption by the dislocation cores by means of a new order parameter associated to the sink morphology. The method has first been validated in different reference cases by comparing the sink strengths obtained numerically with analytical solutions available in the literature. Then, the method has been applied to dislocations with different orientations in zirconium, taking into account the anisotropic properties of the crystal and point defects, obtained by state-of-the-art atomic calculations.The results show that the shape anisotropy of the point defects promotes the vacancy absorption by basal loops, which is consistent with the experimentally observed zirconium growth under irradiation. Finally, the rigorous investigation of the dislocation loop case proves that phase field simulations give more accurate results than analytical solutions in realistic loop density ranges. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Akıncı, Ümit
2012-01-01
The effect of the random magnetic field distribution on the phase diagrams and ground state magnetizations of the Ising nanowire has been investigated with effective field theory with correlations. Gaussian distribution has been chosen as a random magnetic field distribution. The variation of the phase diagrams with that distribution parameters has been obtained and some interesting results have been found such as disappearance of the reentrant behavior and first order transitions which appear in the case of discrete distributions. Also for single and double Gaussian distributions, ground state magnetizations for different distribution parameters have been determined which can be regarded as separate partially ordered phases of the system. - Highlights: ► We give the phase diagrams of the Ising nanowire under the continuous randomly distributed magnetic field. ► Ground state magnetization values obtained. ► Different partially ordered phases observed.
Rovibrational dynamics of the RbCs molecule in static electric fields. Classical study
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Arnaiz, Pedro F.; Iñarrea, Manuel [Área de Física, Universidad de la Rioja, E-26006 Logroño (Spain); Salas, J. Pablo, E-mail: josepablo.salas@unirioja.es [Área de Física, Universidad de la Rioja, E-26006 Logroño (Spain)
2012-04-02
We study the classical dynamics of the RbCs molecule in the presence of a static electric field. Under the Born–Oppenheimer approximation, we perform a rovibrational investigation which includes the interaction of the field with the molecular polarizability. The stability of the equilibrium points and the phase space structure of the system are explored in detail. We find that, for strong electric fields or for energies close to the dissociation threshold, the molecular polarizability causes relevant effects on the system dynamics. -- Highlights: ► We study the classical rovibrational dynamics of the alkali polar dimer RbCs. ► In the model we consider the interaction of the field with the molecular polarizability. ► The potential energy surface is studied depending on the electric field strength. ► Using surfaces of section we study the phase space structure. ► We find that the molecular polarizability causes relevant effects on the system dynamics.
Rovibrational dynamics of the RbCs molecule in static electric fields. Classical study
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arnaiz, Pedro F.; Iñarrea, Manuel; Salas, J. Pablo
2012-01-01
We study the classical dynamics of the RbCs molecule in the presence of a static electric field. Under the Born–Oppenheimer approximation, we perform a rovibrational investigation which includes the interaction of the field with the molecular polarizability. The stability of the equilibrium points and the phase space structure of the system are explored in detail. We find that, for strong electric fields or for energies close to the dissociation threshold, the molecular polarizability causes relevant effects on the system dynamics. -- Highlights: ► We study the classical rovibrational dynamics of the alkali polar dimer RbCs. ► In the model we consider the interaction of the field with the molecular polarizability. ► The potential energy surface is studied depending on the electric field strength. ► Using surfaces of section we study the phase space structure. ► We find that the molecular polarizability causes relevant effects on the system dynamics.
Phase transition and field effect topological quantum transistor made of monolayer MoS2
Simchi, H.; Simchi, M.; Fardmanesh, M.; Peeters, F. M.
2018-06-01
We study topological phase transitions and topological quantum field effect transistor in monolayer molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) using a two-band Hamiltonian model. Without considering the quadratic (q 2) diagonal term in the Hamiltonian, we show that the phase diagram includes quantum anomalous Hall effect, quantum spin Hall effect, and spin quantum anomalous Hall effect regions such that the topological Kirchhoff law is satisfied in the plane. By considering the q 2 diagonal term and including one valley, it is shown that MoS2 has a non-trivial topology, and the valley Chern number is non-zero for each spin. We show that the wave function is (is not) localized at the edges when the q 2 diagonal term is added (deleted) to (from) the spin-valley Dirac mass equation. We calculate the quantum conductance of zigzag MoS2 nanoribbons by using the nonequilibrium Green function method and show how this device works as a field effect topological quantum transistor.
Phases and amplitudes for a modified repulsive Coulomb field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chidichimo, M.C.; Davison, T.S.
1990-01-01
The asymptotic form of the radial wave function for positive-energy states is calculated for the case of a repulsive Coulomb field. The cases of a pure Coulomb potential and a modified Coulomb potential are considered. Second-order analytic solutions for the amplitudes and phases are obtained when the modifications to the pure Coulombic potential take the form αr -2 +βr -3 +γr -4 , using the Jeffreys or WKB method. For the case of a pure Coulomb field, numerical results obtained from this method were compared with ''exact'' numerical results that were obtained using the analytic properties of the Coulomb wave functions. Tables are presented to show the conditions under which the method is accurate
Thermodynamic study of the mixed phase in YBa_2Cu_3O_7_-_δ
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bouquet, Frederic
1998-01-01
The mixed phase of type II superconductors is characterised by the existence of vortices of supercurrent that each enclose a magnetic flux quantum. Whereas the vortices order themselves in a lattice for most fields and temperatures in the mixed phase of conventional superconductors, the phase diagram for the high critical temperature superconductors is much more complex. We present here a thermodynamic study of the system of vortices for YBa_2Cu_30_7_-_δ, mainly based on specific heat experiments, but also on magnetisation measurements. To carry out the experimental work a modulated temperature calorimeter was developed, allowing us to achieve a very good resolution over a wide range of magnetic field. Our results confirm the existence of a first order thermodynamic transition in the mixed phase. We also present an original way to test the presence of a possible hysteresis associated with this transition by exploiting the oscillatory principle of our technique. The question of the existence of a low temperature high field vortex phase is discussed. Above a characteristic field B_c_r, which can reach very high values depending on the sample (up to 26 T), we find the latent heat associated with the first order transition disappears and the transition becomes continuous. By performing both magnetisation and specific heat experiments we show that Ber is related to pinning of the vortices. The existence of a third thermodynamically stable vortex phase at high field, different from the two phases at low field separated by the first order transition, does not seem to be compatible with our data. (author) [fr
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dongjia Cao
2017-12-01
Full Text Available Phase-field simulation serves as an effective tool for quantitative characterization of microstructure evolution in single-crystal Ni-based superalloys during solidification nowadays. The classic unit cell is either limited to γ dendrites along crystal orientation or too ideal to cover complex morphologies for γ dendrites. An attempt to design the unit cell for two-dimensional (2-D phase-field simulations of microstructure evolution in single-crystal Ni-based superalloys during solidification was thus performed by using the MICRESS (MICRostructure Evolution Simulation Software in the framework of the multi-phase-field (MPF model, and demonstrated in a commercial TMS-113 superalloy. The coupling to CALPHAD (CALculation of PHAse Diagram thermodynamic database was realized via the TQ interface and the experimental diffusion coefficients were utilized in the simulation. Firstly, the classic unit cell with a single γ dendrite along crystal orientation was employed for the phase-field simulation in order to reproduce the microstructure features. Then, such simple unit cell was extended into the cases with two other different crystal orientations, i.e., and . Thirdly, for crystal orientations, the effect of γ dendritic orientations and unit cell sizes on microstructure and microsegregation was comprehensively studied, from which a new unit cell with multiple γ dendrites was proposed. The phase-field simulation with the newly proposed unit cell was further performed in the TMS-113 superalloy, and the microstructure features including the competitive growth of γ dendrites, microsegregation of different solutes and distribution of γ′ grains, can be nicely reproduced.
Effect of applied strain on phase separation of Fe-28 at.% Cr alloy: 3D phase-field simulation
Zhu, Lihui; Li, Yongsheng; Liu, Chengwei; Chen, Shi; Shi, Shujing; Jin, Shengshun
2018-04-01
A quantitative simulation of the separation of the α‧ phase in Fe-28 at.% Cr alloy under the effects of applied strain is performed by utilizing a three-dimensional phase-field model. The elongation of the Cr-enriched α‧ phase becomes obvious with the influence of applied uniaxial strain for the phase separation transforms from spinodal decomposition of 700 K to nucleation and growth of 773 K. The applied strain shows a significant influence on the early stage phase separation, and the influence is enlarged with the elevated temperature. The steady-state coarsening with the mechanism of spinodal decomposition is substantially affected by the applied strain for low-temperature aging, while the influence is reduced as the temperature increases and as the phase separation mechanism changes to nucleation and growth. The peak value of particle size distribution decreases, and the PSD for 773 K becomes more widely influenced by the applied strain. The simulation results of separation of the Cr-enriched α‧ phase with the applied strain provide a further understanding of the strain effect on the phase separation of Fe-Cr alloys from the metastable region to spinodal regions.
Development of full-field x-ray phase-tomographic microscope based on laboratory x-ray source
Takano, H.; Wu, Y.; Momose, A.
2017-09-01
An X-ray phase tomographic microscope that can quantitatively measure the refractive index of a sample in three dimensions with a high spatial resolution was developed by installing a Lau interferometer consisting of an absorption grating and a π/2 phase grating into the optics of an X-ray microscope. The optics comprises a Cu rotating anode X-ray source, capillary condenser optics, and a Fresnel zone plate for the objective. The microscope has two optical modes: a large-field-of-view mode (field of view: 65 μm x 65 μm) and a high-resolution mode (spatial resolution: 50 nm). Optimizing the parameters of the interferometer yields a self-image of the phase grating with 60% visibility. Through the normal fringe-scanning measurement, a twin phase image, which has an overlap of two phase image of opposite contrast with a shear distance much larger than system resolution, is generated. Although artifacts remain to some extent currently when a phase image is calculated from the twin phase image, this system can obtain high-spatial-resolution images resolving 50-nm structures. Phase tomography with this system has also been demonstrated using a phase object.
Rosolen, A.; Peco, C.; Arroyo, M.
2013-01-01
We present an adaptive meshfree method to approximate phase-field models of biomembranes. In such models, the Helfrich curvature elastic energy, the surface area, and the enclosed volume of a vesicle are written as functionals of a continuous phase-field, which describes the interface in a smeared manner. Such functionals involve up to second-order spatial derivatives of the phase-field, leading to fourth-order Euler–Lagrange partial differential equations (PDE). The solutions develop sharp i...
Phase separation and shape deformation of two-phase membranes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jiang, Y.; Lookman, T.; Saxena, A.
2000-01-01
Within a coupled-field Ginzburg-Landau model we study analytically phase separation and accompanying shape deformation on a two-phase elastic membrane in simple geometries such as cylinders, spheres, and tori. Using an exact periodic domain wall solution we solve for the shape and phase separating field, and estimate the degree of deformation of the membrane. The results are pertinent to preferential phase separation in regions of differing curvature on a variety of vesicles. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society
Sakhratov, Yu. A.; Kweon, J. J.; Choi, E. S.; Zhou, H. D.; Svistov, L. E.; Reyes, A. P.
2018-03-01
The magnetic phase diagram of CuCrO2 was studied with an alternative method of simultaneous Cu NMR and electric polarization techniques with the primary goal of demonstrating that, regardless of cooling history of the sample, the magnetic phase with specific helmet-shaped NMR spectra associated with interplanar disorder possesses electric polarization. Our result unequivocally confirms the assumption of Sakhratov et al. [Phys. Rev. B 94, 094410 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevB.94.094410] that the high-field low-temperature phase is in fact a three-dimensional (3D) polar phase characterized by a 3D magnetic order with tensor order parameter. In comparison with the results obtained in pulsed fields, a modified phase diagram is introduced defining the upper boundary of the first-order transition from the 3D spiral to the 3D polar phase.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kerkhof, L.; Williams, K.H.; Long, P.E.; McGuinness, L.
2011-02-21
Previous experiments at the Rifle, Colorado Integrated Field Research Challenge (IFRC) site demonstrated that field-scale addition of acetate to groundwater reduced the ambient soluble uranium concentration. In this report, sediment samples collected before and after acetate field addition were used to assess the active microbes via {sup 13}C acetate stable isotope probing on 3 phases [coarse sand, fines (8-approximately 150 {micro}m), groundwater (0.2-8 {micro}m)] over a 24-day time frame. TRFLP results generally indicated a stronger signal in {sup 13}C-DNA in the 'fines' fraction compared to the sand and groundwater. Before the field-scale acetate addition, a Geobacter-like group primarily synthesized {sup 13}C-DNA in the groundwater phase, an alpha Proteobacterium primarily grew on the fines/sands, and an Acinetobacter sp. and Decholoromonas-like OTU utilized much of the {sup 13}C acetate in both groundwater and particle-associated phases. At the termination of the field-scale acetate addition, the Geobacter-like species was active on the solid phases rather than the groundwater, while the other bacterial groups had very reduced newly synthesized DNA signal. These findings will help to delineate the acetate utilization patterns of bacteria in the field and can lead to improved methods for stimulating distinct microbial populations in situ.
A Navier-Stokes phase-field crystal model for colloidal suspensions.
Praetorius, Simon; Voigt, Axel
2015-04-21
We develop a fully continuous model for colloidal suspensions with hydrodynamic interactions. The Navier-Stokes Phase-Field Crystal model combines ideas of dynamic density functional theory with particulate flow approaches and is derived in detail and related to other dynamic density functional theory approaches with hydrodynamic interactions. The derived system is numerically solved using adaptive finite elements and is used to analyze colloidal crystallization in flowing environments demonstrating a strong coupling in both directions between the crystal shape and the flow field. We further validate the model against other computational approaches for particulate flow systems for various colloidal sedimentation problems.
Spin-resolved tunneling studies of the exchange field in EuS/Al bilayers.
Xiong, Y M; Stadler, S; Adams, P W; Catelani, G
2011-06-17
We use spin-resolved electron tunneling to study the exchange field in the Al component of EuS/Al bilayers, in both the superconducting and normal-state phases of the Al. Contrary to expectation, we show that the exchange field H(ex) is a nonlinear function of applied field, even in applied fields that are well beyond the EuS coercive field. Furthermore, the magnitude H(ex) is unaffected by the superconducting phase. In addition, H(ex) decreases significantly with increasing temperature in the temperature range of 0.1-1 K. We discuss these results in the context of recent theories of generalized spin-dependent boundary conditions at a superconductor-ferromagnet interface.
Cluster Mean-Field Approach to the Steady-State Phase Diagram of Dissipative Spin Systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jiasen Jin
2016-07-01
Full Text Available We show that short-range correlations have a dramatic impact on the steady-state phase diagram of quantum driven-dissipative systems. This effect, never observed in equilibrium, follows from the fact that ordering in the steady state is of dynamical origin, and is established only at very long times, whereas in thermodynamic equilibrium it arises from the properties of the (free energy. To this end, by combining the cluster methods extensively used in equilibrium phase transitions to quantum trajectories and tensor-network techniques, we extend them to nonequilibrium phase transitions in dissipative many-body systems. We analyze in detail a model of spin-1/2 on a lattice interacting through an XYZ Hamiltonian, each of them coupled to an independent environment that induces incoherent spin flips. In the steady-state phase diagram derived from our cluster approach, the location of the phase boundaries and even its topology radically change, introducing reentrance of the paramagnetic phase as compared to the single-site mean field where correlations are neglected. Furthermore, a stability analysis of the cluster mean field indicates a susceptibility towards a possible incommensurate ordering, not present if short-range correlations are ignored.
Phase field modeling of dendritic coarsening during isothermal
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhang Yutuo
2011-08-01
Full Text Available Dendritic coarsening in Al-2mol%Si alloy during isothermal solidification at 880K was investigated by phase field modeling. Three coarsening mechanisms operate in the alloy: (a melting of small dendrite arms; (b coalescence of dendrites near the tips leading to the entrapment of liquid droplets; (c smoothing of dendrites. Dendrite melting is found to be dominant in the stage of dendritic growth, whereas coalescence of dendrites and smoothing of dendrites are dominant during isothermal holding. The simulated results provide a better understanding of dendrite coarsening during isothermal solidification.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lippert, Matthew
2009-01-01
We investigated the Sakai-Sugimoto model of large N QCD at nonzero temperature and baryon chemical potential and in the presence of background electric and magnetic fields. We studied the holographic representation of baryons and the deconfinement, chiral-symmetry breaking, and nuclear matter phase transitions. In a background electric field, chiral-symmetry breaking corresponds to an insulator-conductor transition. A magnetic field both catalyzes chiral-symmetry breaking and generates, in the confined phase, a pseudo-scalar gradient or, in the deconfined phase, an axial current. The resulting phase diagram is in qualitative agreement with studies of hot, dense QCD.
Electromagnetic holographic sensitivity field of two-phase flow in horizontal wells
Zhang, Kuo; Wu, Xi-Ling; Yan, Jing-Fu; Cai, Jia-Tie
2017-03-01
Electromagnetic holographic data are characterized by two modes, suggesting that image reconstruction requires a dual-mode sensitivity field as well. We analyze an electromagnetic holographic field based on tomography theory and Radon inverse transform to derive the expression of the electromagnetic holographic sensitivity field (EMHSF). Then, we apply the EMHSF calculated by using finite-element methods to flow simulations and holographic imaging. The results suggest that the EMHSF based on the partial derivative of radius of the complex electric potential φ is closely linked to the Radon inverse transform and encompasses the sensitivities of the amplitude and phase data. The flow images obtained with inversion using EMHSF better agree with the actual flow patterns. The EMHSF overcomes the limitations of traditional single-mode sensitivity fields.
Discussions on the non-equilibrium effects in the quantitative phase field model of binary alloys
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhi-Jun, Wang; Jin-Cheng, Wang; Gen-Cang, Yang
2010-01-01
All the quantitative phase field models try to get rid of the artificial factors of solutal drag, interface diffusion and interface stretch in the diffuse interface. These artificial non-equilibrium effects due to the introducing of diffuse interface are analysed based on the thermodynamic status across the diffuse interface in the quantitative phase field model of binary alloys. Results indicate that the non-equilibrium effects are related to the negative driving force in the local region of solid side across the diffuse interface. The negative driving force results from the fact that the phase field model is derived from equilibrium condition but used to simulate the non-equilibrium solidification process. The interface thickness dependence of the non-equilibrium effects and its restriction on the large scale simulation are also discussed. (cross-disciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)
Convergence of solutions of a non-local phase-field system
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Londen, S.-O.; Petzeltová, Hana
2011-01-01
Roč. 4, č. 3 (2011), s. 653-670 ISSN 1937-1632 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA100190606 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : non-local phase-field systems * separation property * convergence to equilibria Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics http://www.aimsciences.org/journals/displayArticles.jsp?paperID=5698
Phase study of titanium dioxide nanoparticle prepared via sol-gel process
Oladeji Araoyinbo, Alaba; Bakri Abdullah, Mohd Mustafa Al; Salleh, Mohd Arif Anuar Mohd; Aziz, Nurul Nadia Abdul; Iskandar Azmi, Azwan
2018-03-01
In this study, titanium dioxide nanoparticles have been prepared via sol-gel process using titanium tetraisopropoxide as a precursor with hydrochloric acid as a catalyst, and ethanol with deionized water as solvents. The value of pH used is set to 3, 7 and 8. The sols obtained were dried at 100 °C for 1 hr and calcined at 350, 550, and 750 °C for 3 hrs to observe the phase transformation of titanium dioxide nanoparticle. The samples were characterized by x-ray diffraction and field emission scanning electron microscope. The morphology analysis is obtained from field emission scanning electron microscope. The phase transformation was investigated by x-ray diffraction. It was found that the pH of the solution affect the agglomeration of titanium dioxide particle. The x-ray diffraction pattern of titanium dioxide shows the anatase phase most abundant at temperature of 350 °C. At temperature of 550 °C the anatase and rutile phase were present. At temperature of 750 °C the rutile phase was the most abundant for pH 3, 7 and 8. It was confirmed that at higher temperature the rutile phase which is the stable phase are mostly present.
Wainwright, Carroll L.
2012-09-01
I present a numerical package (CosmoTransitions) for analyzing finite-temperature cosmological phase transitions driven by single or multiple scalar fields. The package analyzes the different vacua of a theory to determine their critical temperatures (where the vacuum energy levels are degenerate), their supercooling temperatures, and the bubble wall profiles which separate the phases and describe their tunneling dynamics. I introduce a new method of path deformation to find the profiles of both thin- and thick-walled bubbles. CosmoTransitions is freely available for public use.Program summaryProgram Title: CosmoTransitionsCatalogue identifier: AEML_v1_0Program summary URL: http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEML_v1_0.htmlProgram obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. IrelandLicensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.htmlNo. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 8775No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 621096Distribution format: tar.gzProgramming language: Python.Computer: Developed on a 2009 MacBook Pro. No computer-specific optimization was performed.Operating system: Designed and tested on Mac OS X 10.6.8. Compatible with any OS with Python installed.RAM: Approximately 50 MB, mostly for loading plotting packages.Classification: 1.9, 11.1.External routines: SciPy, NumPy, matplotLibNature of problem: I describe a program to analyze early-Universe finite-temperature phase transitions with multiple scalar fields. The goal is to analyze the phase structure of an input theory, determine the amount of supercooling at each phase transition, and find the bubble-wall profiles of the nucleated bubbles that drive the transitions.Solution method: To find the bubble-wall profile, the program assumes that tunneling happens along a fixed path in field space. This reduces the equations of motion to one dimension, which can then be solved using the overshoot
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Savolainen, Juha-Matti; Grüner-Nielsen, Lars; Kristensen, Poul
2013-01-01
A refractive-index change is written inside an optical fiber close to the end face by femtosecond laser light. The induced phase change is measured by analyzing the far-field intensity profiles before and after the irradiation.......A refractive-index change is written inside an optical fiber close to the end face by femtosecond laser light. The induced phase change is measured by analyzing the far-field intensity profiles before and after the irradiation....
A Comprehensive Model of the Near-Earth Magnetic Field. Phase 3
Sabaka, Terence J.; Olsen, Nils; Langel, Robert A.
2000-01-01
The near-Earth magnetic field is due to sources in Earth's core, ionosphere, magnetosphere, lithosphere, and from coupling currents between ionosphere and magnetosphere and between hemispheres. Traditionally, the main field (low degree internal field) and magnetospheric field have been modeled simultaneously, and fields from other sources modeled separately. Such a scheme, however, can introduce spurious features. A new model, designated CMP3 (Comprehensive Model: Phase 3), has been derived from quiet-time Magsat and POGO satellite measurements and observatory hourly and annual means measurements as part of an effort to coestimate fields from all of these sources. This model represents a significant advancement in the treatment of the aforementioned field sources over previous attempts, and includes an accounting for main field influences on the magnetosphere, main field and solar activity influences on the ionosphere, seasonal influences on the coupling currents, a priori characterization of ionospheric and magnetospheric influence on Earth-induced fields, and an explicit parameterization and estimation of the lithospheric field. The result of this effort is a model whose fits to the data are generally superior to previous models and whose parameter states for the various constituent sources are very reasonable.
Neutron-diffraction studies of the nuclear magnetic phase diagram of copper
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Annila, A.J.; Clausen, Kurt Nørgaard; Oja, A.S.
1992-01-01
We have studied the spontaneous antiferromagnetic (AF) order in the nuclear spin system of copper by use of neutron-diffraction experiments at nanokelvin temperatures. Copper is an ideal model system as a nearest-neighbor-dominated spin-3/2 fcc antiferromagnet. The phase diagram has been investig......We have studied the spontaneous antiferromagnetic (AF) order in the nuclear spin system of copper by use of neutron-diffraction experiments at nanokelvin temperatures. Copper is an ideal model system as a nearest-neighbor-dominated spin-3/2 fcc antiferromagnet. The phase diagram has been...... investigated by measuring the magnetic-field dependence of the (100) reflection, characteristic of a type-I AF structure, and of a Bragg peak at (0 2/3 2/3). The results suggest the presence of high-field (100) phases at 0.12 less-than-or-equal-to B less-than-or-equal-to B(c) almost-equal-to 0.26 mT, for B...... compared with results of earlier susceptibility measurements in order to identify the translational periods of the three previously found antiferromagnetic phases for B parallel-to [100]. Recent theoretical work has yielded results in agreement with our experimental data....
