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Sample records for phase contrast combined

  1. Analyzer-based x-ray phase-contrast microscopy combining channel-cut and asymmetrically cut crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoennicke, M. G.; Cusatis, C.

    2007-01-01

    An analyzer-based x-ray phase-contrast microscopy (ABM) setup combining a standard analyzer-based x-ray phase-contrast imaging (ABI) setup [nondispersive 4-crystal setup (Bonse-Hart setup)] and diffraction by asymmetrically cut crystals is presented here. An attenuation-contrast microscopy setup with conventional x-ray source and asymmetrically cut crystals is first analyzed. Edge-enhanced effects attributed to phase jumps or refraction/total external reflection on the fiber borders were detected. However, the long exposure times and the possibility to achieve high contrast microscopies by using extremely low attenuation-contrast samples motivated us to assemble the ABM setup using a synchrotron source. This setup was found to be useful for low contrast attenuation samples due to the low exposure time, high contrast, and spatial resolution found. Moreover, thanks to the combination with the nondispersive ABI setup, the diffraction-enhanced x-ray imaging algorithm could be applied

  2. Enhanced phase contrast transfer using ptychography combined with a pre-specimen phase plate in a scanning transmission electron microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Hao; Ercius, Peter [Molecular Foundry, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Nellist, Peter D. [Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PH (United Kingdom); Ophus, Colin, E-mail: clophus@lbl.gov [Molecular Foundry, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2016-12-15

    The ability to image light elements in both crystalline and noncrystalline materials at near atomic resolution with an enhanced contrast is highly advantageous to understand the structure and properties of a wide range of beam sensitive materials including biological specimens and molecular hetero-structures. This requires the imaging system to have an efficient phase contrast transfer at both low and high spatial frequencies. In this work we introduce a new phase contrast imaging method in a scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) using a pre-specimen phase plate in the probe forming aperture, combined with a fast pixelated detector to record diffraction patterns at every probe position, and phase reconstruction using ptychography. The phase plate significantly enhances the contrast transfer of low spatial frequency information, and ptychography maximizes the extraction of the phase information at all spatial frequencies. In addition, the STEM probe with the presence of the phase plate retains its atomic resolution, allowing simultaneous incoherent Z-contrast imaging to be obtained along with the ptychographic phase image. An experimental image of Au nanoparticles on a carbon support shows high contrast for both materials. Multislice image simulations of a DNA molecule shows the capability of imaging soft matter at low dose conditions, which implies potential applications of low dose imaging of a wide range of beam sensitive materials. - Highlights: • This work demonstrates a phase contrast imaging method by combining a pre-specimen phase plate with ptychogrpahy. • This method is shown to have a high phase contrast transfer efficiency at both low and high spatial frequencies. • Unlike CTEM which uses a heavy defocus to gain contrast, the phase plate gives a linear phase contrast at zero defocus aberrations. • Image simulations of DNA suggest this method is highly attractive for imaging beam sensitive materials at a low dose.

  3. Regularized iterative integration combined with non-linear diffusion filtering for phase-contrast x-ray computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Karin; Koehler, Thomas; Chabior, Michael; Allner, Sebastian; Marschner, Mathias; Fehringer, Andreas; Willner, Marian; Pfeiffer, Franz; Noël, Peter

    2014-12-29

    Phase-contrast x-ray computed tomography has a high potential to become clinically implemented because of its complementarity to conventional absorption-contrast.In this study, we investigate noise-reducing but resolution-preserving analytical reconstruction methods to improve differential phase-contrast imaging. We apply the non-linear Perona-Malik filter on phase-contrast data prior or post filtered backprojected reconstruction. Secondly, the Hilbert kernel is replaced by regularized iterative integration followed by ramp filtered backprojection as used for absorption-contrast imaging. Combining the Perona-Malik filter with this integration algorithm allows to successfully reveal relevant sample features, quantitatively confirmed by significantly increased structural similarity indices and contrast-to-noise ratios. With this concept, phase-contrast imaging can be performed at considerably lower dose.

  4. Combined mixed approach algorithm for in-line phase-contrast x-ray imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Caro, Liberato; Scattarella, Francesco; Giannini, Cinzia; Tangaro, Sabina; Rigon, Luigi; Longo, Renata; Bellotti, Roberto

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: In the past decade, phase-contrast imaging (PCI) has been applied to study different kinds of tissues and human body parts, with an increased improvement of the image quality with respect to simple absorption radiography. A technique closely related to PCI is phase-retrieval imaging (PRI). Indeed, PCI is an imaging modality thought to enhance the total contrast of the images through the phase shift introduced by the object (human body part); PRI is a mathematical technique to extract the quantitative phase-shift map from PCI. A new phase-retrieval algorithm for the in-line phase-contrast x-ray imaging is here proposed. Methods: The proposed algorithm is based on a mixed transfer-function and transport-of-intensity approach (MA) and it requires, at most, an initial approximate estimate of the average phase shift introduced by the object as prior knowledge. The accuracy in the initial estimate determines the convergence speed of the algorithm. The proposed algorithm retrieves both the object phase and its complex conjugate in a combined MA (CMA). Results: Although slightly less computationally effective with respect to other mixed-approach algorithms, as two phases have to be retrieved, the results obtained by the CMA on simulated data have shown that the obtained reconstructed phase maps are characterized by particularly low normalized mean square errors. The authors have also tested the CMA on noisy experimental phase-contrast data obtained by a suitable weakly absorbing sample consisting of a grid of submillimetric nylon fibers as well as on a strongly absorbing object made of a 0.03 mm thick lead x-ray resolution star pattern. The CMA has shown a good efficiency in recovering phase information, also in presence of noisy data, characterized by peak-to-peak signal-to-noise ratios down to a few dBs, showing the possibility to enhance with phase radiography the signal-to-noise ratio for features in the submillimetric scale with respect to the attenuation

  5. Combining Generalized Phase Contrast with matched filtering into a versatile beam shaping approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glückstad, Jesper; Palima, Darwin

    2010-01-01

    We adapt concepts from matched filtering to propose a method for generating reconfigurable multiple beams. Combined with the Generalized Phase Contrast (GPC) technique, the proposed method coined mGPC can yield dynamically reconfigurable optical beam arrays with high light efficiency for optical...... manipulation, high-speed sorting and other parallel spatial light applications [1]....

  6. Complete staining of human spermatozoa and immature germ cells combined with phase contrast microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michael, A Y; Drejer, J O; Bagger, P V

    1987-01-01

    A method combining Janus green B and Thymol blue stains the anterior part of the head, the nuclear membrane, middle piece, and tail of spermatozoa light green and the nucleus deep purple. The method provides excellent stained preparations for the evaluation of sperm morphology by phase contrast...

  7. Combined fluorescence and phase contrast imaging at the Advanced Photon Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hornberger, B.; Feser, M.; Jacobsen, C.; Vogt, S.; Legnini, D.; Paterson, D.; Rehak, P.; DeGeronimo, G.; Palmer, B.M.; Experimental Facilities Division; State Univ. of New York at Stony Brook Univ.; BNL; Univ. of Vermont

    2006-01-01

    X-ray fluorescence microprobes excel at detecting and quantifying trace metals in biological and environmental science samples, but typically do not detect low Z elements such as carbon and nitrogen. Therefore, it is hard to put the trace metals into context with their natural environment. We are implementing phase contrast capabilities with a segmented detector into several microprobes at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) to address this problem. Qualitative differential phase contrast images from a modified soft x-ray detector already provide very useful information for general users. We are also implementing a quantitative method to recover the absolute phase shift by Fourier filtering detector images. New detectors are under development which are optimized for the signal levels present at the APS. In this paper, we concentrate on fundamental signal to noise considerations comparing absorption and differential phase contrast

  8. Generalized phase contrast:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glückstad, Jesper; Palima, Darwin

    Generalized Phase Contrast elevates the phase contrast technique not only to improve phase imaging but also to cross over and interface with diverse and seemingly disparate fields of contemporary optics and photonics. This book presents a comprehensive introduction to the Generalized Phase Contrast...

  9. Phase Contrast Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1996-01-01

    The invention relates to a method and a system for synthesizing a prescribed intensity pattern based on phase contrast imaging that is not based on the assumption of prior art methods that the pahase shift phi is less than 1 radian. An improved method based on a simple imaging operation...... phasors attain predetermined values for predetermined spatial frequencies, and the phasor value of the specific resolution element of the spatial phase mask corresponds to a distinct intensity level of the image of the resolution element in the intensity pattern, and a spatial phase filter for phase...... shifting of a part of the electromagntic radiation, in combination with an imaging system for generation of the intensity pattern by interference in the image plane of the imaging system between the part of the electromagnetic raidation that has been phase shifted by the phase filter and the remaining part...

  10. Generalized Phase Contrast

    CERN Document Server

    Glückstad, Jesper

    2009-01-01

    Generalized Phase Contrast elevates the phase contrast technique not only to improve phase imaging but also to cross over and interface with diverse and seemingly disparate fields of contemporary optics and photonics. This book presents a comprehensive introduction to the Generalized Phase Contrast (GPC) method including an overview of the range of current and potential applications of GPC in wavefront sensing and phase imaging, structured laser illumination and image projection, optical trapping and manipulation, and optical encryption and decryption. The GPC method goes further than the restrictive assumptions of conventional Zernike phase contrast analysis and achieves an expanded range of validity beyond weak phase perturbations. The generalized analysis yields design criteria for tuning experimental parameters to achieve optimal performance in terms of accuracy, fidelity and light efficiency. Optimization can address practical issues, such as finding an optimal spatial filter for the chosen application, ...

  11. Diagnosis value of dual-phase contrast enhancement CT combined with virtual non-enhanced images by dual-energy CT in clear cell renal cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Zhoupeng; Zhou Jianjun; Liu Xueling; Wang Chun; Zhang Shunzhuang

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To explore the diagnostic value of dual-phase contrast enhancement CT combined with virtual non-enhanced images by dual-energy CT in clear cell renal cell carcinoma. Methods: Sixty patients who were suspected of clear cell renal cell carcinoma underwent non-enhanced CT and contrast enhancement CT of early interface-phase between cortex -medulla and parenchymal phase on a dual-energy CT. The true non-enhanced kidney CT (TNCT) was performed in a single-energy acquisition mode, but the dual-phase contrast enhancement CT were performed in a dual-energy mode of 80 kV and 140 kV respectively. The virtual non-enhanced CT (VNCT) images were derived from the data of early interface phase using liver virtual non-contrast software. The diagnose according to VNCT combined dual-phase contrast enhancement CT and dual-phase contrast enhancement CT only were made respectively and compared with χ 2 test. Between the true non-contrast CT and the virtual non-contrast CT, the image quality was compared with Wilcoxon test; The radiation dose of volume CT dose index (CTDIvol) and dose length product(DLP) in a single-phase and total examination, the mean CT HU values of the tumours were compared with t test. Results: The accuracy of VNCT combined dual-phase contrast enhancement CT was higher than that of dual-phase contrast enhancement CT only [93.3% (56/60) vs.78.3% (47/60); χ 2 =5.6, P<0.05]. The detective ability (score) of VNCT was near to that of TNCT and the difference was not obvious (Z=0.00, P>0.05). The radiation dose of volume CT dose index (CTDIvol) and dose length product (DLP) in a single phase and total examination of VNCT [(8.85 ± 1.28) mGy, (196.45 ±21.12) mGy·cm, (17.69±2.35) mGy, (392.90±42.25) mGy · cm] were lower than that of TNCT [(10.20 ± 1.44) mGy,(218.29 ± 29.60) mGy · cm, (30.61 ± 3.27) mGy and (654.86 ± 88.81) mGy ·cm], t=4.21, 3.58, 23.63, 16.12 respectively, P<0.05. The mean CT HU values of tumours on VNCT images was higher than that

  12. Using the phase-space imager to analyze partially coherent imaging systems: bright-field, phase contrast, differential interference contrast, differential phase contrast, and spiral phase contrast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Shalin B.; Sheppard, Colin J. R.

    2010-05-01

    Various methods that use large illumination aperture (i.e. partially coherent illumination) have been developed for making transparent (i.e. phase) specimens visible. These methods were developed to provide qualitative contrast rather than quantitative measurement-coherent illumination has been relied upon for quantitative phase analysis. Partially coherent illumination has some important advantages over coherent illumination and can be used for measurement of the specimen's phase distribution. However, quantitative analysis and image computation in partially coherent systems have not been explored fully due to the lack of a general, physically insightful and computationally efficient model of image formation. We have developed a phase-space model that satisfies these requirements. In this paper, we employ this model (called the phase-space imager) to elucidate five different partially coherent systems mentioned in the title. We compute images of an optical fiber under these systems and verify some of them with experimental images. These results and simulated images of a general phase profile are used to compare the contrast and the resolution of the imaging systems. We show that, for quantitative phase imaging of a thin specimen with matched illumination, differential phase contrast offers linear transfer of specimen information to the image. We also show that the edge enhancement properties of spiral phase contrast are compromised significantly as the coherence of illumination is reduced. The results demonstrate that the phase-space imager model provides a useful framework for analysis, calibration, and design of partially coherent imaging methods.

  13. Image fusion in x-ray differential phase-contrast imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, W.; Polyanskaya, M.; Bayer, F.; Gödel, K.; Hofmann, H.; Rieger, J.; Ritter, A.; Weber, T.; Wucherer, L.; Durst, J.; Michel, T.; Anton, G.; Hornegger, J.

    2012-02-01

    Phase-contrast imaging is a novel modality in the field of medical X-ray imaging. The pioneer method is the grating-based interferometry which has no special requirements to the X-ray source and object size. Furthermore, it provides three different types of information of an investigated object simultaneously - absorption, differential phase-contrast and dark-field images. Differential phase-contrast and dark-field images represent a completely new information which has not yet been investigated and studied in context of medical imaging. In order to introduce phase-contrast imaging as a new modality into medical environment the resulting information about the object has to be correctly interpreted. The three output images reflect different properties of the same object the main challenge is to combine and visualize these data in such a way that it diminish the information explosion and reduce the complexity of its interpretation. This paper presents an intuitive image fusion approach which allows to operate with grating-based phase-contrast images. It combines information of the three different images and provides a single image. The approach is implemented in a fusion framework which is aimed to support physicians in study and analysis. The framework provides the user with an intuitive graphical user interface allowing to control the fusion process. The example given in this work shows the functionality of the proposed method and the great potential of phase-contrast imaging in medical practice.

  14. Phase contrast image synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glückstad, J.

    1996-01-01

    A new method is presented for synthesizing arbitrary intensity patterns based on phase contrast imaging. The concept is grounded on an extension of the Zernike phase contrast method into the domain of full range [0; 2 pi] phase modulation. By controlling the average value of the input phase funct...... function and by choosing appropriate phase retardation at the phase contrast filter, a pure phase to intensity imaging is accomplished. The method presented is also directly applicable in dark field image synthesis....

  15. Phase contrast image segmentation using a Laue analyser crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitchen, Marcus J; Paganin, David M; Lewis, Robert A; Pavlov, Konstantin M; Uesugi, Kentaro; Allison, Beth J; Hooper, Stuart B

    2011-01-01

    Dual-energy x-ray imaging is a powerful tool enabling two-component samples to be separated into their constituent objects from two-dimensional images. Phase contrast x-ray imaging can render the boundaries between media of differing refractive indices visible, despite them having similar attenuation properties; this is important for imaging biological soft tissues. We have used a Laue analyser crystal and a monochromatic x-ray source to combine the benefits of both techniques. The Laue analyser creates two distinct phase contrast images that can be simultaneously acquired on a high-resolution detector. These images can be combined to separate the effects of x-ray phase, absorption and scattering and, using the known complex refractive indices of the sample, to quantitatively segment its component materials. We have successfully validated this phase contrast image segmentation (PCIS) using a two-component phantom, containing an iodinated contrast agent, and have also separated the lungs and ribcage in images of a mouse thorax. Simultaneous image acquisition has enabled us to perform functional segmentation of the mouse thorax throughout the respiratory cycle during mechanical ventilation.

  16. 3-D growth of a short fatigue crack within a polycrystalline microstructure studied using combined diffraction and phase-contrast X-ray tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbig, M.; King, Andrew; Reischig, Peter

    2011-01-01

    X-ray diffraction contrast tomography is a recently developed, non-destructive synchrotron imaging technique which characterizes microstructure and grain orientation in polycrystalline materials in three dimensions. By combining it with propagation-based phase-contrast tomography it is possible t...

  17. Phase retrieval for X-ray in-line phase contrast imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scattarella, F.; Bellotti, R.; Tangaro, S.; Gargano, G.; Giannini, C.

    2011-01-01

    A review article about phase retrieval problem in X-ray phase contrast imaging is presented. A simple theoretical framework of Fresnel diffraction imaging by X-rays is introduced. A review of the most important methods for phase retrieval in free-propagation-based X-ray imaging and a new method developed by our collaboration are shown. The proposed algorithm, Combined Mixed Approach (CMA) is based on a mixed transfer function and transport of intensity approach, and it requires at most an initial approximate estimate of the average phase shift introduced by the object as prior knowledge. The accuracy with which this initial estimate is known determines the convenience speed of algorithm. The new proposed algorithm is based on the retrieval of both the object phase and its complex conjugate. The results obtained by the algorithm on simulated data have shown that the obtained reconstructed phase maps are characterized by particularly low normalized mean square errors. The algorithm was also tested on noisy experimental phase contrast data, showing a good efficiency in recovering phase information and enhancing the visibility of details inside soft tissues.

  18. Biofilm imaging in porous media by laboratory X-Ray tomography: Combining a non-destructive contrast agent with propagation-based phase-contrast imaging tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrel, Maxence; Beltran, Mario A; Morales, Verónica L; Derlon, Nicolas; Morgenroth, Eberhard; Kaufmann, Rolf; Holzner, Markus

    2017-01-01

    X-ray tomography is a powerful tool giving access to the morphology of biofilms, in 3D porous media, at the mesoscale. Due to the high water content of biofilms, the attenuation coefficient of biofilms and water are very close, hindering the distinction between biofilms and water without the use of contrast agents. Until now, the use of contrast agents such as barium sulfate, silver-coated micro-particles or 1-chloronaphtalene added to the liquid phase allowed imaging the biofilm 3D morphology. However, these contrast agents are not passive and potentially interact with the biofilm when injected into the sample. Here, we use a natural inorganic compound, namely iron sulfate, as a contrast agent progressively bounded in dilute or colloidal form into the EPS matrix during biofilm growth. By combining a very long source-to-detector distance on a X-ray laboratory source with a Lorentzian filter implemented prior to tomographic reconstruction, we substantially increase the contrast between the biofilm and the surrounding liquid, which allows revealing the 3D biofilm morphology. A comparison of this new method with the method proposed by Davit et al (Davit et al., 2011), which uses barium sulfate as a contrast agent to mark the liquid phase was performed. Quantitative evaluations between the methods revealed substantial differences for the volumetric fractions obtained from both methods. Namely, contrast agent-biofilm interactions (e.g. biofilm detachment) occurring during barium sulfate injection caused a reduction of the biofilm volumetric fraction of more than 50% and displacement of biofilm patches elsewhere in the column. Two key advantages of the newly proposed method are that passive addition of iron sulfate maintains the integrity of the biofilm prior to imaging, and that the biofilm itself is marked by the contrast agent, rather than the liquid phase as in other available methods. The iron sulfate method presented can be applied to understand biofilm development

  19. Benchtop phase-contrast X-ray imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gundogdu, O. [Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)], E-mail: o.gundogdu@surrey.ac.uk; Nirgianaki, E.; Che Ismail, E.; Jenneson, P.M.; Bradley, D.A. [Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)

    2007-12-15

    Clinical radiography has traditionally been based on contrast obtained from absorption when X-rays pass through the body. The contrast obtained from traditional radiography can be rather poor, particularly when it comes to soft tissue. A wide range of media of interest in materials science, biology and medicine exhibit very weak absorption contrast, but they nevertheless produce significant phase shifts with X-rays. The use of phase information for imaging purposes is therefore an attractive prospect. Some of the X-ray phase-contrast imaging methods require highly monochromatic plane wave radiation and sophisticated X-ray optics. However, the propagation-based phase-contrast imaging method adapted in this paper is a relatively simple method to implement, essentially requiring only a microfocal X-ray tube and electronic detection. In this paper, we present imaging results obtained from two different benchtop X-ray sources employing the free space propagation method. X-ray phase-contrast imaging provides higher contrast in many samples, including biological tissues that have negligible absorption contrast.

  20. Phase-contrast x-ray computed tomography for observing biological specimens and organic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momose, Atsushi; Takeda, Tohoru; Itai, Yuji

    1995-02-01

    A novel three-dimensional x-ray imaging method has been developed by combining a phase-contrast x-ray imaging technique with x-ray computed tomography. This phase-contrast x-ray computed tomography (PCX-CT) provides sectional images of organic specimens that would produce absorption-contrast x-ray CT images with little contrast. Comparing PCX-CT images of rat cerebellum and cancerous rabbit liver specimens with corresponding absorption-contrast CT images shows that PCX-CT is much more sensitive to the internal structure of organic specimens.

  1. Compressive Phase Contrast Tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maia, Filipe; MacDowell, Alastair; Marchesini, Stefano; Padmore, Howard A.; Parkinson, Dula Y.; Pien, Jack; Schirotzek, Andre; Yang, Chao

    2010-01-01

    When x-rays penetrate soft matter, their phase changes more rapidly than their amplitude. Interference effects visible with high brightness sources creates higher contrast, edge enhanced images. When the object is piecewise smooth (made of big blocks of a few components), such higher contrast datasets have a sparse solution. We apply basis pursuit solvers to improve SNR, remove ring artifacts, reduce the number of views and radiation dose from phase contrast datasets collected at the Hard X-Ray Micro Tomography Beamline at the Advanced Light Source. We report a GPU code for the most computationally intensive task, the gridding and inverse gridding algorithm (non uniform sampled Fourier transform).

  2. X-ray phase-contrast tomosynthesis for improved breast tissue discrimination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schleede, Simone; Bech, Martin; Grandl, Susanne; Sztrókay, Aniko; Herzen, Julia; Mayr, Doris; Stockmar, Marco; Potdevin, Guillaume

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Attenuation-based tomosynthesis has proven to successfully resolve the glandular tissue overlap present in mammography. However, the ability of tomosynthesis to differentiate tumorous and glandular tissue remains limited, due to the small differences in X-ray attenuation in breast tissue. One possibility to overcome this limitation and to further increase the diagnostic value of tomosynthesis exams, is the application of recently developed grating-based phase-contrast methods, which provide complementary information on the phase shift and the local scattering power of the sample. In this study, we report on first phase-contrast breast tomosynthesis results of a mastectomy sample slice with an invasive ductal carcinoma. Material and methods: A slice of a mastectomy sample with histologically proven invasive ductal cancer was imaged at the synchrotron radiation source ESRF (Grenoble, France). We used a two-grating interferometer setup at the ninth fractional Talbot distance and with an X-ray energy of 23 keV. In grating interferometry absorption, differential phase, and scattering images are recorded simultaneously. The tomosynthesis scan comprises 61 projections. Multimodal tomosynthesis results were reconstructed using a standard filtered back-projection approach. Our findings are supported by a comparison of tomographic views to histopathology. Results: Phase-contrast tomosynthesis combines the advantage of improved soft-tissue discrimination in phase-contrast imaging with the ability of tomosynthesis to provide a third dimension so that improved feature visibility is not hampered by superposition artifacts. Our results indicate superior diagnostic value due to the depth resolution supplied in tomosynthesis imaging; a region of necrotic tissue that is obscured in a projection image can clearly be depicted in one single tomosynthesis slice. Compared to absorption tomosynthesis alone, soft tissue contrast is significantly enhanced in phase-contrast

  3. X-ray phase-contrast tomosynthesis for improved breast tissue discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleede, Simone; Bech, Martin; Grandl, Susanne; Sztrókay, Aniko; Herzen, Julia; Mayr, Doris; Stockmar, Marco; Potdevin, Guillaume; Zanette, Irene; Rack, Alexander; Weitkamp, Timm; Pfeiffer, Franz

    2014-03-01

    Attenuation-based tomosynthesis has proven to successfully resolve the glandular tissue overlap present in mammography. However, the ability of tomosynthesis to differentiate tumorous and glandular tissue remains limited, due to the small differences in X-ray attenuation in breast tissue. One possibility to overcome this limitation and to further increase the diagnostic value of tomosynthesis exams, is the application of recently developed grating-based phase-contrast methods, which provide complementary information on the phase shift and the local scattering power of the sample. In this study, we report on first phase-contrast breast tomosynthesis results of a mastectomy sample slice with an invasive ductal carcinoma. A slice of a mastectomy sample with histologically proven invasive ductal cancer was imaged at the synchrotron radiation source ESRF (Grenoble, France). We used a two-grating interferometer setup at the ninth fractional Talbot distance and with an X-ray energy of 23 keV. In grating interferometry absorption, differential phase, and scattering images are recorded simultaneously. The tomosynthesis scan comprises 61 projections. Multimodal tomosynthesis results were reconstructed using a standard filtered back-projection approach. Our findings are supported by a comparison of tomographic views to histopathology. Phase-contrast tomosynthesis combines the advantage of improved soft-tissue discrimination in phase-contrast imaging with the ability of tomosynthesis to provide a third dimension so that improved feature visibility is not hampered by superposition artifacts. Our results indicate superior diagnostic value due to the depth resolution supplied in tomosynthesis imaging; a region of necrotic tissue that is obscured in a projection image can clearly be depicted in one single tomosynthesis slice. Compared to absorption tomosynthesis alone, soft tissue contrast is significantly enhanced in phase-contrast tomosynthesis views, where fibrous structures

  4. Phase-contrast X-ray CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Momose, Atsushi [Hitachi Ltd., Saitama (Japan). Advanced Research Laboratory; Takeda, Tohoru; Itai, Yuji

    1995-12-01

    Phase-contrast X-ray computed tomography (CT) enabling the observation of biological soft tissues without contrast enhancement has been developed. The X-ray phase shift caused by an object is measured and input to a standard CT reconstruction algorithm. A thousand times increase in the image sensitivity to soft tissues is achieved compared with the conventional CT using absorption contrast. This is because the X-ray phase shift cross section of light elements is about a thousand times larger than the absorption cross section. The phase shift is detected using an X-ray interferometer and computer analyses of interference patterns. Experiments were performed using a synchrotron X-ray source. Excellent image sensitivity is demonstrated in the observation of cancerous rabbit liver. The CT images distinguish cancer lesion from normal liver tissue and, moreover, visualize the pathological condition in the lesion. Although the X-ray energy employed and the present observation area size are not suitable for medical applications as they are, phase-contrast X-ray CT is promising for investigating the internal structure of soft tissue which is almost transparent for X-rays. The high sensitivity also provides the advantage of reducing X-ray doses. (author).

  5. Phase-contrast enhanced mammography: A new diagnostic tool for breast imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhentian; Thuering, Thomas; David, Christian; Roessl, Ewald; Trippel, Mafalda; Kubik-Huch, Rahel A.; Singer, Gad; Hohl, Michael K.; Hauser, Nik; Stampanoni, Marco

    2012-01-01

    Phase contrast and scattering-based X-ray imaging can potentially revolutionize the radiological approach to breast imaging by providing additional and complementary information to conventional, absorption-based methods. We investigated native, non-fixed whole breast samples using a grating interferometer with an X-ray tube-based configuration. Our approach simultaneously recorded absorption, differential phase contrast and small-angle scattering signals. The results show that this novel technique - combined with a dedicated image fusion algorithm - has the potential to deliver enhanced breast imaging with complementary information for an improved diagnostic process.

  6. Phase-contrast enhanced mammography: A new diagnostic tool for breast imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Zhentian; Thuering, Thomas; David, Christian; Roessl, Ewald; Trippel, Mafalda; Kubik-Huch, Rahel A.; Singer, Gad; Hohl, Michael K.; Hauser, Nik; Stampanoni, Marco [Swiss Light Source, Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Laboratory for Micro and Nanotechnology, Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Philips Technologie GmbH, Roentgenstrasse 24, 22335 Hamburg (Germany); Institute of Pathology, Kantonsspital Baden, 5404 Baden (Switzerland); Department of Radiology, Kantonsspital Baden, 5404 Baden (Switzerland); Institute of Pathology, Kantonsspital Baden, 5404 Baden (Switzerland); Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Interdisciplinary Breast Center Baden, Kantonsspital Baden, 5404 Baden (Switzerland); Swiss Light Source, Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen, Switzerland and Institute for Biomedical Engineering, University and ETH Zuerich, 8092 Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2012-07-31

    Phase contrast and scattering-based X-ray imaging can potentially revolutionize the radiological approach to breast imaging by providing additional and complementary information to conventional, absorption-based methods. We investigated native, non-fixed whole breast samples using a grating interferometer with an X-ray tube-based configuration. Our approach simultaneously recorded absorption, differential phase contrast and small-angle scattering signals. The results show that this novel technique - combined with a dedicated image fusion algorithm - has the potential to deliver enhanced breast imaging with complementary information for an improved diagnostic process.

  7. Investigation of the imaging quality of synchrotron-based phase-contrast mammographic tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gureyev, T E; Mayo, S C; Nesterets, Ya I; Mohammadi, S; Menk, R H; Arfelli, F; Tromba, G; Lockie, D; Pavlov, K M; Kitchen, M J; Zanconati, F; Dullin, C

    2014-01-01

    We report the results of a systematic study of phase-contrast x-ray computed tomography in the propagation-based and analyser-based modes using specially designed phantoms and excised breast tissue samples. The study is aimed at the quantitative evaluation and subsequent optimization, with respect to detection of small tumours in breast tissue, of the effects of phase contrast and phase retrieval on key imaging parameters, such as spatial resolution, contrast-to-noise ratio, x-ray dose and a recently proposed ‘intrinsic quality’ characteristic which combines the image noise with the spatial resolution. We demonstrate that some of the methods evaluated in this work lead to substantial (more than 20-fold) improvement in the contrast-to-noise and intrinsic quality of the reconstructed tomographic images compared with conventional techniques, with the measured characteristics being in good agreement with the corresponding theoretical estimations. This improvement also corresponds to an approximately 400-fold reduction in the x-ray dose, compared with conventional absorption-based tomography, without a loss in the imaging quality. The results of this study confirm and quantify the significant potential benefits achievable in three-dimensional mammography using x-ray phase-contrast imaging and phase-retrieval techniques. (paper)

  8. X-ray phase contrast imaging: From synchrotrons to conventional sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olivo, A.; Castelli, E.

    2014-01-01

    Phase-based approaches can revolutionize X-ray imaging and remove its main limitation: poor image contrast arising from low attenuation differences. They exploit the unit decrement of the real part of the refractive index, typically 1000 times larger than the imaginary part driving attenuation. This increases the contrast of all details, and enables the detection of features classically considered 'X-ray invisible'. Following pioneering experiments dating back to the mid-sixties, X-ray phase contrast imaging 'exploded' in the mid-nineties, when third generation synchrotron sources became more widely available. Applications were proposed in fields as diverse as material science, palaeontology, biology, food science, cultural heritage preservation, and many others. Among these applications, medicine has been constantly considered the most important; among medical applications, mammography is arguably the one that attracted most attention. Applications to mammography were pioneered by the SYRMEP (SYnchrotron Radiation for MEdical Physics) group in Trieste, which was already active in the area through a combination of innovative ways to do imaging at synchrotrons and development of novel X-ray detectors. This pioneering phase led to the only clinical experience of phase contrast mammography on human patients, and spawned a number of ideas as to how these advances could be translated into clinical practice.

  9. Matched filtering Generalized Phase Contrast using binary phase for dynamic spot- and line patterns in biophotonics and structured lighting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bañas, Andrew Rafael; Aabo, Thomas; Palima, Darwin

    2013-01-01

    as a combination of Generalized Phase Contrast and phase-only correlation. Such an analysis makes it convenient to optimize an mGPC system for different setup conditions. Results showing binary-only phase generation of dynamic spot arrays and line patterns are presented. © 201 Optical Society of America...

  10. Improved specimen reconstruction by Hilbert phase contrast tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Bastian; Joos, Friederike; Schröder, Rasmus R

    2008-11-01

    The low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in images of unstained specimens recorded with conventional defocus phase contrast makes it difficult to interpret 3D volumes obtained by electron tomography (ET). The high defocus applied for conventional tilt series generates some phase contrast but leads to an incomplete transfer of object information. For tomography of biological weak-phase objects, optimal image contrast and subsequently an optimized SNR are essential for the reconstruction of details such as macromolecular assemblies at molecular resolution. The problem of low contrast can be partially solved by applying a Hilbert phase plate positioned in the back focal plane (BFP) of the objective lens while recording images in Gaussian focus. Images recorded with the Hilbert phase plate provide optimized positive phase contrast at low spatial frequencies, and the contrast transfer in principle extends to the information limit of the microscope. The antisymmetric Hilbert phase contrast (HPC) can be numerically converted into isotropic contrast, which is equivalent to the contrast obtained by a Zernike phase plate. Thus, in-focus HPC provides optimal structure factor information without limiting effects of the transfer function. In this article, we present the first electron tomograms of biological specimens reconstructed from Hilbert phase plate image series. We outline the technical implementation of the phase plate and demonstrate that the technique is routinely applicable for tomography. A comparison between conventional defocus tomograms and in-focus HPC volumes shows an enhanced SNR and an improved specimen visibility for in-focus Hilbert tomography.

  11. Grating-based x-ray differential phase contrast imaging with twin peaks in phase-stepping curves—phase retrieval and dewrapping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Yi; Xie, Huiqiao; Tang, Xiangyang, E-mail: xiangyang.tang@emory.edu [Imaging and Medical Physics, Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Emory University School of Medicine, 1701 Uppergate Dr., C-5018, Atlanta, Georgia 30322 (United States); Cai, Weixing [Department of Radiation Oncology, Brigham and Women’s Hospital Harvard Medical School, 75 Francis Street, Boston, Massachusetts 02115 (United States); Mao, Hui [Laboratory of Functional and Molecular Imaging and Nanomedicine, Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Emory University School of Medicine, 1841 Clifton Road NE, Atlanta, Georgia 30329 (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: X-ray differential phase contrast CT implemented with Talbot interferometry employs phase-stepping to extract information of x-ray attenuation, phase shift, and small-angle scattering. Since inaccuracy may exist in the absorption grating G{sub 2} due to an imperfect fabrication, the effective period of G{sub 2} can be as large as twice the nominal period, leading to a phenomenon of twin peaks that differ remarkably in their heights. In this work, the authors investigate how to retrieve and dewrap the phase signal from the phase-stepping curve (PSC) with the feature of twin peaks for x-ray phase contrast imaging. Methods: Based on the paraxial Fresnel–Kirchhoff theory, the analytical formulae to characterize the phenomenon of twin peaks in the PSC are derived. Then an approach to dewrap the retrieved phase signal by jointly using the phases of the first- and second-order Fourier components is proposed. Through an experimental investigation using a prototype x-ray phase contrast imaging system implemented with Talbot interferometry, the authors evaluate and verify the derived analytic formulae and the proposed approach for phase retrieval and dewrapping. Results: According to theoretical analysis, the twin-peak phenomenon in PSC is a consequence of combined effects, including the inaccuracy in absorption grating G{sub 2}, mismatch between phase grating and x-ray source spectrum, and finite size of x-ray tube’s focal spot. The proposed approach is experimentally evaluated by scanning a phantom consisting of organic materials and a lab mouse. The preliminary data show that compared to scanning G{sub 2} over only one single nominal period and correcting the measured phase signal with an intuitive phase dewrapping method that is being used in the field, stepping G{sub 2} over twice its nominal period and dewrapping the measured phase signal with the proposed approach can significantly improve the quality of x-ray differential phase contrast imaging in both

  12. Dual focal-spot imaging for phase extraction in phase-contrast radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donnelly, Edwin F.; Price, Ronald R.; Pickens, David R.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate dual focal spot imaging as a method for extracting the phase component from a phase-contrast radiography image. All measurements were performed using a microfocus tungsten-target x-ray tube with an adjustable focal-spot size (0.01 mm to 0.045 mm). For each object, high-resolution digital radiographs were obtained with two different focal spot sizes to produce matched image pairs in which all other geometric variables as well as total exposure and tube kVp were held constant. For each image pair, a phase extraction was performed using pixel-wise division. The phase-extracted image resulted in an image similar to the standard image processing tool commonly referred to as 'unsharp masking' but with the additional edge-enhancement produced by phase-contrast effects. The phase-extracted image illustrates the differences between the two images whose imaging parameters differ only in focal spot size. The resulting image shows effects from both phase contrast as well as geometric unsharpness. In weakly attenuating materials the phase-contrast effect predominates, while in strongly attenuating materials the phase effects are so small that they are not detectable. The phase-extracted image in the strongly attenuating object reflects differences in geometric unsharpness. The degree of phase extraction depends strongly on the size of the smallest focal spot used. This technique of dual-focal spot phase-contrast radiography provides a simple technique for phase-component (edge) extraction in phase-contrast radiography. In strongly attenuating materials the phase-component is overwhelmed by differences in geometric unsharpness. In these cases the technique provides a form of unsharp masking which also accentuates the edges. Thus, the two effects are complimentary and may be useful in the detection of small objects

  13. Multiscale differential phase contrast analysis with a unitary detector

    KAUST Repository

    Lopatin, Sergei; Ivanov, Yurii P.; Kosel, Jü rgen; Chuvilin, Andrey

    2015-01-01

    A new approach to generate differential phase contrast (DPC) images for the visualization and quantification of local magnetic fields in a wide range of modern nano materials is reported. In contrast to conventional DPC methods our technique utilizes the idea of a unitary detector under bright field conditions, making it immediately usable by a majority of modern transmission electron microscopes. The approach is put on test to characterize the local magnetization of cylindrical nanowires and their 3D ordered arrays, revealing high sensitivity of our method in a combination with nanometer-scale spatial resolution.

  14. Multiscale differential phase contrast analysis with a unitary detector

    KAUST Repository

    Lopatin, Sergei

    2015-12-30

    A new approach to generate differential phase contrast (DPC) images for the visualization and quantification of local magnetic fields in a wide range of modern nano materials is reported. In contrast to conventional DPC methods our technique utilizes the idea of a unitary detector under bright field conditions, making it immediately usable by a majority of modern transmission electron microscopes. The approach is put on test to characterize the local magnetization of cylindrical nanowires and their 3D ordered arrays, revealing high sensitivity of our method in a combination with nanometer-scale spatial resolution.

  15. Characterization of a high-energy in-line phase contrast tomosynthesis prototype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Di; Yan, Aimin; Li, Yuhua; Wong, Molly D; Zheng, Bin; Wu, Xizeng; Liu, Hong

    2015-05-01

    prototype. In addition, the PAD-based method of phase retrieval was combined with tomosynthesis imaging for the first time, which demonstrated its capability in significantly improving the contrast-to-noise ratios in the images.

  16. Application of phase contrast imaging to mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tohyama, Keiko; Yamada, Katsuhiko; Katafuchi, Tetsuro; Matsuo, Satoru; Morishita, Junji

    2005-01-01

    Phase contrast images were obtained experimentally by using a customized mammography unit with a nominal focal spot size of 100 μm and variable source-to-image distances of up to 1.5 m. The purpose of this study was to examine the applicability and potential usefulness of phase contrast imaging for mammography. A mammography phantom (ACR156 RMI phantom) was imaged, and its visibility was examined. The optical density of the phantom images was adjusted to approximately 1.3 for both the contact and phase contrast images. Forty-one observers (18 medical doctors and 23 radiological technologists) participated in visual evaluation of the images. Results showed that, in comparison with the images of contact mammography, the phantom images of phase contrast imaging demonstrated statistically significantly superior visibility for fibers, clustered micro-calcifications, and masses. Therefore, phase contrast imaging obtained by using the customized mammography unit would be useful for improving diagnostic accuracy in mammography. (author)

  17. Contrast-to-noise ratio optimization for a prototype phase-contrast computed tomography scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Müller, Mark; Yaroshenko, Andre; Velroyen, Astrid; Tapfer, Arne; Bech, Martin; Pauwels, Bart; Bruyndonckx, Peter; Sasov, Alexander; Pfeiffer, Franz

    2015-01-01

    In the field of biomedical X-ray imaging, novel techniques, such as phase-contrast and dark-field imaging, have the potential to enhance the contrast and provide complementary structural information about a specimen. In this paper, a first prototype of a preclinical X-ray phase-contrast CT scanner based on a Talbot-Lau interferometer is characterized. We present a study of the contrast-to-noise ratios for attenuation and phase-contrast images acquired with the prototype scanner. The shown results are based on a series of projection images and tomographic data sets of a plastic phantom in phase and attenuation-contrast recorded with varying acquisition settings. Subsequently, the signal and noise distribution of different regions in the phantom were determined. We present a novel method for estimation of contrast-to-noise ratios for projection images based on the cylindrical geometry of the phantom. Analytical functions, representing the expected signal in phase and attenuation-contrast for a circular object, are fitted to individual line profiles of the projection data. The free parameter of the fit function is used to estimate the contrast and the goodness of the fit is determined to assess the noise in the respective signal. The results depict the dependence of the contrast-to-noise ratios on the applied source voltages, the number of steps of the phase stepping routine, and the exposure times for an individual step. Moreover, the influence of the number of projection angles on the image quality of CT slices is investigated. Finally, the implications for future imaging purposes with the scanner are discussed

  18. Biological applications of phase-contrast electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagayama, Kuniaki

    2014-01-01

    Here, I review the principles and applications of phase-contrast electron microscopy using phase plates. First, I develop the principle of phase contrast based on a minimal model of microscopy, introducing a double Fourier-transform process to mathematically formulate the image formation. Next, I explain four phase-contrast (PC) schemes, defocus PC, Zernike PC, Hilbert differential contrast, and schlieren optics, as image-filtering processes in the context of the minimal model, with particular emphases on the Zernike PC and corresponding Zernike phase plates. Finally, I review applications of Zernike PC cryo-electron microscopy to biological systems such as protein molecules, virus particles, and cells, including single-particle analysis to delineate three-dimensional (3D) structures of protein and virus particles and cryo-electron tomography to reconstruct 3D images of complex protein systems and cells.

  19. X-ray phase-contrast imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endrizzi, Marco

    2018-01-01

    X-ray imaging is a standard tool for the non-destructive inspection of the internal structure of samples. It finds application in a vast diversity of fields: medicine, biology, many engineering disciplines, palaeontology and earth sciences are just few examples. The fundamental principle underpinning the image formation have remained the same for over a century: the X-rays traversing the sample are subjected to different amount of absorption in different parts of the sample. By means of phase-sensitive techniques it is possible to generate contrast also in relation to the phase shifts imparted by the sample and to extend the capabilities of X-ray imaging to those details that lack enough absorption contrast to be visualised in conventional radiography. A general overview of X-ray phase contrast imaging techniques is presented in this review, along with more recent advances in this fast evolving field and some examples of applications.

  20. Development of phase-contrast imaging technique for material science and medical science applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashyap, Y.S.; Roy, Tushar; Sarkar, P.S; Shukla, Mayank; Yadav, P.S; Sinha, Amar; Verma, Vishnu; Ghosh, A.K.

    2007-07-01

    In-line phase contrast imaging technique is an emerging method for study of materials such as carbon fibres, carbon composite materials, polymers etc. These represent the class of materials for which x-ray attenuation cross-section is very small. Similarly, this technique is also well suited for imaging of soft materials such as tissues, distinguishing between tumour and normal tissue. Thus this method promises a far better contrast for low x-ray absorbing substances than the conventional radiography method for material and medical science applications. Though the conventional radiography technique has been carried out for decades, the phase-imaging technique is being demonstrated for the first time within, the country. We have set up an experimental facility for phase contrast imaging using a combination of x-ray CCD detector and a microfocus x-ray source. This facility is dedicated for micro-imaging experiments such as micro-tomography and high resolution phase contrast experiments. In this report, the results of phase contrast imaging using microfocus source and ELETTRA, synchrotron source are discussed. We have also discussed the basic design and heat load calculation for upcoming imaging beamline at Indus-II, RRCAT, Indore. (author)

  1. Accelerated three-dimensional cine phase contrast imaging using randomly undersampled echo planar imaging with compressed sensing reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basha, Tamer A; Akçakaya, Mehmet; Goddu, Beth; Berg, Sophie; Nezafat, Reza

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to implement and evaluate an accelerated three-dimensional (3D) cine phase contrast MRI sequence by combining a randomly sampled 3D k-space acquisition sequence with an echo planar imaging (EPI) readout. An accelerated 3D cine phase contrast MRI sequence was implemented by combining EPI readout with randomly undersampled 3D k-space data suitable for compressed sensing (CS) reconstruction. The undersampled data were then reconstructed using low-dimensional structural self-learning and thresholding (LOST). 3D phase contrast MRI was acquired in 11 healthy adults using an overall acceleration of 7 (EPI factor of 3 and CS rate of 3). For comparison, a single two-dimensional (2D) cine phase contrast scan was also performed with sensitivity encoding (SENSE) rate 2 and approximately at the level of the pulmonary artery bifurcation. The stroke volume and mean velocity in both the ascending and descending aorta were measured and compared between two sequences using Bland-Altman plots. An average scan time of 3 min and 30 s, corresponding to an acceleration rate of 7, was achieved for 3D cine phase contrast scan with one direction flow encoding, voxel size of 2 × 2 × 3 mm(3) , foot-head coverage of 6 cm and temporal resolution of 30 ms. The mean velocity and stroke volume in both the ascending and descending aorta were statistically equivalent between the proposed 3D sequence and the standard 2D cine phase contrast sequence. The combination of EPI with a randomly undersampled 3D k-space sampling sequence using LOST reconstruction allows a seven-fold reduction in scan time of 3D cine phase contrast MRI without compromising blood flow quantification. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. 3-D growth of a short fatigue crack within a polycrystalline microstructure studied using combined diffraction and phase-contrast X-ray tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herbig, Michael [Universite de Lyon, Lyon, MATEIS, UMR5510 CNRS, 69621 Villeurbanne (France); King, Andrew [GKSS-Research Centre, Geesthacht (Germany); Reischig, Peter [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Proudhon, Henry [MINES ParisTech, Centre des materiaux, CNRS UMR 7633, BP 87, 91003 Evry Cedex (France); Lauridsen, Erik M. [Riso-DTU, Technical University of Denmark, Roskilde (Denmark); Marrow, James [Manchester Materials Science Centre, Manchester (United Kingdom); Buffiere, Jean-Yves [Universite de Lyon, Lyon, MATEIS, UMR5510 CNRS, 69621 Villeurbanne (France); Ludwig, Wolfgang, E-mail: wolfgang.ludwig@insa-lyon.fr [Universite de Lyon, Lyon, MATEIS, UMR5510 CNRS, 69621 Villeurbanne (France); European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Grenoble, France, BP 220, 38043 Grenoble (France)

    2011-01-15

    X-ray diffraction contrast tomography is a recently developed, non-destructive synchrotron imaging technique which characterizes microstructure and grain orientation in polycrystalline materials in three dimensions. By combining it with propagation-based phase-contrast tomography it is possible to get a full picture description for the analysis of local crack growth rate of short fatigue cracks in three dimensions: the three-dimensional crack morphology at different propagation stages, and the shape and orientation of the grains around the crack. An approach has been developed on the metastable beta titanium alloy Ti 21S that allows for visualization and analysis of the growth rate and crystallographic orientation of the fracture surface.

  3. 3-D growth of a short fatigue crack within a polycrystalline microstructure studied using combined diffraction and phase-contrast X-ray tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herbig, Michael; King, Andrew; Reischig, Peter; Proudhon, Henry; Lauridsen, Erik M.; Marrow, James; Buffiere, Jean-Yves; Ludwig, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    X-ray diffraction contrast tomography is a recently developed, non-destructive synchrotron imaging technique which characterizes microstructure and grain orientation in polycrystalline materials in three dimensions. By combining it with propagation-based phase-contrast tomography it is possible to get a full picture description for the analysis of local crack growth rate of short fatigue cracks in three dimensions: the three-dimensional crack morphology at different propagation stages, and the shape and orientation of the grains around the crack. An approach has been developed on the metastable beta titanium alloy Ti 21S that allows for visualization and analysis of the growth rate and crystallographic orientation of the fracture surface.

  4. Laser projection using generalized phase contrast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glückstad, Jesper; Palima, Darwin; Rodrigo, Peter John

    2007-01-01

    is introduced. An arbitrary phase shift filter eliminates the need for high-frequency modulation and conjugate phase encoding. This lowers device performance requirements and allows practical implementation with currently available dynamic spatial light modulators. (c) 2007 Optical Society of America.......We demonstrate experimental laser projection of a gray-level photographic image with 74% light efficiency using the generalized phase contrast (GPC) method. In contrast with a previously proposed technique [Alonzo et al., New J. Phys. 9, 132 (2007)], a new approach to image construction via GPC...

  5. Visualizing Typical Features of Breast Fibroadenomas Using Phase-Contrast CT: An Ex-Vivo Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandl, Susanne; Willner, Marian; Herzen, Julia; Sztrókay-Gaul, Anikó; Mayr, Doris; Auweter, Sigrid D.; Hipp, Alexander; Birnbacher, Lorenz; Marschner, Mathias; Chabior, Michael; Reiser, Maximilian; Pfeiffer, Franz; Bamberg, Fabian; Hellerhoff, Karin

    2014-01-01

    Background Fibroadenoma is the most common benign solid breast lesion type and a very common cause for histologic assessment. To justify a conservative therapy, a highly specific discrimination between fibroadenomas and other breast lesions is crucial. Phase-contrast imaging offers improved soft-tissue contrast and differentiability of fine structures combined with the potential of 3-dimensional imaging. In this study we assessed the potential of grating-based phase-contrast CT imaging for visualizing diagnostically relevant features of fibroadenomas. Materials and Methods Grating-based phase-contrast CT was performed on six ex-vivo formalin-fixed breast specimens containing a fibroadenoma and three samples containing benign changes that resemble fibroadenomas using Talbot Lau interferometry and a polychromatic X-ray source. Phase-contrast and simultaneously acquired absorption-based 3D-datasets were manually matched with corresponding histological slices. The visibility of diagnostically valuable features was assessed in comparison with histology as the gold-standard. Results In all cases, matching of grating-based phase-contrast CT images and histology was successfully completed. Grating-based phase-contrast CT showed greatly improved differentiation of fine structures and provided accurate depiction of strands of fibrous tissue within the fibroadenomas as well as of the diagnostically valuable dilated, branched ductuli of the fibroadenomas. A clear demarcation of tumor boundaries in all cases was provided by phase- but not absorption-contrast CT. Conclusions Pending successful translation of the technology to a clinical setting and considerable reduction of the required dose, the data presented here suggest that grating-based phase-contrast CT may be used as a supplementary non-invasive diagnostic tool in breast diagnostics. Phase-contrast CT may thus contribute to the reduction of false positive findings and reduce the recall and core biopsy rate in population

  6. Theory and preliminary experimental verification of quantitative edge illumination x-ray phase contrast tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, C K; Diemoz, P C; Endrizzi, M; Rigon, L; Dreossi, D; Arfelli, F; Lopez, F C M; Longo, R; Olivo, A

    2014-04-07

    X-ray phase contrast imaging (XPCi) methods are sensitive to phase in addition to attenuation effects and, therefore, can achieve improved image contrast for weakly attenuating materials, such as often encountered in biomedical applications. Several XPCi methods exist, most of which have already been implemented in computed tomographic (CT) modality, thus allowing volumetric imaging. The Edge Illumination (EI) XPCi method had, until now, not been implemented as a CT modality. This article provides indications that quantitative 3D maps of an object's phase and attenuation can be reconstructed from EI XPCi measurements. Moreover, a theory for the reconstruction of combined phase and attenuation maps is presented. Both reconstruction strategies find applications in tissue characterisation and the identification of faint, weakly attenuating details. Experimental results for wires of known materials and for a biological object validate the theory and confirm the superiority of the phase over conventional, attenuation-based image contrast.

  7. Phase contrast STEM for thin samples: Integrated differential phase contrast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazić, Ivan; Bosch, Eric G T; Lazar, Sorin

    2016-01-01

    It has been known since the 1970s that the movement of the center of mass (COM) of a convergent beam electron diffraction (CBED) pattern is linearly related to the (projected) electrical field in the sample. We re-derive a contrast transfer function (CTF) for a scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) imaging technique based on this movement from the point of view of image formation and continue by performing a two-dimensional integration on the two images based on the two components of the COM movement. The resulting integrated COM (iCOM) STEM technique yields a scalar image that is linear in the phase shift caused by the sample and therefore also in the local (projected) electrostatic potential field of a thin sample. We confirm that the differential phase contrast (DPC) STEM technique using a segmented detector with 4 quadrants (4Q) yields a good approximation for the COM movement. Performing a two-dimensional integration, just as for the COM, we obtain an integrated DPC (iDPC) image which is approximately linear in the phase of the sample. Beside deriving the CTFs of iCOM and iDPC, we clearly point out the objects of the two corresponding imaging techniques, and highlight the differences to objects corresponding to COM-, DPC-, and (HA) ADF-STEM. The theory is validated with simulations and we present first experimental results of the iDPC-STEM technique showing its capability for imaging both light and heavy elements with atomic resolution and a good signal to noise ratio (SNR). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. High-resolution short-exposure small-animal laboratory x-ray phase-contrast tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Daniel H.; Vågberg, William; Yaroshenko, Andre; Yildirim, Ali Önder; Hertz, Hans M.

    2016-12-01

    X-ray computed tomography of small animals and their organs is an essential tool in basic and preclinical biomedical research. In both phase-contrast and absorption tomography high spatial resolution and short exposure times are of key importance. However, the observable spatial resolutions and achievable exposure times are presently limited by system parameters rather than more fundamental constraints like, e.g., dose. Here we demonstrate laboratory tomography with few-ten μm spatial resolution and few-minute exposure time at an acceptable dose for small-animal imaging, both with absorption contrast and phase contrast. The method relies on a magnifying imaging scheme in combination with a high-power small-spot liquid-metal-jet electron-impact source. The tomographic imaging is demonstrated on intact mouse, phantoms and excised lungs, both healthy and with pulmonary emphysema.

  9. Virtual dissection of Thoropa miliaris tadpole using phase-contrast synchrotron microtomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidalgo, G.; Colaço, M. V.; Nogueira, L. P.; Braz, D.; Silva, H. R.; Colaço, G.; Barroso, R. C.

    2018-05-01

    In this work, in-line phase-contrast synchrotron microtomography was used in order to study the external and internal morphology of Thoropa miliaris tadpoles. Whole-specimens of T. miliaris in larval stages of development 28, 37 and 42, collected in the municipality of Mangaratiba (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil) were used for the study. The samples were scanned in microtomography beamline (IMX) at the Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS). The phase-contrast technique allowed us to obtain high quality images which made possible the structures segmentation on the rendered volume by the Avizo graphic image editing software. The combination of high quality images and segmentation process provides adequate visualization of different organs and soft (liver, notochord, brain, crystalline, cartilages) and hard (elements of the bone skeleton) tissues.

  10. X-ray Phase Contrast analysis - Digital wavefront development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idir, Mourad; Potier, Jonathan; Fricker, Sebastien; Snigirev, Anatoly; Snigireva, Irina; Modi, M. H.

    2010-01-01

    Optical schemes that enable imaging of the phase shift produced by an object have become popular in the x-ray region, where phase can be the dominant contrast mechanism. The propagation-based technique consists of recording the interference pattern produced by choosing one or several sample-to-detector distances. Pioneering studies, carried out making use of synchrotron radiation, demonstrated that this technique results in a dramatic increase of image contrast and detail visibility, allowing the detection of structures invisible with conventional techniques. An experimental and theoretical study of in-line hard x-ray phase-contrast imaging had been performed. The theoretical description of the technique is based on Fresnel diffraction. As an illustration of the potential of this quantitative imaging technique, high-resolution x-ray phase contrast images of simple objects will be presented.

  11. Breast tumor segmentation in high resolution x-ray phase contrast analyzer based computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brun, E; Grandl, S; Sztrókay-Gaul, A; Barbone, G; Mittone, A; Gasilov, S; Bravin, A; Coan, P

    2014-11-01

    Phase contrast computed tomography has emerged as an imaging method, which is able to outperform present day clinical mammography in breast tumor visualization while maintaining an equivalent average dose. To this day, no segmentation technique takes into account the specificity of the phase contrast signal. In this study, the authors propose a new mathematical framework for human-guided breast tumor segmentation. This method has been applied to high-resolution images of excised human organs, each of several gigabytes. The authors present a segmentation procedure based on the viscous watershed transform and demonstrate the efficacy of this method on analyzer based phase contrast images. The segmentation of tumors inside two full human breasts is then shown as an example of this procedure's possible applications. A correct and precise identification of the tumor boundaries was obtained and confirmed by manual contouring performed independently by four experienced radiologists. The authors demonstrate that applying the watershed viscous transform allows them to perform the segmentation of tumors in high-resolution x-ray analyzer based phase contrast breast computed tomography images. Combining the additional information provided by the segmentation procedure with the already high definition of morphological details and tissue boundaries offered by phase contrast imaging techniques, will represent a valuable multistep procedure to be used in future medical diagnostic applications.

  12. Isotropic differential phase contrast microscopy for quantitative phase bio-imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsi-Hsun; Lin, Yu-Zi; Luo, Yuan

    2018-05-16

    Quantitative phase imaging (QPI) has been investigated to retrieve optical phase information of an object and applied to biological microscopy and related medical studies. In recent examples, differential phase contrast (DPC) microscopy can recover phase image of thin sample under multi-axis intensity measurements in wide-field scheme. Unlike conventional DPC, based on theoretical approach under partially coherent condition, we propose a new method to achieve isotropic differential phase contrast (iDPC) with high accuracy and stability for phase recovery in simple and high-speed fashion. The iDPC is simply implemented with a partially coherent microscopy and a programmable thin-film transistor (TFT) shield to digitally modulate structured illumination patterns for QPI. In this article, simulation results show consistency of our theoretical approach for iDPC under partial coherence. In addition, we further demonstrate experiments of quantitative phase images of a standard micro-lens array, as well as label-free live human cell samples. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Bi-directional x-ray phase-contrast mammography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Scherer

    Full Text Available Phase-contrast x-ray imaging is a promising improvement of conventional absorption-based mammography for early tumor detection. This potential has been demonstrated recently, utilizing structured gratings to obtain differential phase and dark-field scattering images. However, the inherently anisotropic imaging sensitivity of the proposed mono-directional approach yields only insufficient diagnostic information, and has low diagnostic sensitivity to highly oriented structures. To overcome these limitations, we present a two-directional x-ray phase-contrast mammography approach and demonstrate its advantages by applying it to a freshly dissected, cancerous mastectomy breast specimen. We illustrate that the two-directional scanning procedure overcomes the insufficient diagnostic value of a single scan, and reliably detects tumor structures, independently from their orientation within the breast. Our results indicate the indispensable diagnostic necessity and benefit of a multi-directional approach for x-ray phase-contrast mammography.

  14. Generalized Phase contrast and matched filtering for speckle‐free patterned illumination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palima, Darwin; Bañas, Andrew Rafael; Villangca, Mark Jayson

    2013-01-01

    Generalized Phase Contrast (GPC) and matched‐filtering GPC use tandem diffractive phase elements on Fourier‐conjugate planes of a 4f optical processor to efficiently reshape incident light into a pattern that resembles the input phase modulation pattern. The synthesized patterns are inherently...... to optically trap and mechanically manipulate microparticles, GPC has also been applied for laser beamshaping, optical phase cryptography, and greyscale image projection. Recent reports from our collaborators highlight that GPC‐based spatial lightshaping, when combined with temporal focusing and multiphoton...... excitation, exhibits some robustness against light scattering and, hence, makes a promising tool for spatially precise targeting of deeper subsurface neurons using minimally speckled patterned illumination for multiphoton excitation....

  15. Single-shot quantitative phase microscopy with color-multiplexed differential phase contrast (cDPC.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary F Phillips

    Full Text Available We present a new technique for quantitative phase and amplitude microscopy from a single color image with coded illumination. Our system consists of a commercial brightfield microscope with one hardware modification-an inexpensive 3D printed condenser insert. The method, color-multiplexed Differential Phase Contrast (cDPC, is a single-shot variant of Differential Phase Contrast (DPC, which recovers the phase of a sample from images with asymmetric illumination. We employ partially coherent illumination to achieve resolution corresponding to 2× the objective NA. Quantitative phase can then be used to synthesize DIC and phase contrast images or extract shape and density. We demonstrate amplitude and phase recovery at camera-limited frame rates (50 fps for various in vitro cell samples and c. elegans in a micro-fluidic channel.

  16. Monocular perceptual learning of contrast detection facilitates binocular combination in adults with anisometropic amblyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zidong; Li, Jinrong; Liu, Jing; Cai, Xiaoxiao; Yuan, Junpeng; Deng, Daming; Yu, Minbin

    2016-02-01

    Perceptual learning in contrast detection improves monocular visual function in adults with anisometropic amblyopia; however, its effect on binocular combination remains unknown. Given that the amblyopic visual system suffers from pronounced binocular functional loss, it is important to address how the amblyopic visual system responds to such training strategies under binocular viewing conditions. Anisometropic amblyopes (n = 13) were asked to complete two psychophysical supra-threshold binocular summation tasks: (1) binocular phase combination and (2) dichoptic global motion coherence before and after monocular training to investigate this question. We showed that these participants benefited from monocular training in terms of binocular combination. More importantly, the improvements observed with the area under log CSF (AULCSF) were found to be correlated with the improvements in binocular phase combination.

  17. Novel X-ray phase-contrast tomography method for quantitative studies of heat induced structural changes in meat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miklos, Rikke; Nielsen, Mikkel Schou; Einarsdottir, Hildur

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of X-ray phase-contrast tomography combined with 3D image segmentation to investigate the heat induced structural changes in meat. The measurements were performed at the Swiss synchrotron radiation light source using a grating interferometric...... and separated into a water phase and a gel phase formed by the sarcoplasmic proteins in the exudate. The results show that X-ray phase contrast tomography offers unique possibilities in studies both the meat structure and the different meat component such as water, fat, connective tissue and myofibrils...

  18. Breast tumor segmentation in high resolution x-ray phase contrast analyzer based computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brun, E., E-mail: emmanuel.brun@esrf.fr [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), Grenoble 380000, France and Department of Physics, Ludwig-Maximilians University, Garching 85748 (Germany); Grandl, S.; Sztrókay-Gaul, A.; Gasilov, S. [Institute for Clinical Radiology, Ludwig-Maximilians-University Hospital Munich, 81377 Munich (Germany); Barbone, G. [Department of Physics, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States); Mittone, A.; Coan, P. [Department of Physics, Ludwig-Maximilians University, Garching 85748, Germany and Institute for Clinical Radiology, Ludwig-Maximilians-University Hospital Munich, 81377 Munich (Germany); Bravin, A. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), Grenoble 380000 (France)

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: Phase contrast computed tomography has emerged as an imaging method, which is able to outperform present day clinical mammography in breast tumor visualization while maintaining an equivalent average dose. To this day, no segmentation technique takes into account the specificity of the phase contrast signal. In this study, the authors propose a new mathematical framework for human-guided breast tumor segmentation. This method has been applied to high-resolution images of excised human organs, each of several gigabytes. Methods: The authors present a segmentation procedure based on the viscous watershed transform and demonstrate the efficacy of this method on analyzer based phase contrast images. The segmentation of tumors inside two full human breasts is then shown as an example of this procedure’s possible applications. Results: A correct and precise identification of the tumor boundaries was obtained and confirmed by manual contouring performed independently by four experienced radiologists. Conclusions: The authors demonstrate that applying the watershed viscous transform allows them to perform the segmentation of tumors in high-resolution x-ray analyzer based phase contrast breast computed tomography images. Combining the additional information provided by the segmentation procedure with the already high definition of morphological details and tissue boundaries offered by phase contrast imaging techniques, will represent a valuable multistep procedure to be used in future medical diagnostic applications.

  19. Measurements and simulations analysing the noise behaviour of grating-based X-ray phase-contrast imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, T., E-mail: thomas.weber@physik.uni-erlangen.de [University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, ECAP - Erlangen Center for Astroparticle Physics, Erwin-Rommel-Str. 1, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Bartl, P.; Durst, J. [University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, ECAP - Erlangen Center for Astroparticle Physics, Erwin-Rommel-Str. 1, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Haas, W. [University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, ECAP - Erlangen Center for Astroparticle Physics, Erwin-Rommel-Str. 1, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Pattern Recognition Lab, Martensstr. 3, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Michel, T.; Ritter, A.; Anton, G. [University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, ECAP - Erlangen Center for Astroparticle Physics, Erwin-Rommel-Str. 1, 91058 Erlangen (Germany)

    2011-08-21

    In the last decades, phase-contrast imaging using a Talbot-Lau grating interferometer is possible even with a low-brilliance X-ray source. With the potential of increasing the soft-tissue contrast, this method is on its way into medical imaging. For this purpose, the knowledge of the underlying physics of this technique is necessary. With this paper, we would like to contribute to the understanding of grating-based phase-contrast imaging by presenting results on measurements and simulations regarding the noise behaviour of the differential phases. These measurements were done using a microfocus X-ray tube with a hybrid, photon-counting, semiconductor Medipix2 detector. The additional simulations were performed by our in-house developed phase-contrast simulation tool 'SPHINX', combining both wave and particle contributions of the simulated photons. The results obtained by both of these methods show the same behaviour. Increasing the number of photons leads to a linear decrease of the standard deviation of the phase. The number of used phase steps has no influence on the standard deviation, if the total number of photons is held constant. Furthermore, the probability density function (pdf) of the reconstructed differential phases was analysed. It turned out that the so-called von Mises distribution is the physically correct pdf, which was also confirmed by measurements. This information advances the understanding of grating-based phase-contrast imaging and can be used to improve image quality.

  20. Phase-contrast tomographic imaging using an X-ray interferometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Momose, A. [Hitachi Ltd, Advanced Research Lab., Saitama (Japan); Takeda, T.; Itai, Y. [Univ. of Tsukuba, Inst. of Clinical Medicine, Ibaraki (Japan); Yoneyama, A. [Hitachi Ltd, Central Resarch Lab., Tokyo (Japan); Hirano, K. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, Inst. of Materials Structure Science, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1998-05-01

    Apparatus for phase-contrast X-ray computed tomography using a monolithic X-ray interferometer is presented with some observational results for human breast tissues. Structures characteristic of the tissues were revealed in the phase-contrast tomograms. The procedure of image analysis consists of phase retrieval from X-ray interference patterns and tomographic image reconstruction from the retrieved phase shift. Next, feasibility of phase-contrast imaging using a two-crystal X-ray interferometer was studied aiming at in vivo observation in the future. In a preliminary study, the two-crystal X-ray interferometer was capable of generating fringes of 70% visibility using synchrotron X-rays. 35 refs.

  1. Phase-contrast tomographic imaging using an X-ray interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Momose, A.; Takeda, T.; Itai, Y.; Yoneyama, A.; Hirano, K.

    1998-01-01

    Apparatus for phase-contrast X-ray computed tomography using a monolithic X-ray interferometer is presented with some observational results for human breast tissues. Structures characteristic of the tissues were revealed in the phase-contrast tomograms. The procedure of image analysis consists of phase retrieval from X-ray interference patterns and tomographic image reconstruction from the retrieved phase shift. Next, feasibility of phase-contrast imaging using a two-crystal X-ray interferometer was studied aiming at in vivo observation in the future. In a preliminary study, the two-crystal X-ray interferometer was capable of generating fringes of 70% visibility using synchrotron X-rays

  2. Spline based iterative phase retrieval algorithm for X-ray differential phase contrast radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilchian, Masih; Wang, Zhentian; Thuering, Thomas; Unser, Michael; Stampanoni, Marco

    2015-04-20

    Differential phase contrast imaging using grating interferometer is a promising alternative to conventional X-ray radiographic methods. It provides the absorption, differential phase and scattering information of the underlying sample simultaneously. Phase retrieval from the differential phase signal is an essential problem for quantitative analysis in medical imaging. In this paper, we formalize the phase retrieval as a regularized inverse problem, and propose a novel discretization scheme for the derivative operator based on B-spline calculus. The inverse problem is then solved by a constrained regularized weighted-norm algorithm (CRWN) which adopts the properties of B-spline and ensures a fast implementation. The method is evaluated with a tomographic dataset and differential phase contrast mammography data. We demonstrate that the proposed method is able to produce phase image with enhanced and higher soft tissue contrast compared to conventional absorption-based approach, which can potentially provide useful information to mammographic investigations.

  3. In-line phase-contrast stereoscopic X-ray imaging for radiological purposes: An initial experimental study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siegbahn, E.A.; Coan, P.; Zhou, S.-A.; Bravin, A.; Brahme, A.

    2011-01-01

    We report results from a pilot study in which the in-line propagation-based phase-contrast imaging technique is combined with the stereoscopic method. Two phantoms were imaged at several sample-detector distances using monochromatic, 30 keV, X-rays. High contrast- and spatial-resolution phase-contrast stereoscopic pairs of X-ray images were constructed using the anaglyph approach and a vivid stereoscopic effect was demonstrated. On the other hand, images of the same phantoms obtained with a shorter sample-to-detector distance, but otherwise the same experimental conditions (i.e. the same X-ray energy and absorbed radiation dose), corresponding to the conventional attenuation-based imaging mode, hardly revealed stereoscopic effects because of the lower image contrast produced. These results have confirmed our hypothesis that stereoscopic X-ray images of samples with objects composed of low-atomic-number elements are considerably improved if phase-contrast imaging is used. It is our belief that the high-resolution phase-contrast stereoscopic method will be a valuable new medical imaging tool for radiologists and that it will be of help to enhance the diagnostic capability in the examination of patients in future clinical practice, even though further efforts will be needed to optimize the system performance.

  4. Phase Contrast Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menk, Ralf Hendrik

    2008-01-01

    All standard (medical) x-ray imaging technologies, rely primarily on the amplitude properties of the incident radiation, and do not depend on its phase. This is unchanged since the discovery by Roentgen that the intensity of an x-ray beam, as measured by the exposure on a film, was related to the relative transmission properties of an object. However, recently various imaging techniques have emerged which depend on the phase of the x-rays as well as the amplitude. Phase becomes important when the beam is coherent and the imaging system is sensitive to interference phenomena. Significant new advances have been made in coherent optic theory and techniques, which now promise phase information in medical imaging. The development of perfect crystal optics and the increasing availability of synchrotron radiation facilities have contributed to a significant increase in the application of phase based imaging in materials and life sciences. Unique source characteristics such as high intensity, monochromaticity, coherence and high collimating provide an ideal source for advanced imaging. Phase contrast imaging has been applied in both projection and computed tomography modes, and recent applications have been made in the field of medical imaging. Due to the underlying principle of X-ray detection conventional image receptors register only intensities of wave fields and not their phases. During the last decade basically five different methods were developed that translate the phase information into intensity variations. These methods are based on measuring the phase shift φ directly (using interference phenomena), the gradient ∇ φ , or the Laplacian ∇ 2 φ. All three methods can be applied to polychromatic X-ray sources keeping in mind that the native source is synchrotron radiation, featuring monochromatic and reasonable coherent X-ray beams. Due to the vast difference in the coefficients that are driven absorption and phase effects (factor 1,000-10,000 in the energy

  5. Phase contrast STEM for thin samples: Integrated differential phase contrast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazić, Ivan; Bosch, Eric G.T.; Lazar, Sorin

    2016-01-01

    It has been known since the 1970s that the movement of the center of mass (COM) of a convergent beam electron diffraction (CBED) pattern is linearly related to the (projected) electrical field in the sample. We re-derive a contrast transfer function (CTF) for a scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) imaging technique based on this movement from the point of view of image formation and continue by performing a two-dimensional integration on the two images based on the two components of the COM movement. The resulting integrated COM (iCOM) STEM technique yields a scalar image that is linear in the phase shift caused by the sample and therefore also in the local (projected) electrostatic potential field of a thin sample. We confirm that the differential phase contrast (DPC) STEM technique using a segmented detector with 4 quadrants (4Q) yields a good approximation for the COM movement. Performing a two-dimensional integration, just as for the COM, we obtain an integrated DPC (iDPC) image which is approximately linear in the phase of the sample. Beside deriving the CTFs of iCOM and iDPC, we clearly point out the objects of the two corresponding imaging techniques, and highlight the differences to objects corresponding to COM-, DPC-, and (HA) ADF-STEM. The theory is validated with simulations and we present first experimental results of the iDPC-STEM technique showing its capability for imaging both light and heavy elements with atomic resolution and a good signal to noise ratio (SNR). - Highlights: • First DPC-based atomic resolution images of potential and charge density are obtained. • This is enabled by integration and differentiation of 2D DPC signals, respectively. • Integrated DPC (iDPC) based on 4 quadrant imaging is compared to iCOM imaging. • Noise analysis and comparison with standard STEM imaging modes is provided. • iDPC allows direct imaging of light (C, N, O …) and heavy (Ga, Au …) atoms together.

  6. Phase contrast STEM for thin samples: Integrated differential phase contrast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazić, Ivan, E-mail: ivan.lazic@fei.com; Bosch, Eric G.T.; Lazar, Sorin

    2016-01-15

    It has been known since the 1970s that the movement of the center of mass (COM) of a convergent beam electron diffraction (CBED) pattern is linearly related to the (projected) electrical field in the sample. We re-derive a contrast transfer function (CTF) for a scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) imaging technique based on this movement from the point of view of image formation and continue by performing a two-dimensional integration on the two images based on the two components of the COM movement. The resulting integrated COM (iCOM) STEM technique yields a scalar image that is linear in the phase shift caused by the sample and therefore also in the local (projected) electrostatic potential field of a thin sample. We confirm that the differential phase contrast (DPC) STEM technique using a segmented detector with 4 quadrants (4Q) yields a good approximation for the COM movement. Performing a two-dimensional integration, just as for the COM, we obtain an integrated DPC (iDPC) image which is approximately linear in the phase of the sample. Beside deriving the CTFs of iCOM and iDPC, we clearly point out the objects of the two corresponding imaging techniques, and highlight the differences to objects corresponding to COM-, DPC-, and (HA) ADF-STEM. The theory is validated with simulations and we present first experimental results of the iDPC-STEM technique showing its capability for imaging both light and heavy elements with atomic resolution and a good signal to noise ratio (SNR). - Highlights: • First DPC-based atomic resolution images of potential and charge density are obtained. • This is enabled by integration and differentiation of 2D DPC signals, respectively. • Integrated DPC (iDPC) based on 4 quadrant imaging is compared to iCOM imaging. • Noise analysis and comparison with standard STEM imaging modes is provided. • iDPC allows direct imaging of light (C, N, O …) and heavy (Ga, Au …) atoms together.

  7. Microbubbles as contrast agent for in-line x-ray phase-contrast imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xi Yan; Zhao Jun; Tang Rongbiao; Wang Yujie

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the potential of gas-filled microbubbles as contrast agents for in-line x-ray phase-contrast imaging (PCI) in biomedical applications. When imaging parameters are optimized, the microbubbles function as microlenses that focus the incoming x-rays to form bright spots, which can significantly enhance the image contrast. Since microbubbles have been shown to be safe contrast agents in clinical ultrasonography, this contrast-enhancement procedure for PCI may have promising utility in biomedical applications, especially when the dose of radiation is a serious concern. In this study, we performed both numerical simulations and ex vivo experiments to investigate the formation of the contrast and the effectiveness of microbubbles as contrast agents in PCI.

  8. Experimental validation of the Wigner distributions theory of phase-contrast imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donnelly, Edwin F.; Price, Ronald R.; Pickens, David R.

    2005-01-01

    Recently, a new theory of phase-contrast imaging has been proposed by Wu and Liu [Med. Phys. 31, 2378-2384 (2004)]. This theory, based upon Wigner distributions, provides a much stronger foundation for the evaluation of phase-contrast imaging systems than did the prior theories based upon Fresnel-Kirchhoff diffraction theory. In this paper, we compare results of measurements made in our laboratory of phase contrast for different geometries and tube voltages to the predictions of the Wu and Liu model. In our previous publications, we have used an empirical measurement (the edge enhancement index) to parametrize the degree of phase-contrast effects in an image. While the Wu and Liu model itself does not predict image contrast, it does measure the degree of phase contrast that the system can image for a given spatial frequency. We have found that our previously published experimental results relating phase-contrast effects to geometry and x-ray tube voltage are consistent with the predictions of the Wu and Liu model

  9. Phase-only optical encryption based on the zeroth-order phase-contrast technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizolato, José Carlos; Neto, Luiz Gonçalves

    2009-09-01

    A phase-only encryption/decryption scheme with the readout based on the zeroth-order phase-contrast technique (ZOPCT), without the use of a phase-changing plate on the Fourier plane of an optical system based on the 4f optical correlator, is proposed. The encryption of a gray-level image is achieved by multiplying the phase distribution obtained directly from the gray-level image by a random phase distribution. The robustness of the encoding is assured by the nonlinearity intrinsic to the proposed phase-contrast method and the random phase distribution used in the encryption process. The experimental system has been implemented with liquid-crystal spatial modulators to generate phase-encrypted masks and a decrypting key. The advantage of this method is the easy scheme to recover the gray-level information from the decrypted phase-only mask applying the ZOPCT. An analysis of this decryption method was performed against brute force attacks.

  10. Reconstruction methods for phase-contrast tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raven, C.

    1997-02-01

    Phase contrast imaging with coherent x-rays can be distinguished in outline imaging and holography, depending on the wavelength {lambda}, the object size d and the object-to-detector distance r. When r << d{sup 2}{lambda}, phase contrast occurs only in regions where the refractive index fastly changes, i.e. at interfaces and edges in the sample. With increasing object-to-detector distance we come in the area of holographic imaging. The image contrast outside the shadow region of the object is due to interference of the direct, undiffracted beam and a beam diffracted by the object, or, in terms of holography, the interference of a reference wave with the object wave. Both, outline imaging and holography, offer the possibility to obtain three dimensional information of the sample in conjunction with a tomographic technique. But the data treatment and the kind of information one can obtain from the reconstruction is different.

  11. Enhanced renal image contrast by ethanol fixation in phase-contrast X-ray computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirai, Ryota; Kunii, Takuya; Yoneyama, Akio; Ooizumi, Takahito; Maruyama, Hiroko; Lwin, Thet Thet; Hyodo, Kazuyuki; Takeda, Tohoru

    2014-07-01

    Phase-contrast X-ray imaging using a crystal X-ray interferometer can depict the fine structures of biological objects without the use of a contrast agent. To obtain higher image contrast, fixation techniques have been examined with 100% ethanol and the commonly used 10% formalin, since ethanol causes increased density differences against background due to its physical properties and greater dehydration of soft tissue. Histological comparison was also performed. A phase-contrast X-ray system was used, fitted with a two-crystal X-ray interferometer at 35 keV X-ray energy. Fine structures, including cortex, tubules in the medulla, and the vessels of ethanol-fixed kidney could be visualized more clearly than that of formalin-fixed tissues. In the optical microscopic images, shrinkage of soft tissue and decreased luminal space were observed in ethanol-fixed kidney; and this change was significantly shown in the cortex and outer stripe of the outer medulla. The ethanol fixation technique enhances image contrast by approximately 2.7-3.2 times in the cortex and the outer stripe of the outer medulla; the effect of shrinkage and the physical effect of ethanol cause an increment of approximately 78% and 22%, respectively. Thus, the ethanol-fixation technique enables the image contrast to be enhanced in phase-contrast X-ray imaging.

  12. Phase-contrast computed tomography for quantification of structural changes in lungs of asthma mouse models of different severity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dullin, Christian; Larsson, Emanuel; Tromba, Giuliana; Markus, Andrea M.; Alves, Frauke

    2015-01-01

    Synchrotron inline phase-contrast computed tomography in combination with single-distance phase retrieval enables quantification of morphological alterations in lungs of mice with mild and severe experimental allergic airways disease in comparison with healthy controls. Lung imaging in mouse disease models is crucial for the assessment of the severity of airway disease but remains challenging due to the small size and the high porosity of the organ. Synchrotron inline free-propagation phase-contrast computed tomography (CT) with its intrinsic high soft-tissue contrast provides the necessary sensitivity and spatial resolution to analyse the mouse lung structure in great detail. Here, this technique has been applied in combination with single-distance phase retrieval to quantify alterations of the lung structure in experimental asthma mouse models of different severity. In order to mimic an in vivo situation as close as possible, the lungs were inflated with air at a constant physiological pressure. Entire mice were embedded in agarose gel and imaged using inline free-propagation phase-contrast CT at the SYRMEP beamline (Synchrotron Light Source, ‘Elettra’, Trieste, Italy). The quantification of the obtained phase-contrast CT data sets revealed an increasing lung soft-tissue content in mice correlating with the degree of the severity of experimental allergic airways disease. In this way, it was possible to successfully discriminate between healthy controls and mice with either mild or severe allergic airway disease. It is believed that this approach may have the potential to evaluate the efficacy of novel therapeutic strategies that target airway remodelling processes in asthma

  13. Phase-contrast computed tomography for quantification of structural changes in lungs of asthma mouse models of different severity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dullin, Christian, E-mail: christian.dullin@med.uni-goettingen.de [University Medical Center Goettingen, Robert Koch Strasse 40, Goettingen, Lower Saxony 37075 (Germany); Larsson, Emanuel [Elettra-Sincrotrone Trieste, Strada Statale 14, km 163,5 in AREA Science Park, Basovizza (Trieste) 34149 (Italy); University of Trieste, Trieste (Italy); Linkoeping University, SE-581 83 Linkoeping (Sweden); Tromba, Giuliana [Elettra-Sincrotrone Trieste, Strada Statale 14, km 163,5 in AREA Science Park, Basovizza (Trieste) 34149 (Italy); Markus, Andrea M. [University Medical Center Goettingen, Robert Koch Strasse 40, Goettingen, Lower Saxony 37075 (Germany); Alves, Frauke [University Medical Center Goettingen, Robert Koch Strasse 40, Goettingen, Lower Saxony 37075 (Germany); University Medical Center Goettingen, Robert Koch Strasse 40, Goettingen, Lower Saxony 37075 (Germany); Max Planck Institut for Experimental Medicine, Hermann-Rein-Strasse 3, Goettingen, Lower Saxony 37075 (Germany)

    2015-06-17

    Synchrotron inline phase-contrast computed tomography in combination with single-distance phase retrieval enables quantification of morphological alterations in lungs of mice with mild and severe experimental allergic airways disease in comparison with healthy controls. Lung imaging in mouse disease models is crucial for the assessment of the severity of airway disease but remains challenging due to the small size and the high porosity of the organ. Synchrotron inline free-propagation phase-contrast computed tomography (CT) with its intrinsic high soft-tissue contrast provides the necessary sensitivity and spatial resolution to analyse the mouse lung structure in great detail. Here, this technique has been applied in combination with single-distance phase retrieval to quantify alterations of the lung structure in experimental asthma mouse models of different severity. In order to mimic an in vivo situation as close as possible, the lungs were inflated with air at a constant physiological pressure. Entire mice were embedded in agarose gel and imaged using inline free-propagation phase-contrast CT at the SYRMEP beamline (Synchrotron Light Source, ‘Elettra’, Trieste, Italy). The quantification of the obtained phase-contrast CT data sets revealed an increasing lung soft-tissue content in mice correlating with the degree of the severity of experimental allergic airways disease. In this way, it was possible to successfully discriminate between healthy controls and mice with either mild or severe allergic airway disease. It is believed that this approach may have the potential to evaluate the efficacy of novel therapeutic strategies that target airway remodelling processes in asthma.

  14. Pilot experimental study on continual spectrum thermal neutron in-line phase contrast radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Bin; Huo Heyong; Wu Yang

    2009-01-01

    The in-line phase contrast radiography is one of phase contrast imaging methods. The neutron in-line phase contrast is developed with X-rays phase contrast radiography. In the paper, the principle of in-line phase contrast is introduced briefly and the experimental result of thermal neutron in-line contrast at SPRR-300 is analysed. It shows that thermal neutron can be used as in-line phase contrast radiography and enhances the edge of some sample in radiography and complements the disadvantage of conventional neutron radiography. (authors)

  15. Phase contrast imaging with coherent high energy X-rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snigireva, I. [ESRF, Grenoble (France)

    1997-02-01

    X-ray imaging concern high energy domain (>6 keV) like a contact radiography, projection microscopy and tomography is used for many years to discern the features of the internal structure non destructively in material science, medicine and biology. In so doing the main contrast formation is absorption that makes some limitations for imaging of the light density materials and what is more the resolution of these techniques is not better than 10-100 {mu}m. It was turned out that there is now way in which to overcome 1{mu}m or even sub-{mu}m resolution limit except phase contrast imaging. It is well known in optics that the phase contrast is realised when interference between reference wave front and transmitted through the sample take place. Examples of this imaging are: phase contrast microscopy suggested by Zernike and Gabor (in-line) holography. Both of this techniques: phase contrast x-ray microscopy and holography are successfully progressing now in soft x-ray region. For imaging in the hard X-rays to enhance the contrast and to be able to resolve phase variations across the beam the high degree of the time and more importantly spatial coherence is needed. Because of this it was reasonable that the perfect crystal optics was involved like Bonse-Hart interferometry, double-crystal and even triple-crystal set-up using Laue and Bragg geometry with asymmetrically cut crystals.

  16. Diffractive generalized phase contrast for adaptive phase imaging and optical security

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palima, Darwin; Glückstad, Jesper

    2012-01-01

    We analyze the properties of Generalized Phase Contrast (GPC) when the input phase modulation is implemented using diffractive gratings. In GPC applications for patterned illumination, the use of a dynamic diffractive optical element for encoding the GPC input phase allows for onthe- fly optimiza...... security applications and can be used to create phasebased information channels for enhanced information security....

  17. Generalised phase contrast: microscopy, manipulation and more

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palima, Darwin; Glückstad, Jesper

    2010-01-01

    Generalised phase contrast (GPC) not only leads to more accurate phase imaging beyond thin biological samples, but serves as an enabling framework in developing tools over a wide spectrum of contemporary applications in optics and photonics, including optical trapping and micromanipulation, optic...

  18. Subtraction MR venography acquired from time-resolved contrast-enhanced MR angiography: Comparison with phase-contrast MR venography and single-phase contrast-enhanced MR venography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Jin Hee; Kim, Bum Soo; KIm, Bom Yi; Choi, Hyun Seok; Jung, So Lyung; Ahn, Kook Jin; Sung, Ji Kyeong

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the image characteristics of subtraction magnetic resonance venography (SMRV) from time-resolved contrast-enhanced MR angiography (TRMRA) compared with phase-contrast MR venography (PCMRV) and single-phase contrast-enhanced MR venography (CEMRV). Twenty-one patients who underwent brain MR venography (MRV) using standard protocols (PCMRV, CEMRV, and TRMRA) were included. SMRV was made by subtracting the arterial phase data from the venous phase data in TRMRA. Co-registration and subtraction of the two volume data was done using commercially available software. Image quality and the degree of arterial contamination of the three MRVs were compared. In the three MRVs, 19 pre-defined venous structures (14 dural sinuses and 5 cerebral veins) were evaluated. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of the three MRVs were also compared. Single-phase contrast-enhanced MR venography showed better image quality (median score 4 in both reviewers) than did the other two MRVs (p < 0.001), whereas SMRV (median score 3 in both reviewers) and PCMRV (median score 3 in both reviewers) had similar image quality (p ≥ 0.951). SMRV (median score 0 in both reviewers) suppressed arterial signal better than did the other MRVs (median score 1 in CEMRV, median score 2 in PCMRV, both reviewers) (p < 0.001). The dural sinus score of SMRV (median and interquartile range [IQR] 48, 43-50 for reviewer 1, 47, 43-49 for reviewer 2) was significantly higher than for PCMRV (median and IQR 31, 25-34 for reviewer 1, 30, 23-32 for reviewer 2) (p < 0.01) and did not differ from that of CEMRV (median and IQR 50, 47-52 for reviewer 1, 49, 45-51 for reviewer 2) (p = 0.146 in reviewer 1 and 0.123 in reviewer 2). The SNR and CNR of SMRV (median and IQR 104.5, 83.1-121.2 and 104.1, 74.9-120.5, respectively) were between those of CEMRV (median and IQR 150.3, 111-182.6 and 148.4, 108-178.2) and PCMRV (median and IQR 59.4, 49.2-74.9 and 53.6, 43.8-69.2). Subtraction magnetic

  19. Single particle analysis based on Zernike phase contrast transmission electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danev, Radostin; Nagayama, Kuniaki

    2008-02-01

    We present the first application of Zernike phase-contrast transmission electron microscopy to single-particle 3D reconstruction of a protein, using GroEL chaperonin as the test specimen. We evaluated the performance of the technique by comparing 3D models derived from Zernike phase contrast imaging, with models from conventional underfocus phase contrast imaging. The same resolution, about 12A, was achieved by both imaging methods. The reconstruction based on Zernike phase contrast data required about 30% fewer particles. The advantages and prospects of each technique are discussed.

  20. Hard X-ray phase-contrast microscope for observing transparent specimens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kagoshima, Y.; Yokoyama, Y.; Niimi, T.; Koyama, T.; Tsusaka, Y.; Matsui, J. [Himeji Institute of Technology, Graduate School of Science, Hyogo (Japan); Takai, K. [Japan synchrotron Radiation Research Institute, Mikazuki, Hyogo (Japan)

    2002-08-01

    A hard X-ray transmission imaging microscope has been in use at the beamline BL24XU of Spring-8. It makes use of a phase zone plate made of tantalum as its X-ray lens, and is capable of imaging the structure as fine as 125-nm line-and-space pattern. The Zernike's phase-contrast method has been implemented to the microscope with phase plates made of gold. The photon energy was tuned to 12 keV just above the L{sub 3} absorption edge of gold (11.9 keV) in order to increase the image contrast. Polystyrene micro particles as transparent specimens were imaged clearly in the opposite image contrast with phase plates to shift the phase of the central order spectra in the back focal plane of the objective by one-quarter and three-quarters of a period, while the absorption contrast image showed little image contrast. Performance of the newly developed phase zone plate has been tested and it was confirmed that the structure as fine as 60-mm line-and-space pattern was able to be imaged. (authors)

  1. Grating-based X-ray phase contrast for biomedical imaging applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfeiffer, Franz; Willner, Marian; Chabior, Michael; Herzen, Julia; Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, Geesthacht; Auweter, Sigrid; Reiser, Maximilian; Bamberg, Fabian

    2013-01-01

    In this review article we describe the development of grating-based X-ray phase-contrast imaging, with particular emphasis on potential biomedical applications of the technology. We review the basics of image formation in grating-based phase-contrast and dark-field radiography and present some exemplary multimodal radiography results obtained with laboratory X-ray sources. Furthermore, we discuss the theoretical concepts to extend grating-based multimodal radiography to quantitative transmission, phase-contrast, and dark-field scattering computed tomography. (orig.)

  2. In-line phase contrast micro-CT reconstruction for biomedical specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Jian; Tan, Renbo

    2014-01-01

    X-ray phase contrast micro computed tomography (micro-CT) can non-destructively provide the internal structure information of soft tissues and low atomic number materials. It has become an invaluable analysis tool for biomedical specimens. Here an in-line phase contrast micro-CT reconstruction technique is reported, which consists of a projection extraction method and the conventional filter back-projection (FBP) reconstruction algorithm. The projection extraction is implemented by applying the Fourier transform to the forward projections of in-line phase contrast micro-CT. This work comprises a numerical study of the method and its experimental verification using a biomedical specimen dataset measured at an X-ray tube source micro-CT setup. The numerical and experimental results demonstrate that the presented technique can improve the imaging contrast of biomedical specimens. It will be of interest for a wide range of in-line phase contrast micro-CT applications in medicine and biology.

  3. X-ray differential phase-contrast tomographic reconstruction with a phase line integral retrieval filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, Jian; Hu, Xinhua; Li, Chen

    2015-01-01

    We report an alternative reconstruction technique for x-ray differential phase-contrast computed tomography (DPC-CT). This approach is based on a new phase line integral projection retrieval filter, which is rooted in the derivative property of the Fourier transform and counteracts the differential nature of the DPC-CT projections. It first retrieves the phase line integral from the DPC-CT projections. Then the standard filtered back-projection (FBP) algorithms popular in x-ray absorption-contrast CT are directly applied to the retrieved phase line integrals to reconstruct the DPC-CT images. Compared with the conventional DPC-CT reconstruction algorithms, the proposed method removes the Hilbert imaginary filter and allows for the direct use of absorption-contrast FBP algorithms. Consequently, FBP-oriented image processing techniques and reconstruction acceleration softwares that have already been successfully used in absorption-contrast CT can be directly adopted to improve the DPC-CT image quality and speed up the reconstruction

  4. Development of Scanning-Imaging X-Ray Microscope for Quantitative Three-Dimensional Phase Contrast Microimaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuchi, Akihisa; Suzuki, Yoshio; Uesugi, Kentaro

    2013-01-01

    A novel x-ray microscope system has been developed for the purpose of quantitative and sensitive three-dimensional (3D) phase-contrast x-ray microimaging. The optical system is a hybrid that consists of a scanning microscope optics with a one-dimensional (1D) focusing (line-focusing) device and an imaging microscope optics with a 1D objective. These two optics are orthogonally arranged regarding their common optical axis. Each is used for forming each dimension of two-dimensional (2D) image. The same data acquisition process as that of the scanning microscope system enables quantitative and sensitive x-ray imaging such as phase contrast and absorption contrast. Because a 2D image is measured with only 1D translation scan, much shorter measurement time than that of conventional scanning optics has been realized. By combining a computed tomography (CT) technique, some 3D CT application examples are demonstrated

  5. X-ray phase-contrast CT of a pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma mouse model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne Tapfer

    Full Text Available To explore the potential of grating-based x-ray phase-contrast computed tomography (CT for preclinical research, a genetically engineered mouse model of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC was investigated. One ex-vivo mouse specimen was scanned with different grating-based phase-contrast CT imaging setups covering two different settings: i high-resolution synchrotron radiation (SR imaging and ii dose-reduced imaging using either synchrotron radiation or a conventional x-ray tube source. These experimental settings were chosen to assess the potential of phase-contrast imaging for two different types of application: i high-performance imaging for virtual microscopy applications and ii biomedical imaging with increased soft-tissue contrast for in-vivo applications. For validation and as a reference, histological slicing and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI were performed on the same mouse specimen. For each x-ray imaging setup, attenuation and phase-contrast images were compared visually with regard to contrast in general, and specifically concerning the recognizability of lesions and cancerous tissue. To quantitatively assess contrast, the contrast-to-noise ratios (CNR of selected regions of interest (ROI in the attenuation images and the phase images were analyzed and compared. It was found that both for virtual microscopy and for in-vivo applications, there is great potential for phase-contrast imaging: in the SR-based benchmarking data, fine details about tissue composition are accessible in the phase images and the visibility of solid tumor tissue under dose-reduced conditions is markedly superior in the phase images. The present study hence demonstrates improved diagnostic value with phase-contrast CT in a mouse model of a complex endogenous cancer, promoting the use and further development of grating-based phase-contrast CT for biomedical imaging applications.

  6. Preliminary study on X-ray phase contrast imaging using synchrotron radiation facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong Zhuang; Wang Jianhua; Yu Yongqiang; Jiang Shiping; Chen Yang; Tian Yulian

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To study the methodology of X-ray phase contrast imaging using synchrotron radiation, and evaluate the quality of phase contrast images. Methods: Several experiments to obtain phase contrast images and absorption contrast images of various biological samples were conducted in Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility (BSRF), and then these images were interpreted to find out the difference between the two kinds of imaging methods. Results: Satisfactory phase contrast images of these various samples were obtained, and the quality of these images was superior to that obtained with absorption contrast imaging. The phase contrast formation is based on the phenomenon of fresnel diffraction which transforms phase shifts into intensity variations upon a simple act of free-space propagation, so it requires highly coherent X-rays and appropriate distance between sample and detector. This method of imaging is very useful in imaging of low-absorption objects or objects with little absorption variation, and its resolution is far higher than that of the conventional X-ray imaging. The photographs obtained showed very fine inner microstructure of the biological samples, and the smallest microstructure to be distinguished is within 30-40 μm. There is no doubt that phase contrast imaging has a practical applicability in medicine. Moreover, it improves greatly the efficiency and the resolution of the existing X-ray diagnostic techniques. Conclusions: X-ray phase contrast imaging can be performed with synchrotron radiation source and has some advantages over the conventional absorption contrast imaging. (authors)

  7. Accelerated 4D phase contrast MRI in skeletal muscle contraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzoli, Valentina; Gottwald, Lukas M; Peper, Eva S; Froeling, Martijn; Coolen, Bram F; Verdonschot, Nico; Sprengers, Andre M; van Ooij, Pim; Strijkers, Gustav J; Nederveen, Aart J

    2018-03-05

    3D time-resolved (4D) phase contrast MRI can be used to study muscle contraction. However, 3D coverage with sufficient spatiotemporal resolution can only be achieved by interleaved acquisitions during many repetitions of the motion task, resulting in long scan times. The aim of this study was to develop a compressed sensing accelerated 4D phase contrast MRI technique for quantification of velocities and strain rate of the muscles in the lower leg during active plantarflexion/dorsiflexion. Nine healthy volunteers were scanned during active dorsiflexion/plantarflexion task. For each volunteer, we acquired a reference scan, as well as 4 different accelerated scans (k-space undersampling factors: 3.14X, 4.09X, 4.89X, and 6.41X) obtained using Cartesian Poisson disk undersampling schemes. The data was reconstructed using a compressed sensing pipeline. For each scan, velocity and strain rate values were quantified in the gastrocnemius lateralis, gastrocnemius medialis, tibialis anterior, and soleus. No significant differences in velocity values were observed as a function acceleration factor in the investigated muscles. The strain rate calculation resulted in one positive (s + ) and one negative (s - ) eigenvalue, whereas the third eigenvalue (s 3 ) was consistently 0 for all the acquisitions. No significant differences were observed for the strain rate eigenvalues as a function of acceleration factor. Data undersampling combined with compressed sensing reconstruction allowed obtainment of time-resolved phase contrast acquisitions with 3D coverage and quantitative information comparable to the reference scan. The 3D sensitivity of the method can help in understanding the connection between muscle architecture and muscle function in future studies. © 2018 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  8. Practical aspects of Boersch phase contrast electron microscopy of biological specimens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walter, Andreas [Max-Planck-Institute of Biophysics, Department of Structural Biology, Max-von-Laue-Str. 3, D-60439 Frankfurt (Germany); Muzik, Heiko; Vieker, Henning; Turchanin, Andrey; Beyer, Andre; Goelzhaeuser, Armin [University of Bielefeld, Physics of Supramolecular Systems and Surfaces, Universitaetsstr. 25, D-33615 Bielefeld (Germany); Lacher, Manfred; Steltenkamp, Siegfried; Schmitz, Sam; Holik, Peter [Caesar Research Center, Ludwig-Erhard-Allee 2, D-53175 Bonn (Germany); Kuehlbrandt, Werner [Max-Planck-Institute of Biophysics, Department of Structural Biology, Max-von-Laue-Str. 3, D-60439 Frankfurt (Germany); Rhinow, Daniel, E-mail: daniel.rhinow@biophys.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institute of Biophysics, Department of Structural Biology, Max-von-Laue-Str. 3, D-60439 Frankfurt (Germany)

    2012-05-15

    Implementation of physical phase plates into transmission electron microscopes to achieve in-focus contrast for ice-embedded biological specimens poses several technological challenges. During the last decade several phase plates designs have been introduced and tested for electron cryo-microscopy (cryoEM), including thin film (Zernike) phase plates and electrostatic devices. Boersch phase plates (BPPs) are electrostatic einzel lenses shifting the phase of the unscattered beam by an arbitrary angle. Adjusting the phase shift to 90 Degree-Sign achieves the maximum contrast transfer for phase objects such as biomolecules. Recently, we reported the implementation of a BPP into a dedicated phase contrast aberration-corrected electron microscope (PACEM) and demonstrated its use to generate in-focus contrast of frozen-hydrated specimens. However, a number of obstacles need to be overcome before BPPs can be used routinely, mostly related to the phase plate devices themselves. CryoEM with a physical phase plate is affected by electrostatic charging, obliteration of low spatial frequencies, and mechanical drift. Furthermore, BPPs introduce single sideband contrast (SSB), due to the obstruction of Friedel mates in the diffraction pattern. In this study we address the technical obstacles in detail and show how they may be overcome. We use X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) to identify contaminants responsible for electrostatic charging, which occurs with most phase plates. We demonstrate that obstruction of low-resolution features is significantly reduced by lowering the acceleration voltage of the microscope. Finally, we present computational approaches to correct BPP images for SSB contrast and to compensate for mechanical drift of the BPP. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Various obstacles need to be overcome before Boersch phase plates can be used routinely. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Technical problems include

  9. Practical aspects of Boersch phase contrast electron microscopy of biological specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walter, Andreas; Muzik, Heiko; Vieker, Henning; Turchanin, Andrey; Beyer, André; Gölzhäuser, Armin; Lacher, Manfred; Steltenkamp, Siegfried; Schmitz, Sam; Holik, Peter; Kühlbrandt, Werner; Rhinow, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Implementation of physical phase plates into transmission electron microscopes to achieve in-focus contrast for ice-embedded biological specimens poses several technological challenges. During the last decade several phase plates designs have been introduced and tested for electron cryo-microscopy (cryoEM), including thin film (Zernike) phase plates and electrostatic devices. Boersch phase plates (BPPs) are electrostatic einzel lenses shifting the phase of the unscattered beam by an arbitrary angle. Adjusting the phase shift to 90° achieves the maximum contrast transfer for phase objects such as biomolecules. Recently, we reported the implementation of a BPP into a dedicated phase contrast aberration-corrected electron microscope (PACEM) and demonstrated its use to generate in-focus contrast of frozen–hydrated specimens. However, a number of obstacles need to be overcome before BPPs can be used routinely, mostly related to the phase plate devices themselves. CryoEM with a physical phase plate is affected by electrostatic charging, obliteration of low spatial frequencies, and mechanical drift. Furthermore, BPPs introduce single sideband contrast (SSB), due to the obstruction of Friedel mates in the diffraction pattern. In this study we address the technical obstacles in detail and show how they may be overcome. We use X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) to identify contaminants responsible for electrostatic charging, which occurs with most phase plates. We demonstrate that obstruction of low-resolution features is significantly reduced by lowering the acceleration voltage of the microscope. Finally, we present computational approaches to correct BPP images for SSB contrast and to compensate for mechanical drift of the BPP. -- Highlights: ► Various obstacles need to be overcome before Boersch phase plates can be used routinely. ► Technical problems include electrostatic charging, mechanical drift, and image artefacts.

  10. Robustness of phase retrieval methods in x-ray phase contrast imaging: A comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Aimin; Wu, Xizeng; Liu, Hong

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The robustness of the phase retrieval methods is of critical importance for limiting and reducing radiation doses involved in x-ray phase contrast imaging. This work is to compare the robustness of two phase retrieval methods by analyzing the phase maps retrieved from the experimental images of a phantom. Methods: Two phase retrieval methods were compared. One method is based on the transport of intensity equation (TIE) for phase contrast projections, and the TIE-based method is the most commonly used method for phase retrieval in the literature. The other is the recently developed attenuation-partition based (AP-based) phase retrieval method. The authors applied these two methods to experimental projection images of an air-bubble wrap phantom for retrieving the phase map of the bubble wrap. The retrieved phase maps obtained by using the two methods are compared. Results: In the wrap's phase map retrieved by using the TIE-based method, no bubble is recognizable, hence, this method failed completely for phase retrieval from these bubble wrap images. Even with the help of the Tikhonov regularization, the bubbles are still hardly visible and buried in the cluttered background in the retrieved phase map. The retrieved phase values with this method are grossly erroneous. In contrast, in the wrap's phase map retrieved by using the AP-based method, the bubbles are clearly recovered. The retrieved phase values with the AP-based method are reasonably close to the estimate based on the thickness-based measurement. The authors traced these stark performance differences of the two methods to their different techniques employed to deal with the singularity problem involved in the phase retrievals. Conclusions: This comparison shows that the conventional TIE-based phase retrieval method, regardless if Tikhonov regularization is used or not, is unstable against the noise in the wrap's projection images, while the AP-based phase retrieval method is shown in these

  11. Quantitative phase imaging and differential interference contrast imaging for biological TEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allman, B.E.; McMahon, P.J.; Barone-Nugent, E.D.; Nugent, E.D.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Phase microscopy is a central technique in science. An experienced microscopist uses this effect to visualise (edge) structure within transparent samples by slightly defocusing the microscope. Although widespread in optical microscopy, phase contrast transmission electron microscopy (TEM) has not been widely adopted. TEM for biological specimens has largely relied on staining techniques to yield sufficient contrast. We show here a simple method for quantitative TEM phase microscopy that quantifies this phase contrast effect. Starting with conventional, digital, bright field images of the sample, our algorithm provides quantitative phase information independent of the sample's bright field intensity image. We present TEM phase images of a range of stained and unstained, biological and material science specimens. This independent phase and intensity information is then used to emulate a range of phase visualisation images familiar to optical microscopy, e.g. differential interference contrast. The phase images contain features not visible with the other imaging modalities. Further, if the TEM samples have been prepared on a microtome to a uniform thickness, the phase information can be converted into refractive index structure of the specimen. Copyright (2002) Australian Society for Electron Microscopy Inc

  12. Application of phase-contrast cine magnetic resonance imaging in endoscopic aqueductoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guoqiang; Zheng, Jiaping; Xiao, Qing; Liu, Yunsheng

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the application of phase-contrast cine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in endoscopic aqueductoplasty (EA) for patients with obstructive hydrocephalus. The clinical diagnosis of hydrocephalus caused by aqueduct obstruction in 23 patients was confirmed by phase-contrast cine MRI examination. The patients were treated with EA and MRI was repeated during the follow-up. The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow velocity in the aqueduct was measured to determine whether the aqueduct was obstructed. The results of phase-contrast cine MRI examinations indicated that there was no CSF flow in the aqueduct for all patients prior to surgery. Aqueductoplasty was successfully performed in all patients. The results of phase-contrast cine MRI examinations performed a week after surgery demonstrated an average CSF flow velocity of 4.74±1.77 cm/sec. During the follow-up, intracranial hypertension recurred in two patients in whom CSF flow was not observed in the aqueduct by the phase-contrast cine MRI scan. Aqueduct re-occlusion was revealed by an endoscopic exploration. By measuring the CSF flow velocity, phase-contrast cine MRI accurately identifies aqueduct obstruction. Cine MRI is a nontraumatic, simple and reliable method for determining whether the aqueduct is successfully opened following aqueductoplasty.

  13. Origins of phase contrast in the atomic force microscope in liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melcher, John; Carrasco, Carolina; Xu, Xin; Carrascosa, José L; Gómez-Herrero, Julio; José de Pablo, Pedro; Raman, Arvind

    2009-08-18

    We study the physical origins of phase contrast in dynamic atomic force microscopy (dAFM) in liquids where low-stiffness microcantilever probes are often used for nanoscale imaging of soft biological samples with gentle forces. Under these conditions, we show that the phase contrast derives primarily from a unique energy flow channel that opens up in liquids due to the momentary excitation of higher eigenmodes. Contrary to the common assumption, phase-contrast images in liquids using soft microcantilevers are often maps of short-range conservative interactions, such as local elastic response, rather than tip-sample dissipation. The theory is used to demonstrate variations in local elasticity of purple membrane and bacteriophage 29 virions in buffer solutions using the phase-contrast images.

  14. In-Line Phase-Contrast X-ray Imaging and Tomography for Materials Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, Sheridan C; Stevenson, Andrew W; Wilkins, Stephen W

    2012-05-24

    X-ray phase-contrast imaging and tomography make use of the refraction of X-rays by the sample in image formation. This provides considerable additional information in the image compared to conventional X-ray imaging methods, which rely solely on X-ray absorption by the sample. Phase-contrast imaging highlights edges and internal boundaries of a sample and is thus complementary to absorption contrast, which is more sensitive to the bulk of the sample. Phase-contrast can also be used to image low-density materials, which do not absorb X-rays sufficiently to form a conventional X-ray image. In the context of materials science, X-ray phase-contrast imaging and tomography have particular value in the 2D and 3D characterization of low-density materials, the detection of cracks and voids and the analysis of composites and multiphase materials where the different components have similar X-ray attenuation coefficients. Here we review the use of phase-contrast imaging and tomography for a wide variety of materials science characterization problems using both synchrotron and laboratory sources and further demonstrate the particular benefits of phase contrast in the laboratory setting with a series of case studies.

  15. Quantitative breast tissue characterization using grating-based x-ray phase-contrast imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willner, M.; Herzen, J.; Grandl, S.; Auweter, S.; Mayr, D.; Hipp, A.; Chabior, M.; Sarapata, A.; Achterhold, K.; Zanette, I.; Weitkamp, T.; Sztrókay, A.; Hellerhoff, K.; Reiser, M.; Pfeiffer, F.

    2014-04-01

    X-ray phase-contrast imaging has received growing interest in recent years due to its high capability in visualizing soft tissue. Breast imaging became the focus of particular attention as it is considered the most promising candidate for a first clinical application of this contrast modality. In this study, we investigate quantitative breast tissue characterization using grating-based phase-contrast computed tomography (CT) at conventional polychromatic x-ray sources. Different breast specimens have been scanned at a laboratory phase-contrast imaging setup and were correlated to histopathology. Ascertained tumor types include phylloides tumor, fibroadenoma and infiltrating lobular carcinoma. Identified tissue types comprising adipose, fibroglandular and tumor tissue have been analyzed in terms of phase-contrast Hounsfield units and are compared to high-quality, high-resolution data obtained with monochromatic synchrotron radiation, as well as calculated values based on tabulated tissue properties. The results give a good impression of the method’s prospects and limitations for potential tumor detection and the associated demands on such a phase-contrast breast CT system. Furthermore, the evaluated quantitative tissue values serve as a reference for simulations and the design of dedicated phantoms for phase-contrast mammography.

  16. Origins of phase contrast in the atomic force microscope in liquids

    OpenAIRE

    Melcher, John; Carrasco, Carolina; Xu, Xianfan; Carrascosa, Jose L; Gomez-Herrero, Julio; Jose de Pablo, Pedro; Raman, Arvind

    2009-01-01

    We study the physical origins of phase contrast in dynamic atomic force microscopy (dAFM) in liquids where low-stiffness microcantilever probes are often used for nanoscale imaging of soft biological samples with gentle forces. Under these conditions, we show that the phase contrast derives primarily from a unique energy flow channel that opens up in liquids due to the momentary excitation of higher eigenmodes. Contrary to the common assumption, phase-contrast images in liquids using soft mic...

  17. Binocular contrast discrimination needs monocular multiplicative noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Jian; Levi, Dennis M.

    2016-01-01

    The effects of signal and noise on contrast discrimination are difficult to separate because of a singularity in the signal-detection-theory model of two-alternative forced-choice contrast discrimination (Katkov, Tsodyks, & Sagi, 2006). In this article, we show that it is possible to eliminate the singularity by combining that model with a binocular combination model to fit monocular, dichoptic, and binocular contrast discrimination. We performed three experiments using identical stimuli to measure the perceived phase, perceived contrast, and contrast discrimination of a cyclopean sine wave. In the absence of a fixation point, we found a binocular advantage in contrast discrimination both at low contrasts (discrimination mechanisms: a nonlinear contrast transducer and multiplicative noise (MN). A binocular combination model (the DSKL model; Ding, Klein, & Levi, 2013b) was first fitted to both the perceived-phase and the perceived-contrast data sets, then combined with either the nonlinear contrast transducer or the MN mechanism to fit the contrast-discrimination data. We found that the best model combined the DSKL model with early MN. Model simulations showed that, after going through interocular suppression, the uncorrelated noise in the two eyes became anticorrelated, resulting in less binocular noise and therefore a binocular advantage in the discrimination task. Combining a nonlinear contrast transducer or MN with a binocular combination model (DSKL) provides a powerful method for evaluating the two putative contrast-discrimination mechanisms. PMID:26982370

  18. Cue combination in a combined feature contrast detection and figure identification task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinhardt, Günter; Persike, Malte; Mesenholl, Björn; Hagemann, Cordula

    2006-11-01

    Target figures defined by feature contrast in spatial frequency, orientation or both cues had to be detected in Gabor random fields and their shape had to be identified in a dual task paradigm. Performance improved with increasing feature contrast and was strongly correlated among both tasks. Subjects performed significantly better with combined cues than with single cues. The improvement due to cue summation was stronger than predicted by the assumption of independent feature specific mechanisms, and increased with the performance level achieved with single cues until it was limited by ceiling effects. Further, cue summation was also strongly correlated among tasks: when there was benefit due to the additional cue in feature contrast detection, there was also benefit in figure identification. For the same performance level achieved with single cues, cue summation was generally larger in figure identification than in feature contrast detection, indicating more benefit when processes of shape and surface formation are involved. Our results suggest that cue combination improves spatial form completion and figure-ground segregation in noisy environments, and therefore leads to more stable object vision.

  19. Phase-contrast X-ray imaging using an X-ray interferometer for biological imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Momose, Atsushi; Koyama, Ichiro [Tokyo Univ., Dept. of Applied Physics, Tokyo (Japan); Takeda, Tohoru; Itai, Yuji [Tsukuba Univ., Inst. of Clinical Medicine, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Yoneyama, Akio [Hitachi Ltd., Advanced Research Laboratory, Saitama (Japan)

    2002-04-01

    The potential of phase-contrast X-ray imaging using an X-ray interferometer is discussed comparing with other phase-contrast X-ray imaging methods, and its principle of contrast generation is presented including the case of phase-contrast X-ray computed tomography. The status of current instrumentation is described and perspectives for practical applications are discussed. (author)

  20. Analysis of an automated background correction method for cardiovascular MR phase contrast imaging in children and young adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rigsby, Cynthia K.; Hilpipre, Nicholas; Boylan, Emma E.; Popescu, Andrada R.; Deng, Jie [Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children' s Hospital of Chicago, Department of Medical Imaging, Chicago, IL (United States); McNeal, Gary R. [Siemens Medical Solutions USA Inc., Customer Solutions Group, Cardiovascular MR R and D, Chicago, IL (United States); Zhang, Gang [Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children' s Hospital of Chicago Research Center, Biostatistics Research Core, Chicago, IL (United States); Choi, Grace [Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children' s Hospital of Chicago, Department of Pediatrics, Chicago, IL (United States); Greiser, Andreas [Siemens AG Healthcare Sector, Erlangen (Germany)

    2014-03-15

    -background-corrected and background-phase-corrected mean combined flow in the branch pulmonary arteries and MPA flow. All comparisons were performed using the Wilcoxon sign rank test (α = 0.05). Eighty-five children and young adults (mean age 14 years; range 10 days to 32 years) met the criteria for inclusion. Background-phase-corrected mean flow values for the Ao and MPA were significantly lower than those for non-background-corrected standard Ao (P = 0.0004) and MPA flow values (P < 0.0001), respectively. However, no significant difference was seen between the standard non-background (P = 0.295) or background-phase-corrected (P = 0.0653) mean Ao and MPA flow values. Neither the mean standard non-background-corrected (P = 0.408) nor the background-phase-corrected (P = 0.0684) Qp:Qs was significantly different from 1. However in the 27 patients with standard non-background-corrected data, the difference between the Ao and MPA flow values was greater than 10%. There were 19 patients with background-phase-corrected data in which the difference between the Ao and MPA flow values was greater than 10%. In the subset of 43 patients who underwent MPA and branch pulmonary artery phase contrast MRI, the sum of the standard non-background-corrected mean RPA and LPA flow values was significantly different from the standard non-background-corrected mean MPA flow (P = 0.0337). The sum of the background-phase-corrected mean RPA and LPA flow values was not significantly different from the background-phase-corrected mean MPA flow value (P = 0.1328), suggesting improvement in pulmonary artery flow calculations using background-phase-correction. Our data suggest that background phase correction of phase contrast MRI data does not significantly change Qp:Qs quantification, and there are residual errors in expected Qp:Qs quantification despite background phase correction. However the use of background phase correction does improve quantification of MPA flow relative to combined RPA and LPA flow. Further

  1. Depiction of blood vessels by x-ray phase contrast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Momose, Atsushi [School of Engineering, University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Takeda, Tohoru; Itai, Yuji [Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2001-04-01

    Blood vessels in livers of a mouse and a rat were depicted by phase-contrast x-ray imaging with an x-ray interferometer without using contrast agents. X-ray interference patterns were converted to image mapping x-ray phase shift caused by the livers using the technique of phase-shifting x-ray interferometry. The arteries and veins to and from the livers were tied before excision in order to prevent blood from flowing out of the liver. The x-ray phase shift caused by blood was substantially different from that caused by other soft sues, and consequently trees of blood vessels were revealed in the images. Vessels of diameter smaller than 0.1 mm were detected. This result suggests new possibilities for investigating vascular systems. (author)

  2. Fourier domain image fusion for differential X-ray phase-contrast breast imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coello, Eduardo; Sperl, Jonathan I.; Bequé, Dirk; Benz, Tobias; Scherer, Kai; Herzen, Julia; Sztrókay-Gaul, Anikó; Hellerhoff, Karin; Pfeiffer, Franz; Cozzini, Cristina; Grandl, Susanne

    2017-01-01

    X-Ray Phase-Contrast (XPC) imaging is a novel technology with a great potential for applications in clinical practice, with breast imaging being of special interest. This work introduces an intuitive methodology to combine and visualize relevant diagnostic features, present in the X-ray attenuation, phase shift and scattering information retrieved in XPC imaging, using a Fourier domain fusion algorithm. The method allows to present complementary information from the three acquired signals in one single image, minimizing the noise component and maintaining visual similarity to a conventional X-ray image, but with noticeable enhancement in diagnostic features, details and resolution. Radiologists experienced in mammography applied the image fusion method to XPC measurements of mastectomy samples and evaluated the feature content of each input and the fused image. This assessment validated that the combination of all the relevant diagnostic features, contained in the XPC images, was present in the fused image as well.

  3. Fourier domain image fusion for differential X-ray phase-contrast breast imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coello, Eduardo, E-mail: eduardo.coello@tum.de [GE Global Research, Garching (Germany); Lehrstuhl für Informatikanwendungen in der Medizin & Augmented Reality, Institut für Informatik, Technische Universität München, Garching (Germany); Sperl, Jonathan I.; Bequé, Dirk [GE Global Research, Garching (Germany); Benz, Tobias [Lehrstuhl für Informatikanwendungen in der Medizin & Augmented Reality, Institut für Informatik, Technische Universität München, Garching (Germany); Scherer, Kai; Herzen, Julia [Lehrstuhl für Biomedizinische Physik, Physik-Department & Institut für Medizintechnik, Technische Universität München, Garching (Germany); Sztrókay-Gaul, Anikó; Hellerhoff, Karin [Institute for Clinical Radiology, Ludwig-Maximilians-University Hospital, Munich (Germany); Pfeiffer, Franz [Lehrstuhl für Biomedizinische Physik, Physik-Department & Institut für Medizintechnik, Technische Universität München, Garching (Germany); Cozzini, Cristina [GE Global Research, Garching (Germany); Grandl, Susanne [Institute for Clinical Radiology, Ludwig-Maximilians-University Hospital, Munich (Germany)

    2017-04-15

    X-Ray Phase-Contrast (XPC) imaging is a novel technology with a great potential for applications in clinical practice, with breast imaging being of special interest. This work introduces an intuitive methodology to combine and visualize relevant diagnostic features, present in the X-ray attenuation, phase shift and scattering information retrieved in XPC imaging, using a Fourier domain fusion algorithm. The method allows to present complementary information from the three acquired signals in one single image, minimizing the noise component and maintaining visual similarity to a conventional X-ray image, but with noticeable enhancement in diagnostic features, details and resolution. Radiologists experienced in mammography applied the image fusion method to XPC measurements of mastectomy samples and evaluated the feature content of each input and the fused image. This assessment validated that the combination of all the relevant diagnostic features, contained in the XPC images, was present in the fused image as well.

  4. Deciphering complex, functional structures with synchrotron-based absorption and phase contrast tomographic microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stampanoni, M.; Reichold, J.; Weber, B.; Haberthür, D.; Schittny, J.; Eller, J.; Büchi, F. N.; Marone, F.

    2010-09-01

    Nowadays, thanks to the high brilliance available at modern, third generation synchrotron facilities and recent developments in detector technology, it is possible to record volumetric information at the micrometer scale within few minutes. High signal-to-noise ratio, quantitative information on very complex structures like the brain micro vessel architecture, lung airways or fuel cells can be obtained thanks to the combination of dedicated sample preparation protocols, in-situ acquisition schemes and cutting-edge imaging analysis instruments. In this work we report on recent experiments carried out at the TOMCAT beamline of the Swiss Light Source [1] where synchrotron-based tomographic microscopy has been successfully used to obtain fundamental information on preliminary models for cerebral fluid flow [2], to provide an accurate mesh for 3D finite-element simulation of the alveolar structure of the pulmonary acinus [3] and to investigate the complex functional mechanism of fuel cells [4]. Further, we introduce preliminary results on the combination of absorption and phase contrast microscopy for the visualization of high-Z nanoparticles in soft tissues, a fundamental information when designing modern drug delivery systems [5]. As an outlook we briefly discuss the new possibilities offered by high sensitivity, high resolution grating interferomtery as well as Zernike Phase contrast nanotomography [6].

  5. Characterisation of phase evolution under load by means of phase contrast imaging using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besseghini, S.; Stortiero, F.; Carcano, G.; Villa, E.; Mancini, L.; Tromba, G.; Zanini, F.; Montanari, F.; Airoldi, G.

    2003-01-01

    Phase contrast radiography (PCR) is a quite novel technique that is collecting increasing attention due to the possibility to obtain image information in presence of very small differences in the densities of the materials under analysis. Phase contrast imaging (PCI) has some specific advantage when compared with common microscopic techniques: (a) no special preparation of the sample is needed (b) the simultaneously investigated area is very large and (c) it allows the setting up of complex experimental apparatus. The results here presented are a good evidence of these three advantages. In this paper, we report on the application of phase contrast imaging in the study of the phase evolution during pseudoelastic transformation in the NiTiCu shape memory alloys (SMAs). The investigation was undertaken with the aim to identify some modification of the structure taking place at the end of the transformation plateau in the pseudoelastic behaviour of the alloy

  6. Dynamic Studies of Lung Fluid Clearance with Phase Contrast Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitchen, Marcus J.; Williams, Ivan; Irvine, Sarah C.; Morgan, Michael J.; Paganin, David M.; Lewis, Rob A.; Pavlov, Konstantin; Hooper, Stuart B.; Wallace, Megan J.; Siu, Karen K. W.; Yagi, Naoto; Uesugi, Kentaro

    2007-01-01

    Clearance of liquid from the airways at birth is a poorly understood process, partly due to the difficulties of observing and measuring the distribution of air within the lung. Imaging dynamic processes within the lung in vivo with high contrast and spatial resolution is therefore a major challenge. However, phase contrast X-ray imaging is able to exploit inhaled air as a contrast agent, rendering the lungs of small animals visible due to the large changes in the refractive index at air/tissue interfaces. In concert with the high spatial resolution afforded by X-ray imaging systems (<100 μm), propagation-based phase contrast imaging is ideal for studying lung development. To this end we have utilized intense, monochromatic synchrotron radiation, together with a fast readout CCD camera, to study fluid clearance from the lungs of rabbit pups at birth. Local rates of fluid clearance have been measured from the dynamic sequences using a single image phase retrieval algorithm

  7. Low-dose quantitative phase contrast medical CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittone, A.; Bravin, A.; Coan, P.