Ultracold Field Gradient Magnetometry and Transport to Study Correlated Topological Phases
2016-10-01
MIT) 77 Massachusetts Ave. NE18-901 Cambridge , MA 02139 -4307 ABSTRACT Number of Papers published in peer-reviewed journals: Number of Papers published...group of the PI and the subfield of new correlated topological phases. List of Illustrations Figure 1 – View of MBE and Glovebox System Figure... Illustrations Figure 1 – View of MBE and Glovebox System Figure 2 – View of Glovebox, MBE, and Dilution Refrigerator System Statement of Problems Studied To
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wang Zunjing; Deserno, Markus, E-mail: zwang@cmu.ed, E-mail: deserno@andrew.cmu.ed [Department of Physics, Carnegie Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States)
2010-09-15
We study the lipid and phase transferability of our recently developed systematically coarse-grained solvent-free membrane model. The force field was explicitly parameterized to describe a fluid 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-phosphatidylcholine (POPC) bilayer at 310 K with correct structure and area per lipid, while gaining at least three orders of magnitude in computational efficiency (see Wang and Deserno 2010 J. Phys. Chem. B 114 11207-20). Here, we show that exchanging CG tails, without any subsequent re-parameterization, creates reliable models of 1,2-dioleoylphosphatidylcholine (DOPC) and 1,2-dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) lipids in terms of structure and area per lipid. Furthermore, all CG lipids undergo a liquid-gel transition upon cooling, with characteristics like those observed in experiments and all-atom simulations during phase transformation. These studies suggest a promising transferability of our force field parameters to different lipid species and thermodynamic state points, properties that are a prerequisite for even more complex systems, such as mixtures.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Zunjing; Deserno, Markus
2010-01-01
We study the lipid and phase transferability of our recently developed systematically coarse-grained solvent-free membrane model. The force field was explicitly parameterized to describe a fluid 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-phosphatidylcholine (POPC) bilayer at 310 K with correct structure and area per lipid, while gaining at least three orders of magnitude in computational efficiency (see Wang and Deserno 2010 J. Phys. Chem. B 114 11207-20). Here, we show that exchanging CG tails, without any subsequent re-parameterization, creates reliable models of 1,2-dioleoylphosphatidylcholine (DOPC) and 1,2-dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) lipids in terms of structure and area per lipid. Furthermore, all CG lipids undergo a liquid-gel transition upon cooling, with characteristics like those observed in experiments and all-atom simulations during phase transformation. These studies suggest a promising transferability of our force field parameters to different lipid species and thermodynamic state points, properties that are a prerequisite for even more complex systems, such as mixtures.
Double hydrogen bonded ferroelectric liquid crystals: A study of field induced transition (FiT)
Vijayakumar, V. N.; Madhu Mohan, M. L. N.
2009-12-01
A novel series of chiral hydrogen bonded liquid crystals have been isolated. Hydrogen bond was formed between chiral nonmesogen ingredient levo tartaric acid and mesogenic p-n-alkoxybenzoic acids. Phase diagram was constructed from the transition temperatures obtained by DSC and polarizing optical microscopic (POM) studies. Thermal and electrical properties exhibited by three complexes namely LTA+8BA, LTA+7BA and LTA+5BA were discussed. Salient feature of the present work was the observation of a reentrant smectic ordering in LTA+8BA complex designated as C r∗ phase. This reentrant phenomenon was confirmed by DSC thermograms, optical textures of POM and temperature variation of capacitance and dielectric loss studies. Tilt angle was measured in smectic C ∗ and reentrant smectic C r∗ phases. Another interesting feature of the present investigation was the observation of a field induced transition (FiT) in the LTA+ nBA homologous series. Three threshold field values were noticed which give rise to two new phases (E 1 and E 2) induced by electric field and on further enhancement of the applied field the mesogen behaves like an optical shutter. FiT is reversible in the sense that when applied field is removed the original texture was restored.
The acute phase response and exercise: court and field sports
Fallon, K; Fallon, S; Boston, T
2001-01-01
Objective—To determine the presence or absence of an acute phase response after training for court and field sports. Participants—All members of the Australian women's soccer team (n = 18) and all members of the Australian Institute of Sport netball team (n = 14). Methods—Twelve acute phase reactants (white blood cell count, neutrophil count, platelet count, serum iron, ferritin, and transferrin, percentage transferrin saturation, α1 antitrypsin, caeruloplasmin, α2 acid glycoprotein, C reactive protein, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate) were measured during a rest period and after moderate and heavy training weeks in members of elite netball and women's soccer teams. Results—Responses consistent with an acute phase response were found in five of 24 tests in the soccer players, and in three of 24 tests in the netball players. Responses in the opposite direction were found in seven of 24 tests in the soccer players and two of 24 tests in the netballers. The most sensitive reactant measured, C reactive protein, did not respond in a manner typical of an acute phase response. Conclusion—An acute phase response does not seem to occur as a consequence of the levels of training typical of elite female netball and soccer teams. This has implications for the interpretation of biochemical variables in these groups. Key Words: acute phase response; iron; plasma proteins; inflammation PMID:11375875
Electromagnetic processes during phase commutation in field regulated reluctance machine
Shishkov, A. N.; Sychev, D. A.; Zemlyansky, A. A.; Krupnova, M. N.; Funk, T. A.; Ishmet'eva, V. D.
2018-03-01
The processes of currents switching in stator windings have been explained by the existence of the electromagnetic torque ripples in the electric drive with the field-regulated reluctance machine. The maximum value of ripples in the open loop control system for the six-phase machine can reach 20 percent from the developed electromagnetic torque. This method allows one to make calculation of ripple spike towards average torque developed by the electromotor for the different number of phases. Application of a trapezoidal form of current at six phases became the solution. In case of a less number of phases than six, a ripple spike considerably increases, which is inadmissible. On the other hand, increasing the number of phases tends to the increase of the semiconductor inverter external dimensions based on the inconspicuous decreasing of a ripple spike. The creation and usage of high-speed control loops of current (HCLC) have been recommended for a reduction of the electromagnetic torque’s ripple level, as well as the appliance of positive current feedback in switching phase currents. This decision allowed one to receive a mean value of the torque more than 10%, compared to system without change, to reduce greatly ripple spike of the electromagnetic torque. The possibility of the electric drive effective operation with FRRM in emergency operation has been shown.
Nonperturbative studies of quantum field theories on noncommutative spaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Volkholz, J.
2007-01-01
This work deals with three quantum field theories on spaces with noncommuting position operators. Noncommutative models occur in the study of string theories and quantum gravity. They usually elude treatment beyond the perturbative level. Due to the technique of dimensional reduction, however, we are able to investigate these theories nonperturbatively. This entails translating the action functionals into a matrix language, which is suitable for numerical simulations. First we explore the λφ 4 model on a noncommutative plane. We investigate the continuum limit at fixed noncommutativity, which is known as the double scaling limit. Here we focus especially on the fate of the striped phase, a phase peculiar to the noncommutative version of the regularized λφ 4 model. We find no evidence for its existence in the double scaling limit. Next we examine the U(1) gauge theory on a four-dimensional spacetime, where two spatial directions are noncommutative. We examine the phase structure and find a new phase with a spontaneously broken translation symmetry. In addition we demonstrate the existence of a finite double scaling limit which confirms the renormalizability of the theory. Furthermore we investigate the dispersion relation of the photon. In the weak coupling phase our results are consistent with an infrared instability predicted by perturbation theory. If the translational symmetry is broken, however, we find a dispersion relation corresponding to a massless particle. Finally, we investigate a supersymmetric theory on the fuzzy sphere, which features scalar neutral bosons and Majorana fermions. The supersymmetry is exact in the limit of infinitely large matrices. We investigate the phase structure of the model and find three distinct phases. Summarizing, we study noncommutative field theories beyond perturbation theory. Moreover, we simulate a supersymmetric theory on the fuzzy sphere, which might provide an alternative to attempted lattice formulations. (orig.)
Nonperturbative studies of quantum field theories on noncommutative spaces
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Volkholz, J.
2007-11-16
This work deals with three quantum field theories on spaces with noncommuting position operators. Noncommutative models occur in the study of string theories and quantum gravity. They usually elude treatment beyond the perturbative level. Due to the technique of dimensional reduction, however, we are able to investigate these theories nonperturbatively. This entails translating the action functionals into a matrix language, which is suitable for numerical simulations. First we explore the {lambda}{phi}{sup 4} model on a noncommutative plane. We investigate the continuum limit at fixed noncommutativity, which is known as the double scaling limit. Here we focus especially on the fate of the striped phase, a phase peculiar to the noncommutative version of the regularized {lambda}{phi}{sup 4} model. We find no evidence for its existence in the double scaling limit. Next we examine the U(1) gauge theory on a four-dimensional spacetime, where two spatial directions are noncommutative. We examine the phase structure and find a new phase with a spontaneously broken translation symmetry. In addition we demonstrate the existence of a finite double scaling limit which confirms the renormalizability of the theory. Furthermore we investigate the dispersion relation of the photon. In the weak coupling phase our results are consistent with an infrared instability predicted by perturbation theory. If the translational symmetry is broken, however, we find a dispersion relation corresponding to a massless particle. Finally, we investigate a supersymmetric theory on the fuzzy sphere, which features scalar neutral bosons and Majorana fermions. The supersymmetry is exact in the limit of infinitely large matrices. We investigate the phase structure of the model and find three distinct phases. Summarizing, we study noncommutative field theories beyond perturbation theory. Moreover, we simulate a supersymmetric theory on the fuzzy sphere, which might provide an alternative to attempted
Effects of induced magnetic field on large scale pulsed MHD generator with two phase flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ishikawa, M.; Koshiba, Y.; Matsushita, T.
2004-01-01
A large pulsed MHD generator 'SAKHALIN' was constructed in Russia (the former Soviet-Union) and operated with solid fuels. The 'SAKHALIN' with the channel length of 4.5 m could demonstrate the electric power output of 510 MW. The effects of induced magnetic field and two phase flow on the shock wave within the 'SAKHALIN' generator have been studied by time dependent, one dimensional analyses. It has been shown that the magnetic Reynolds number is about 0.58 for Run No. 1, and the induced magnetic flux density is about 20% at the entrance and exit of the MHD channel. The shock wave becomes stronger when the induced magnetic field is taken into account, when the operation voltage becomes low. The working gas plasma contains about 40% of liquid particles (Al 2 O 3 ) in weight, and the present analysis treats the liquid particles as another gas. In the case of mono-phase flow, the sharp shock wave is induced when the load voltage becomes small such as 500 V with larger Lorentz force, whereas in the case of two phase flow, the shock wave becomes less sharp because of the interaction with liquid particles
Heping, Wang; Xiaoguang, Li; Duyang, Zang; Rui, Hu; Xingguo, Geng
2017-11-01
This paper presents an exploration for phase separation in a magnetic field using a coupled lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) with magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). The left vertical wall was kept at a constant magnetic field. Simulations were conducted by the strong magnetic field to enhance phase separation and increase the size of separated phases. The focus was on the effect of magnetic intensity by defining the Hartmann number (Ha) on the phase separation properties. The numerical investigation was carried out for different governing parameters, namely Ha and the component ratio of the mixed liquid. The effective morphological evolutions of phase separation in different magnetic fields were demonstrated. The patterns showed that the slant elliptical phases were created by increasing Ha, due to the formation and increase of magnetic torque and force. The dataset was rearranged for growth kinetics of magnetic phase separation in a plot by spherically averaged structure factor and the ratio of separated phases and total system. The results indicate that the increase in Ha can increase the average size of separated phases and accelerate the spinodal decomposition and domain growth stages. Specially for the larger component ratio of mixed phases, the separation degree was also significantly improved by increasing magnetic intensity. These numerical results provide guidance for setting the optimum condition for the phase separation induced by magnetic field.
Cui, B.; Song, C.; Li, F.; Zhong, X. Y.; Wang, Z. C.; Werner, P.; Gu, Y. D.; Wu, H. Q.; Saleem, M. S.; Parkin, S. S. P.; Pan, F.
2017-10-01
Manipulation of oxygen vacancies (VO ) in single oxide layers by varying the electric field can result in significant modulation of the ground state. However, in many oxide multilayers with strong application potentials, e.g., ferroelectric tunnel junctions and solid-oxide fuel cells, understanding VO behavior in various layers under an applied electric field remains a challenge, owing to complex VO transport between different layers. By sweeping the external voltage, a reversible manipulation of VO and a corresponding fixed magnetic phase transition sequence in cobaltite/manganite (SrCoO3 -x/La0.45Sr0.55MnO3 -y ) heterostructures are reported. The magnetic phase transition sequence confirms that the priority of electric-field-induced VO formation or annihilation in the complex bilayer system is mainly determined by the VO formation energies and Gibbs free-energy differences, which is supported by theoretical analysis. We not only realize a reversible manipulation of the magnetic phase transition in an oxide bilayer but also provide insight into the electric-field control of VO engineering in heterostructures.
Zhu, Guangpu
2018-04-17
In this paper, we consider the numerical approximation of a binary fluid-surfactant phase field model of two-phase incompressible flow. The nonlinearly coupled model consists of two Cahn-Hilliard type equations and incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. Using the Invariant Energy Quadratization (IEQ) approach, the governing system is transformed into an equivalent form, which allows the nonlinear potentials to be treated efficiently and semi-explicitly. we construct a first and a second-order time marching schemes, which are extremely efficient and easy-to-implement, for the transformed governing system. At each time step, the schemes involve solving a sequence of linear elliptic equations, and computations of phase variables, velocity and pressure are totally decoupled. We further establish a rigorous proof of unconditional energy stability for the semi-implicit schemes. Numerical results in both two and three dimensions are obtained, which demonstrate that the proposed schemes are accurate, efficient and unconditionally energy stable. Using our schemes, we investigate the effect of surfactants on droplet deformation and collision under a shear flow. The increase of surfactant concentration can enhance droplet deformation and inhibit droplet coalescence.
Zhu, Guangpu; Kou, Jisheng; Sun, Shuyu; Yao, Jun; Li, Aifen
2018-01-01
In this paper, we consider the numerical approximation of a binary fluid-surfactant phase field model of two-phase incompressible flow. The nonlinearly coupled model consists of two Cahn-Hilliard type equations and incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. Using the Invariant Energy Quadratization (IEQ) approach, the governing system is transformed into an equivalent form, which allows the nonlinear potentials to be treated efficiently and semi-explicitly. we construct a first and a second-order time marching schemes, which are extremely efficient and easy-to-implement, for the transformed governing system. At each time step, the schemes involve solving a sequence of linear elliptic equations, and computations of phase variables, velocity and pressure are totally decoupled. We further establish a rigorous proof of unconditional energy stability for the semi-implicit schemes. Numerical results in both two and three dimensions are obtained, which demonstrate that the proposed schemes are accurate, efficient and unconditionally energy stable. Using our schemes, we investigate the effect of surfactants on droplet deformation and collision under a shear flow. The increase of surfactant concentration can enhance droplet deformation and inhibit droplet coalescence.
Gapless Spin Excitations in the Field-Induced Quantum Spin Liquid Phase of alpha-RuCl3
Zheng, Jiacheng; Ran, Kejing; Li, Tianrun; Wang, Jinghui; Wang, Pengshuai; Liu, Bin; Liu, Zhengxin; Normand, B.; Wen, Jinsheng; Yu, Weiqiang
2017-01-01
$\\alpha$-RuCl$_3$ is a leading candidate material for theobservation of physics related to the Kitaev quantum spin liquid (QSL). By combined susceptibility, specific-heat, and nuclear-magnetic-resonance measurements, we demonstrate that $\\alpha$-RuCl$_3$ undergoes a quantum phase transition to a QSL in a magnetic field of 7.5 T applied in the $ab$ plane. We show further that this high-field QSL phase has gapless spin excitations over a field range up to 16 T. This highly unconventional result...
Differential phase-contrast dark-field electron holography for strain mapping
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Denneulin, Thibaud, E-mail: thibaud.denneulin@cemes.fr; Houdellier, Florent, E-mail: florent.houdellier@cemes.fr; Hÿtch, Martin, E-mail: martin.hytch@cemes.fr
2016-01-15
Strain mapping is an active area of research in transmission electron microscopy. Here we introduce a dark-field electron holographic technique that shares several aspects in common with both off-axis and in-line holography. Two incident and convergent plane waves are produced in front of the specimen thanks to an electrostatic biprism in the condenser system of a transmission electron microscope. The interference of electron beams diffracted by the illuminated crystal is then recorded in a defocused plane. The differential phase recovered from the hologram is directly proportional to the strain in the sample. The strain can be quantified if the separation of the images due to the defocus is precisely determined. The present technique has the advantage that the derivative of the phase is measured directly which allows us to avoid numerical differentiation. The distribution of the noise in the reconstructed strain maps is isotropic and more homogeneous. This technique was used to investigate different samples: a Si/SiGe superlattice, transistors with SiGe source/drain and epitaxial PZT thin films. - Highlights: • DPC dark-field electron holography is set up with a condenser biprism. • The DPC phase is directly proportional to the lattice deformation. • The technique is illustrated with epitaxial SiGe and Pb(Zr,Ti)O{sub 3} samples. • The defocus allows us to control the strain sensitivity and the spatial resolution. • A solution is proposed to setup this technique with a post-specimen biprism.
Bouchal, Petr; Chmelík, Radim; Bouchal, Zdeněk
2018-02-01
A new concept of dual-polarization spatial light interference microscopy (DPSLIM) is proposed and demonstrated experimentally. The method works with two orthogonally polarized modes in which signal and reference waves are combined to realize the polarization-sensitive phase-shifting, thus allowing advanced reconstruction of the phase associated with the image field. The image phase is reconstructed directly from four polarization encoded interference records by a single step processing. This is a progress compared with common methods, in which the phase of the image field is reconstructed using the optical path difference and the amplitudes of interfering waves, which are calculated in multiple-step processing of the records. The DPSLIM is implemented in a common-path configuration using a spatial light modulator, which is connected to a commercial microscope Nikon E200. The optical performance of the method is demonstrated in experiments using both polystyrene microspheres and live LW13K2 cells.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wen, Y.H.; Lill, J.V.; Chen, S.L.; Simmons, J.P.
2010-01-01
A ternary phase-field model was developed that is linked directly to commercial CALPHAD software to provide quantitative thermodynamic driving forces. A recently available diffusion mobility database for ordered phases is also implemented to give a better description of the diffusion behavior in alloys. Because the targeted application of this model is the study of precipitation in Ni-based superalloys, a Ni-Al-Cr model alloy was constructed. A detailed description of this model is given in the paper. We have considered the misfit effects of the partitioning of the two solute elements. Transformation rules of the dual representation of the γ+γ ' microstructure by CALPHAD and by the phase field are established and the link with commercial CALPHAD software is described. Proof-of-concept tests were performed to evaluate the model and the results demonstrate that the model can qualitatively reproduce observed γ ' precipitation behavior. Uphill diffusion of Al is observed in a few diffusion couples, showing the significant influence of Cr on the chemical potential of Al. Possible applications of this model are discussed.
Liu, Hui; Chen, Jun; Huang, Houbing; Fan, Longlong; Ren, Yang; Pan, Zhao; Deng, Jinxia; Chen, Long-Qing; Xing, Xianran
2018-01-01
A functional material with coexisting energetically equivalent phases often exhibits extraordinary properties such as piezoelectricity, ferromagnetism, and ferroelasticity, which is simultaneously accompanied by field-driven reversible phase transformation. The study on the interplay between such phase transformation and the performance is of great importance. Here, we have experimentally revealed the important role of field-driven reversible phase transformation in achieving enhanced electromechanical properties using in situ high-energy synchrotron x-ray diffraction combined with 2D geometry scattering technology, which can establish a comprehensive picture of piezoelectric-related microstructural evolution. High-throughput experiments on various Pb /Bi -based perovskite piezoelectric systems suggest that reversible phase transformation can be triggered by an electric field at the morphotropic phase boundary and the piezoelectric performance is highly related to the tendency of electric-field-driven phase transformation. A strong tendency of phase transformation driven by an electric field generates peak piezoelectric response. Further, phase-field modeling reveals that the polarization alignment and the piezoelectric response can be much enhanced by the electric-field-driven phase transformation. The proposed mechanism will be helpful to design and optimize the new piezoelectrics, ferromagnetics, or other related functional materials.
Acoustic field of focusing phased array probe and the scanning system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Murai, J.; Miura, S.; Ida, T.; Shiraiwa, T.; Miya, T.
1997-01-01
Acoustic field of a point focusing cylindrical linear array probe, in which focusing in the axial direction of cylinder is done by the phased linear array and focusing in the orthogonal direction is done geometrically, was studied by numerical calculation and an optimum design of phased array probe for focusing has been obtained. In generally speaking, the beam width at focus point decreases with decrease of width of each transducer element and with increase of synthetic aperture made by total elements. If the number of total array elements excited as one pulse is limited, the above conditions are contradicted. Thus, an optimum element width exists for the best focusing. On the above consideration, we can get focusing ability of phased array nearly as same as geometrical focusing. A developed transducer is a linear array of polymer piezoelectric material of cylindrical shape, of which radius is from 50 mm to 75 mm. The frequency is 10 Mhz and the beam width of 0.5 mm (depending on aperture) in the orthogonal direction to the cylinder axis and 0.7 mm width in the cylinder axis (phased array focusing) have been obtained. A delay circuit for exciting the transducer was newly designed to give maximum performance to the array regarding to accuracy, stability, easy control and etc. A c-scan ultrasonic testing system equipped with this transducer has sixteen times inspection speed compared to the single probe instrument.
Critical point in the QCD phase diagram for extremely strong background magnetic fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Endrödi, Gergely
2015-01-01
Lattice simulations have demonstrated that a background (electro)magnetic field reduces the chiral/deconfinement transition temperature of quantum chromodynamics for eB<1 GeV 2 . On the level of observables, this reduction manifests itself in an enhancement of the Polyakov loop and in a suppression of the light quark condensates (inverse magnetic catalysis) in the transition region. In this paper, we report on lattice simulations of 1+1+1-flavor QCD at an unprecedentedly high value of the magnetic field eB=3.25 GeV 2 . Based on the behavior of various observables, it is shown that even at this extremely strong field, inverse magnetic catalysis prevails and the transition, albeit becoming sharper, remains an analytic crossover. In addition, we develop an algorithm to directly simulate the asymptotically strong magnetic field limit of QCD. We find strong evidence for a first-order deconfinement phase transition in this limiting theory, implying the presence of a critical point in the QCD phase diagram. Based on the available lattice data, we estimate the location of the critical point.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Park, Chan Wook; Lee, Sung Su
2008-01-01
Two-phase compressible flow fields of air-water are investigated numerically in the fixed Eulerian grid framework. The phase interface is captured via volume fractions of ech phase. A way to model two phase compressible flows as a single phase one is found based on an equivalent equation of states of Tait's type for a multiphase cell. The equivalent single phase field is discretized using the Roe's approximate Riemann solver. Two approaches are tried to suppress the pressure oscillation phenomena at the phase interface, a passive advection of volume fraction and a direct pressure relaxation with the compressible form of volume fraction equation. The direct pressure equalizing method suppresses pressure oscillation successfully and generates sharp discontinuities, transmitting and reflecting acoustic waves naturally at the phase interface. In discretizing the compressible form of volume fraction equation, phase interfaces are geometrically reconstructed to minimize the numerical diffusion of volume fraction and relevant variables. The motion of a projectile in a water-filled tube which is fired by the release of highly pressurized air is simulated presuming the flow field as a two dimensional one, and several design factors affecting the projectile movement are investigated
Field induced magnetic phase transition as a magnon Bose Einstein condensation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Teodora Radu et al
2007-01-01
Full Text Available We report specific heat, magnetocaloric effect and magnetization measurements on single crystals of the frustrated quasi-2D spin -½ antiferromagnet Cs2CuCl4 in the external magnetic field 0≤B≤12 T along a-axis and in the temperature range 0.03 K≤T≤6 K. Decreasing the applied magnetic field B from high fields leads to the closure of the field induced gap in the magnon spectrum at a critical field Bcsimeq8.44 T and a long-range incommensurate state below Bc. In the vicinity of Bc, the phase transition boundary is well described by the power law TN~(Bc-B1/phi with the measured critical exponent phisimeq1.5. These findings provide experimental evidence that the scaling law of the transition temperature TN can be described by the universality class of 3D Bose–Einstein condensation (BEC of magnons.
An order-by-disorder process in the cyclic phase of spin-2 condensate with a weak magnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zheng, Gong-Ping; Xu, Lei-Kuan; Qin, Shuai-Feng; Jian, Wen-Tian; Liang, J.-Q.
2013-01-01
We present in this paper a model study on the “order-by-disorder” process in the cyclic phase of spin-2 condensate, which forms a family of incommensurable, spiral degenerate ground states. On the basis of the ordering mechanism of entropic splitting, it is demonstrated that the energy corrections resulting from quantum fluctuations of disorder lift the accidental degeneracy of the cyclic configurations and thus lead to an eventual spiral order called the cyclic order. The order-by-disorder phenomenon is then realized even if the magnetic field exists. Finally, we show that our theoretic observations can be verified experimentally by direct detection of the cyclic order in the 87 Rb condensate of a spin-2 manifold with a weak magnetic field. -- Highlights: •A model for the order-by-disorder process in the cyclic phase of spin-2 condensate is presented. •The second-order quantum fluctuations of the mean-field states are studied. •The energy corrections lift the accidental degeneracy of the cyclic configurations. •The order-by-disorder phenomenon is realized even if a magnetic field exists. •The theoretic observations can be verified experimentally for 87 Rb condensate
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Keskin, M.; Canko, O.; Gueldal, S.
2009-01-01
We present phase diagrams for a nonequilibrium mixed spin-1/2 and spin-2 Ising ferrimagnetic system on a square lattice in the presence of a time dependent oscillating external magnetic field. We employ the Glauber transition rates to construct the mean-field dynamical equations. The time variation of the average magnetizations and the thermal behavior of the dynamic magnetizations are investigated, extensively. The nature (continuous or discontinuous) of the transitions is characterized by studying the thermal behaviors of the dynamic magnetizations. The dynamic phase transition points are obtained and the phase diagrams are presented in two different planes. Phase diagrams contain paramagnetic (p) and ferrimagnetic (i) phases, and one coexistence or mixed phase region, namely the i+p, that strongly depend on interaction parameters. The system exhibits the dynamic tricritical point and the reentrant behaviors.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Keskin, M., E-mail: keskin@erciyes.edu.t [Department of Physics, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey); Canko, O. [Department of Physics, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey); Gueldal, S. [Institute of Science, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey)
2009-12-14
We present phase diagrams for a nonequilibrium mixed spin-1/2 and spin-2 Ising ferrimagnetic system on a square lattice in the presence of a time dependent oscillating external magnetic field. We employ the Glauber transition rates to construct the mean-field dynamical equations. The time variation of the average magnetizations and the thermal behavior of the dynamic magnetizations are investigated, extensively. The nature (continuous or discontinuous) of the transitions is characterized by studying the thermal behaviors of the dynamic magnetizations. The dynamic phase transition points are obtained and the phase diagrams are presented in two different planes. Phase diagrams contain paramagnetic (p) and ferrimagnetic (i) phases, and one coexistence or mixed phase region, namely the i+p, that strongly depend on interaction parameters. The system exhibits the dynamic tricritical point and the reentrant behaviors.
Numerical study for two phase flow in the near nozzle region of turbine combustors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pervez, K.; Mushtaq, S.
1999-01-01
In the present study flow conditions in the near nozzle region of the combustion chamber have been investigated. There exists two-phase flow in this region. The overall performance and pollutant formation in the combustion chamber have been investigated. There exists two-phase flow in this region. The overall performance and pollutant formation in the combustion zone largely depends on the spray field in the near nozzle region the studies are conducted to determined the effects of multi jets on the flow pattern in the near nozzle region The phase doppler particle analyzer (PDPA) has been used to measure the velocities and sizes of the droplets. The flow field of two-phase liquid drop-air jets is formed from three injectors arranged in t line. Furthermore the two-phase flow field has been analyzed numerically also. The numerical analysis consists of two computational models, namely (i) 3 non-evaporating two-phase jets, (II) 3 evaporating two phase jets. The Eulerian-Eulerian approach in incorporated in both the numerical models. Since the flow is turbulent, a two-equation model (k-Epsilon) is implemented in the numerical analysis. Numerical solution of the conservation equation is obtained using PHOENICS computer code. Boundary conditions are provided from the experimental measurements. Numerical domain for the two models of the analysis starts at some distance (about 10 diameters of the injector orifice) where the atomization process is complete and droplet size and velocity could be measured experimentally. (author)
Magnetic phase transitions in Er7Rh3 studied on single crystals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tsutaoka, Takanori; Obata, Keisuke; Cheyvuth, Seng; Koyama, Keiichi
2014-01-01
Highlights: • Magnetic and electrical properties of Er 7 Rh 3 were studied on single crystals. • The magnetic phase diagram along the c-axis was constructed. • The field-induced magnetic transitions in Er 7 Rh 3 can be explained by the magnetic structure with two magnetic propagation vectors. • The anomalies of electrical resistivity can also be described by the magnetic structure in Er 7 Rh 3 . - Abstract: Magnetic phase transitions in Er 7 Rh 3 with the Th 7 Fe 3 type hexagonal structure have been studied on single crystals by measuring magnetization, magnetic susceptibility and electrical resistivity. Er 7 Rh 3 possesses antiferromagnetic state below T N = 13 K. In the ordered state, the two successive magnetic transitions at T t1 = 6.2 K and T t2 = 4.5 K were observed. Several field-induced magnetic transitions were also observed along the a- and c-axes below T N ; magnetic field H – temperature T phase diagram along the c-axis was constructed. The field-induced magnetic transitions in Er 7 Rh 3 can be explained by the magnetic structure with two magnetic propagation vectors which were derived by the previous neutron diffraction studies. Electrical resistivity shows humps just below the magnetic transition temperatures, T N and T t1 due to the super-zone gap formation at the Fermi level; these anomalies can also be described by the magnetic structure changes in Er 7 Rh 3
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Takahashi, Minoru; Momozaki, Yoichi
2000-01-01
For the reduction of a large magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) pressure drop of a liquid metal single-phase flow, a liquid metal two-phase flow cooling system has been proposed. As a fundamental study, MHD pressure drops and heat transfer characteristics of a mercury single-phase flow and an air-mercury two-phase flow were experimentally investigated. A strong transverse magnetic field relevant to the fusion reactor conditions was applied to the mercury single-phase flow and the air-mercury two-phase flow in a helically coiled tube that was inserted in the vertical bore of a solenoidal superconducting magnet. It was found that MHD pressure drops of a mercury single-phase flow in the helically coiled tube were nearly equal to those in a straight tube. The Nusselt number at an outside wall was higher than that at an inside wall both in the mercury single-phase flow in the absence and presence of a magnetic field. The Nusselt number of the mercury single-phase flow decreased, increased and again decreased with an increase in the magnetic flux density. MHD pressure drops did not decrease appreciably by injecting air into a mercury flow and changing the mercury flow into the air-mercury two-phase flow. Remarkable heat transfer enhancement did not appear by the air injection. The injection of air into the mercury flow enhanced heat transfer in the ranges of high mercury flow rate and low magnetic flux density, possibly due to the agitation effect of air bubbles. The air injection deteriorated heat transfer in the range of low mercury flow rates possibly because of the occupation of air near heating wall
Berry phase of primordial scalar and tensor perturbations in single-field inflationary models
Balajany, Hamideh; Mehrafarin, Mohammad
2018-06-01
In the framework of the single-field slow-roll inflation, we derive the Hamiltonian of the linear primordial scalar and tensor perturbations in the form of time-dependent harmonic oscillator Hamiltonians. We find the invariant operators of the resulting Hamiltonians and use their eigenstates to calculate the adiabatic Berry phase for sub-horizon modes in terms of the Lewis-Riesenfeld phase. We conclude by discussing the discrepancy in the results of Pal et al. (2013) [21] for these Berry phases, which is resolved to yield agreement with our results.
Atom localization via phase and amplitude control of the driving field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ghafoor, Fazal; Qamar, Sajid; Zubairy, M. Suhail
2002-01-01
Control of amplitude and phase of the driving field in an atom-field interaction leads towards the strong line narrowing and quenching in the spontaneous emission spectrum. We exploit this fact for the atom localization scheme and achieve a much better spatial resolution in the conditional position probability distribution of the atom. Most importantly the quenching in the spontaneous emission manifests itself in reducing the periodicity in the conditional position probability distribution and hence the uncertainty in a particular position measurement of the single atom by a factor of 2
Phase-Space Manipulation of Ultracold Ion Bunches with Time-Dependent Fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Reijnders, M. P.; Debernardi, N.; Geer, S. B. van der; Mutsaers, P. H. A.; Vredenbregt, E. J. D.; Luiten, O. J.
2010-01-01
All applications of high brightness ion beams depend on the possibility to precisely manipulate the trajectories of the ions or, more generally, to control their phase-space distribution. We show that the combination of a laser-cooled ion source and time-dependent acceleration fields gives new possibilities to perform precise phase-space control. We demonstrate reduction of the longitudinal energy spread and realization of a lens with control over its focal length and sign, as well as the sign of the spherical aberrations. This creates new possibilities to correct for the spherical and chromatic aberrations which are presently limiting the spatial resolution.
Pressure drop and heat transfer of lithium single-phase flow under transverse magnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Takahashi, Minoru; Aritomi, Masanori; Inoue, Akira; Matsuzaki, Mitsuo
1996-01-01
Pressure drop and heat transfer characteristics of a lithium single-phase flow in a rectangular channel was investigated experimentally in the presence of a magnetic field. Friction loss coefficient under non-magnetic field and skin friction coefficient under magnetic field agreed well with the Blasius formula and a simple analytical expression, respectively. Nusselt number under non-magnetic field was slightly lower than the correlation by Hartnett and Irvine. Heat transfer was enhanced by increasing magnetic field above the Hartmann number of about 200. (author)
Three-dimensional phase-field simulation on the deformation of metallic glass nanowires
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang, H.Y.; Zheng, G.P.
2014-01-01
Highlights: • 3D phase-field modeling is developed to investigate the deformation of MG nanowires. • The surface defects significantly affect the mechanical properties of nanowires. • Multiple shear bands are initiated from the surfaces of nanowires with D < 50 nm. - Abstract: It is very challenging to investigate the deformation mechanisms in micro- and nano-scale metallic glasses with diameters below several hundred nanometers using the atomistic simulation or the experimental approaches. In this work, we develop the fully three-dimensional phase-field model to bridge this gap and investigate the sample size effects on the deformation behaviors of metallic glass nanowires. The initial deformation defects on the surface are found to significantly affect the mechanical strength and deformation mode of nanowires. The improved ductility of metallic glass nanowires could be related with the multiple shear bands initiated from the nanowire surfaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mysina, N Yu; Maksimova, L A; Ryabukho, V P; Gorbatenko, B B
2015-01-01
Investigated are statistical properties of the phase difference of oscillations in speckle-fields at two points in the far-field diffraction region, with different shapes of the scatterer aperture. Statistical and spatial nonuniformity of the probability density function of the field phase difference is established. Numerical experiments show that, for the speckle-fields with an oscillating alternating-sign transverse correlation function, a significant nonuniformity of the probability density function of the phase difference in the correlation region of the field complex amplitude, with the most probable values 0 and p, is observed. A natural statistical interference experiment using Young diagrams has confirmed the results of numerical experiments. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)
Self-Generated Magnetic Fields in Stagnation-Phase ICF Implosions
Walsh, Christopher; Chittenden, Jeremy; McGlinchey, Kristopher; Niasse, Nicolas
2016-10-01
3-D extended-MHD simulations of the stagnation phase of an ICF implosion are presented, showing significant self-generated magnetic fields (1000-5000T) due to the Biermann Battery effect. Perturbed hot-spots generate magnetic fields at their edges, as the extremities of hot bubbles are rapidly cooled by the surrounding low temperature fuel, giving non-parallel electron pressure and density gradients. Larger amplitude and higher mode-number perturbations lead to an increased hot-spot surface area and more heat flow, developing greater non-parallel gradients and therefore larger magnetic fields. Due to this, largely perturbed hot-spots can be affected more by magnetic fields, although the accelerated cooling associated with greater deviations from symmetry lowers magnetisation. The Nernst effect advects magnetic field down temperature gradients towards the outer region of the hot-spot, which can also lower the magnetisation of the plasma. In some regions, however, the Nernst velocity is convergent, magnetising the tips of cold fuel spikes, resulting in anisotropic heat-flow and an improvement in energy containment. Low-mode and multi-high-mode simulations are shown, with magnetisations reaching sufficiently high levels in some regions of the hot-spot to suppress thermal conduction to lower than 50% of the unmagnetised case. A quantitative analysis of how this affects the hot-spot energy balance is included.
Modulating patterns of two-phase flow with electric fields.
Liu, Dingsheng; Hakimi, Bejan; Volny, Michael; Rolfs, Joelle; Anand, Robbyn K; Turecek, Frantisek; Chiu, Daniel T
2014-07-01
This paper describes the use of electro-hydrodynamic actuation to control the transition between three major flow patterns of an aqueous-oil Newtonian flow in a microchannel: droplets, beads-on-a-string (BOAS), and multi-stream laminar flow. We observed interesting transitional flow patterns between droplets and BOAS as the electric field was modulated. The ability to control flow patterns of a two-phase fluid in a microchannel adds to the microfluidic tool box and improves our understanding of this interesting fluid behavior.
Belmiloudi , Aziz; Rasheed , Amer
2015-01-01
In this paper we propose a numerical scheme and perform its numerical analysis devoted to an anisotropic phase-field model with convection under the influence of magnetic field for the isother-mal solidification of binary mixtures in two-dimensional geometry. Precisely, the numerical stability and error analysis of this approximation scheme which is based on mixed finite-element method are performed. The particular application of a nickelcopper (NiCu) binary alloy, with real physical paramete...
Low-field anomalous magnetic phase in the kagome-lattice shandite C o3S n2S2
Kassem, Mohamed A.; Tabata, Yoshikazu; Waki, Takeshi; Nakamura, Hiroyuki
2017-07-01
The magnetization process of single crystals of the metallic kagome ferromagnet C o3S n2S2 was carefully measured via magnetization and ac susceptibility. Field-dependent anomalous transitions observed in low fields indicate the presence of an unconventional magnetic phase just below the Curie temperature, TC. The magnetic phase diagrams in low magnetic fields along different crystallographic directions were determined for the first time. The magnetic relaxation measurements at various frequencies covering five orders of magnitude from 0.01 to 1000 Hz indicate markedly slow spin dynamics only in the anomalous phase with characteristic relaxation times longer than 10 s.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hubert, J; Cheng, M; Emmerich, H
2009-01-01
We contribute to the more detailed understanding of the phase-field crystal model recently developed by Elder et al (2002 Phys. Rev. Lett. 88 245701), by focusing on its noise term and examining its impact on the nucleation rate in a homogeneously solidifying system as well as on successively developing grain size distributions. In this context we show that principally the grain size decreases with increasing noise amplitude, resulting in both a smaller average grain size and a decreased maximum grain size. Despite this general tendency, which we interpret based on Panfilis and Filiponi (2000 J. Appl. Phys. 88 562), we can identify two different regimes in which nucleation and successive initial growth are governed by quite different mechanisms.
Schmitt, Regina; Kuhn, Charlotte; Müller, Ralf
2017-07-01
A continuum phase field model for martensitic transformations is introduced, including crystal plasticity with different slip systems for the different phases. In a 2D setting, the transformation-induced eigenstrain is taken into account for two martensitic orientation variants. With aid of the model, the phase transition and its dependence on the volume change, crystal plastic material behavior, and the inheritance of plastic deformations from austenite to martensite are studied in detail. The numerical setup is motivated by the process of cryogenic turning. The resulting microstructure qualitatively coincides with an experimentally obtained martensite structure. For the numerical calculations, finite elements together with global and local implicit time integration scheme are employed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kundin, Julia; Pogorelov, Evgeny; Emmerich, Heike
2015-01-01
We have investigated the microstructure evolution during the isothermal and non-isothermal solidification of ternary Al–Cu–Ni alloys by means of a general multi-phase-field model for an arbitrary number of phases. The stability requirements for the model functions on every dual interface guarantee the absence of “ghost” phases. The aim was to generate a realistic microstructure by coupling the thermodynamic parameters of the phases and the thermodynamically consistent phase-field evolution equations. It is shown that the specially constructed thermal noise terms disturb the stability on the dual interfaces and can produce heterogeneous nucleation of product phases at energetically favorable points. Similar behavior can be observed in triple junctions where the heterogeneous nucleation of a fourth phase is more favorable. Finally, the model predicts the growth of a combined eutectic-like and peritectic-like structure that is comparable to the observed experimental microstructure in various alloys
Investigation of Polarization Phase Difference Related to Forest Fields Characterizations
Majidi, M.; Maghsoudi, Y.
2013-09-01
The information content of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data significantly included in the radiometric polarization channels, hence polarimetric SAR data should be analyzed in relation with target structure. The importance of the phase difference between two co-polarized scattered signals due to the possible association between the biophysical parameters and the measured Polarization Phase Difference (PPD) statistics of the backscattered signal recorded components has been recognized in geophysical remote sensing. This paper examines two Radarsat-2 images statistics of the phase difference to describe the feasibility of relationship with the physical properties of scattering targets and tries to understand relevance of PPD statistics with various types of forest fields. As well as variation of incidence angle due to affecting on PPD statistics is investigated. The experimental forest pieces that are used in this research are characterized white pine (Pinus strobus L.), red pine (Pinus resinosa Ait.), jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.), white spruce (Picea glauca (Moench Voss), black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill) B.S.P.), poplar (Populus L.), red oak (Quercus rubra L.) , aspen and ground vegetation. The experimental results show that despite of biophysical parameters have a wide diversity, PPD statistics are almost the same. Forest fields distributions as distributed targets have close to zero means regardless of the incidence angle. Also, The PPD distribution are function of both target and sensor parameters, but for more appropriate examination related to PPD statistics the observations should made in the leaf-off season or in bands with lower frequencies.
INVESTIGATION OF POLARIZATION PHASE DIFFERENCE RELATED TO FOREST FIELDS CHARACTERIZATIONS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Majidi
2013-09-01
Full Text Available The information content of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR data significantly included in the radiometric polarization channels, hence polarimetric SAR data should be analyzed in relation with target structure. The importance of the phase difference between two co-polarized scattered signals due to the possible association between the biophysical parameters and the measured Polarization Phase Difference (PPD statistics of the backscattered signal recorded components has been recognized in geophysical remote sensing. This paper examines two Radarsat-2 images statistics of the phase difference to describe the feasibility of relationship with the physical properties of scattering targets and tries to understand relevance of PPD statistics with various types of forest fields. As well as variation of incidence angle due to affecting on PPD statistics is investigated. The experimental forest pieces that are used in this research are characterized white pine (Pinus strobus L., red pine (Pinus resinosa Ait., jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb., white spruce (Picea glauca (Moench Voss, black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill B.S.P., poplar (Populus L., red oak (Quercus rubra L. , aspen and ground vegetation. The experimental results show that despite of biophysical parameters have a wide diversity, PPD statistics are almost the same. Forest fields distributions as distributed targets have close to zero means regardless of the incidence angle. Also, The PPD distribution are function of both target and sensor parameters, but for more appropriate examination related to PPD statistics the observations should made in the leaf-off season or in bands with lower frequencies.
Magnetic phase diagram of Ce2Fe17 under high pressures in high magnetic fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ishikawa, Fumihiro; Goto, Tsuneaki; Fujii, Hironobu
2003-01-01
The magnetization of Ce 2 Fe 17 was precisely measured under high pressures up to 1.2 GPa in magnetic fields up to 18 T. The magnetic phase diagram in the B-T plane is determined at 0, 0.3, 0.4, 0.6, 0.9 and 1.2 GPa. At 0 GPa, five magnetic phases exist and the application of high pressure produces two additional magnetic phases. The shape of the phase diagram changes drastically with increasing pressure
Phase Calibration of Microphones by Measurement in the Free-field
Shams, Qamar A.; Bartram, Scott M.; Humphreys, William M.; Zuckewar, Allan J.
2006-01-01
Over the past several years, significant effort has been expended at NASA Langley developing new Micro-Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS)-based microphone directional array instrumentation for high-frequency aeroacoustic measurements in wind tunnels. This new type of array construction solves two challenges which have limited the widespread use of large channel-count arrays, namely by providing a lower cost-per-channel and a simpler method for mounting microphones in wind tunnels and in field-deployable arrays. The current generation of array instrumentation is capable of extracting accurate noise source location and directivity on a variety of airframe components using sophisticated data reduction algorithms [1-2]. Commercially-available MEMS microphones are condenser-type devices and have some desirable characteristics when compared with conventional condenser-type microphones. The most important advantages of MEMS microphones are their size, price, and power consumption. However, the commercially-available units suffer from certain important shortcomings. Based on experiments with array prototypes, it was found that both the bandwidth and the sound pressure limit of the microphones should be increased significantly to improve the performance and flexibility of the microphone array [3]. It was also desired to modify the packaging to eliminate unwanted Helmholtz resonance s exhibited by the commercial devices. Thus, new requirements were defined as follows: Frequency response: 100 Hz to 100 KHz (+/-3dB) Upper sound pressure limit: Design 1: 130 dB SPL (THD less than 5%) Design 2: 150-160 dB SPL (THD less than 5%) Packaging: 3.73 x 6.13 x 1.3 mm can with laser-etched lid. In collaboration with Novusonic Acoustic Innovation, NASA modified a Knowles SiSonic MEMS design to meet these new requirements. Coupled with the design of the enhanced MEMS microphones was the development of a new calibration method for simultaneously obtaining the sensitivity and phase response of
Convergence to stationary solutions for a parabolic-hyperbolic phase-field system
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Grasselli, M.; Petzeltová, Hana; Schimperna, G.
2006-01-01
Roč. 5, č. 4 (2006), s. 827-838 ISSN 1534-0392 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA1019302 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : phase-field models * convergence to stationary solutions * Łojasiewicz-Simon inequality Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.857, year: 2006
High-accuracy phase-field models for brittle fracture based on a new family of degradation functions
Sargado, Juan Michael; Keilegavlen, Eirik; Berre, Inga; Nordbotten, Jan Martin
2018-02-01
Phase-field approaches to fracture based on energy minimization principles have been rapidly gaining popularity in recent years, and are particularly well-suited for simulating crack initiation and growth in complex fracture networks. In the phase-field framework, the surface energy associated with crack formation is calculated by evaluating a functional defined in terms of a scalar order parameter and its gradients. These in turn describe the fractures in a diffuse sense following a prescribed regularization length scale. Imposing stationarity of the total energy leads to a coupled system of partial differential equations that enforce stress equilibrium and govern phase-field evolution. These equations are coupled through an energy degradation function that models the loss of stiffness in the bulk material as it undergoes damage. In the present work, we introduce a new parametric family of degradation functions aimed at increasing the accuracy of phase-field models in predicting critical loads associated with crack nucleation as well as the propagation of existing fractures. An additional goal is the preservation of linear elastic response in the bulk material prior to fracture. Through the analysis of several numerical examples, we demonstrate the superiority of the proposed family of functions to the classical quadratic degradation function that is used most often in the literature.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
HOU Hua; XU Hong; ZHAO Yu-hong
2006-01-01
With the microscopic phase-field model, the precipitation process of aged alloys was explored by computer simulation, which could clarify some discussional views on the precipitation mechanisms of alloys. The precipitation process of Ni75Al2.5V22.5 alloy was studied. From the simulated atomic pictures, calculated order parameters and volume fraction of different precipitates, it's found that the θ ordered phase precipitates earlier than γ' ordered phase by congruent ordering+spinodal decomposition mechanism and thus produces a nonstoicheometric θ single ordered phase. Then, the nonstoicheometric γ' phase is precipitated by a non-classical nucleation and growth mechanism at the APBS of θ phases. Meanwhile, both of them transform to stoicheometric ordered phases.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kisi, E H; Piltz, R O; Forrester, J S; Howard, C J
2003-01-01
Lead zinc niobate-lead titanate (PZN-PT) single crystals show very large piezoelectric strains for electric fields applied along the unit cell edges e.g. [001] R . It has been widely reported that this effect is caused by an electric field induced phase transition from rhombohedral (R3m) to monoclinic (Cm or Pm) symmetry in an essentially continuous manner. Group theoretical analysis using the computer program ISOTROPY indicates phase transitions between R3m and Cm (or Pm) must be discontinuous under Landau theory. An analysis of the symmetry of a strained unit cell in R3m and a simple expansion of the piezoelectric strain equation indicate that the piezoelectric distortion due to an electric field along a cell edge in rhombohedral perovskite-based ferroelectrics is intrinsically monoclinic (Cm), even for infinitesimal electric fields. PZN-PT crystals have up to nine times the elastic compliance of other piezoelectric perovskites and it might be expected that the piezoelectric strains are also very large. A field induced phase transition is therefore indistinguishable from the piezoelectric distortion and is neither sufficient nor necessary to understand the large piezoelectric response of PZN-PT
Magnetic Field Sensing Based on Bi-Tapered Optical Fibers Using Spectral Phase Analysis.