    2018-02-01

    X-ray computed tomography (CT) is a powerful and routinely used clinical diagnostic technique, which is well tolerated by patients, and which provides high-resolution images and volumetric information about the body. However, two important limitations still affect this examination procedure: (1) its low sensitivity with respect to soft tissues, and (2) the hazards associated with x-ray exposure. Conventional radiology is based on the detection of the different photon absorption properties that characterize biological tissues, and thus the obtainable image contrast from soft and/or similar tissues is intrinsically limited. In this scenario, x-ray phase contrast imaging (XPCI) has been extensively tested and proven to overcome some of the main issues surrounding standard x-ray imaging. In addition to the absorption signal, XPCI relies on detecting the phase shifts induced by an object. Interestingly, as the order of magnitude of the phase contrast is higher than that of absorption, XPCI can, in principle, offer higher sensitivity at lower radiation doses. However, other technical aspects may counterbalance this gain, and an optimized setup and image processing solutions need to be implemented. The work presented here describes the strategies and developments we have realized, with the aim of controlling the radiation dose for the highly sensitive and quantitative XPCI-CT. Different algorithms for the phase retrieval and CT reconstruction of the XPCI data are presented. The CT algorithms we have implemented, namely the equally sloped tomography and the dictionary learning method, allow the image quality to be preserved while reducing the number of angular projections required by a factor of five. The results applied to breast imaging report accurate reconstructions at clinically compatible doses of the 3D distribution of the refractive properties of full human organs obtained by using three different phase retrieval methods. The described methodologies and the

  8. Triple Arterial Phase MR Imaging with Gadoxetic Acid Using a Combination of Contrast Enhanced Time Robust Angiography, Keyhole, and Viewsharing Techniques and Two-Dimensional Parallel Imaging in Comparison with Conventional Single Arterial Phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Jeong Hee [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul 03080 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 03087 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jeong Min [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul 03080 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 03087 (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul National University Medical Research Center, Seoul 03087 (Korea, Republic of); Yu, Mi Hye [Department of Radiology, Konkuk University Medical Center, Seoul 05030 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Eun Ju [Philips Healthcare Korea, Seoul 04342 (Korea, Republic of); Han, Joon Koo [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul 03080 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 03087 (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul National University Medical Research Center, Seoul 03087 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-01

    To determine whether triple arterial phase acquisition via a combination of Contrast Enhanced Time Robust Angiography, keyhole, temporal viewsharing and parallel imaging can improve arterial phase acquisition with higher spatial resolution than single arterial phase gadoxetic-acid enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Informed consent was waived for this retrospective study by our Institutional Review Board. In 752 consecutive patients who underwent gadoxetic acid-enhanced liver MRI, either single (n = 587) or triple (n = 165) arterial phases was obtained in a single breath-hold under MR fluoroscopy guidance. Arterial phase timing was assessed, and the degree of motion was rated on a four-point scale. The percentage of patients achieving the late arterial phase without significant motion was compared between the two methods using the χ{sup 2} test. The late arterial phase was captured at least once in 96.4% (159/165) of the triple arterial phase group and in 84.2% (494/587) of the single arterial phase group (p < 0.001). Significant motion artifacts (score ≤ 2) were observed in 13.3% (22/165), 1.2% (2/165), 4.8% (8/165) on 1st, 2nd, and 3rd scans of triple arterial phase acquisitions and 6.0% (35/587) of single phase acquisitions. Thus, the late arterial phase without significant motion artifacts was captured in 96.4% (159/165) of the triple arterial phase group and in 79.9% (469/587) of the single arterial phase group (p < 0.001). Triple arterial phase imaging may reliably provide adequate arterial phase imaging for gadoxetic acid-enhanced liver MRI.

  9. Triple arterial phase MR imaging with gadoxetic acid using a combination of contrast enhanced time robust angiography, keyhole, and viewsharing techniques and two-dimensional parallel imaging in comparison with conventional single arterial phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Jeong Hee; Lee, Jeong Min; Han, Joon Koo [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yu, Mi Hye [Dept. of Radiology, Konkuk University Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Eun Ju [Philips Healthcare Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-07-15

    To determine whether triple arterial phase acquisition via a combination of Contrast Enhanced Time Robust Angiography, keyhole, temporal viewsharing and parallel imaging can improve arterial phase acquisition with higher spatial resolution than single arterial phase gadoxetic-acid enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Informed consent was waived for this retrospective study by our Institutional Review Board. In 752 consecutive patients who underwent gadoxetic acid-enhanced liver MRI, either single (n = 587) or triple (n = 165) arterial phases was obtained in a single breath-hold under MR fluoroscopy guidance. Arterial phase timing was assessed, and the degree of motion was rated on a four-point scale. The percentage of patients achieving the late arterial phase without significant motion was compared between the two methods using the χ2 test. The late arterial phase was captured at least once in 96.4% (159/165) of the triple arterial phase group and in 84.2% (494/587) of the single arterial phase group (p < 0.001). Significant motion artifacts (score ≤ 2) were observed in 13.3% (22/165), 1.2% (2/165), 4.8% (8/165) on 1st, 2nd, and 3rd scans of triple arterial phase acquisitions and 6.0% (35/587) of single phase acquisitions. Thus, the late arterial phase without significant motion artifacts was captured in 96.4% (159/165) of the triple arterial phase group and in 79.9% (469/587) of the single arterial phase group (p < 0.001). Triple arterial phase imaging may reliably provide adequate arterial phase imaging for gadoxetic acid-enhanced liver MRI.

  10. Zernike phase contrast cryo-electron tomography of whole bacterial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero-Ferreira, Ricardo C; Wright, Elizabeth R

    2014-01-01

    Cryo-electron tomography (cryo-ET) provides three-dimensional (3D) structural information of bacteria preserved in a native, frozen-hydrated state. The typical low contrast of tilt-series images, a result of both the need for a low electron dose and the use of conventional defocus phase-contrast imaging, is a challenge for high-quality tomograms. We show that Zernike phase-contrast imaging allows the electron dose to be reduced. This limits movement of gold fiducials during the tilt series, which leads to better alignment and a higher-resolution reconstruction. Contrast is also enhanced, improving visibility of weak features. The reduced electron dose also means that more images at more tilt angles could be recorded, further increasing resolution. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Phase-Contrast Hounsfield Units of Fixated and Non-Fixated Soft-Tissue Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willner, Marian; Fior, Gabriel; Marschner, Mathias; Birnbacher, Lorenz; Schock, Jonathan; Braun, Christian; Fingerle, Alexander A.; Noël, Peter B.; Rummeny, Ernst J.; Pfeiffer, Franz; Herzen, Julia

    2015-01-01

    X-ray phase-contrast imaging is a novel technology that achieves high soft-tissue contrast. Although its clinical impact is still under investigation, the technique may potentially improve clinical diagnostics. In conventional attenuation-based X-ray computed tomography, radiological diagnostics are quantified by Hounsfield units. Corresponding Hounsfield units for phase-contrast imaging have been recently introduced, enabling a setup-independent comparison and standardized interpretation of imaging results. Thus far, the experimental values of few tissue types have been reported; these values have been determined from fixated tissue samples. This study presents phase-contrast Hounsfield units for various types of non-fixated human soft tissues. A large variety of tissue specimens ranging from adipose, muscle and connective tissues to liver, kidney and pancreas tissues were imaged by a grating interferometer with a rotating-anode X-ray tube and a photon-counting detector. Furthermore, we investigated the effects of formalin fixation on the quantitative phase-contrast imaging results. PMID:26322638

  12. Monte Carlo simulation of grating-based neutron phase contrast imaging at CPHS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Ran; Chen Zhiqiang; Huang Zhifeng; Xiao Yongshun; Wang Xuewu; Wie Jie; Loong, C.-K.

    2011-01-01

    Since the launching of the Compact Pulsed Hadron Source (CPHS) project of Tsinghua University in 2009, works have begun on the design and engineering of an imaging/radiography instrument for the neutron source provided by CPHS. The instrument will perform basic tasks such as transmission imaging and computerized tomography. Additionally, we include in the design the utilization of coded-aperture and grating-based phase contrast methodology, as well as the options of prompt gamma-ray analysis and neutron-energy selective imaging. Previously, we had implemented the hardware and data-analysis software for grating-based X-ray phase contrast imaging. Here, we investigate Geant4-based Monte Carlo simulations of neutron refraction phenomena and then model the grating-based neutron phase contrast imaging system according to the classic-optics-based method. The simulated experimental results of the retrieving phase shift gradient information by five-step phase-stepping approach indicate the feasibility of grating-based neutron phase contrast imaging as an option for the cold neutron imaging instrument at the CPHS.

  13. Phase shift extraction and wavefront retrieval from interferograms with background and contrast fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Qian; Wang, Yang; He, Jianguo; Ji, Fang

    2015-01-01

    The fluctuations of background and contrast cause measurement errors in the phase-shifting technique. To extract the phase shifts from interferograms with background and contrast fluctuations, an iterative algorithm is represented. The phase shifts and wavefront phase are calculated in two individual steps with the least-squares method. The fluctuation factors are determined when the phase shifts are calculated, and the fluctuations are compensated when the wavefront phase is calculated. The advantage of the algorithm lies in its ability to extract phase shifts from interferograms with background and contrast fluctuations converging stably and rapidly. Simulations and experiments verify the effectiveness and reliability of the proposed algorithm. The convergence accuracy and speed are demonstrated by the simulation results. The experiment results show its ability for suppressing phase retrieval errors. (paper)

  14. In-line X-ray phase-contrast imaging of murine liver microvasculature ex vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Beilei; Xu Min; Shi Hongcheng; Chen Shaoliang; Wu Weizhong; Peng Guanyun; Zhang Xi; Peng Yifeng

    2012-01-01

    Imaging blood vessels is of importance for determining the vascular distribution of organs and tumors. Phase-contrast X-ray imaging can reveal the vessels in much more detail than conventional X-ray absorption method. Visualizing murine liver microvasculature ex vivo with phase-contrast X-ray imaging was performed at Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility. Barium sulfate and physiological saline were used as contrast agents for the blood vessels. Blood vessels of <Φ20 μm could be detected by replacing resident blood with physiological saline or barium sulfate. An entire branch of the portal vein (from the main axial portal vein to the ninth generation of branching) could be captured in a single phase-contrast image. It is demonstrated that selective angiography based on phase contrast X-ray imaging, with a physiological material of low Z elements (such as saline) being the contrast agent, is a viable imaging strategy. Further efforts will be focused on using the technique to image tumor angiogenesis. (authors)

  15. Ex vivo characterization of pathologic fluids with quantitative phase-contrast computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richter, Vivien, E-mail: vivien.richter@med.uni-tuebingen.de [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Eberhard Karls Universität Tübingen, Hoppe-Seyler-Weg 3, 72076 Tuebingen (Germany); Willner, Marian S., E-mail: marian.willner@ph.tum.de [Department of Physics & Institute of Medical Engineering, Technische Universität München, James-Franck-Strasse 1, 85748 Garching (Germany); Henningsen, John, E-mail: john.henningsen@tum.de [Department of Physics & Institute of Medical Engineering, Technische Universität München, James-Franck-Strasse 1, 85748 Garching (Germany); Birnbacher, Lorenz, E-mail: lorenz.birnbacher@ph.tum.de [Department of Physics & Institute of Medical Engineering, Technische Universität München, James-Franck-Strasse 1, 85748 Garching (Germany); Marschner, Mathias, E-mail: mathias.marschner@ph.tum.de [Department of Physics & Institute of Medical Engineering, Technische Universität München, James-Franck-Strasse 1, 85748 Garching (Germany); Herzen, Julia, E-mail: julia.herzen@ph.tum.de [Department of Physics & Institute of Medical Engineering, Technische Universität München, James-Franck-Strasse 1, 85748 Garching (Germany); Kimm, Melanie A., E-mail: melanie.kimm@tum.de [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Technische Universität München, Ismaninger Str. 22, 81675 Munich (Germany); and others

    2017-01-15

    Purpose: X-ray phase-contrast imaging (PCI) provides additional information beyond absorption characteristics by detecting the phase shift of the X-ray beam passing through material. The grating-based system works with standard polychromatic X-ray sources, promising a possible clinical implementation. PCI has been shown to provide additional information in soft-tissue samples. The aim of this study was to determine if ex vivo quantitative phase-contrast computed tomography (PCCT) may differentiate between pathologic fluid collections. Materials and methods: PCCT was performed with the grating interferometry method. A protein serial dilution, human blood samples and 17 clinical samples of pathologic fluid retentions were imaged and correlated with clinical chemistry measurements. Conventional and phase-contrast tomography images were reconstructed. Phase-contrast Hounsfield Units (HUp) were used for quantitative analysis analogously to conventional HU. The imaging was analyzed using overall means, ROI values as well as whole-volume-histograms and vertical gradients. Contrast to noise ratios were calculated between different probes and between imaging methods. Results: HUp showed a very good linear correlation with protein concentration in vitro. In clinical samples, HUp correlated rather well with cell count and triglyceride content. PCI was better than absorption imaging at differentiating protein concentrations in the protein samples as well as at differentiating blood plasma from cellular components. PCI also allowed for differentiation of watery samples (such as lymphoceles) from pus. Conclusion: Phase-contrast computed tomography is a promising tool for the differentiation of pathologic fluids that appear homogenous with conventional attenuation imaging.

  16. Recent advances in synchrotron-based hard x-ray phase contrast imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Y; Nelson, J; Andrews, J C; Pianetta, P; Holzner, C

    2013-01-01

    Ever since the first demonstration of phase contrast imaging (PCI) in the 1930s by Frits Zernike, people have realized the significant advantage of phase contrast over conventional absorption-based imaging in terms of sensitivity to ‘transparent’ features within specimens. Thus, x-ray phase contrast imaging (XPCI) holds great potential in studies of soft biological tissues, typically containing low Z elements such as C, H, O and N. Particularly when synchrotron hard x-rays are employed, the favourable brightness, energy tunability, monochromatic characteristics and penetration depth have dramatically enhanced the quality and variety of XPCI methods, which permit detection of the phase shift associated with 3D geometry of relatively large samples in a non-destructive manner. In this paper, we review recent advances in several synchrotron-based hard x-ray XPCI methods. Challenges and key factors in methodological development are discussed, and biological and medical applications are presented. (paper)

  17. Recent advances in synchrotron-based hard x-ray phase contrast imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y.; Nelson, J.; Holzner, C.; Andrews, J. C.; Pianetta, P.

    2013-12-01

    Ever since the first demonstration of phase contrast imaging (PCI) in the 1930s by Frits Zernike, people have realized the significant advantage of phase contrast over conventional absorption-based imaging in terms of sensitivity to ‘transparent’ features within specimens. Thus, x-ray phase contrast imaging (XPCI) holds great potential in studies of soft biological tissues, typically containing low Z elements such as C, H, O and N. Particularly when synchrotron hard x-rays are employed, the favourable brightness, energy tunability, monochromatic characteristics and penetration depth have dramatically enhanced the quality and variety of XPCI methods, which permit detection of the phase shift associated with 3D geometry of relatively large samples in a non-destructive manner. In this paper, we review recent advances in several synchrotron-based hard x-ray XPCI methods. Challenges and key factors in methodological development are discussed, and biological and medical applications are presented.

  18. Phase contrast imaging using a micro focus x-ray source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wei; Majidi, Keivan; Brankov, Jovan G.

    2014-09-01

    Phase contrast x-ray imaging, a new technique to increase the imaging contrast for the tissues with close attenuation coefficients, has been studied since mid 1990s. This technique reveals the possibility to show the clear details of the soft tissues and tumors in small scale resolution. A compact and low cost phase contrast imaging system using a conventional x-ray source is described in this paper. Using the conventional x-ray source is of great importance, because it provides the possibility to use the method in hospitals and clinical offices. Simple materials and components are used in the setup to keep the cost in a reasonable and affordable range.Tungsten Kα1 line with the photon energy 59.3 keV was used for imaging. Some of the system design details are discussed. The method that was used to stabilize the system is introduced. A chicken thigh bone tissue sample was used for imaging followed by the image quality, image acquisition time and the potential clinical application discussion. High energy x-ray beam can be used in phase contrast imaging. Therefore the radiation dose to the patients can be greatly decreased compared to the traditional x-ray radiography.

  19. Imaging of metastatic lymph nodes by X-ray phase-contrast micro-tomography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torben Haugaard Jensen

    Full Text Available Invasive cancer causes a change in density in the affected tissue, which can be visualized by x-ray phase-contrast tomography. However, the diagnostic value of this method has so far not been investigated in detail. Therefore, the purpose of this study was, in a blinded manner, to investigate whether malignancy could be revealed by non-invasive x-ray phase-contrast tomography in lymph nodes from breast cancer patients. Seventeen formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded lymph nodes from 10 female patients (age range 37-83 years diagnosed with invasive ductal carcinomas were analyzed by X-ray phase-contrast tomography. Ten lymph nodes had metastatic deposits and 7 were benign. The phase-contrast images were analyzed according to standards for conventional CT images looking for characteristics usually only visible by pathological examinations. Histopathology was used as reference. The result of this study was that the diagnostic sensitivity of the image analysis for detecting malignancy was 100% and the specificity was 87%. The positive predictive value was 91% for detecting malignancy and the negative predictive value was 100%. We conclude that x-ray phase-contrast imaging can accurately detect density variations to obtain information regarding lymph node involvement previously inaccessible with standard absorption x-ray imaging.

  20. PHASE QUANTIZATION STUDY OF SPATIAL LIGHT MODULATOR FOR EXTREME HIGH-CONTRAST IMAGING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dou, Jiangpei; Ren, Deqing, E-mail: jpdou@niaot.ac.cn, E-mail: jiangpeidou@gmail.com [Physics and Astronomy Department, California State University Northridge, 18111 Nordhoff Street, Northridge, CA 91330 (United States)

    2016-11-20

    Direct imaging of exoplanets by reflected starlight is extremely challenging due to the large luminosity ratio to the primary star. Wave-front control is a critical technique to attenuate the speckle noise in order to achieve an extremely high contrast. We present a phase quantization study of a spatial light modulator (SLM) for wave-front control to meet the contrast requirement of detection of a terrestrial planet in the habitable zone of a solar-type star. We perform the numerical simulation by employing the SLM with different phase accuracy and actuator numbers, which are related to the achievable contrast. We use an optimization algorithm to solve the quantization problems that is matched to the controllable phase step of the SLM. Two optical configurations are discussed with the SLM located before and after the coronagraph focal plane mask. The simulation result has constrained the specification for SLM phase accuracy in the above two optical configurations, which gives us a phase accuracy of 0.4/1000 and 1/1000 waves to achieve a contrast of 10{sup -10}. Finally, we have demonstrated that an SLM with more actuators can deliver a competitive contrast performance on the order of 10{sup -10} in comparison to that by using a deformable mirror.

  1. Noninvasive 3D Structural Analysis of Arthropod by Synchrotron X-Ray Phase Contrast Tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, S.; Zong, Y.; Fan, J.; Sun, Z.; Jiang, H.

    2015-01-01

    X-ray imaging techniques significantly advanced our understanding of materials and biology, among which phase contrast X-ray microscopy has obvious advantages in imaging biological specimens which have low contrast by conventional absorption contrast microscopy. In this paper, three-dimensional microstructure of arthropod with high contrast has been demonstrated by synchrotron X-ray in-line phase contrast tomography. The external morphology and internal structures of an earthworm were analyzed based upon tomographic reconstructions with and without phase retrieval. We also identified and characterized various fine structural details such as the musculature system, the digestive system, the nervous system, and the circulatory system. This work exhibited the high efficiency, high precision, and wide potential applications of synchrotron X-ray phase contrast tomography in nondestructive investigation of low-density materials and biology.

  2. Applications of phase-contrast x-ray imaging to medicine using an x-ray interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momose, Atsushi; Yoneyama, Akio; Takeda, Tohoru; Itai, Yuji; Tu, Jinhong; Hirano, Keiichi

    1999-10-01

    We are investigating possible medical applications of phase- contrast X-ray imaging using an X-ray interferometer. This paper introduces the strategy of the research project and the present status. The main subject is to broaden the observation area to enable in vivo observation. For this purpose, large X-ray interferometers were developed, and 2.5 cm X 1.5 cm interference patterns were generated using synchrotron X-rays. An improvement of the spatial resolution is also included in the project, and an X-ray interferometer designed for high-resolution phase-contrast X-ray imaging was fabricated and tested. In parallel with the instrumental developments, various soft tissues are observed by phase- contrast X-ray CT to find correspondence between the generated contrast and our histological knowledge. The observation done so far suggests that cancerous tissues are differentiated from normal tissues and that blood can produce phase contrast. Furthermore, this project includes exploring materials that modulate phase contrast for selective imaging.

  3. Simulation of single grid-based phase-contrast x-ray imaging (g-PCXI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, H.W.; Lee, H.W. [Department of Radiation Convergence Engineering, iTOMO Group, Yonsei University, 1 Yonseidae-gil, Wonju, Gangwon-do 26493 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, H.S., E-mail: hscho1@yonsei.ac.kr [Department of Radiation Convergence Engineering, iTOMO Group, Yonsei University, 1 Yonseidae-gil, Wonju, Gangwon-do 26493 (Korea, Republic of); Je, U.K.; Park, C.K.; Kim, K.S.; Kim, G.A.; Park, S.Y.; Lee, D.Y.; Park, Y.O.; Woo, T.H. [Department of Radiation Convergence Engineering, iTOMO Group, Yonsei University, 1 Yonseidae-gil, Wonju, Gangwon-do 26493 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, S.H.; Chung, W.H.; Kim, J.W.; Kim, J.G. [R& D Center, JPI Healthcare Co., Ltd., Ansan 425-833 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-01

    Single grid-based phase-contrast x-ray imaging (g-PCXI) technique, which was recently proposed by Wen et al. to retrieve absorption, scattering, and phase-gradient images from the raw image of the examined object, seems a practical method for phase-contrast imaging with great simplicity and minimal requirements on the setup alignment. In this work, we developed a useful simulation platform for g-PCXI and performed a simulation to demonstrate its viability. We also established a table-top setup for g-PCXI which consists of a focused-linear grid (200-lines/in strip density), an x-ray tube (100-μm focal spot size), and a flat-panel detector (48-μm pixel size) and performed a preliminary experiment with some samples to show the performance of the simulation platform. We successfully obtained phase-contrast x-ray images of much enhanced contrast from both the simulation and experiment and the simulated contract seemed similar to the experimental contrast, which shows the performance of the developed simulation platform. We expect that the simulation platform will be useful for designing an optimal g-PCXI system. - Highlights: • It is proposed for the single grid-based phase-contrast x-ray imaging (g-PCXI) technique. • We implemented for a numerical simulation code. • The preliminary experiment with several samples to compare is performed. • It is expected to be useful to design an optimal g-PCXI system.

  4. Observation of human tissue with phase-contrast x-ray computed tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momose, Atsushi; Takeda, Tohoru; Itai, Yuji; Tu, Jinhong; Hirano, Keiichi

    1999-05-01

    Human tissues obtained from cancerous kidneys fixed in formalin were observed with phase-contrast X-ray computed tomography (CT) using 17.7-keV synchrotron X-rays. By measuring the distributions of the X-ray phase shift caused by samples using an X-ray interferometer, sectional images that map the distribution of the refractive index were reconstructed. Because of the high sensitivity of phase- contrast X-ray CT, a cancerous lesion was differentiated from normal tissue and a variety of other structures were revealed without the need for staining.

  5. Analyser-based phase contrast image reconstruction using geometrical optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitchen, M J; Pavlov, K M; Siu, K K W; Menk, R H; Tromba, G; Lewis, R A

    2007-01-01

    Analyser-based phase contrast imaging can provide radiographs of exceptional contrast at high resolution (<100 μm), whilst quantitative phase and attenuation information can be extracted using just two images when the approximations of geometrical optics are satisfied. Analytical phase retrieval can be performed by fitting the analyser rocking curve with a symmetric Pearson type VII function. The Pearson VII function provided at least a 10% better fit to experimentally measured rocking curves than linear or Gaussian functions. A test phantom, a hollow nylon cylinder, was imaged at 20 keV using a Si(1 1 1) analyser at the ELETTRA synchrotron radiation facility. Our phase retrieval method yielded a more accurate object reconstruction than methods based on a linear fit to the rocking curve. Where reconstructions failed to map expected values, calculations of the Takagi number permitted distinction between the violation of the geometrical optics conditions and the failure of curve fitting procedures. The need for synchronized object/detector translation stages was removed by using a large, divergent beam and imaging the object in segments. Our image acquisition and reconstruction procedure enables quantitative phase retrieval for systems with a divergent source and accounts for imperfections in the analyser

  6. High sensitivity phase retrieval method in grating-based x-ray phase contrast imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Zhao; Gao, Kun; Chen, Jian; Wang, Dajiang; Wang, Shenghao; Chen, Heng; Bao, Yuan; Shao, Qigang; Wang, Zhili, E-mail: wangnsrl@ustc.edu.cn [National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230029 (China); Zhang, Kai [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Zhu, Peiping; Wu, Ziyu, E-mail: wuzy@ustc.edu.cn [National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230029, China and Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2015-02-15

    Purpose: Grating-based x-ray phase contrast imaging is considered as one of the most promising techniques for future medical imaging. Many different methods have been developed to retrieve phase signal, among which the phase stepping (PS) method is widely used. However, further practical implementations are hindered, due to its complex scanning mode and high radiation dose. In contrast, the reverse projection (RP) method is a novel fast and low dose extraction approach. In this contribution, the authors present a quantitative analysis of the noise properties of the refraction signals retrieved by the two methods and compare their sensitivities. Methods: Using the error propagation formula, the authors analyze theoretically the signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) of the refraction images retrieved by the two methods. Then, the sensitivities of the two extraction methods are compared under an identical exposure dose. Numerical experiments are performed to validate the theoretical results and provide some quantitative insight. Results: The SNRs of the two methods are both dependent on the system parameters, but in different ways. Comparison between their sensitivities reveals that for the refraction signal, the RP method possesses a higher sensitivity, especially in the case of high visibility and/or at the edge of the object. Conclusions: Compared with the PS method, the RP method has a superior sensitivity and provides refraction images with a higher SNR. Therefore, one can obtain highly sensitive refraction images in grating-based phase contrast imaging. This is very important for future preclinical and clinical implementations.

  7. High sensitivity phase retrieval method in grating-based x-ray phase contrast imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Zhao; Gao, Kun; Chen, Jian; Wang, Dajiang; Wang, Shenghao; Chen, Heng; Bao, Yuan; Shao, Qigang; Wang, Zhili; Zhang, Kai; Zhu, Peiping; Wu, Ziyu

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Grating-based x-ray phase contrast imaging is considered as one of the most promising techniques for future medical imaging. Many different methods have been developed to retrieve phase signal, among which the phase stepping (PS) method is widely used. However, further practical implementations are hindered, due to its complex scanning mode and high radiation dose. In contrast, the reverse projection (RP) method is a novel fast and low dose extraction approach. In this contribution, the authors present a quantitative analysis of the noise properties of the refraction signals retrieved by the two methods and compare their sensitivities. Methods: Using the error propagation formula, the authors analyze theoretically the signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) of the refraction images retrieved by the two methods. Then, the sensitivities of the two extraction methods are compared under an identical exposure dose. Numerical experiments are performed to validate the theoretical results and provide some quantitative insight. Results: The SNRs of the two methods are both dependent on the system parameters, but in different ways. Comparison between their sensitivities reveals that for the refraction signal, the RP method possesses a higher sensitivity, especially in the case of high visibility and/or at the edge of the object. Conclusions: Compared with the PS method, the RP method has a superior sensitivity and provides refraction images with a higher SNR. Therefore, one can obtain highly sensitive refraction images in grating-based phase contrast imaging. This is very important for future preclinical and clinical implementations

  8. Analyser-based phase contrast image reconstruction using geometrical optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitchen, M J; Pavlov, K M; Siu, K K W; Menk, R H; Tromba, G; Lewis, R A

    2007-07-21

    Analyser-based phase contrast imaging can provide radiographs of exceptional contrast at high resolution (geometrical optics are satisfied. Analytical phase retrieval can be performed by fitting the analyser rocking curve with a symmetric Pearson type VII function. The Pearson VII function provided at least a 10% better fit to experimentally measured rocking curves than linear or Gaussian functions. A test phantom, a hollow nylon cylinder, was imaged at 20 keV using a Si(1 1 1) analyser at the ELETTRA synchrotron radiation facility. Our phase retrieval method yielded a more accurate object reconstruction than methods based on a linear fit to the rocking curve. Where reconstructions failed to map expected values, calculations of the Takagi number permitted distinction between the violation of the geometrical optics conditions and the failure of curve fitting procedures. The need for synchronized object/detector translation stages was removed by using a large, divergent beam and imaging the object in segments. Our image acquisition and reconstruction procedure enables quantitative phase retrieval for systems with a divergent source and accounts for imperfections in the analyser.

  9. Slit-scanning differential phase-contrast mammography: first experimental results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roessl, Ewald; Daerr, Heiner; Koehler, Thomas; Martens, Gerhard; van Stevendaal, Udo

    2014-03-01

    The demands for a large field-of-view (FOV) and the stringent requirements for a stable acquisition geometry rank among the major obstacles for the translation of grating-based, differential phase-contrast techniques from the laboratory to clinical applications. While for state-of-the-art Full-Field-Digital Mammography (FFDM) FOVs of 24 cm x 30 cm are common practice, the specifications for mechanical stability are naturally derived from the detector pixel size which ranges between 50 and 100 μm. However, in grating-based, phasecontrast imaging, the relative placement of the gratings in the interferometer must be guaranteed to within micro-meter precision. In this work we report on first experimental results on a phase-contrast x-ray imaging system based on the Philips MicroDose L30 mammography unit. With the proposed approach we achieve a FOV of about 65 mm x 175 mm by the use of the slit-scanning technique. The demand for mechanical stability on a micrometer scale was relaxed by the specific interferometer design, i.e., a rigid, actuator-free mount of the phase-grating G1 with respect to the analyzer-grating G2 onto a common steel frame. The image acquisition and formation processes are described and first phase-contrast images of a test object are presented. A brief discussion of the shortcomings of the current approach is given, including the level of remaining image artifacts and the relatively inefficient usage of the total available x-ray source output.

  10. Three-dimensional phase-contrast X-ray microtomography with scanning–imaging X-ray microscope optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuchi, Akihisa; Uesugi, Kentaro; Suzuki, Yoshio

    2013-01-01

    A novel three-dimensional X-ray microtomographic micro-imaging system which enables simultaneous measurement of differential phase contrast and absorption contrast has been developed. The optical system consists of a scanning microscope with one-dimensional focusing device and an imaging microscope with one-dimensional objective. A three-dimensional (3D) X-ray tomographic micro-imaging system has been developed. The optical system is based on a scanning–imaging X-ray microscope (SIXM) optics, which is a hybrid system consisting of a scanning microscope optics with a one-dimensional (1D) focusing (line-focusing) device and an imaging microscope optics with a 1D objective. In the SIXM system, each 1D dataset of a two-dimensional (2D) image is recorded independently. An object is illuminated with a line-focused beam. Positional information of the region illuminated by the line-focused beam is recorded with the 1D imaging microscope optics as line-profile data. By scanning the object with the line focus, 2D image data are obtained. In the same manner as for a scanning microscope optics with a multi-pixel detector, imaging modes such as phase contrast and absorption contrast can be arbitrarily configured after the image data acquisition. By combining a tomographic scan method and the SIXM system, quantitative 3D imaging is performed. Results of a feasibility study of the SIXM for 3D imaging are shown

  11. Synchrotron Based Phase Contrast Tomography of Hyper cholesteromic Rat Liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatima A

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available X-ray phase contrast imaging technique has been applied for the study of morphological variations in soft tissues. The effect of an antioxidant, α-lipoic acid in reducing hypercholesterolemia in rats is investigated. The experiment was conducted to measure serum lipid profile and diameter of vessels in rat liver, as liver is the most vital organ in hypolipidemic activity studies. Methods: Four groups of male Wistar rats, control (Group I, hyperlipidemic (Group II, positive control (Group III and treated Group IV were studied for serum lipid profile and liver vessels with synchrotron X-ray phase tomography. The Group I rats received chow diet, in Group II rats, administration of 20% butter rich diet induced hyperlipidemia. Group III, treated rats received hypolipidemic drug Atorvastatin and Group IV animals received a potent antioxidant DL-α-Lipoic acid. The excised liver tissue immersed in 10% formalin. X-ray phase contrast tomography was performed for comparison of diameter of liver vessels. Results: Among the four group of animals, the diameter of liver vessels was much larger in hypercholesterolemic rat (Group II. The liver vessel diameter comparison with X-ray phase contrast tomography and the lipid profile shows reduction in serum lipids and lipoproteins by ALA treatment.

  12. First principles study of the optical contrast in phase change materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caravati, S; Parrinello, M [Department of Chemistry and Applied Biosciences, ETH Zurich, USI Campus, Via Giuseppe Buffi 13, 6900 Lugano (Switzerland); Bernasconi, M, E-mail: marco.bernasconi@mater.unimib.i [Dipartimento di Scienza dei Materiali, Universita di Milano-Bicocca, Via R Cozzi 53, I-20125, Milano (Italy)

    2010-08-11

    We study from first principles the optical properties of the phase change materials Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5} (GST), GeTe and Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3} in the crystalline phase and in realistic models of the amorphous phase generated by quenching from the melt in ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. The calculations reproduce the strong optical contrast between the crystalline and amorphous phases measured experimentally and exploited in optical data storage. It is demonstrated that the optical contrast is due to a change in the optical matrix elements across the phase change in all the compounds. It is concluded that the reduction of the optical matrix elements in the amorphous phases is due to angular disorder in p-bonding which dominates the amorphous network in agreement with previous proposals (Huang and Robertson 2010 Phys. Rev. B 81 081204) based on calculations on crystalline models.

  13. Initial studies of synchrotron radiation phase-contrast imaging in the field of medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Shaoliang; Zhang Xi; Peng Yifeng; Li Beilei; Cheng Aiping; Zhu Peiping; Yuan Xiqing; Huang Wanxia

    2010-01-01

    Recently,research on using X-ray phase information in medicine has been growing remarkably fast. Phase-contrast imaging with synchrotron radiation can reveal inner soft tissues such as tendons, cartilage, ligaments, adipose tissue, vessels and nerves without a contrast agent. We have visualized the liver, bile duct, lung, kidney, stomach and intestine, heart, blood vessel, bone and arthrosis, and tumor tissues using 'in-line' phase contrast imaging and diffraction-enhanced imaging. It is seen that the synchrotron radiation graphs show much higher resolution. This method is especially suitable for studying soft tissue structure and blood vessels. (authors)

  14. A phase contrast interferometer on DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coda, S.; Porkolab, M.; Carlstrom, T.N.

    1992-04-01

    A novel imaging diagnostic has recently become operational on the DIII-D tokamak for the study of density fluctuations at the outer edge of the plasma. The phase contrast imaging approach overcomes the limitations of conventional scattering techniques in the spectral range of interest for transport-related phenomena, by allowing detection of long wavelength modes (up to 7.6 cm) with excellent spatial resolution (5 mm) in the radial direction. Additional motivation for the diagnostic is provided by wave-plasma interactions during heating and current drive experiments in the Ion Cyclotron range of frequencies. Density perturbations of 4 x 10 7 cm -3 with a 1 MHz bandwidth can be resolved. The diagnostic employs a 7.6 cm diameter CO 2 laser beam launched vertically across the plasma edge. An image of the plasma is then created on a 16-element detector array: the detector signals are directly proportional to the density fluctuations integrated along each chord. Wavelengths and correlation lengths can be inferred from the spatial mapping. The phase contrast method and its application to DIII-D are described and tests and first plasma data are presented

  15. Simultaneous fast scanning XRF, dark field, phase-, and absorption contrast tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medjoubi, Kadda; Bonissent, Alain; Leclercq, Nicolas; Langlois, Florent; Mercère, Pascal; Somogyi, Andrea

    2013-09-01

    Scanning hard X-ray nanoprobe imaging provides a unique tool for probing specimens with high sensitivity and large penetration depth. Moreover, the combination of complementary techniques such as X-ray fluorescence, absorption, phase contrast and dark field imaging gives complete quantitative information on the sample structure, composition and chemistry. The multi-technique "FLYSCAN" data acquisition scheme developed at Synchrotron SOLEIL permits to perform fast continuous scanning imaging and as such makes scanning tomography techniques feasible in a time-frame well-adapted to typical user experiments. Here we present the recent results of simultaneous fast scanning multi-technique tomography performed at Soleil. This fast scanning scheme will be implemented at the Nanoscopium beamline for large field of view 2D and 3D multimodal imaging.

  16. Cumulative phase delay imaging for contrast-enhanced ultrasound tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demi, Libertario; Van Sloun, Ruud J G; Wijkstra, Hessel; Mischi, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Standard dynamic-contrast enhanced ultrasound (DCE-US) imaging detects and estimates ultrasound-contrast-agent (UCA) concentration based on the amplitude of the nonlinear (harmonic) components generated during ultrasound (US) propagation through UCAs. However, harmonic components generation is not specific to UCAs, as it also occurs for US propagating through tissue. Moreover, nonlinear artifacts affect standard DCE-US imaging, causing contrast to tissue ratio reduction, and resulting in possible misclassification of tissue and misinterpretation of UCA concentration. Furthermore, no contrast-specific modality exists for DCE-US tomography; in particular speed-of-sound changes due to UCAs are well within those caused by different tissue types. Recently, a new marker for UCAs has been introduced. A cumulative phase delay (CPD) between the second harmonic and fundamental component is in fact observable for US propagating through UCAs, and is absent in tissue. In this paper, tomographic US images based on CPD are for the first time presented and compared to speed-of-sound US tomography. Results show the applicability of this marker for contrast specific US imaging, with cumulative phase delay imaging (CPDI) showing superior capabilities in detecting and localizing UCA, as compared to speed-of-sound US tomography. Cavities (filled with UCA) which were down to 1 mm in diameter were clearly detectable. Moreover, CPDI is free of the above mentioned nonlinear artifacts. These results open important possibilities to DCE-US tomography, with potential applications to breast imaging for cancer localization. (fast track communication)

  17. Augmented Quadruple-Phase Contrast Media Administration and Triphasic Scan Protocol Increases Image Quality at Reduced Radiation Dose During Computed Tomography Urography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saade, Charbel; Mohamad, May; Kerek, Racha; Hamieh, Nadine; Alsheikh Deeb, Ibrahim; El-Achkar, Bassam; Tamim, Hani; Abdul Razzak, Farah; Haddad, Maurice; Abi-Ghanem, Alain S; El-Merhi, Fadi

    The aim of this article was to investigate the opacification of the renal vasculature and the urogenital system during computed tomography urography by using a quadruple-phase contrast media in a triphasic scan protocol. A total of 200 patients with possible urinary tract abnormalities were equally divided between 2 protocols. Protocol A used the conventional single bolus and quadruple-phase scan protocol (pre, arterial, venous, and delayed), retrospectively. Protocol B included a quadruple-phase contrast media injection with a triphasic scan protocol (pre, arterial and combined venous, and delayed), prospectively. Each protocol used 100 mL contrast and saline at a flow rate of 4.5 mL. Attenuation profiles and contrast-to-noise ratio of the renal arteries, veins, and urogenital tract were measured. Effective radiation dose calculation, data analysis by independent sample t test, receiver operating characteristic, and visual grading characteristic analyses were performed. In arterial circulation, only the inferior interlobular arteries in both protocols showed a statistical significance (P contrast-to-noise ratio than protocol A (protocol B: 22.68 ± 13.72; protocol A: 14.75 ± 5.76; P contrast media and triphasic scan protocol usage increases the image quality at a reduced radiation dose.

  18. Linear information retrieval method in X-ray grating-based phase contrast imaging and its interchangeability with tomographic reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Z.; Gao, K.; Wang, Z. L.; Shao, Q. G.; Hu, R. F.; Wei, C. X.; Zan, G. B.; Wali, F.; Luo, R. H.; Zhu, P. P.; Tian, Y. C.

    2017-06-01

    In X-ray grating-based phase contrast imaging, information retrieval is necessary for quantitative research, especially for phase tomography. However, numerous and repetitive processes have to be performed for tomographic reconstruction. In this paper, we report a novel information retrieval method, which enables retrieving phase and absorption information by means of a linear combination of two mutually conjugate images. Thanks to the distributive law of the multiplication as well as the commutative law and associative law of the addition, the information retrieval can be performed after tomographic reconstruction, thus simplifying the information retrieval procedure dramatically. The theoretical model of this method is established in both parallel beam geometry for Talbot interferometer and fan beam geometry for Talbot-Lau interferometer. Numerical experiments are also performed to confirm the feasibility and validity of the proposed method. In addition, we discuss its possibility in cone beam geometry and its advantages compared with other methods. Moreover, this method can also be employed in other differential phase contrast imaging methods, such as diffraction enhanced imaging, non-interferometric imaging, and edge illumination.

  19. Combine TV-L1 model with guided image filtering for wide and faint ring artifacts correction of in-line x-ray phase contrast computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Dongjiang; Qu, Gangrong; Hu, Chunhong; Zhao, Yuqing; Chen, Xiaodong

    2018-01-01

    In practice, mis-calibrated detector pixels give rise to wide and faint ring artifacts in the reconstruction image of the In-line phase-contrast computed tomography (IL-PC-CT). Ring artifacts correction is essential in IL-PC-CT. In this study, a novel method of wide and faint ring artifacts correction was presented based on combining TV-L1 model with guided image filtering (GIF) in the reconstruction image domain. The new correction method includes two main steps namely, the GIF step and the TV-L1 step. To validate the performance of this method, simulation data and real experimental synchrotron data are provided. The results demonstrate that TV-L1 model with GIF step can effectively correct the wide and faint ring artifacts for IL-PC-CT.

  20. Comparison of post contrast CT urography phases in bladder cancer detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helenius, Malin; Dahlman, Par; Lonnemark, Maria; Magnusson, Anders [Uppsala University Hospital, Department of Surgical Sciences, Section of Radiology, Uppsala (Sweden); Brekkan, Einar [Uppsala University Hospital, Department of Surgical Sciences, Section of Urology, Uppsala (Sweden); Wernroth, Lisa [Uppsala University Hospital, Uppsala Clinical Research Center, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2016-02-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate which post-contrast phase(s) in a four-phase CT urography protocol is (are) most suitable for bladder cancer detection. The medical records of 106 patients with visible haematuria who underwent a CT urography examination, including unenhanced, enhancement-triggered corticomedullary (CMP), nephrographic (NP) and excretory (EP) phases, were reviewed. The post-contrast phases (n = 318 different phases) were randomized into an evaluation order and blindly reviewed by two uroradiologists. Twenty-one patients were diagnosed with bladder cancer. Sensitivity for bladder cancer detection was 0.95 in CMP, 0.83 in NP and 0.81 in EP. Negative predictive value (NPV) was 0.99 in CMP, 0.96 in NP and 0.95 in EP. The sensitivity was higher in CMP than in both NP (p-value 0.016) and EP (p-value 0.0003). NPV was higher in CMP than in NP (p-value 0.024) and EP (p-value 0.002). In the CT urography protocol with enhancement-triggered scan, sensitivity and NPV were highest in the corticomedullary phase, and this phase should be used for bladder assessment. (orig.)

  1. Comparison of post contrast CT urography phases in bladder cancer detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helenius, Malin; Dahlman, Par; Lonnemark, Maria; Magnusson, Anders; Brekkan, Einar; Wernroth, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate which post-contrast phase(s) in a four-phase CT urography protocol is (are) most suitable for bladder cancer detection. The medical records of 106 patients with visible haematuria who underwent a CT urography examination, including unenhanced, enhancement-triggered corticomedullary (CMP), nephrographic (NP) and excretory (EP) phases, were reviewed. The post-contrast phases (n = 318 different phases) were randomized into an evaluation order and blindly reviewed by two uroradiologists. Twenty-one patients were diagnosed with bladder cancer. Sensitivity for bladder cancer detection was 0.95 in CMP, 0.83 in NP and 0.81 in EP. Negative predictive value (NPV) was 0.99 in CMP, 0.96 in NP and 0.95 in EP. The sensitivity was higher in CMP than in both NP (p-value 0.016) and EP (p-value 0.0003). NPV was higher in CMP than in NP (p-value 0.024) and EP (p-value 0.002). In the CT urography protocol with enhancement-triggered scan, sensitivity and NPV were highest in the corticomedullary phase, and this phase should be used for bladder assessment. (orig.)

  2. The second-order differential phase contrast and its retrieval for imaging with x-ray Talbot interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Yi; Tang Xiangyang

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The x-ray differential phase contrast imaging implemented with the Talbot interferometry has recently been reported to be capable of providing tomographic images corresponding to attenuation-contrast, phase-contrast, and dark-field contrast, simultaneously, from a single set of projection data. The authors believe that, along with small-angle x-ray scattering, the second-order phase derivative Φ ″ s (x) plays a role in the generation of dark-field contrast. In this paper, the authors derive the analytic formulae to characterize the contribution made by the second-order phase derivative to the dark-field contrast (namely, second-order differential phase contrast) and validate them via computer simulation study. By proposing a practical retrieval method, the authors investigate the potential of second-order differential phase contrast imaging for extensive applications. Methods: The theoretical derivation starts at assuming that the refractive index decrement of an object can be decomposed into δ=δ s +δ f , where δ f corresponds to the object's fine structures and manifests itself in the dark-field contrast via small-angle scattering. Based on the paraxial Fresnel-Kirchhoff theory, the analytic formulae to characterize the contribution made by δ s , which corresponds to the object's smooth structures, to the dark-field contrast are derived. Through computer simulation with specially designed numerical phantoms, an x-ray differential phase contrast imaging system implemented with the Talbot interferometry is utilized to evaluate and validate the derived formulae. The same imaging system is also utilized to evaluate and verify the capability of the proposed method to retrieve the second-order differential phase contrast for imaging, as well as its robustness over the dimension of detector cell and the number of steps in grating shifting. Results: Both analytic formulae and computer simulations show that, in addition to small-angle scattering, the

  3. Clinical implementation of x-ray phase-contrast imaging: Theoretical foundations and design considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Xizeng; Liu Hong

    2003-01-01

    Theoretical foundation and design considerations of a clinical feasible x-ray phase contrast imaging technique were presented in this paper. Different from the analysis of imaging phase object with weak absorption in literature, we proposed a new formalism for in-line phase-contrast imaging to analyze the effects of four clinically important factors on the phase contrast. These are the body parts attenuation, the spatial coherence of spherical waves from a finite-size focal spot, and polychromatic x-ray and radiation doses to patients for clinical applications. The theory presented in this paper can be applied widely in diagnostic x-ray imaging procedures. As an example, computer simulations were conducted and optimal design parameters were derived for clinical mammography. The results of phantom experiments were also presented which validated the theoretical analysis and computer simulations

  4. Grating-based phase contrast tomosynthesis imaging: Proof-of-concept experimental studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Ke; Ge, Yongshuai; Garrett, John; Bevins, Nicholas; Zambelli, Joseph; Chen, Guang-Hong

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This paper concerns the feasibility of x-ray differential phase contrast (DPC) tomosynthesis imaging using a grating-based DPC benchtop experimental system, which is equipped with a commercial digital flat-panel detector and a medical-grade rotating-anode x-ray tube. An extensive system characterization was performed to quantify its imaging performance. Methods: The major components of the benchtop system include a diagnostic x-ray tube with a 1.0 mm nominal focal spot size, a flat-panel detector with 96 μm pixel pitch, a sample stage that rotates within a limited angular span of ±30°, and a Talbot-Lau interferometer with three x-ray gratings. A total of 21 projection views acquired with 3° increments were used to reconstruct three sets of tomosynthetic image volumes, including the conventional absorption contrast tomosynthesis image volume (AC-tomo) reconstructed using the filtered-backprojection (FBP) algorithm with the ramp kernel, the phase contrast tomosynthesis image volume (PC-tomo) reconstructed using FBP with a Hilbert kernel, and the differential phase contrast tomosynthesis image volume (DPC-tomo) reconstructed using the shift-and-add algorithm. Three inhouse physical phantoms containing tissue-surrogate materials were used to characterize the signal linearity, the signal difference-to-noise ratio (SDNR), the three-dimensional noise power spectrum (3D NPS), and the through-plane artifact spread function (ASF). Results: While DPC-tomo highlights edges and interfaces in the image object, PC-tomo removes the differential nature of the DPC projection data and its pixel values are linearly related to the decrement of the real part of the x-ray refractive index. The SDNR values of polyoxymethylene in water and polystyrene in oil are 1.5 and 1.0, respectively, in AC-tomo, and the values were improved to 3.0 and 2.0, respectively, in PC-tomo. PC-tomo and AC-tomo demonstrate equivalent ASF, but their noise characteristics quantified by the 3D NPS

  5. Grating-based phase contrast tomosynthesis imaging: Proof-of-concept experimental studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ke; Ge, Yongshuai; Garrett, John; Bevins, Nicholas; Zambelli, Joseph; Chen, Guang-Hong

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This paper concerns the feasibility of x-ray differential phase contrast (DPC) tomosynthesis imaging using a grating-based DPC benchtop experimental system, which is equipped with a commercial digital flat-panel detector and a medical-grade rotating-anode x-ray tube. An extensive system characterization was performed to quantify its imaging performance. Methods: The major components of the benchtop system include a diagnostic x-ray tube with a 1.0 mm nominal focal spot size, a flat-panel detector with 96 μm pixel pitch, a sample stage that rotates within a limited angular span of ±30°, and a Talbot-Lau interferometer with three x-ray gratings. A total of 21 projection views acquired with 3° increments were used to reconstruct three sets of tomosynthetic image volumes, including the conventional absorption contrast tomosynthesis image volume (AC-tomo) reconstructed using the filtered-backprojection (FBP) algorithm with the ramp kernel, the phase contrast tomosynthesis image volume (PC-tomo) reconstructed using FBP with a Hilbert kernel, and the differential phase contrast tomosynthesis image volume (DPC-tomo) reconstructed using the shift-and-add algorithm. Three inhouse physical phantoms containing tissue-surrogate materials were used to characterize the signal linearity, the signal difference-to-noise ratio (SDNR), the three-dimensional noise power spectrum (3D NPS), and the through-plane artifact spread function (ASF). Results: While DPC-tomo highlights edges and interfaces in the image object, PC-tomo removes the differential nature of the DPC projection data and its pixel values are linearly related to the decrement of the real part of the x-ray refractive index. The SDNR values of polyoxymethylene in water and polystyrene in oil are 1.5 and 1.0, respectively, in AC-tomo, and the values were improved to 3.0 and 2.0, respectively, in PC-tomo. PC-tomo and AC-tomo demonstrate equivalent ASF, but their noise characteristics quantified by the 3D NPS

  6. Segmentation of the Clustered Cells with Optimized Boundary Detection in Negative Phase Contrast Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuliang; Zhang, Zaicheng; Wang, Huimin; Bi, Shusheng

    2015-01-01

    Cell image segmentation plays a central role in numerous biology studies and clinical applications. As a result, the development of cell image segmentation algorithms with high robustness and accuracy is attracting more and more attention. In this study, an automated cell image segmentation algorithm is developed to get improved cell image segmentation with respect to cell boundary detection and segmentation of the clustered cells for all cells in the field of view in negative phase contrast images. A new method which combines the thresholding method and edge based active contour method was proposed to optimize cell boundary detection. In order to segment clustered cells, the geographic peaks of cell light intensity were utilized to detect numbers and locations of the clustered cells. In this paper, the working principles of the algorithms are described. The influence of parameters in cell boundary detection and the selection of the threshold value on the final segmentation results are investigated. At last, the proposed algorithm is applied to the negative phase contrast images from different experiments. The performance of the proposed method is evaluated. Results show that the proposed method can achieve optimized cell boundary detection and highly accurate segmentation for clustered cells.

  7. Non-destructive characterisation of polymers and Al-alloys by polychromatic cone-beam phase contrast tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kastner, Johann; Plank, Bernhard; Requena, Guillermo

    2012-01-01

    X-ray computed tomography (XCT) has become a very important tool for the non-destructive characterisation of materials. Continuous improvements in the quality and performance of X-ray tubes and detectors have led to cone-beam XCT systems that can now achieve spatial resolutions down to 1 μm and even below. Since not only the amplitude but also the phase of an X-ray beam is altered while passing through an object, phase contrast effects can occur even for polychromatic sources when the spatial coherence due to a small focal spot size is high enough. This can lead to significant improvements over conventional attenuation-based X-ray computed tomography. Phase contrast can increase by edge enhancement the visibility of small structures and of features which are only slightly different in attenuation. We report on the possibilities of polychromatic cone-beam phase contrast tomography for non-destructive characterisation of materials. A carbon fibre-reinforced polymer and the Al-alloys AlMg5Si7 and AlSi18 were investigated with high resolution cone-beam X-ray computed tomography with a polychromatic tube source. Under certain conditions strong phase contrast resulting in an upward and downward overshooting of the grey values across edges was observed. The phase effects are much stronger for the polymer than for the Al-alloys. The influence on the phase contrast of the parameters, including source-detector distance, focal spot size and tube acceleration voltage is presented. Maximum phase contrast was observed for a maximum distance between the source and the detector, for a low voltage and a minimum focal spot size at the X-ray source. The detectability of the different phases is improved by the edge enhancement and the resulting improvement of sharpness. Thus, a better segmentation of the carbon fibres in the fibre-reinforced polymer and of the Mg 2 Si-phase in the AlMg5Si7-alloy is achieved. Primary and eutectic Si cannot be detected by attenuation-based X

  8. Holo-GPC: Holographic Generalized Phase Contrast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bañas, Andrew; Glückstad, Jesper

    2017-01-01

    Light shaping methods based on spatial phase-only modulation can be classified depending on whether they distribute multiple beams or shape the individual beams. Diffractive optics or holography can be classified as the former, as it spatially distributes a plurality of focal spots over a working...... of GPC in forming well-defined speckle-free shapes that can be distributed over an extended 3D volume through holographic means. The combined strengths of the two photon-efficient phase-only light shaping modalities open new possibilities for contemporary laser sculpting applications....

  9. Estimation of visibility of phase contrast with extraction voltages for field emission gun electron microscopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng, Xing, E-mail: xmeng101@gmail.com

    2017-02-15

    Estimation was made for visibility of phase contrast with varying extraction voltages. The resulting decay rates of visibility show that images with low image contrast from cryo EM will be seriously impacted with high extraction voltages. - Highlights: • Cryo EM • Phase contrast • Extraction votage.

  10. Low dose reconstruction algorithm for differential phase contrast imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhentian; Huang, Zhifeng; Zhang, Li; Chen, Zhiqiang; Kang, Kejun; Yin, Hongxia; Wang, Zhenchang; Marco, Stampanoni

    2011-01-01

    Differential phase contrast imaging computed tomography (DPCI-CT) is a novel x-ray inspection method to reconstruct the distribution of refraction index rather than the attenuation coefficient in weakly absorbing samples. In this paper, we propose an iterative reconstruction algorithm for DPCI-CT which benefits from the new compressed sensing theory. We first realize a differential algebraic reconstruction technique (DART) by discretizing the projection process of the differential phase contrast imaging into a linear partial derivative matrix. In this way the compressed sensing reconstruction problem of DPCI reconstruction can be transformed to a resolved problem in the transmission imaging CT. Our algorithm has the potential to reconstruct the refraction index distribution of the sample from highly undersampled projection data. Thus it can significantly reduce the dose and inspection time. The proposed algorithm has been validated by numerical simulations and actual experiments.

  11. X-ray imaging with monochromatic synchrotron radiation. Fluorescent and phase-contrast method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda, Tohoru; Itai, Yuji [Tsukuba Univ., Ibaraki (Japan). Inst. of Clinical Medicine

    2002-05-01

    To obtain the high sensitive x-ray images of biomedical object, new x-ray imaging techniques using fluorescent x-ray and phase-contrast x-ray are being developed in Japan. Fluorescent x-ray CT can detect very small amounts of specific elements in the order of ppm at one pixel, whereas phase-contrast x-ray imaging with interferometer can detect minute differences of biological object. Here, our recent experimental results are presented. (author)

  12. Evaluation on correction factor for in-line X-ray phase contrast computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Mingli; Huang, Zhifeng; Zhang, Li; Zhang, Ran [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China). Dept. of Engineering Physics; Ministry of Education, Beijing (China). Key Laboratory of Particle and Radiation Imaging; Yin, Hongxia; Liu, Yunfu; Wang, Zhenchang [Capital Medical Univ., Beijing (China). Medical Imaging Center; Xiao, Tiqiao [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai (China). Shanghai Inst. of Applied Physics

    2011-07-01

    X-ray in-line phase contrast computed tomography (CT) is an effective nondestructive tool, providing 3D distribution of the refractive index of weakly absorbing low-Z object with high resolution and image contrast, especially with high-brilliance third-generation synchrotron radiation sources. Modified Bronnikov's algorithm (MBA), one of the in-line phase contrast CT reconstruction algorithms, can reconstruct the refractive index distribution of a pure phase object with a single computed tomographic data set. The key idea of the MBA is to use a correction factor in the filter function to stabilize the behavior at low frequencies. In this paper, we evaluate the influences of the correction factor to the final reconstruction results of the absorption-phase-mixed objects with analytical simulation and actual experiments. The limitations of the MBA are discussed finally. (orig.)

  13. [Comparison of film-screen combination in a contrast detail diagram and with interactive image analysis. 1: Contrast detail diagram].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagemann, G; Eichbaum, G

    1997-07-01

    The following three film-screen combinations were compared: a) a combination of anticrossover film and UV-light emitting screens, b) a combination of blue-light emitting screens and film, and c) a conventional green fluorescing screen film combination. Radiographs of a specially designed plexiglass phantom (0.2 x 0.2 x 0.12 m3) were obtained that contained bar patterns of lead and plaster (calcium sulfate) to test high and intermediate contrast resolution and bar patterns of air to test low contrast resolution, respectively. An aluminum step wedge was integrated to evaluate dose-density curves of the radiographs. The dose values for the various step thicknesses were measured as percentage of the dose value in air for 60, 81, and 117 kV. Exposure conditions were the following: 12 pulse generator, 0.6 mm focus size, 4.7 mm aluminum prefilter, a grid with 40 lines/cm (12:1), and a focus-detector distance of 1.15 m. The thresholds of visible bars of the various pattern materials were assessed by seven radiologists, one technician, and the authors. The resulting contrast detail diagram could not prove any significant differences between the three tested screen film combinations. The pairwise comparison, however, found 8 of the 18 paired differences to be statistically significant between the conventional and the two new screen-film combinations. The authors concluded that subjective visual assessment of the threshold in a contrast detail study alone is of only limited value to grade image quality if no well-defined criteria are used (BIR report 20 [1989] 137-139). The statistical approach of paired differences of the estimated means appeared to be more appropriate.