Herrera-Piad, Luis A; Haus, Joseph W; Jauregui-Vazquez, Daniel; Sierra-Hernandez, Juan M; Estudillo-Ayala, Julian M; Lopez-Dieguez, Yanelis; Rojas-Laguna, Roberto
2017-10-20
A compact, magnetic field sensor system based on a short, bi-tapered optical fiber (BTOF) span lying on a magnetic tape was designed, fabricated, and characterized. We monitored the transmission spectrum from a broadband light source, which displayed a strong interference signal. After data collection, we applied a phase analysis of the interference optical spectrum. We here report the results on two fabricated, BTOFs with different interference spectrum characteristics; we analyzed the signal based on the interference between a high-order modal component and the core fiber mode. The sensor exhibited a linear response for magnetic field increments, and we achieved a phase sensitivity of around 0.28 rad/mT. The sensing setup presented remote sensing operation and low-cost transducer magnetic material.
Magnetic Field Sensing Based on Bi-Tapered Optical Fibers Using Spectral Phase Analysis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Luis A. Herrera-Piad
2017-10-01
Full Text Available A compact, magnetic field sensor system based on a short, bi-tapered optical fiber (BTOF span lying on a magnetic tape was designed, fabricated, and characterized. We monitored the transmission spectrum from a broadband light source, which displayed a strong interference signal. After data collection, we applied a phase analysis of the interference optical spectrum. We here report the results on two fabricated, BTOFs with different interference spectrum characteristics; we analyzed the signal based on the interference between a high-order modal component and the core fiber mode. The sensor exhibited a linear response for magnetic field increments, and we achieved a phase sensitivity of around 0.28 rad/mT. The sensing setup presented remote sensing operation and low-cost transducer magnetic material.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen Lijen; Lefebvre, Bertrand; Torbert, Roy B.; Daughton, William S.
2011-01-01
Based on two-dimensional fully kinetic simulations that resolve the electron diffusion layer in undriven collisionless magnetic reconnection with zero guide field, this paper reports the existence and evolution of an inversion layer of bipolar electric fields, its corresponding phase-space structure (an electron-hole layer), and the implication to collisionless dissipation. The inversion electric field layer is embedded in the layer of bipolar Hall electric field and extends throughout the entire length of the electron diffusion layer. The electron phase-space hole structure spontaneously arises during the explosive growth phase when there exist significant inflows into the reconnection layer, and electrons perform meandering orbits across the layer while being cyclotron-turned toward the outflow directions. The cyclotron turning of meandering electrons by the magnetic field normal to the reconnection layer is shown to be a primary factor limiting the current density in the region where the reconnection electric field is balanced by the gradient (along the current sheet normal) of the off-diagonal electron pressure-tensor.
Tomiya, Akio; Ding, Heng-Tong; Mukherjee, Swagato; Schmidt, Christian; Wang, Xiao-Dan
2018-03-01
Lattice simulations for (2+1)-flavor QCD with external magnetic field demon-strated that the quark mass is one of the important parameters responsible for the (inverse) magnetic catalysis. We discuss the dependences of chiral condensates and susceptibilities, the Polyakov loop on the magnetic field and quark mass in three degenerate flavor QCD. The lattice simulations are performed using standard staggered fermions and the plaquette action with spatial sizes Nσ = 16 and 24 and a fixed temporal size Nτ = 4. The value of the quark masses are chosen such that the system undergoes a first order chiral phase transition and crossover with zero magnetic field. We find that in light mass regime, the quark chiral condensate undergoes magnetic catalysis in the whole temperature region and the phase transition tend to become stronger as the magnetic field increases. In crossover regime, deconfinement transition temperature is shifted by the magnetic field when quark mass ma is less than 0:4. The lattice cutoff effects are also discussed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Greef, J. van der.
1980-01-01
The chemistry of isolated ions in the gas phase is strongly dependent on the internal energy which they have required upon formation. Since also the average lifetime of an ion depends on its internal energy, ion lifetime studies have been employed for many years to obtain a better insight in the relation between the chemistry and internal energy of gas phase ions. A very powerful tool for such studies is the field ionization kinetic (FIK) method, because it can provide a time-resolved picture of decompositions of ions with lifetimes varying from 10 -11 to 10 -5 s. The FIK method has been used in combination with 2 H, 13 C and 15 N labelling for mechanistic studies on the fragmentation of some selected ionised organic molecules. (Auth.)
Two-order parameters theory of the metal-insulator phase transition kinetics in the magnetic field
Dubovskii, L. B.
2018-05-01
The metal-insulator phase transition is considered within the framework of the Ginzburg-Landau approach for the phase transition described with two coupled order parameters. One of the order parameters is the mass density which variation is responsible for the origin of nonzero overlapping of the two different electron bands and the appearance of free electron carriers. This transition is assumed to be a first-order phase one. The free electron carriers are described with the vector-function representing the second-order parameter responsible for the continuous phase transition. This order parameter determines mostly the physical properties of the metal-insulator transition and leads to a singularity of the surface tension at the metal-insulator interface. The magnetic field is involved into the consideration of the system. The magnetic field leads to new singularities of the surface tension at the metal-insulator interface and results in a drastic variation of the phase transition kinetics. A strong singularity in the surface tension results from the Landau diamagnetism and determines anomalous features of the metal-insulator transition kinetics.
Tensor algebra over Hilbert space: Field theory in classical phase space
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Matos Neto, A.; Vianna, J.D.M.
1984-01-01
It is shown using tensor algebras, namely Symmetric and Grassmann algebras over Hilbert Space that it is possible to introduce field operators, associated to the Liouville equation of classical statistical mechanics, which are characterized by commutation (for Symmetric) and anticommutation (for Grassmann) rules. The procedure here presented shows by construction that many-particle classical systems admit an algebraic structure similar to that of quantum field theory. It is considered explicitly the case of n-particle systems interacting with an external potential. A new derivation of Schoenberg's result about the equivalence between his field theory in classical phase space and the usual classical statistical mechanics is obtained as a consequence of the algebraic structure of the theory as introduced by our method. (Author) [pt
Field-control, phase-transitions, and life’s emergence
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gargi eMitra-Delmotte
2012-10-01
Full Text Available Instances of critical-like characteristics in living systems at each organizational level (bio-molecules to ecosystems as well as the spontaneous emergence of computation (Langton, do suggest the relevance of self-organized criticality (SOC. But extrapolating complex bio-systems to life’s origins, brings up a paradox: how could simple organics-- lacking the ‘soft matter’ response properties of today’s complex bio-molecules--have dissipated energy from primordial reactions (eventually reducing CO2 in a controlled manner for their ‘ordering’? Nevertheless, a causal link of life’s macroscopic irreversible dynamics to the microscopic reversible laws of statistical mechanics is indicated via the ‘functional-takeover’ of a soft magnetic scaffold by organics (c.f. Cairns-Smith’s crystal-scaffold. A field-controlled structure offers a mechanism for bootstrapping-- bottom-up assembly with top-down control: its super-paramagnetic colloidal components obey reversible dynamics, but its dissipation of magnetic (H-field energy for aggregation breaks time-reversal symmetry. The responsive adjustments of the controlled (host mineral system to environmental changes would bring about mutual coupling between random organic sets supported by it; here the generation of long-range correlations within organic (guest networks could include SOC-like mechanisms. And, such cooperative adjustments enable the selection of the functional configuration by altering the inorganic dipolar network’s capacity to assist a spontaneous process. A non-equilibrium dynamics could now drive the kinetically-oriented system (trimming the phase-space via sterically-coupled organics towards a series of phase-transitions with appropriate organic replacements taking-over its functions. Where available, experiments are cited in support of these speculations and for designing appropriate tests.
El-Amin, Mohamed; Saad, Adel; Salama, Amgad; Sun, Shuyu
2017-01-01
In this paper, the magnetic nanoparticles are injected into a water-oil, two-phase system under the influence of an external permanent magnetic field. We lay down the mathematical model and provide a set of numerical exercises of hypothetical cases to show how an external magnetic field can influence the transport of nanoparticles in the proposed two-phase system in porous media. We treat the water-nanoparticles suspension as a miscible mixture, whereas it is immiscible with the oil phase. The magnetization properties, the density, and the viscosity of the ferrofluids are obtained based on mixture theory relationships. In the mathematical model, the phase pressure contains additional term to account for the extra pressures due to fluid magnetization effect and the magnetostrictive effect. As a proof of concept, the proposed model is applied on a countercurrent imbibition flow system in which both the displacing and the displaced fluids move in opposite directions. Physical variables, including waternanoparticles suspension saturation, nanoparticles concentration, and pore wall/throat concentrations of deposited nanoparticles, are investigated under the influence of the magnetic field. Two different locations of the magnet are studied numerically, and variations in permeability and porosity are considered.
El-Amin, Mohamed
2017-08-28
In this paper, the magnetic nanoparticles are injected into a water-oil, two-phase system under the influence of an external permanent magnetic field. We lay down the mathematical model and provide a set of numerical exercises of hypothetical cases to show how an external magnetic field can influence the transport of nanoparticles in the proposed two-phase system in porous media. We treat the water-nanoparticles suspension as a miscible mixture, whereas it is immiscible with the oil phase. The magnetization properties, the density, and the viscosity of the ferrofluids are obtained based on mixture theory relationships. In the mathematical model, the phase pressure contains additional term to account for the extra pressures due to fluid magnetization effect and the magnetostrictive effect. As a proof of concept, the proposed model is applied on a countercurrent imbibition flow system in which both the displacing and the displaced fluids move in opposite directions. Physical variables, including waternanoparticles suspension saturation, nanoparticles concentration, and pore wall/throat concentrations of deposited nanoparticles, are investigated under the influence of the magnetic field. Two different locations of the magnet are studied numerically, and variations in permeability and porosity are considered.
Deviren, Bayram; Keskin, Mustafa; Canko, Osman
2008-03-01
We extend our recent paper [O. Canko, B. Deviren, M. Keskin, J. Phys.: Condens. Mater 118 (2006) 6635] to present a study, within a mean-field approach, the stationary states of the kinetic spin-3/2 Blume-Emery-Griffiths model with repulsive biquadratic interaction under the presence of a time varying (sinusoidal) magnetic field. We found that the dynamic phase diagrams of the present work exhibit more complex, richer and more topological different types of phase diagrams than our recent paper. Especially, the obtained dynamic phase diagrams show the ferrimagnetic ( i) phase in addition to the ferromagnetic ±3/2 ( f), ferromagnetic ±1/2 ( f), antiquadrupolar or staggered ( a) and disordered ( d) phases, and the f+i, f+d, i+d, f+i+d, a+d and/or f+i+a coexistence regions in addition to the f+f, f+d, f+a, f+d and/or f+a+d coexistence regions, depending on interaction parameters. Moreover, the phase diagrams exhibit dynamic zero-temperature critical, critical end, double critical end, multicritical, and/or pentacritical special points in addition to the dynamic tricritical, double critical end point, triple, quadruple and/or tetracritical special points that depending on the interaction parameters.
SnTe field effect transistors and the anomalous electrical response of structural phase transition
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li, Haitao; Zhu, Hao; Yuan, Hui; Li, Qiliang; You, Lin; Kopanski, Joseph J.; Richter, Curt A.; Zhao, Erhai
2014-01-01
SnTe is a conventional thermoelectric material and has been newly found to be a topological crystalline insulator. In this work, back-gate SnTe field-effect transistors have been fabricated and fully characterized. The devices exhibit n-type transistor behaviors with excellent current-voltage characteristics and large on/off ratio (>10 6 ). The device threshold voltage, conductance, mobility, and subthreshold swing have been studied and compared at different temperatures. It is found that the subthreshold swings as a function of temperature have an apparent response to the SnTe phase transition between cubic and rhombohedral structures at 110 K. The abnormal and rapid increase in subthreshold swing around the phase transition temperature may be due to the soft phonon/structure change which causes the large increase in SnTe dielectric constant. Such an interesting and remarkable electrical response to phase transition at different temperatures makes the small SnTe transistor attractive for various electronic devices.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lahey, Richard T.; Drew, Donald A.
2001-01-01
This paper reviews the state-of-the-art in the prediction of multidimensional multiphase flow and heat transfer phenomena using a four field, two-fluid model. It is shown that accurate mechanistic computational fluid dynamic (CFD) predictions are possible for a wide variety of adiabatic and diabatic flows using this computational model. In particular, the model is able to predict the bubbly air/water upflow data of Serizawa (Serizawa, A., 1974. Fluid dynamic characteristics of two-phase flow. Ph.D. thesis, (Nuclear Engineering), Kyoto University, Japan), the downflow data of Wang et al. (Wang, S.K., Lee, S.J., Lahey Jr., R.T., Jones, O.C., 1987. 3-D turbulence structure and phase distribution measurements in bubbly two-phase flows. Int. J. Multiphase Flow 13 (3), 327-343), the isosceles triangle upflow data of Lopez de Bertodano et al. (Lopez de Bertodano, M., Lahey Jr., R.T., Jones, O.C., 1994b. Phase distribution in bubbly two-phase flow in vertical ducts. Int. J. Multiphase Flow 20 (5), 805-818), the heated annular R-113 subcooled boiling data of Velidandala, et al. (Velidandla, V., Pulta, S., Roy, P., Kaira, S.P., 1995. Velocity field in turbulent subcooled boiling flow. ASME Preprint HTD-314, 107-123) and the R-113 CHF data of Hino and Ueda (Hino, R., Ueda, T., 1985. Studies on heat transfer and flow characteristics in subcooled boiling-part 2, flow characteristics. Int. J. Multiphase Flow 11, 283-297). It can also predict external two-phase flows, such as those for spreading two-phase jets (Bonetto, F., Lahey Jr., R.T., 1993. An experimental study on air carryunder due to a plunging liquid jet. Int. J. Multiphase Flow 19 (2), 281-294) and multiphase flows around the hull of naval surface ships (Carrica, P.M., Bonetto, F., Drew, D.A., Lahey, R.T., 1999. A polydispersed model for bubbly two-phase flow around a surface ship. Int. J. Multiphase Flow 25 (2), 257-305)
Multi-GPU hybrid programming accelerated three-dimensional phase-field model in binary alloy
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Changsheng Zhu
2018-03-01
Full Text Available In the process of dendritic growth simulation, the computational efficiency and the problem scales have extremely important influence on simulation efficiency of three-dimensional phase-field model. Thus, seeking for high performance calculation method to improve the computational efficiency and to expand the problem scales has a great significance to the research of microstructure of the material. A high performance calculation method based on MPI+CUDA hybrid programming model is introduced. Multi-GPU is used to implement quantitative numerical simulations of three-dimensional phase-field model in binary alloy under the condition of multi-physical processes coupling. The acceleration effect of different GPU nodes on different calculation scales is explored. On the foundation of multi-GPU calculation model that has been introduced, two optimization schemes, Non-blocking communication optimization and overlap of MPI and GPU computing optimization, are proposed. The results of two optimization schemes and basic multi-GPU model are compared. The calculation results show that the use of multi-GPU calculation model can improve the computational efficiency of three-dimensional phase-field obviously, which is 13 times to single GPU, and the problem scales have been expanded to 8193. The feasibility of two optimization schemes is shown, and the overlap of MPI and GPU computing optimization has better performance, which is 1.7 times to basic multi-GPU model, when 21 GPUs are used.
Mean Field Theory, Ginzburg Criterion, and Marginal Dimensionality of Phase-Transitions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Als-Nielsen, Jens Aage; Birgenau, R. J.
1977-01-01
By applying a real space version of the Ginzburg criterion, the role of fluctuations and thence the self‐consistency of mean field theory are assessed in a simple fashion for a variety of phase transitions. It is shown that in using this approach the concept of ’’marginal dimensionality’’ emerges...... in a natural way. For example, it is shown that for many homogeneous structural transformations the marginal dimensionality is two, so that mean field theory will be valid for real three‐dimensional systems. It is suggested that this simple self‐consistent approach to Landau theory should be incorporated...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oum, G.; Thuinet, L.; Legris, A.
2015-07-01
A phase-field (PF) model was developed within the framework of homogeneous and heterogeneous elasticity theory to study the precipitation of ζ-hydride in zirconium. By coupling crystal plasticity to PF we show that plastic strain participates in lowering the transformation stresses, and therefore induces changes in nucleation, growth and morphology evolution of the precipitates. (authors)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Taplin, D.J. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Shibata, N. [Institute of Engineering Innovation, School of Engineering, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Weyland, M. [Monash Centre for Electron Microscopy, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Findlay, S.D., E-mail: scott.findlay@monash.edu [School of Physics and Astronomy, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800 (Australia)
2016-10-15
To correlate atomistic structure with longer range electric field distribution within materials, it is necessary to use atomically fine electron probes and specimens in on-axis orientation. However, electric field mapping via low magnification differential phase contrast imaging under these conditions raises challenges: electron scattering tends to reduce the beam deflection due to the electric field strength from what simple models predict, and other effects, most notably crystal mistilt, can lead to asymmetric intensity redistribution in the diffraction pattern which is difficult to distinguish from that produced by long range electric fields. Using electron scattering simulations, we explore the effects of such factors on the reliable interpretation and measurement of electric field distributions. In addition to these limitations of principle, some limitations of practice when seeking to perform such measurements using segmented detector systems are also discussed. - Highlights: • Measuring electric fields by on-axis electron diffraction is explored by simulation. • Electron channelling reduces deflection predicted by the phase object approximation. • First moment measurements cannot distinguish electric fields from specimen mistilt. • Segmented detector estimates are fairly insensitive to camera length and orientation.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Peyton, Brent; Sani, Rajesh
2006-09-28
Our understanding of subsurface microbiology is hindered by the inaccessibility of this environment, particularly when the hydrogeologic medium is contaminated with toxic substances. Past research in our labs indicated that the composition of the growth medium (e.g., bicarbonate complexation of U(VI)) and the underlying mineral phase (e.g., hematite) significantly affects the rate and extent of U(VI) reduction and immobilization through a variety of effects. Our research was aimed at elucidating those effects to a much greater extent, while exploring the potential for U(IV) reoxidation and subsequent re-mobilization, which also appears to depend on the mineral phases present in the system. The project reported on here was an extension ($20,575) of the prior (much larger) project. This report is focused only on the work completed during the extension period. Further information on the larger impacts of our research, including 28 publications, can be found in the final report for the following projects: 1) Biogeochemistry of Uranium Under Reducing and Re-oxidizing Conditions: An Integrated Laboratory and Field Study Grant # DE-FG03-01ER63270, and 2) Acceptable Endpoints for Metals and Radionuclides: Quantifying the Stability of Uranium and Lead Immobilized Under Sulfate Reducing Conditions Grant # DE-FG03-98ER62630/A001 In this Phase II project, the toxic effects of uranium(VI) were studied using Desulfovibrio desulfuricans G20 in a medium containing bicarbonate or 1, 4-piperazinediethane sulfonic acid disodium salt monohydrate (PIPES) buffer (each at 30 mM, pH 7). The toxicity of uranium(VI) was dependent on the medium buffer and was observed in terms of longer lag times and in some cases, no measurable growth. The minimum inhibiting concentration (MIC) was 140 M U(VI) in PIPES buffered medium. This is 36 times lower than previously reported for D. desulfuricans. These results suggest that U(VI) toxicity and the detoxification mechanisms of G20 depend greatly on the
Singla, Neeru; Dubey, Kavita; Srivastava, Vishal; Ahmad, Azeem; Mehta, D. S.
2018-02-01
We developed an automated high-resolution full-field spatial coherence tomography (FF-SCT) microscope for quantitative phase imaging that is based on the spatial, rather than the temporal, coherence gating. The Red and Green color laser light was used for finding the quantitative phase images of unstained human red blood cells (RBCs). This study uses morphological parameters of unstained RBCs phase images to distinguish between normal and infected cells. We recorded the single interferogram by a FF-SCT microscope for red and green color wavelength and average the two phase images to further reduced the noise artifacts. In order to characterize anemia infected from normal cells different morphological features were extracted and these features were used to train machine learning ensemble model to classify RBCs with high accuracy.
Magnetic-field-induced Quantum Phase in S = 1/2 Frustrated Trellis Lattice
Yamaguchi, Hironori; Yoshizawa, Daichi; Kida, Takanori; Hagiwara, Masayuki; Matsuo, Akira; Kono, Yohei; Sakakibara, Toshiro; Tamekuni, Yusuke; Miyagai, Hirotsugu; Hosokoshi, Yuko
2018-04-01
We present a new model compound of an S = 1/2 frustrated system with ferromagnetic interaction composed of verdazyl radical β-2,3,5-Cl3-V. The ab initio molecular orbital calculation indicates the formation of an S = 1/2 trellis lattice in which zigzag chains and ladders with ferromagnetic rung interaction are two-dimensionally coupled. We observe a field-induced successive phase transition and an unconventional change in the magnetization curve near the saturation field, accompanied by T2 dependence on the magnetic specific heat. A two-dimensional spin-nematic state attributed to the ferromagnetic rung interactions is a possible candidate for the ground state in high-field regions.
Possibility of the field-induced spin-nematic phase in LiCuVO4
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hagiwara, M; Fujita, T; Yamaguchi, H; Kimura, S; Omura, K; Svistov, L E; Smirnov, A I; Prokofiev, A; Honda, Z
2011-01-01
We report on the magnetization of the frustrated S = 1/2 chain compound LiCuVO 4 . In addition to the transition from a planar spiral to a spin modulated structure observed recently by NMR, another transition was observed just below the saturation field. This magnetic phase could be a spin nematic, namely a condensation of two magnon bound states, phase which was predicted theoretically in the S = 1/2 linear chain model with the nearest neighbor ferromagnetic and the next nearest neighbor antiferromagnetic exchange interactions. The slope of magnetization in this phase is in good agreement with a calculated one in a realistic quasi 2-dimensional model (M. E. Zhitomirsky and H. Tsunetsugu, Europhys. Lett. 92 37001 (2010)). We compare the observed phase diagram with a numerically calculated one and discuss the possibility of the spin nematic phase.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zinn-Justin, J
2003-08-01
In the quantum field theory the problem of infinite values has been solved empirically through a method called renormalization, this method is satisfying only in the framework of renormalization group. It is in the domain of statistical physics and continuous phase transitions that these issues are the easiest to discuss. Within the framework of a course in theoretical physics the author introduces the notions of continuous limits and universality in stochastic systems operating with a high number of freedom degrees. It is shown that quasi-Gaussian and mean field approximation are unable to describe phase transitions in a satisfying manner. A new concept is required: it is the notion of renormalization group whose fixed points allow us to understand universality beyond mean field. The renormalization group implies the idea that long distance correlations near the transition temperature might be described by a statistical field theory that is a quantum field in imaginary time. Various forms of renormalization group equations are presented and solved in particular boundary limits, namely for fields with high numbers of components near the dimensions 4 and 2. The particular case of exact renormalization group is also introduced. (A.C.)
Phase field simulation of grain growth in porous uranium dioxide
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ahmed, Karim; Pakarinen, Janne; Allen, Todd; El-Azab, Anter
2014-01-01
Graphical abstract: Display Omitted -- Abstract: A novel phase field model has been developed to investigate grain growth in porous polycrystalline UO 2 . Based on a system of Cahn–Hilliard and Allen–Cahn equations, the model takes into consideration both the curvature driven grain boundary motion and pore migration by surface diffusion. As such, the model accounts for the interaction between pore and grain boundary kinetics, which tends to retard the growth process. The phase field model parameters are found in terms of measurable material properties. Hence, quantitative results that can be compared with experiments were obtained. The model has been used to investigate the effect of porosity on the kinetics of grain growth in UO 2 . It is found that, as the amount of porosity increases, grain growth in UO 2 gradually changes from boundary controlled growth to pore controlled growth. For high porosity levels, the grain growth completely stops after a short evolution time. It is also found that the inhomogeneous distribution of pores leads to abnormal grain growth even without taking into account the anisotropy in grain boundary energy and mobility. The effects of porosity, temperature and initial microstructure on grain growth were thoroughly investigated. The model predictions are in good agreement with published experimental results of grain growth in UO 2
Simulation of spheroidisation of elongated Si-particle in Al-Si alloys by the phase-field model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kovacevic, I.
2008-01-01
The application of the phase-field model for spheroidisation of undissolvable particles during high-temperature treatment of alloys is pointed out. Modelling of the spheroidisation of elongated Si-particles during annealing of Al-Si alloy is elaborated in this paper. The driving force for spheroidisation is the minimization of the total free-energy of the system or the minimization of the ratio between the interface areas and the particle volumes. The spheroidisation kinetics of elongated Si-particle for binary Al-Si system during homogenisation of aluminium alloys simulated by the phase-field model is demonstrated. The influences of the interface energy and the homogenisation temperature on the spheroidisation kinetics is presented. The lack of knowledge of the interface energy anisotropy between Si-particle and the aluminium phase is the only reason for using isotropic interface energy in simulations. The thermodynamic driving force for the phase transformation of the silicon into the aluminium phase is computed from the data obtained from the JMatPro software for aluminium alloys
A phase field approach for multicellular aggregate fusion in biofabrication.
Yang, Xiaofeng; Sun, Yi; Wang, Qi
2013-07-01
We present a modeling and computational approach to study fusion of multicellular aggregates during tissue and organ fabrication, which forms the foundation for the scaffold-less biofabrication of tissues and organs known as bioprinting. It is known as the phase field method, where multicellular aggregates are modeled as mixtures of multiphase complex fluids whose phase mixing or separation is governed by interphase force interactions, mimicking the cell-cell interaction in the multicellular aggregates, and intermediate range interaction mediated by the surrounding hydrogel. The material transport in the mixture is dictated by hydrodynamics as well as forces due to the interphase interactions. In a multicellular aggregate system with fixed number of cells and fixed amount of the hydrogel medium, the effect of cell differentiation, proliferation, and death are neglected in the current model, which can be readily included in the model, and the interaction between different components is dictated by the interaction energy between cell and cell as well as between cell and medium particles, respectively. The modeling approach is applicable to transient simulations of fusion of cellular aggregate systems at the time and length scale appropriate to biofabrication. Numerical experiments are presented to demonstrate fusion and cell sorting during tissue and organ maturation processes in biofabrication.
Quantum mechanical force fields for condensed phase molecular simulations
Giese, Timothy J.; York, Darrin M.
2017-09-01
Molecular simulations are powerful tools for providing atomic-level details into complex chemical and physical processes that occur in the condensed phase. For strongly interacting systems where quantum many-body effects are known to play an important role, density-functional methods are often used to provide the model with the potential energy used to drive dynamics. These methods, however, suffer from two major drawbacks. First, they are often too computationally intensive to practically apply to large systems over long time scales, limiting their scope of application. Second, there remain challenges for these models to obtain the necessary level of accuracy for weak non-bonded interactions to obtain quantitative accuracy for a wide range of condensed phase properties. Quantum mechanical force fields (QMFFs) provide a potential solution to both of these limitations. In this review, we address recent advances in the development of QMFFs for condensed phase simulations. In particular, we examine the development of QMFF models using both approximate and ab initio density-functional models, the treatment of short-ranged non-bonded and long-ranged electrostatic interactions, and stability issues in molecular dynamics calculations. Example calculations are provided for crystalline systems, liquid water, and ionic liquids. We conclude with a perspective for emerging challenges and future research directions.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nan, Tianxiang; Emori, Satoru; Wang, Xinjun; Hu, Zhongqiang; Xie, Li; Gao, Yuan; Lin, Hwaider; Sun, Nian, E-mail: n.sun@neu.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Northeastern University, Boston, Massachusetts 02115 (United States); Peng, Bin; Liu, Ming, E-mail: mingliu@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [Electronic Materials Research Laboratory, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Jiao, Jie; Luo, Haosu [Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Budil, David [Department of Chemistry, Northeastern University, Boston, Massachusetts 02115 (United States); Jones, John G.; Howe, Brandon M.; Brown, Gail J. [Materials and Manufacturing Directorate, Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio 45433 (United States)
2016-01-04
Electric-field modulation of magnetism in strain-mediated multiferroic heterostructures is considered a promising scheme for enabling memory and magnetic microwave devices with ultralow power consumption. However, it is not well understood how electric-field-induced strain influences magnetic relaxation, an important physical process for device applications. Here, we investigate resonant magnetization dynamics in ferromagnet/ferroelectric multiferroic heterostructures, FeGaB/PMN-PT and NiFe/PMN-PT, in two distinct strain states provided by electric-field-induced ferroelectric phase transition. The strain not only modifies magnetic anisotropy but also magnetic relaxation. In FeGaB/PMN-PT, we observe a nearly two-fold change in intrinsic Gilbert damping by electric field, which is attributed to strain-induced tuning of spin-orbit coupling. By contrast, a small but measurable change in extrinsic linewidth broadening is attributed to inhomogeneous ferroelastic domain switching during the phase transition of the PMN-PT substrate.
Gapless Spin Excitations in the Field-Induced Quantum Spin Liquid Phase of α-RuCl_{3}.
Zheng, Jiacheng; Ran, Kejing; Li, Tianrun; Wang, Jinghui; Wang, Pengshuai; Liu, Bin; Liu, Zheng-Xin; Normand, B; Wen, Jinsheng; Yu, Weiqiang
2017-12-01
α-RuCl_{3} is a leading candidate material for the observation of physics related to the Kitaev quantum spin liquid (QSL). By combined susceptibility, specific-heat, and nuclear-magnetic-resonance measurements, we demonstrate that α-RuCl_{3} undergoes a quantum phase transition to a QSL in a magnetic field of 7.5 T applied in the ab plane. We show further that this high-field QSL phase has gapless spin excitations over a field range up to 16 T. This highly unconventional result, unknown in either Heisenberg or Kitaev magnets, offers insight essential to establishing the physics of α-RuCl_{3}.
Gapless Spin Excitations in the Field-Induced Quantum Spin Liquid Phase of α -RuCl3
Zheng, Jiacheng; Ran, Kejing; Li, Tianrun; Wang, Jinghui; Wang, Pengshuai; Liu, Bin; Liu, Zheng-Xin; Normand, B.; Wen, Jinsheng; Yu, Weiqiang
2017-12-01
α -RuCl3 is a leading candidate material for the observation of physics related to the Kitaev quantum spin liquid (QSL). By combined susceptibility, specific-heat, and nuclear-magnetic-resonance measurements, we demonstrate that α -RuCl3 undergoes a quantum phase transition to a QSL in a magnetic field of 7.5 T applied in the a b plane. We show further that this high-field QSL phase has gapless spin excitations over a field range up to 16 T. This highly unconventional result, unknown in either Heisenberg or Kitaev magnets, offers insight essential to establishing the physics of α -RuCl3 .
Elastic constants of stressed and unstressed materials in the phase-field crystal model
Wang, Zi-Le; Huang, Zhi-Feng; Liu, Zhirong
2018-04-01
A general procedure is developed to investigate the elastic response and calculate the elastic constants of stressed and unstressed materials through continuum field modeling, particularly the phase-field crystal (PFC) models. It is found that for a complete description of system response to elastic deformation, the variations of all the quantities of lattice wave vectors, their density amplitudes (including the corresponding anisotropic variation and degeneracy breaking), the average atomic density, and system volume should be incorporated. The quantitative and qualitative results of elastic constant calculations highly depend on the physical interpretation of the density field used in the model, and also importantly, on the intrinsic pressure that usually pre-exists in the model system. A formulation based on thermodynamics is constructed to account for the effects caused by constant pre-existing stress during the homogeneous elastic deformation, through the introducing of a generalized Gibbs free energy and an effective finite strain tensor used for determining the elastic constants. The elastic properties of both solid and liquid states can be well produced by this unified approach, as demonstrated by an analysis for the liquid state and numerical evaluations for the bcc solid phase. The numerical calculations of bcc elastic constants and Poisson's ratio through this method generate results that are consistent with experimental conditions, and better match the data of bcc Fe given by molecular dynamics simulations as compared to previous work. The general theory developed here is applicable to the study of different types of stressed or unstressed material systems under elastic deformation.
Study of nonequilibrium dispersed two phase flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Reyes, J.N. Jr.
1986-01-01
Understanding the behavior of liquid droplets in a superheated steam environment is essential to the accurate prediction of nuclear fuel rod surface temperatures during the blowdown and reflood phase of a loss-of-coolant-accident (LOCA). In response to this need, this treatise presents several original and significant contributions to the field of thermofluid physics. The research contained herein presents a statistical derivation of the two-phase mass, momentum, and energy-conservation equations using a droplet continuity equation analogous to that used in the Kinetic Theory of Gases. Unlike the Eulerian volume and time-averaged conservation equations generally used to describe dispersed two-phase flow behavior, this statistical averaging approach results in an additional mass momentum or energy term in each of the respective conservation equations. Further, this study demonstrates that current definitions of the volumetric vapor generation rate used in the mass conservation equation are inappropriate results under certain circumstances. The mass conservation equation derived herein is used to obtain a new definition for the volumetric vapor-generation rate. Last, a simple two phase phenomenological model, based on the statistically averaged conservation equations, is presented and solved analytically. It is shown that the actual quality and vapor temperature, under these circumstances, depend on a single dimensionless group
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Armour, N.; Dost, S. [Crystal Growth Laboratory, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC, V8W 3P6 (Canada)
2010-04-15
The effect of applied rotating and combined (rotating and static) magnetic fields on silicon transport during the liquid phase diffusion growth of SiGe was experimentally studied. 72-hour growth periods produced some single crystal sections. Single and polycrystalline sections of the processed samples were examined for silicon composition. Results show that the application of a rotating magnetic field enhances silicon transport in the melt. It also has a slight positive effect on flattening the initial growth interface. For comparison, growth experiments were also conducted under combined (rotating and static) magnetic fields. The processed samples revealed that the addition of static field altered the thermal characteristics of the system significantly and led to a complete melt back of the germanium seed. Silicon transport in the melt was also enhanced under combined fields compared with experiments with no magnetic field. (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)
Sharma, Abhinav; Tiwari, Vijeet; Kumar, Vineet; Mandal, Tapas Kumar; Bandyopadhyay, Dipankar
2014-10-01
Strategic application of external electrostatic field on a pressure-driven two-phase flow inside a microchannel can transform the stratified or slug flow patterns into droplets. The localized electrohydrodynamic stress at the interface of the immiscible liquids can engender a liquid-dielectrophoretic deformation, which disrupts the balance of the viscous, capillary, and inertial forces of a pressure-driven flow to engender such flow morphologies. Interestingly, the size, shape, and frequency of the droplets can be tuned by varying the field intensity, location of the electric field, surface properties of the channel or fluids, viscosity ratio of the fluids, and the flow ratio of the phases. Higher field intensity with lower interfacial tension is found to facilitate the oil droplet formation with a higher throughput inside the hydrophilic microchannels. The method is successful in breaking down the regular pressure-driven flow patterns even when the fluid inlets are exchanged in the microchannel. The simulations identify the conditions to develop interesting flow morphologies, such as (i) an array of miniaturized spherical or hemispherical or elongated oil drops in continuous water phase, (ii) "oil-in-water" microemulsion with varying size and shape of oil droplets. The results reported can be of significance in improving the efficiency of multiphase microreactors where the flow patterns composed of droplets are preferred because of the availability of higher interfacial area for reactions or heat and mass exchange. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
A comprehensive model of the quiet-time, near-Earth magnetic field: phase 3
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sabaka, T.J.; Olsen, Nils; Langel, R.A.
2002-01-01
been modelled simultaneously, with fields from other sources being modelled separately. Such a scheme, however, can introduce spurious features, especially when the spatial and temporal scales of the fields overlap. A new model, designated CM3 (Comprehensive Model: phase 3), is the third in a series...... of efforts to coestimate fields from all of these sources. This model has been derived from quiet-time Magsat and POGO satellite and observatory hourly means measurements for the period 1960-1985. It represents a significant advance in the treatment of the aforementioned field sources over previous attempts...... parametrization and estimation of the lithospheric field. The result is a model that describes well the 591 432 data with 16 594 parameters, implying a data-to-parameter ratio of 36, which is larger than several popular field models....
Sub-half-wavelength atom localization via phase control of a pair of bichromatic fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xu Jun; Hu Xiangming
2007-01-01
We propose a scheme of atom localization based on the interaction of the atom in the Λ configuration with a strong bichromatic coupling field and a weak bichromatic probe field with equal frequency difference. One of the bichromatic coupling components is a standing-wave field, which imposes position information on the Rabi frequency. By varying the difference between the relative phases of the two bichromatic fields, the atom is localized in either of the two half-wavelength regions with 50% probability provided the population in the upper state is detected
Zhang, Jingyi
Ferroelectric (FE) and closely related antiferroelectric (AFE) materials have unique electromechanical properties that promote various applications in the area of capacitors, sensors, generators (FE) and high density energy storage (AFE). These smart materials with extensive applications have drawn wide interest in the industrial and scientific world because of their reliability and tunable property. However, reliability issues changes its paradigms and requires guidance from detailed mechanism theory as the materials applications are pushed for better performance. A host of modeling work were dedicated to study the macro-structural behavior and microstructural evolution in FE and AFE material under various conditions. This thesis is focused on direct observation of domain evolution under multiphysics loading for both FE and AFE material. Landau-Devonshire time-dependent phase field models were built for both materials, and were simulated in finite element software Comsol. In FE model, dagger-shape 90 degree switched domain was observed at preexisting crack tip under pure mechanical loading. Polycrystal structure was tested under same condition, and blocking effect of the growth of dagger-shape switched domain from grain orientation difference and/or grain boundary was directly observed. AFE ceramic model was developed using two sublattice theory, this model was used to investigate the mechanism of energy efficiency increase with self-confined loading in experimental tests. Consistent results was found in simulation and careful investigation of calculation results gave confirmation that origin of energy density increase is from three aspects: self-confinement induced inner compression field as the cause of increase of critical field, fringe leak as the source of elevated saturation polarization and uneven defects distribution as the reason for critical field shifting and phase transition speed. Another important affecting aspect in polycrystalline materials is the
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bychkov, Igor V. [Chelyabinsk State University, 129 Br. Kashirinykh Str., Chelyabinsk 454001 (Russian Federation); South Ural State University (National Research University), 76 Lenin Prospekt, Chelyabinsk 454080 (Russian Federation); Kuzmin, Dmitry A., E-mail: kuzminda@csu.ru [Chelyabinsk State University, 129 Br. Kashirinykh Str., Chelyabinsk 454001 (Russian Federation); South Ural State University (National Research University), 76 Lenin Prospekt, Chelyabinsk 454080 (Russian Federation); Kamantsev, Alexander P.; Koledov, Victor V.; Shavrov, Vladimir G. [Kotelnikov Institute of Radio-engineering and Electronics of RAS, Mokhovaya Street 11-7, Moscow 125009 (Russian Federation)
2016-11-01
In present work we have investigated magnetostrictive ultrasound generation by spiral magnets in the vicinity of magnetic field induced phase transition from spiral to collinear state. We found that such magnets may generate transverse sound waves with the wavelength equal to the spiral period. We have examined two types of spiral magnetic structures: with inhomogeneous exchange and Dzyaloshinskii–Moriya interactions. Frequency of the waves from exchange-caused spiral magnetic structure may reach some THz, while in case of Dzyaloshinskii–Moriya interaction-caused spiral it may reach some GHz. These waves will be emitted like a sound pulses. Amplitude of the waves is strictly depends on the phase transition speed. Some aspects of microwaves to hypersound transformation by spiral magnets in the vicinity of phase transition have been investigated as well. Results of the work may be interesting for investigation of phase transition kinetics as well, as for various hypersound applications. - Highlights: • Magnetostrictive ultrasound generation by spiral magnets at phase transition (PT) is studied. • Spiral magnets during PT may generate transverse sound with wavelength equal to spiral period. • Amplitude of the sound is strictly depends on the phase transition speed. • Microwave-to-sound transformation in the vicinity of PT is investigated as well.
Efficient 3D Volume Reconstruction from a Point Cloud Using a Phase-Field Method
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Darae Jeong
2018-01-01
Full Text Available We propose an explicit hybrid numerical method for the efficient 3D volume reconstruction from unorganized point clouds using a phase-field method. The proposed three-dimensional volume reconstruction algorithm is based on the 3D binary image segmentation method. First, we define a narrow band domain embedding the unorganized point cloud and an edge indicating function. Second, we define a good initial phase-field function which speeds up the computation significantly. Third, we use a recently developed explicit hybrid numerical method for solving the three-dimensional image segmentation model to obtain efficient volume reconstruction from point cloud data. In order to demonstrate the practical applicability of the proposed method, we perform various numerical experiments.
Classical study of the rovibrational dynamics of a polar diatomic molecule in static electric fields
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Inarrea, Manuel, E-mail: manuel.inarrea@unirioja.e [Area de Fisica, Universidad de la Rioja, E-26006 Logrono (Spain); Salas, J. Pablo [Area de Fisica, Universidad de la Rioja, E-26006 Logrono (Spain); Gonzalez-Ferez, Rosario [Instituto ' Carlos I' de Fisica Teorica y Computacional, Universidad de Granada, E-18071 Granada (Spain); Departamento de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad de Granada, E-18071 Granada (Spain); Schmelcher, Peter [Theoretische Chemie, Physikalisch-Chemisches Institut, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Heidelberg, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany)
2010-01-04
We study the classical dynamics of a polar diatomic molecule in the presence of a strong static homogeneous electric field. Our full rovibrational investigation includes the interaction with the field due to the permanent electric dipole moment and the polarizability of the molecule. Using the LiCs molecule as a prototype, we explore the stability of the equilibrium points and their bifurcations as the field strength is increased. The phase space structure and its dependence on the energy and field strength are analyzed in detail. We demonstrate that depending on the field strength and on the energy, the phase space is characterized either by regular features or by small stochastic layers of chaotic motion.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grishanin, B.A.; Shatalova, G.G.
1984-01-01
Calculation is made of a coherent part of response to a weak test field of an atom located in a strong resonance field. The latter bads to a suppression of phase relaxation. This response is shown to appear both at a test field freq uency ω and at a combination frequency 2ωsub(l)-ω, where ωsub(l) is a resona nce field frequency. The spectrum of test field absorption by such a system has a symmetric form and consist of two parts, one of which corresponds to a test f ield absorption and another - to its amplification
Retrieving 3D Wind Field from Phased Array Radar Rapid Scans
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xiaobin Qiu
2013-01-01
Full Text Available The previous two-dimensional simple adjoint method for retrieving horizontal wind field from a time sequence of single-Doppler scans of reflectivity and/or radial velocity is further developed into a new method to retrieve both horizontal and vertical winds at high temporal and spatial resolutions. This new method performs two steps. First, the horizontal wind field is retrieved on the conical surface at each tilt (elevation angle of radar scan. Second, the vertical velocity field is retrieved in a vertical cross-section along the radar beam with the horizontal velocity given from the first step. The method is applied to phased array radar (PAR rapid scans of the storm winds and reflectivity in a strong microburst event and is shown to be able to retrieve the three-dimensional wind field around a targeted downdraft within the storm that subsequently produced a damaging microburst. The method is computationally very efficient and can be used for real-time applications with PAR rapid scans.
Perron, Aurelien; Roehling, John D.; Turchi, Patrice E. A.; Fattebert, Jean-Luc; McKeown, Joseph T.
2018-01-01
A combination of dynamic transmission electron microscopy (DTEM) experiments and CALPHAD-informed phase-field simulations was used to study rapid solidification in Cu-Ni thin-film alloys. Experiments—conducted in the DTEM—consisted of in situ laser melting and determination of the solidification kinetics by monitoring the solid-liquid interface and the overall microstructure evolution (time-resolved measurements) during the solidification process. Modelling of the Cu-Ni alloy microstructure evolution was based on a phase-field model that included realistic Gibbs energies and diffusion coefficients from the CALPHAD framework (thermodynamic and mobility databases). DTEM and post mortem experiments highlighted the formation of microsegregation-free columnar grains with interface velocities varying from ˜0.1 to ˜0.6 m s-1. After an ‘incubation’ time, the velocity of the planar solid-liquid interface accelerated until solidification was complete. In addition, a decrease of the temperature gradient induced a decrease in the interface velocity. The modelling strategy permitted the simulation (in 1D and 2D) of the solidification process from the initially diffusion-controlled to the nearly partitionless regimes. Finally, results of DTEM experiments and phase-field simulations (grain morphology, solute distribution, and solid-liquid interface velocity) were consistent at similar time (μs) and spatial scales (μm).
Geometrical phases from global gauge invariance of nonlinear classical field theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Garrison, J.C.; Chiao, R.Y.
1988-01-01
We show that the geometrical phases recently discovered in quantum mechanics also occur naturally in the theory of any classical complex multicomponent field satisfying nonlinear equations derived from a Lagrangean with is invariant under gauge transformations of the first kind. Some examples are the paraxial wave equation for nonlinear optics, and Ginzburg-Landau equations for complex order parameters in condensed-matter physics
Hamiltonian lattice studies of chiral meson field theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chin, S.A.
1998-01-01
The latticization of the non-linear sigma model reduces a chiral meson field theory to an O(4) spin lattice system with quantum fluctuations. The result is an interesting marriage between quantum many-body theory and classical spin systems. By solving the resulting lattice Hamiltonian by Monte Carlo methods, the dynamics and thermodynamics of pions can be determined non-perturbatively. In a variational 16 3 lattice study, the ground state chiral phase transition is shown to be first order. Moreover, as the chiral phase transition is approached, the mass gap of pionic collective modes with quantum number of the ω vector meson drops toward zero. (Copyright (1998) World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhang, Y.F. [Department of Physics, Suzhou University, Suzhou 215006 (China); Yan, S.L. [Department of Physics, Suzhou University, Suzhou 215006 (China); Jiangsu Key Loboratory of Film Materials, Suzhou University, Suzhou 215006 (China); CCAST (World Laboratory), PO Box 8730, Beijing 100080 (China)], E-mail: slyan@suda.edu.cn
2008-04-07
The phase diagrams and compensation behaviors of mixed spin-1/2 and spin-1 Blume-Capel model in a trimodal magnetic field are investigated in the framework of the effective field theory on simple cubic lattice. The change of negative crystal field and trimodal concentration can affect the TCP, the second-order phase and the magnetic field degeneration at ground state in T-H space. In T-D space, the trajectory of the TCP takes on the acre curve and there exist the two TCPs under certain condition. In addition to giving one or two compensation temperature points in M-T space, the mixed spin Blume-Capel model also provides one or two novel compensation magnetic field points in M-H space. Some results are not revealed in previous works.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dzhezherya, Yu.I.; Klymuk, O.S.