  14. Quantitative evaluation of a single-distance phase-retrieval method applied on in-line phase-contrast images of a mouse lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammadi, Sara; Larsson, Emanuel; Alves, Frauke; Dal Monego, Simeone; Biffi, Stefania; Garrovo, Chiara; Lorenzon, Andrea; Tromba, Giuliana; Dullin, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative analysis concerning the application of a single-distance phase-retrieval algorithm on in-line phase-contrast images of a mouse lung at different sample-to-detector distances is presented. Propagation-based X-ray phase-contrast computed tomography (PBI) has already proven its potential in a great variety of soft-tissue-related applications including lung imaging. However, the strong edge enhancement, caused by the phase effects, often hampers image segmentation and therefore the quantitative analysis of data sets. Here, the benefits of applying single-distance phase retrieval prior to the three-dimensional reconstruction (PhR) are discussed and quantified compared with three-dimensional reconstructions of conventional PBI data sets in terms of contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and preservation of image features. The PhR data sets show more than a tenfold higher CNR and only minor blurring of the edges when compared with PBI in a predominately absorption-based set-up. Accordingly, phase retrieval increases the sensitivity and provides more functionality in computed tomography imaging

  15. Trial on MR portal blood flow measurement with phase contrast technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsunoda, Masatoshi; Kimoto, Shin; Togami, Izumi

    1991-01-01

    Portal blood flow measurement is considered to be important for the analysis of hemodynamics in various liver diseases. The Doppler ultrasound method has been used extensively during the past several years for measuring portal blood flow, as a non-invasive method. However, the Doppler ultrasound technique do not allow the portal blood flow to be measured in cases of obesity, with much intestinal gas, and so on. In this study, we attempted to measure the blood flow in the main trunk of portal vein as an application of MR phase contrast technique to the abdominal region. In the flow phantom study, the flow volumes and the velocities measured by phase contrast technique showed a close correlation with those measured by electromagnetic flowmeter. In the clinical study with 10 healthy volunteers, various values of portal blood flow were obtained. Mean portal blood flow could be measured within the measuring time (about 8 minutes) under natural breathing conditions. Phase contrast technique is considered to be useful for the non-invasive measurement of portal blood flow. (author)

  16. Optimization of X-ray phase-contrast imaging based on in-line holography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Xizeng; Liu Hong; Yan Aimin

    2005-01-01

    This paper introduces a newly conceived formalism for clinical in-line phase-contrast X-ray imaging. The new formalism applies not only to ideal 'thin' objects analyzed in previous studies, but also applies to the real-world tissues used in actual clinical practice. Moreover we have identified the four clinically important factors that affect phase-contrast characteristics. These factors are: (1) body part attenuation (2) the spatial coherence of incident X-rays from an X-ray tube (3) the polychromatic nature of the X-ray source and (4) radiation dose to patients for clinical applications. Techniques of phase image-reconstruction based on the new X-ray in-line holography theory are discussed. Numerical simulations are described which were used to validate the theory. The design parameters of an optimal clinical phase-contrast mammographic imaging system which were determined based on the new theory, and validated in the simulations, are presented. The theory, image reconstruction algorithms, and numerical simulation techniques presented in this paper can be applied widely to clinical diagnostic X-ray imaging applications

  17. High-throughput, high-resolution X-ray phase contrast tomographic microscopy for visualisation of soft tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, S A; Marone, F; Hintermueller, C; Stampanoni, M [Swiss Light Source, Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Bensadoun, J-C; Aebischer, P, E-mail: samuel.mcdonald@psi.c [EPFL, School of Life Sciences, Station 15, 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2009-09-01

    The use of conventional absorption based X-ray microtomography can become limited for samples showing only very weak absorption contrast. However, a wide range of samples studied in biology and materials science can produce significant phase shifts of the X-ray beam, and thus the use of the phase signal can provide substantially increased contrast and therefore new and otherwise inaccessible information. The application of two approaches for high-throughput, high-resolution X-ray phase contrast tomography, both available on the TOMCAT beamline of the SLS, is illustrated. Differential Phase Contrast (DPC) imaging uses a grating interferometer and a phase-stepping technique. It has been integrated into the beamline environment on TOMCAT in terms of the fast acquisition and reconstruction of data and the availability to scan samples within an aqueous environment. The second phase contrast approach is a modified transfer of intensity approach that can yield the 3D distribution of the phase (refractive index) of a weakly absorbing object from a single tomographic dataset. These methods are being used for the evaluation of cell integrity in 3D, with the specific aim of following and analyzing progressive cell degeneration to increase knowledge of the mechanistic events of neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson's disease.

  18. Ideal-observer detectability in photon-counting differential phase-contrast imaging using a linear-systems approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fredenberg, Erik; Danielsson, Mats; Stayman, J. Webster; Siewerdsen, Jeffrey H.; Aslund, Magnus [Research and Development, Philips Women' s Healthcare, Smidesvaegen 5, SE-171 41 Solna, Sweden and Department of Physics, Royal Institute of Technology, AlbaNova, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Department of Physics, Royal Institute of Technology, AlbaNova, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Department of Biomedical Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21205 (United States); Department of Biomedical Engineering and Department of Radiology, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21205 (United States); Research and Development, Philips Women' s Healthcare, Smidesvaegen 5, SE-171 41 Solna (Sweden)

    2012-09-15

    Purpose: To provide a cascaded-systems framework based on the noise-power spectrum (NPS), modulation transfer function (MTF), and noise-equivalent number of quanta (NEQ) for quantitative evaluation of differential phase-contrast imaging (Talbot interferometry) in relation to conventional absorption contrast under equal-dose, equal-geometry, and, to some extent, equal-photon-economy constraints. The focus is a geometry for photon-counting mammography. Methods: Phase-contrast imaging is a promising technology that may emerge as an alternative or adjunct to conventional absorption contrast. In particular, phase contrast may increase the signal-difference-to-noise ratio compared to absorption contrast because the difference in phase shift between soft-tissue structures is often substantially larger than the absorption difference. We have developed a comprehensive cascaded-systems framework to investigate Talbot interferometry, which is a technique for differential phase-contrast imaging. Analytical expressions for the MTF and NPS were derived to calculate the NEQ and a task-specific ideal-observer detectability index under assumptions of linearity and shift invariance. Talbot interferometry was compared to absorption contrast at equal dose, and using either a plane wave or a spherical wave in a conceivable mammography geometry. The impact of source size and spectrum bandwidth was included in the framework, and the trade-off with photon economy was investigated in some detail. Wave-propagation simulations were used to verify the analytical expressions and to generate example images. Results: Talbot interferometry inherently detects the differential of the phase, which led to a maximum in NEQ at high spatial frequencies, whereas the absorption-contrast NEQ decreased monotonically with frequency. Further, phase contrast detects differences in density rather than atomic number, and the optimal imaging energy was found to be a factor of 1.7 higher than for absorption

  19. Ideal-observer detectability in photon-counting differential phase-contrast imaging using a linear-systems approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fredenberg, Erik; Danielsson, Mats; Stayman, J. Webster; Siewerdsen, Jeffrey H.; Åslund, Magnus

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To provide a cascaded-systems framework based on the noise-power spectrum (NPS), modulation transfer function (MTF), and noise-equivalent number of quanta (NEQ) for quantitative evaluation of differential phase-contrast imaging (Talbot interferometry) in relation to conventional absorption contrast under equal-dose, equal-geometry, and, to some extent, equal-photon-economy constraints. The focus is a geometry for photon-counting mammography. Methods: Phase-contrast imaging is a promising technology that may emerge as an alternative or adjunct to conventional absorption contrast. In particular, phase contrast may increase the signal-difference-to-noise ratio compared to absorption contrast because the difference in phase shift between soft-tissue structures is often substantially larger than the absorption difference. We have developed a comprehensive cascaded-systems framework to investigate Talbot interferometry, which is a technique for differential phase-contrast imaging. Analytical expressions for the MTF and NPS were derived to calculate the NEQ and a task-specific ideal-observer detectability index under assumptions of linearity and shift invariance. Talbot interferometry was compared to absorption contrast at equal dose, and using either a plane wave or a spherical wave in a conceivable mammography geometry. The impact of source size and spectrum bandwidth was included in the framework, and the trade-off with photon economy was investigated in some detail. Wave-propagation simulations were used to verify the analytical expressions and to generate example images. Results: Talbot interferometry inherently detects the differential of the phase, which led to a maximum in NEQ at high spatial frequencies, whereas the absorption-contrast NEQ decreased monotonically with frequency. Further, phase contrast detects differences in density rather than atomic number, and the optimal imaging energy was found to be a factor of 1.7 higher than for absorption

  20. Binocular contrast-gain control for natural scenes: Image structure and phase alignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Pi-Chun; Dai, Yu-Ming

    2018-05-01

    In the context of natural scenes, we applied the pattern-masking paradigm to investigate how image structure and phase alignment affect contrast-gain control in binocular vision. We measured the discrimination thresholds of bandpass-filtered natural-scene images (targets) under various types of pedestals. Our first experiment had four pedestal types: bandpass-filtered pedestals, unfiltered pedestals, notch-filtered pedestals (which enabled removal of the spatial frequency), and misaligned pedestals (which involved rotation of unfiltered pedestals). Our second experiment featured six types of pedestals: bandpass-filtered, unfiltered, and notch-filtered pedestals, and the corresponding phase-scrambled pedestals. The thresholds were compared for monocular, binocular, and dichoptic viewing configurations. The bandpass-filtered pedestal and unfiltered pedestals showed classic dipper shapes; the dipper shapes of the notch-filtered, misaligned, and phase-scrambled pedestals were weak. We adopted a two-stage binocular contrast-gain control model to describe our results. We deduced that the phase-alignment information influenced the contrast-gain control mechanism before the binocular summation stage and that the phase-alignment information and structural misalignment information caused relatively strong divisive inhibition in the monocular and interocular suppression stages. When the pedestals were phase-scrambled, the elimination of the interocular suppression processing was the most convincing explanation of the results. Thus, our results indicated that both phase-alignment information and similar image structures cause strong interocular suppression. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Using machine-learning to optimize phase contrast in a low-cost cellphone microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wartmann, Rolf; Schadwinkel, Harald; Heintzmann, Rainer

    2018-01-01

    Cellphones equipped with high-quality cameras and powerful CPUs as well as GPUs are widespread. This opens new prospects to use such existing computational and imaging resources to perform medical diagnosis in developing countries at a very low cost. Many relevant samples, like biological cells or waterborn parasites, are almost fully transparent. As they do not exhibit absorption, but alter the light’s phase only, they are almost invisible in brightfield microscopy. Expensive equipment and procedures for microscopic contrasting or sample staining often are not available. Dedicated illumination approaches, tailored to the sample under investigation help to boost the contrast. This is achieved by a programmable illumination source, which also allows to measure the phase gradient using the differential phase contrast (DPC) [1, 2] or even the quantitative phase using the derived qDPC approach [3]. By applying machine-learning techniques, such as a convolutional neural network (CNN), it is possible to learn a relationship between samples to be examined and its optimal light source shapes, in order to increase e.g. phase contrast, from a given dataset to enable real-time applications. For the experimental setup, we developed a 3D-printed smartphone microscope for less than 100 $ using off-the-shelf components only such as a low-cost video projector. The fully automated system assures true Koehler illumination with an LCD as the condenser aperture and a reversed smartphone lens as the microscope objective. We show that the effect of a varied light source shape, using the pre-trained CNN, does not only improve the phase contrast, but also the impression of an improvement in optical resolution without adding any special optics, as demonstrated by measurements. PMID:29494620

  2. Segmentation of the Clustered Cells with Optimized Boundary Detection in Negative Phase Contrast Images.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuliang Wang

    Full Text Available Cell image segmentation plays a central role in numerous biology studies and clinical applications. As a result, the development of cell image segmentation algorithms with high robustness and accuracy is attracting more and more attention. In this study, an automated cell image segmentation algorithm is developed to get improved cell image segmentation with respect to cell boundary detection and segmentation of the clustered cells for all cells in the field of view in negative phase contrast images. A new method which combines the thresholding method and edge based active contour method was proposed to optimize cell boundary detection. In order to segment clustered cells, the geographic peaks of cell light intensity were utilized to detect numbers and locations of the clustered cells. In this paper, the working principles of the algorithms are described. The influence of parameters in cell boundary detection and the selection of the threshold value on the final segmentation results are investigated. At last, the proposed algorithm is applied to the negative phase contrast images from different experiments. The performance of the proposed method is evaluated. Results show that the proposed method can achieve optimized cell boundary detection and highly accurate segmentation for clustered cells.

  3. Optimization of in-line phase contrast particle image velocimetry using a laboratory x-ray source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng, I.; Fouras, A.; Paganin, D. M.

    2012-01-01

    Phase contrast particle image velocimetry (PIV) using a laboratory x-ray microfocus source is investigated using a numerical model. Phase contrast images of 75 μm air bubbles, embedded within water exhibiting steady-state vortical flow, are generated under the paraxial approximation using a tungsten x-ray spectrum at 30 kVp. Propagation-based x-ray phase-contrast speckle images at a range of source-object and object-detector distances are generated, and used as input into a simulated PIV measurement. The effects of source-size-induced penumbral blurring, together with the finite dynamic range of the detector, are accounted for in the simulation. The PIV measurement procedure involves using the cross-correlation between temporally sequential speckle images to estimate the transverse displacement field for the fluid. The global error in the PIV reconstruction, for the set of simulations that was performed, suggests that geometric magnification is the key parameter for designing a laboratory-based x-ray phase-contrast PIV system. For the modeled system, x-ray phase-contrast PIV data measurement can be optimized to obtain low error ( 15 μm) of the detector, high geometric magnification (>2.5) is desired, while for large source size system (FWHM > 30 μm), low magnification (<1.5) would be suggested instead. The methods developed in this paper can be applied to optimizing phase-contrast velocimetry using a variety of laboratory x-ray sources.

  4. Variation in supratentorial cerebrospinal fluid production rate in one day. Measurement by nontriggered phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Hiroto; Tanaka, Hisashi; Fujita, Norihiko; Murase, Kenya; Tomiyama, Noriyuki

    2011-01-01

    Measuring the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) production rate is important for understanding the physiology related to normal conditions and neurological disorders. Triggered phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been used to measure CSF production rate, but the use of nontriggered phase-contrast MRI has not been reported. The purposes of this study were to assess the feasibility of using nontriggered phase-contrast MRI to measure CSF flow and to determine whether CSF production exhibits circadian rhythm. The feasibility of phase-contrast MRI was assessed with a phantom simulated human cerebral aqueduct. CSF flow through the cerebral aqueduct was measured with nontriggered phase-contrast MRI four times during 1 day in 10 normal volunteers. In the phantom study, linear regression analysis gave the following measured values (ml/h): 0.80 x (value of steady flow)-10.0 for triggered phase-contrast MRI and 1.27 x (value of steady flow)-12.2 for nontriggered phase-contrast MRI. One-factor analysis of variance showed no significant effect of the time of the measurements (P=0.47). The supratentorial CSF production rate was 510±549 ml/day (mean ± SD). Nontriggered phase-contrast MRI provided good estimates of the flow rate in the phantom study. We observed no circadian rhythm in CSF production. (author)

  5. A method to extract quantitative information in analyzer-based x-ray phase contrast imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pagot, E.; Cloetens, P.; Fiedler, S.; Bravin, A.; Coan, P.; Baruchel, J.; Haertwig, J.; Thomlinson, W.

    2003-01-01

    Analyzer-based imaging is a powerful phase-sensitive technique that generates improved contrast compared to standard absorption radiography. Combining numerically two images taken on either side at ±1/2 of the full width at half-maximum (FWHM) of the rocking curve provides images of 'pure refraction' and of 'apparent absorption'. In this study, a similar approach is made by combining symmetrical images with respect to the peak of the analyzer rocking curve but at general positions, ±α·FWHM. These two approaches do not consider the ultrasmall angle scattering produced by the object independently, which can lead to inconsistent results. An accurate way to separately retrieve the quantitative information intrinsic to the object is proposed. It is based on a statistical analysis of the local rocking curve, and allows one to overcome the problems encountered using the previous approaches

  6. Differential X-ray phase-contrast imaging with a grating interferometer using a laboratory X-ray micro-focus tube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Kwon-Ha; Ryu, Jong-Hyun; Jung, Chang-Won [Wonkwang University School of Medicine, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, Cheol-Woo; Kim, Young-Jo; Kwon, Young-Man [Jeonbuk Technopark, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Park, Mi-Ran; Cho, Seung-Ryong [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Chon, Kwon-Su [Catholic University of Daegu, Gyeongsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    X-ray phase-contrast imaging can provide images with much greater soft-tissue contrast than conventional absorption-based images. In this paper, we describe differential X-ray phase-contrast images of insect specimens that were obtained using a grating-based Talbot interferometer and a laboratory X-ray source with a spot size of a few tens of micrometers. We developed the interferometer on the basis of the wavelength, periods, and height of the gratings; the field of view depends on the size of the grating, considering the refractive index of the specimen. The phase-contrast images were acquired using phase-stepping methods. The phase contrast imaging provided a significantly enhanced soft-tissue contrast compared with the attenuation data. The contour of the sample was clearly visible because the refraction from the edges of the object was strong in the differential phase-contrast image. Our results demonstrate that a grating-based Talbot interferometer with a conventional X-ray tube may be attractive as an X-ray imaging system for generating phase images. X-ray phase imaging obviously has sufficient potential and is expected to soon be a great tool for medical diagnostics.

  7. Differential X-ray phase-contrast imaging with a grating interferometer using a laboratory X-ray micro-focus tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Kwon-Ha; Ryu, Jong-Hyun; Jung, Chang-Won; Ryu, Cheol-Woo; Kim, Young-Jo; Kwon, Young-Man; Park, Mi-Ran; Cho, Seung-Ryong; Chon, Kwon-Su

    2014-01-01

    X-ray phase-contrast imaging can provide images with much greater soft-tissue contrast than conventional absorption-based images. In this paper, we describe differential X-ray phase-contrast images of insect specimens that were obtained using a grating-based Talbot interferometer and a laboratory X-ray source with a spot size of a few tens of micrometers. We developed the interferometer on the basis of the wavelength, periods, and height of the gratings; the field of view depends on the size of the grating, considering the refractive index of the specimen. The phase-contrast images were acquired using phase-stepping methods. The phase contrast imaging provided a significantly enhanced soft-tissue contrast compared with the attenuation data. The contour of the sample was clearly visible because the refraction from the edges of the object was strong in the differential phase-contrast image. Our results demonstrate that a grating-based Talbot interferometer with a conventional X-ray tube may be attractive as an X-ray imaging system for generating phase images. X-ray phase imaging obviously has sufficient potential and is expected to soon be a great tool for medical diagnostics

  8. Imaging of metastatic lymph nodes by X-ray phase-contrast micro-tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Torben Haugaard; Bech, Martin; Binderup, Tina

    2013-01-01

    -contrast tomography. Ten lymph nodes had metastatic deposits and 7 were benign. The phase-contrast images were analyzed according to standards for conventional CT images looking for characteristics usually only visible by pathological examinations. Histopathology was used as reference. The result of this study...

  9. A new method for information retrieval in two-dimensional grating-based X-ray phase contrast imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhi-Li; Gao Kun; Chen Jian; Ge Xin; Tian Yang-Chao; Wu Zi-Yu; Zhu Pei-Ping

    2012-01-01

    Grating-based X-ray phase contrast imaging has been demonstrated to be an extremely powerful phase-sensitive imaging technique. By using two-dimensional (2D) gratings, the observable contrast is extended to two refraction directions. Recently, we have developed a novel reverse-projection (RP) method, which is capable of retrieving the object information efficiently with one-dimensional (1D) grating-based phase contrast imaging. In this contribution, we present its extension to the 2D grating-based X-ray phase contrast imaging, named the two-dimensional reverse-projection (2D-RP) method, for information retrieval. The method takes into account the nonlinear contributions of two refraction directions and allows the retrieval of the absorption, the horizontal and the vertical refraction images. The obtained information can be used for the reconstruction of the three-dimensional phase gradient field, and for an improved phase map retrieval and reconstruction. Numerical experiments are carried out, and the results confirm the validity of the 2D-RP method

  10. X-ray elastography: Modification of x-ray phase contrast images using ultrasonic radiation pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, Theron J.; Bailat, Claude; Rose-Petruck, Christoph; Diebold, Gerald J.; Gehring, Stephan; Laperle, Christopher M.; Wands, Jack

    2009-01-01

    The high resolution characteristic of in-line x-ray phase contrast imaging can be used in conjunction with directed ultrasound to detect small displacements in soft tissue generated by differential acoustic radiation pressure. The imaging method is based on subtraction of two x-ray images, the first image taken with, and the second taken without the presence of ultrasound. The subtraction enhances phase contrast features and, to a large extent, removes absorption contrast so that differential movement of tissues with different acoustic impedances or relative ultrasonic absorption is highlighted in the image. Interfacial features of objects with differing densities are delineated in the image as a result of both the displacement introduced by the ultrasound and the inherent sensitivity of x-ray phase contrast imaging to density variations. Experiments with ex vivo murine tumors and human tumor phantoms point out a diagnostic capability of the method for identifying tumors.

  11. Single-image phase retrieval using an edge illumination X-ray phase-contrast imaging setup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diemoz, Paul C., E-mail: p.diemoz@ucl.ac.uk; Vittoria, Fabio A. [University College London, London WC1 E6BT (United Kingdom); Research Complex at Harwell, Oxford Harwell Campus, Didcot OX11 0FA (United Kingdom); Hagen, Charlotte K.; Endrizzi, Marco [University College London, London WC1 E6BT (United Kingdom); Coan, Paola [Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Munich 81377 (Germany); Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Garching 85748 (Germany); Brun, Emmanuel [Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Garching 85748 (Germany); European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Grenoble 38043 (France); Wagner, Ulrich H.; Rau, Christoph [Diamond Light Source, Harwell Oxford Campus, Didcot OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Robinson, Ian K. [Research Complex at Harwell, Oxford Harwell Campus, Didcot OX11 0FA (United Kingdom); London Centre for Nanotechnology, London WC1 H0AH (United Kingdom); Bravin, Alberto [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Grenoble 38043 (France); Olivo, Alessandro [University College London, London WC1 E6BT (United Kingdom); Research Complex at Harwell, Oxford Harwell Campus, Didcot OX11 0FA (United Kingdom)

    2015-06-25

    A method enabling the retrieval of thickness or projected electron density of a sample from a single input image is derived theoretically and successfully demonstrated on experimental data. A method is proposed which enables the retrieval of the thickness or of the projected electron density of a sample from a single input image acquired with an edge illumination phase-contrast imaging setup. The method assumes the case of a quasi-homogeneous sample, i.e. a sample with a constant ratio between the real and imaginary parts of its complex refractive index. Compared with current methods based on combining two edge illumination images acquired in different configurations of the setup, this new approach presents advantages in terms of simplicity of acquisition procedure and shorter data collection time, which are very important especially for applications such as computed tomography and dynamical imaging. Furthermore, the fact that phase information is directly extracted, instead of its derivative, can enable a simpler image interpretation and be beneficial for subsequent processing such as segmentation. The method is first theoretically derived and its conditions of applicability defined. Quantitative accuracy in the case of homogeneous objects as well as enhanced image quality for the imaging of complex biological samples are demonstrated through experiments at two synchrotron radiation facilities. The large range of applicability, the robustness against noise and the need for only one input image suggest a high potential for investigations in various research subjects.

  12. Binocular Combination of Second-Order Stimuli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jiawei; Liu, Rong; Zhou, Yifeng; Hess, Robert F.

    2014-01-01

    Phase information is a fundamental aspect of visual stimuli. However, the nature of the binocular combination of stimuli defined by modulations in contrast, so-called second-order stimuli, is presently not clear. To address this issue, we measured binocular combination for first- (luminance modulated) and second-order (contrast modulated) stimuli using a binocular phase combination paradigm in seven normal adults. We found that the binocular perceived phase of second-order gratings depends on the interocular signal ratio as has been previously shown for their first order counterparts; the interocular signal ratios when the two eyes were balanced was close to 1 in both first- and second-order phase combinations. However, second-order combination is more linear than previously found for first-order combination. Furthermore, binocular combination of second-order stimuli was similar regardless of whether the carriers in the two eyes were correlated, anti-correlated, or uncorrelated. This suggests that, in normal adults, the binocular phase combination of second-order stimuli occurs after the monocular extracting of the second-order modulations. The sensory balance associated with this second-order combination can be obtained from binocular phase combination measurements. PMID:24404180

  13. Analytical evaluation of the signal and noise propagation in x-ray differential phase-contrast computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raupach, Rainer; Flohr, Thomas G

    2011-01-01

    We analyze the signal and noise propagation of differential phase-contrast computed tomography (PCT) compared with conventional attenuation-based computed tomography (CT) from a theoretical point of view. This work focuses on grating-based differential phase-contrast imaging. A mathematical framework is derived that is able to analytically predict the relative performance of both imaging techniques in the sense of the relative contrast-to-noise ratio for the contrast of any two materials. Two fundamentally different properties of PCT compared with CT are identified. First, the noise power spectra show qualitatively different characteristics implying a resolution-dependent performance ratio. The break-even point is derived analytically as a function of system parameters such as geometry and visibility. A superior performance of PCT compared with CT can only be achieved at a sufficiently high spatial resolution. Second, due to periodicity of phase information which is non-ambiguous only in a bounded interval statistical phase wrapping can occur. This effect causes a collapse of information propagation for low signals which limits the applicability of phase-contrast imaging at low dose.

  14. Phase-contrast imaging and tomography at 60 keV using a conventional x-ray tube source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donath, Tilman; Bunk, Oliver; Groot, Waldemar; Bednarzik, Martin; Gruenzweig, Christian; David, Christian; Pfeiffer, Franz; Hempel, Eckhard; Popescu, Stefan; Hoheisel, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Phase-contrast imaging at laboratory-based x-ray sources using grating interferometers has been developed over the last few years for x-ray energies of up to 28 keV. Here, we show first phase-contrast projection and tomographic images recorded at significantly higher x-ray energies, produced by an x-ray tube source operated at 100 kV acceleration voltage. We find our measured tomographic phase images in good agreement with tabulated data. The extension of phase-contrast imaging to this significantly higher x-ray energy opens up many applications of the technique in medicine and industrial nondestructive testing.

  15. Application of Fourier-wavelet regularized deconvolution for improving image quality of free space propagation x-ray phase contrast imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhongxing; Gao, Feng; Zhao, Huijuan; Zhang, Lixin

    2012-11-21

    New x-ray phase contrast imaging techniques without using synchrotron radiation confront a common problem from the negative effects of finite source size and limited spatial resolution. These negative effects swamp the fine phase contrast fringes and make them almost undetectable. In order to alleviate this problem, deconvolution procedures should be applied to the blurred x-ray phase contrast images. In this study, three different deconvolution techniques, including Wiener filtering, Tikhonov regularization and Fourier-wavelet regularized deconvolution (ForWaRD), were applied to the simulated and experimental free space propagation x-ray phase contrast images of simple geometric phantoms. These algorithms were evaluated in terms of phase contrast improvement and signal-to-noise ratio. The results demonstrate that the ForWaRD algorithm is most appropriate for phase contrast image restoration among above-mentioned methods; it can effectively restore the lost information of phase contrast fringes while reduce the amplified noise during Fourier regularization.

  16. Holography microscopy as an artifact-free alternative to phase-contrast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastorek, Lukáš; Venit, Tomáš; Hozák, Pavel

    2018-02-01

    Artifact-free microscopic images represent a key requirement of multi-parametric image analysis in modern biomedical research. Holography microscopy (HM) is one of the quantitative phase imaging techniques, which has been finding new applications in life science, especially in morphological screening, cell migration, and cancer research. Rather than the classical imaging of absorbing (typically stained) specimens by bright-field microscopy, the information about the light-wave's phase shifts induced by the biological sample is employed for final image reconstruction. In this comparative study, we investigated the usability and the reported advantage of the holography imaging. The claimed halo-free imaging was analyzed compared to the widely used Zernike phase-contrast microscopy. The intensity and phase cross-membrane profiles at the periphery of the cell were quantified. The intensity profile for cells in the phase-contrast images suffers from the significant increase in intensity values around the cell border. On the contrary, no distorted profile is present outside the cell membrane in holography images. The gradual increase in phase shift values is present in the internal part of the cell body projection in holography image. This increase may be related to the increase in the cell internal material according to the dry mass theory. Our experimental data proved the halo-free nature of the holography imaging, which is an important prerequisite of the correct thresholding and cell segmentation, nowadays frequently required in high-content screening and other image-based analysis. Consequently, HM is a method of choice whenever the image analysis relies on the accurate data on cell boundaries.

  17. Design of a compact high-energy setup for x-ray phase-contrast imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüttler, Markus; Yaroshenko, Andre; Bech, Martin; Potdevin, Guillaume; Malecki, Andreas; Chabior, Michael; Wolf, Johannes; Tapfer, Arne; Meiser, Jan; Kunka, Danays; Amberger, Maximilian; Mohr, Jürgen; Pfeiffer, Franz

    2014-03-01

    The main shortcoming of conventional biomedical x-ray imaging is the weak soft-tissue contrast caused by the small differences in the absorption coefficients between different materials. This issue can be addressed by x-ray phasesensitive imaging approaches, e.g. x-ray Talbot-Lau grating interferometry. The advantage of the three-grating Talbot-Lau approach is that it allows to acquire x-ray phase-contrast and dark-field images with a conventional lab source. However, through the introduction of the grating interferometer some constraints are imposed on the setup geometry. In general, the grating pitch and the mean x-ray energy determine the setup dimensions. The minimal length of the setup increases linearly with energy and is proportional to p2, where p is the grating pitch. Thus, a high-energy (100 keV) compact grating-based setup for x-ray imaging can be realized only if gratings with aspect-ratio of approximately 300 and a pitch of 1-2 μm were available. However, production challenges limit the availability of such gratings. In this study we consider the use of non-binary phase-gratings as means of designing a more compact grating interferometer for phase-contrast imaging. We present simulation and experimental data for both monochromatic and polychromatic case. The results reveal that phase-gratings with triangular-shaped structures yield visibilities that can be used for imaging purposes at significantly shorter distances than binary gratings. This opens the possibility to design a high-energy compact setup for x-ray phase-contrast imaging. Furthermore, we discuss different techniques to achieve triangular-shaped phase-shifting structures.

  18. A user-friendly LabVIEW software platform for grating based X-ray phase-contrast imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shenghao; Han, Huajie; Gao, Kun; Wang, Zhili; Zhang, Can; Yang, Meng; Wu, Zhao; Wu, Ziyu

    2015-01-01

    X-ray phase-contrast imaging can provide greatly improved contrast over conventional absorption-based imaging for weakly absorbing samples, such as biological soft tissues and fibre composites. In this study, we introduced an easy and fast way to develop a user-friendly software platform dedicated to the new grating-based X-ray phase-contrast imaging setup at the National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory of the University of Science and Technology of China. The control of 21 motorized stages, of a piezoelectric stage and of an X-ray tube are achieved with this software, it also covers image acquisition with a flat panel detector for automatic phase stepping scan. Moreover, a data post-processing module for signals retrieval and other custom features are in principle available. With a seamless integration of all the necessary functions in one software package, this platform greatly facilitate users' activities during experimental runs with this grating based X-ray phase contrast imaging setup.

  19. Non-contrast-enhanced 3D volumetric time-resolved MRA combining PCASL for intracranial vessels. President award proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Masanobu; Yoneyama, Masami; Tabuchi, Takashi; Tatsuno, Satoshi; Takemura, Atsushi; Obara, Makoto; Takahara, Taro

    2013-01-01

    Hemodynamic information is required for accurate diagnosis, effective treatment, and follow-up examination of numerous cerebrovascular diseases. A recently introduced technique for non-contrast 3-dimensional (3D) volumetric time-resolved magnetic resonance angiography (MRA)-contrast inherent inflow enhanced multi phase angiography (CINEMA)-provides useful qualitative information on the morphologic and dynamic filling of intracranial vessels and requires no catheter insertion or contrast agent. We propose combining CINEMA with pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling (PCASL). We present a preliminary study of non-contrast time-resolved MRA with time-of-arrival map and discuss its clinical relevance. Studies in all volunteers and patients clearly depicted major intracranial vessels. In patients, CINEMA-PCASL demonstrated the nidus, feeding arteries, and right posterior cerebral artery, and subsequent draining into the superficial venous system was clearly observed with a temporal resolution of 200 ms. Time-of-arrival maps presented the different filling time of every segment vessel in a single colorful image. The expected pattern of delayed transit to more distal vessels is apparent as well as the earlier arrival in central portions of larger vessels. This preliminary study demonstrated the usefulness of the CINEMA-PCASL technique in evaluating the cerebral vasculature. Simultaneous acquisition of high quality temporal and spatial resolutions obviated the need for contrast agent. (author)

  20. Non-contrast-enhanced 3D volumetric time-resolved MRA combining PCASL for intracranial vessels. President award proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Masanobu; Yoneyama, Masami; Tabuchi, Takashi; Tatsuno, Satoshi [Yaesu Clinic, Tokyo (Japan); Takemura, Atsushi; Obara, Makoto [Philips Electronics Japan, Tokyo (Japan); Takahara, Taro [Tokai Univ., Hiratsuka, Kanagawa (Japan)

    2013-02-15

    Hemodynamic information is required for accurate diagnosis, effective treatment, and follow-up examination of numerous cerebrovascular diseases. A recently introduced technique for non-contrast 3-dimensional (3D) volumetric time-resolved magnetic resonance angiography (MRA)-contrast inherent inflow enhanced multi phase angiography (CINEMA)-provides useful qualitative information on the morphologic and dynamic filling of intracranial vessels and requires no catheter insertion or contrast agent. We propose combining CINEMA with pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling (PCASL). We present a preliminary study of non-contrast time-resolved MRA with time-of-arrival map and discuss its clinical relevance. Studies in all volunteers and patients clearly depicted major intracranial vessels. In patients, CINEMA-PCASL demonstrated the nidus, feeding arteries, and right posterior cerebral artery, and subsequent draining into the superficial venous system was clearly observed with a temporal resolution of 200 ms. Time-of-arrival maps presented the different filling time of every segment vessel in a single colorful image. The expected pattern of delayed transit to more distal vessels is apparent as well as the earlier arrival in central portions of larger vessels. This preliminary study demonstrated the usefulness of the CINEMA-PCASL technique in evaluating the cerebral vasculature. Simultaneous acquisition of high quality temporal and spatial resolutions obviated the need for contrast agent. (author)

  1. In Vitro Validation of an Artefact Suppression Algorithm in X-Ray Phase-Contrast Computed Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunaguchi, Naoki; Yuasa, Tetsuya; Hirano, Shin-Ichi; Gupta, Rajiv; Ando, Masami

    2015-01-01

    X-ray phase-contrast tomography can significantly increase the contrast-resolution of conventional attenuation-contrast imaging, especially for soft-tissue structures that have very similar attenuation. Just as in attenuation-based tomography, phase contrast tomography requires a linear dependence of aggregate beam direction on the incremental direction alteration caused by individual voxels along the path of the X-ray beam. Dense objects such as calcifications in biological specimens violate this condition. There are extensive beam deflection artefacts in the vicinity of such structures because they result in large distortion of wave front due to the large difference of refractive index; for such large changes in beam direction, the transmittance of the silicon analyzer crystal saturates and is no longer linearly dependent on the angle of refraction. This paper describes a method by which these effects can be overcome and excellent soft-tissue contrast of phase tomography can be preserved in the vicinity of such artefact-producing structures.

  2. Advantages of intermediate X-ray energies in Zernike phase contrast X-ray microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhili; Gao, Kun; Chen, Jian; Hong, Youli; Ge, Xin; Wang, Dajiang; Pan, Zhiyun; Zhu, Peiping; Yun, Wenbing; Jacobsen, Chris; Wu, Ziyu

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the hierarchical organizations of molecules and organelles within the interior of large eukaryotic cells is a challenge of fundamental interest in cell biology. Light microscopy is a powerful tool for observations of the dynamics of live cells, its resolution attainable is limited and insufficient. While electron microscopy can produce images with astonishing resolution and clarity of ultra-thin (3D images of cryo-preserved cells. The relatively low X-ray energy (3D imaging (e.g., ~1 μm DoF for 20 nm resolution). An X-ray microscope operating at intermediate energy around 2.5 keV using Zernike phase contrast can overcome the above limitations and reduces radiation dose to the specimen. Using a hydrated model cell with an average chemical composition reported in literature, we calculated the image contrast and the radiation dose for absorption and Zernike phase contrast, respectively. The results show that an X-ray microscope operating at ~2.5 keV using Zernike phase contrast offers substantial advantages in terms of specimen size, radiation dose and depth-of-focus. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. High-energy x-ray grating-based phase-contrast radiography of human anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Florian; Hauke, Christian; Lachner, Sebastian; Ludwig, Veronika; Pelzer, Georg; Rieger, Jens; Schuster, Max; Seifert, Maria; Wandner, Johannes; Wolf, Andreas; Michel, Thilo; Anton, Gisela

    2016-03-01

    X-ray grating-based phase-contrast Talbot-Lau interferometry is a promising imaging technology that has the potential to raise soft tissue contrast in comparison to conventional attenuation-based imaging. Additionally, it is sensitive to attenuation, refraction and scattering of the radiation and thus provides complementary and otherwise inaccessible information due to the dark-field image, which shows the sub-pixel size granularity of the measured object. Until recent progress the method has been mainly limited to photon energies below 40 keV. Scaling the method to photon energies that are sufficient to pass large and spacious objects represents a challenging task. This is caused by increasing demands regarding the fabrication process of the gratings and the broad spectra that come along with the use of polychromatic X-ray sources operated at high acceleration voltages. We designed a setup that is capable to reach high visibilities in the range from 50 to 120 kV. Therefore, spacious and dense parts of the human body with high attenuation can be measured, such as a human knee. The authors will show investigations on the resulting attenuation, differential phase-contrast and dark-field images. The images experimentally show that X-ray grating-based phase-contrast radiography is feasible with highly absorbing parts of the human body containing massive bones.

  4. Phase contrast X-ray imaging at the bone-cartilage interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Che Ismail, E.; Gundogdu, O.; Bradley, D.A.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Phase contrast X-ray imaging is a simple technique to investigate various biological samples. At Surrey, the bone-cartilage interface is one of the biological samples which actively been studied. Bone-cartilage interface study gives a particular interest in this research as the degeneration of cartilage is the hallmark of the degenerative joint disease such as osteoarthritis. We have been applying the phase contrast imaging technique in studying the bone-cartilage interface, obtaining information on anatomical features such as the cartilage, blood vessel, tide mark and cement line. Our samples range from dry bone-cartilage to wet bone-cartilage tissue. This work will briefly review the basic supporting physics of the study. It also shows some of the images and other results that we have obtained to-date. Fig. 1 shows examples obtained using the X-ray tube system at the University of Surrey

  5. X-ray phase contrast imaging of the bone-cartilage interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismail, Elna Che; Kaabar, W.; Garrity, D.; Gundogdu, O.; Bunk, O.; Pfeiffer, F.; Farquharson, M.J.; Bradley, D.A.

    2010-01-01

    Synovial joints articulate in a lubricating environment, the system providing for smooth articulation. The articular cartilage overlying the bone consists of a network of collagen fibres. This network is essential to cartilage integrity, suffering damage in degenerative joint disease such as osteoarthritis. At Surrey and also in work conducted by this group at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) synchrotron site we have been applying a number of techniques to study the bone-cartilage interface and of changes occurring in this with disease. One of the techniques attracting particular interest is X-ray phase contrast imaging, yielding information on anatomical features that manifest from the large scale organisation of collagen and the mineralised phase contained within the collagen fibres in the deep cartilage zone. This work briefly reviews some of the basic supporting physics of X-ray phase contrast imaging and then shows example images of the articular surface and subchondral bone and other supporting results obtained to-date. Present results have been obtained on sections of bone not displaying evidence of an osteoarthritic lesion and can be used as a baseline against which diseased bone can be compared.

  6. X-ray phase contrast imaging of the bone-cartilage interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ismail, Elna Che; Kaabar, W.; Garrity, D.; Gundogdu, O. [Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Bunk, O. [Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Pfeiffer, F. [Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Farquharson, M.J. [Department of Radiography, City University, London EC1V OHB (United Kingdom); Bradley, D.A. [Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)], E-mail: d.a.bradley@surrey.ac.uk

    2010-04-15

    Synovial joints articulate in a lubricating environment, the system providing for smooth articulation. The articular cartilage overlying the bone consists of a network of collagen fibres. This network is essential to cartilage integrity, suffering damage in degenerative joint disease such as osteoarthritis. At Surrey and also in work conducted by this group at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) synchrotron site we have been applying a number of techniques to study the bone-cartilage interface and of changes occurring in this with disease. One of the techniques attracting particular interest is X-ray phase contrast imaging, yielding information on anatomical features that manifest from the large scale organisation of collagen and the mineralised phase contained within the collagen fibres in the deep cartilage zone. This work briefly reviews some of the basic supporting physics of X-ray phase contrast imaging and then shows example images of the articular surface and subchondral bone and other supporting results obtained to-date. Present results have been obtained on sections of bone not displaying evidence of an osteoarthritic lesion and can be used as a baseline against which diseased bone can be compared.

  7. 3D map of theranostic nanoparticles distribution in mice brain and liver by means of X-ray Phase Contrast Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, E.; Bravin, A.; Brun, F.; Bukreeva, I.; Cedola, A.; Fratini, M.; Le Guevel, X.; Massimi, L.; Sancey, L.; Tillement, O.; Zeitoun, P.; de La Rochefoucauld, O.

    2018-01-01

    The word "theranostic" derives from the fusion of two terms: therapeutic and diagnostic. It is a promising research field that aims to develop innovative therapies with high target specificity by exploiting the therapeutic and diagnostic properties, in particular for metal-based nanoparticles (NPs) developed to erase cancer. In the framework of a combined research program on low dose X-ray imaging and theranostic nanoparticles (NPs), high resolution Phase-Contrast Tomography images of mice organs injected with gadolinium and gold-NPs were acquired at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF). Both compounds are good X-ray contrast agents due to their high attenuation coefficient with respect to biological tissues, especially immediately above K-edge energy. X-ray tomography is a powerful non-invasive technique to image the 3D vasculature network in order to detect abnormalities. Phase contrast methods provide more detailed anatomical information with higher discrimination among soft tissues. We present the images of mice liver and brain injected with gold and gadolinium NPs, respectively. We discuss different image processing methods used aiming at enhancing the accuracy on localizing nanoparticles.

  8. Quantification of signal detection performance degradation induced by phase-retrieval in propagation-based x-ray phase-contrast imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Cheng-Ying; Anastasio, Mark A.

    2016-04-01

    In propagation-based X-ray phase-contrast (PB XPC) imaging, the measured image contains a mixture of absorption- and phase-contrast. To obtain separate images of the projected absorption and phase (i.e., refractive) properties of a sample, phase retrieval methods can be employed. It has been suggested that phase-retrieval can always improve image quality in PB XPC imaging. However, when objective (task-based) measures of image quality are employed, this is not necessarily true and phase retrieval can be detrimental. In this work, signal detection theory is utilized to quantify the performance of a Hotelling observer (HO) for detecting a known signal in a known background. Two cases are considered. In the first case, the HO acts directly on the measured intensity data. In the second case, the HO acts on either the retrieved phase or absorption image. We demonstrate that the performance of the HO is superior when acting on the measured intensity data. The loss of task-specific information induced by phase-retrieval is quantified by computing the efficiency of the HO as the ratio of the test statistic signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for the two cases. The effect of the system geometry on this efficiency is systematically investigated. Our findings confirm that phase-retrieval can impair signal detection performance in XPC imaging.

  9. Hepatic hemangioma: contrast enhancement patterns on two-phase spiral CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, Eun Joo; Choi, Byung Ihn; Han, Joon Koo; Jang, Hyun Jung; Kim, Tae Kyoung; Kim, Ah Young; Lee, Ki Yeol

    1998-01-01

    To evaluate contrast enhancement patterns of hemangioma according to size, as seen during the arterial and portal venous phase of spiral CT. Overall, the most common enhancement pattern was peripheral high (44/82, 53.7%), during the arterial and portal venous phase. The second and third most common patterns were uniform high (11/82, 13.4%) and peripheral high-uniform high (9/82, 11.0%), also during the arterial and portal venous phase. In tumors smaller than 20 mm, low-low attenuation was seen in eight (9.8%), and iso-low attenuation in two (2.4%), during the arterial and portal venous phase, respectively. On two-phase spiral CT, the most common enhancement pattern of hemangioma was peripheral high, seen during the arterial and portal venous phase. However, a small hemangioma less than 2cm may show atypical patterns, including low and iso attenuation. (author). 23 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs

  10. Binocular combination in abnormal binocular vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Jian; Klein, Stanley A; Levi, Dennis M

    2013-02-08

    We investigated suprathreshold binocular combination in humans with abnormal binocular visual experience early in life. In the first experiment we presented the two eyes with equal but opposite phase shifted sine waves and measured the perceived phase of the cyclopean sine wave. Normal observers have balanced vision between the two eyes when the two eyes' images have equal contrast (i.e., both eyes contribute equally to the perceived image and perceived phase = 0°). However, in observers with strabismus and/or amblyopia, balanced vision requires a higher contrast image in the nondominant eye (NDE) than the dominant eye (DE). This asymmetry between the two eyes is larger than predicted from the contrast sensitivities or monocular perceived contrast of the two eyes and is dependent on contrast and spatial frequency: more asymmetric with higher contrast and/or spatial frequency. Our results also revealed a surprising NDE-to-DE enhancement in some of our abnormal observers. This enhancement is not evident in normal vision because it is normally masked by interocular suppression. However, in these abnormal observers the NDE-to-DE suppression was weak or absent. In the second experiment, we used the identical stimuli to measure the perceived contrast of a cyclopean grating by matching the binocular combined contrast to a standard contrast presented to the DE. These measures provide strong constraints for model fitting. We found asymmetric interocular interactions in binocular contrast perception, which was dependent on both contrast and spatial frequency in the same way as in phase perception. By introducing asymmetric parameters to the modified Ding-Sperling model including interocular contrast gain enhancement, we succeeded in accounting for both binocular combined phase and contrast simultaneously. Adding binocular contrast gain control to the modified Ding-Sperling model enabled us to predict the results of dichoptic and binocular contrast discrimination experiments

  11. Boundary-enhancement in propagation-based x-ray phase-contrast tomosynthesis improves depth position characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Huifeng; Xu, Qiaofeng; Garson, Alfred B; Anastasio, Mark A

    2015-04-21

    Propagation-based x-ray phase-contrast (PB XPC) tomosynthesis combines the concepts of tomosynthesis and XPC imaging to realize the advantages of both for biological imaging applications. Tomosynthesis permits reductions in acquisition times compared with full-view tomography, while XPC imaging provides the opportunity to resolve weakly absorbing structures. In this note, an investigation of the depth resolving properties of PB XPC tomosynthesis is conducted. The results demonstrate that in-plane structures display strong boundary-enhancement while out-of-plane structures do not. This effect can facilitate the identification of in-plane structures in PB XPC tomosynthesis that could normally not be distinguished from out-of-plane structures in absorption-based tomosynthesis.

  12. Boundary-enhancement in propagation-based x-ray phase-contrast tomosynthesis improves depth position characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guan, Huifeng; Xu, Qiaofeng; Garson, Alfred B III; Anastasio, Mark A

    2015-01-01

    Propagation-based x-ray phase-contrast (PB XPC) tomosynthesis combines the concepts of tomosynthesis and XPC imaging to realize the advantages of both for biological imaging applications. Tomosynthesis permits reductions in acquisition times compared with full-view tomography, while XPC imaging provides the opportunity to resolve weakly absorbing structures. In this note, an investigation of the depth resolving properties of PB XPC tomosynthesis is conducted. The results demonstrate that in-plane structures display strong boundary-enhancement while out-of-plane structures do not. This effect can facilitate the identification of in-plane structures in PB XPC tomosynthesis that could normally not be distinguished from out-of-plane structures in absorption-based tomosynthesis. (note)

  13. A phase contrast imaging system for TEXT-U

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatterjee, R.; Hallock, G.A.; Gartman, M.L.

    1994-01-01

    A diagnostic to study plasma density fluctuations, Phase Contrast Imaging (PCI) has been developed for the Texas Experimental Tokamak-Upgrade. The diagnostic has a sensitivity of about 10 -4 n e0 and is capable of detecting a wide range of wavenumbers (0.5 cm -1 - 12 cm -1 ) with a bandwidth of 500 Khz. The design of the diagnostic, some results of acoustic calibration tests and preliminary results of simulation of expected spectra are presented

  14. The effects of luminance contrast, colour combinations, font, and search time on brand icon legibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Ya-Hsien

    2017-11-01

    This study explored and identified the effects of luminance contrast, colour combinations, font, and search time on brand icon legibility. A total of 108 participants took part in the experiment. As designed, legibility was measured as a function of the following independent variables: four levels of luminance contrast, sixteen target/background colour combinations, two fonts, and three search times. The results showed that a luminance contrast of 18:1 provided readers with the best legibility. Yellow on black, yellow on blue, and white on blue were the three most legible colour combinations. One of this study's unique findings was that colour combinations may play an even more important role than luminance contrast in the overall legibility of brand icon design. The 12-s search time corresponded with the highest legibility. Arial font was more legible than Times New Roman. These results provide some guidance for brand icon and product advertisement design. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Preliminary research on dual-energy X-ray phase-contrast imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Hua-Jie; Wang, Sheng-Hao; Gao, Kun; Wang, Zhi-Li; Zhang, Can; Yang, Meng; Zhang, Kai; Zhu, Pei-Ping

    2016-04-01

    Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) has been widely applied to measure the bone mineral density (BMD) and soft-tissue composition of the human body. However, the use of DEXA is greatly limited for low-Z materials such as soft tissues due to their weak absorption, while X-ray phase-contrast imaging (XPCI) shows significantly improved contrast in comparison with the conventional standard absorption-based X-ray imaging for soft tissues. In this paper, we propose a novel X-ray phase-contrast method to measure the area density of low-Z materials, including a single-energy method and a dual-energy method. The single-energy method is for the area density calculation of one low-Z material, while the dual-energy method aims to calculate the area densities of two low-Z materials simultaneously. Comparing the experimental and simulation results with the theoretical ones, the new method proves to have the potential to replace DEXA in area density measurement. The new method sets the prerequisites for a future precise and low-dose area density calculation method for low-Z materials. Supported by Major State Basic Research Development Program (2012CB825800), Science Fund for Creative Research Groups (11321503) and National Natural Science Foundation of China (11179004, 10979055, 11205189, 11205157)

  16. Multiphase CT scanning and different intravenous contrast media concentrations in combined F-18-FDG PET/CT: Effect on quantitative and clinical assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rebiere, Marilou, E-mail: Marilou.Rebiere@rwth-aachen.de [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital RWTH Aachen, Pauwelsstrasse 30, 52057 Aachen (Germany); Verburg, Frederik A., E-mail: fverburg@ukaachen.de [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital RWTH Aachen, Pauwelsstrasse 30, 52057 Aachen (Germany); Department of Nuclear Medicine, Maastricht University Medical Center, P. Debeylaan 25, 6202 AZ Maastricht (Netherlands); Palmowski, Moritz, E-mail: mpalmowski@ukaachen.de [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital RWTH Aachen, Pauwelsstrasse 30, 52057 Aachen (Germany); Department of Radiology, University Hospital RWTH Aachen, Pauwelsstrasse 30, 52057 Aachen (Germany); Department of Experimental Molecular Imaging, University Hospital RWTH Aachen, Pauwelsstrasse 30, 52057 Aachen (Germany); Krohn, Thomas, E-mail: tkrohn@ukaachen.de [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital RWTH Aachen, Pauwelsstrasse 30, 52057 Aachen (Germany); Pietsch, Hubertus, E-mail: hubertus.pietsch@bayer.com [Contrast Media Research, Bayer Pharma AG, Muellerstr. 178, 13353 Berlin (Germany); Kuhl, Christiane K., E-mail: ckuhl@ukaachen.de [Department of Radiology, University Hospital RWTH Aachen, Pauwelsstrasse 30, 52057 Aachen (Germany); Mottaghy, Felix M., E-mail: fmottaghy@ukaachen.de [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital RWTH Aachen, Pauwelsstrasse 30, 52057 Aachen (Germany); Department of Nuclear Medicine, Maastricht University Medical Center, P. Debeylaan 25, 6202 AZ Maastricht (Netherlands); Behrendt, Florian F., E-mail: fbehrendt@ukaachen.de [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital RWTH Aachen, Pauwelsstrasse 30, 52057 Aachen (Germany)

    2012-08-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the influence of multiphase CT scanning and different intravenous contrast media on contrast enhancement, attenuation correction and image quality in combined PET/CT. Material and methods: 140 patients were prospectively enrolled for F-18-FDG-PET/CT including a low-dose unenhanced, arterial and venous contrast enhanced CT. The first (second) 70 patients, received contrast medium with 370 (300) mg iodine/ml. The iodine delivery rate (1.3 mg/s) and total iodine load (44.4 g) were identical for both groups. Contrast enhancement and maximum and mean standardized FDG uptake values (SUVmax and SUVmean) were determined for the un-enhanced, arterial and venous PET/CT at multiple anatomic sites and PET reconstructions were visually evaluated. Results: Arterial contrast enhancement was significantly higher for the 300 mg/ml contrast medium compared to 370 mg I/ml at all anatomic sites. Venous enhancement was not different between the two contrast media. SUVmean and SUVmax were significantly higher for the contrast enhanced compared to the non-enhanced PET/CT at all anatomic sites (all P < 0.001). Tracer uptake was significantly higher in the arterial than in the venous PET/CT in the arteries using both contrast media (all P < 0.001). No differences in tracer uptake were found between the contrast media (all P > 0.05). Visual assessment revealed no relevant differences between the different PET reconstructions. Conclusions: There is no relevant qualitative influence on the PET scan from the use of different intravenous contrast media in its various phases in combined multiphase PET/CT. For quantitative analysis of tracer uptake it is required to use an identical PET/CT protocol.

  17. New generation quantitative x-ray microscopy encompassing phase-contrast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkins, S.W.; Mayo, S.C.; Gureyev, T.E.; Miller, P.R.; Pogany, A.; Stevenson, A.W.; Gao, D.; Davis, T.J.; Parry, D.J.; Paganin, D.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: We briefly outline a new approach to X-ray ultramicroscopy using projection imaging in a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Compared to earlier approaches, the new approach offers spatial resolution of ≤0.1 micron and includes novel features such as: i) phase contrast to give additional sample information over a wide energy range, rapid phase/amplitude extraction algorithms to enable new real-time modes of microscopic imaging widespread applications are envisaged to fields such as materials science, biomedical research, and microelectronics device inspection. Some illustrative examples are presented. The quantitative methods described here are also very relevant to X-ray projection microscopy using synchrotron sources

  18. Implementation of neutron phase contrast imaging at FRM-II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenz, Klaus

    2008-11-12

    At ANTARES, the beam line for neutron imaging at the Forschungsneutronenquelle Heinz Maier-Leibnitz (FRM-II) in Garching, the option to do phase contrast imaging besides conventional absorption based neutron imaging was implemented and successfully used for the non-destructive testing of various types of objects. The used propagation-based technique is based on the interference of neutron waves in the detector plane that were differently strong diffracted by the sample. A comparison with other phase-sensitive neutron imaging techniques highlights assets and drawbacks of the different methods. In preliminary measurements at ANTARES and the spallation source SINQ at PSI in Villigen, the influence of the beam geometry, the neutron spectrum and the detector on the quality of the phase contrast measurements were investigated systematically. It was demonstrated that gamma radiation and epithermal neutrons in the beam contribute severely to background noise in measurements, which motivated the installation of a remotely controlled filter wheel for a quick and precise positioning of different crystal filters in the beam. By the installation of a similar aperture wheel, a quick change between eight different beam geometries was made possible. Besides pinhole and slit apertures, coded apertures based on non redundant arrays were investigated. The possibilities, which arise by the exploitation of the real part of the refractive index in neutron imaging, were demonstrated in experiments with especially designed test samples and in measurements with ordinary, industrial components. (orig.)

  19. Implementation of neutron phase contrast imaging at FRM-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenz, Klaus

    2008-01-01

    At ANTARES, the beam line for neutron imaging at the Forschungsneutronenquelle Heinz Maier-Leibnitz (FRM-II) in Garching, the option to do phase contrast imaging besides conventional absorption based neutron imaging was implemented and successfully used for the non-destructive testing of various types of objects. The used propagation-based technique is based on the interference of neutron waves in the detector plane that were differently strong diffracted by the sample. A comparison with other phase-sensitive neutron imaging techniques highlights assets and drawbacks of the different methods. In preliminary measurements at ANTARES and the spallation source SINQ at PSI in Villigen, the influence of the beam geometry, the neutron spectrum and the detector on the quality of the phase contrast measurements were investigated systematically. It was demonstrated that gamma radiation and epithermal neutrons in the beam contribute severely to background noise in measurements, which motivated the installation of a remotely controlled filter wheel for a quick and precise positioning of different crystal filters in the beam. By the installation of a similar aperture wheel, a quick change between eight different beam geometries was made possible. Besides pinhole and slit apertures, coded apertures based on non redundant arrays were investigated. The possibilities, which arise by the exploitation of the real part of the refractive index in neutron imaging, were demonstrated in experiments with especially designed test samples and in measurements with ordinary, industrial components. (orig.)

  20. Holography microscopy as an artifact-free alternative to phase-contrast

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pastorek, Lukáš; Venit, Tomáš; Hozák, Pavel

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 149, č. 2 (2018), s. 179-186 ISSN 0948-6143 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015062 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : Holography microscopy * Phase-contrast * Halo effect Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Cell biology Impact factor: 2.553, year: 2016

  1. A reconstruction method for cone-beam differential x-ray phase-contrast computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Jian; Velroyen, Astrid; Tan, Renbo; Zhang, Junwei; Chen, Liyuan; Tapfer, Arne; Bech, Martin; Pfeiffer, Franz

    2012-09-10

    Most existing differential phase-contrast computed tomography (DPC-CT) approaches are based on three kinds of scanning geometries, described by parallel-beam, fan-beam and cone-beam. Due to the potential of compact imaging systems with magnified spatial resolution, cone-beam DPC-CT has attracted significant interest. In this paper, we report a reconstruction method based on a back-projection filtration (BPF) algorithm for cone-beam DPC-CT. Due to the differential nature of phase contrast projections, the algorithm restrains from differentiation of the projection data prior to back-projection, unlike BPF algorithms commonly used for absorption-based CT data. This work comprises a numerical study of the algorithm and its experimental verification using a dataset measured with a three-grating interferometer and a micro-focus x-ray tube source. Moreover, the numerical simulation and experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method can deal with several classes of truncated cone-beam datasets. We believe that this feature is of particular interest for future medical cone-beam phase-contrast CT imaging applications.

  2. Quantitative differential phase contrast imaging at high resolution with radially asymmetric illumination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Zi; Huang, Kuang-Yuh; Luo, Yuan

    2018-06-15

    Half-circle illumination-based differential phase contrast (DPC) microscopy has been utilized to recover phase images through a pair of images along multiple axes. Recently, the half-circle based DPC using 12-axis measurements significantly provides a circularly symmetric phase transfer function to improve accuracy for more stable phase recovery. Instead of using half-circle-based DPC, we propose a new scheme of DPC under radially asymmetric illumination to achieve circularly symmetric phase transfer function and enhance the accuracy of phase recovery in a more stable and efficient fashion. We present the design, implementation, and experimental image data demonstrating the ability of our method to obtain quantitative phase images of microspheres, as well as live fibroblast cell samples.

  3. Quantitative hard x-ray phase contrast imaging of micropipes in SiC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohn, V. G.; Argunova, T. S.; Je, J. H.

    2013-01-01

    Peculiarities of quantitative hard x-ray phase contrast imaging of micropipes in SiC are discussed. The micropipe is assumed as a hollow cylinder with an elliptical cross section. The major and minor diameters can be restored using the least square fitting procedure by comparing the experimental data, i.e. the profile across the micropipe axis, with those calculated based on phase contrast theory. It is shown that one projection image gives an information which does not allow a complete determination of the elliptical cross section, if an orientation of micropipe is not known. Another problem is a weak accuracy in estimating the diameters, partly because of using pink synchrotron radiation, which is necessary because a monochromatic beam intensity is not sufficient to reveal the weak contrast from a very small object. The general problems of accuracy in estimating the two diameters using the least square procedure are discussed. Two experimental examples are considered to demonstrate small as well as modest accuracies in estimating the diameters

  4. Four-to-one power combiner for 20 GHz phased array antenna using RADC MMIC phase shifters

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    The design and microwave simulation of two-to-one microstrip power combiners is described. The power combiners were designed for use in a four element phase array receive antenna subarray at 20 GHz. Four test circuits are described which were designed to enable testing of the power combiner and the four element phased array antenna. Test Circuit 1 enables measurement of the two-to-one power combiner. Test Circuit 2 enables measurement of the four-to-one power combiner. Test Circuit 3 enables measurement of a four element antenna array without phase shifting MMIC's in order to characterize the power combiner with the antenna patch-to-microstrip coaxial feedthroughs. Test circuit 4 is the four element phased array antenna including the RADC MMIC phase shifters and appropriate interconnects to provide bias voltages and control phase bits.

  5. Cone-beam X-ray phase-contrast tomography for the observation of single cells in whole organs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krenkel, Martin

    2015-01-01

    X-ray imaging enables the nondestructive investigation of interior structures in otherwise opaque samples. In particular the use of computed tomography (CT) allows for arbitrary virtual slices through the object and 3D information about intricate structures can be obtained. However, when it comes to image very small structures like single cells, the classical CT approach is limited by the weak absorption of soft-tissue. The use of phase information, encoded in measureable intensity images by free-space propagation of coherent X-rays, allows a huge increase in contrast, which enables 3D reconstructions at higher resolutions. In this work the application of propagation-based phase-contrast tomography to lung tissue samples is demonstrated in close to in vivo conditions. Reconstructions of the lung structure of whole mice at down to 5 µm resolution are obtained at a selfbuilt CT setup, which is based on a liquid-metal jet X-ray source. To reach even higher resolutions, synchrotron radiation in combination with suitable holographic phase-retrieval algorithms is employed. Due to optimized cone-beam geometry, field of view and resolution can be varied over a wide range of parameters, so that information on different length scales can be achieved, covering several millimeters field of view down to a 3D resolution of 50 nm. Thus, the sub-cellular 3D imaging of single cells embedded in large pieces of tissue is enabled, which paves the way for future biomedical research.

  6. Phase-contrast versus off-axis illumination: is a more complex microscope always more powerful?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hostounský, Z.; Pelc, Radek

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 2 (2007), s. 232-235 ISSN 1043-4046 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : microscope * relief contrast * phase contrast Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 0.984, year: 2007

  7. Gastric stromal tumor: two-phase dynamic CT findings with water as oral contrast agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Se Hyo; Cho, June Sik; Shin, Kyung Sook; Jeong, Ki Ho; Park, Jin Yong; Yu, Ho Jun; Kim, Young Min; Jeon, Kwang Jin

    2000-01-01

    To evaluate two-phase dynamic CT with water as oral contrast agents in the CT diagnosis of gastric stromal tumors. We retrospectively reviewed the CT findings in 21 patients with pathologically proven gastric stromal tumors. Six were found to be benign, twelve were malignant, and there were three cases of STUMP (stromal tumor uncertain malignant potential). Two-phase dynamic CT scans with water as oral contrast agents were obtained 60-70 secs (portal phase) and 3 mins (equilibrium phase) after the start of IV contrast administration. We determined the size, growth pattern, and enhancement pattern of the tumors and overlying mucosa, the presence or absence of ulceration and necrosis, tumor extent, and lymph nod and distant metastasis. The CT and pathologic findings were correlated. All six benign tumors and three STUMP were less than 5.5 cm in size, and during the portal phase showed round endogastric masses with highly enhanced, intact overlying mucosa. Twelve malignant tumors were 4.5-15.5 cm in size (mean, 11.5 cm); an endogastric mass was seen in three cases, an exogastric mass in one, and a mixed pattern in eight. On portal phase images the tumors were not significantly enhanced, but highly enhanced feeding vessels were noted in five larger tumors (greater than 10 cm). All 12 malignant tumors showed ulceration and necrosis, and interruption of overlying mucosa was clearly seen during the portal phase. We were readily able to evaluate tumor extent during this phase, and in ten malignant tumors there was no invasion of adjacent organs. Seven malignant tumors showed air density within their necrotic portion (p less than 0.05). On equilibrium phase images, all malignant tumors showed heterogeneous enhancement due to necrosis, and poorly enhanced overlying mucosa. Dynamic CT during the portal phase with water as oral contrast agents was useful for depicting the submucosal origin of gastric stromal tumors and for evaluating the extent of malignant stromal tumors. Our

  8. Zernike phase-contrast electron cryotomography applied to marine cyanobacteria infected with cyanophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Wei; Fu, Caroline; Khant, Htet A; Ludtke, Steven J; Schmid, Michael F; Chiu, Wah

    2014-11-01

    Advances in electron cryotomography have provided new opportunities to visualize the internal 3D structures of a bacterium. An electron microscope equipped with Zernike phase-contrast optics produces images with markedly increased contrast compared with images obtained by conventional electron microscopy. Here we describe a protocol to apply Zernike phase plate technology for acquiring electron tomographic tilt series of cyanophage-infected cyanobacterial cells embedded in ice, without staining or chemical fixation. We detail the procedures for aligning and assessing phase plates for data collection, and methods for obtaining 3D structures of cyanophage assembly intermediates in the host by subtomogram alignment, classification and averaging. Acquiring three or four tomographic tilt series takes ∼12 h on a JEM2200FS electron microscope. We expect this time requirement to decrease substantially as the technique matures. The time required for annotation and subtomogram averaging varies widely depending on the project goals and data volume.

  9. Differential phase contrast setup for a non coherent beamline at HASYLAB using hard X-ray grating interferometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herzen, Julia; Beckmann, Felix; Haibel, Astrid; Schreyer, Andreas [GKSS Research Centre, Geesthacht (Germany); Donath, Tilman; David, Christian; Gruenzweig, Christian [Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Pfeiffer, Franz [Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen PSI (Switzerland); EPF Lausanne, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2009-07-01

    Phase-contrast imaging is a common technique to visualize soft tissue with much higher contrast than the conventional absorption-contrast imaging. Differential phase contrast (DPC), developed at PSI, Switzerland, makes use of a hard x-ray grating interferometer and allows for phase-contrast imaging with high brilliance synchrotron sources as well as with conventional x-ray tubes. It is recently reported also to provide dark field information that is very sensitive to micro structures like porosity within the materials. Here we present the plans to adopt the DPC technique to the HARWI-II materials science beamline, operated by GKSS Research Centre, in cooperation with DESY, Hamburg. This will offer an amount of new applications especially in the field of materials science like for example characterizing new light weight materials like magnesium and studying its corrosion as implant material.

  10. In vivo x-ray phase contrast analyzer-based imaging for longitudinal osteoarthritis studies in guinea pigs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coan, Paola [Faculty of Medicine and Institute of Clinical Radiology, Ludwig-Maximilians University, Munich (Germany); Wagner, Andreas; Mollenhauer, Juergen [Department of Orthopaedics of the University of Jena, Rudolf-Elle-Hospital Eisenberg (Germany); Bravin, Alberto; Diemoz, Paul C; Keyrilaeinen, Jani, E-mail: Paola.Coan@physik.uni-muenchen.d [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), Grenoble (France)

    2010-12-21

    Over the last two decades phase contrast x-ray imaging techniques have been extensively studied for applications in the biomedical field. Published results demonstrate the high capability of these imaging modalities of improving the image contrast of biological samples with respect to standard absorption-based radiography and routinely used clinical imaging techniques. A clear depiction of the anatomic structures and a more accurate disease diagnosis may be provided by using radiation doses comparable to or lower than those used in current clinical methods. In the literature many works show images of phantoms and excised biological samples proving the high sensitivity of the phase contrast imaging methods for in vitro investigations. In this scenario, the applications of the so-called analyzer-based x-ray imaging (ABI) phase contrast technique are particularly noteworthy. The objective of this work is to demonstrate the feasibility of in vivo x-ray ABI phase contrast imaging for biomedical applications and in particular with respect to joint anatomic depiction and osteoarthritis detection. ABI in planar and tomographic modes was performed in vivo on articular joints of guinea pigs in order to investigate the animals with respect to osteoarthritis by using highly monochromatic x-rays of 52 keV and a low noise detector with a pixel size of 47 x 47 {mu}m{sup 2}. Images give strong evidence of the ability of ABI in depicting both anatomic structures in complex systems as living organisms and all known signs of osteoarthritis with high contrast, high spatial resolution and with an acceptable radiation dose. This paper presents the first proof of principle study of in vivo application of ABI. The technical challenges encountered when imaging an animal in vivo are discussed. This experimental study is an important step toward the study of clinical applications of phase contrast x-ray imaging techniques.

  11. Baseline correction of phase-contrast images in congenital cardiovascular magnetic resonance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lai Wyman W

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One potential source of error in phase contrast (PC congenital CMR flow measurements is caused by phase offsets due to local non-compensated eddy currents. Phantom correction of these phase offset errors has been shown to result in more accurate measurements of blood flow in adults with structurally normal hearts. We report the effect of phantom correction on PC flow measurements at a clinical congenital CMR program. Results Flow was measured in the ascending aorta, main pulmonary artery, and right and left pulmonary arteries as clinically indicated, and additional values such as Qp/Qs were derived from these measurements. Phantom correction in our study population of 149 patients resulted in clinically significant changes in 13% to 48% of these phase-contrast measurements in patients with known or suspected heart disease. Overall, 640 measurements or calculated values were analyzed, and clinically significant changes were found in 31%. Larger vessels were associated with greater phase offset errors, with 22% of the changes in PC flow measurements attributed to the size of the vessel measured. In patients with structurally normal hearts, the pulmonary-to-systemic flow ratio after phantom correction was closer to 1.0 than before phantom correction. There was no significant difference in the effect of phantom correction for patients with tetralogy of Fallot as compared to the group as a whole. Conclusions Phantom correction often resulted in clinically significant changes in PC blood flow measurements in patients with known or suspected congenital heart disease. In laboratories performing clinical CMR with suspected phase offset errors of significance, the routine use of phantom correction for PC flow measurements should be considered.

  12. Benchmarking the x-ray phase contrast imaging for ICF DT ice characterization using roughened surrogates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dewald, E; Kozioziemski, B; Moody, J; Koch, J; Mapoles, E; Montesanti, R; Youngblood, K; Letts, S; Nikroo, A; Sater, J; Atherton, J

    2008-06-26

    We use x-ray phase contrast imaging to characterize the inner surface roughness of DT ice layers in capsules planned for future ignition experiments. It is therefore important to quantify how well the x-ray data correlates with the actual ice roughness. We benchmarked the accuracy of our system using surrogates with fabricated roughness characterized with high precision standard techniques. Cylindrical artifacts with azimuthally uniform sinusoidal perturbations with 100 um period and 1 um amplitude demonstrated 0.02 um accuracy limited by the resolution of the imager and the source size of our phase contrast system. Spherical surrogates with random roughness close to that required for the DT ice for a successful ignition experiment were used to correlate the actual surface roughness to that obtained from the x-ray measurements. When comparing average power spectra of individual measurements, the accuracy mode number limits of the x-ray phase contrast system benchmarked against surface characterization performed by Atomic Force Microscopy are 60 and 90 for surrogates smoother and rougher than the required roughness for the ice. These agreement mode number limits are >100 when comparing matching individual measurements. We will discuss the implications for interpreting DT ice roughness data derived from phase-contrast x-ray imaging.

  13. X-ray phase-contrast tomography for high-spatial-resolution zebrafish muscle imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vågberg, William; Larsson, Daniel H.; Li, Mei; Arner, Anders; Hertz, Hans M.

    2015-11-01

    Imaging of muscular structure with cellular or subcellular detail in whole-body animal models is of key importance for understanding muscular disease and assessing interventions. Classical histological methods for high-resolution imaging methods require excision, fixation and staining. Here we show that the three-dimensional muscular structure of unstained whole zebrafish can be imaged with sub-5 μm detail with X-ray phase-contrast tomography. Our method relies on a laboratory propagation-based phase-contrast system tailored for detection of low-contrast 4-6 μm subcellular myofibrils. The method is demonstrated on 20 days post fertilization zebrafish larvae and comparative histology confirms that we resolve individual myofibrils in the whole-body animal. X-ray imaging of healthy zebrafish show the expected structured muscle pattern while specimen with a dystrophin deficiency (sapje) displays an unstructured pattern, typical of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. The method opens up for whole-body imaging with sub-cellular detail also of other types of soft tissue and in different animal models.

  14. High-resolution observation of phase contrast at 1MeV. Amorphous or crystalline objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourret, A.; Desseaux, J.

    1975-01-01

    Many authors have stressed the possibilities of high voltage to improve resolution, but owing to numerous experimental difficulties the resolution limit at 1MeV, which lies around 1A for conventional lenses, has so far been unattainable. Thus the phase contrast at 1MeV has not been studied on evaporated objects. On the other hand the fringes of crystal planes have been observed at 1MeV. the CEN-G microscope having been considerably modified it has been possible to observe the phase contrast of amorphous or crystalline objects [fr

  15. Revising the lower statistical limit of x-ray grating-based phase-contrast computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marschner, Mathias; Birnbacher, Lorenz; Willner, Marian; Chabior, Michael; Herzen, Julia; Noël, Peter B; Pfeiffer, Franz

    2017-01-01

    Phase-contrast x-ray computed tomography (PCCT) is currently investigated as an interesting extension of conventional CT, providing high soft-tissue contrast even if examining weakly absorbing specimen. Until now, the potential for dose reduction was thought to be limited compared to attenuation CT, since meaningful phase retrieval fails for scans with very low photon counts when using the conventional phase retrieval method via phase stepping. In this work, we examine the statistical behaviour of the reverse projection method, an alternative phase retrieval approach and compare the results to the conventional phase retrieval technique. We investigate the noise levels in the projections as well as the image quality and quantitative accuracy of the reconstructed tomographic volumes. The results of our study show that this method performs better in a low-dose scenario than the conventional phase retrieval approach, resulting in lower noise levels, enhanced image quality and more accurate quantitative values. Overall, we demonstrate that the lower statistical limit of the phase stepping procedure as proposed by recent literature does not apply to this alternative phase retrieval technique. However, further development is necessary to overcome experimental challenges posed by this method which would enable mainstream or even clinical application of PCCT.

  16. Quantitative tracking of tumor cells in phase-contrast microscopy exploiting halo artifact pattern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Mi-Sun; Song, Soo-Min; Lee, Hana; Kim, Myoung-Hee

    2012-03-01

    Tumor cell morphology is closely related to its invasiveness characteristics and migratory behaviors. An invasive tumor cell has a highly irregular shape, whereas a spherical cell is non-metastatic. Thus, quantitative analysis of cell features is crucial to determine tumor malignancy or to test the efficacy of anticancer treatment. We use phase-contrast microscopy to analyze single cell morphology and to monitor its change because it enables observation of long-term activity of living cells without photobleaching and phototoxicity, which is common in other fluorescence-labeled microscopy. Despite this advantage, there are image-level drawbacks to phase-contrast microscopy, such as local light effect and contrast interference ring, among others. Thus, we first applied a local filter to compensate for non-uniform illumination. Then, we used intensity distribution information to detect the cell boundary. In phase-contrast microscopy images, the cell normally appears as a dark region surrounded by a bright halo. As the halo artifact around the cell body is minimal and has an asymmetric diffusion pattern, we calculated the cross-sectional plane that intersected the center of each cell and was orthogonal to the first principal axis. Then, we extracted the dark cell region by level set. However, a dense population of cultured cells still rendered single-cell analysis difficult. Finally, we measured roundness and size to classify tumor cells into malignant and benign groups. We validated segmentation accuracy by comparing our findings with manually obtained results.

  17. Simultaneous acquisition of dual analyser-based phase contrast X-ray images for small animal imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitchen, Marcus J.; Pavlov, Konstantin M.; Hooper, Stuart B.; Vine, David J.; Siu, Karen K.W.; Wallace, Megan J.; Siew, Melissa L.L.; Yagi, Naoto; Uesugi, Kentaro; Lewis, Rob A.

    2008-01-01

    Analyser-based phase contrast X-ray imaging can provide high-contrast images of biological tissues with exquisite sensitivity to the boundaries between tissues. The phase and absorption information can be extracted by processing multiple images acquired at different analyser orientations. Recording both the transmitted and diffracted beams from a thin Laue analyser crystal can make phase retrieval possible for dynamic systems by allowing full field imaging. This technique was used to image the thorax of a mechanically ventilated newborn rabbit pup using a 25 keV beam from the SPring-8 synchrotron radiation facility. The diffracted image was produced from the (1 1 1) planes of a 50 mm x 40 mm, 100 μm thick Si analyser crystal in the Laue geometry. The beam and analyser were large enough to image the entire chest, making it possible to observe changes in anatomy with high contrast and spatial resolution

  18. Simultaneous acquisition of dual analyser-based phase contrast X-ray images for small animal imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitchen, Marcus J. [School of Physics, Monash University, Victoria 3800 (Australia)], E-mail: Marcus.Kitchen@sci.monash.edu.au; Pavlov, Konstantin M. [School of Physics, Monash University, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Monash Centre for Synchrotron Science, Monash University, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Physics and Electronics, School of Science and Technology, University of New England, NSW 2351 (Australia)], E-mail: Konstantin.Pavlov@sci.monash.edu.au; Hooper, Stuart B. [Department of Physiology, Monash University, Victoria 3800 (Australia)], E-mail: Stuart.Hooper@med.monash.edu.au; Vine, David J. [School of Physics, Monash University, Victoria 3800 (Australia)], E-mail: David.Vine@sci.monash.edu.au; Siu, Karen K.W. [School of Physics, Monash University, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Monash Centre for Synchrotron Science, Monash University, Victoria 3800 (Australia)], E-mail: Karen.Siu@sci.monash.edu.au; Wallace, Megan J. [Department of Physiology, Monash University, Victoria 3800 (Australia)], E-mail: Megan.Wallace@med.monash.edu.au; Siew, Melissa L.L. [Department of Physiology, Monash University, Victoria 3800 (Australia)], E-mail: Melissa.Siew@med.monash.edu.au; Yagi, Naoto [SPring-8/JASRI, Sayo (Japan)], E-mail: yagi@spring8.or.jp; Uesugi, Kentaro [SPring-8/JASRI, Sayo (Japan)], E-mail: ueken@spring8.or.jp; Lewis, Rob A. [School of Physics, Monash University, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Monash Centre for Synchrotron Science, Monash University, Victoria 3800 (Australia)], E-mail: Rob.Lewis@sync.monash.edu.au

    2008-12-15

    Analyser-based phase contrast X-ray imaging can provide high-contrast images of biological tissues with exquisite sensitivity to the boundaries between tissues. The phase and absorption information can be extracted by processing multiple images acquired at different analyser orientations. Recording both the transmitted and diffracted beams from a thin Laue analyser crystal can make phase retrieval possible for dynamic systems by allowing full field imaging. This technique was used to image the thorax of a mechanically ventilated newborn rabbit pup using a 25 keV beam from the SPring-8 synchrotron radiation facility. The diffracted image was produced from the (1 1 1) planes of a 50 mm x 40 mm, 100 {mu}m thick Si analyser crystal in the Laue geometry. The beam and analyser were large enough to image the entire chest, making it possible to observe changes in anatomy with high contrast and spatial resolution.

  19. Grating-based X-ray phase-contrast tomography of atherosclerotic plaque at high photon energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hetterich, Holger; Fill, Sandra [Klinikum der Ludwig-Maximilians-Univ., Muenchen (Germany). Inst. fuer Klinische Radiologie; Herzen, Julia [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Physik-Dept. und Inst. fuer Medizintechnik; Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, Geesthacht (Germany). Zentrum fuer Materialforschung] [and others

    2013-10-01

    Background: Tissue characterization of atherosclerosis by absorption-based imaging methods is limited due to low soft-tissue contrast. Grating-based phase-contrast computed tomography (PC-CT) may become an alternative for plaque assessment if the phase signal can be retrieved at clinically applicable photon energies. The aims of this feasibility study were (i) to characterize arterial vessels at low and high photon energies, (ii) to extract qualitative features and (iii) quantitative phase-contrast Hounsfield units (HU-phase) of plaque components at 53 keV using histopathology as gold standard. Materials and methods: Five human carotid artery specimens underwent grating-based PC-CT using synchrotron radiation of either 23 keV or 53 keV and histological work-up. Specimens without advanced atherosclerosis were used to extract signal criteria of vessel layers. Diseased specimens were screened for important plaque components including fibrous tissue (FT), lipid (LIP), necrotic core (NEC), intraplaque hemorrhage (IPH), inflammatory cell infiltration (INF) and calcifications (CA). Qualitative features as well as quantitative HU-phase were analyzed. Results: Thirty-three regions in 6 corresponding PC-CT scans and histology sections were identified. Healthy samples had the same signal characteristics at 23 keV and 53 keV with bright tunica intima and adventitia and dark media. Plaque components showed differences in signal intensity and texture at 53 keV. Quantitative analysis demonstrated the highest HU-phase of soft plaque in dense FT. Less organized LIP, NEC and INF were associated with lower HU-phase values. The highest HU-phase were measured in CA. Conclusion: PC-CT of atherosclerosis is feasible at high, clinically relevant photon energies and provides detailed information about plaque structure including features of high risk vulnerable plaques. (orig.)

  20. Phase-contrast X-ray CT imaging of the kidney. Differences between ethanol fixation and formalin fixation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirai, Ryota; Kunii, Takuya; Maruyama, Hiroko; Takeda, Tohoru; Yoneyama, Akio; Lwin, Thet Thet

    2012-01-01

    A phase-contrast X-ray imaging technique using an X-ray interferometer that provides approximately 1000 times higher sensitivity than the conventional X-ray imaging method for low-atomic number elements based on the difference in the mass attenuation coefficient has recently been developed. In the present study, we compared rat kidneys fixed in 100% ethanol and in 10% formalin to evaluate the effects of ethanol in enhancing image contrast in phase-contrast imaging because ethanol causes significant dehydration of tissues and enhances density differences between tissue components. The experiments were conducted at the Photon Factory in Tsukuba, and the X-ray energy was set at 35 keV. Fine anatomical structures in the kidney such as the glomeruli, tubules, and vessels were observed. Particularly clear renal images were obtained with ethanol fixation. The pixel value ratio between the cortex and medulla was about 43% in ethanol-fixed kidneys and 21% in formalin-fixed kidneys. In other words, the contrast in ethanol-fixed kidneys was about two times higher than that in formalin-fixed kidneys. Histological examination showed significantly condensed features in the cortex. The results of this study suggest that the ethanol fixation technique may be useful for enhancing the image contrast of renal structures in the phase-contrast X-ray imaging technique. (author)

  1. Approximated transport-of-intensity equation for coded-aperture x-ray phase-contrast imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Mini; Liang, Zhihua

    2014-09-15

    Transport-of-intensity equations (TIEs) allow better understanding of image formation and assist in simplifying the "phase problem" associated with phase-sensitive x-ray measurements. In this Letter, we present for the first time to our knowledge a simplified form of TIE that models x-ray differential phase-contrast (DPC) imaging with coded-aperture (CA) geometry. The validity of our approximation is demonstrated through comparison with an exact TIE in numerical simulations. The relative contributions of absorption, phase, and differential phase to the acquired phase-sensitive intensity images are made readily apparent with the approximate TIE, which may prove useful for solving the inverse phase-retrieval problem associated with these CA geometry based DPC.

  2. A compressed sensing based reconstruction algorithm for synchrotron source propagation-based X-ray phase contrast computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melli, Seyed Ali, E-mail: sem649@mail.usask.ca [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK (Canada); Wahid, Khan A. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK (Canada); Babyn, Paul [Department of Medical Imaging, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK (Canada); Montgomery, James [College of Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK (Canada); Snead, Elisabeth [Western College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK (Canada); El-Gayed, Ali [College of Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK (Canada); Pettitt, Murray; Wolkowski, Bailey [College of Agriculture and Bioresources, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK (Canada); Wesolowski, Michal [Department of Medical Imaging, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK (Canada)

    2016-01-11

    Synchrotron source propagation-based X-ray phase contrast computed tomography is increasingly used in pre-clinical imaging. However, it typically requires a large number of projections, and subsequently a large radiation dose, to produce high quality images. To improve the applicability of this imaging technique, reconstruction algorithms that can reduce the radiation dose and acquisition time without degrading image quality are needed. The proposed research focused on using a novel combination of Douglas–Rachford splitting and randomized Kaczmarz algorithms to solve large-scale total variation based optimization in a compressed sensing framework to reconstruct 2D images from a reduced number of projections. Visual assessment and quantitative performance evaluations of a synthetic abdomen phantom and real reconstructed image of an ex-vivo slice of canine prostate tissue demonstrate that the proposed algorithm is competitive in reconstruction process compared with other well-known algorithms. An additional potential benefit of reducing the number of projections would be reduction of time for motion artifact to occur if the sample moves during image acquisition. Use of this reconstruction algorithm to reduce the required number of projections in synchrotron source propagation-based X-ray phase contrast computed tomography is an effective form of dose reduction that may pave the way for imaging of in-vivo samples.

  3. A new combined technique for automatic contrast enhancement of digital images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail A. Humied

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Some low contrast images have certain characteristics makes it difficult to use traditional methods to improve it. An example of these characteristics, that the amplitudes of images histogram components are very high at one location on the gray scale and very small in the rest of the gray scale. In the present paper, a new method is described. It can deal with such cases. The proposed method is a combination of Histogram Equalization (HE and Fast Gray-Level Grouping (FGLG. The basic procedure of this method is segments the original histogram of a low contrast image into two sub-histograms according to the location of the highest amplitude of the histogram components, and achieving contrast enhancement by equalizing the left segment of the histogram components using (HE technique and using (FGLG technique to equalize the right segment of this histogram components. The results have shown that the proposed method does not only produce better results than each individual contrast enhancement technique, but it is also fully automated. Moreover, it is applicable to a broad variety of images that satisfy the properties mentioned above and suffer from low contrast.

  4. Functional analysis of third ventriculostomy patency with phase-contrast MRI velocity measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lev, S.; Bhadelia, R.A.; Estin, D.; Heilman, C.B.; Wolpert, S.M.

    1997-01-01

    Our purpose was to explore the utility of cine phase-contrast MRI velocity measurements in determining the functional status of third ventriculostomies, and to correlate the quantitative velocity data with clinical follow-up. We examined six patients with third ventriculostomies and 12 normal subjects by phase-contrast MRI. The maximum craniocaudal to maximum caudocranial velocity range was measured at regions of interest near the third ventricular floor, and in cerebrospinal fluid anterior to the upper pons and spinal cord on midline sagittal images. Ratios of the velocities of both the third ventricle and prepontine space to the space anterior to the spinal cord were obtained. The velocities near the third ventricular floor and in the pontine cistern were significantly higher in patients than in normal subjects, but the velocity anterior to the spinal cord was similar between the groups. The velocity ratios, used to normalize individual differences, were also higher in patients than in controls. Two patients had lower velocity ratios than their fellows at the third ventricular floor and in the pontine cistern; one required a shunt 11 months later, while in the other, who had a third ventricular/thalamic tumor, the lower values probably reflect distortion of the third ventricular floor. We conclude that phase-contrast MR velocity measurements, specifically the velocity ratio between the high pontine cistern and the space anterior to the spinal cord, can help determine the functional status of third ventriculostomies. (orig.)

  5. Detectability index of differential phase contrast CT compared with conventional CT: a preliminary channelized Hotelling observer study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xiangyang; Yang, Yi; Tang, Shaojie

    2013-03-01

    Under the framework of model observer with signal and background exactly known (SKE/BKE), we investigate the detectability of differential phase contrast CT compared with that of the conventional attenuation-based CT. Using the channelized Hotelling observer and the radially symmetric difference-of-Gaussians channel template , we investigate the detectability index and its variation over the dimension of object and detector cells. The preliminary data show that the differential phase contrast CT outperforms the conventional attenuation-based CT significantly in the detectability index while both the object to be detected and the cell of detector used for data acquisition are relatively small. However, the differential phase contrast CT's dominance in the detectability index diminishes with increasing dimension of either object or detector cell, and virtually disappears while the dimension of object or detector cell approaches a threshold, respectively. It is hoped that the preliminary data reported in this paper may provide insightful understanding of the differential phase contrast CT's characteristic in the detectability index and its comparison with that of the conventional attenuation-based CT.

  6. Numerical design of in-line X-ray phase-contrast imaging based on ellipsoidal single-bounce monocapillary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Weiyuan; Liu, Zhiguo [The Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Materials Modification of the Ministry of Education, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Beijing Radiation Center, Beijing 100875 (China); Sun, Tianxi, E-mail: stx@bnu.edu.cn [The Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Materials Modification of the Ministry of Education, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Beijing Radiation Center, Beijing 100875 (China); Peng, Song [The Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Materials Modification of the Ministry of Education, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Beijing Radiation Center, Beijing 100875 (China); Ma, Yongzhong [Center for Disease Control and Prevention of Beijing, Beijing 100013 (China); Ding, Xunliang [The Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Materials Modification of the Ministry of Education, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Beijing Radiation Center, Beijing 100875 (China)

    2014-05-11

    A new device using an ellipsoidal single-bounce monocapillary X-ray optics was numerically designed to realize in-line X-ray phase-contrast imaging by using conventional laboratory X-ray source with a large spot. Numerical simulation results validated the effectiveness of the proposed device and approach. The ellipsoidal single-bounce monocapillary X-ray optics had potential applications in the in-line phase contrast imaging with polychromatic X-rays.

  7. Numerical design of in-line X-ray phase-contrast imaging based on ellipsoidal single-bounce monocapillary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Weiyuan; Liu, Zhiguo; Sun, Tianxi; Peng, Song; Ma, Yongzhong; Ding, Xunliang

    2014-01-01

    A new device using an ellipsoidal single-bounce monocapillary X-ray optics was numerically designed to realize in-line X-ray phase-contrast imaging by using conventional laboratory X-ray source with a large spot. Numerical simulation results validated the effectiveness of the proposed device and approach. The ellipsoidal single-bounce monocapillary X-ray optics had potential applications in the in-line phase contrast imaging with polychromatic X-rays

  8. Zernike Phase Contrast Electron Cryo-Tomography Applied to Marine Cyanobacteria Infected with Cyanophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Wei; Fu, Caroline; Khant, Htet A.; Ludtke, Steven J.; Schmid, Michael F.; Chiu, Wah

    2015-01-01

    Advances in electron cryo-tomography have provided a new opportunity to visualize the internal 3D structures of a bacterium. An electron microscope equipped with Zernike phase contrast optics produces images with dramatically increased contrast compared to images obtained by conventional electron microscopy. Here we describe a protocol to apply Zernike phase plate technology for acquiring electron tomographic tilt series of cyanophage-infected cyanobacterial cells embedded in ice, without staining or chemical fixation. We detail the procedures for aligning and assessing phase plates for data collection, and methods to obtain 3D structures of cyanophage assembly intermediates in the host, by subtomogram alignment, classification and averaging. Acquiring three to four tomographic tilt series takes approximately 12 h on a JEM2200FS electron microscope. We expect this time requirement to decrease substantially as the technique matures. Time required for annotation and subtomogram averaging varies widely depending on the project goals and data volume. PMID:25321408

  9. Low density contrast agents for x-ray phase contrast imaging: the use of ambient air for x-ray angiography of excised murine liver tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laperle, Christopher M; Wintermeyer, Philip; Derdak, Zoltan; Wands, Jack R; Hamilton, Theron J; Walker, Evan J; Diebold, Gerald; Rose-Petruck, Christoph; Shi, Daxin; Anastasio, Mark A

    2008-01-01

    We report a new preparative method for providing contrast through reduction in electron density that is uniquely suited for propagation-based differential x-ray phase contrast imaging. The method, which results in an air or fluid filled vasculature, makes possible visualization of the smallest microvessels, roughly down to 15 μm, in an excised murine liver, while preserving the tissue for subsequent histological workup. We show the utility of spatial frequency filtering for increasing the visibility of minute features characteristic of phase contrast imaging, and the capability of tomographic reconstruction to reveal microvessel structure and three-dimensional visualization of the sample. The effect of water evaporation from livers during x-ray imaging on the visibility of blood vessels is delineated. The deformed vascular tree in a cancerous murine liver is imaged.

  10. Technical and clinical evaluation of an improved-contrast screen-film combination for radiation therapy portal localization imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haus, Arthur G.; Dickerson, Robert E.; Huff, Kenneth E.; Monte, Suzanne; Schlager, Barbara A.; Atanas, Meri; Matloubieh, Ahmad

    1996-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: A problem with conventional radiation therapy portal images is low image contrast, due in part to the low attenuation of the exposing radiation by the anatomical parts being imaged and the contrast capabilities of the film or screen-film combination. The purpose of this study was to design, develop and clinically evaluate a new screen-film combination for portal localization imaging which provides significantly higher contrast and therefore improved image quality. Materials and Methods: Comparison phantom and clinical images were made at two radiation oncology facilities with the new prototype screen-film combination and a commercial screen-film combination currently used for portal localization imaging. All images were made with linear accelerators at 6MV. Sensitometric data was also obtained. The prototype combination features a 1.0mm copper front screen plus front and back gadolinium oxysulfide fluorescent intensifying screens and a very-slow-speed film having inherently high contrast. The film emulsion layers are coated on a 7 mil Estar base which allows processing in a conventional rapid process film processor. For this combination, the film is exposed primarily by light from the intensifying screens. The current, commercially available screen-film combination was a Kodak X-Omatic L Radiation Therapy Cassette with a 1.0mm copper front screen and a 0.25mm lead back screen and Kodak X-Omat RP film in ready pack envelope. With this combination, the film emulsion is exposed by electrons generated in the metal screens. All films were processed in a Kodak M35A X-Omat processor. Radiation oncologists reviewed the phantom and clinical images. Results: Sensitometric data indicate that the film contrast (average gradient) of the new prototype combination is approximately 4 times higher than the conventional commercially available combination. Phantom and clinical comparisons at St. Mary Cancer Center, Langhorne PA. and the Daisy Marquis Jones

  11. SR phase contrast imaging to address the evolution of defects during SiC growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Argunova, Tatiana S.; Gutkin, Mikhail Yu.; Je, Jung Ho; Mokhov, Evgeniy N.; Nagalyuk, Sergey S.; Hwu, Yeukuang

    2011-01-01

    Sliced SiC boule grown by physical vapor transport is investigated using synchrotron white beam phase contrast imaging combined with Bragg diffraction. The evolution of defects is revealed. In the early growth stage, foreign polytype inclusions not only induce massive generation of full-core dislocations and dislocated micropipes but also attract them, forming slit-type pores at the boundaries of inclusions. In the intermediate stage, when inclusions stop to grow and become overgrown by the matrix, the pore density significantly reduces, which is attributed to their transformation into new micropipes. In the later stage, the micropipe density decreases, providing evidence for their partial annihilation and healing. Mechanisms for the evolution from inclusions to pores and finally to micropipes during the crystal growth are further discussed. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  12. Ct enterography/ct abdomen and pelvis using neutral oral contrast. a new combination of natural products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aslam, M.O.

    2014-01-01

    Our purpose was to assess the performance of a new combination of neutral oral contrast for CT abdomen and CT Enterography in comparison with commercially available neutral oral contrast VoLumen. Seventy three consecutive patients were given sorbitol/CMC (Carboxy Methyl Cellulose) solution or VoLumen as oral contrast agent for abdominal computed tomography (CT) scan. 23 patients were male and 37 females. Age range was between 16 and 67 years. Since the use of CT scan for abdominal pathologies, there was need to separate bowel loops to localize the pathology. Three types of oral contrast can be used in CT-Scan abdomen; Positive, Neutral and negative. The above used contrasts are Neutral contrast these refers to agents that have an attenuation value similar to that of water (0-30 H).Our results show this new combination of Cc and Sorbitol to be equally good as VoLumen, for luminal distension and mural details, in duodenum and jejunum. While better than VoLumen for Ileal distension. (author)

  13. The application of phase contrast X-ray techniques for imaging Li-ion battery electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastwood, D. S.; Bradley, R. S.; Tariq, F.; Cooper, S. J.; Taiwo, O. O.; Gelb, J.; Merkle, A.; Brett, D. J. L.; Brandon, N. P.; Withers, P. J.; Lee, P. D.; Shearing, P. R.

    2014-04-01

    In order to accelerate the commercialization of fuel cells and batteries across a range of applications, an understanding of the mechanisms by which they age and degrade at the microstructural level is required. Here, the most widely commercialized Li-ion batteries based on porous graphite based electrodes which de/intercalate Li+ ions during charge/discharge are studied by two phase contrast enhanced X-ray imaging modes, namely in-line phase contrast and Zernike phase contrast at the micro (synchrotron) and nano (laboratory X-ray microscope) level, respectively. The rate of charge cycling is directly dependent on the nature of the electrode microstructure, which are typically complex multi-scale 3D geometries with significant microstructural heterogeneities. We have been able to characterise the porosity and the tortuosity by micro-CT as well as the morphology of 5 individual graphite particles by nano-tomography finding that while their volume varied significantly their sphericity was surprisingly similar. The volume specific surface areas of the individual grains measured by nano-CT are significantly larger than the total volume specific surface area of the electrode from the micro-CT imaging, which can be attributed to the greater particle surface area visible at higher resolution.

  14. The application of phase contrast X-ray techniques for imaging Li-ion battery electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eastwood, D.S.; Bradley, R.S.; Tariq, F.; Cooper, S.J.; Taiwo, O.O.; Gelb, J.; Merkle, A.; Brett, D.J.L.; Brandon, N.P.; Withers, P.J.; Lee, P.D.; Shearing, P.R.

    2014-01-01

    In order to accelerate the commercialization of fuel cells and batteries across a range of applications, an understanding of the mechanisms by which they age and degrade at the microstructural level is required. Here, the most widely commercialized Li-ion batteries based on porous graphite based electrodes which de/intercalate Li + ions during charge/discharge are studied by two phase contrast enhanced X-ray imaging modes, namely in-line phase contrast and Zernike phase contrast at the micro (synchrotron) and nano (laboratory X-ray microscope) level, respectively. The rate of charge cycling is directly dependent on the nature of the electrode microstructure, which are typically complex multi-scale 3D geometries with significant microstructural heterogeneities. We have been able to characterise the porosity and the tortuosity by micro-CT as well as the morphology of 5 individual graphite particles by nano-tomography finding that while their volume varied significantly their sphericity was surprisingly similar. The volume specific surface areas of the individual grains measured by nano-CT are significantly larger than the total volume specific surface area of the electrode from the micro-CT imaging, which can be attributed to the greater particle surface area visible at higher resolution

  15. Volumetric Arterial Wall Shear Stress Calculation Based on Cine Phase Contrast MRI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Potters, Wouter V.; van Ooij, Pim; Marquering, Henk; VanBavel, Ed; Nederveen, Aart J.

    2015-01-01

    PurposeTo assess the accuracy and precision of a volumetric wall shear stress (WSS) calculation method applied to cine phase contrast magnetic resonance imaging (PC-MRI) data. Materials and MethodsVolumetric WSS vectors were calculated in software phantoms. WSS algorithm parameters were optimized

  16. Combining multi-pulse excitation and chirp coding in contrast-enhanced ultrasound imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crocco, M; Sciallero, C; Trucco, A; Pellegretti, P

    2009-01-01

    The development of techniques to separate the response of the contrast agent from that of the biological tissues is of great importance in ultrasound medical imaging. In the literature, one can find various solutions involving the use of multiple transmitted signals and the weighted sum of related echoes. In this paper, the combination of one of these multi-pulse techniques with a coded excitation is proposed and assessed. Coded excitation has been used mainly to increase the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and the penetration depth, provided that a matched filtering is applied in the reception chain. However, it has been shown that a signal with a long duration time also increases the backscattered echoes produced by the microbubbles and, consequently, the contrast-to-tissue ratio. Therefore, the implementation of a multi-pulse technique using a long coded pulse can yield a better contrast-to-tissue ratio and SNR. This paper investigates the combination of the linear chirp pulse with a multi-pulse technique based on the transmission of three pulses. The performance was evaluated using both simulated and real signals, assessing the improvement in the contrast-to-tissue ratio and SNR, the visual quality of the images obtained and the axial accuracy. A comparison with the same multi-pulse technique implemented using a traditional amplitude-modulated pulse revealed that the deployment of a chirp pulse produces several noticeable advantages and only a minor drawback

  17. Teachable, high-content analytics for live-cell, phase contrast movies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alworth, Samuel V; Watanabe, Hirotada; Lee, James S J

    2010-09-01

    CL-Quant is a new solution platform for broad, high-content, live-cell image analysis. Powered by novel machine learning technologies and teach-by-example interfaces, CL-Quant provides a platform for the rapid development and application of scalable, high-performance, and fully automated analytics for a broad range of live-cell microscopy imaging applications, including label-free phase contrast imaging. The authors used CL-Quant to teach off-the-shelf universal analytics, called standard recipes, for cell proliferation, wound healing, cell counting, and cell motility assays using phase contrast movies collected on the BioStation CT and BioStation IM platforms. Similar to application modules, standard recipes are intended to work robustly across a wide range of imaging conditions without requiring customization by the end user. The authors validated the performance of the standard recipes by comparing their performance with truth created manually, or by custom analytics optimized for each individual movie (and therefore yielding the best possible result for the image), and validated by independent review. The validation data show that the standard recipes' performance is comparable with the validated truth with low variation. The data validate that the CL-Quant standard recipes can provide robust results without customization for live-cell assays in broad cell types and laboratory settings.

  18. From Relativistic Electrons to X-ray Phase Contrast Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lumpkin, A. H. [Fermilab; Garson, A. B. [Washington U., St. Louis; Anastasio, M. A. [Washington U., St. Louis

    2017-10-09

    We report the initial demonstrations of the use of single crystals in indirect x-ray imaging for x-ray phase contrast imaging at the Washington University in St. Louis Computational Bioimaging Laboratory (CBL). Based on single Gaussian peak fits to the x-ray images, we observed a four times smaller system point spread function (21 μm (FWHM)) with the 25-mm diameter single crystals than the reference polycrystalline phosphor’s 80-μm value. Potential fiber-optic plate depth-of-focus aspects and 33-μm diameter carbon fiber imaging are also addressed.

  19. Phase contrast imaging diagnostic for the Wendelstein 7-X stellarator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boettger, Lukas-Georg; Grulke, Olaf [Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, 17491 Greifswald (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    The phase contrast imaging (PCI) diagnostic allows for non-invasive measurements of density fluctuations in high temperature plasmas. Since the index of refraction in a plasma is a function of the electron density, an incoming laser beam experiences a phase shift, which can be converted to intensity variations via interference after passing a phase plate. Generally speaking, the signal contains only the line-integrated information along the beam path. This limitation can be circumvented by using the fact that the density fluctuations form filamentary structures that are well aligned with the local magnetic field. If the magnetic field direction significantly varies along the beam path, optical filtering allows for localization of the density fluctuations. In order to identify the best diagnostic position regarding localization performance three figures of merit are introduced. They allow for quantitative comparison of different lines of sight and different magnetic field configurations. The results of the optimization process and a comparison with other fusion experiments are shown in this contribution.

  20. Combined magnitude and phase-based segmentation of the cerebral cortex in 7T MR images of the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doan, Nhat Trung; van Rooden, Sanneke; Versluis, Maarten J; Webb, Andrew G; van der Grond, Jeroen; van Buchem, Mark A; Reiber, Johan H C; Milles, Julien

    2012-07-01

    To propose a new method that integrates both magnitude and phase information obtained from magnetic resonance (MR) T*(2) -weighted scans for cerebral cortex segmentation of the elderly. This method makes use of K-means clustering on magnitude and phase images to compute an initial segmentation, which is further refined by means of transformation with reconstruction criteria. The method was evaluated against the manual segmentation of 7T in vivo MR data of 20 elderly subjects (age = 67.7 ± 10.9). The added value of combining magnitude and phase was also evaluated by comparing the performance of the proposed method with the results obtained when limiting the available data to either magnitude or phase. The proposed method shows good overlap agreement, as quantified by the Dice Index (0.79 ± 0.04), limited bias (average relative volume difference = 2.94%), and reasonable volumetric correlation (R = 0.555, p = 0.011). Using the combined magnitude and phase information significantly improves the segmentation accuracy compared with using either magnitude or phase. This study suggests that the proposed method is an accurate and robust approach for cerebral cortex segmentation in datasets presenting low gray/white matter contrast. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Equilibrium-phase MR angiography: Comparison of unspecific extracellular and protein-binding gadolinium-based contrast media with respect to image quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erb-Eigner, Katharina; Taupitz, Matthias; Asbach, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare contrast and image quality of whole-body equilibrium-phase high-spatial-resolution MR angiography using a non-protein-binding unspecific extracellular gadolinium-based contrast medium with that of two contrast media with different protein-binding properties. 45 patients were examined using either 15 mL of gadobutrol (non-protein-binding, n = 15), 32 mL of gadobenate dimeglumine (weakly protein binding, n = 15) or 11 mL gadofosveset trisodium (protein binding, n = 15) followed by equilibrium-phase high-spatial-resolution MR-angiography of four consecutive anatomic regions. The time elapsed between the contrast injection and the beginning of the equilibrium-phase image acquisition in the respective region was measured and was up to 21 min. Signal intensity was measured in two vessels per region and in muscle tissue. Relative contrast (RC) values were calculated. Vessel contrast, artifacts and image quality were rated by two radiologists in consensus on a five-point scale. Compared with gadobutrol, gadofosveset trisodium revealed significantly higher RC values only when acquired later than 15 min after bolus injection. Otherwise, no significant differences between the three contrast media were found regarding vascular contrast and image quality. Equilibrium-phase high-spatial-resolution MR-angiography using a weakly protein-binding or even non-protein-binding contrast medium is equivalent to using a stronger protein-binding contrast medium when image acquisition is within the first 15 min after contrast injection, and allows depiction of the vasculature with high contrast and image quality. The protein-binding contrast medium was superior for imaging only later than 15 min after contrast medium injection. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. The application of phase contrast X-ray techniques for imaging Li-ion battery electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eastwood, D.S. [Manchester X-ray Imaging Facility, School of Materials, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Research Complex at Harwell, Didcot, Oxon OX11 0FA (United Kingdom); Bradley, R.S. [Manchester X-ray Imaging Facility, School of Materials, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Tariq, F.; Cooper, S.J. [Dept. Earth Science and Engineering, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Taiwo, O.O. [Dept. Chemical Engineering, University College London, London WC1E 7JE (United Kingdom); Gelb, J.; Merkle, A. [Carl Zeiss X-ray Microscopy Inc., Pleasanton, CA 94588 (United States); Brett, D.J.L. [Dept. Chemical Engineering, University College London, London WC1E 7JE (United Kingdom); Brandon, N.P. [Dept. Earth Science and Engineering, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Withers, P.J.; Lee, P.D. [Manchester X-ray Imaging Facility, School of Materials, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Research Complex at Harwell, Didcot, Oxon OX11 0FA (United Kingdom); Shearing, P.R., E-mail: p.shearing@ucl.ac.uk [Dept. Chemical Engineering, University College London, London WC1E 7JE (United Kingdom)

    2014-04-01

    In order to accelerate the commercialization of fuel cells and batteries across a range of applications, an understanding of the mechanisms by which they age and degrade at the microstructural level is required. Here, the most widely commercialized Li-ion batteries based on porous graphite based electrodes which de/intercalate Li{sup +} ions during charge/discharge are studied by two phase contrast enhanced X-ray imaging modes, namely in-line phase contrast and Zernike phase contrast at the micro (synchrotron) and nano (laboratory X-ray microscope) level, respectively. The rate of charge cycling is directly dependent on the nature of the electrode microstructure, which are typically complex multi-scale 3D geometries with significant microstructural heterogeneities. We have been able to characterise the porosity and the tortuosity by micro-CT as well as the morphology of 5 individual graphite particles by nano-tomography finding that while their volume varied significantly their sphericity was surprisingly similar. The volume specific surface areas of the individual grains measured by nano-CT are significantly larger than the total volume specific surface area of the electrode from the micro-CT imaging, which can be attributed to the greater particle surface area visible at higher resolution.

  3. The structure of dodecagonal (Ta,V){sub 1.6}Te imaged by phase-contrast scanning transmission electron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krumeich, F., E-mail: krumeich@inorg.chem.ethz.ch [Laboratory of Inorganic Chemistry, ETH Zurich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 10, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Mueller, E.; Wepf, R.A. [Electron Microscopy ETH Zurich (EMEZ), Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 16, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Conrad, M.; Reich, C.; Harbrecht, B. [Department of Chemistry and Centre of Materials Science, Philipps-Universitaet, Hans-Meerwein-Strasse, 35032 Marburg (Germany); Nesper, R. [Laboratory of Inorganic Chemistry, ETH Zurich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 10, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2012-10-15

    While HRTEM is the well-established method to characterize the structure of dodecagonal tantalum (vanadium) telluride quasicrystals and their periodic approximants, phase-contrast imaging performed on an aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) represents a favorable alternative. The (Ta,V){sub 151}Te{sub 74} clusters, the basic structural unit in all these phases, can be visualized with high resolution. A dependence of the image contrast on defocus and specimen thickness has been observed. In thin areas, the projected crystal potential is basically imaged with either dark or bright contrast at two defocus values close to Scherzer defocus as confirmed by image simulations utilizing the principle of reciprocity. Models for square-triangle tilings describing the arrangement of the basic clusters can be derived from such images. - Graphical abstract: PC-STEM image of a (Ta,V){sub 151}Te{sub 74} cluster. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer C{sub s}-corrected STEM is applied for the characterization of dodecagonal quasicrystals. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The projected potential of the structure is mirrored in the images. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Phase-contrast STEM imaging depends on defocus and thickness. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer For simulations of phase-contrast STEM images, the reciprocity theorem is applicable.

  4. Detection of hepatic VX2 tumors in rabbits: comparison of conventional US and phase- inversion harmonic US during the liver- specific late phase of contrast enhancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jeong Min; Youk, Ji Hyun; Lee, Young Hwan; Kim, Young Kon; Kim, Chong Soo; Li, Chun Ai

    2003-01-01

    To compare phase-inversion sonography during the liver-specific phase of contrast enhancement using a microbubble contrast agent with conventional B-mode sonography for the detection of VX2 liver tumors. Twenty-three rabbits, 18 of which had VX2 liver tumor implants, received a bolus injection of 0.6 g of Levovist (200 mg/ml). During the liver-specific phase of this agent, they were evaluated using both conventional sonography and contrast-enhanced phase-inversion harmonic imaging (CEPIHI). Following sacrifice of the animals, pathologic analysis was performed and the reference standard thus obtained. The conspicuity, size and number of the tumors before and after contrast administration, as determined by a sonographer, were compared between the two modes and with the pathologic findings. CE-PIHI demonstrated marked hepatic parenchymal enhancement in all rabbits. For VX2 tumors detected at both conventional US and CE- PIHI, conspicuity was improved by contrast-enhanced PIHI. On examination of gross specimens, 52 VX2 tumors were identified. Conventional US correctly detected 18 of the 52 (34.6%), while PIHI detected 35 (67.3%) (p < 0.05). In particular, conventional US detected only three (8.3%) of the 36 tumors less than 10 mm in diameter, but CE-PIHI detected 19 such tumors (52.8%) (p < 0.05). Compared to conventional sonography, PIHI performed during the liver-specific phase after intravenous injection of Levovist is markedly better at detecting VX2 liver tumors

  5. ZEUS: a cophasing sensor based on the Zernike phase contrast method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohlen, Kjetil; Langlois, Maud; Lanzoni, Patrick; Mazzanti, Silvio; Vigan, Arthur; Montoya, Luzma; Hernandez, Elvio; Reyes, Marcos; Surdej, Isabel; Yaitskova, Natalya

    2006-06-01

    We describe the ZEUS phasing camera for future extremely large telescopes (ELTs) based on the Zernike phase contrast method. A prototype instrument is under construction for implementation in the Active Phasing Experiment (APE), a VLT test bed scheduled for operation in 2007. The paper describes theoretical aspects of the method and its experimental validation, as well as the instrumental implementation for APE. Aspects of its implementation in an ELT are also discussed. While the classical Zernike method uses a phase mask with diameter approximately equal to the Airy disk, we employ a mask the size of the seeing disk. This allows us to overcome the problems related to atmospheric turbulence, whose low spatial frequency phase errors are much larger than the co-phasing errors to be measured. The thickness (OPD) of the mask can be set to lambda/4 - as in the classical case - for maximum signal strength, but for initial phasing where phase errors are much larger than the sensor's linear range (+/-lambda/4), a thinner mask produces a cleaner signal more easily exploitable, leaving the signal analysis more robust. A multi wavelength approach is implemented in order to extend the capture range of the sensor, and the ultimate precision is reached using an iterative approach. End-to-end simulations indicating an achievable precision within the required precision will be shown.

  6. Dense and high-stability Ti2AlN MAX phase coatings prepared by the combined cathodic arc/sputter technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenyu; Liu, Jingzhou; Wang, Li; Li, Xiaowei; Ke, Peiling; Wang, Aiying

    2017-02-01

    Ti2AlN belongs to a family of ternary nano-laminate alloys known as the MAX phases, which exhibit a unique combination of metallic and ceramic properties. In the present work, the dense and high-stability Ti2AlN coating has been successfully prepared through the combined cathodic arc/sputter deposition, followed by heat post-treatment. It was found that the as-deposited Ti-Al-N coating behaved a multilayer structure, where (Ti, N)-rich layer and Al-rich layer grew alternately, with a mixed phase constitution of TiN and TiAlx. After annealing at 800 °C under vacuum condition for 1.5 h, although the multilayer structure still was found, part of multilayer interfaces became indistinct and disappeared. In particular, the thickness of the Al-rich layer decreased in contrast to that of as-deposited coating due to the inner diffusion of the Al element. Moreover, the Ti2AlN MAX phase emerged as the major phase in the annealed coatings and its formation mechanism was also discussed in this study. The vacuum thermal analysis indicated that the formed Ti2AlN MAX phase exhibited a high-stability, which was mainly benefited from the large thickness and the dense structure. This advanced technique based on the combined cathodic arc/sputter method could be extended to deposit other MAX phase coatings with tailored high performance like good thermal stability, high corrosion and oxidation resistance etc. for the next protective coating materials.

  7. Wide-area phase-contrast X-ray imaging using large X-ray interferometers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Momose, Atsushi E-mail: momose@exp.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp; Takeda, Tohoru; Yoneyama, Akio; Koyama, Ichiro; Itai, Yuji

    2001-07-21

    Large X-ray interferometers are developed for phase-contrast X-ray imaging aiming at medical applications. A monolithic X-ray interferometer and a separate one are studied, and currently a 25 mmx20 mm view area can be generated. This paper describes the strategy of our research program and some recent developments.

  8. Wide-area phase-contrast X-ray imaging using large X-ray interferometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momose, Atsushi; Takeda, Tohoru; Yoneyama, Akio; Koyama, Ichiro; Itai, Yuji

    2001-07-01

    Large X-ray interferometers are developed for phase-contrast X-ray imaging aiming at medical applications. A monolithic X-ray interferometer and a separate one are studied, and currently a 25 mm×20 mm view area can be generated. This paper describes the strategy of our research program and some recent developments.

  9. Phase-contrast X-ray computed tomography of non-formalin fixed biological objects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda, Tohoru E-mail: ttakeda@md.tsukuba.ac.jp; Momose, Atsushi; Wu, Jin; Zeniya, Tsutomu; Yu Quanwen; Thet Thet Lwin; Itai, Yuji

    2001-07-21

    Using a monolithic X-ray interferometer having the view size of 25 mmx25 mm, phase-contrast X-ray CT (PCCT) was performed for non-formalin fixed livers of two normal rats and a rabbit transplanted with VX-2 cancer. PCCT images of liver and cancer lesions resembled well those obtained by formalin fixed samples.

  10. Fresnel zone-plate based X-ray microscopy in Zernike phase contrast with sub-50 nm resolution at NSRL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Jie; Li Wenjie; Tian Jinping; Liu Longhua; Xiong Ying; Liu Gang; Wu Ziyu; Tian Yangchao; Liu Yijin; Yue Zhengbo; Yu Hanqing; Wang Chunru

    2009-01-01

    A transmission X-ray microscope using Fresnel zone-plates (FZPs) has been installed at U7A beamline of National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (NSRL). The objective FZP with 45 nm outermost zone width delivers a sub-50 nm resolution. A gold phase ring with 2.5 μm thickness and 4 μm width was placed at the focal plane of the objective FZP at 8 keV to produce a negative Zernike phase contrast. A series of samples were used to test the performance of the Zernike phase contrast X-ray microscopy.

  11. Fresnel zone-plate based X-ray microscopy in Zernike phase contrast with sub-50 nm resolution at NSRL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Jie; Li Wenjie; Tian Jinping; Liu Longhua; Xiong Ying; Liu Gang; Wu Ziyu; Tian Yangchao [National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (China); Liu Yijin [School of Physics (China); Yue Zhengbo; Yu Hanqing [Laboratory of Environmental Engineering, School of Chemistry, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei Anhui 230029 (China); Wang Chunru, E-mail: ychtian@ustc.edu.c [Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 10060 (China)

    2009-09-01

    A transmission X-ray microscope using Fresnel zone-plates (FZPs) has been installed at U7A beamline of National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (NSRL). The objective FZP with 45 nm outermost zone width delivers a sub-50 nm resolution. A gold phase ring with 2.5 {mu}m thickness and 4 {mu}m width was placed at the focal plane of the objective FZP at 8 keV to produce a negative Zernike phase contrast. A series of samples were used to test the performance of the Zernike phase contrast X-ray microscopy.

  12. A feasibility study of X-ray phase-contrast mammographic tomography at the Imaging and Medical beamline of the Australian Synchrotron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesterets, Yakov I; Gureyev, Timur E; Mayo, Sheridan C; Stevenson, Andrew W; Thompson, Darren; Brown, Jeremy M C; Kitchen, Marcus J; Pavlov, Konstantin M; Lockie, Darren; Brun, Francesco; Tromba, Giuliana

    2015-11-01

    Results are presented of a recent experiment at the Imaging and Medical beamline of the Australian Synchrotron intended to contribute to the implementation of low-dose high-sensitivity three-dimensional mammographic phase-contrast imaging, initially at synchrotrons and subsequently in hospitals and medical imaging clinics. The effect of such imaging parameters as X-ray energy, source size, detector resolution, sample-to-detector distance, scanning and data processing strategies in the case of propagation-based phase-contrast computed tomography (CT) have been tested, quantified, evaluated and optimized using a plastic phantom simulating relevant breast-tissue characteristics. Analysis of the data collected using a Hamamatsu CMOS Flat Panel Sensor, with a pixel size of 100 µm, revealed the presence of propagation-based phase contrast and demonstrated significant improvement of the quality of phase-contrast CT imaging compared with conventional (absorption-based) CT, at medically acceptable radiation doses.

  13. Feasibility of measuring renal blood flow by phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spithoven, E M; Meijer, E; Borns, C; Boertien, W E; Gaillard, C A J M; Kappert, P; Greuter, M J W; van der Jagt, E; Vart, P; de Jong, P E; Gansevoort, R T

    2016-03-01

    Renal blood flow (RBF) has been shown to predict disease progression in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). We investigated the feasibility and accuracy of phase-contrast RBF by MRI (RBFMRI) in ADPKD patients with a wide range of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) values. First, we validated RBFMRI measurement using phantoms simulating renal artery hemodynamics. Thereafter, we investigated in a test-set of 21 patients intra- and inter-observer coefficient of variation of RBFMRI. After validation, we measured RBFMRI in a cohort of 91 patients and compared the variability explained by characteristics indicative for disease severity for RBFMRI and RBF measured by continuous hippuran infusion. The correlation in flow measurement using phantoms by phase-contrast MRI was high and fluid collection was high (CCC=0.969). Technical problems that precluded RBFMRI measurement occurred predominantly in patients with a lower eGFR (34% vs. 16%). In subjects with higher eGFRs, variability in RBF explained by disease characteristics was similar for RBFMRI compared to RBFHip, whereas in subjects with lower eGFRs, this was significantly less for RBFMRI. Our study shows that RBF can be measured accurately in ADPKD patients by phase-contrast, but this technique may be less feasible in subjects with a lower eGFR. Renal blood flow (RBF) can be accurately measured by phase-contrast MRI in ADPKD patients. RBF measured by phase-contrast is associated with ADPKD disease severity. RBF measurement by phase-contrast MRI may be less feasible in patients with an impaired eGFR.

  14. O valor da fase sem contraste na tomografia computadorizada do abdome The role of the unenhanced phase in the routine abdominal computed tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Klautau Leite

    2008-10-01

    (first analysis and, later, in the unenhanced phase (second analysis in an attempt to establish the primary and secondary diagnoses as a function of the clinical indication for the study. The frequency of changes in the diagnoses resulting from a combined analysis of the images in the pre- and post-contrast phases was evaluated. Cases with changes in the diagnosis were reviewed by clinical specialists for determining possible changes in the therapeutic approach. RESULTS: Primary and secondary diagnoses were changed in respectively 1 and 18 cases (p = 1.000; p = 0.143 as follows: steatosis, adrenal nodules, nephrolithiasis, renal cysts and hepatic calcification. In the cases where the unenhanced phase changed the diagnosis, the specialists changed the therapeutic approach in 14 of the 19 patients (73% (p = 0.038. CONCLUSION: No significant change was observed in the primary or secondary diagnosis as a result of the findings in the unenhanced phase. However, changes in secondary diagnoses affected the therapeutic approach adopted by the specialists.

  15. Hard x-ray phase contrastmicroscopy - techniques and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzner, Christian

    In 1918, Einstein provided the first description of the nature of the refractive index for X-rays, showing that phase contrast effects are significant. A century later, most x-ray microscopy and nearly all medical imaging remains based on absorption contrast, even though phase contrast offers orders of magnitude improvements in contrast and reduced radiation exposure at multi-keV x-ray energies. The work presented is concerned with developing practical and quantitative methods of phase contrast for x-ray microscopy. A theoretical framework for imaging in phase contrast is put forward; this is used to obtain quantitative images in a scanning microscope using a segmented detector, and to correct for artifacts in a commercial phase contrast x-ray nano-tomography system. The principle of reciprocity between scanning and full-field microscopes is then used to arrive at a novel solution: Zernike contrast in a scanning microscope. These approaches are compared on a theoretical and experimental basis in direct connection with applications using multi-keV x-ray microscopes at the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory. Phase contrast provides the best means to image mass and ultrastructure of light elements that mainly constitute biological matter, while stimulated x-ray fluorescence provides high sensitivity for studies of the distribution of heavier trace elements, such as metals. These approaches are combined in a complementary way to yield quantitative maps of elemental concentration from 2D images, with elements placed in their ultrastructural context. The combination of x-ray fluorescence and phase contrast poses an ideal match for routine, high resolution tomographic imaging of biological samples in the future. The presented techniques and demonstration experiments will help pave the way for this development.

  16. Phase-contrast X-ray computed tomography of non-formalin fixed biological objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Tohoru; Momose, Atsushi; Wu, Jin; Zeniya, Tsutomu; Yu, Quanwen; Thet-Thet-Lwin; Itai, Yuji

    2001-07-01

    Using a monolithic X-ray interferometer having the view size of 25 mm×25 mm, phase-contrast X-ray CT (PCCT) was performed for non-formalin fixed livers of two normal rats and a rabbit transplanted with VX-2 cancer. PCCT images of liver and cancer lesions resembled well those obtained by formalin fixed samples.

  17. First application of liquid-metal-jet sources for small-animal imaging: High-resolution CT and phase-contrast tumor demarcation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsson, Daniel H.; Lundstroem, Ulf; Burvall, Anna; Hertz, Hans M. [Department of Applied Physics, KTH Royal Institute of Technology/Albanova, 10691 Stockholm (Sweden); Westermark, Ulrica K.; Arsenian Henriksson, Marie [Department of Microbiology, Tumor and Cell Biology (MTC), Karolinska Institutet, 17177 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2013-02-15

    Purpose: Small-animal studies require images with high spatial resolution and high contrast due to the small scale of the structures. X-ray imaging systems for small animals are often limited by the microfocus source. Here, the authors investigate the applicability of liquid-metal-jet x-ray sources for such high-resolution small-animal imaging, both in tomography based on absorption and in soft-tissue tumor imaging based on in-line phase contrast. Methods: The experimental arrangement consists of a liquid-metal-jet x-ray source, the small-animal object on a rotating stage, and an imaging detector. The source-to-object and object-to-detector distances are adjusted for the preferred contrast mechanism. Two different liquid-metal-jet sources are used, one circulating a Ga/In/Sn alloy and the other an In/Ga alloy for higher penetration through thick tissue. Both sources are operated at 40-50 W electron-beam power with {approx}7 {mu}m x-ray spots, providing high spatial resolution in absorption imaging and high spatial coherence for the phase-contrast imaging. Results: High-resolution absorption imaging is demonstrated on mice with CT, showing 50 {mu}m bone details in the reconstructed slices. High-resolution phase-contrast soft-tissue imaging shows clear demarcation of mm-sized tumors at much lower dose than is required in absorption. Conclusions: This is the first application of liquid-metal-jet x-ray sources for whole-body small-animal x-ray imaging. In absorption, the method allows high-resolution tomographic skeletal imaging with potential for significantly shorter exposure times due to the power scalability of liquid-metal-jet sources. In phase contrast, the authors use a simple in-line arrangement to show distinct tumor demarcation of few-mm-sized tumors. This is, to their knowledge, the first small-animal tumor visualization with a laboratory phase-contrast system.