2011-01-01
The magnetic and resonance properties of cylindrical magnets at first-order phase transition from paramagnetic to ferromagnetic state were theoretically studied. It has been shown that in the external magnetic field directed perpendicularly to the rotation axis, formation of a specific domain structure of paramagnetic and ferromagnetic layers can be energetically favorable. The parameters of cylindrical phase domains as well as their dependences on temperature, magnetic field and material characteristics have been calculated. Peculiarities of the magnetic resonance spectra appearing as a result of the phase domain formation have been considered. Dependence of the resonance field of the system of ferromagnetic domains on magnetization and temperature has been obtained. - Highlights: → Parameters of the equilibrium system of cylindrical phase domains are calculated. → The range of fields for PM and FM phases coexistence is found. → FMR field of the disk domains is found to be lower than that of the PMR field.→ The resonance field increases with the decrease of temperature lower than T || .
Wang, Ce-Qun; Chen, Qiang; Zhang, Lu; Xu, Jia-Min; Lin, Long-Nian
2014-12-25
The purpose of this article is to introduce the measurements of phase coupling between spikes and rhythmic oscillations of local field potentials (LFPs). Multi-channel in vivo recording techniques allow us to record ensemble neuronal activity and LFPs simultaneously from the same sites in the brain. Neuronal activity is generally characterized by temporal spike sequences, while LFPs contain oscillatory rhythms in different frequency ranges. Phase coupling analysis can reveal the temporal relationships between neuronal firing and LFP rhythms. As the first step, the instantaneous phase of LFP rhythms can be calculated using Hilbert transform, and then for each time-stamped spike occurred during an oscillatory epoch, we marked instantaneous phase of the LFP at that time stamp. Finally, the phase relationships between the neuronal firing and LFP rhythms were determined by examining the distribution of the firing phase. Phase-locked spikes are revealed by the non-random distribution of spike phase. Theta phase precession is a unique phase relationship between neuronal firing and LFPs, which is one of the basic features of hippocampal place cells. Place cells show rhythmic burst firing following theta oscillation within a place field. And phase precession refers to that rhythmic burst firing shifted in a systematic way during traversal of the field, moving progressively forward on each theta cycle. This relation between phase and position can be described by a linear model, and phase precession is commonly quantified with a circular-linear coefficient. Phase coupling analysis helps us to better understand the temporal information coding between neuronal firing and LFPs.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bates, J.M.; Stewart, C.W.
1979-08-01
Laser-Doppler anemometry (LDA) was used to measure local mean axial velocities and turbulence intnsities at selected locations within a study model dimensionally protypic of an existing PWR steam generator design. The model tube bundle with support plate was installed in a special flow housing that formed part of an isothermal recirculating water flow loop. Flow conditions for this experiment were intended to simulate only typical single-phase flow velocities and were not an attempt to completely model actual steam generator, boiling, two-phase flow conditions. The measurements were performed in water at approximately 85 0 F with test section average velocities of approximately 0.55 and 1.1 fps. These conditions corresponded to Reynolds numbers of approximately 7,000 and approximately 14,000, respectively. Normalized velocity and turbulence intensity ratios are graphically reported. Additional qualitative, photographic investigations of air-water two-phase flows in a PWR steam generator study model were also performed
Phenomenological studies of two-phase flow processes for nuclear waste isolation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pruess, K.; Finsterle, S.; Persoff, P.; Oldenburg, C.
1994-01-01
The US civilian radioactive waste management program is unique in its focus on a site in the unsaturated zone, at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Two-phase flow phenomena can also play an important role in repositories beneath the water table where gas is generated by corrosion, hydrolysis, and biological degradation of the waste packages. An integrated program has been initiated to enhance our understanding of two-phase flow behavior in fractured rock masses. The studies include two-phase (gas-liquid) flow experiments in laboratory specimens of natural rock fractures, analysis and modeling of heterogeneity and instability effects in two-phase flow, and design and interpretation of field experiments by means of numerical simulation. We present results that identify important aspects of two-phase flow behavior on different space and time scales which are relevant to nuclear waste disposal in both unsaturated and saturated formations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stimson, Lorna M.
2003-01-01
Molecular simulations provide an increasingly useful insight into the static and dynamic characteristics of materials. In this thesis molecular simulations of macro-molecular liquid crystalline materials are reported. The first liquid crystalline material that has been investigated is a side chain liquid crystal polymer (SCLCP). In this study semi-atomistic molecular dynamics simulations have been conducted at a range of temperatures and an aligning potential has been applied to mimic the effect of a magnetic field. In cooling the SCLCP from an isotropic melt, microphase separation was observed yielding a domain structure. The application of a magnetic field to this structure aligns the domains producing a stable smectic mesophase. This is the first study in which mesophases have been observed using an off-lattice model of a SCLCP. The second material that has been investigated is a dendrimer with terminal mesogenic functionalization. Here, a multi-scale approach has been taken with Monte Carlo studies of a single dendrimer molecule in the gas phase at the atomistic level, semi-atomistic molecular dynamics of a single molecule in liquid crystalline solvents and a coarse-grained molecular dynamics study of the dendrimer in the bulk. The coarse-grained model has been developed and parameterized using the results of the atomistic and semi-atomistic work. The single molecule studies showed that the liquid crystalline dendrimer was able to change its structure by conformational changes in the flexible chains that link the mesogenic groups to the core. Structural change was seen under the application of a mean field ordering potential in the gas phase, and in the presence of liquid crystalline solvents. No liquid crystalline phases were observed for the bulk phase studies of the coarse-grained model. However, when the length of the mesogenic units was increased there was some evidence for microphase separation in these systems. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Danilov, Denis; Nestler, Britta; Guerdane, Mohammed; Teichler, Helmar
2009-01-01
Results are presented from phase-field modelling and molecular dynamics simulations concerning the relaxation dynamics in a finite-temperature two-phase crystal-liquid sample subjected to an abrupt temperature drop. Relaxation takes place by propagation of the solidification front under formation of a spatially varying concentration profile in the melt. The molecular dynamics simulations are carried out with an interatomic model appropriate for the NiZr alloy system and provide the thermophysical data required for setting up the phase-field simulations. Regarding the concentration profile and velocity of the solidification front, best agreement between the phase-field model and molecular dynamics simulation is obtained when increasing the apparent diffusion coefficients in the phase-field treatment by a factor of four against their molecular dynamics estimates.
Yao, Jianjun; Cao, Hu; Ge, Wenwei; Li, Jiefang; Viehland, D.
2009-08-01
We report the finding of a monoclinic MB phase in Pb(Zn1/3Nb2/3)O3-4.5%PbTiO3 single crystals. High precision x-ray diffraction investigations of [110] field cooled crystals have shown a transformation sequence of cubic(C)→tetragonal(T)→orthorhombic(O)→monoclinic(MB), which is different from that previously reported [A.-E. Renault et al., J. Appl. Phys. 97, 044105 (2005)]. Beginning in the zero-field-cooled condition at 383 K, a rhombohedral (R)→MB→O sequence was observed with increasing field. Coexisting MB and O phases were then found upon removal of field, which fully transformed to MB on cooling to room temperature.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cairo, Laurent; Llibre, Jaume
2007-01-01
We classify all the global phase portraits of the cubic polynomial vector fields of Lotka-Volterra type having a rational first integral of degree 2. For such vector fields there are exactly 28 different global phase portraits in the Poincare disc up to a reversal of sense of all orbits
Nestler, B.; Danilov, D.; Galenko, P.
2005-07-01
A phase-field model for non-isothermal solidification in multicomponent systems [SIAM J. Appl. Math. 64 (3) (2004) 775-799] consistent with the formalism of classic irreversible thermodynamics is used for numerical simulations of crystal growth in a pure material. The relation of this approach to the phase-field model by Bragard et al. [Interface Science 10 (2-3) (2002) 121-136] is discussed. 2D and 3D simulations of dendritic structures are compared with the analytical predictions of the Brener theory [Journal of Crystal Growth 99 (1990) 165-170] and with recent experimental measurements of solidification in pure nickel [Proceedings of the TMS Annual Meeting, March 14-18, 2004, pp. 277-288; European Physical Journal B, submitted for publication]. 3D morphology transitions are obtained for variations in surface energy and kinetic anisotropies at different undercoolings. In computations, we investigate the convergence behaviour of a standard phase-field model and of its thin interface extension at different undercoolings and at different ratios between the diffuse interface thickness and the atomistic capillary length. The influence of the grid anisotropy is accurately analyzed for a finite difference method and for an adaptive finite element method in comparison.
Moessbauer study of LaFeAsO and F-doped superconductors in external magnetic fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kitao, S; Kobayashi, Y; Higashitaniguchi, S; Kurokuzu, M; Saito, M; Seto, M; Mitsui, T; Kamihara, Y; Hirano, M; Hosono, H
2010-01-01
The iron-based F-doped superconductors LaFeAsO 1-x F x with a transition temperature of 24 K (for x = 0.07) and 26 K (x = 0.11) and its parent material LaFeAsO were studied using 57 Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy. Further investigation was carried out by applying external magnetic fields. F-doped superconductors showed a singlet pattern with no magnetic splitting throughout the temperature range from 4.2 to 298 K. On the other hand, magnetically-split spectra were observed in the parent LaFeAsO below the Neel temperature of about 140 K. The internal magnetic field reached 5.3 T at 4.2 K. The external magnetic fields up to 14 T were applied to the singlet phases, F-doped superconductors and the parent LaFeAsO above the Neel temperature. The induced magnetically-split spectra showed the internal magnetic fields with the comparable value to the applied fields. This fact confirmed that these singlet phases have the paramagnetic feature. The magnetic fields were also applied to the magnetically-ordered phase of LaFeAsO below the Neel temperature. The evolution of the spectra depending on the external magnetic fields was clearly explained by a model with two sublattice spins of the powdered antiferromagnet. This fact confirmed the magnetically-ordered phase is an antiferromagnet. The spin-flop field was also estimated by the model as about 26 T.
Phase transitions in field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carvalho, C.A.A. de; Bollini, C.G.; Giambiagi, J.J.
1984-01-01
By means of an example for which the effective potential is explicitly calculable (up to the one loop approximation), it is discussed how a phase transition takes place as the temperature is increased and pass from spontaneously broken symmetry to a phase in which the symmetry is restored. (Author) [pt
Phase diagram study of a dimerized spin-S zig–zag ladder
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Matera, J M; Lamas, C A
2014-01-01
The phase diagram of a frustrated spin-S zig–zag ladder is studied through different numerical and analytical methods. We show that for arbitrary S, there is a family of Hamiltonians for which a fully-dimerized state is an exact ground state, being the Majumdar–Ghosh point for a particular member of the family. We show that the system presents a transition between a dimerized phase to a Néel-like phase for S = 1/2, and spiral phases can appear for large S. The phase diagram is characterized by means of a generalization of the usual mean field approximation. The novelty in the present implementation is to consider the strongest coupled sites as the unit cell. The gap and the excitation spectrum is analyzed through the random phase approximation. Also, a perturbative treatment to obtain the critical points is discussed. Comparisons of the results with numerical methods like the Density Matrix Renormalization Group are also presented. (paper)
MEASUREMENTS OF STRAIN FIELDS DUE TO NANOSCALE PRECIPITATES USING THE PHASE IMAGE METHOD
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Patricia Donnadieu
2011-05-01
Full Text Available Owing the phase image method (Hytch, 1998, strain fields can be derived from HREM images. The method is here applied to the nanoscale precipitates responsible for hardening in Aluminum alloys. Since the method is a very sensitive one, we have examined the impact of several aspects of the image quality (noise, fluctuations, distortion. The strain field information derived from the HREM image analysis is further introduced in a simulation of the dislocation motion in the matrix.
Phase-Field Relaxation of Topology Optimization with Local Stress Constraints
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Stainko, Roman; Burger, Martin
2006-01-01
inequality constraints. We discretize the problem by finite elements and solve the arising finite-dimensional programming problems by a primal-dual interior point method. Numerical experiments for problems with local stress constraints based on different criteria indicate the success and robustness......We introduce a new relaxation scheme for structural topology optimization problems with local stress constraints based on a phase-field method. In the basic formulation we have a PDE-constrained optimization problem, where the finite element and design analysis are solved simultaneously...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shiozaki, Ken [Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign,1110 West Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Ryu, Shinsei [James Franck Institute and Kadanoff Center for Theoretical Physics, University of Chicago,5640 South Ellis Ave, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States)
2017-04-18
Matrix Product States (MPSs) provide a powerful framework to study and classify gapped quantum phases — symmetry-protected topological (SPT) phases in particular — defined in one dimensional lattices. On the other hand, it is natural to expect that gapped quantum phases in the limit of zero correlation length are described by topological quantum field theories (TFTs or TQFTs). In this paper, for (1+1)-dimensional bosonic SPT phases protected by symmetry G, we bridge their descriptions in terms of MPSs, and those in terms of G-equivariant TFTs. In particular, for various topological invariants (SPT invariants) constructed previously using MPSs, we provide derivations from the point of view of (1+1) TFTs. We also discuss the connection between boundary degrees of freedom, which appear when one introduces a physical boundary in SPT phases, and “open” TFTs, which are TFTs defined on spacetimes with boundaries.
Constitutive modeling of two phase materials using the Mean Field method for homogenization
Perdahcioglu, Emin Semih; Geijselaers, Hubertus J.M.
2010-01-01
A Mean-Field homogenization framework for constitutive modeling of materials involving two distinct elastic-plastic phases is presented. With this approach it is possible to compute the macroscopic mechanical behavior of this type of materials based on the constitutive models of the constituent
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Sabdenov, Ch.K.; Davydova, M.D.; Zvezdin, K.A.; Gorbunov, Denis; Tereshina, I. S.; Andreev, Alexander V.; Zvezdin, A. K.
2017-01-01
Roč. 43, č. 5 (2017), s. 551-558 ISSN 1063-777X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA16-03593S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : rare-earth intermetallics * phase diagram * field-induced transition * magnetic anisotropy * high magnetic fields Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 0.804, year: 2016
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jose Luiz Boldrini
2003-11-01
Full Text Available We study the existence and regularity of weak solutions of a phase field type model for pure material solidification in presence of natural convection. We assume that the non-stationary solidification process occurs in a two dimensional bounded domain. The governing equations of the model are the phase field equation coupled with a nonlinear heat equation and a modified Navier-Stokes equation. These equations include buoyancy forces modelled by Boussinesq approximation and a Carman-Koseny term to model the flow in mushy regions. Since these modified Navier-Stokes equations only hold in the non-solid regions, which are not known a priori, we have a free boundary-value problem.
Lebed, A. G.
2018-04-01
We theoretically study the orbital destructive effect against superconductivity in a parallel magnetic field in the Fulde-Ferrell-Larkin-Ovchinnikov (FFLO or LOFF) phase at zero temperature in a quasi-two-dimensional (Q2D) conductor. We demonstrate that at zero temperature a special parameter, λ =l⊥(H ) /d , is responsible for strength of the orbital effect, where l⊥(H ) is a typical "size" of the quasiclassical electron orbit in a magnetic field and d is the interplane distance. We discuss applications of our results to the existing experiments on the FFLO phase in the organic Q2D conductors κ -(ET) 2Cu (NCS) 2 and κ -(ET) 2Cu [N (CN) 2] Cl .
Radial electrical field effects in TJ-II. (Preliminary study)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guasp, J.
1996-01-01
The influence of the radial electric field upon the neoclassical transport coefficients of TJ-II helical axis Stellarator has been calculated as well on the microwave heating stage (ECRH) as on the neutral injection one (NBI). The influence of the solutions for the self-consistent ambipolar field on confinement times and temperatures has been studied by means of a zero-dimensional energy balance. The simultaneous presence of two roots, the electronic and the ionic one, is observed for the ECRH phase, while for NBI only the ionic root appears, although with a strong field intensity that could produce a favourable effect on confinement. The interest and need of the extension of these calculations to include radial profile effects by using spatial dependent transport codes in stressed
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
DeSimone, A.; Kružík, Martin
2013-01-01
Roč. 8, č. 2 (2013), s. 481-499 ISSN 1556-1801 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP201/12/0671 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : hysteresis * shape memory Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.952, year: 2013 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2013/MTR/kruzik-domain patterns and hysteresis in phase-transforming solids analysis and numerical simulations of a sharp interface dissipative model via phase-field approximation.pdf
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hollnagel, Erik; Gauthereau, Vincent
2002-11-01
This report describes the results from Phase II of a study on Operational Readiness Verification (ORV), and was carried out from October 2001 to September 2002. The work comprised a field study of ORV activities at a Swedish NPP during a planned productive outage, which allowed empirical work to be conducted in an appropriate environment with good accessibility to technical staff. One conclusion from Phase I of this project was the need to look more closely at the differences between three levels or types of tests that occur in ORV: object (component) test, system level test and (safety) function test, and to analyse the different steps of testing in order to understand the nontrivial relations between tests and safety. A second conclusion was the need to take a closer look at the organisation's ability to improvise in the sense of adjusting pre-defined plans to the actual conditions under which they are to be carried out. One outcome of Phase II is that there is no clear distinction between the three types of tests in the way they are carried out, and that they are used according to need rather than according to an internal logic or structure. In order better to understand the complexity of ORV, it was found useful to introduce concepts such as: (1) Community of Practice, defined as a small groups of people who through extensive communication developed a common sense of purpose, work-related knowledge and experience; (2) embedding, which means that all tasks and activities take place in an environment or context that may be physical, social, or historical (cultural); and (3) the Efficiency-Thoroughness Trade-Off (ETTO) principle, which characterises how people try to adjust what they do to the local conditions of work (temporal, physical and organisational). By using these terms to understand the practice of ORV, it becomes easier to understand how actions at times can be carried out in such a manner that the outcomes differ significantly from what was desired. It
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hollnagel, Erik [Linkoeping Univ. (Sweden). Cognitive Systems Engineering Laboratory; Gauthereau, Vincent [Linkoeping Univ. (Sweden). Quality Management
2002-11-01
This report describes the results from Phase II of a study on Operational Readiness Verification (ORV), and was carried out from October 2001 to September 2002. The work comprised a field study of ORV activities at a Swedish NPP during a planned productive outage, which allowed empirical work to be conducted in an appropriate environment with good accessibility to technical staff. One conclusion from Phase I of this project was the need to look more closely at the differences between three levels or types of tests that occur in ORV: object (component) test, system level test and (safety) function test, and to analyse the different steps of testing in order to understand the nontrivial relations between tests and safety. A second conclusion was the need to take a closer look at the organisation's ability to improvise in the sense of adjusting pre-defined plans to the actual conditions under which they are to be carried out. One outcome of Phase II is that there is no clear distinction between the three types of tests in the way they are carried out, and that they are used according to need rather than according to an internal logic or structure. In order better to understand the complexity of ORV, it was found useful to introduce concepts such as: (1) Community of Practice, defined as a small groups of people who through extensive communication developed a common sense of purpose, work-related knowledge and experience; (2) embedding, which means that all tasks and activities take place in an environment or context that may be physical, social, or historical (cultural); and (3) the Efficiency-Thoroughness Trade-Off (ETTO) principle, which characterises how people try to adjust what they do to the local conditions of work (temporal, physical and organisational). By using these terms to understand the practice of ORV, it becomes easier to understand how actions at times can be carried out in such a manner that the outcomes differ significantly from what was
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lu, X.; Yang, Q.; Xiao, C.; Hirose, A.
2008-01-01
Diamond films were synthesized in a microwave plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition reactor. The microstructure and surface morphology of deposited films were characterized by Raman spectroscope and scanning electron microscope. The sp 2 phase concentration in diamond films was varied and its effect on the field electron emission (FEE) properties was investigated. Diamond films deposited under higher methane concentration exhibit better FEE property including lower turn-on electric field and larger emission current. The predominating factor modifying the FEE property is presumed to be the increase of sp 2 phase concentration. The influence of bias voltage on the FEE property of diamond films is not monotonic. Postgrowth acid treatment reduces the sp 2 phase content in diamond films without changing diamond grain sizes. The corresponding FEE property was degraded
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shang, C. [Wuhan National High Magnetic Field Center, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); School of Physics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Xia, Z.C., E-mail: xia9020@hust.edu.cn [Wuhan National High Magnetic Field Center, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Wei, M.; Jin, Z.; Chen, B.R.; Shi, L.R. [Wuhan National High Magnetic Field Center, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); School of Physics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Ouyang, Z.W. [Wuhan National High Magnetic Field Center, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Huang, S.; Xiao, G.L. [Wuhan National High Magnetic Field Center, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); School of Physics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)
2016-10-15
Pulsed high magnetic fields up to 52 T have been used in the systematic investigation of the magnetic properties of manganites Nd{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 1−x}Cu{sub x}O{sub 3} (0≤x≤0.15). The Cu-doping dependent first-order metamagnetic transitions are observed below the charge ordering temperature, which is ascribed to both Cu-doping and field-induced collapse of the charge ordering with antiferromagnetic phase. Based on the magnetization and electrical transport measurements, a three-dimensional phase diagram with coordinate axis of temperature, magnetic field, and doping level has been obtained, in which the critical fields of the metamagnetic transitions increase with the increase in Cu content and decrease with increasing temperature. The experimental results confirm that Mn-site substitution with Cu destroys the Mn{sup 3+}–O{sup 2−}–Mn{sup 4+} bridges and weakens the double exchange interaction between Mn{sup 3+} and Mn{sup 4+} ions, which shows an obvious tuning effect on the metamagnetic transition under the external magnetic field. - Highlights: • Tuning effect of Cu-doping on the properties of Nd{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 1−x}Cu{sub x}O{sub 3} was studied. • First-order metamagnetic transition was observed under high magnetic fields. • A phase diagram with temperature, magnetic field and doping level was obtained. • Cu-doping weakens the ferromagnetic coupling in Nd{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 1−x}Cu{sub x}O{sub 3}.
Phase diagram of structure of radial electric field in helical plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Toda, S.; Itoh, K.
2002-01-01
A set of transport equations in toroidal helical plasmas is analyzed, including the bifurcation of the radial electric field. Multiple solutions of E r for the ambipolar condition induces domains of different electric polarities. A structure of the domain interface is analyzed and a phase diagram is obtained in the space of the external control parameters. The region of the reduction of the anomalous transport is identified. (author)
Phase-space representation of non-classical behaviour of scalar wave-fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Canas-Cardona, Gustavo; Castaneda, Roman; Vinck-Posada, Herbert
2011-01-01
The modelling of optical fields by using radiant and virtual point sources for the spatial coherence wavelets in the phase-space representation evidences some effects, conventionally attributed to non-classical correlations of light, although such type of correlations are not explicitly included in the model. Specifically, a light state is produced that has similar morphology to the Wigner Distribution Function of the well-known quantum Schroedinger cat and squeezed states.
A vanishing diffusion limit in a nonstandard system of phase field equations
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Colli, P.; Gilardi, G.; Krejčí, Pavel; Sprekels, J.
2014-01-01
Roč. 3, č. 2 (2014), s. 257-275 ISSN 2163-2480 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP201/10/2315 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : nonstandard phase field system * nonlinear partial differential equations * asympotic limit Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.373, year: 2014 http://aimsciences.org/journals/displayArticlesnew.jsp?paperID=9918
Dorofeyev, Illarion
2009-03-01
Characteristics of a quasi-spherical wave front of an electromagnetic field diffracted by a subwavelength hole in a thin film with real optical properties are studied. Related diffraction problem is solved in general by use of the scalar and vector Green's theorems and related Green's function of a boundary-value problem. Local phase deviations of a diffracted wave front from an ideal spherical front are calculated. Diffracted patterns are calculated for the coherent incident fields in case of holes array in a screen of perfect conductivity.