  18. Quantitative measurement of portal blood flow by magnetic resonance phase contrast. Comparative study of flow phantom and Doppler ultrasound in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsunoda, Masatoshi; Kimoto, Shin; Hamazaki, Keisuke; Takeda, Yoshihiro; Hiraki, Yoshio.

    1994-01-01

    A non-invasive method for measuring portal blood flow by magnetic resonance (MR) phase contrast was evaluated in a flow phantom and 20 healthy volunteers. In a flow phantom study, the flow volumes and mean flow velocities measured by MR phase contrast showed close correlations with those measured by electromagnetic flow-metry. In 20 healthy volunteers, the cross-sectional areas, flow volumes and mean flow velocities measured by MR phase contrast correlated well with those measured by the Doppler ultrasound method. Portal blood flow averaged during the imaging time could be measured under natural breathing conditions by using a large number of acquisitions without the limitations imposed on the Doppler ultrasound method. MR phase contrast is considered to be useful for the non-invasive measurement of portal blood flow. (author)

  19. When the non-contrast-enhanced phase is unnecessary in abdominal computed tomography scans? A retrospective analysis of 244 cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Danilo Manuel Cerqueira; Salvadori, Priscila Silveira; Monjardim, Rodrigo da Fonseca; Bretas, Elisa Almeida Sathler; Torres, Lucas Rios; Caldana, Rogerio Pedreschi; Shigueoka, David Carlos; Medeiros, Regina Bitelli; D' ippolito, Giuseppe, E-mail: giuseppe_dr@uol.com.br [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (EPM/UNIFESP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Escola Paulista de Medicina. Departamento de Diagnostico por Imagem

    2013-06-15

    Objective: to evaluate the necessity of the non contrast-enhanced phase in abdominal computed tomography scans. Materials and Methods: A retrospective, cross-sectional, observational study was developed, evaluating 244 consecutive abdominal computed tomography scans both with and without contrast injection. Initially, the contrast-enhanced images were analyzed (first analysis). Subsequently, the observers had access to the non-contrast-enhanced images for a second analysis. The primary and secondary diagnoses were established as a function of the clinical indications for each study (such as tumor staging, acute abdomen, investigation for abdominal collection and hepatocellular carcinoma, among others). Finally, the changes in the diagnoses resulting from the addition of the non-contrast-enhanced phase were evaluated. Results: Only one (0.4%; p > 0.999; non-statistically significant) out of the 244 reviewed cases had the diagnosis changed after the reading of non-contrast-enhanced images. As the secondary diagnoses are considered, 35 (14%) cases presented changes after the second analysis, as follows: nephrolithiasis (10%), steatosis (3%), adrenal nodule (0.7%) and cholelithiasis (0.3%). Conclusion: For the clinical indications of tumor staging, acute abdomen, investigation of abdominal collections and hepatocellular carcinoma, the non-contrast-enhanced phase can be excluded from abdominal computed tomography studies with no significant impact on the diagnosis. (author)

  20. Noise analysis of grating-based x-ray differential phase-contrast imaging with angular signal radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faiz, Wali; Gao Kun; Wu Zhao; Wei Chen-Xi; Zan Gui-Bin; Tian Yang-Chao; Bao Yuan; Zhu Pei-Ping

    2017-01-01

    X-ray phase-contrast imaging is one of the novel techniques, and has potential to enhance image quality and provide the details of inner structures nondestructively. In this work, we investigate quantitatively signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of grating-based x-ray phase contrast imaging (GBPCI) system by employing angular signal radiography (ASR). Moreover, photon statistics and mechanical error that is a major source of noise are investigated in detail. Results show the dependence of SNR on the system parameters and the effects on the extracted absorption, refraction and scattering images. Our conclusions can be used to optimize the system design for upcoming practical applications in the areas such as material science and biomedical imaging. (paper)

  1. SU-F-I-19: MRI Positive Contrast Visualization of Prostate Brachytherapy Seeds Using An Integrated Laplacian-Based Phase Processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soliman, A; Safigholi, H [Sunnybrook Research Institute, Toronto, ON (Canada); Sunnybrook Health Sciences Center, Toronto, ON (Canada); Nosrati, R [Sunnybrook Health Sciences Center, Toronto, ON (Canada); Ryerson University, Toronto, ON (Canada); Owrangi, A; Morton, G [Sunnybrook Health Sciences Center, Toronto, ON (Canada); University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Song, W [Sunnybrook Research Institute, Toronto, ON (Canada); Sunnybrook Health Sciences Center, Toronto, ON (Canada); Ryerson University, Toronto, ON (Canada); University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To propose a new method that provides a positive contrast visualization of the prostate brachytherapy seeds using the phase information from MR images. Additionally, the feasibility of using the processed phase information to distinguish seeds from calcifications is explored. Methods: A gel phantom was constructed using 2% agar dissolved in 1 L of distilled water. Contrast agents were added to adjust the relaxation times. Four iodine-125 (Eckert & Ziegler SML86999) dummy seeds were placed at different orientations with respect to the main magnetic field (B0). Calcifications were obtained from a sheep femur cortical bone due to its close similarity to human bone tissue composition. Five samples of calcifications were shaped into different dimensions with lengths ranging between 1.2 – 6.1 mm.MR imaging was performed on a 3T Philips Achieva using an 8-channel head coil. Eight images were acquired at eight echo-times using a multi-gradient echo sequence. Spatial resolution was 0.7 × 0.7 × 2 mm, TR/TE/dTE = 20.0/2.3/2.3 ms and BW = 541 Hz/pixel. Complex images were acquired and fed into a two-step processing pipeline: the first includes phase unwrapping and background phase removal using Laplacian operator (Wei et al. 2013). The second step applies a specific phase mask on the resulting tissue phase from the first step to provide the desired positive contrast of the seeds and to, potentially, differentiate them from the calcifications. Results: The phase-processing was performed in less than 30 seconds. The proposed method has successfully resulted in a positive contrast of the brachytherapy seeds. Additionally, the final processed phase image showed difference between the appearance of seeds and calcifications. However, the shape of the seeds was slightly distorted compared to the original dimensions. Conclusion: It is feasible to provide a positive contrast of the seeds from MR images using Laplacian operator-based phase processing.

  2. Bone histomorphometric quantification by X-ray phase contrast and transmission 3D SR microcomputed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nogueira, L.P.; Pinheiro, C.J.G.; Braz, D.; Oliveira, L.F.; Barroso, R.C.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Conventional histomorphometry is an important method for quantitative evaluation of bone microstructure. X-ray computed tomography is a noninvasive technique, which can be used to evaluate histomorphometric indices. In this technique, the output 3D images are used to quantify the whole sample, differently from the conventional one, in which the quantification is performed in 2D slices and extrapolated for 3D case. Looking for better resolutions and visualization of soft tissues, X-ray phase contrast imaging technique was developed. The objective of this work was to perform histomorphometric quantification of human cancellous bone using 3D synchrotron X ray computed microtomography, using two distinct techniques: transmission and phase contrast, in order to compare the results and evaluate the viability of applying the same methodology of quantification for both technique. All experiments were performed at the ELETTRA Synchrotron Light Laboratory in Trieste (Italy). MicroCT data sets were collected using the CT set-up on the SYRMEP (Synchrotron Radiation for Medical Physics) beamline. Results showed that there is a better correlation between histomorphometric parameters of both techniques when morphological filters had been used. However, using these filters, some important information given by phase contrast are lost and they shall be explored by new techniques of quantification

  3. 4-D flow magnetic resonance imaging: blood flow quantification compared to 2-D phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging and Doppler echocardiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabbour, Maya [Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children' s Hospital of Chicago, Department of Medical Imaging 9, Chicago, IL (United States); Schnell, Susanne [Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Chicago, IL (United States); Jarvis, Kelly [Northwestern University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, McCormick School of Engineering, Evanston, IL (United States); Robinson, Joshua D. [Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children' s Hospital of Chicago, Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Cardiology, Chicago, IL (United States); Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Chicago, IL (United States); Markl, Michael [Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Chicago, IL (United States); Northwestern University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, McCormick School of Engineering, Evanston, IL (United States); Rigsby, Cynthia K. [Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children' s Hospital of Chicago, Department of Medical Imaging 9, Chicago, IL (United States); Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Doppler echocardiography (echo) is the reference standard for blood flow velocity analysis, and two-dimensional (2-D) phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is considered the reference standard for quantitative blood flow assessment. However, both clinical standard-of-care techniques are limited by 2-D acquisitions and single-direction velocity encoding and may make them inadequate to assess the complex three-dimensional hemodynamics seen in congenital heart disease. Four-dimensional flow MRI (4-D flow) enables qualitative and quantitative analysis of complex blood flow in the heart and great arteries. The objectives of this study are to compare 4-D flow with 2-D phase-contrast MRI for quantification of aortic and pulmonary flow and to evaluate the advantage of 4-D flow-based volumetric flow analysis compared to 2-D phase-contrast MRI and echo for peak velocity assessment in children and young adults. Two-dimensional phase-contrast MRI of the aortic root, main pulmonary artery (MPA), and right and left pulmonary arteries (RPA, LPA) and 4-D flow with volumetric coverage of the aorta and pulmonary arteries were performed in 50 patients (mean age: 13.1 ± 6.4 years). Four-dimensional flow analyses included calculation of net flow and regurgitant fraction with 4-D flow analysis planes similarly positioned to 2-D planes. In addition, 4-D flow volumetric assessment of aortic root/ascending aorta and MPA peak velocities was performed and compared to 2-D phase-contrast MRI and echo. Excellent correlation and agreement were found between 2-D phase-contrast MRI and 4-D flow for net flow (r = 0.97, P < 0.001) and excellent correlation with good agreement was found for regurgitant fraction (r = 0.88, P < 0.001) in all vessels. Two-dimensional phase-contrast MRI significantly underestimated aortic (P = 0.032) and MPA (P < 0.001) peak velocities compared to echo, while volumetric 4-D flow analysis resulted in higher (aortic: P = 0.001) or similar (MPA: P = 0.98) peak

  4. Phase-contrast MR angiography of intracranial dural arteriovenous fistulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cellerini, M.; Mascalchi, M.; Mangiafico, S.; Ferrito, G.P.; Scardigli, V.; Pellicano, G.; Quilici, N.

    1999-01-01

    MRI and phase-contrast MR angiography (PC MRA) were obtained in 13 patients with angiographically confirmed intracranial dural arteriovenous fistulae (DAVF). Three- and two-dimensional PC MRA was obtained with low (6-20 cm/s) and high (>40 cm/s) velocity encoding along the three main body axes. MRI showed focal or diffuse signal abnormalities in the brain parenchyma in six patients, dilated cortical veins in seven, venous pouches in four with type IV DAVF and enlargement of the superior ophthalmic vein in three patients with DAVF of the cavernous sinus. However, it showed none of the fistula sites and did not allow reliable identification of feeding arteries. 3D PC MRA enabled identification of the fistula and enlarged feeding arteries in six cases each. Stenosis or occlusion of the dural sinuses was detected in six of eight cases on 3D PC MRA with low velocity encoding. In six patients with type II DAVF phase reconstruction of 2D PC MRA demonstrated flow reversal in the dural sinuses or superior ophthalmic vein. (orig.)

  5. An iterative method for near-field Fresnel region polychromatic phase contrast imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Aidan J.; van Riessen, Grant A.; Balaur, Eugeniu; Dolbnya, Igor P.; Tran, Giang N.; Peele, Andrew G.

    2017-07-01

    We present an iterative method for polychromatic phase contrast imaging that is suitable for broadband illumination and which allows for the quantitative determination of the thickness of an object given the refractive index of the sample material. Experimental and simulation results suggest the iterative method provides comparable image quality and quantitative object thickness determination when compared to the analytical polychromatic transport of intensity and contrast transfer function methods. The ability of the iterative method to work over a wider range of experimental conditions means the iterative method is a suitable candidate for use with polychromatic illumination and may deliver more utility for laboratory-based x-ray sources, which typically have a broad spectrum.

  6. 4D phase contrast flow imaging for in-stent flow visualization and assessment of stent patency in peripheral vascular stents--a phantom study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunck, Alexander C; Jüttner, Alena; Kröger, Jan Robert; Burg, Matthias C; Kugel, Harald; Niederstadt, Thomas; Tiemann, Klaus; Schnackenburg, Bernhard; Crelier, Gerard R; Heindel, Walter; Maintz, David

    2012-09-01

    4D phase contrast flow imaging is increasingly used to study the hemodynamics in various vascular territories and pathologies. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility and validity of MRI based 4D phase contrast flow imaging for the evaluation of in-stent blood flow in 17 commonly used peripheral stents. 17 different peripheral stents were implanted into a MR compatible flow phantom. In-stent visibility, maximal velocity and flow visualization were assessed and estimates of in-stent patency obtained from 4D phase contrast flow data sets were compared to a conventional 3D contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (CE-MRA) as well as 2D PC flow measurements. In all but 3 of the tested stents time-resolved 3D particle traces could be visualized inside the stent lumen. Quality of 4D flow visualization and CE-MRA images depended on stent type and stent orientation relative to the magnetic field. Compared to the visible lumen area determined by 3D CE-MRA, estimates of lumen patency derived from 4D flow measurements were significantly higher and less dependent on stent type. A higher number of stents could be assessed for in-stent patency by 4D phase contrast flow imaging (n=14) than by 2D phase contrast flow imaging (n=10). 4D phase contrast flow imaging in peripheral vascular stents is feasible and appears advantageous over conventional 3D contrast-enhanced MR angiography and 2D phase contrast flow imaging. It allows for in-stent flow visualization and flow quantification with varying quality depending on stent type. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. X-ray phase contrast imaging of the bone-cartilage interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismail, E.C.; Kaabar, W.; Garrity, D.; Gundogdu, O.; Bradley, D.A.; Bunk, O.; Pfeiffer, F.; Farquharson, M.J.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Synovial joints articulate in a lubricating environment, the system providing for smooth articulation. The articular cartilage overlying the bone consists of a network of collagen fibres. This network is essential to cartilage integrity, suffering damage in degenerative joint disease such as osteoarthritis. At Surrey and also in work conducted by this group at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) synchrotron site we have been applying a number of techniques in studying the bone-cartilage interface and of changes occurring in this with disease. One technique attracting particular interest is X-ray phase contrast imaging, yielding information on anatomical features that manifest from the large scale organisation of collagen and the mineralised phase contained within the collagen fibres in the deep cartilage zone. This work will briefly review some of the basic supporting physics and then shows some of the images and other results that we have obtained to-date

  8. Estimation of pulmonary vascular resistance in patients with pulmonary fibrosis by phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayukawa, Yuichiro; Murayama, Sadayuki; Tsuchiya, Nanae; Yara, Satomi; Fujita, Jiro

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) in patients with pulmonary fibrosis (PF) by phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Subjects were 11 healthy volunteers and 11 patients with PF. Using phase-contrast MRI, we measured pulmonary arterial blood flow and calculated the parameters of PVR. Parameters were compared between volunteers and patients using unpaired t-tests. The diagnostic capability of the parameters was evaluated by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. Patients underwent respiratory function tests (RFTs) and chest computed tomography (CT), and they were correlated with MRI parameters. Most MRI parameters were significantly different between volunteers and patients (t-test P values were <0.05 in 9 of 10 parameters). Regarding the RFT and CT visual score, only the %DLco/VA and acceleration time and the CT visual score and average flow volume had significant correlation [r=-0.667 (P=0.024) and r=-0.6 (P=0.031)], respectively. Our findings suggest that PVR derived from phase-contrast MRI is significantly higher in patients with PF than in volunteers. However, all but two of these parameters may not correlate with the severity of PF. (author)

  9. Wide-Field Vibrational Phase Contrast Imaging Based on Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering Holography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lv Yong-Gang; Ji Zi-Heng; Dong Da-Shan; Gong Qi-Huang; Shi Ke-Bin

    2015-01-01

    We propose and implement a wide-field vibrational phase contrast detection to obtain imaging of imaginary components of third-order nonlinear susceptibility in a coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscope with full suppression of the non-resonant background. This technique is based on the unique ability of recovering the phase of the generated CARS signal based on holographic recording. By capturing the phase distributions of the generated CARS field from the sample and from the environment under resonant illumination, we demonstrate the retrieval of imaginary components in the CARS microscope and achieve background free coherent Raman imaging. (paper)

  10. Preliminary comparison of grating-based and in-line phase contrast X-ray imaging with synchrotron radiation for mouse kidney at TOMCAT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, J; Liu, P; Xu, L X; Irvine, S; Pinzer, B; Stampanoni, M

    2013-01-01

    Phase contrast imaging has been demonstrated to be advantageous in revealing detailed structures inside biological specimens without contrast agents. Grating-based differential phase contrast (DPC) and in-line phase contrast (ILPC) X-ray imaging are the two modalities frequently used at the beamline of TOmographic Microscopy and Coherent rAdiology experimenTs (TOMCAT) at the Swiss Light Source (SLS). In this paper, we preliminarily compared the abilities of two types of phase contrast imaging in distinguishing micro structures in mouse kidneys. The 3D reconstructions showed that the microstructures in kidney, such as micro vessels and renal tubules, were displayed clearly with both imaging modalities. The two techniques may be viewed as complementary. For larger features with very small density variations DPC is the desirable method. In cases where dose and time limits may prohibit the multiple steps required for DPC, and when the focus is on finer features, the ILPC method may be considered as a more viable alternative. Moreover, high resolution ILPC images are comparable with histological results.

  11. Increasing the darkfield contrast-to-noise ratio using a deconvolution-based information retrieval algorithm in X-ray grating-based phase-contrast imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Thomas; Pelzer, Georg; Bayer, Florian; Horn, Florian; Rieger, Jens; Ritter, André; Zang, Andrea; Durst, Jürgen; Anton, Gisela; Michel, Thilo

    2013-07-29

    A novel information retrieval algorithm for X-ray grating-based phase-contrast imaging based on the deconvolution of the object and the reference phase stepping curve (PSC) as proposed by Modregger et al. was investigated in this paper. We applied the method for the first time on data obtained with a polychromatic spectrum and compared the results to those, received by applying the commonly used method, based on a Fourier analysis. We confirmed the expectation, that both methods deliver the same results for the absorption and the differential phase image. For the darkfield image, a mean contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) increase by a factor of 1.17 using the new method was found. Furthermore, the dose saving potential was estimated for the deconvolution method experimentally. It is found, that for the conventional method a dose which is higher by a factor of 1.66 is needed to obtain a similar CNR value compared to the novel method. A further analysis of the data revealed, that the improvement in CNR and dose efficiency is due to the superior background noise properties of the deconvolution method, but at the cost of comparability between measurements at different applied dose values, as the mean value becomes dependent on the photon statistics used.

  12. Functionalized synchrotron in-line phase-contrast computed tomography: a novel approach for simultaneous quantification of structural alterations and localization of barium-labelled alveolar macrophages within mouse lung samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dullin, Christian, E-mail: christian.dullin@med.uni-goettingen.de [University Medical Center Göttingen, Robert Koch Strasse 40, 37075 Göttingen (Germany); Monego, Simeone dal [Cluster in Biomedicine, AREA Science Park Basovizza, Trieste (Italy); Larsson, Emanuel [Elettra Sincrotrone Trieste, Strada Statale 14, km 163.5 in AREA Science Park, 34149 Basovizza (Trieste) (Italy); University of Trieste, Trieste (Italy); Linköping University, SE-581 83 Linkoeping (Sweden); Mohammadi, Sara [Elettra Sincrotrone Trieste, Strada Statale 14, km 163.5 in AREA Science Park, 34149 Basovizza (Trieste) (Italy); Krenkel, Martin [University of Göttingen, Göttingen (Germany); Garrovo, Chiara; Biffi, Stefania [IRCCS Burlo Garofolo, Trieste (Italy); Lorenzon, Andrea [Cluster in Biomedicine, AREA Science Park Basovizza, Trieste (Italy); Markus, Andrea [University Medical Center Göttingen, Robert Koch Strasse 40, 37075 Göttingen (Germany); Napp, Joanna [University Medical Center Göttingen, Robert Koch Strasse 40, 37075 Göttingen (Germany); Max Planck Institute for Experimental Medicine, Hermann-Rein-Strasse 3, 37075 Göttingen (Germany); University Medical Center Göttingen, Robert Koch Strasse 40, 37075 Göttingen (Germany); Salditt, Tim [University of Göttingen, Göttingen (Germany); Accardo, Agostino [University of Trieste, Trieste (Italy); Alves, Frauke [University Medical Center Göttingen, Robert Koch Strasse 40, 37075 Göttingen (Germany); Max Planck Institute for Experimental Medicine, Hermann-Rein-Strasse 3, 37075 Göttingen (Germany); University Medical Center Göttingen, Robert Koch Strasse 40, 37075 Göttingen (Germany); Tromba, Giuliana [Elettra Sincrotrone Trieste, Strada Statale 14, km 163.5 in AREA Science Park, 34149 Basovizza (Trieste) (Italy)

    2015-01-01

    This study presents an approach to increase the sensitivity of lung computed tomography (CT) imaging by utilizing in-line phase contrast CT in combination with single-distance phase-retrieval algorithms and a dedicated image-processing regime. As demonstrated here, functional CT imaging can be achieved for the assessment of both structural alterations in asthmatic mouse lung tissue and the accumulation pattern of instilled barium-sulfate-labelled macrophages in comparison with healthy controls. Functionalized computed tomography (CT) in combination with labelled cells is virtually non-existent due to the limited sensitivity of X-ray-absorption-based imaging, but would be highly desirable to realise cell tracking studies in entire organisms. In this study we applied in-line free propagation X-ray phase-contrast CT (XPCT) in an allergic asthma mouse model to assess structural changes as well as the biodistribution of barium-labelled macrophages in lung tissue. Alveolar macrophages that were barium-sulfate-loaded and fluorescent-labelled were instilled intratracheally into asthmatic and control mice. Mice were sacrificed after 24 h, lungs were kept in situ, inflated with air and scanned utilizing XPCT at the SYRMEP beamline (Elettra Synchrotron Light Source, Italy). Single-distance phase retrieval was used to generate data sets with ten times greater contrast-to-noise ratio than absorption-based CT (in our setup), thus allowing to depict and quantify structural hallmarks of asthmatic lungs such as reduced air volume, obstruction of airways and increased soft-tissue content. Furthermore, we found a higher concentration as well as a specific accumulation of the barium-labelled macrophages in asthmatic lung tissue. It is believe that XPCT will be beneficial in preclinical asthma research for both the assessment of therapeutic response as well as the analysis of the role of the recruitment of macrophages to inflammatory sites.

  13. X-ray phase contrast with injected gas for tumor microangiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundström, U; Larsson, D H; Burvall, A; Hertz, H M; Westermark, U K; Henriksson, M Arsenian

    2014-01-01

    We show that the microvasculature of mouse tumors can be visualized using propagation-based phase-contrast x-ray imaging with gas as the contrast agent. The large density difference over the gas–tissue interface provides high contrast, allowing the imaging of small-diameter blood vessels with relatively short exposure times and low dose using a compact liquid-metal-jet x-ray source. The method investigated is applied to tumors (E1A/Ras-transformed mouse embryonic fibroblasts) grown in mouse ears, demonstrating sub-15-µm-diameter imaging of their blood vessels. The exposure time for a 2D projection image is a few seconds and a full tomographic 3D map takes some minutes. The method relies on the strength of the vasculature to withstand the gas pressure. Given that tumor vessels are known to be more fragile than normal vessels, we investigate the tolerance of the vasculature of 12 tumors to gas injection and find that a majority withstand 200 mbar pressures, enough to fill 12-µm-diameter vessels with gas. A comparison of the elasticity of tumorous and non-tumorous vessels supports the assumption of tumor vessels being more fragile. Finally, we conclude that the method has the potential to be extended to the imaging of 15 µm vessels in thick tissue, including mouse imaging, making it of interest for, e.g., angiogenesis research. (paper)

  14. Contrast enhanced liver MRI in patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis: inverse appearance of focal confluent fibrosis on delayed phase MR images with hepatocyte specific versus extracellular gadolinium based contrast agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husarik, Daniela B; Gupta, Rajan T; Ringe, Kristina I; Boll, Daniel T; Merkle, Elmar M

    2011-12-01

    To assess the enhancement pattern of focal confluent fibrosis (FCF) on contrast-enhanced hepatic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using hepatocyte-specific (Gd-EOB-DTPA) and extracellular (ECA) gadolinium-based contrast agents in patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC). After institutional review board approval, 10 patients with PSC (6 male, 4 female; 33-61 years) with 13 FCF were included in this retrospective study. All patients had a Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced liver MRI exam, and a comparison ECA-enhanced MRI. On each T1-weighted dynamic dataset, the signal intensity (SI) of FCF and the surrounding liver as well as the paraspinal muscle (M) were measured. In the Gd-EOB-DTPA group, hepatocyte phase images were also included. SI FCF/SI M, SI liver/SI M, and [(SI liver - SI FCF)/SI liver] were compared between the different contrast agents for each dynamic phase using the paired Student's t-test. There was no significant difference in SI FCF/SI M in all imaging phases. SI liver/SI M was significantly higher for the Gd-EOB-DTPA group in the delayed phase (P DTPA group, mean [(SI liver - SI FCF)/SI liver] were as follows (values for ECA group in parentheses): unenhanced phase: 0.26 (0.26); arterial phase: 0.01 (-0.31); portal venous phase (PVP): -0.05 (-0.26); delayed phase (DP): 0.14 (-0.54); and hepatocyte phase: 0.26. Differences were significant for the DP (P DTPA-enhanced images. Copyright © 2011 AUR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Computational fluid dynamics simulations of blood flow regularized by 3D phase contrast MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rispoli, Vinicius C; Nielsen, Jon; Nayak, Krishna S

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Phase contrast magnetic resonance imaging (PC-MRI) is used clinically for quantitative assessment of cardiovascular flow and function, as it is capable of providing directly-measured 3D velocity maps. Alternatively, vascular flow can be estimated from model-based computation fluid dyn...

  16. Hard X-Ray Phase-Contrast Imaging for Medical Applications - Physicist's Dream or Radiologist's Mainstream?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkins, S. W.; Gureyev, T. E.; Mayo, S. C.; Nesterets, Ya. I.; Pogany, A.; Stevenson, A. W.; Paganin, D. M.

    2007-01-01

    We briefly review currently practiced methods of X-ray phase contrast imaging and consider some of their relative features, especially in regard to applicability to clinical medical studies. Various related technological issues and promising future areas of development are also briefly discussed

  17. Phase-contrast MR assessment of pulmonary venous blood flow in children with surgically repaired pulmonary veins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valsangiacomo, Emanuela R.; Yoo, Shi-Joon; Barrea, Catherine; Smallhorn, Jeffrey F.; Macgowan, Christopher K.; Coles, John G.

    2003-01-01

    Pulmonary venous (PV) obstruction may complicate surgical repair of PV abnormalities. By combining phase-contrast cine (PC) imaging and contrast-enhanced angiography, magnetic resonance (MR) imaging can provide physiological information complementing anatomical diagnosis. To compare the PV flow pattern observed after surgical repair of PV abnormalities with normal PV flow pattern and to investigate the changes occurring in the presence of PV stenosis by using PC MR in children. By using PC MR, PV flow was evaluated in 14 patients (3 months-14 years) who underwent surgical repair for PV abnormalities. Eleven children (8-18 years) were studied as normal controls. Peak flow velocities and patterns were compared among three groups: normal veins (n=23), surgically repaired veins without (n=44) and with stenosis (n=10). Normal and unobstructed pulmonary veins after surgery showed a biphasic or triphasic flow pattern with one or two systolic peaks and a diastolic peak. Unobstructed surgically repaired veins showed decreased peak systolic velocity (P =0.001) and an increased peak diastolic velocity (P=0.005) when compared to normal values. Obstructed veins showed decreased systolic and diastolic velocities when measured upstream from the stenosis. PC MR shows different flow patterns among normal, surgically repaired pulmonary veins with and without stenosis. (orig.)

  18. Effects of microchannel confinement on acoustic vaporisation of ultrasound phase change contrast agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shengtao; Zhang, Ge; Hau Leow, Chee; Tang, Meng-Xing

    2017-09-01

    The sub-micron phase change contrast agent (PCCA) composed of a perfluorocarbon liquid core can be activated into gaseous state and form stable echogenic microbubbles for contrast-enhanced ultrasound imaging. It has shown great promise in imaging microvasculature, tumour microenvironment, and cancer cells. Although PCCAs have been extensively studied for different diagnostic and therapeutic applications, the effect of biologically geometrical confinement on the acoustic vaporisation of PCCAs is still not clear. We have investigated the difference in PCCA-produced ultrasound contrast enhancement after acoustic activation with and without a microvessel confinement on a microchannel phantom. The experimental results indicated more than one-order of magnitude less acoustic vaporisation in a microchannel than that in a free environment taking into account the attenuation effect of the vessel on the microbubble scattering. This may provide an improved understanding in the applications of PCCAs in vivo.

  19. Generalized phase contrast-enhanced diffractive coupling to light-driven microtools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villangca, Mark Jayson; Bañas, Andrew Rafael; Palima, Darwin

    2015-01-01

    capability of the microtools, the applied spatial light modulator has been illuminated with a properly matched input beam cross section based on the generalized phase contrast method. Our results show a significant gain in the output at the tip of each microtool as measured from the fluorescence signal...... of the coupling spots is done in real time following the position of each microtool with the aid of an object tracking routine. This approach allows continuous coupling of light through the microtools which can be useful in a variety of biophotonics applications. To complement the targeted-light delivery...

  20. An efficient reconstruction algorithm for differential phase-contrast tomographic images from a limited number of views

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sunaguchi, Naoki; Yuasa, Tetsuya; Gupta, Rajiv; Ando, Masami

    2015-01-01

    The main focus of this paper is reconstruction of tomographic phase-contrast image from a set of projections. We propose an efficient reconstruction algorithm for differential phase-contrast computed tomography that can considerably reduce the number of projections required for reconstruction. The key result underlying this research is a projection theorem that states that the second derivative of the projection set is linearly related to the Laplacian of the tomographic image. The proposed algorithm first reconstructs the Laplacian image of the phase-shift distribution from the second-derivative of the projections using total variation regularization. The second step is to obtain the phase-shift distribution by solving a Poisson equation whose source is the Laplacian image previously reconstructed under the Dirichlet condition. We demonstrate the efficacy of this algorithm using both synthetically generated simulation data and projection data acquired experimentally at a synchrotron. The experimental phase data were acquired from a human coronary artery specimen using dark-field-imaging optics pioneered by our group. Our results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm can reduce the number of projections to approximately 33% as compared with the conventional filtered backprojection method, without any detrimental effect on the image quality

  1. A local region of interest image reconstruction via filtered backprojection for fan-beam differential phase-contrast computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi Zhihua; Chen Guanghong

    2007-01-01

    Recently, x-ray differential phase contrast computed tomography (DPC-CT) has been experimentally implemented using a conventional source combined with several gratings. Images were reconstructed using a parallel-beam reconstruction formula. However, parallel-beam reconstruction formulae are not directly applicable for a large image object where the parallel-beam approximation fails. In this note, we present a new image reconstruction formula for fan-beam DPC-CT. There are two major features in this algorithm: (1) it enables the reconstruction of a local region of interest (ROI) using data acquired from an angular interval shorter than 180 0 + fan angle and (2) it still preserves the filtered backprojection structure. Numerical simulations have been conducted to validate the image reconstruction algorithm. (note)

  2. Synchrotron radiation phase-contrast X-ray CT imaging of acupuncture points

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Dongming; Yan, Xiaohui; Zhang, Xinyi [Fudan University, Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, State Key Laboratory of Surface Physics and Department of Physics, Shanghai (China); Liu, Chenglin [Physics Department of Yancheng Teachers' College, Yancheng (China); Dang, Ruishan [The Second Military Medical University, Shanghai (China); Xiao, Tiqiao [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Shanghai (China); Zhu, Peiping [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Institute of High Energy Physics, Beijing (China)

    2011-08-15

    Three-dimensional (3D) topographic structures of acupuncture points were investigated by using synchrotron radiation in-line X-ray phase contrast computerized tomography. Two acupuncture points, named Zhongji (RN3) and Zusanli (ST36), were studied. We found an accumulation of microvessels at each acupuncture point region. Images of the tissues surrounding the acupuncture points do not show such kinds of structure. This is the first time that 3D images have revealed the specific structures of acupuncture points. (orig.)

  3. Synchrotron radiation phase-contrast X-ray CT imaging of acupuncture points

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Dongming; Yan, Xiaohui; Zhang, Xinyi; Liu, Chenglin; Dang, Ruishan; Xiao, Tiqiao; Zhu, Peiping

    2011-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) topographic structures of acupuncture points were investigated by using synchrotron radiation in-line X-ray phase contrast computerized tomography. Two acupuncture points, named Zhongji (RN3) and Zusanli (ST36), were studied. We found an accumulation of microvessels at each acupuncture point region. Images of the tissues surrounding the acupuncture points do not show such kinds of structure. This is the first time that 3D images have revealed the specific structures of acupuncture points. (orig.)

  4. Matched-filtering generalized phase contrast using LCoS pico-projectors for beam-forming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bañas, Andrew; Palima, Darwin; Glückstad, Jesper

    2012-04-23

    We report on a new beam-forming system for generating high intensity programmable optical spikes using so-called matched-filtering Generalized Phase Contrast (mGPC) applying two consumer handheld pico-projectors. Such a system presents a low-cost alternative for optical trapping and manipulation, optical lattices and other beam-shaping applications usually implemented with high-end spatial light modulators. Portable pico-projectors based on liquid crystal on silicon (LCoS) devices are used as binary phase-only spatial light modulators by carefully setting the appropriate polarization of the laser illumination. The devices are subsequently placed into the object and Fourier plane of a standard 4f-setup according to the mGPC spatial filtering configuration. Having a reconfigurable spatial phase filter, instead of a fixed and fabricated one, allows the beam shaper to adapt to different input phase patterns suited for different requirements. Despite imperfections in these consumer pico-projectors, the mGPC approach tolerates phase aberrations that would have otherwise been hard to overcome by standard phase projection. © 2012 Optical Society of America

  5. Penalized maximum likelihood reconstruction for x-ray differential phase-contrast tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brendel, Bernhard; Teuffenbach, Maximilian von; Noël, Peter B.; Pfeiffer, Franz; Koehler, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this work is to propose a cost function with regularization to iteratively reconstruct attenuation, phase, and scatter images simultaneously from differential phase contrast (DPC) acquisitions, without the need of phase retrieval, and examine its properties. Furthermore this reconstruction method is applied to an acquisition pattern that is suitable for a DPC tomographic system with continuously rotating gantry (sliding window acquisition), overcoming the severe smearing in noniterative reconstruction. Methods: We derive a penalized maximum likelihood reconstruction algorithm to directly reconstruct attenuation, phase, and scatter image from the measured detector values of a DPC acquisition. The proposed penalty comprises, for each of the three images, an independent smoothing prior. Image quality of the proposed reconstruction is compared to images generated with FBP and iterative reconstruction after phase retrieval. Furthermore, the influence between the priors is analyzed. Finally, the proposed reconstruction algorithm is applied to experimental sliding window data acquired at a synchrotron and results are compared to reconstructions based on phase retrieval. Results: The results show that the proposed algorithm significantly increases image quality in comparison to reconstructions based on phase retrieval. No significant mutual influence between the proposed independent priors could be observed. Further it could be illustrated that the iterative reconstruction of a sliding window acquisition results in images with substantially reduced smearing artifacts. Conclusions: Although the proposed cost function is inherently nonconvex, it can be used to reconstruct images with less aliasing artifacts and less streak artifacts than reconstruction methods based on phase retrieval. Furthermore, the proposed method can be used to reconstruct images of sliding window acquisitions with negligible smearing artifacts

  6. Experimental and theoretical contributions to X-ray phase-contrast techniques for medical imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diemoz, P.C.

    2011-01-01

    Several X-ray phase-contrast techniques have recently been developed. Unlike conventional X-ray methods, which measure the absorption properties of the tissues, these techniques derive contrast also from the modulation of the phase produced by the sample. Since the phase shift can be significant even for small details characterized by weak or absent absorption, the achievable image contrast can be greatly increased, notably for the soft biological tissues. These methods are therefore very promising for applications in the medical domain. The aim of this work is to contribute to a deeper understanding of these techniques, in particular propagation-based imaging (PBI), analyzer-based imaging (ABI) and grating interferometry (GIFM), and to study their potential and the best practical implementation for medical imaging applications. An important part of this work is dedicated to the use of mathematical algorithms for the extraction, from the acquired images, of quantitative sample information (the absorption, refraction and scattering sample properties). In particular, five among the most known algorithms based on the geometrical optics approximation have been theoretically analysed and experimentally compared, in planar and tomographic modalities, by using geometrical phantoms and human bone-cartilage and breast samples. A semi-quantitative method for the acquisition and reconstruction of tomographic images in the ABI and GIFM techniques has also been proposed. The validity conditions are analyzed in detail and the method, enabling a considerable simplification of the imaging procedure, has been experimentally checked on phantoms and human samples. Finally, a theoretical and experimental comparison of the PBI, ABI and GIFM techniques is presented. The advantages and drawbacks of each of these techniques are discussed. The results obtained from this analysis can be very useful for determining the most adapted technique for a given application. (author)

  7. High transmittance contrast in amorphous to hexagonal phase of Ge2Sb2Te5: Reversible NIR-window

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Palwinder; Singh, A. P.; Kanda, Neetu; Mishra, Monu; Gupta, Govind; Thakur, Anup

    2017-12-01

    Ge2Sb2Te5 (GST) is one of the best phase change materials because of its splendid set of properties, viz., high thermal stability, fast crystallization speed, good endurance, scalability, and reliability. Phase transition [amorphous → face centered cubic (fcc) → hexagonal close packed (hcp)] of GST thin films with annealing was studied using X-ray diffraction. Thin films in amorphous, fcc, and hcp phases are highly, medium, and negligible transparent in the near infra-red region, respectively. The optical transmission in amorphous, fcc, and hcp phases is ˜92%, ˜46%, and ˜2%, respectively, at the wavelength of 2740 nm. At 2740 nm, a high transmission contrast (˜90%) is observed with phase transition from the amorphous to hcp phase. By utilizing large transmission contrast, it is demonstrated that GST can be availed as a potential candidate for reversible near infra-red-window. The sharp change in optical transmission with phase transition can be understood from the change in density of states in the valence band.

  8. Quantitative measurement of total cerebral blood flow using 2D phase-contrast MRI and doppler ultrasound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Keum Soo; Choi, Sun Seob; Lee, Young Il [Dong-A Univ., College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-12-01

    To compare of quantitative measurement of the total cerebral blood flow using two-dimensional phase-contrast MR imaging and Doppler ultrasound. In 16 volunteers (mean age, 26 years; mean body weight, 66 kg) without abnormal medical histories, two-dimensional phase-contrast MR imaging was performed at the level of the C2-3 inter vertebral disc for flow measurement of the internal carotid arteries and the vertebral arteries. Volume flow measurements using Doppler ultrasound were also performed at the internal carotid arteries 2cm above the carotid bifurcation, and at the vertebral arteries at the level of the upper pole of the thyroid gland. Flows in the four vessels measured by the two methods were compared using Wilcoxon's correlation analysis and the median score. Total cerebral blood flows were calculated by summing these four vessel flows, and mean values for the 16 volunteers were calculated. Cerebral blood flows measured by 2-D phase-contrast MR imaging and Doppler ultrasounds were 233 and 239 ml/min in the right internal carotid artery, 250 and 248 ml/min in the left internal carotid artery, 62 and 56 ml/min in the right vertebral artery, and 83 and 68 ml/min in the left vertebral artery. Correlation coefficients of the blood flows determined by the two methods were 0.48, 0.54, 0.49, and 0.62 in each vessel, while total cerebral blood flows were 628{+-}68 (range, 517 to 779) ml/min and 612{+-}79 (range, 482 to 804)ml/min, respectively. Total cerebral blood flow was easily measured using 2-D phase-contrast MR imaging and Doppler ultrasound, and the two noninvasive methods can therefore be used clinically for the measurement of total cerebral blood flow.

  9. Self-Nulling Beam Combiner Using No External Phase Inverter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloemhof, Eric E.

    2010-01-01

    A self-nulling beam combiner is proposed that completely eliminates the phase inversion subsystem from the nulling interferometer, and instead uses the intrinsic phase shifts in the beam splitters. Simplifying the flight instrument in this way will be a valuable enhancement of mission reliability. The tighter tolerances on R = T (R being reflection and T being transmission coefficients) required by the self-nulling configuration actually impose no new constraints on the architecture, as two adaptive nullers must be situated between beam splitters to correct small errors in the coatings. The new feature is exploiting the natural phase shifts in beam combiners to achieve the 180 phase inversion necessary for nulling. The advantage over prior art is that an entire subsystem, the field-flipping optics, can be eliminated. For ultimate simplicity in the flight instrument, one might fabricate coatings to very high tolerances and dispense with the adaptive nullers altogether, with all their moving parts, along with the field flipper subsystem. A single adaptive nuller upstream of the beam combiner may be required to correct beam train errors (systematic noise), but in some circumstances phase chopping reduces these errors substantially, and there may be ways to further reduce the chop residuals. Though such coatings are beyond the current state of the art, the mechanical simplicity and robustness of a flight system without field flipper or adaptive nullers would perhaps justify considerable effort on coating fabrication.

  10. 4D phase contrast flow imaging for in-stent flow visualization and assessment of stent patency in peripheral vascular stents – A phantom study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunck, Alexander C.; Jüttner, Alena; Kröger, Jan Robert; Burg, Matthias C.; Kugel, Harald; Niederstadt, Thomas; Tiemann, Klaus; Schnackenburg, Bernhard; Crelier, Gerard R.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: 4D phase contrast flow imaging is increasingly used to study the hemodynamics in various vascular territories and pathologies. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility and validity of MRI based 4D phase contrast flow imaging for the evaluation of in-stent blood flow in 17 commonly used peripheral stents. Materials and methods: 17 different peripheral stents were implanted into a MR compatible flow phantom. In-stent visibility, maximal velocity and flow visualization were assessed and estimates of in-stent patency obtained from 4D phase contrast flow data sets were compared to a conventional 3D contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (CE-MRA) as well as 2D PC flow measurements. Results: In all but 3 of the tested stents time-resolved 3D particle traces could be visualized inside the stent lumen. Quality of 4D flow visualization and CE-MRA images depended on stent type and stent orientation relative to the magnetic field. Compared to the visible lumen area determined by 3D CE-MRA, estimates of lumen patency derived from 4D flow measurements were significantly higher and less dependent on stent type. A higher number of stents could be assessed for in-stent patency by 4D phase contrast flow imaging (n = 14) than by 2D phase contrast flow imaging (n = 10). Conclusions: 4D phase contrast flow imaging in peripheral vascular stents is feasible and appears advantageous over conventional 3D contrast-enhanced MR angiography and 2D phase contrast flow imaging. It allows for in-stent flow visualization and flow quantification with varying quality depending on stent type

  11. Experimental and theoretical contributions to X-ray phase-contrast techniques for medical imaging; Contributions experimentales et theoriques aux techniques de contraste de phase pour l'imagerie medicale par rayons X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diemoz, P.C.

    2011-02-28

    Several X-ray phase-contrast techniques have recently been developed. Unlike conventional X-ray methods, which measure the absorption properties of the tissues, these techniques derive contrast also from the modulation of the phase produced by the sample. Since the phase shift can be significant even for small details characterized by weak or absent absorption, the achievable image contrast can be greatly increased, notably for the soft biological tissues. These methods are therefore very promising for applications in the medical domain. The aim of this work is to contribute to a deeper understanding of these techniques, in particular propagation-based imaging (PBI), analyzer-based imaging (ABI) and grating interferometry (GIFM), and to study their potential and the best practical implementation for medical imaging applications. An important part of this work is dedicated to the use of mathematical algorithms for the extraction, from the acquired images, of quantitative sample information (the absorption, refraction and scattering sample properties). In particular, five among the most known algorithms based on the geometrical optics approximation have been theoretically analysed and experimentally compared, in planar and tomographic modalities, by using geometrical phantoms and human bone-cartilage and breast samples. A semi-quantitative method for the acquisition and reconstruction of tomographic images in the ABI and GIFM techniques has also been proposed. The validity conditions are analyzed in detail and the method, enabling a considerable simplification of the imaging procedure, has been experimentally checked on phantoms and human samples. Finally, a theoretical and experimental comparison of the PBI, ABI and GIFM techniques is presented. The advantages and drawbacks of each of these techniques are discussed. The results obtained from this analysis can be very useful for determining the most adapted technique for a given application. (author)

  12. Concomitant use of polarization and positive phase contrast microscopy for the study of microbial cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Žižka, Zdeněk; Gabriel, Jiří

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 6 (2015), s. 545-550 ISSN 0015-5632 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : polarization microscopy * microbial cells * positive phase contrast Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.335, year: 2015

  13. Phase contrast imaging of the breast. Basic principles and steps towards clinical implementation; Phasenkontrastbildgebung der Brust. Grundlagen und Schritte zur klinischen Implementierbarkeit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grandl, S.; Sztrokay-Gaul, A.; Auweter, S.D.; Hellerhoff, K. [Klinikum der Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, Campus Grosshadern, Institut fuer Klinische Radiologie, Muenchen (Germany)

    2014-03-15

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer and the leading cause of cancer deaths in women worldwide. Mammography is the only imaging technique approved for nationwide breast cancer screening. Digital full field mammography has improved mammographic image quality. Nevertheless, mammography has a low positive predictive value and a low sensitivity especially in mammographically dense breasts. One of the major limitations is the inherently low contrast between healthy breast parenchyma and breast cancer. Phase contrast imaging is based on the phase shift that occurs when X-rays encounter a change in refractive index between different materials. The improved soft tissue contrast makes the technology particularly promising for breast diagnostics. The studies presented here suggest that phase contrast imaging provides additional diagnostic information both using phase contrast mammography and phase contrast computed tomography (CT). This paper provides an overview of the basic principles of the phase contrast imaging and describes recent developments towards in vivo and ex vivo phase contrast imaging of the breast. (orig.) [German] Brustkrebs ist weltweit die haeufigste Tumorerkrankung und die haeufigste Krebstodesursache der Frau. Die Mammographie ist die einzige zugelassene bildgebende Methode zur Brustkrebsfrueherkennung im Rahmen flaechendeckender Screeningprogramme. Trotz Verbesserung der Bildqualitaet und der Befundungsperformance durch die Einfuehrung der digitalen Vollfeldmammographie sind der positiv-praediktive Wert und die Sensitivitaet der Mammographie insbesondere bei mammographisch dichtem Druesenkoerper eingeschraenkt. Dies ist u. a. auf die geringen Dichteunterschiede zwischen gesundem Brustdruesengewebe und intramammaeren Malignomen zurueckzufuehren. Die Phasenkontrastbildgebung macht sich die Phasenverschiebung von Roentgenstrahlen zunutze, die an Materialgrenzen mit unterschiedlichen Brechungsindizes entsteht. Die Technik bietet einen potenziell

  14. Recent observations with phase-contrast x-ray computed tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momose, Atsushi; Takeda, Tohoru; Itai, Yuji; Tu, Jinhong; Hirano, Keiichi

    1999-09-01

    Recent development in phase-contrast X-ray computed tomography using an X-ray interferometer is reported. To observe larger samples than is possible with our previous X-ray interferometer, a large monolithic X-ray interferometer and a separated-type X-ray interferometer were studied. At the present time, 2.5 cm X 1.5 cm interference patterns have been generated with the X-ray interferometers using synchrotron X-rays. The large monolithic X-ray interferometer has produced interference fringes with 80% visibility, and has been used to measure various tissues. To produce images with higher spatial resolution, we fabricated another X-ray interferometer whose wafer was partially thinned by chemical etching. A preliminary test suggested that the spatial resolution has been improved.

  15. Low-dose phase contrast tomography with conventional x-ray sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagen, C. K., E-mail: charlotte.hagen.10@ucl.ac.uk; Endrizzi, M.; Diemoz, P. C.; Olivo, A. [Department of Medical Physics and Bioengineering, University College London, Malet Place, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Munro, P. R. T. [Optical + Biomedical Engineering Laboratory, School of Electrical, Electronic and Computer Engineering, The University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley, Western Australia 6009, Australia and Centre for Microscopy, Characterisation, and Analysis, The University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley, Western Australia 6009 (Australia)

    2014-07-15

    Purpose: The edge illumination (EI) x-ray phase contrast imaging (XPCi) method has been recently further developed to perform tomographic and, thus, volumetric imaging. In this paper, the first tomographic EI XPCi images acquired with a conventional x-ray source at dose levels below that used for preclinical small animal imaging are presented. Methods: Two test objects, a biological sample and a custom-built phantom, were imaged with a laboratory-based EI XPCi setup in tomography mode. Tomographic maps that show the phase shift and attenuating properties of the object were reconstructed, and analyzed in terms of signal-to-noise ratio and quantitative accuracy. Dose measurements using thermoluminescence devices were performed. Results: The obtained images demonstrate that phase based imaging methods can provide superior results compared to attenuation based modalities for weakly attenuating samples also in 3D. Moreover, and, most importantly, they demonstrate the feasibility of low-dose imaging. In addition, the experimental results can be considered quantitative within the constraints imposed by polychromaticity. Conclusions: The results, together with the method's dose efficiency and compatibility with conventional x-ray sources, indicate that tomographic EI XPCi can become an important tool for the routine imaging of biomedical samples.

  16. Efficient phase contrast imaging in STEM using a pixelated detector. Part 1: Experimental demonstration at atomic resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pennycook, Timothy J., E-mail: tpennycook@gmail.com [EPSRC SuperSTEM Facility, Daresbury Laboratory, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PH (United Kingdom); Lupini, Andrew R. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Materials Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge, TN 37830 (United States); Yang, Hao [Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PH (United Kingdom); Murfitt, Matthew F. [Nion Co., 1102 8th St., Kirkland, WA 98033 (United States); Jones, Lewys [Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PH (United Kingdom); Nellist, Peter D. [EPSRC SuperSTEM Facility, Daresbury Laboratory, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PH (United Kingdom)

    2015-04-15

    We demonstrate a method to achieve high efficiency phase contrast imaging in aberration corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) with a pixelated detector. The pixelated detector is used to record the Ronchigram as a function of probe position which is then analyzed with ptychography. Ptychography has previously been used to provide super-resolution beyond the diffraction limit of the optics, alongside numerically correcting for spherical aberration. Here we rely on a hardware aberration corrector to eliminate aberrations, but use the pixelated detector data set to utilize the largest possible volume of Fourier space to create high efficiency phase contrast images. The use of ptychography to diagnose the effects of chromatic aberration is also demonstrated. Finally, the four dimensional dataset is used to compare different bright field detector configurations from the same scan for a sample of bilayer graphene. Our method of high efficiency ptychography produces the clearest images, while annular bright field produces almost no contrast for an in-focus aberration-corrected probe. - Highlights: • Ptychographic high efficiency phase contrast imaging is demonstrated in STEM. • We rely on a hardware aberration corrector to eliminate aberrations. • High efficiency is achieved by collecting all the relevant interference. • Use of a pixelated detector allows comparison of bright field modes post acquisition. • Ptychography provides the clearest images among the STEM bright field modes tested.

  17. Noise propagation in x-ray phase-contrast imaging and computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nesterets, Yakov I; Gureyev, Timur E

    2014-01-01

    Three phase-retrieval algorithms, based on the transport-of-intensity equation and on the contrast transfer function for propagation-based imaging, and on the linearized geometrical optics approximation for analyser-based imaging, are investigated. The algorithms are compared in terms of their effect on propagation of noise from projection images to the corresponding phase-retrieved images and further to the computed tomography (CT) images/slices of a monomorphous object reconstructed using filtered backprojection algorithm. The comparison is carried out in terms of an integral noise characteristic, the variance, as well as in terms of a simple figure-of-merit, i.e. signal-to-noise ratio per unit dose. A gain factor is introduced that quantitatively characterizes the effect of phase retrieval on the variance of noise in the reconstructed projection images and in the axial slices of the object. Simple analytical expressions are derived for the gain factor and the signal-to-noise ratio, which indicate that the application of phase-retrieval algorithms can increase these parameters by up to two orders of magnitude compared to raw projection images and conventional CT, thus allowing significant improvement in the image quality and/or reduction of the x-ray dose delivered to the patient. (paper)

  18. A theoretically exact reconstruction algorithm for helical cone-beam differential phase-contrast computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jing; Sun Yi; Zhu Peiping

    2013-01-01

    Differential phase-contrast computed tomography (DPC-CT) reconstruction problems are usually solved by using parallel-, fan- or cone-beam algorithms. For rod-shaped objects, the x-ray beams cannot recover all the slices of the sample at the same time. Thus, if a rod-shaped sample is required to be reconstructed by the above algorithms, one should alternately perform translation and rotation on this sample, which leads to lower efficiency. The helical cone-beam CT may significantly improve scanning efficiency for rod-shaped objects over other algorithms. In this paper, we propose a theoretically exact filter-backprojection algorithm for helical cone-beam DPC-CT, which can be applied to reconstruct the refractive index decrement distribution of the samples directly from two-dimensional differential phase-contrast images. Numerical simulations are conducted to verify the proposed algorithm. Our work provides a potential solution for inspecting the rod-shaped samples using DPC-CT, which may be applicable with the evolution of DPC-CT equipments. (paper)

  19. Data Analysis of Medical Images: CT, MRI, Phase Contrast X-ray and PET

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anders Nymark

    of micro-CT images followed by a statistical analysis of homogeneity, contrast, degradation, and other qualities. By combining knowledge from the different professions in the project, a new application for one of the developed gels - in-vivo dosimetry in radiotherapy - has been studied. Analysis...

  20. Preliminary results for X-ray phase contrast micro-tomography on the biomedical imaging beamline at SSRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Rongchang; Du Guohao; Xie Honglan; Deng Biao; Tong Yajun; Hu Wen; Xue Yanling; Chen Can; Ren Yuqi; Zhou Guangzhao; Wang Yudan; Xiao Tiqiao; Xu Hongjie; Zhu Peiping

    2009-01-01

    With X-ray phase contrast micro-tomography(CT), one is able to obtain edge-enhanced image of internal structure of the samples. This allows visualization of the fine internal features for biology tissues, which is not able to resolve by conventional absorption CT. After preliminary modulation, monochromatic X-rays (8-72.5 keV) are available for experiments on the experimental station of the biomedical imaging beamline at Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility(SSRF). In this paper, we report the in line phase contrast micro-tomography(IL-XPCT) of biology sample (locust) on the beamline. The reconstruct slice images and three dimensional rendering images of the locust were obtained, with clearly visible images of locus's wing, surface texture and internal tissue distribution. (authors)

  1. Phase- and size-adjusted CT cut-off for differentiating neoplastic lesions from normal colon in contrast-enhanced CT colonography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luboldt, W.; Kroll, M.; Wetter, A.; Vogl, T.J.; Toussaint, T.L.; Hoepffner, N.; Holzer, K.; Kluge, A.

    2004-01-01

    A computed tomography (CT) cut-off for differentiating neoplastic lesions (polyps/carcinoma) from normal colon in contrast-enhanced CT colonography (CTC) relating to the contrast phase and lesion size is determined. CT values of 64 colonic lesions (27 polyps 0 . The slope m was determined by linear regression in the correlation (lesion ∝[xA + (1 - x)V]//H) and the Y-intercept y 0 by the minimal shift of the line needed to maximize the accuracy of separating the colonic wall from the lesions. The CT value of the lesions correlated best with the intermediate phase: 0.4A+ 0.6V(r=0.8 for polyps ≥10 mm, r=0.6 for carcinomas, r=0.4 for polyps <10 mm). The accuracy in the differentiation between lesions and normal colonic wall increased with the height implemented as divisor, reached 91% and was obtained by the dynamic cut-off described by the formula: cut-off(A,V,H) = 1.1[0.4A + 0.6V]/H + 69.8. The CT value of colonic polyps or carcinomas can be increased extrinsically by scanning in the phase in which 0.4A + 0.6V reaches its maximum. Differentiating lesions from normal colon based on CT values is possible in contrast-enhanced CTC and improves when the cut-off is adjusted (normalized) to the contrast phase and lesion size. (orig.)

  2. Monitoring stem cells in phase contrast imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, K. P.; Dempsey, K. P.; Collins, D. J.; Richardson, J. B.

    2016-04-01

    Understanding the mechanisms behind the proliferation of Mesenchymal Stem cells (MSCs) can offer a greater insight into the behaviour of these cells throughout their life cycles. Traditional methods of determining the rate of MSC differentiation rely on population based studies over an extended time period. However, such methods can be inadequate as they are unable to track cells as they interact; for example, in autologous cell therapies for osteoarthritis, the development of biological assays that could predict in vivo functional activity and biological action are particularly challenging. Here further research is required to determine non-histochemical biomarkers which provide correlations between cell survival and predictive functional outcome. This paper proposes using a (previously developed) advanced texture-based analysis algorithm to facilitate in vitro cells tracking using time-lapsed microscopy. The technique was adopted to monitor stem cells in the context of unlabelled, phase contrast imaging, with the goal of examining the cell to cell interactions in both monoculture and co-culture systems. The results obtained are analysed using established exploratory procedures developed for time series data and compared with the typical fluorescent-based approach of cell labelling. A review of the progress and the lessons learned are also presented.

  3. Phase-contrast x-ray computed tomography for biological imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momose, Atsushi; Takeda, Tohoru; Itai, Yuji

    1997-10-01

    We have shown so far that 3D structures in biological sot tissues such as cancer can be revealed by phase-contrast x- ray computed tomography using an x-ray interferometer. As a next step, we aim at applications of this technique to in vivo observation, including radiographic applications. For this purpose, the size of view field is desired to be more than a few centimeters. Therefore, a larger x-ray interferometer should be used with x-rays of higher energy. We have evaluated the optimal x-ray energy from an aspect of does as a function of sample size. Moreover, desired spatial resolution to an image sensor is discussed as functions of x-ray energy and sample size, basing on a requirement in the analysis of interference fringes.

  4. NMR multiple-echo phase-contrast blood flow imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Donnell, M.

    1986-01-01

    A method is described for magnetic resonance imaging of fluid flow in a sample, comprising the steps of: (a) immersing the sample in a static magnetic field disposed in a first direction; (b) applying a first sequence of magnetic field gradients and radio-frequency signals to the sample to both define a slab, of the sample to be imaged, in a plane substantially orthogonal to a selected direction for which flow velocity is to be measured, and to obtain a plurality N of spin-echo response signals form that slab; (c) processing the plurality of first sequence spin-echo signals to obtain a complex value A/sub 1/(X,Y,Z) relating both the spin density rho'(X,Y,Z),... and the phase rotation phi(X,Y,Z), induced by the first sequence, for each of a selected number of sequential locations (X,Y,Z) in the sample slab; (d) applying a second sequence of magnetic field gradient and radio-frequency signals to both define the same sample slab as in step (b) and to obtain another plurality N of spin-echo response signals from that slab; (e) including a waveform in at least one of the magnetic field gradient and radio-frequency signals applied in step (d) for imparting to each of the spin-echo signal components from each slab location having a flowing material therein a phase rotation dependent upon the magnitude of the flow velocity therein in the selected direction; (f) processing the plurality of second sequence spin-echo signals to obtain a complex value A/sub 2/(X,Y,Z) relating the spin density rho'(X,Y,Z) and the imparted phase rotation of the sample material along the selected flow measurement direction for each of the sequential locations (X,Y,Z) in the sample slab; and (g) processing the complex values A/sub 1/(X,Y,Z) and A/sub 2/(X,Y,Z) for each sample location to obtain a differential phase-contrast value related to the velocity of the flowing material therein in the selected measurement direction

  5. High spatiotemporal resolution measurement of regional lung air volumes from 2D phase contrast x-ray images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Andrew F T; Fouras, Andreas; Islam, M Sirajul; Wallace, Megan J; Hooper, Stuart B; Kitchen, Marcus J

    2013-04-01

    Described herein is a new technique for measuring regional lung air volumes from two-dimensional propagation-based phase contrast x-ray (PBI) images at very high spatial and temporal resolution. Phase contrast dramatically increases lung visibility and the outlined volumetric reconstruction technique quantifies dynamic changes in respiratory function. These methods can be used for assessing pulmonary disease and injury and for optimizing mechanical ventilation techniques for preterm infants using animal models. The volumetric reconstruction combines the algorithms of temporal subtraction and single image phase retrieval (SIPR) to isolate the image of the lungs from the thoracic cage in order to measure regional lung air volumes. The SIPR algorithm was used to recover the change in projected thickness of the lungs on a pixel-by-pixel basis (pixel dimensions ≈ 16.2 μm). The technique has been validated using numerical simulation and compared results of measuring regional lung air volumes with and without the use of temporal subtraction for removing the thoracic cage. To test this approach, a series of PBI images of newborn rabbit pups mechanically ventilated at different frequencies was employed. Regional lung air volumes measured from PBI images of newborn rabbit pups showed on average an improvement of at least 20% in 16% of pixels within the lungs in comparison to that measured without the use of temporal subtraction. The majority of pixels that showed an improvement was found to be in regions occupied by bone. Applying the volumetric technique to sequences of PBI images of newborn rabbit pups, it is shown that lung aeration at birth can be highly heterogeneous. This paper presents an image segmentation technique based on temporal subtraction that has successfully been used to isolate the lungs from PBI chest images, allowing the change in lung air volume to be measured over regions as small as the pixel size. Using this technique, it is possible to measure

  6. Simulation study of spatial resolution in phase-contrast X-ray imaging with Takagi-Taupin equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyama, Ichiro; Momose, Atsushi

    2003-01-01

    To evaluate attainable spatial resolution of phase-contrast X-ray imaging using an LLL X-ray interferometer with a thin crystal wafer, a computer simulation study with Takagi-Taupin equation was performed. Modulation transfer function of the wafer for X-ray phase was evaluated. For a polyester film whose thickness is 0.1 mm, it was concluded that the spatial resolution can be improved up to 3 μm by thinning the wafer, under our experimental condition

  7. Molecular evaluation of thrombosis using X-ray phase contrast imaging with microbubbles targeted to P-selectin in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Rongbiao; Chai, Wei-Min; Yan, Fuhua; Chen, Ke-Min; Yang, Guo-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    X-ray phase contrast imaging (PCI) provides excellent image contrast by utilizing the phase shift. The introduction of microbubbles into tissues can cause a phase shift to make microbubbles visibly identified on PCI. In this study, we assessed the feasibility of targeted microbubble-based PCI for the detection of thrombosis. The absorption and phase contrast images of P-selectin-targeted microbubbles (MB P ) were obtained and compared in vitro. MB P , control IgG-targeted microbubbles (MB C ), and unbound microbubbles (MB U ) were tested for binding specificity on thrombi expressing P-selectin. MB P were used as molecular PCI probes to evaluate P-selectin expression in a mouse model of arteriovenous shunt thrombosis that was created using PE tubes in the bypass outside of the mouse body. PCI clearly showed the microbubbles not viewable via absorption contrast imaging (ACI). In vitro attachment of MB P (91.60 ± 11.63) to thrombi was significantly higher than attachment of MB C (17.80 ± 4.02, P < 0.001) or MB U (9.80 ± 2.59, P < 0.001). In the mouse model of arteriovenous shunt thrombosis, the binding affinity of MB P (15.50 ± 6.25) was significantly greater than that of MB C (0.50 ± 0.84, P < 0.001) or MB U (0.33 ± 0.52, P < 0.001). Our results indicate that molecular PCI may be considered as a novel and promising imaging modality for the investigation of thrombosis. (orig.)

  8. Laser Light-field Fusion for Wide-field Lensfree On-chip Phase Contrast Microscopy of Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemzadeh, Farnoud; Wong, Alexander

    2016-12-01

    Wide-field lensfree on-chip microscopy, which leverages holography principles to capture interferometric light-field encodings without lenses, is an emerging imaging modality with widespread interest given the large field-of-view compared to lens-based techniques. In this study, we introduce the idea of laser light-field fusion for lensfree on-chip phase contrast microscopy for detecting nanoparticles, where interferometric laser light-field encodings acquired using a lensfree, on-chip setup with laser pulsations at different wavelengths are fused to produce marker-free phase contrast images of particles at the nanometer scale. As a proof of concept, we demonstrate, for the first time, a wide-field lensfree on-chip instrument successfully detecting 300 nm particles across a large field-of-view of ~30 mm2 without any specialized or intricate sample preparation, or the use of synthetic aperture- or shift-based techniques.

  9. Myocardial enhancement pattern in patients with acute myocardial infarction on two-phase contrast-enhanced Ecg-gated multidetector-row computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, S.M.; Seo, J.B.; Hong, M.K.; Do, K.H.; Lee, S.H.; Lee, J.S.; Song, J.W.; Park, S.J.; Park, S.W.; Lim, T.H.

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the myocardial enhancement pattern of the left ventricle on two-phase contrast-enhanced electrocardiogram (ECG)-gated multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) images in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). METHODS: Two-phase contrast-enhanced ECG-gated MDCT examinations were performed in 16 patients with AMI. The presence, location and pattern of myocardial enhancement were evaluated. MDCT findings were compared with the catheter angiographic results. RESULTS: Subendocardial (n=9) or transmural (n=6) area of early perfusion defects of the myocardium was detected in 15 of 16 patients (94%) on early-phase CT images. Variable delayed myocardial enhancement patterns on late-phase CT images were observed in 12 patients (75%): (1) subendocardial residual perfusion defect and subepicardial late enhancement (n=6); (2) transmural late enhancement (n=1); (3) isolated subendocardial late enhancement (n=1); and (4) isolated subendocardial residual perfusion defect (n=2). On catheter angiography, 14 of 15 corresponding coronary arteries showed significant stenosis. CONCLUSION: Variable abnormal myocardial enhancement pattern was seen on two-phase, contrast-enhanced ECG-gated MDCT in patients with AMI. Assessment of myocardial attenuation on CT angiography gives additional information of the location and extent of infarction

  10. Quantitative measurement of normal and hydrocephalic cerebrospinal fluid flow using phase contrast cine MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katayama, Shinji; Asari, Shoji; Ohmoto, Takashi

    1993-01-01

    Measurements of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow using phase contrast cine magnetic resonance (MR) imaging were performed on a phantom, 12 normal subjects and 20 patients with normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH). The phantom study demonstrated the applicability of phase contrast in quantitative measurement of the slow flow. The CSF flows of the normal subjects showed a consistent pattern with a to-and-fro movement of the flow in the anterior subarachnoid space at the C2/3 level, and they were dependent on the cardiac cycle in all subjects. However, the patients with NPH showed variable patterns of the CSF pulsatile flow and these patterns could be divided into four types according to velocity and amplitude. The amplitudes of each type were as follows: type 0 (n=1), 87.6 mm; type I (n=2), 58.2 mm (mean); type II (n=6), 48.0±5.0 mm (mean±SEM); and type III (n=11), 19.9±1.8 mm (mean±SEM). The decrease of the amplitudes correlated to a worsening of the clinical symptoms. After the shunting operation, the amplitude of to-and-fro movement of the CSF increased again in the patients with NPH who improved clinically. Some of the type III cases were reclassified type II, I and 0 and also one of the type II cases changed type I after the shunting operation. We conclude that the phase contrast cine MR imaging is a practically and clinically applicable technique for the quantitative measurement of the CSF flow. (author)

  11. Absorption and Phase Contrast X-Ray Imaging in Paleontology Using Laboratory and Synchrotron Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bidola, Pidassa; Stockmar, Marco; Achterhold, Klaus; Pfeiffer, Franz; Pacheco, Mirian L.A.F.; Soriano, Carmen; Beckmann, Felix; Herzen, Julia

    2015-10-01

    X-ray micro-computed tomography (CT) is commonly used for imaging of samples in biomedical or materials science research. Owing to the ability to visualize a sample in a nondestructive way, X-ray CT is perfectly suited to inspect fossilized specimens, which are mostly unique or rare. In certain regions of the world where important sedimentation events occurred in the Precambrian geological time, several fossilized animals are studied to understand questions related to their origin, environment, and life evolution. This article demonstrates the advantages of applying absorption and phase-contrast CT on the enigmatic fossil Corumbella werneri, one of the oldest known animals capable of building hard parts, originally discovered in Corumba (Brazil). Different tomographic setups were tested to visualize the fossilized inner structures: a commercial laboratory-based CT device, two synchrotron-based imaging setups using conventional absorption and propagation-based phase contrast, and a commercial X-ray microscope with a lens-coupled detector system, dedicated for radiography and tomography. Based on our results we discuss the strengths and weaknesses of the different imaging setups for paleontological studies.

  12. Liquid-phase microextraction approaches combined with atomic detection: A critical review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pena-Pereira, Francisco; Lavilla, Isela; Bendicho, Carlos

    2010-01-01

    Liquid-phase microextraction (LPME) displays unique characteristics such as excellent preconcentration capability, simplicity, low cost, sample cleanup and integration of steps. Even though LPME approaches have the potential to be combined with almost every analytical technique, their use in combination with atomic detection techniques has not been exploited until recently. A comprehensive review dealing with the applications of liquid-phase microextraction combined with atomic detection techniques is presented. Theoretical features, possible strategies for these combinations as well as the effect of key experimental parameters influencing method development are addressed. Finally, a critical comparison of the different LPME approaches in terms of enrichment factors achieved, extraction efficiency, precision, selectivity and simplicity of operation is provided.

  13. Usefulness of combining gadolinium-ethoxybenzyl-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging and contrast-enhanced ultrasound for diagnosing the macroscopic classification of small hepatocellular carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Tomoki; Aikata, Hiroshi; Hatooka, Masahiro; Morio, Kei; Morio, Reona; Kan, Hiromi; Fujino, Hatsue; Fukuhara, Takayuki; Masaki, Keiichi; Ohno, Atsushi; Naeshiro, Noriaki; Nakahara, Takashi; Honda, Yohji; Murakami, Eisuke; Kawaoka, Tomokazu; Tsuge, Masataka; Hiramatsu, Akira; Imamura, Michio; Kawakami, Yoshiiku; Hyogo, Hideyuki; Takahashi, Shoichi [Hiroshima University Hospital, Department of Gastroenterology and Metabolism, Hiroshima (Japan); Chayama, Kazuaki [Hiroshima University Hospital, Department of Gastroenterology and Metabolism, Hiroshima (Japan); Hiroshima University, Liver Research Project Center, Hiroshima (Japan)

    2015-11-15

    Non-simple nodules in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) correlate with poor prognosis. Therefore, we examined the diagnostic ability of gadolinium-ethoxybenzyl-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (EOB-MRI) and contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) for diagnosing the macroscopic classification of small HCCs. A total of 85 surgically resected nodules (≤30 mm) were analyzed. HCCs were pathologically classified as simple nodular (SN) and non-SN. By evaluating hepatobiliary phase (HBP) of EOB-MRI and Kupffer phase of CEUS, the diagnostic abilities of both modalities to correctly distinguish between SN and non-SN were compared. Forty-six nodules were diagnosed as SN and the remaining 39 nodules as non-SN. The area under the ROC curve (AUROCs, 95 % confidence interval) for the diagnosis of non-SN were EOB-MRI, 0.786 (0.682-0.890): CEUS, 0.784 (0.679-0.889), in combination, 0.876 (0.792-0.959). The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were 64.1 %, 95.7 %, and 81.2 % in EOB-MRI, 56.4 %, 97.8 %, and 78.8 % in CEUS, and 84.6 %, 95.7 %, and 90.6 % in combination, respectively. High diagnostic ability was obtained when diagnosed in both modalities combined. The sensitivity was especially statistically significant compared to CEUS. Combined diagnosis by EOB-MRI and CEUS can provide high-quality imaging assessment for determining non-SN in small HCCs. (orig.)

  14. Phase contrast imaging: Effect of increased object-detector distances at X-ray diagnostic and megavoltage energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loveland, J.; Gundogdu, O. [Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Morton, E. [Rapiscan Systems, Units 2,3,4, Radnor Park Trading Estate, Congleton, Cheshire CW12 4XJ (United Kingdom); Wells, K. [CVSSP, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Bradley, D.A., E-mail: d.a.bradley@surrey.ac.uk [Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)

    2011-10-01

    The effect of varying object to detector separation at constant and varying magnification has been investigated at an accelerating potential of 30 kVp. Edge-contrast enhancement provided by phase effects was investigated for a drinking straw and found to provide up to 2.52{+-}0.02x the contrast for a PVC Heaviside step function. An optimum magnification of 1.5x was found to apply for the microfocus X-ray tube setup used. Imaging at nominal megavoltage energies was investigated using a Rapiscan Systems Eagle M4500 series scanner. For a fixed source-detector separation, increased magnification improved edge contrast and spatial resolution.

  15. Phase contrast imaging: Effect of increased object-detector distances at X-ray diagnostic and megavoltage energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loveland, J.; Gundogdu, O.; Morton, E.; Wells, K.; Bradley, D.A.

    2011-01-01

    The effect of varying object to detector separation at constant and varying magnification has been investigated at an accelerating potential of 30 kVp. Edge-contrast enhancement provided by phase effects was investigated for a drinking straw and found to provide up to 2.52±0.02x the contrast for a PVC Heaviside step function. An optimum magnification of 1.5x was found to apply for the microfocus X-ray tube setup used. Imaging at nominal megavoltage energies was investigated using a Rapiscan Systems Eagle M4500 series scanner. For a fixed source-detector separation, increased magnification improved edge contrast and spatial resolution.

  16. Operation of a separated-type x-ray interferometer for phase-contrast x-ray imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoneyama, Akio; Momose, Atsushi; Seya, Eiichi; Hirano, Keiichi; Takeda, Tohoru; Itai, Yuji

    1999-12-01

    Aiming at large-area phase-contrast x-ray imaging, a separated-type x-ray interferometer system was designed and developed to produce 25×20 mm interference patterns. The skew-symmetric optical system was adopted because of the feasibility of alignment. The rotation between the separated crystal blocks was controlled within a drift of 0.06 nrad using a feedback positioning system. This interferometer generated a 25×15 mm interference pattern with 0.07 nm synchrotron x-rays. A slice of a rabbit's kidney was observed, and its tubular structure could be revealed in a measured phase map.

  17. Microscopy imaging and quantitative phase contrast mapping in turbid microfluidic channels by digital holography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paturzo, Melania; Finizio, Andrea; Memmolo, Pasquale; Puglisi, Roberto; Balduzzi, Donatella; Galli, Andrea; Ferraro, Pietro

    2012-09-07

    We show that sharp imaging and quantitative phase-contrast microcopy is possible in microfluidics in flowing turbid media by digital holography. In fact, in flowing liquids with suspended colloidal particles, clear vision is hindered and cannot be recovered by any other microscopic imaging technique. On the contrary, using digital holography, clear imaging is possible thanks to the Doppler frequency shift experienced by the photons scattered by the flowing colloidal particles, which do not contribute to the interference process, i.e. the recorded hologram. The method is illustrated and imaging results are demonstrated for pure phase objects, i.e. biological cells in microfluidic channels.

  18. X-ray phase-contrast tomography of renal ischemia-reperfusion damage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrid Velroyen

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate microstructural changes occurring in unilateral renal ischemia-reperfusion injury in a murine animal model using synchrotron radiation.The effects of renal ischemia-reperfusion were investigated in a murine animal model of unilateral ischemia. Kidney samples were harvested on day 18. Grating-Based Phase-Contrast Imaging (GB-PCI of the paraffin-embedded kidney samples was performed at a Synchrotron Radiation Facility (beam energy of 19 keV. To obtain phase information, a two-grating Talbot interferometer was used applying the phase stepping technique. The imaging system provided an effective pixel size of 7.5 µm. The resulting attenuation and differential phase projections were tomographically reconstructed using filtered back-projection. Semi-automated segmentation and volumetry and correlation to histopathology were performed.GB-PCI provided good discrimination of the cortex, outer and inner medulla in non-ischemic control kidneys. Post-ischemic kidneys showed a reduced compartmental differentiation, particularly of the outer stripe of the outer medulla, which could not be differentiated from the inner stripe. Compared to the contralateral kidney, after ischemia a volume loss was detected, while the inner medulla mainly retained its volume (ratio 0.94. Post-ischemic kidneys exhibited severe tissue damage as evidenced by tubular atrophy and dilatation, moderate inflammatory infiltration, loss of brush borders and tubular protein cylinders.In conclusion GB-PCI with synchrotron radiation allows for non-destructive microstructural assessment of parenchymal kidney disease and vessel architecture. If translation to lab-based approaches generates sufficient density resolution, and with a time-optimized image analysis protocol, GB-PCI may ultimately serve as a non-invasive, non-enhanced alternative for imaging of pathological changes of the kidney.

  19. The value of hysterosalpingography using non-ionic contrast agent combined with low-tensive drug in diagnosis of infertility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Qiwei; Liu Xiaojun; Shi Jianfen; Jiang Guohua; Ye Jinqing; Shen Jun; Song Ting

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the value of nonionic contrast agent combined with low tensive drug in the hysterosalpingography in diagnosis of infertility. Methods: 203 patients with infertility were randomly classified into two groups. Group 1 contained 108 patients administrated intramuscularly anisodamine (654-2) 30 minutes before hysterosalpingography. 95 patients in group 2 did not use 654-2. Non-ionic contrast agent was used in all patients. The image quality and post-contrast displaying status of uterus and uterine tube between the two groups were analyzed. Results: No allergic response occurred in all patients. The image quality and post-contrast displaying status of uterus and uterine tube of group 1 were obviously superior to that of group 2 (P<0.01). Conclusion: Hysterosalpingography clearly showed lesions of uterus and uterine tube when using non-ionic contrast agent combined with low-tensive drug. It is more safety with less side effects. The contraction of uterine tube can be relieved by the low-tensive drug effectively, so as to decrease the false positive rate, raise the diagnostic accuracy, and lessen patients sufferings. It is deserved to be applied generally. (authors)

  20. Phase-and-amplitude recovery from a single phase-contrast image using partially spatially coherent x-ray radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltran, Mario A.; Paganin, David M.; Pelliccia, Daniele

    2018-05-01

    A simple method of phase-and-amplitude extraction is derived that corrects for image blurring induced by partially spatially coherent incident illumination using only a single intensity image as input. The method is based on Fresnel diffraction theory for the case of high Fresnel number, merged with the space-frequency description formalism used to quantify partially coherent fields and assumes the object under study is composed of a single-material. A priori knowledge of the object’s complex refractive index and information obtained by characterizing the spatial coherence of the source is required. The algorithm was applied to propagation-based phase-contrast data measured with a laboratory-based micro-focus x-ray source. The blurring due to the finite spatial extent of the source is embedded within the algorithm as a simple correction term to the so-called Paganin algorithm and is also numerically stable in the presence of noise.

  1. Triple-Frequency Code-Phase Combination Determination: A Comparison with the Hatch-Melbourne-Wübbena Combination Using BDS Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenlong Deng

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Considering the influence of the ionosphere, troposphere, and other systematic errors on double-differenced ambiguity resolution (AR, we present an optimal triple-frequency code-phase combination determination method driven by both the model and the real data. The new method makes full use of triple-frequency code measurements (especially the low-noise of the code on the B3 signal to minimize the total noise level and achieve the largest AR success rate (model-driven under different ionosphere residual situations (data-driven, thus speeding up the AR by directly rounding. With the triple-frequency Beidou Navigation Satellite System (BDS data collected at five stations from a continuously-operating reference station network in Guangdong Province of China, different testing scenarios are defined (a medium baseline, whose distance is between 20 km and 50 km; a medium-long baseline, whose distance is between 50 km and 100 km; and a long baseline, whose distance is larger than 100 km. The efficiency of the optimal code-phase combination on the AR success rate was compared with that of the geometry-free and ionosphere-free (GIF combination and the Hatch-Melbourne-Wübbena (HMW combination. Results show that the optimal combinations can always achieve better results than the HMW combination with B2 and B3 signals, especially when the satellite elevation angle is larger than 45°. For the wide-lane AR which aims to obtain decimeter-level kinematic positioning service, the standard deviation (STD of ambiguity residuals for the suboptimal combination are only about 0.2 cycles, and the AR success rate by directly rounding can be up to 99%. Compared with the HMW combinations using B1 and B2 signals and using B1 and B3 signals, the suboptimal combination achieves the best results in all baselines, with an overall improvement of about 40% and 20%, respectively. Additionally, the STD difference between the optimal and the GIF code-phase combinations decreases

  2. MR flow velocity measurement using 2D phase contrast, assessment of imaging parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akata, Soichi; Fukushima, Akihiro; Abe, Kimihiko; Darkanzanli, A.; Gmitro, A.F.; Unger, E.C.; Capp, M.P.

    1999-01-01

    The two-dimensional (2D) phase contrast technique using balanced gradient pulses is utilized to measure flow velocities of cerebrospinal fluid and blood. Various imaging parameters affect the accuracy of flow velocity measurements to varying degrees. Assessment of the errors introduced by changing the imaging parameters are presented and discussed in this paper. A constant flow phantom consisting of a pump, a polyethylene tube and a flow meter was assembled. A clinical 1.5 Tesla MR imager was used to perform flow velocity measurements. The phase contrast technique was used to estimate the flow velocity of saline through the phantom. The effects of changes in matrix size, flip angle, flow compensation, and velocity encoding (VENC) value were tested in the pulse sequence. Gd-DTPA doped saline was used to study the effect of changing T1 on the accuracy of flow velocity measurement. Matrix size (within practical values), flip angle, and flow compensation had minimum impact on flow velocity measurements. T1 of the solution also had no effect on the accuracy of measuring the flow velocity. On the other hand, it was concluded that errors as high as 20% can be expected in the flow velocity measurements if the VENC value is not properly chosen. (author)

  3. MR flow velocity measurement using 2D phase contrast, assessment of imaging parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akata, Soichi; Fukushima, Akihiro; Abe, Kimihiko [Tokyo Medical Coll. (Japan); Darkanzanli, A.; Gmitro, A.F.; Unger, E.C.; Capp, M.P.

    1999-11-01

    The two-dimensional (2D) phase contrast technique using balanced gradient pulses is utilized to measure flow velocities of cerebrospinal fluid and blood. Various imaging parameters affect the accuracy of flow velocity measurements to varying degrees. Assessment of the errors introduced by changing the imaging parameters are presented and discussed in this paper. A constant flow phantom consisting of a pump, a polyethylene tube and a flow meter was assembled. A clinical 1.5 Tesla MR imager was used to perform flow velocity measurements. The phase contrast technique was used to estimate the flow velocity of saline through the phantom. The effects of changes in matrix size, flip angle, flow compensation, and velocity encoding (VENC) value were tested in the pulse sequence. Gd-DTPA doped saline was used to study the effect of changing T1 on the accuracy of flow velocity measurement. Matrix size (within practical values), flip angle, and flow compensation had minimum impact on flow velocity measurements. T1 of the solution also had no effect on the accuracy of measuring the flow velocity. On the other hand, it was concluded that errors as high as 20% can be expected in the flow velocity measurements if the VENC value is not properly chosen. (author)

  4. Combined phase and X-Ray fluorescence imaging at the sub-cellular level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosior, Ewelina

    2013-01-01

    This work presents some recent developments in the field of hard X-ray imaging applied to biomedical research. As the discipline is evolving quickly, new questions appear and the list of needs becomes bigger. Some of them are dealt with in this manuscript. It has been shown that the ID22NI beamline of the ESRF can serve as a proper experimental setup to investigate diverse aspects of cellular research. Together with its high spatial resolution, high flux and high energy range the experimental setup provides bigger field of view, is less sensitive to radiation damages (while taking phase contrast images) and suits well chemical analysis with emphasis on endogenous metals (Zn, Fe, Mn) but also with a possibility for exogenous one's like these found in nanoparticles (Au, Pt, Ag) study. Two synchrotron-based imaging techniques, fluorescence and phase contrast imaging were used in this research project. They were correlated with each other on a number of biological cases, from bacteria E.coli to various cells (HEK 293, PC12, MRC5VA, red blood cells). The explorations made in the chapter 5 allowed preparation of more established and detailed analysis, described in the next chapter where both techniques, X-ray fluorescence and phase contrast imaging, were exploited in order to access absolute metal projected mass fraction in a whole cell. The final image presents for the first time true quantitative information at the sub-cellular level, not biased by the cell thickness. Thus for the first time a fluorescence map serves as a complete quantitative image of a cell without any risk of misinterpretation. Once both maps are divided by each other pixel by pixel (fluorescence map divided by the phase map) they present a complete and final result of the metal (Zn in this work) projected mass fraction in ppm of dry weight. For the purpose of this calculation the analysis was extended to calibration (non-biological) samples. Polystyrene spheres of a known diameter and known

  5. State of the Art of X-ray Speckle-Based Phase-Contrast and Dark-Field Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Christine Zdora

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In the past few years, X-ray phase-contrast and dark-field imaging have evolved to be invaluable tools for non-destructive sample visualisation, delivering information inaccessible by conventional absorption imaging. X-ray phase-sensing techniques are furthermore increasingly used for at-wavelength metrology and optics characterisation. One of the latest additions to the group of differential phase-contrast methods is the X-ray speckle-based technique. It has drawn significant attention due to its simple and flexible experimental arrangement, cost-effectiveness and multimodal character, amongst others. Since its first demonstration at highly brilliant synchrotron sources, the method has seen rapid development, including the translation to polychromatic laboratory sources and extension to higher-energy X-rays. Recently, different advanced acquisition schemes have been proposed to tackle some of the main limitations of previous implementations. Current applications of the speckle-based method range from optics characterisation and wavefront measurement to biomedical imaging and materials science. This review provides an overview of the state of the art of the X-ray speckle-based technique. Its basic principles and different experimental implementations as well as the the latest advances and applications are illustrated. In the end, an outlook for anticipated future developments of this promising technique is given.

  6. Matched-filtering generalized phase contrast using LCoS pico-projectors for beam-forming

    OpenAIRE

    Bañas, Andrew Rafael; Palima, Darwin; Glückstad, Jesper

    2012-01-01

    We report on a new beam-forming system for generating high intensity programmable optical spikes using so-called matched-filtering Generalized Phase Contrast (mGPC) applying two consumer handheld pico-projectors. Such a system presents a low-cost alternative for optical trapping and manipulation, optical lattices and other beam-shaping applications usually implemented with high-end spatial light modulators. Portable pico-projectors based on liquid crystal on silicon (LCoS) devices are used as...

  7. Optimisation of a propagation-based x-ray phase-contrast micro-CT system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesterets, Yakov I.; Gureyev, Timur E.; Dimmock, Matthew R.

    2018-03-01

    Micro-CT scanners find applications in many areas ranging from biomedical research to material sciences. In order to provide spatial resolution on a micron scale, these scanners are usually equipped with micro-focus, low-power x-ray sources and hence require long scanning times to produce high resolution 3D images of the object with acceptable contrast-to-noise. Propagation-based phase-contrast tomography (PB-PCT) has the potential to significantly improve the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) or, alternatively, reduce the image acquisition time while preserving the CNR and the spatial resolution. We propose a general approach for the optimisation of the PB-PCT imaging system. When applied to an imaging system with fixed parameters of the source and detector this approach requires optimisation of only two independent geometrical parameters of the imaging system, i.e. the source-to-object distance R 1 and geometrical magnification M, in order to produce the best spatial resolution and CNR. If, in addition to R 1 and M, the system parameter space also includes the source size and the anode potential this approach allows one to find a unique configuration of the imaging system that produces the required spatial resolution and the best CNR.

  8. Coherent beam combination using self-phase locked stimulated Brillouin scattering phase conjugate mirrors with a rotating wedge for high power laser generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sangwoo; Cha, Seongwoo; Oh, Jungsuk; Lee, Hwihyeong; Ahn, Heekyung; Churn, Kil Sung; Kong, Hong Jin

    2016-04-18

    The self-phase locking of a stimulated Brillouin scattering-phase conjugate mirror (SBS-PCM) allows a simple and scalable coherent beam combination of existing lasers. We propose a simple optical system composed of a rotating wedge and a concave mirror to overcome the power limit of the SBS-PCM. Its phase locking ability and the usefulness on the beam-combination laser are demonstrated experimentally. A four-beam combination is demonstrated using this SBS-PCM scheme. The relative phases between the beams were measured to be less than λ/24.7.

  9. 3D measurement using combined Gray code and dual-frequency phase-shifting approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shuang; Zhang, Jing; Yu, Xiaoyang; Sun, Xiaoming; Wu, Haibin; Liu, Xin

    2018-04-01

    The combined Gray code and phase-shifting approach is a commonly used 3D measurement technique. In this technique, an error that equals integer multiples of the phase-shifted fringe period, i.e. period jump error, often exists in the absolute analog code, which can lead to gross measurement errors. To overcome this problem, the present paper proposes 3D measurement using a combined Gray code and dual-frequency phase-shifting approach. Based on 3D measurement using the combined Gray code and phase-shifting approach, one set of low-frequency phase-shifted fringe patterns with an odd-numbered multiple of the original phase-shifted fringe period is added. Thus, the absolute analog code measured value can be obtained by the combined Gray code and phase-shifting approach, and the low-frequency absolute analog code measured value can also be obtained by adding low-frequency phase-shifted fringe patterns. Then, the corrected absolute analog code measured value can be obtained by correcting the former by the latter, and the period jump errors can be eliminated, resulting in reliable analog code unwrapping. For the proposed approach, we established its measurement model, analyzed its measurement principle, expounded the mechanism of eliminating period jump errors by error analysis, and determined its applicable conditions. Theoretical analysis and experimental results show that the proposed approach can effectively eliminate period jump errors, reliably perform analog code unwrapping, and improve the measurement accuracy.

  10. Statistical controversies in clinical research: early-phase adaptive design for combination immunotherapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wages, N A; Slingluff, C L; Petroni, G R

    2017-04-01

    In recent years, investigators have asserted that the 3 + 3 design lacks flexibility, making its use in modern early-phase trial settings, such as combinations and/or biological agents, inefficient. More innovative approaches are required to address contemporary research questions, such as those posed in trials involving immunotherapies. We describe the implementation of an adaptive design for identifying an optimal treatment regimen, defined by low toxicity and high immune response, in an early-phase trial of a melanoma helper peptide vaccine plus novel adjuvant combinations. Operating characteristics demonstrate the ability of the method to effectively recommend optimal regimens in a high percentage of trials with reasonable sample sizes. The proposed design is a practical, early-phase, adaptive method for use with combined immunotherapy regimens. This design can be applied more broadly to early-phase combination studies, as it was used in an ongoing study of two small molecule inhibitors in relapsed/refractory mantle cell lymphoma. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Computational cell quantification in the human brain tissues based on hard x-ray phase-contrast tomograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hieber, Simone E.; Bikis, Christos; Khimchenko, Anna; Schulz, Georg; Deyhle, Hans; Thalmann, Peter; Chicherova, Natalia; Rack, Alexander; Zdora, Marie-Christine; Zanette, Irene; Schweighauser, Gabriel; Hench, Jürgen; Müller, Bert

    2016-10-01

    Cell visualization and counting plays a crucial role in biological and medical research including the study of neurodegenerative diseases. The neuronal cell loss is typically determined to measure the extent of the disease. Its characterization is challenging because the cell density and size already differs by more than three orders of magnitude in a healthy cerebellum. Cell visualization is commonly performed by histology and fluorescence microscopy. These techniques are limited to resolve complex microstructures in the third dimension. Phase- contrast tomography has been proven to provide sufficient contrast in the three-dimensional imaging of soft tissue down to the cell level and, therefore, offers the basis for the three-dimensional segmentation. Within this context, a human cerebellum sample was embedded in paraffin and measured in local phase-contrast mode at the beamline ID19 (ESRF, Grenoble, France) and the Diamond Manchester Imaging Branchline I13-2 (Diamond Light Source, Didcot, UK). After the application of Frangi-based filtering the data showed sufficient contrast to automatically identify the Purkinje cells and to quantify their density to 177 cells per mm3 within the volume of interest. Moreover, brain layers were segmented in a region of interest based on edge detection. Subsequently performed histological analysis validated the presence of the cells, which required a mapping from the two- dimensional histological slices to the three-dimensional tomogram. The methodology can also be applied to further tissue types and shows potential for the computational tissue analysis in health and disease.

  12. Effects of computed tomography contrast medium factors on contrast enhancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terasawa, Kazuaki; Hatcho, Atsushi; Okuda, Itsuko

    2011-01-01

    The various nonionic iodinated contrast media used in contrast computed tomography (CT) studies differ in terms of their composition, characteristics, and iodine concentration (mgI/ml), as well as the volume injected (ml). Compared with ionic iodinated contrast media, nonionic iodinated contrast media are low-osmolar agents, with different agents having different osmotic pressures. Using a custom-made phantom incorporating a semipermeable membrane, the osmotic flow rate (hounsfield unit (HU)/s) could easily be measured based on the observed increase in CT numbers, and the relationship between the osmotic pressure and the osmotic flow rate could be obtained (r 2 =0.84). In addition, taking the effects of patient size into consideration, the levels of contrast enhancement in the abdominal aorta (AA) and inferior vena cava (IVC) were compared among four types of CT contrast medium. The results showed differences in contrast enhancement in the IVC during the equilibrium phase depending on the type of contrast medium used. It was found that the factors responsible for the differences observed in enhancement in the IVC were the osmotic flow rate and the volume of the blood flow pathways in the circulatory system. It is therefore considered that the reproducibility of contrast enhancement is likely to be reduced in the examination of parenchymal organs, in which scanning must be performed during the equilibrium phase, even if the amount of iodine injected per unit body weight (mgI/kg) is maintained at a specified level. (author)

  13. Study of a macrodefect in a silicon carbid single crystal by means of X-ray phase contrast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Argunova, T. S., E-mail: argunova2002@mail.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Institute (Russian Federation); Kohn, V. G. [National Research Centre “Kurchatov Institute” (Russian Federation); Lim, J. H. [Pohang Accelerator Laboratory (Korea, Republic of); Je, J. H. [Pohang University of Science and Technology, Department of Materials Science and Engineering (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-15

    The morphology of a macrodefect in a single-crystal silicon carbide wafer has been investigated by the computer simulation of an experimental X-ray phase-contrast image. A micropipe, i.e., a long cavity with a small (elliptical in the general case) cross section, in a single crystal has been considered as a macrodefect. A far-field image of micropipe has been measured with the aid of synchrotron radiation without a monochromator. The parameters of micropipe elliptical cross section are determined based on one projection in two directions: parallel and perpendicular to the X-ray beam propagation direction, when scanning along the pipe axis. The results demonstrate the efficiency of the phase contrast method supplemented with computer simulation for studying such macrodefects when the defect position in the sample volume is unknown beforehand.

  14. X-ray phase-contrast computed tomography visualizes the microstructure and degradation profile of implanted biodegradable scaffolds after spinal cord injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takashima, Kenta, E-mail: takashima-k@med.tohoku.ac.jp [Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai (Japan); University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Hoshino, Masato; Uesugi, Kentaro; Yagi, Naoto [SPring-8, Hyogo (Japan); Matsuda, Shojiro [Gunze Limited, Shiga (Japan); Nakahira, Atsushi [Osaka Prefecture University, Osaka (Japan); Osumi, Noriko; Kohzuki, Masahiro [Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai (Japan); Onodera, Hiroshi [University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)

    2015-01-01

    X-ray phase-contrast computed tomography imaging based on the Talbot grating interferometer is described, and the way it can visualize the polyglycolic acid scaffold, including its microfibres, after implantation into the injured spinal cord is shown. Tissue engineering strategies for spinal cord repair are a primary focus of translational medicine after spinal cord injury (SCI). Many tissue engineering strategies employ three-dimensional scaffolds, which are made of biodegradable materials and have microstructure incorporated with viable cells and bioactive molecules to promote new tissue generation and functional recovery after SCI. It is therefore important to develop an imaging system that visualizes both the microstructure of three-dimensional scaffolds and their degradation process after SCI. Here, X-ray phase-contrast computed tomography imaging based on the Talbot grating interferometer is described and it is shown how it can visualize the polyglycolic acid scaffold, including its microfibres, after implantation into the injured spinal cord. Furthermore, X-ray phase-contrast computed tomography images revealed that degradation occurred from the end to the centre of the braided scaffold in the 28 days after implantation into the injured spinal cord. The present report provides the first demonstration of an imaging technique that visualizes both the microstructure and degradation of biodegradable scaffolds in SCI research. X-ray phase-contrast imaging based on the Talbot grating interferometer is a versatile technique that can be used for a broad range of preclinical applications in tissue engineering strategies.

  15. Phase contrast imaging of preclinical portal vein embolization with CO2 microbubbles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Rongbiao; Yan, Fuhua; Yang, Guo Yuan; Chen, Ke Min

    2017-11-01

    Preoperative portal vein embolization (PVE) is employed clinically to avoid postoperative liver insufficiency. Animal models are usually used to study PVE in terms of mechanisms and pathophysiological changes. PVE is formerly monitored by conventional absorption contrast imaging (ACI) with iodine contrast agent. However, the side effects induced by iodine can give rise to animal damage and death. In this study, the feasibility of using phase contrast imaging (PCI) to show PVE using homemade CO 2 microbubbles in living rats has been investigated. CO 2 gas was first formed from the reaction between citric acid and sodium bicarbonate. The CO 2 gas was then encapsulated by egg white to fabricate CO 2 microbubbles. ACI and PCI of CO 2 microbubbles were performed and compared in vitro. An additional increase in contrast was detected in PCI. PCI showed that CO 2 microbubbles gradually dissolved over time, and the remaining CO 2 microbubbles became larger. By PCI, the CO 2 microbubbles were found to have certain stability, suggesting their potential use as embolic agents. CO 2 microbubbles were injected into the main portal trunk to perform PVE in living rats. PCI exploited the differences in the refractive index and facilitated clear visualization of the PVE after the injection of CO 2 microbubbles. Findings from this study suggest that homemade CO 2 microbubbles-based PCI is a novel modality for preclinical PVE research.

  16. Phase contrast scanning transmission electron microscopy imaging of light and heavy atoms at the limit of contrast and resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yücelen, Emrah; Lazić, Ivan; Bosch, Eric G T

    2018-02-08

    Using state of the art scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) it is nowadays possible to directly image single atomic columns at sub-Å resolution. In standard (high angle) annular dark field STEM ((HA)ADF-STEM), however, light elements are usually invisible when imaged together with heavier elements in one image. Here we demonstrate the capability of the recently introduced Integrated Differential Phase Contrast STEM (iDPC-STEM) technique to image both light and heavy atoms in a thin sample at sub-Å resolution. We use the technique to resolve both the Gallium and Nitrogen dumbbells in a GaN crystal in [[Formula: see text

  17. Differential-interference-contrast digital in-line holography microscopy based on a single-optical-element.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuchao; Xie, Changqing

    2015-11-01

    Both digital in-line holography (DIH) and zone plate-based microscopy have received considerable interest as powerful imaging tools. However, the former suffers from a twin-image noise problem. The latter suffers from low efficiency and difficulty in fabrication. Here, we present an effective and efficient phase-contrast imaging approach, named differential-interference-contrast digital in-line holography (DIC-DIH), by using a single optical element to split the incident light into a plane wave and a converging spherical wave and generate a two-dimensional (2D) DIC effect simultaneously. Specifically, to improve image contrast, we present a new single optical element, termed 2D DIC compound photon sieves, by combining two overlaid binary gratings and a compound photon sieve through two logical XOR operations. The proof-of-concept experiments demonstrate that the proposed technique can eliminate the twin-image noise problem and improve image contrast with high efficiency. Additionally, we present an example of the phase-contrast imaging nonuniform thick photoresist development process.

  18. Three-dimensional visualization of the microvasculature of bile duct ligation-induced liver fibrosis in rats by x-ray phase-contrast imaging computed tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuan, Ruijiao; Zhao, Xinyan; Hu, Doudou; Jian, Jianbo; Wang, Tailing; Hu, Chunhong

    2015-07-01

    X-ray phase-contrast imaging (PCI) can substantially enhance contrast, and is particularly useful in differentiating biological soft tissues with small density differences. Combined with computed tomography (CT), PCI-CT enables the acquisition of accurate microstructures inside biological samples. In this study, liver microvasculature was visualized without contrast agents in vitro with PCI-CT using liver fibrosis samples induced by bile duct ligation (BDL) in rats. The histological section examination confirmed the correspondence of CT images with the microvascular morphology of the samples. By means of the PCI-CT and three-dimensional (3D) visualization technique, 3D microvascular structures in samples from different stages of liver fibrosis were clearly revealed. Different types of blood vessels, including portal veins and hepatic veins, in addition to ductular proliferation and bile ducts, could be distinguished with good sensitivity, excellent specificity and excellent accuracy. The study showed that PCI-CT could assess the morphological changes in liver microvasculature that result from fibrosis and allow characterization of the anatomical and pathological features of the microvasculature. With further development of PCI-CT technique, it may become a novel noninvasive imaging technique for the auxiliary analysis of liver fibrosis.

  19. PP22. PROGRESSING RADIOTHERAPY-DRUG COMBINATIONS TOWARDS EARLY PHASE CLINICAL TRIALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Dr Hazel; Stock, Dr Julie; Chalmers, Prof Anthony

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The Radiotherapy-Drug Combinations consortium (RaDCom) works with UK-based investigators to design and deliver high quality preclinical projects evaluating specific radiotherapy-drug combinations. We have several collaborations with industry, from in vitro projects to understand the novel agent in the context of radiobiology, through to preclinical studies that will generate data to support the development of radiotherapy combination trials. RaDCom facilitates the coordination of industry interactions, triage new proposals, monitor active projects, and engages with the radiotherapy community to promote collaboration and networking (via a capability map). The CRUK New Agents Committee Preclinical Combination Grant scheme provides one of the funding options for these studies, with the potential to feed into early phase clinical trials via the ECMC Combinations Alliance. RaDCom also supports broader radiotherapy research initiatives, by working to improve preclinical quality assurance and identifying a route to registration for radiotherapy-drug treatments. These activities will place the UK at the forefront of radiotherapy-drug preclinical research and provide a significant incentive for pharmaceutical companies to invest in this area and utilise the RaDCom network. Further information can be found on our webpage: http://ctrad.ncri.org.uk/research-support/radiation-drug-combinations-radcom Successful projects from RaDCom can then move into early phase combinations trials within the Combinations Alliance. The Combinations Alliance supports early phase combination studies in the UK via the ECMC (Experimental Cancer Medicine Centres) network. It focuses on translational research, and enables clinical project teams to work with disease experts to set up investigator led trials. The CRUK Centre of Drug Development (CDD) supports these studies with further management and coordination ensuring more robust timelines and delivery. The Combinations Alliance framework

  20. Measurement of renal blood flow by phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging during septic acute kidney injury: a pilot investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prowle, John R; Molan, Maurice P; Hornsey, Emma; Bellomo, Rinaldo

    2012-06-01

    In septic patients, decreased renal perfusion is considered to play a major role in the pathogenesis of acute kidney injury. However, the accurate measurement of renal blood flow in such patients is problematic and invasive. We sought to overcome such obstacles by measuring renal blood flow in septic patients with acute kidney injury using cine phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging. Pilot observational study. University-affiliated general adult intensive care unit. Ten adult patients with established septic acute kidney injury and 11 normal volunteers. Cine phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging measurement of renal blood flow and cardiac output. The median age of the study patients was 62.5 yrs and eight were male. At the time of magnetic resonance imaging, eight patients were mechanically ventilated, nine were on continuous hemofiltration, and five required vasopressors. Cine phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging examinations were carried out without complication. Median renal blood flow was 482 mL/min (range 335-1137) in septic acute kidney injury and 1260 mL/min (range 791-1750) in healthy controls (p = .003). Renal blood flow indexed to body surface area was 244 mL/min/m2 (range 165-662) in septic acute kidney injury and 525 mL/min/m2 (range 438-869) in controls (p = .004). In patients with septic acute kidney injury, median cardiac index was 3.5 L/min/m2 (range 1.6-8.7), and median renal fraction of cardiac output was only 7.1% (range 4.4-10.8). There was no rank correlation between renal blood flow index and creatinine clearance in patients with septic acute kidney injury (r = .26, p = .45). Cine phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging can be used to noninvasively and safely assess renal perfusion during critical illness in man. Near-simultaneous accurate measurement of cardiac output enables organ blood flow to be assessed in the context of the global circulation. Renal blood flow seems consistently reduced as a fraction of cardiac output in

  1. Limitations of combined flexible sigmoidoscopy and double contrast barium enema in patients with rectal bleeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hixson, L.J.; Sampliner, R.E.; Chernin, M.; Amberg, J.; Kogan, F.; Veterans Administration Medical Center, Tucson, AZ

    1989-01-01

    Eighty-seven outpatients with non-massive rectal bleeding or asymptomatic positive fecal occult blood were evaluated with 35 cm flexible sigmoidoscopy, double contrast barium enema (DBCE) and colonoscopy. 82% had hemorrhoids and 35% harbored colorectal neoplasia. The combination of flexible sigmoidoscopy and DCBE missed none of 7 malignant lesions. However, 35% of benign polyps ≥ 1 cm and 60.5% of those < 1 cm were not detected by this combination. The presence of hemorrhoids should not prevent a search for colon neoplasia and colonoscopy is the preferred method. (orig.)

  2. Radial k-t SPIRiT: autocalibrated parallel imaging for generalized phase-contrast MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santelli, Claudio; Schaeffter, Tobias; Kozerke, Sebastian

    2014-11-01

    To extend SPIRiT to additionally exploit temporal correlations for highly accelerated generalized phase-contrast MRI and to compare the performance of the proposed radial k-t SPIRiT method relative to frame-by-frame SPIRiT and radial k-t GRAPPA reconstruction for velocity and turbulence mapping in the aortic arch. Free-breathing navigator-gated two-dimensional radial cine imaging with three-directional multi-point velocity encoding was implemented and fully sampled data were obtained in the aortic arch of healthy volunteers. Velocities were encoded with three different first gradient moments per axis to permit quantification of mean velocity and turbulent kinetic energy. Velocity and turbulent kinetic energy maps from up to 14-fold undersampled data were compared for k-t SPIRiT, frame-by-frame SPIRiT, and k-t GRAPPA relative to the fully sampled reference. Using k-t SPIRiT, improvements in magnitude and velocity reconstruction accuracy were found. Temporally resolved magnitude profiles revealed a reduction in spatial blurring with k-t SPIRiT compared with frame-by-frame SPIRiT and k-t GRAPPA for all velocity encodings, leading to improved estimates of turbulent kinetic energy. k-t SPIRiT offers improved reconstruction accuracy at high radial undersampling factors and hence facilitates the use of generalized phase-contrast MRI for routine use. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Monocular perceptual learning of contrast detection facilitates binocular combination in adults with anisometropic amblyopia

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Zidong; Li, Jinrong; Liu, Jing; Cai, Xiaoxiao; Yuan, Junpeng; Deng, Daming; Yu, Minbin

    2016-01-01

    Perceptual learning in contrast detection improves monocular visual function in adults with anisometropic amblyopia; however, its effect on binocular combination remains unknown. Given that the amblyopic visual system suffers from pronounced binocular functional loss, it is important to address how the amblyopic visual system responds to such training strategies under binocular viewing conditions. Anisometropic amblyopes (n?=?13) were asked to complete two psychophysical supra-threshold binoc...

  4. Large-area full field x-ray differential phase-contrast imaging using 2D tiled gratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröter, Tobias J.; Koch, Frieder J.; Kunka, Danays; Meyer, Pascal; Tietze, Sabrina; Engelhardt, Sabine; Zuber, Marcus; Baumbach, Tilo; Willer, Konstantin; Birnbacher, Lorenz; Prade, Friedrich; Pfeiffer, Franz; Reichert, Klaus-Martin; Hofmann, Andreas; Mohr, Jürgen

    2017-06-01

    Grating-based x-ray differential phase-contrast imaging (DPCI) is capable of acquiring information based on phase-shift and dark-field signal, in addition to conventional x-ray absorption-contrast. Thus DPCI gives an advantage to investigate composite materials with component wise similar absorption properties like soft tissues. Due to technological challenges in fabricating high quality gratings over a large extent, the field of view (FoV) of the imaging systems is limited to a grating area of a couple of square centimeters. For many imaging applications (e.g. in medicine), however, a FoV that ranges over several ten centimeters is needed. In this manuscript we propose to create large area gratings of theoretically any extent by assembling a number of individual grating tiles. We discuss the precision needed for alignment of each microstructure tile in order to reduce image artifacts and to preserve minimum 90% of the sensitivity obtainable with a monolithic grating. To achieve a reliable high precision alignment a semiautomatic assembly system consisting of a laser autocollimator, a digital microscope and a force sensor together with positioning devices was built. The setup was used to tile a first four times four analyzer grating with a size of 200 mm  ×  200 mm together with a two times two phase grating. First imaging results prove the applicability and quality of the tiling concept.

  5. Contrast enhancement in an optical time-domain reflectometer via self-phase modulation compensation by chirped probe pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alekseev, A E; Potapov, V T; Vdovenko, V S; Simikin, D E; Gorshkov, B G

    2016-01-01

    In the present paper we propose a novel method for optical time-domain reflectometer (OTDR)–reflectogram contrast enhancement via compensation of nonlinear distortions of propagating probe pulse, which arise due to the self-phase modulation (SPM) effect in optical fiber. The compensation is performed via preliminary frequency modulation (chirp) of the initial probe pulse according to the specific law. As a result the OTDR contrast at some distant predefined fiber point is fully restored to the value of non-distorted probe pulse at the beginning of the fiber line. As a result, the performance of the phase OTDR increases. The point of full SPM compensation could be shifted to any other point of the fiber line via preliminary frequency modulation index change. The feasibility of the proposed method is theoretically proved and experimentally demonstrated. (paper)

  6. Automatic neuron segmentation and neural network analysis method for phase contrast microscopy images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Jincheng; Özkucur, Nurdan; Ren, Michael; Kaplan, David L; Levin, Michael; Miller, Eric L

    2015-11-01

    Phase Contrast Microscopy (PCM) is an important tool for the long term study of living cells. Unlike fluorescence methods which suffer from photobleaching of fluorophore or dye molecules, PCM image contrast is generated by the natural variations in optical index of refraction. Unfortunately, the same physical principles which allow for these studies give rise to complex artifacts in the raw PCM imagery. Of particular interest in this paper are neuron images where these image imperfections manifest in very different ways for the two structures of specific interest: cell bodies (somas) and dendrites. To address these challenges, we introduce a novel parametric image model using the level set framework and an associated variational approach which simultaneously restores and segments this class of images. Using this technique as the basis for an automated image analysis pipeline, results for both the synthetic and real images validate and demonstrate the advantages of our approach.

  7. Distinction of heterogeneity on Au nanostructured surface based on phase contrast imaging of atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Mi; Choi, Jeong-Woo

    2010-01-01

    The discrimination of the heterogeneity of different materials on nanostructured surfaces has attracted a great deal of interest in biotechnology as well as nanotechnology. Phase imaging through tapping mode of atomic force microscopy (TMAFM) can be used to distinguish the heterogeneity on a nanostructured surface. Nanostructures were fabricated using anodic aluminum oxide (AAO). An 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid (11-MUA) layer adsorbed onto the Au nanodots through self-assembly to improve the bio-compatibility. The Au nanostructures that were modified with 11-MUA and the concave surfaces were investigated using the TMAFM phase images to compare the heterogeneous and homogeneous nanostructured surfaces. Although the topography and phase images were taken simultaneously, the images were different. Therefore, the contrast in the TMAFM phase images revealed the different compositional materials on the heterogeneous nanostructure surface.

  8. Systolically gated 3D phase contrast MRA of mesenteric arteries in suspected mesenteric ischemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wasser, M.N.; Schultze Kool, L.J.; Roos, A. de [Leiden Univ. Hospital (Netherlands)] [and others

    1996-03-01

    Our goal was to assess the value of MRA for detecting stenoses in the celiac (CA) and superior mesenteric (SMA) arteries in patients suspected of having chronic mesenteric ischemia, using an optimized systolically gated 3D phase contrast technique. In an initial study in 24 patients who underwent conventional angiography of the abdominal vessels for different clinical indications, a 3D phase contrast MRA technique (3D-PCA) was evaluated and optimized to image the CAs and SMAs. Subsequently, a prospective study was performed to assess the value of systolically gated 3D-PCA in evaluation of the mesenteric arteries in 10 patients with signs and symptoms of chronic mesenteric ischemia. Intraarterial digital subtraction angiography and surgical findings were used as the reference standard. In the initial study, systolic gating appeared to be essential in imaging the SMA on 3D-PCA. In 10 patients suspected of mesenteric ischemia, systolically gated 3D-PCA identified significant proximal disease in the two mesenteric vessels in 4 patients. These patients underwent successful reconstruction of their stenotic vessels. Cardiac-gated MRA may become a useful tool in selection of patients suspected of having mesenteric ischemia who may benefit from surgery. 16 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  9. Is hepatotropic contrast enhanced MR a more effective method in differential diagnosis of hemangioma than multi-phase CT and unenhanced MR?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markiet Karolina

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cavernous hemangiomas are the most frequent neoplasms of the liver and in routine clinical practice they often need to be differentiated from malignant tumors and other benign focal lesions. The purpose of this study is to evaluate whether diagnostic accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of hepatic hemangiomas, showing atypical pattern on US, improves with the use of Gd-BOPTA in comparison with contrast-enhanced multi-phase computed tomography (CT. Methods 178 consecutive patients with ambiguous hepatic masses showing atypical hyperechoic pattern on grey-scale US, underwent unenhanced and contrast-enhanced multi-phase multi-detector CT and MR (1.5T with the use of liver-specific contrast medium gadobenate dimeglumine (Gd-BOPTA. After intravenous contrast administration arterial (HAP, venous-portal (PVP, equilibrium phases (EP both in CT and MR and additionally hepatobiliary phase (HBP in MR were obtained. 398 lesions have been detected including 99 hemangiomas and 299 other lesions. Results In non-enhanced MDCT examination detection of hemangiomas was characterized by sensitivity of 76%, specificity of 90%, PPV of 71%, NPV of 92% and accuracy of 86%. Non-enhanced MR examination showed sensitivity of 98%, specificity of 99%, PPV of 99%, NPV of 99% and accuracy of 99%. After intravenous administration of contrast medium in MR the mentioned above parameters did not increase significantly. Conclusion Gd-BOPTA-enhanced MR in comparison with unenhanced MRI does not improve diagnostic accuracy in discriminating hemangiomas that show non-specific appearance in ultrasound examination. Unenhanced MR as a method of choice should directly follow US in course of diagnostic algorithm in differentiation of hemangiomas from other liver tumors.

  10. Generalized Phase Contrast with matched filtering using LCoS pico-projectors

    OpenAIRE

    Bañas, Andrew Rafael; Palima, Darwin; Glückstad, Jesper

    2012-01-01

    We report a beam shaping system for generating high intensity programmable opticalspots using mGPC: matched filtering combined with Generalized Phase Contrastapplying two consumer handheld pico-projectors. Such a system presents a low costalternative for optical trapping and manipulation, optical lattices and other beamshaping applications usually implemented with high-end spatial light modulators.Portable pico-projectors based on liquid crystal on silicon (LCoS) devices were usedas binary ph...

  11. In vitro motility of cells from human epidermoid carcinomas. A study by phase-contrast and reflection-contrast cinematography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haemmerli, G; Sträuli, P

    1981-05-15

    The motile behavior of six cell lines derived from human squamous carcinomas (two from the larynx, four from the tongue) was studied by cinematography under phase- and reflection-contrast illumination. The recorded cell activities consist in spreading, stationary and translocation motility, and aggregate formation. Within this common pattern, quantitative modifications ("sub-pattern") are stable properties of the individual cells lines. Such modifications are particularly evident with regard to the dynamic texture of the aggregates which ranges from loose, netlike structures to compact islands with smooth borders. Accordingly, the intensity of cell traffic within and around the aggregates varies considerably. It is discussed to what extent the in vitro motility of the carcinoma cell populations reflects their behavior in the organism and thus the significance of cell movements for invasion.

  12. Stable and simple quantitative phase-contrast imaging by Fresnel biprism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Samira; Dashtdar, Masoomeh; Sánchez-Ortiga, Emilio; Martínez-Corral, Manuel; Javidi, Bahram

    2018-03-01

    Digital holographic (DH) microscopy has grown into a powerful nondestructive technique for the real-time study of living cells including dynamic membrane changes and cell fluctuations in nanometer and sub-nanometer scales. The conventional DH microscopy configurations require a separately generated coherent reference wave that results in a low phase stability and a necessity to precisely adjust the intensity ratio between two overlapping beams. In this work, we present a compact, simple, and very stable common-path DH microscope, employing a self-referencing configuration. The microscope is implemented by a diode laser as the source and a Fresnel biprism for splitting and recombining the beams simultaneously. In the overlapping area, linear interference fringes with high contrast are produced. The frequency of the interference pattern could be easily adjusted by displacement of the biprism along the optical axis without a decrease in fringe contrast. To evaluate the validity of the method, the spatial noise and temporal stability of the setup are compared with the common off-axis DH microscope based on a Mach-Zehnder interferometer. It is shown that the proposed technique has low mechanical noise as well as superb temporal stability with sub-nanometer precision without any external vibration isolation. The higher temporal stability improves the capabilities of the microscope for studying micro-object fluctuations, particularly in the case of biological specimens. Experimental results are presented using red blood cells and silica microspheres to demonstrate the system performance.

  13. Turbulent stress measurements with phase-contrast magnetic resonance through tilted slices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacKenzie, Jordan; Soederberg, Daniel; Lundell, Fredrik [Linne FLOW Centre, KTH Mechanics, Stockholm (Sweden); Swerin, Agne [SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden-Chemistry, Materials and Surfaces, Stockholm (Sweden); KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Surface and Corrosion Science, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2017-05-15

    Aiming at turbulent measurements in opaque suspensions, a simplistic methodology for measuring the turbulent stresses with phase-contrast magnetic resonance velocimetry is described. The method relies on flow-compensated and flow-encoding protocols with the flow encoding gradient normal to the slice. The experimental data is compared with direct numerical simulations (DNS), both directly but also, more importantly, after spatial averaging of the DNS data that resembles the measurement and data treatment of the experimental data. The results show that the most important MRI data (streamwise velocity, streamwise variance and Reynolds shear stress) is reliable up to at least anti r = 0.75 without any correction, paving the way for dearly needed turbulence and stress measurements in opaque suspensions. (orig.)

  14. Performance of equal gain combining with quantized phases in rayleigh fading channels

    KAUST Repository

    Rizvi, Umar H.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze the error probability of equal gain combining with quantized channel phase compensation for binary phase shift keying signalling over Rayleigh fading channels. The probability density and characteristic functions of the combined signal amplitude are derived and used to compute the analytic expressions for the bit error probability in dependance of the number of quantization levels L, the number of diversity branches N-R and the average received signal-to-noise ratio. The analysis is utilized to outline the trade-off between N-R and L and to compare the performance with non-coherent binary frequency shift keying and differential binary phase shift keying schemes under diversity reception. © 2011 IEEE.

  15. Double contrast barium enema combined with non-invasive imaging in peritoneal mesothelioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cozzi, G.; Bellomi, M.; Frigerio, L.F.; Ostinelli, C.; Marchiano, A.; Petrillo, R.; Severini, A.; Milan Univ.

    1989-01-01

    Mesotheliomas are rare tumors arising from serosal linings of the major serous cavities. Five patients with peritoneal mesothelioma underwent a double contrast barium enema (DCBE) and ultrasonography (US) (2 patients), computed tomography (CT) (3 patients) and/or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) (3 patients). The diagnosis was confirmed at laparotomy. The radiologic pattern at DCBE is unspecific and consists of compression and dislocation of bowel loops by extrinsic masses. Mesenteric retraction and segmental stenosis may be present. In one patient DCBE was normal. US, CT and MRI findings are also unspecific but when combined with information obtained from DCBE the site and abdominal extension of the disease are well defined. (orig.)

  16. Combined use of contrast media containing iodine and gadolinium for imaging and intervention. A hitherto widely ignored topic in radiological practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golder, W.

    2012-01-01

    The synchronous use of chemically different contrast media in the same body compartment is a challenge for the radiologist, whether it is scheduled or unexpected. However, to inject contrast media containing iodine and gadolinium at the same time can be a prerequisite for the examination of several organs or organ systems. Unlike other topics of contrast-enhanced imaging procedures, the difficulties encountered with double contrast injections have been widely ignored in the literature. In the absence of reliable data from experimental and clinical studies the radiologist is dependent on case reports, information provided by the contrast media manufacturers, personal communications, mostly scanty personal experiences and a skilful time management, in order to overcome the situation. Only the combination of X-ray, computed tomography and magnetic resonance arthrography can be performed without another thought. However, the more or less synchronous vascular application of contrast media containing iodine and gadolinium requires vigilance. The more seriously ill the patient is, the more caution is advised even if the decision on the combined administration has to be reached urgently. The following overview gives a description of the properties of contrast media containing iodine and gadolinium as far as interactions following simultaneous administration are concerned. Subsequently, the clinically relevant situations and constellations are outlined and analyzed. (orig.) [de

  17. Sodium Bicarbonate-Ascorbic Acid Combination for Prevention of Contrast-Induced Nephropathy in Chronic Kidney Disease Patients Undergoing Catheterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komiyama, Kota; Ashikaga, Takashi; Inagaki, Dai; Miyabe, Tomonori; Arai, Marina; Yoshida, Kiyotaka; Miyazawa, Satoshi; Nakada, Akihiro; Kawamura, Iwanari; Masuda, Shinichiro; Nagamine, Sho; Hojo, Rintaro; Aoyama, Yuya; Tsuchiyama, Takaaki; Fukamizu, Seiji; Shibui, Takashi; Sakurada, Harumizu

    2017-01-25

    Sodium bicarbonate and ascorbic acid have been proposed to prevent contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN). The present study evaluated the effect of their combined use on CIN incidence.Methods and Results:We prospectively enrolled 429 patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD: baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 mL/min/1.73 m 2 ) prior to elective coronary catheterization. CIN was defined as absolute (≥0.5 mg/dL) or relative (≥25%) increase in serum creatinine within 72 h. In the saline hydration (n=218) and combined sodium bicarbonate+ascorbic acid (n=211) groups, a total of 1,500-2,500 mL 0.9% saline was given before and after the procedure. In addition, the combination group received 20 mEq sodium bicarbonate and 3 g ascorbic acid i.v. before the procedure, followed by 2 g ascorbic acid after the procedure and a further 2 g after 12 h. There were no significant differences between the basic characteristics and contrast volume in the 2 groups. CIN occurred in 19 patients (8.7%) in the saline group, and in 6 patients (2.8%) in the combined treatment group (P=0.008). Combined sodium bicarbonate and ascorbic acid could prevent CIN following catheterization in CKD patients.