Phase control of higher spectral components in the presence of a static electric field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang Chaojin; Yang Weifeng; Song Xiaohong; Xu Zhizhan
2009-01-01
We investigate the higher spectral component generations driven by a few-cycle laser pulse in a dense medium when a static electric field is present. Our results show that, when assisted by a static electric field, the dependence of the transmitted laser spectrum on the carrier-envelope phase (CEP) is significantly increased. Continuum and distinct peaks can be achieved by controlling the CEP of the few-cycle ultrashort laser pulse. Such a strong variation is due to the fact that the presence of the static electric field modifies the waveform of the combined electric field, which further affects the spectral distribution of the generated higher spectral components.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhao, L.; Law, D.H.S. [Alberta Research Council, Edmonton, AB (Canada); Freitag, N.; Huang, S. [Saskatchewan Research Council, Regina, SK (Canada)
2005-07-01
The mechanisms of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) storage in an oil depleted reservoir are being studied at the International Energy Agency's (IEA) Weyburn CO2 Monitoring and Storage Project in Saskatchewan. One of the objectives of this multi-disciplinary project has been to develop a Pressure-Volume-Temperature (PVT) model for the CO{sub 2}-Weyburn oil system that can be coupled with compositional reservoir models for short- and long-term field-scale reservoir simulations. In order to assess the long term risk of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) injection for the purpose of EOR, it is important to accurately predict the CO{sub 2} distribution in different phases in the reservoir (aqueous, oleic and gaseous). The newly developed seven-component PVT model for Weyburn oil was based on measurements of phase-behavior properties such as oil density, viscosity, gas-oil ratio, saturation pressure and minimum miscibility pressure from oil samples collected from wells in different parts of the reservoir. The Peng-Robinson equation of state was used for the PVT model development and CO{sub 2} solubility in water was described by Henry's Law. Estimations of mineral trapping, ionic trapping and solubility trapping of CO{sub 2} are based on the amount of CO{sub 2} stored in the aqueous phase, but the amount of CO{sub 2} stored in the gaseous phase, which is the most mobile phase of CO{sub 2} in the reservoir, is essential in the estimation of CO{sub 2} leakage. The model was continuously modified as the field process proceeded in order to identify the dynamic change in fluid properties and the effect of contaminants in the injecting CO{sub 2}. The model, coupled with a compositional reservoir model, was used to predict the CO{sub 2} distribution and storage performance in the Weyburn field. 2 refs., 4 tabs., 8 figs.
Development of an Enhanced Two-Phase Production System at the Geysers Geothermal Field; FINAL
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Steven Enedy
2001-01-01
A method was developed to enhance geothermal steam production from two-phase wells at THE Geysers Geothermal Field. The beneficial result was increased geothermal production that was easily and economically delivered to the power plant
Experimental study of the Cu-Al-Sn phase equilibria, close to the copper zone
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Soares D.F.
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The ternary Cu-Al-Sn phase diagram is the base for several important types of alloys, with relevant industrial interest and applications. The knowledge of the melting/solidification alloys characteristics are determinant for their preparation and properties control. However, there is a lack of experimental information on the ternary phase diagram, at high temperature. In this work, several alloys, with high copper content and additions of Al, up to 10%, and Sn, up to 14% (in wt%, were studied by thermal analysis and by isothermal phase equilibria determination. The alloys liquidus and solidus lines and the binary α + β phase field, at 800°C, are presented for the studied range of compositions.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fattebert, J.-L.; Wickett, M.E.; Turchi, P.E.A.
2014-01-01
A numerical method for the simulation of microstructure evolution during the solidification of an alloy is presented. The approach is based on a phase-field model including a phase variable, an orientation variable given by a quaternion, the alloy composition and a uniform temperature field. Energies and diffusion coefficients used in the model rely on thermodynamic and kinetic databases in the framework of the CALPHAD methodology. The numerical approach is based on a finite volume discretization and an implicit time-stepping algorithm. Numerical results for solidification and accompanying coring effect in a Au–Ni alloy are used to illustrate the methodology
Enhanced field emission from PbTiO{sub 3} nanodots prepared by phase separation approach
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Li Jinna; Luo Ming [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Weng Wenjian, E-mail: wengwj@zju.edu.cn [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Cheng Kui; Du Piyi; Shen Ge; Han Gaorong [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)
2009-10-15
Uniformly distributed PbTiO{sub 3} nanodots were successfully prepared by phase separation approach. A precursor sol film was first spin-coated on Si wafer and then spontaneously separated into two distinct phases owing to the Marangoni instability. PT nanodots with tailorable size and density were obtained after further heat treatment. X-ray diffraction analysis indicated that these nanodots showed a perovskite structure. An excellent room temperature field emission property of PbTiO{sub 3} nanodots was observed: the minimum turn-on voltage was about 5.3 V/{mu}m; while the emission current density reached about 270 {mu}A cm{sup -2} at an applied field of about 9.25 V/{mu}m.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sinha, C; Chattopadhyay, A; Deb, S Ghosh, E-mail: chand_sin@hotmail.co, E-mail: arpita.chattopadhyay@gmail.co, E-mail: srabanti.ghosh@gmail.co [Theoretical Physics Department, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Kolkata - 700032 (India)
2009-11-01
We study the coherent phase control (CPC) of ionization (TDCS) of a hydrogenic ion under the action of a bichromatic laser field consisting of a fundamental frequency and one of its harmonics by varying the phase difference between the two components. A significant reduction is noted particularly in the recoil peak (dominant for the ionic target) with the two color field as compared to the monochromatic one, while the modification of the binary peak is comparatively less. The CPC is found to be more effective for the odd harmonics than the even one.
Numerical study of magnetic field effect on nano-fluid forced convection in a channel
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Heidary, H., E-mail: Heidary_ha@aut.ac.ir [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology (Tehran Polytechnic), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hosseini, R. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology (Tehran Polytechnic), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Pirmohammadi, M., E-mail: Pirmohamadi@pardisiau.ac.ir [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Pardis Branch, Islamic Azad University, Pardis New City, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kermani, M.J. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology (Tehran Polytechnic), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2015-01-15
In this study heat transfer and fluid flow analysis in a straight channel utilizing nano-fluid is numerically studied, while flow field is under magnetic field. Usage of nano-particles in base fluid and also applying magnetic field transverse to fluid velocity are two ways recommended in this paper to enhance heat exchange in straight duct. The fluid temperature at the channel inlet (T{sub in}) is taken less than that of the walls (T{sub w}). With assuming thermal equilibrium state of both the fluid phase and nano-particles and ignoring the slip velocity between the phases, single phase approach is used for modeling of nano-fluid. The governing equations are numerically solved in the domain by the control volume approach based on the SIMPLE technique. Numerical studies are performed over a range of Reynolds number, nano-fluid volume fraction and Hartmann number. The influence of these parameters is investigated on the local and average Nusselt numbers. Computations show excellent agreement with the literature. From this study, it is concluded that heat transfer in channels can enhance up to 75% due to the presence of nano-particles and magnetic field in channels. In industrial applications for cooling or heating purposes, the recommended ways in this paper, can provide helpful guidelines to the manufacturers to enhance efficiencies without heat exchanger area increase. - Highlights: • Addition of 10% nano-particles (copper here) can enhance the heat exchange by 26%. • Presence of magnetic field with Ha=30 in pure fluid can enhance the heat exchange by 50%. • Presence of magnetic field and nanofluid with Ha=30 and ϕ=0.1, can enhance the heat exchange by 76%. • Increasing Re{sub H} from 50 to 1000, the average Nu number can increase by a factor of ≈3.
Wide-field phase imaging for the endoscopic detection of dysplasia and early-stage esophageal cancer
Fitzpatrick, C. R. M.; Gordon, G. S. D.; Sawyer, T. W.; Wilkinson, T. D.; Bohndiek, S. E.
2018-02-01
Esophageal cancer has a 5-year survival rate below 20%, but can be curatively resected if it is detected early. At present, poor contrast for early lesions in white light imaging leads to a high miss rate in standard-of- care endoscopic surveillance. Early lesions in the esophagus, referred to as dysplasia, are characterized by an abundance of abnormal cells with enlarged nuclei. This tissue has a different refractive index profile to healthy tissue, which results in different light scattering properties and provides a source of endogenous contrast that can be exploited for advanced endoscopic imaging. For example, point measurements of such contrast can be made with scattering spectroscopy, while optical coherence tomography generates volumetric data. However, both require specialist interpretation for diagnostic decision making. We propose combining wide-field phase imaging with existing white light endoscopy in order to provide enhanced contrast for dysplasia and early-stage cancer in an image format that is familiar to endoscopists. Wide-field phase imaging in endoscopy can be achieved using coherent illumination combined with phase retrieval algorithms. Here, we present the design and simulation of a benchtop phase imaging system that is compatible with capsule endoscopy. We have undertaken preliminary optical modelling of the phase imaging setup, including aberration correction simulations and an investigation into distinguishing between different tissue phantom scattering coefficients. As our approach is based on phase retrieval rather than interferometry, it is feasible to realize a device with low-cost components for future clinical implementation.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jeffers, Nicholas; Nolan, Kevin; Stafford, Jason; Donnelly, Brian
2014-01-01
Piezoelectric fans have been studied extensively and are seen as a promising technology for thermal management due to their ability to provide quiet, reliable cooling with low power consumption. The fluid mechanics of an unconfined piezoelectric fan are complex which is why the majority of the literature to date confines the fan in an attempt to simplify the flow field. This paper investigates the fluid mechanics of an unconfined fan operating in its first vibration frequency mode. The piezoelectric fan used in this study measures 12.7 mm × 70 mm and resonates at 92.5 Hz in air. A custom built experimental facility was developed to capture the fan's flow field using phase locked Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). The phase locked PIV results are presented in terms of vorticity and show the formation of a horse shoe vortex. A three dimensional A2 criterion constructed from interpolated PIV measurements was used to identify the vortex core in the vicinity of the fan. This analysis was used to clearly identify the formation of a horse shoe vortex that turns into a hairpin vortex before it breaks up due to a combination of vortex shedding and flow along the fan blade. The results presented in this paper contribute to both the fluid dynamics and heat transfer literature concerning first mode fan oscillation.
Blommaert, E.C.C.A.; Coenders, M.T.A.; Tubergen, F.A. van
2014-01-01
This study examines discrimination of Arabic-named applicants in online recruitment procedures in the Netherlands. We develop and implement a new field experiment approach, posting fictitious resumes (n = 636) on two online resume databases. Two phases of recruitment procedures are examined:
Sun, Hui; Wen, Jiayi; Zhao, Yanxiang; Li, Bo; McCammon, J. Andrew
2015-01-01
Dielectric boundary based implicit-solvent models provide efficient descriptions of coarse-grained effects, particularly the electrostatic effect, of aqueous solvent. Recent years have seen the initial success of a new such model, variational implicit-solvent model (VISM) [Dzubiella, Swanson, and McCammon Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 087802 (2006) and J. Chem. Phys. 124, 084905 (2006)], in capturing multiple dry and wet hydration states, describing the subtle electrostatic effect in hydrophobic interactions, and providing qualitatively good estimates of solvation free energies. Here, we develop a phase-field VISM to the solvation of charged molecules in aqueous solvent to include more flexibility. In this approach, a stable equilibrium molecular system is described by a phase field that takes one constant value in the solute region and a different constant value in the solvent region, and smoothly changes its value on a thin transition layer representing a smeared solute-solvent interface or dielectric boundary. Such a phase field minimizes an effective solvation free-energy functional that consists of the solute-solvent interfacial energy, solute-solvent van der Waals interaction energy, and electrostatic free energy described by the Poisson–Boltzmann theory. We apply our model and methods to the solvation of single ions, two parallel plates, and protein complexes BphC and p53/MDM2 to demonstrate the capability and efficiency of our approach at different levels. With a diffuse dielectric boundary, our new approach can describe the dielectric asymmetry in the solute-solvent interfacial region. Our theory is developed based on rigorous mathematical studies and is also connected to the Lum–Chandler–Weeks theory (1999). We discuss these connections and possible extensions of our theory and methods. PMID:26723595
Sun, Hui; Wen, Jiayi; Zhao, Yanxiang; Li, Bo; McCammon, J Andrew
2015-12-28
Dielectric boundary based implicit-solvent models provide efficient descriptions of coarse-grained effects, particularly the electrostatic effect, of aqueous solvent. Recent years have seen the initial success of a new such model, variational implicit-solvent model (VISM) [Dzubiella, Swanson, and McCammon Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 087802 (2006) and J. Chem. Phys. 124, 084905 (2006)], in capturing multiple dry and wet hydration states, describing the subtle electrostatic effect in hydrophobic interactions, and providing qualitatively good estimates of solvation free energies. Here, we develop a phase-field VISM to the solvation of charged molecules in aqueous solvent to include more flexibility. In this approach, a stable equilibrium molecular system is described by a phase field that takes one constant value in the solute region and a different constant value in the solvent region, and smoothly changes its value on a thin transition layer representing a smeared solute-solvent interface or dielectric boundary. Such a phase field minimizes an effective solvation free-energy functional that consists of the solute-solvent interfacial energy, solute-solvent van der Waals interaction energy, and electrostatic free energy described by the Poisson-Boltzmann theory. We apply our model and methods to the solvation of single ions, two parallel plates, and protein complexes BphC and p53/MDM2 to demonstrate the capability and efficiency of our approach at different levels. With a diffuse dielectric boundary, our new approach can describe the dielectric asymmetry in the solute-solvent interfacial region. Our theory is developed based on rigorous mathematical studies and is also connected to the Lum-Chandler-Weeks theory (1999). We discuss these connections and possible extensions of our theory and methods.
Kisi, E H; Forrester, J S; Howard, C J
2003-01-01
Lead zinc niobate-lead titanate (PZN-PT) single crystals show very large piezoelectric strains for electric fields applied along the unit cell edges e.g. [001] sub R. It has been widely reported that this effect is caused by an electric field induced phase transition from rhombohedral (R3m) to monoclinic (Cm or Pm) symmetry in an essentially continuous manner. Group theoretical analysis using the computer program ISOTROPY indicates phase transitions between R3m and Cm (or Pm) must be discontinuous under Landau theory. An analysis of the symmetry of a strained unit cell in R3m and a simple expansion of the piezoelectric strain equation indicate that the piezoelectric distortion due to an electric field along a cell edge in rhombohedral perovskite-based ferroelectrics is intrinsically monoclinic (Cm), even for infinitesimal electric fields. PZN-PT crystals have up to nine times the elastic compliance of other piezoelectric perovskites and it might be expected that the piezoelectric strains are also very large. ...
Helical Phase Inflation and Monodromy in Supergravity Theory
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tianjun Li
2015-01-01
Full Text Available We study helical phase inflation which realizes “monodromy inflation” in supergravity theory. In the model, inflation is driven by the phase component of a complex field whose potential possesses helicoid structure. We construct phase monodromy based on explicitly breaking global U(1 symmetry in the superpotential. By integrating out heavy fields, the phase monodromy from single complex scalar field is realized and the model fulfills natural inflation. The phase-axion alignment is achieved from explicitly symmetry breaking and gives super-Planckian phase decay constant. The F-term scalar potential provides strong field stabilization for all the scalars except inflaton, which is protected by the approximate global U(1 symmetry. Besides, we show that helical phase inflation can be naturally realized in no-scale supergravity with SU(2,1/SU(2×U(1 symmetry since the supergravity setup needed for phase monodromy is automatically provided in the no-scale Kähler potential. We also demonstrate that helical phase inflation can be reduced to another well-known supergravity inflation model with shift symmetry. Helical phase inflation is free from the UV-sensitivity problem although there is super-Planckian field excursion, and it suggests that inflation can be effectively studied based on supersymmetric field theory while a UV-completed framework is not prerequisite.
Simultaneous fast scanning XRF, dark field, phase-, and absorption contrast tomography
Medjoubi, Kadda; Bonissent, Alain; Leclercq, Nicolas; Langlois, Florent; Mercère, Pascal; Somogyi, Andrea
2013-09-01
Scanning hard X-ray nanoprobe imaging provides a unique tool for probing specimens with high sensitivity and large penetration depth. Moreover, the combination of complementary techniques such as X-ray fluorescence, absorption, phase contrast and dark field imaging gives complete quantitative information on the sample structure, composition and chemistry. The multi-technique "FLYSCAN" data acquisition scheme developed at Synchrotron SOLEIL permits to perform fast continuous scanning imaging and as such makes scanning tomography techniques feasible in a time-frame well-adapted to typical user experiments. Here we present the recent results of simultaneous fast scanning multi-technique tomography performed at Soleil. This fast scanning scheme will be implemented at the Nanoscopium beamline for large field of view 2D and 3D multimodal imaging.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Deviren, Bayram; Kantar, Ersin; Keskin, Mustafa
2012-01-01
The dynamic phase transitions in a cylindrical Ising nanowire system under a time-dependent oscillating external magnetic field for both ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic interactions are investigated within the effective-field theory with correlations and the Glauber-type stochastic dynamics approach. The effective-field dynamic equations for the average longitudinal magnetizations on the surface shell and core are derived by employing the Glauber transition rates. Temperature dependence of the dynamic magnetizations, the dynamic total magnetization, the hysteresis loop areas and the dynamic correlations are investigated in order to characterize the nature (first- or second-order) of the dynamic transitions as well as the dynamic phase transition temperatures and the compensation behaviors. The system strongly affected by the surface situations. Some characteristic phenomena are found depending on the ratio of the physical parameters in the surface shell and the core. According to the values of Hamiltonian parameters, five different types of compensation behaviors in the Néel classification nomenclature exist in the system. The system also exhibits a reentrant behavior. - Highlights: ► The dynamic aspects of a cylindrical Ising nanowire are investigated in detail. ► The dynamic magnetizations, hysteresis loop areas and correlations are calculated. ► We studied both the FM and AFM interactions within the EFT with correlations. ► Some characteristic phenomena are found depending on the interaction parameters. ► We obtained five different types of compensation behaviors and reentrant behavior.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Deviren, Bayram [Department of Physics, Nevsehir University, 50300 Nevsehir (Turkey); Kantar, Ersin [Department of Physics, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey); Keskin, Mustafa, E-mail: keskin@erciyes.edu.tr [Department of Physics, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey)
2012-07-15
The dynamic phase transitions in a cylindrical Ising nanowire system under a time-dependent oscillating external magnetic field for both ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic interactions are investigated within the effective-field theory with correlations and the Glauber-type stochastic dynamics approach. The effective-field dynamic equations for the average longitudinal magnetizations on the surface shell and core are derived by employing the Glauber transition rates. Temperature dependence of the dynamic magnetizations, the dynamic total magnetization, the hysteresis loop areas and the dynamic correlations are investigated in order to characterize the nature (first- or second-order) of the dynamic transitions as well as the dynamic phase transition temperatures and the compensation behaviors. The system strongly affected by the surface situations. Some characteristic phenomena are found depending on the ratio of the physical parameters in the surface shell and the core. According to the values of Hamiltonian parameters, five different types of compensation behaviors in the Neel classification nomenclature exist in the system. The system also exhibits a reentrant behavior. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The dynamic aspects of a cylindrical Ising nanowire are investigated in detail. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The dynamic magnetizations, hysteresis loop areas and correlations are calculated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We studied both the FM and AFM interactions within the EFT with correlations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Some characteristic phenomena are found depending on the interaction parameters. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We obtained five different types of compensation behaviors and reentrant behavior.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rao Weifeng [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Rutgers University, 607 Taylor Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Khachaturyan, Armen G., E-mail: khach@jove.rutgers.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Rutgers University, 607 Taylor Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States)
2011-06-15
A phase field theory of proper displacive transformations is developed to address the microstructure evolution and its response to applied fields in decomposing and martensitic systems. The theory is based on the explicit equation for the non-equilibrium free energy function of the transformation strain obtained by a consistent separation of the total strain into transformation and elastic strains. The transformation strain is considered to be a relaxing long-range order parameter evolving in accordance with the system energetics rather than as a fixed material constant used in the conventional Eshelby theory of coherent inclusions. The elastic strain is defined as a coherency strain recovering the crystal lattice compatibility. The obtained free energy function of the transformation strain leads to the concepts of structural anisotropy and directional flexibility of low symmetry phases. The formulated vector model of displacive transformation makes apparent a similarity between proper displacive transformation and ferromagnetic/ferroelectric transformation and, in particular, a similarity between the structural anisotropy and magnetic/polar anisotropy of ferromagnetic/ferroelectric materials. It even predicts the feasibility of a glass-like structural state with unlimited directional flexibility of the transformation strain that is conceptually similar to a ferromagnetic glass. The thermodynamics of the equilibrium between low symmetry phases and the thermodynamic conditions leading to the formation of adaptive states are formulated.
Calibration of phase field parameters demonstrated on kinetics of a shrinking single grain
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Fischer, F. D.; Zickler, G. A.; Svoboda, Jiří
2017-01-01
Roč. 97, č. 3 (2017), s. 92-100 ISSN 0950-0839 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LM2015069 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : thermodynamic quantities * phase field method * thermodynamic extremal principle * grain shrinkage Subject RIV: JG - Metallurgy OBOR OECD: Materials engineering Impact factor: 0.941, year: 2016
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang, Lijun; Stratmann, Matthias; Du, Yong; Sundman, Bo; Steinbach, Ingo
2015-01-01
A new approach to incorporate the sublattice models in the CALPHAD (CALculation of PHAse Diagram) formalism directly into the phase-field formalism is developed. In binary alloys, the sublattice models can be classified into two types (i.e., “Type I” and “Type II”), depending on whether a direct one-to-one relation between the element site fraction in the CALPHAD database and the phase concentration in the phase-field model exists (Type I), or not (Type II). For “Type II” sublattice models, the specific site fractions, corresponding to a given mole fraction, have to be established via internal relaxation between different sublattices. Internal minimization of sublattice occupancy and solute evolution during microstructure transformation leads, in general, to a solution superior to the separate solution of the individual problems. The present coupling technique is validated for Fe–C and Ni–Al alloys. Finally, the model is extended into multicomponent alloys and applied to simulate the nucleation process of VC monocarbide from austenite matrix in a steel containing vanadium
Absence of magnetic ordering and field-induced phase diagram in the gadolinium aluminum garnet
Florea, O.; Lhotel, E.; Jacobsen, H.; Knee, C. S.; Deen, P. P.
2017-12-01
The robustness of spin liquids with respect to small perturbations, and the way magnetic frustration can be lifted by slight changes in the balance between competing magnetic interactions, remains a rich and open issue. We address this question through the study of the gadolinium aluminum garnet Gd3Al5O12 , a related compound to the extensively studied Gd3Ga5O12 . We report on its magnetic properties at very low temperatures. We show that despite a freezing at about 300 mK, no magnetic transition is observed, suggesting the presence of a spin-liquid state down to the lowest temperatures, similarly to Gd3Ga5O12 , in spite of a larger ratio between exchange and dipolar interactions. Finally, the phase diagram as a function of field and temperature is strongly reminiscent of the one reported in Gd3Ga5O12 . This study reveals the robust nature of the spin-liquid phase for Gd ions on the garnet lattice, in stark contrast to Gd ions on the pyrochlore lattice for which a slight perturbation drives the compound into a range of magnetically ordered states.
Visualization in cryogenic environment: Application to two-phase studies
Rousset, Bernard; Chatain, Denis; Puech, Laurent; Thibault, Pierre; Viargues, François; Wolf, Pierre-Etienne
2009-10-01
This paper reviews recent technical developments devoted to the study of cryogenic two-phase fluids. These techniques span from simple flow visualization to quantitative measurements of light scattering. It is shown that simple flow pattern configurations are obtained using classical optical tools (CCD cameras, endoscopes), even in most severe environments (high vacuum, high magnetic field). Quantitative measurements include laser velocimetry, particle sizing, and light scattering analysis. In the case of magnetically compensated gravity boiling oxygen, optical access is used to control the poistioning of a bubble subject to buoyancy forces in an experimental cell. Flow visualization on a two-phase superfluid helium pipe-flow, performed as a support of LHC cooldown studies, leads to flow pattern characterization. Visualization includes stratified and atomized flows. Thanks to the low refractive index contrast between the liquid and its vapor, quantitative results on droplet densities can be obtained even in a multiple scattering regime.
The design of a two-phase radiolabelled meal for gastric emptying studies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mather, S.J.; Ellison, D.; Nightingale, J.; Kamm, M.; Britton, K.E.
1991-01-01
A meal intended for use in gastric emptying studies must be highly reproducible, must provide a normal physiological stimulus in terms of bulk, calorie content and composition and must employ stable radiotracers which accurately reflect in their biodistribution, the fate of the two-phases. This is particularly important in a field, such as gastric emptying, where so many variables may influence the results. A conventional pancake and orange juice were chosen as suitable vehicles for the solid and liquid phases. 111 In-labelled resin beads were used as the solid-phase marker and a variety of 99 Tc m -labelled radiopharmaceuticals including pertechnetate, DTPA and colloid forms were investigated as liquid-phase markers. Prior to administration to patients, the stability of the phases and their interactions in vitro were investigated. The use of 99 Tc m -DTPA resulted in a loss of 111 In from solid to liquid phase. All non-colloidal markers exhibited a tendency for adsorption onto solid phase. Colloidal markers including rhenium and antimony sulphide colloids showed the truest delineation of the liquid phase. (author)
A numerical study of steady-state two-phase flow in porous media
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Knudsen, Henning Arendt
2002-07-01
Two-phase flow in porous media means the simultaneous flow of two phases, say two liquids, e.g., oil and water. This flow is restrained to be within a porous medium. For example sandstone and limestone are typical porous stones that can contain oil and gas in nature. In the extraction of oil from reservoirs, oil is usually displaced by water. So on a large scale we can consider it to be a displacement process. However, on pore scale the ''mix'' and flow processes are complicated. Idealistically, one might consider the search for truth a sufficient motivation for work in this field. Nevertheless, from an economic and technological point of view, enhanced oil recovery is the main motivation for the study of two-phase flow in porous media. Luckily, there are additional systems in real world that falls into this category. One such system is the flow of water and pollutants in aquifers. General knowledge in the field might be beneficial for preserving ground water reserves in the future. In the laboratory one often encounters artificially made porous media. For example glass beads between two glass plates. Therein, one of the phases flowing may be a mixture of glycerol and water. The other phase can be air which then is the non-wetting phase; air does not wet glass. It can also be silicone oil, and in that case the water/glycerol is normally the nonwetting phase. There are other possibilities. In general, laboratory studies are performed on systems on pore scale. The flow properties on the various length scales found in flow systems in nature depend on these properties on pore scale. The so-called upscaling problem concerns how to relate pore scale properties with properties on larger scales. The scope of this thesis is the study of properties on pore scale. The upscaling problem, which is a large research field in itself, is thus outside the scope of this thesis. The results of Paper 3 is an exception since they may infer also to larger scales than
Phase-field modeling of Mn-Ni-Si precipitate behavior on the bcc-Fe matrix
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chang, Kun Ok; Kwon, Jun Hyun
2016-01-01
The formation of Mn-Ni-Si precipitate (hereafter MNS precipitate) is widely accepted by one of the main reasons of late stage hardening and embrittlement of Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV) during nuclear power plant (NPP) operation. Since MNS precipitate is not considered in current regulatory model, this late stage hardening can be a limiting factor for life extension of nuclear power plants up to 80 or more years. The stability of the MNS precipitate was investigated from the thermodynamic view point and they concluded that MNS precipitate is a stable phase even with very little Cu contents, and they assessed UW1 thermodynamic database which can predict the thermodynamic stability of MNS precipitate at operating temperature of NPP ( ∼ 290 .deg. C). Based on the non-classical nucleation theory, we performed the phase-field modeling of nucleation and growth of MNS precipitate. The microstructure evolution of Mn-Ni-Cu precipitate has been simulated using the phase-field method and their approaches are focused on a role of the Cu contents. Also, a role of the interstitial loop on the nucleation and growth kinetics of MNS precipitate was analyzed.
Approximate solution of space and time fractional higher order phase field equation
Shamseldeen, S.
2018-03-01
This paper is concerned with a class of space and time fractional partial differential equation (STFDE) with Riesz derivative in space and Caputo in time. The proposed STFDE is considered as a generalization of a sixth-order partial phase field equation. We describe the application of the optimal homotopy analysis method (OHAM) to obtain an approximate solution for the suggested fractional initial value problem. An averaged-squared residual error function is defined and used to determine the optimal convergence control parameter. Two numerical examples are studied, considering periodic and non-periodic initial conditions, to justify the efficiency and the accuracy of the adopted iterative approach. The dependence of the solution on the order of the fractional derivative in space and time and model parameters is investigated.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Blanc, V.; Barbie, L.; Masson, R.
2011-01-01
Homogenization of linear viscoelastic heterogeneous media is here extended from two phase inclusion-matrix media to three phase inclusion-matrix media. Each phase obeying to a compressible Maxwellian behaviour, this analytic method leads to an equivalent elastic homogenization problem in the Laplace-Carson space. For some particular microstructures, such as the Hashin composite sphere assemblage, an exact solution is obtained. The inversion of the Laplace-Carson transforms of the overall stress-strain behaviour gives in such cases an internal variable formulation. As expected, the number of these internal variables and their evolution laws are modified to take into account the third phase. Moreover, evolution laws of averaged stresses and strains per phase can still be derived for three phase media. Results of this model are compared to full fields computations of representative volume elements using finite element method, for various concentrations and sizes of inclusion. Relaxation and creep test cases are performed in order to compare predictions of the effective response. The internal variable formulation is shown to yield accurate prediction in both cases. (authors)
Welland, M. J.; Tenuta, E.; Prudil, A. A.
2017-06-01
This article describes a phase-field model for an isothermal multicomponent, multiphase system which avoids implicit interfacial energy contributions by starting from a grand potential formulation. A method is developed for incorporating arbitrary forms of the equilibrium thermodynamic potentials in all phases to determine an explicit relationship between chemical potentials and species concentrations. The model incorporates variable densities between adjacent phases, defect migration, and dependence of internal pressure on object dimensions ranging from the macro- to nanoscale. A demonstrative simulation of an overpressurized nanoscopic intragranular bubble in nuclear fuel migrating to a grain boundary under kinetically limited vacancy diffusion is shown.
Influence of High Magnetic Field and Zn Doping on Robust CO Phase of La0.5Ca0.5MnO3
Jin, Z.; Xia, Z. C.; Wei, M.; Yang, F.; Huang, S.; Xiao, G. L.; Shang, C.; Cheng, H.; Wu, H.; Zhang, X. X.; Ouyang, Z. W.
2017-08-01
Magnetic and electrical transport properties of La0.5Ca0.5- x Zn x MnO3 ( x = 0, 0.1, 0.15) have been investigated in a wide magnetic field range from 0 T to 50 T. Experimental results show that doping of nonmagnetic Zn2+ ion at Ca site and application of high magnetic field had obvious tuning effects on the stability of the robust charge-order phase, inducing new magnetization and electrical transport behaviors. In particular, obvious temperature and field hysteresis was induced, leading to enhanced magnetoresistance at around room temperature. Based on the intricate interplay between the external magnetic field and chemical strain (lattice distortion) induced by the dopant, which changed the bond length and the angle of double exchange and partially destroyed the charge-order phase, a weak ferromagnetic phase formed. The hysteretic behavior and enhanced magnetoresistance can be understood based on the tuning effects of the high magnetic field and dopant on the stability of the charge-order phase.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hollnagel, Erik; Gauthereau, Vincent; Persson, Bodil
2004-01-01
This report describes the results from Phase III of a study on Operational Readiness Verification (ORV) that was carried out from December 2002 to November 2003. The work comprised a field study of ORV activities at a Swedish NPP during a planned productive outage [subavstaellning], which allowed empirical work to be conducted in an appropriate environment with good accessibility to technical staff. One conclusion from Phase I of this project was the need to look more closely at the differences between three levels or types of tests that occur in ORV: object (component) test, system level test and (safety) function test, and to analyse the different steps of testing in order to understand the nontrivial relations between tests and safety. A second conclusion was the need to take a closer look at the organisation's ability to improvise in the sense of adjusting pre-defined plans to the actual conditions under which they are to be carried out. Phase II of the project found that although all three types of test occurred, they were rather used according to need rather than to a predefined arrangement or procedure. The complexity of ORV could be understood and described by using the concepts of Community of Practice, embedding, and Efficiency-Thoroughness Trade-Off. In addition, organisation and the different communities of practice improvise by adjusting pre-defined plans or work orders to the existing conditions. Such improvisations take place both on the levels of individual actions, on the level of communities of practice, and on the organisational level. The ability to improvise is practically a necessity for work to be carried out, but is also a potential risk. Phase III of the project studied how tasks are adapted relative to the different types of embedding and the degree of correspondence between nominal and actual ORV. It also looked further at the different Communities of Practice that are part of maintenance and ORV, focusing on the coordination and
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yokoyama, Keiichi; Sugita, Akihiro; Yamada, Hidetaka; Teranishi, Yoshiaki; Yokoyama, Atsushi
2007-01-01
A preparatory study on the quantum control of the selective transition K(4S 1/2 ) → K(4P J ) (J=1/2, 3/2) in intense laser field is reported. To generate high average power femtosecond laser pulses with enough field intensity, a Ti:Sapphire regenerative amplifier system with a repetition rate of 1 kHz is constructed. The bandwidth and pulse energy are shown to qualify the required values for the completely selective transition with 100% population inversion. A preliminary experiment of the selective excitation shows that the fringe pattern formed by a phase related pulse pair depends on the laser intensity, indicating that the perturbative behavior of the excitation probabilities is not valid any more and the laser intensity reaches a non-perturbative region. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hauet, Thomas; Gunther, Christian M.; Hovorka, Ondrej; Berger, Andreas; Im, Mi-Young; Fischer, Peter; Hellwig, Olav
2008-12-09
We investigate the reversal process in antiferromagnetically coupled [Co/Pt]{sub X-1}/{l_brace}Co/Ru/[Co/Pt]{sub X-1}{r_brace}{sub 16} multilayer films by combining magnetometry and Magnetic soft X-ray Transmission Microscopy (MXTM). After out-of-plane demagnetization, a stable one dimensional ferromagnetic (FM) stripe domain phase (tiger-tail phase) for a thick stack sample (X=7 is obtained), while metastable sharp antiferromagnetic (AF) domain walls are observed in the remanent state for a thinner stack sample (X=6). When applying an external magnetic field the sharp domain walls of the thinner stack sample transform at a certain threshold field into the FM stripe domain wall phase. We present magnetic energy calculations that reveal the underlying energetics driving the overall reversal mechanisms.
High energy X-ray phase and dark-field imaging using a random absorption mask.
Wang, Hongchang; Kashyap, Yogesh; Cai, Biao; Sawhney, Kawal
2016-07-28
High energy X-ray imaging has unique advantage over conventional X-ray imaging, since it enables higher penetration into materials with significantly reduced radiation damage. However, the absorption contrast in high energy region is considerably low due to the reduced X-ray absorption cross section for most materials. Even though the X-ray phase and dark-field imaging techniques can provide substantially increased contrast and complementary information, fabricating dedicated optics for high energies still remain a challenge. To address this issue, we present an alternative X-ray imaging approach to produce transmission, phase and scattering signals at high X-ray energies by using a random absorption mask. Importantly, in addition to the synchrotron radiation source, this approach has been demonstrated for practical imaging application with a laboratory-based microfocus X-ray source. This new imaging method could be potentially useful for studying thick samples or heavy materials for advanced research in materials science.
Compensation for the phase-type spatial periodic modulation of the near-field beam at 1053 nm
Gao, Yaru; Liu, Dean; Yang, Aihua; Tang, Ruyu; Zhu, Jianqiang
2017-10-01
A phase-only spatial light modulator is used to provide and compensate for the spatial periodic modulation (SPM) of the near-field beam at the near infrared at 1053nm wavelength with an improved iterative weight-based method. The transmission characteristics of the incident beam has been changed by a spatial light modulator (SLM) to shape the spatial intensity of the output beam. The propagation and reverse propagation of the light in free space are two important processes in the iterative process. The based theory is the beam angular spectrum transmit formula (ASTF) and the principle of the iterative weight-based method. We have made two improvements to the originally proposed iterative weight-based method. We select the appropriate parameter by choosing the minimum value of the output beam contrast degree and use the MATLAB built-in angle function to acquire the corresponding phase of the light wave function. The required phase that compensates for the intensity distribution of the incident SPM beam is iterated by this algorithm, which can decrease the magnitude of the SPM of the intensity on the observation plane. The experimental results show that the phase-type SPM of the near-field beam is subject to a certain restriction. We have also analyzed some factors that make the results imperfect. The experiment results verifies the possible applicability of this iterative weight-based method to compensate for the SPM of the near-field beam.
Spin dynamics in the high-field phase of quantum-critical S =1/2 TlCuCl sub 3
Rueegg, C; Furrer, A; Krämer, K; Güdel, H U; Vorderwisch, P; Mutka, H
2002-01-01
An external magnetic field suppresses the spin-energy gap in singlet ground state S=1/2 TlCuCl sub 3. The system becomes quantum-critical at H sub c approx 5.7 T, where the energy of the lowest Zeeman-split triplet excitation crosses the nonmagnetic ground state. Antiferromagnetic ordering is reported above H sub c , which underlines the three-dimensional nature of the observed quantum phase transition. The intrinsic parameters of S=1/2 TlCuCl sub 3 allow us to access the critical region microscopically by neutron scattering. A substantial study of the spin dynamics in the high-field phase of TlCuCl sub 3 at T=1.5 K up to H=12 T was performed for the first time. The results possibly indicate two dynamical regimes, which can be understood within characteristically renormalized triplet modes and a low-lying dynamics of potentially collective origin. (orig.)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Henrique Silva Furtado
2009-09-01
Full Text Available Numerical simulation of solute trapping during solidification, using two phase-field model for dilute binary alloys developed by Kim et al. [Phys. Rev. E, 60, 7186 (1999] and Ramirez et al. [Phys. Rev. E, 69, 05167 (2004] is presented here. The simulations on dilute Cu-Ni alloy are in good agreement with one dimensional analytic solution of sharp interface model. Simulation conducted under small solidification velocity using solid-liquid interface thickness (2λ of 8 nanometers reproduced the solute (Cu equilibrium partition coefficient. The spurious numerical solute trapping in solid phase, due to the interface thickness was negligible. A parameter used in analytical solute trapping model was determined by isothermal phase-field simulation of Ni-Cu alloy. Its application to Si-As and Si-Bi alloys reproduced results that agree reasonably well with experimental data. A comparison between the three models of solute trapping (Aziz, Sobolev and Galenko [Phys. Rev. E, 76, 031606 (2007] was performed. It resulted in large differences in predicting the solidification velocity for partition-less solidification, indicating the necessity for new and more acute experimental data.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ertaş, Mehmet; Keskin, Mustafa
2012-01-01
The dynamic magnetic behavior of the mixed Ising bilayer system (σ=2 and S=5/2), with a crystal-field interaction in an oscillating field are studied, within the mean-field approach, by using the Glauber-type stochastic dynamics for both ferromagnetic/ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic/ferromagnetic interactions. The time variations of average magnetizations and the temperature dependence of the dynamic magnetizations are investigated. The dynamic phase diagrams are presented in the reduced temperature and magnetic field amplitude plane and they exhibit several ordered phases, coexistence phase regions and critical points as well as a re-entrant behavior depending on interaction parameters. -- Highlights: ► Dynamic magnetic behavior of the mixed Ising bilayer system is investigated within the Glauber-type stochastic dynamics. ► The time variations of average magnetizations are studied to find the phases. ► The temperature dependence of the dynamic magnetizations is investigated to obtain the dynamic phase transition points. ► The dynamic phase diagrams are presented and they exhibit several ordered phases, coexistence phase regions and critical points as well as a re-entrant behavior.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ertaş, Mehmet [Department of Physics, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey); Keskin, Mustafa, E-mail: keskin@erciyes.edu.tr [Department of Physics, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey)
2012-07-23
The dynamic magnetic behavior of the mixed Ising bilayer system (σ=2 and S=5/2), with a crystal-field interaction in an oscillating field are studied, within the mean-field approach, by using the Glauber-type stochastic dynamics for both ferromagnetic/ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic/ferromagnetic interactions. The time variations of average magnetizations and the temperature dependence of the dynamic magnetizations are investigated. The dynamic phase diagrams are presented in the reduced temperature and magnetic field amplitude plane and they exhibit several ordered phases, coexistence phase regions and critical points as well as a re-entrant behavior depending on interaction parameters. -- Highlights: ► Dynamic magnetic behavior of the mixed Ising bilayer system is investigated within the Glauber-type stochastic dynamics. ► The time variations of average magnetizations are studied to find the phases. ► The temperature dependence of the dynamic magnetizations is investigated to obtain the dynamic phase transition points. ► The dynamic phase diagrams are presented and they exhibit several ordered phases, coexistence phase regions and critical points as well as a re-entrant behavior.
Study of antiferro – ferromagnetic phase coexistence in Ta doped HfFe{sub 2}
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bag, Pallab, E-mail: pallab@csr.res.in [UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientific Research, University Campus, Khandwa Road, Indore 452001, MP (India); Singh, Sanjay [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhan Nagar, Kolkata 700064 (India); Babu, P.D.; Siruguri, Vasudeva [UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientific Research, Mumbai Centre, R-5 Shed, BARC, Mumbai 400085 (India); Rawat, Rajeev [UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientific Research, University Campus, Khandwa Road, Indore 452001, MP (India)
2014-09-01
First order antiferromagnetic (AFM) to ferromagnetic (FM) transition in Hf{sub 1−x}Ta{sub x}Fe{sub 2} with x∼0.225 compounds was studied by resistivity, magnetization and X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements at low temperature. Magnetization measurements as a function of temperature and magnetic field show path dependent FM phase fraction at 5 K for x=0.225. XRD measurements at 15 K show co-existing AFM and FM phases for this composition with ∼0.9% unit cell volume difference of FM and AFM phase.
11B-NMR study of low-temperature phase transition in CuB2O4
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yasuda, Y; Nakamura, H; Fujii, Y; Kikuchi, H; Chiba, M; Yamamoto, Y; Hori, H; Petrakovskii, G; Popov, M; Bezmaternikh, L
2007-01-01
The material CuB 2 O 4 presents a variety of phases in the B-T phase diagram, caused by the frustration and the Dzialoshinskii-Moriya interaction. In order to investigate the nature of the phase transitions, a 11 B-NMR experiment on CuB 2 O 4 has been performed under an applied magnetic field along the a-axis down to 0.4 K. A new incommensurate-incommensurate phase transition has been found at 0.8 K under a field of 0.5 T. Further, another phase transition has been observed at 4.7 K under a field of about 2 T, which is consistent with the transition reported by the neutron diffraction experiment
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Escobedo, R. [Departamento de Matematica Aplicada y Ciencias de la Computacion, Universidad de Cantabria, 39005 Santander (Spain); Carretero, M.; Bonilla, L.L. [G. Millan Institute, Fluid Dynamics, Nanoscience and Industrial Maths., Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, 28911 Leganes (Spain); Unidad Asociada al Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales, CSIC, 28049 Cantoblanco, Madrid (Spain); Platero, G. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales, CSIC, 28049 Cantoblanco, Madrid (Spain)
2010-04-15
The response of an n-doped dc voltage biased II-VI multi-quantum well dilute magnetic semiconductor nanostructure having its first well doped with magnetic (Mn) impurities is analyzed by sweeping wide ranges of both the voltage and the Zeeman level splitting induced by an external magnetic field. The level splitting versus voltage phase diagram shows regions of stable self-sustained current oscillations immersed in a region of stable stationary states. Transitions between stationary states and self-sustained current oscillations are systematically analyzed by both voltage and level splitting abrupt switching. Sudden voltage or/and magnetic field changes may switch on current oscillations from an initial stationary state, and reciprocally, current oscillations may disappear after sudden changes of voltage or/and magnetic field changes into the stable stationary states region. The results show how to design such a device to operate as a spin injector and a spin oscillator by tuning the Zeeman splitting (through the applied external magnetic field), the applied voltage and the sample configuration parameters (doping density, barrier and well widths, etc.) to select the desired stationary or oscillatory behavior. Phase diagram of Zeeman level splitting {delta} vs. dimensionless applied voltage {phi} for N = 10 QWs. White region: stable stationary states; black: stable self-sustained current oscillations. (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)
The quantum-field renormalization group in the problem of a growing phase boundary
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Antonov, N.V.; Vasil'ev, A.N.
1995-01-01
Within the quantum-field renormalization-group approach we examine the stochastic equation discussed by S.I. Pavlik in describing a randomly growing phase boundary. We show that, in contrast to Pavlik's assertion, the model is not multiplicatively renormalizable and that its consistent renormalization-group analysis requires introducing an infinite number of counterterms and the respective coupling constants (open-quotes chargeclose quotes). An explicit calculation in the one-loop approximation shows that a two-dimensional surface of renormalization-group points exits in the infinite-dimensional charge space. If the surface contains an infrared stability region, the problem allows for scaling with the nonuniversal critical dimensionalities of the height of the phase boundary and time, δ h and δ t , which satisfy the exact relationship 2 δ h = δ t + d, where d is the dimensionality of the phase boundary. 23 refs., 1 tab
Jose, J.; Segerink, Franciscus B.; Korterik, Jeroen P.; Offerhaus, Herman L.
2008-01-01
We report the near-field observation of the phase shifts associated with total internal reflection on a glass-air interface and surface plasmon resonance on a glass-gold-air system. The phase of the evanescent waves on glass and gold surfaces, as a function of incident angle, is measured using a
Spin ordered phase transitions in neutron matter under the presence of a strong magnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Isayev, A.A.; Yang, J.
2011-01-01
In dense neutron matter under the presence of a strong magnetic field, considered in the model with the Skyrme effective interaction, there are possible two types of spin ordered states. In one of them the majority of neutron spins are aligned opposite to magnetic field (thermodynamically preferable state), and in other one the majority of spins are aligned along the field (metastable state). The equation of state, incompressibility modulus and velocity of sound are determined in each case with the aim to find the peculiarities allowing to distinguish between two spin ordered phases.
Tavassoly, M. K.; Daneshmand, R.; Rustaee, N.
2018-06-01
In this paper we study the linear and nonlinear (intensity-dependent) interactions of two two-level atoms with a single-mode quantized field far from resonance, while the phase-damping effect is also taken into account. To find the analytical solution of the atom-field state vector corresponding to the considered model, after deducing the effective Hamiltonian we evaluate the time-dependent elements of the density operator using the master equation approach and superoperator method. Consequently, we are able to study the influences of the special nonlinearity function f (n) = √ {n}, the intensity of the initial coherent state field and the phase-damping parameter on the degree of entanglement of the whole system as well as the field and atom. It is shown that in the presence of damping, by passing time, the amount of entanglement of each subsystem with the rest of system, asymptotically reaches to its stationary and maximum value. Also, the nonlinear interaction does not have any effect on the entanglement of one of the atoms with the rest of system, but it changes the amplitude and time period of entanglement oscillations of the field and the other atom. Moreover, this may cause that, the degree of entanglement which may be low (high) at some moments of time becomes high (low) by entering the intensity-dependent function in the atom-field coupling.
Hartono, N.; Laurence; Johannes, H. P.
2017-11-01
According to one of UN reports, water scarcity has happened all around the world, including Indonesia. Irrigation sector takes up 70% of world water consumption and potentially increases 20% due to the population explosion. Rice is accounted for 69% of agricultural products contributions in Indonesia’s water footprint. Therefore, evaluation of water cycle was essential to raise awareness among practitioners. Data collections were conducted in the functional unit of one-hectare rice field located in Tangerang. This study used CropWat 8.0 and SimaPro software. Identification involved data such as climate, crop, and soil. Nursery became the highest water consumed phase, requiring 419 mm in height. Measurement through water footprint resulted in consumption of green water footprint for 8,183,618.5 liters (62.9%), followed by grey for 4,805,733.2 liters (36.9%) and blue for 23,902.36 liters (0.2%). The grey consumption was exceeding the average, which indicated high doses of pesticides. Life Cycle Assessment showed negative impacts of fertilizers that caused damages like fossil depletion, respiratory health, and eutrophication.