  18. Body surface area adapted iopromide 300 mg/ml versus 370 mg/ml contrast medium injection protocol: Influence on quantitative and clinical assessment in combined PET/CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verburg, Frederik A., E-mail: fverburg@ukaachen.de [RWTH Aachen University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Pauwelsstraße 30, 52074 Aachen (Germany); Maastricht University Medical Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, P. Debyelaan 25, 6229 HX Maastricht (Netherlands); Apitzsch, Jonas [RWTH Aachen University Hospital, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Pauwelsstraße 30, 52074 Aachen (Germany); Lensing, Carina [RWTH Aachen University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Pauwelsstraße 30, 52074 Aachen (Germany); Kuhl, Christiane K. [RWTH Aachen University Hospital, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Pauwelsstraße 30, 52074 Aachen (Germany); Pietsch, Hubertus [Bayer Pharma AG, Müllerstrasse 178, 13353 Berlin (Germany); Mottaghy, Felix M. [RWTH Aachen University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Pauwelsstraße 30, 52074 Aachen (Germany); Maastricht University Medical Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, P. Debyelaan 25, 6229 HX Maastricht (Netherlands); Behrendt, Florian F. [RWTH Aachen University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Pauwelsstraße 30, 52074 Aachen (Germany)

    2013-12-01

    Purpose: To investigate the quantitative and qualitative differences between combined positron emission tomography and computed X-ray tomography (PET/CT) enhanced with contrast medium with either an iodine concentration 300 mg/ml or 370 mg/ml. Materials and methods: 120 consecutive patients scheduled for F-18-Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET/CT were included. The first (second) 60 patients received contrast medium with 300 (370) mg iodine/ml. Intravenous injection protocols were adapted for an identical iodine delivery rate (1.3 mg/s) and body surface area (BSA) adapted iodine dose (22.26 g I/m{sup 2}). Maximum and mean standardized uptake values (SUV{sub max}; SUV{sub mean}) and contrast enhancement (HU) were determined in the ascending aorta, the abdominal aorta, the inferior vena cava, the portal vein, the liver and the right kidney in the venous contrast medium phase. PET data were evaluated visually for the presence of malignancy and image quality. Results: Both media caused significantly higher values for HU, SUV{sub mean} and SUV{sub max} for the enhanced PET/CT than the non-enhanced one (all p < 0.01). There were no significant differences in the degree of increase of HU, SUV{sub mean} and SUV{sub max} between the two contrast media at any anatomic site (all p > 0.05). Visual evaluation of lesions showed no differences between contrast and non-contrast PET/CT or between the two different contrast media (p = 0.77). Conclusion: When using a constant iodine delivery rate and total iodine dose in a BSA adapted injection protocol, there are no quantitative or qualitative differences in either CT or PET between contrast media with an iodine concentration of 300 mg/ml and 370 mg/ml, respectively.

  19. Concept of contrast transfer function for edge illumination x-ray phase-contrast imaging and its comparison with the free-space propagation technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diemoz, Paul C; Vittoria, Fabio A; Olivo, Alessandro

    2016-05-16

    Previous studies on edge illumination (EI) X-ray phase-contrast imaging (XPCi) have investigated the nature and amplitude of the signal provided by this technique. However, the response of the imaging system to different object spatial frequencies was never explicitly considered and studied. This is required in order to predict the performance of a given EI setup for different classes of objects. To this scope, in the present work we derive analytical expressions for the contrast transfer function of an EI imaging system, using the approximation of near-field regime, and study its dependence upon the main experimental parameters. We then exploit these results to compare the frequency response of an EI system with respect of that of a free-space propagation XPCi one. The results achieved in this work can be useful for predicting the signals obtainable for different types of objects and also as a basis for new retrieval methods.

  20. A method to implement the reservoir-wave hypothesis using phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Gray, Robert D.M.; Parker, Kim H.; Quail, Michael A.; Taylor, Andrew M.; Biglino, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    The reservoir-wave hypothesis states that the blood pressure waveform can be usefully divided into a “reservoir pressure” related to the global compliance and resistance of the arterial system, and an “excess pressure” that depends on local conditions. The formulation of the reservoir-wave hypothesis applied to the area waveform is shown, and the analysis is applied to area and velocity data from high-resolution phase-contrast cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging. A validation stud...

  1. Zernike phase contrast cryo-electron tomography of sodium-driven flagellar hook-basal bodies from Vibrio alginolyticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosogi, Naoki; Shigematsu, Hideki; Terashima, Hiroyuki; Homma, Michio; Nagayama, Kuniaki

    2011-01-01

    Vibrio alginolyticus use flagella to swim. A flagellum consists of a filament, hook and basal body. The basal body is made up of a rod and several ring structures. This study investigates the structure of the T ring which is a unique component of the V. alginolyticus sodium ion-driven flagellar basal body. Using Zernike phase contrast (ZPC) cryo-electron tomography, we compared the 3D structures of purified hook-basal bodies (HBB) from a wild-type strain (KK148) and a deletion mutant lacking MotX and MotY (TH3), which are thought to form the T ring. ZPC images of HBBs had highly improved signal-to-noise ratio compared to conventional phase contrast images. We observed the outline of the HBBs from strains KK148 and TH3, and the TH3 mutant was missing its T ring. In the wild-type strain, the T ring was beneath the LP ring and seemed to form a ring shape with diameter of 32 nm. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Phase contrast enhanced high resolution X-ray imaging and tomography of soft tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakubek, Jan; Granja, Carlos; Dammer, Jiri; Hanus, Robert; Holy, Tomas; Pospisil, Stanislav; Tykva, Richard; Uher, Josef; Vykydal, Zdenek

    2007-01-01

    A tabletop system for digital high resolution and high sensitivity X-ray micro-radiography has been developed for small-animal and soft-tissue imaging. The system is based on a micro-focus X-ray tube and the semiconductor hybrid position sensitive Medipix2 pixel detector. Transmission radiography imaging, conventionally based only on absorption, is enhanced by exploiting phase-shift effects induced in the X-ray beam traversing the sample. Phase contrast imaging is realized by object edge enhancement. DAQ is done by a novel fully integrated USB-based readout with online image generation. Improved signal reconstruction techniques make use of advanced statistical data analysis, enhanced beam hardening correction and direct thickness calibration of individual pixels. 2D and 3D micro-tomography images of several biological samples demonstrate the applicability of the system for biological and medical purposes including in-vivo and time dependent physiological studies in the life sciences

  3. Photon-counting-based diffraction phase microscopy combined with single-pixel imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibuya, Kyuki; Araki, Hiroyuki; Iwata, Tetsuo

    2018-04-01

    We propose a photon-counting (PC)-based quantitative-phase imaging (QPI) method for use in diffraction phase microscopy (DPM) that is combined with a single-pixel imaging (SPI) scheme (PC-SPI-DPM). This combination of DPM with the SPI scheme overcomes a low optical throughput problem that has occasionally prevented us from obtaining quantitative-phase images in DPM through use of a high-sensitivity single-channel photodetector such as a photomultiplier tube (PMT). The introduction of a PMT allowed us to perform PC with ease and thus solved a dynamic range problem that was inherent to SPI. As a proof-of-principle experiment, we performed a comparison study of analogue-based SPI-DPM and PC-SPI-DPM for a 125-nm-thick indium tin oxide (ITO) layer coated on a silica glass substrate. We discuss the basic performance of the method and potential future modifications of the proposed system.

  4. Contrast optimization in multiphase arterial spin labeling; Otimizacao do contraste em ASL multi-fase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paiva, Fernando F.; Paschoal, Andre M., E-mail: paiva@ifsc.usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (CIERMag/USP), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Instituto de Fisica; Foerster, Bernd U. [Philips Medical Systems LatAm, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Tovar-Moll, Fernanda; Moll, Jorge [Instituto D' Or de Pesquisa e Ensino, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-08-15

    Multiphase ASL is an effective way to overcome the regional variation of the transit time that difficult the estimation of perfusion values. However, with conventional multiple phases ASL techniques, the ASL contrast at later phases is impaired due to repeated application of excitation pulses and longitudinal relaxation making it difficult to evaluate the tissue perfusion in regions where the transit time is longer. In the present study, we show an improvement of the acquisition scheme by exploring a modulation on the flip angle of the MR acquisition to keep the ASL contrast constant over multiple phases. (author)

  5. Combined blood pool and extracellular contrast agents for pediatric and young adult cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Joyce T. [Ann and Robert Lurie Children' s Hospital of Chicago, Division of Pediatric Cardiology, 225 E. Chicago Ave., Box 21, Chicago, IL (United States); Ann and Robert Lurie Children' s Hospital of Chicago, Department of Pediatrics, Chicago, IL (United States); Robinson, Joshua D. [Ann and Robert Lurie Children' s Hospital of Chicago, Division of Pediatric Cardiology, 225 E. Chicago Ave., Box 21, Chicago, IL (United States); Ann and Robert Lurie Children' s Hospital of Chicago, Department of Pediatrics, Chicago, IL (United States); Northwestern University, Department of Radiology, Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States); Deng, Jie [Northwestern University, Department of Radiology, Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States); Ann and Robert Lurie Children' s Hospital of Chicago, Department of Medical Imaging, Chicago, IL (United States); Rigsby, Cynthia K. [Ann and Robert Lurie Children' s Hospital of Chicago, Department of Pediatrics, Chicago, IL (United States); Northwestern University, Department of Radiology, Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States); Ann and Robert Lurie Children' s Hospital of Chicago, Department of Medical Imaging, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2016-12-15

    A comprehensive cardiac magnetic resonance (cardiac MR) study including both late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) and MR angiography may be indicated for patients with a history of acquired or congenital heart disease. To study the novel use of an extracellular agent for assessment of LGE combined with a blood pool contrast agent for detailed MR angiography evaluation to yield a comprehensive cardiac MR study in these patients. We reviewed clinical cardiac MR studies utilizing extracellular and blood pool contrast agents and noted demographics, clinical data and adverse events. We rated LGE image quality and MR angiography image quality for each vascular segment and calculated inter-rater variability. We also quantified contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR). Thirty-three patients (mean age 13.9 ± 3 years) received an extracellular contrast agent (10 gadobenate dimeglumine, 23 gadopentetate dimeglumine) and blood pool contrast agent (33 gadofosveset trisodium). No adverse events were reported. MRI indications included Kawasaki disease (8), cardiomyopathy and coronary anatomy (15), repaired congenital heart disease (8), and other (2). Mean LGE quality was 2.6 ± 0.6 with 97% diagnostic imaging. LGE quality did not vary by type of contrast agent given (P = 0.07). Mean MR angiography quality score was 4.7 ± 0.6, with high inter-rater agreement (k = 0.6-0.8, P < 0.002). MR angiography quality did not vary by type of contrast agent used (P = 0.6). Cardiac MR studies utilizing both extracellular and blood pool contrast agents are feasible and safe and provide excellent-quality LGE and MR angiography images. The use of two contrast agents allows for a comprehensive assessment of both myocardial viability and vascular anatomy during the same exam. (orig.)

  6. Combined blood pool and extracellular contrast agents for pediatric and young adult cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Joyce T.; Robinson, Joshua D.; Deng, Jie; Rigsby, Cynthia K.

    2016-01-01

    A comprehensive cardiac magnetic resonance (cardiac MR) study including both late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) and MR angiography may be indicated for patients with a history of acquired or congenital heart disease. To study the novel use of an extracellular agent for assessment of LGE combined with a blood pool contrast agent for detailed MR angiography evaluation to yield a comprehensive cardiac MR study in these patients. We reviewed clinical cardiac MR studies utilizing extracellular and blood pool contrast agents and noted demographics, clinical data and adverse events. We rated LGE image quality and MR angiography image quality for each vascular segment and calculated inter-rater variability. We also quantified contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR). Thirty-three patients (mean age 13.9 ± 3 years) received an extracellular contrast agent (10 gadobenate dimeglumine, 23 gadopentetate dimeglumine) and blood pool contrast agent (33 gadofosveset trisodium). No adverse events were reported. MRI indications included Kawasaki disease (8), cardiomyopathy and coronary anatomy (15), repaired congenital heart disease (8), and other (2). Mean LGE quality was 2.6 ± 0.6 with 97% diagnostic imaging. LGE quality did not vary by type of contrast agent given (P = 0.07). Mean MR angiography quality score was 4.7 ± 0.6, with high inter-rater agreement (k = 0.6-0.8, P < 0.002). MR angiography quality did not vary by type of contrast agent used (P = 0.6). Cardiac MR studies utilizing both extracellular and blood pool contrast agents are feasible and safe and provide excellent-quality LGE and MR angiography images. The use of two contrast agents allows for a comprehensive assessment of both myocardial viability and vascular anatomy during the same exam. (orig.)

  7. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography does not improve the diagnostic value of parathyroid dual-phase MIBI SPECT/CT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Trine B; Aleksyniene, Ramune; Boldsen, Søren K

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the contribution of contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CE-CT) to the localization of parathyroid adenomas compared with the dual-phase Tc-99m MIBI SPECT with low-dose CT (LD-CT). PATIENTS AND METHODS: This retrospective study included...... consecutive patients with primary hyperparathyroidism who underwent a preoperative dual-phase MIBI SPECT/CT followed by surgical resection. The standard of care was dual-phase MIBI SPECT/CT, acquired with LD-CT in the early phase and CE-CT in the late phase (SPECT/CE-CT). The presence and localization...... of positive sites were extracted from study reports. To examine the role of CE-CT, patient cases were independently re-reviewed, with the early LD-CT fused with early and late SPECT (SPECT/LD-CT). The two SPECT/CT methods were compared for sensitivity, and the positive predictive value and histopathology were...

  8. Low-dose x-ray phase-contrast and absorption CT using equally sloped tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fahimian, Benjamin P; Miao Jianwei; Mao Yu; Cloetens, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Tomographic reconstruction from undersampled and noisy projections is often desirable in transmission CT modalities for purposes of low-dose tomography and fast acquisition imaging. However under such conditions, due to the violation of the Nyquist sampling criteria and the presence of noise, reconstructions with acceptable accuracy may not be possible. Recent experiments in transmission electron tomography and coherent diffraction microscopy have shown that the technique of equally sloped tomography (EST), an exact tomographic method utilizing an oversampling iterative Fourier-based reconstruction, provides more accurate image reconstructions when the number of projections is significantly undersampled relative to filtered back projection and algebraic iterative methods. Here we extend this technique by developing new reconstruction algorithms which allow for the incorporation of advanced mathematical regularization constraints, such as the nonlocal means total variational model, in a manner that is consistent with experimental projections. We then evaluate the resulting image quality of the developed algorithm through simulations and experiments at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility on image quality phantoms using the x-ray absorption and phase contrast CT modalities. Both our simulation and experimental results have indicated that the method can reduce the number of projections by 60-75% in parallel beam modalities, while achieving comparable or better image quality than the conventional reconstructions. As large-scale and compact synchrotron radiation facilities are currently under rapid development worldwide, the implementation of low-dose x-ray absorption and phase-contrast CT can find broad applications in biology and medicine using these advanced x-ray sources.

  9. Cardiac magnetic resonance: is phonocardiogram gating reliable in velocity-encoded phase contrast imaging?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nassenstein, Kai; Schlosser, Thomas; Orzada, Stephan; Ladd, Mark E.; Maderwald, Stefan; Haering, Lars; Czylwik, Andreas; Jensen, Christoph; Bruder, Oliver

    2012-01-01

    To assess the diagnostic accuracy of phonocardiogram (PCG) gated velocity-encoded phase contrast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Flow quantification above the aortic valve was performed in 68 patients by acquiring a retrospectively PCG- and a retrospectively ECG-gated velocity-encoded GE-sequence at 1.5 T. Peak velocity (PV), average velocity (AV), forward volume (FV), reverse volume (RV), net forward volume (NFV), as well as the regurgitant fraction (RF) were assessed for both datasets, as well as for the PCG-gated datasets after compensation for the PCG trigger delay. PCG-gated image acquisition was feasible in 64 patients, ECG-gated in all patients. PCG-gated flow quantification overestimated PV (Δ 3.8 ± 14.1 cm/s; P = 0.037) and underestimated FV (Δ -4.9 ± 15.7 ml; P = 0.015) and NFV (Δ -4.5 ± 16.5 ml; P = 0.033) compared with ECG-gated imaging. After compensation for the PCG trigger delay, differences were only observed for PV (Δ 3.8 ± 14.1 cm/s; P = 0.037). Wide limits of agreement between PCG- and ECG-gated flow quantification were observed for all variables (PV: -23.9 to 31.4 cm/s; AV: -4.5 to 3.9 cm/s; FV: -35.6 to 25.9 ml; RV: -8.0 to 7.2 ml; NFV: -36.8 to 27.8 ml; RF: -10.4 to 10.2 %). The present study demonstrates that PCG gating in its current form is not reliable enough for flow quantification based on velocity-encoded phase contrast gradient echo (GE) sequences. (orig.)

  10. Analyzer-based phase-contrast imaging system using a micro focus x-ray source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Wei; Majidi, Keivan; Brankov, Jovan G.

    2014-01-01

    Here we describe a new in-laboratory analyzer based phase contrast-imaging (ABI) instrument using a conventional X-ray tube source (CXS) aimed at bio-medical imaging applications. Phase contrast-imaging allows visualization of soft tissue details usually obscured in conventional X-ray imaging. The ABI system design and major features are described in detail. The key advantage of the presented system, over the few existing CXS ABI systems, is that it does not require high precision components, i.e., CXS, X-ray detector, and electro-mechanical components. To overcome a main problem introduced by these components, identified as temperature stability, the system components are kept at a constant temperature inside of three enclosures, thus minimizing the electrical and mechanical thermal drifts. This is achieved by using thermoelectric (Peltier) cooling/heating modules that are easy to control precisely. For CXS we utilized a microfocus X-ray source with tungsten (W) anode material. In addition the proposed system eliminates tungsten's multiple spectral lines by selecting monochromator crystal size appropriately therefore eliminating need for the costly mismatched, two-crystal monochromator. The system imaging was fine-tuned for tungsten Kα 1 line with the energy of 59.3 keV since it has been shown to be of great clinical significance by a number of researchers at synchrotron facilities. In this way a laboratory system that can be used for evaluating and quantifying tissue properties, initially explored at synchrotron facilities, would be of great interest to a larger research community. To demonstrate the imaging capability of our instrument we use a chicken thigh tissue sample

  11. Analyzer-based phase-contrast imaging system using a micro focus x-ray source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wei; Majidi, Keivan; Brankov, Jovan G.

    2014-08-01

    Here we describe a new in-laboratory analyzer based phase contrast-imaging (ABI) instrument using a conventional X-ray tube source (CXS) aimed at bio-medical imaging applications. Phase contrast-imaging allows visualization of soft tissue details usually obscured in conventional X-ray imaging. The ABI system design and major features are described in detail. The key advantage of the presented system, over the few existing CXS ABI systems, is that it does not require high precision components, i.e., CXS, X-ray detector, and electro-mechanical components. To overcome a main problem introduced by these components, identified as temperature stability, the system components are kept at a constant temperature inside of three enclosures, thus minimizing the electrical and mechanical thermal drifts. This is achieved by using thermoelectric (Peltier) cooling/heating modules that are easy to control precisely. For CXS we utilized a microfocus X-ray source with tungsten (W) anode material. In addition the proposed system eliminates tungsten's multiple spectral lines by selecting monochromator crystal size appropriately therefore eliminating need for the costly mismatched, two-crystal monochromator. The system imaging was fine-tuned for tungsten Kα1 line with the energy of 59.3 keV since it has been shown to be of great clinical significance by a number of researchers at synchrotron facilities. In this way a laboratory system that can be used for evaluating and quantifying tissue properties, initially explored at synchrotron facilities, would be of great interest to a larger research community. To demonstrate the imaging capability of our instrument we use a chicken thigh tissue sample.

  12. Contrast between hypervascularized liver lesions and hepatic parenchyma. Early dynamic PET versus contrast-enhanced CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freesmeyer, M.; Winkens, T.; Schierz, J.-H.

    2014-01-01

    To detect hypervascularized liver lesions, early dynamic (ED) 18 F-FDG PET may be an alternative when contrast-enhanced (CE) imaging is infeasible. This retrospective pilot analysis compared contrast between such lesions and liver parenchyma, an important objective image quality variable, in ED PET versus CE CT. Twenty-eight hypervascularized liver lesions detected by CE CT [21 (75%) hepatocellular carcinomas; mean (range) diameter 4.9 ± 3.5 (1-14) cm] in 20 patients were scanned with ED PET. Using regions of interest, maximum and mean lesional and parenchymal signals at baseline, arterial and venous phases were calculated for ED PET and CE CT. Lesional/parenchymal signal ratio was significantly higher (P < 0.005) with ED PET versus CE CT at the arterial phase and similar between the methods at the venous phase. In liver imaging, ED PET generates greater lesional-parenchymal contrast during the arterial phase than does CE CT; these observations should be formally, prospectively evaluated. (author)

  13. Usefulness of combining gadolinium-ethoxybenzyl-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging and contrast-enhanced ultrasound for diagnosing the macroscopic classification of small hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Tomoki; Aikata, Hiroshi; Hatooka, Masahiro; Morio, Kei; Morio, Reona; Kan, Hiromi; Fujino, Hatsue; Fukuhara, Takayuki; Masaki, Keiichi; Ohno, Atsushi; Naeshiro, Noriaki; Nakahara, Takashi; Honda, Yohji; Murakami, Eisuke; Kawaoka, Tomokazu; Tsuge, Masataka; Hiramatsu, Akira; Imamura, Michio; Kawakami, Yoshiiku; Hyogo, Hideyuki; Takahashi, Shoichi; Chayama, Kazuaki

    2015-11-01

    Non-simple nodules in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) correlate with poor prognosis. Therefore, we examined the diagnostic ability of gadolinium-ethoxybenzyl-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (EOB-MRI) and contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) for diagnosing the macroscopic classification of small HCCs. A total of 85 surgically resected nodules (≤30 mm) were analyzed. HCCs were pathologically classified as simple nodular (SN) and non-SN. By evaluating hepatobiliary phase (HBP) of EOB-MRI and Kupffer phase of CEUS, the diagnostic abilities of both modalities to correctly distinguish between SN and non-SN were compared. Forty-six nodules were diagnosed as SN and the remaining 39 nodules as non-SN. The area under the ROC curve (AUROCs, 95% confidence interval) for the diagnosis of non-SN were EOB-MRI, 0.786 (0.682-0.890): CEUS, 0.784 (0.679-0.889), in combination, 0.876 (0.792-0.959). The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were 64.1%, 95.7%, and 81.2% in EOB-MRI, 56.4%, 97.8%, and 78.8% in CEUS, and 84.6%, 95.7%, and 90.6% in combination, respectively. High diagnostic ability was obtained when diagnosed in both modalities combined. The sensitivity was especially statistically significant compared to CEUS. Combined diagnosis by EOB-MRI and CEUS can provide high-quality imaging assessment for determining non-SN in small HCCs. • Non-SN has a higher frequency of MVI and intrahepatic metastasis than SN. • Macroscopic classification is useful to choose the treatment strategy for small HCCs. • Diagnostic ability for macroscopic findings of EOB-MRI and CEUS were statistically equal. • The diagnosis of macroscopic findings by individual modality has limitations. • Combined diagnosis of EOB-MRI and CEUS provides high diagnostic ability.

  14. Effect of contrast-enhanced ultrasound on differential diagnosis of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma and arterial phase enhanced hepatic inflammatory lesions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shanshan Yin; Qiuli Cui; Kun Yan; Wei Yang; Wei Wu; Liping Bao; Minhua Chen

    2017-01-01

    Objective:To investigate differential diagnosis between intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) and arterial phase enhanced hepatic inflammatory lesions in patients without liver cirrhosis using contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS).Methods:ICC and hepatic inflammatory lesions cases with CEUS and pathological diagnosis between Sep 2013 and Oct 2016 were investigated retrospectively.Imaging features of conventional ultrasound and CEUS were analyzed.The parameters of time intensity curve (TIC),including the arrival time,peak intensity (PI) in the lesions,the starting time for washout,and the intensity difference at 3 min (△I3) after contrast agent infection between the lesion and the liver parenchyma,were compared between ICC and hepatic inflammatory lesions.Results:Twenty-five ICC and fifteen inflammatory patients were included in this study.Seventeen ICC (68.0%) and two inflammatory cases (13.3%) showed bile duct dilatation on conventional ultrasound.Using CEUS,three ICC cases (12.0%) were misdiagnosed as inflammatory lesions and three inflammatory lesions (20.0%) as ICC;two ICC (8.0%) and one inflammatory case (6.7%) could not be made definite diagnosis.Washout started at 34.5±3.5 s and 61.5± 12.9 s for ICC and inflammatory lesions respectively (P<0.001).The intensity difference between lesion and liver parenchyma at 3 min after contrast agent injection was 10.8±3.1 dB in ICC and 4.2±2.3 dB in inflammatory group (P<0.00 1).The sensitivity and specificity differentiating ICC and inflammatory lesions were 76% and 87% if the cut-offvalue of the intensity difference was 7.7 dB.Conclusions:Combined with TIC analysis,and particularly with the characteristic of the early-starting and obvious washout in ICC,CEUS can be useful in differential diagnosis between hepatic inflammatory lesions and ICC.

  15. Automated Method for the Rapid and Precise Estimation of Adherent Cell Culture Characteristics from Phase Contrast Microscopy Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaccard, Nicolas; Griffin, Lewis D; Keser, Ana; Macown, Rhys J; Super, Alexandre; Veraitch, Farlan S; Szita, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    The quantitative determination of key adherent cell culture characteristics such as confluency, morphology, and cell density is necessary for the evaluation of experimental outcomes and to provide a suitable basis for the establishment of robust cell culture protocols. Automated processing of images acquired using phase contrast microscopy (PCM), an imaging modality widely used for the visual inspection of adherent cell cultures, could enable the non-invasive determination of these characteristics. We present an image-processing approach that accurately detects cellular objects in PCM images through a combination of local contrast thresholding and post hoc correction of halo artifacts. The method was thoroughly validated using a variety of cell lines, microscope models and imaging conditions, demonstrating consistently high segmentation performance in all cases and very short processing times (image). Based on the high segmentation performance, it was possible to precisely determine culture confluency, cell density, and the morphology of cellular objects, demonstrating the wide applicability of our algorithm for typical microscopy image processing pipelines. Furthermore, PCM image segmentation was used to facilitate the interpretation and analysis of fluorescence microscopy data, enabling the determination of temporal and spatial expression patterns of a fluorescent reporter. We created a software toolbox (PHANTAST) that bundles all the algorithms and provides an easy to use graphical user interface. Source-code for MATLAB and ImageJ is freely available under a permissive open-source license. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2014;111: 504–517. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24037521

  16. Investigation of biomedical inner microstructures with hard X-ray phase-contrast imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shu Hang [Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Institute of High Energy Physics, CAS, 100049 Beijing (China); Graduate University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, 100864 Beijing (China); Zhu Peiping [Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Institute of High Energy Physics, CAS, 100049 Beijing (China); Chen Bo [Department of Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Liu Bo; Yin Hongxia [Capital University of Medical Sciences, 100054 Beijing (China); Li Enrong [Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Institute of High Energy Physics, CAS, 100049 Beijing (China); Graduate University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, 100864 Beijing (China); Liu Yijin [Department of Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Wang Junyue [Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Institute of High Energy Physics, CAS, 100049 Beijing (China); Graduate University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, 100864 Beijing (China); Yuan Qingxi; Huang Wanxia; Fang Shouxian [Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Institute of High Energy Physics, CAS, 100049 Beijing (China); Wu Ziyu [Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Institute of High Energy Physics, CAS, 100049 Beijing (China); National Center for NanoScience and Technology, 100080 Beijing (China)], E-mail: wuzy@ihep.ac.cn

    2007-09-21

    Hard X-ray Phase-Contrast Imaging (HX-PCI) is a new and valuable method that may provide information of the inner parts of an opaque object. Previous reports demonstrated its applicability in soft and hard tissue imaging. Here we provide further evidence for improved image quality and the effective capability to distinguish inner microstructures in real biomedical systems such as cochlea. Experiments performed both at the 4W1A beamline of the Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility (BSRF) and at the Taiwan National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center (NSRRC) clearly show details of samples' inner microstructure with a resolution of a few microns. The improved spatial resolution is a relevant achievement for future improved understanding and clinical trials.

  17. Combination of light and melatonin time cues for phase advancing the human circadian clock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Tina M; Markwald, Rachel R; Chinoy, Evan D; Snider, Jesse A; Bessman, Sara C; Jung, Christopher M; Wright, Kenneth P

    2013-11-01

    Photic and non-photic stimuli have been shown to shift the phase of the human circadian clock. We examined how photic and non-photic time cues may be combined by the human circadian system by assessing the phase advancing effects of one evening dose of exogenous melatonin, alone and in combination with one session of morning bright light exposure. Randomized placebo-controlled double-blind circadian protocol. The effects of four conditions, dim light (∼1.9 lux, ∼0.6 Watts/m(2))-placebo, dim light-melatonin (5 mg), bright light (∼3000 lux, ∼7 Watts/m(2))-placebo, and bright light-melatonin on circadian phase was assessed by the change in the salivary dim light melatonin onset (DLMO) prior to and following treatment under constant routine conditions. Melatonin or placebo was administered 5.75 h prior to habitual bedtime and 3 h of bright light exposure started 1 h prior to habitual wake time. Sleep and chronobiology laboratory environment free of time cues. Thirty-six healthy participants (18 females) aged 22 ± 4 y (mean ± SD). Morning bright light combined with early evening exogenous melatonin induced a greater phase advance of the DLMO than either treatment alone. Bright light alone and melatonin alone induced similar phase advances. Information from light and melatonin appear to be combined by the human circadian clock. The ability to combine circadian time cues has important implications for understanding fundamental physiological principles of the human circadian timing system. Knowledge of such principles is important for designing effective countermeasures for phase-shifting the human circadian clock to adapt to jet lag, shift work, and for designing effective treatments for circadian sleep-wakefulness disorders.

  18. Non-contrast enhanced magnetic resonance angiography techniques in candidates for kidney transplantation: A comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blankholm, Anne Dorte; Ginnerup-Pedersen, Bodil; Stausbøl-Grøn, Brian; Haislund, Margit; Laustsen, Sussie; Ringgaard, Steffen

    2013-01-01

    Aim: Detailed knowledge of vessel status in potential candidates for kidney transplantation is essential for the surgeon. Contrast enhanced magnetic resonance angiography has previously been used intensively for assessing this, but the discovery that use of gadolinium based contrast agents in magnetic resonance imaging can cause Nephrogenic Systemic Fibrosis in patients suffering from severe kidney disease has lead to renewed interest in non-contrast enhanced magnetic resonance angiography. The aim of this study was to find a non-contrast enhanced magnetic resonance angiography method for preoperative evaluation of the pelvic vessels prior to kidney transplantation, providing a sufficient image quality. Method: In a prospective study we consecutively included 54 patients undergoing examinations prior to kidney transplantation. The patients were examined with the following magnetic resonance angiography sequences: A 2D Time of flight (n = 54), 3D Time of flight (n = 52) patients, 3D Phase Contrast (n = 54), 3D Balanced Steady State Free Precession (n = 52) and a 2D TRiggered Angiography Non-Contrast Enhanced (TRANCE) (a Spin Echo sequence with subtraction) (n = 48). The sequences were evaluated with respect to contrast, diagnostic performance and artefact burden. Results: Evaluating contrast, 3D Phase Contrast was significantly better than 2D Time of flight (p 0.2). The 2D Time of flight was significantly better than the other sequences (p < 0.001) in all cases. The artefact score was lowest for the Phase Contrast images and significantly superior to the 2D Time of flight (p < 0.005). The 2D Time of flight was significantly better than the three other sequences (p < 0.001) in all cases. Conclusion: Non-contrast enhanced magnetic resonance angiography offers a safe preoperative examination for assessment of vessel status before kidney transplantation. A combination of 2D Time of flight and 3D Phase Contrast acquisitions is recommended and can be performed within a

  19. In-vivo quantification of wall motion in cerebral aneurysms from 2D cine phase contrast magnetic resonance images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karmonik, C. [The Methodist Hospital Research Inst., Houston (United States); Diaz, O.; Klucznik, R. [The Methodist Hospital, Houston (United States); Grossman, R. [The Methodist Hospital, Houston (United States). Neurosurgery

    2010-02-15

    Purpose: The quantification of wall motion in cerebral aneurysms is of interest for the assessment of aneurysmal rupture risk, for providing boundary conditions for computational simulations and as a validation tool for theoretical models. Materials and Methods: 2D cine phase contrast magnetic resonance imaging (2D pcMRI) in combination with quantitative magnetic resonance angiography (QMRA) was evaluated for measuring wall motion in 7 intracranial aneurysms. In each aneurysm, 2 (in one case 3) cross sections, oriented approximately perpendicular to each other, were measured. Results: The maximum aneurysmal wall distention ranged from 0.16 mm to 1.6 mm (mean 0.67 mm), the maximum aneurysmal wall contraction was -1.91 mm to -0.34 mm (mean 0.94 mm), and the average wall displacement ranged from 0.04 mm to 0.31 mm (mean 0.15 mm). Statistically significant correlations between average wall displacement and the shape of inflow curves (p-value < 0.05) were found in 7 of 15 cross sections; statistically significant correlations between the displacement of the luminal boundary center point and the shape of inflow curves (p-value < 0.05) were found in 6 of 15 cross sections. Conclusion: 2D pcMRI in combination with QMRA is capable of visualizing and quantifying wall motion in cerebral aneurysms. However, application of this technique is currently restricted by its limited spatial resolution. (orig.)

  20. The relationship between wave and geometrical optics models of coded aperture type x-ray phase contrast imaging systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munro, Peter R T; Ignatyev, Konstantin; Speller, Robert D; Olivo, Alessandro

    2010-03-01

    X-ray phase contrast imaging is a very promising technique which may lead to significant advancements in medical imaging. One of the impediments to the clinical implementation of the technique is the general requirement to have an x-ray source of high coherence. The radiation physics group at UCL is currently developing an x-ray phase contrast imaging technique which works with laboratory x-ray sources. Validation of the system requires extensive modelling of relatively large samples of tissue. To aid this, we have undertaken a study of when geometrical optics may be employed to model the system in order to avoid the need to perform a computationally expensive wave optics calculation. In this paper, we derive the relationship between the geometrical and wave optics model for our system imaging an infinite cylinder. From this model we are able to draw conclusions regarding the general applicability of the geometrical optics approximation.

  1. Combined experiment Phase 2 data characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, M.S.; Shipley, D.E.; Young, T.S.; Robinson, M.C.; Luttges, M.W. [Colorado Univ., Boulder, CO (United States); Simms, D.A. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1995-11-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory`s ``Combined Experiment`` has yielded a large quantity of experimental data on the operation of a downwind horizontal axis wind turbine under field conditions. To fully utilize this valuable resource and identify particular episodes of interest, a number of databases were created that characterize individual data events and rotational cycles over a wide range of parameters. Each of the 59 five-minute data episodes collected during Phase 11 of the Combined Experiment have been characterized by the mean, minimum, maximum, and standard deviation of all data channels, except the blade surface pressures. Inflow condition, aerodynamic force coefficient, and minimum leading edge pressure coefficient databases have also been established, characterizing each of nearly 21,000 blade rotational cycles. In addition, a number of tools have been developed for searching these databases for particular episodes of interest. Due to their extensive size, only a portion of the episode characterization databases are included in an appendix, and examples of the cycle characterization databases are given. The search tools are discussed and the FORTRAN or C code for each is included in appendices.

  2. Focal hepatic lesions: contrast-enhancement patterns at pulse-inversion harmonic US using a microbubble contrast agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Eun-A; Yoon, Kwon-Ha; Lee, Young-Hwan; Kim, Hye-Won; Juhng, Seon-Kwan; Won, Jong-Jin [Wonkwang University, Iksan (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-12-15

    To analyze the contrast-enhancement patterns obtained at pulse-inversion harmonic imaging (PIHI) of focal hepatic lesions, and to thus determine tumor vascularity and the acoustic emission effect. We reviewed pulse-inversion images in 90 consecutive patients with focal hepatic lesions, namely hepatocellular carcinoma (HHC) (n=43), metastases (n=30), and hemangioma (n=17). Vascular and delayed phase images were obtained immediately and five minutes following the injection of a microbubble contrast agent. Tumoral vascularity at vascular phase imaging and the acoustic emission effect at delayed phase imaging were each classified as one of four patterns. Vascular phase images depicted internal vessels in 93% of HCCs, marginal vessels in 83% of metastases, and peripheral enhancement in 71% of hemangiomas. Delayed phase images showed inhomogeneous enhancement in 86% of HCCs; hypoechoic, decreased enhancement in 93% of metastases; and hypoechoic and reversed echogenicity in 65% of hemangiomas. Vascular and delayed phase enhancement patterns were associated with a specificity of 91% or greater, and 92% or greater, respectively, and with positive predictive values of 71% or greater, and 85% or greater, respectively. Contrast-enhancement patterns depicting tumoral vascularity and the acoustic emission effect at PIHI can help differentiate focal hepatic lesions.

  3. Combined dynamic contrast-enhancement and serial 3D-subtraction analysis in magnetic resonance imaging of osteoid osteomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalle, T. von; Winkler, P. [Klinikum Stuttgart Olgahospital, Department of Paediatric Radiology, Stuttgart (Germany); Langendoerfer, M.; Fernandez, F.F. [Klinikum Stuttgart Olgahospital, Department of Paediatric Orthopaedics, Stuttgart (Germany)

    2009-10-15

    The purpose of this study was to retrospectively correlate the results of dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with histological and clinical diagnoses in patients with osteoid osteomas. Fifty-four patients with the MR diagnosis of osteoid osteoma were studied. MRI (1.5 Tesla) consisted of thin-section STIR sequences, dynamic 3D T1 gradient echo sequences during application of contrast material, and high-resolution postcontrast T1 spin echo sequences with fat saturation (maximum voxel size 0.6 x 0.6 x 3.0 mm). Evaluation was focused on serial image subtraction during the early phase after contrast injection and on time-intensity curves. The surrounding edema was helpful in finding the nidus in each lesion. In 49 of 54 patients (90.7%), the diagnosis of osteoid osteoma was certain or highly probable (sensitivity 1.0, positive predictive value 0.91). A total of 38 of 54 osteoid osteomas were histologically proven. Five MRI diagnoses were regarded as false positives. A similar proportion has been reported for computed tomography. Tailored high-resolution MR examinations with dynamic contrast enhancement can reliably diagnose osteoid osteomas and exactly localize the nidus without radiation exposure. We propose a stepwise approach with STIR sequences, dynamic contrast-enhanced scanning, and high-resolution postcontrast T1 spin echo sequences with fat saturation. (orig.)

  4. Combined dynamic contrast-enhancement and serial 3D-subtraction analysis in magnetic resonance imaging of osteoid osteomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalle, T. von; Winkler, P.; Langendoerfer, M.; Fernandez, F.F.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to retrospectively correlate the results of dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with histological and clinical diagnoses in patients with osteoid osteomas. Fifty-four patients with the MR diagnosis of osteoid osteoma were studied. MRI (1.5 Tesla) consisted of thin-section STIR sequences, dynamic 3D T1 gradient echo sequences during application of contrast material, and high-resolution postcontrast T1 spin echo sequences with fat saturation (maximum voxel size 0.6 x 0.6 x 3.0 mm). Evaluation was focused on serial image subtraction during the early phase after contrast injection and on time-intensity curves. The surrounding edema was helpful in finding the nidus in each lesion. In 49 of 54 patients (90.7%), the diagnosis of osteoid osteoma was certain or highly probable (sensitivity 1.0, positive predictive value 0.91). A total of 38 of 54 osteoid osteomas were histologically proven. Five MRI diagnoses were regarded as false positives. A similar proportion has been reported for computed tomography. Tailored high-resolution MR examinations with dynamic contrast enhancement can reliably diagnose osteoid osteomas and exactly localize the nidus without radiation exposure. We propose a stepwise approach with STIR sequences, dynamic contrast-enhanced scanning, and high-resolution postcontrast T1 spin echo sequences with fat saturation. (orig.)

  5. Multilevel markov chain monte carlo method for high-contrast single-phase flow problems

    KAUST Repository

    Efendiev, Yalchin R.

    2014-12-19

    In this paper we propose a general framework for the uncertainty quantification of quantities of interest for high-contrast single-phase flow problems. It is based on the generalized multiscale finite element method (GMsFEM) and multilevel Monte Carlo (MLMC) methods. The former provides a hierarchy of approximations of different resolution, whereas the latter gives an efficient way to estimate quantities of interest using samples on different levels. The number of basis functions in the online GMsFEM stage can be varied to determine the solution resolution and the computational cost, and to efficiently generate samples at different levels. In particular, it is cheap to generate samples on coarse grids but with low resolution, and it is expensive to generate samples on fine grids with high accuracy. By suitably choosing the number of samples at different levels, one can leverage the expensive computation in larger fine-grid spaces toward smaller coarse-grid spaces, while retaining the accuracy of the final Monte Carlo estimate. Further, we describe a multilevel Markov chain Monte Carlo method, which sequentially screens the proposal with different levels of approximations and reduces the number of evaluations required on fine grids, while combining the samples at different levels to arrive at an accurate estimate. The framework seamlessly integrates the multiscale features of the GMsFEM with the multilevel feature of the MLMC methods following the work in [26], and our numerical experiments illustrate its efficiency and accuracy in comparison with standard Monte Carlo estimates. © Global Science Press Limited 2015.

  6. Scaling law for noise variance and spatial resolution in differential phase contrast computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Guanghong; Zambelli, Joseph; Li Ke; Bevins, Nicholas; Qi Zhihua

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The noise variance versus spatial resolution relationship in differential phase contrast (DPC) projection imaging and computed tomography (CT) are derived and compared to conventional absorption-based x-ray projection imaging and CT. Methods: The scaling law for DPC-CT is theoretically derived and subsequently validated with phantom results from an experimental Talbot-Lau interferometer system. Results: For the DPC imaging method, the noise variance in the differential projection images follows the same inverse-square law with spatial resolution as in conventional absorption-based x-ray imaging projections. However, both in theory and experimental results, in DPC-CT the noise variance scales with spatial resolution following an inverse linear relationship with fixed slice thickness. Conclusions: The scaling law in DPC-CT implies a lesser noise, and therefore dose, penalty for moving to higher spatial resolutions when compared to conventional absorption-based CT in order to maintain the same contrast-to-noise ratio.

  7. Improved motion contrast and processing efficiency in OCT angiography using complex-correlation algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Li; Li, Pei; Pan, Cong; Cheng, Yuxuan; Ding, Zhihua; Li, Peng; Liao, Rujia; Hu, Weiwei; Chen, Zhong

    2016-01-01

    The complex-based OCT angiography (Angio-OCT) offers high motion contrast by combining both the intensity and phase information. However, due to involuntary bulk tissue motions, complex-valued OCT raw data are processed sequentially with different algorithms for correcting bulk image shifts (BISs), compensating global phase fluctuations (GPFs) and extracting flow signals. Such a complicated procedure results in massive computational load. To mitigate such a problem, in this work, we present an inter-frame complex-correlation (CC) algorithm. The CC algorithm is suitable for parallel processing of both flow signal extraction and BIS correction, and it does not need GPF compensation. This method provides high processing efficiency and shows superiority in motion contrast. The feasibility and performance of the proposed CC algorithm is demonstrated using both flow phantom and live animal experiments. (paper)

  8. Dual-phase contrast enhancement multi-slice CT in grading pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Yan; Liu Jianyu; Zhu Xiang

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate characteristic clinical and imaging findings of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (NET) in dual-phase contrast enhancement MSCT. Methods: The dual-phase contrast enhancement MSCT images of 23 lesions in 20 patients with histologically confirmed pancreatic NET were studied retrospectively. Their clinical presentations, imaging characters as well as the intensities of lesions and normal pancreas in each phase were measured, and the following indices were calculated. First, the absolute enhancement of lesions, including the increasing of CT value of the maximum enhancement area within a tumor in arterial phase, that was named A1 in short, and that of the minimum enhancement area was labeled as A2. The same ROI measured increasing CT values in portal venous phase was labeled as V1 and V2 respectively. Secondly, the relatively enhancement indices comparing with the normal pancreas in the same patient within the same phase were calculated. This included the differences between the maximum, as well as the minimum, enhancement areas of tumors and the normal pancreas in arterial phase, which was named as AP1 and AP2 respectively, and those differences in portal venous phase, which were labeled as VP1 and VP2 respectively. All of the tumors were graded as G1 to G3 according to the WHO classification in 2010. A Kruskal Wallis test were performed to compare differences of tumor diameters and the enhancement indices. The change trend of enhancement indices varying with pathology grading were described. Fisher exact test was used to find differences of clinical and imaging characters. Results: Twenty-three lesions in 20 patients included 13 lesions in grade 1 (G1), 8 in G2, and 2 in G3. Among the 10 patients with G1 NET, 7 of them had no endocrine symptoms, while the other 3 had endocrine symptoms. Six of them had no abdominal pain, while 4 of them complained of it. All of the 10 patients with G1 NET had no hepatic metastasis. Among 8 patients with G2 NET

  9. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound imaging and in vivo circulatory kinetics with low-boiling-point nanoscale phase-change perfluorocarbon agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheeran, Paul S; Rojas, Juan D; Puett, Connor; Hjelmquist, Jordan; Arena, Christopher B; Dayton, Paul A

    2015-03-01

    Many studies have explored phase-change contrast agents (PCCAs) that can be vaporized by an ultrasonic pulse to form microbubbles for ultrasound imaging and therapy. However, few investigations have been published on the utility and characteristics of PCCAs as contrast agents in vivo. In this study, we examine the properties of low-boiling-point nanoscale PCCAs evaluated in vivo and compare data with those for conventional microbubbles with respect to contrast generation and circulation properties. To do this, we develop a custom pulse sequence to vaporize and image PCCAs using the Verasonics research platform and a clinical array transducer. Results indicate that droplets can produce contrast enhancement similar to that of microbubbles (7.29 to 18.24 dB over baseline, depending on formulation) and can be designed to circulate for as much as 3.3 times longer than microbubbles. This study also reports for the first time the ability to capture contrast washout kinetics of the target organ as a measure of vascular perfusion. Copyright © 2015 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Phase-contrast microtomography using an X-ray interferometer having a 40-μm analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momose, A.; Koyama, I.; Hamaishi, Y.; Yoshikawa, H.; Takeda, T.; Wu, J.; Itai, Y.; Takai, , K.; Uesugi, K.; Suzuki, Y.

    2003-03-01

    Phase-contrast X-ray tomographic experiment using a triple Laue-case (LLL) interferometer having a 40-μm lamella which was fabricated to improve spatial resolution, was carried out using undulator X-rays at SPring-8, Japan. Three-dimensional images mapping the refractive index were measured for various animal tissues. Comparing the images with those obtained in previous experiments using conventional LLL interferometers having a 1-mm lamella, improvement in the spatial resolution was demonstrated in that histological structures, such as hepatic lobules in liver and tubules in kidney, were revealed.

  11. Analyzer-based phase-contrast imaging system using a micro focus x-ray source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Wei [BME Department, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, Illinois 60616 (United States); Majidi, Keivan; Brankov, Jovan G., E-mail: brankov@iit.edu [ECE Department, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, Illinois 60616 (United States)

    2014-08-15

    Here we describe a new in-laboratory analyzer based phase contrast-imaging (ABI) instrument using a conventional X-ray tube source (CXS) aimed at bio-medical imaging applications. Phase contrast-imaging allows visualization of soft tissue details usually obscured in conventional X-ray imaging. The ABI system design and major features are described in detail. The key advantage of the presented system, over the few existing CXS ABI systems, is that it does not require high precision components, i.e., CXS, X-ray detector, and electro-mechanical components. To overcome a main problem introduced by these components, identified as temperature stability, the system components are kept at a constant temperature inside of three enclosures, thus minimizing the electrical and mechanical thermal drifts. This is achieved by using thermoelectric (Peltier) cooling/heating modules that are easy to control precisely. For CXS we utilized a microfocus X-ray source with tungsten (W) anode material. In addition the proposed system eliminates tungsten's multiple spectral lines by selecting monochromator crystal size appropriately therefore eliminating need for the costly mismatched, two-crystal monochromator. The system imaging was fine-tuned for tungsten Kα{sub 1} line with the energy of 59.3 keV since it has been shown to be of great clinical significance by a number of researchers at synchrotron facilities. In this way a laboratory system that can be used for evaluating and quantifying tissue properties, initially explored at synchrotron facilities, would be of great interest to a larger research community. To demonstrate the imaging capability of our instrument we use a chicken thigh tissue sample.

  12. Non-invasive assessment of pulsatile intracranial pressure with phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geir Ringstad

    Full Text Available Invasive monitoring of pulsatile intracranial pressure can accurately predict shunt response in patients with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus, but may potentially cause complications such as bleeding and infection. We tested how a proposed surrogate parameter for pulsatile intracranial pressure, the phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging derived pulse pressure gradient, compared with its invasive counterpart. In 22 patients with suspected idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus, preceding invasive intracranial pressure monitoring, and any surgical shunt procedure, we calculated the pulse pressure gradient from phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging derived cerebrospinal fluid flow velocities obtained at the upper cervical spinal canal using a simplified Navier-Stokes equation. Repeated measurements of the pulse pressure gradient were also undertaken in four healthy controls. Of 17 shunted patients, 16 responded, indicating high proportion of "true" normal pressure hydrocephalus in the patient cohort. However, there was no correlation between the magnetic resonance imaging derived pulse pressure gradient and pulsatile intracranial pressure (R = -.18, P = .43. Pulse pressure gradients were also similar in patients and healthy controls (P = .26, and did not differ between individuals with pulsatile intracranial pressure above or below established thresholds for shunt treatment (P = .97. Assessment of pulse pressure gradient at level C2 was therefore not found feasible to replace invasive monitoring of pulsatile intracranial pressure in selection of patients with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus for surgical shunting. Unlike invasive, overnight monitoring, the pulse pressure gradient from magnetic resonance imaging comprises short-term pressure fluctuations only. Moreover, complexity of cervical cerebrospinal fluid flow and -pulsatility at the upper cervical spinal canal may render the pulse pressure gradient a poor surrogate

  13. [The value of double contrast arthrotomography combined with cinematography in the diagnosis of functional and structural TMJ alterations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelke, W; Grossniklaus, B; Sailer, H F

    1991-01-01

    Double contrast arthrotomography combined with cinematography as a diagnostic instrument establishing functional and structural TMJ alterations is evaluated for its diagnostic value and reliability within the chain of diagnostic measures applied. In 131 patients double-contrast arthrotomography was followed by a comprehensive history of joint problems, and verification of the clinical findings as well as the arthrographic diagnosis and the post-arthrographic TMJ alterations. Our interest was focussed, among others, on the question whether arthrography alone would have any therapeutic effect or produce an alteration in TMJ function.

  14. Effective segmentation of fresh post-mortem murine lung parenchyma in phase contrast X-ray tomographic microscopy images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oikonomidis, Ioannis Vogiatzis; Cremona, Tiziana P; Schittny, Johannes C; Lovric, Goran; Arcadu, Filippo; Stampanoni, Marco

    2017-01-01

    The acinus represents the functional unit of the mammalian lung. It is defined as the small tree of gas-exchanging airways, which is fed by the most distal purely conducting airway. Different hypotheses exist on how the fine structure of the acinus changes during ventilation and development. Since in classical 2-dimensional (2D) sections of the lung the borders of the acini are not detectable, every study of acini requires 3-dimensional (3D) datasets. As a basis for further studies of pulmonary acini we imaged rodent lungs as close to life as possible using phase contrast synchrotron radiation-based X-ray tomographic microscopy (SRXTM), and developed a protocol for the segmentation of the alveolar septa. The method is based on a combined multilevel filtering approach. Seeds are automatically defined for separate regions of tissue and airspace during each 2D filtering level and then given as input to a 3D random walk segmentation. Thus, the different types of artifacts present in the images are treated separately, taking into account the sample’s structural complexity. The proposed procedure yields high-quality 3D segmentations of acinar microstructure that can be used for a reliable morphological analysis. (paper)

  15. Segmentation of clustered cells in negative phase contrast images with integrated light intensity and cell shape information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y; Wang, C; Zhang, Z

    2018-05-01

    Automated cell segmentation plays a key role in characterisations of cell behaviours for both biology research and clinical practices. Currently, the segmentation of clustered cells still remains as a challenge and is the main reason for false segmentation. In this study, the emphasis was put on the segmentation of clustered cells in negative phase contrast images. A new method was proposed to combine both light intensity and cell shape information through the construction of grey-weighted distance transform (GWDT) within preliminarily segmented areas. With the constructed GWDT, the clustered cells can be detected and then separated with a modified region skeleton-based method. Moreover, a contour expansion operation was applied to get optimised detection of cell boundaries. In this paper, the working principle and detailed procedure of the proposed method are described, followed by the evaluation of the method on clustered cell segmentation. Results show that the proposed method achieves an improved performance in clustered cell segmentation compared with other methods, with 85.8% and 97.16% accuracy rate for clustered cells and all cells, respectively. © 2017 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2017 Royal Microscopical Society.

  16. Multi-kW coherent combining of fiber lasers seeded with pseudo random phase modulated light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Angel; Ehrehreich, Thomas; Holten, Roger; Anderson, Brian; Dajani, Iyad

    2016-03-01

    We report efficient coherent beam combining of five kilowatt-class fiber amplifiers with a diffractive optical element (DOE). Based on a master oscillator power amplifier (MOPA) configuration, the amplifiers were seeded with pseudo random phase modulated light. Each non-polarization maintaining fiber amplifier was optically path length matched and provides approximately 1.2 kW of near diffraction-limited output power (measured M2polarization control. A low power sample of the combined beam after the DOE provided an error signal for active phase locking which was performed via Locking of Optical Coherence by Single-Detector Electronic-Frequency Tagging (LOCSET). After phase stabilization, the beams were coherently combined via the 1x5 DOE. A total combined output power of 4.9 kW was achieved with 82% combining efficiency and excellent beam quality (M2splitter loss was 5%. Similarly, losses due in part to non-ideal polarization, ASE content, uncorrelated wavefront errors, and misalignment errors contributed to the efficiency reduction.

  17. Imaging of vaporised sub-micron phase change contrast agents with high frame rate ultrasound and optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shengtao; Zhang, Ge; Jamburidze, Akaki; Chee, Melisse; Hau Leow, Chee; Garbin, Valeria; Tang, Meng-Xing

    2018-03-01

    Phase-change ultrasound contrast agent (PCCA), or nanodroplet, shows promise as an alternative to the conventional microbubble agent over a wide range of diagnostic applications. Meanwhile, high-frame-rate (HFR) ultrasound imaging with microbubbles enables unprecedented temporal resolution compared to traditional contrast-enhanced ultrasound imaging. The combination of HFR ultrasound imaging and PCCAs can offer the opportunity to observe and better understand PCCA behaviour after vaporisation captures the fast phenomenon at a high temporal resolution. In this study, we utilised HFR ultrasound at frame rates in the kilohertz range (5-20 kHz) to image native and size-selected PCCA populations immediately after vaporisation in vitro within clinical acoustic parameters. The size-selected PCCAs through filtration are shown to preserve a sub-micron-sized (mean diameter  1 µm) that originate from native PCCA emulsion. The results demonstrate imaging signals with different amplitudes and temporal features compared to that of microbubbles. Compared with the microbubbles, both the B-mode and pulse-inversion (PI) signals from the vaporised PCCA populations were reduced significantly in the first tens of milliseconds, while only the B-mode signals from the PCCAs were recovered during the next 400 ms, suggesting significant changes to the size distribution of the PCCAs after vaporisation. It is also shown that such recovery in signal over time is not evident when using size-selective PCCAs. Furthermore, it was found that signals from the vaporised PCCA populations are affected by the amplitude and frame rate of the HFR ultrasound imaging. Using high-speed optical camera observation (30 kHz), we observed a change in particle size in the vaporised PCCA populations exposed to the HFR ultrasound imaging pulses. These findings can further the understanding of PCCA behaviour under HFR ultrasound imaging.

  18. Feasibility of measuring renal blood flow by phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spithoven, E.M.; Meijer, E.; Boertien, W.E.; Gaillard, C.A.J.M.; Jong, P.E. de; Gansevoort, R.T. [University of Groningen, Department of Nephrology, Community and Occupational Medicine, University Medical Center Groningen, PO Box 30.001, RB Groningen (Netherlands); Borns, C.; Kappert, P.; Greuter, M.J.W.; Jagt, E. van der [University of Groningen, Department of Radiology, Community and Occupational Medicine, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Vart, P. [University of Groningen, Department of Health Sciences, Community and Occupational Medicine, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands)

    2016-03-15

    Renal blood flow (RBF) has been shown to predict disease progression in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). We investigated the feasibility and accuracy of phase-contrast RBF by MRI (RBF{sub MRI}) in ADPKD patients with a wide range of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) values. First, we validated RBF{sub MRI} measurement using phantoms simulating renal artery hemodynamics. Thereafter, we investigated in a test-set of 21 patients intra- and inter-observer coefficient of variation of RBF{sub MRI}. After validation, we measured RBF{sub MRI} in a cohort of 91 patients and compared the variability explained by characteristics indicative for disease severity for RBF{sub MRI} and RBF measured by continuous hippuran infusion. The correlation in flow measurement using phantoms by phase-contrast MRI was high and fluid collection was high (CCC=0.969). Technical problems that precluded RBF{sub MRI} measurement occurred predominantly in patients with a lower eGFR (34% vs. 16%). In subjects with higher eGFRs, variability in RBF explained by disease characteristics was similar for RBF{sub MRI} compared to RBF{sub Hip,} whereas in subjects with lower eGFRs, this was significantly less for RBF{sub MRI}. Our study shows that RBF can be measured accurately in ADPKD patients by phase-contrast, but this technique may be less feasible in subjects with a lower eGFR. (orig.)

  19. MR angiography in the diagnosis of cerebral venous angiomas: 3D TOF versus phase contrast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Hye Young; Kim, Myung Hyen; Park, Hyung Chun; Lee, Min Hee; Kim, Yoo Kyung; Lee, Sun Wha

    1995-01-01

    To seek adequate sequence of MR angiography (MRA) on developmental venous anomaly in the brain. We collected ten cases who demonstrated developmental venous anomaly on MR image. Eight patients among them, both 3D time-of-fight (TOF) with or without Gadolinium-DTPA enhancement and phase contrast(PC) were performed: TOF without enhancement in five. TOF with enhancement in six, and PC with 10 cm/sec in five, PC with 30 cm/sec in three, and PC with 5 cm/sec velocity encoding (VNEC) in two cases. On enhanced 3D TOF, both dilated collecting veins and medullary veins were well depicted in five of six cases, however, the signal intensity of the collecting and medullary veins are less than arteries. Dilated hyperintense collecting veins were well demonstrated on 3D PC with below the 10 cm/sec VNEC in all seven cases, but the medullary veins were poorly defined. Unenhanced 3D TOF MRA could not reveal any dilated collecting and medullary veins in all five cases. Enhanced 3D TOF could demonstrate the collecting and medullary veins of developmental venous anomaly, however, 3D PC with below the 10 cm/sec VNEC could show the dilated collecting and larger draining veins. We considered that combined enhanced 3D TOF MRA and PC with VENC 10 cm/sec can substitute for conventional angiogram in the diagnosis of developmental venous anomaly

  20. On the achievable field sensitivity of a segmented annular detector for differential phase contrast measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarzhuber, Felix; Melzl, Peter; Zweck, Josef

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Practical guide to calibrate a DPC setup considering geometrical parameters. • Optimizing the field sensitivity of a segmented annular DPC detector. • Determination of maximum electric and magnetic field sensitivity of a DPC setup. - Abstract: Differential phase contrast microscopy measures minute deflections of the electron probe due to electric and/or magnetic fields, using a position sensitive device. Although recently, pixelated detectors have become available which also serve as a position sensitive device, the most frequently used detector is a four-segmented annular semiconducting detector ring (or variations thereof), where the difference signals of opposing detector elements represent the components of the deflection vector. This deflection vector can be used directly to quantitatively determine the deflecting field, provided the specimen’s thickness is known. While there exist many measurements of both electric and magnetic fields, even at an atomic level, until now the question of the smallest clearly resolvable field value for this detector has not yet been answered. This paper treats the problem theoretically first, leading to a calibration factor κ which depends solely on simple, experimentally accessible parameters and relates the deflecting field to the measured deflection vector. In a second step, the calibration factor for our combination of microscope and detector is determined experimentally for various combinations of camera length, condenser aperture and spot size to determine the optimum setup. From this optimized condition we determine the minimum change in field which leads to a clearly measurable signal change for both HMSTEM and LMSTEM operation. A strategy is described which allows the experimenter to choose the setup giving the highest field sensitivity. Quantification problems due to scattering processes in the specimen are addressed and ways are shown to choose a setup which is less sensitive to these artefacts.

  1. On the achievable field sensitivity of a segmented annular detector for differential phase contrast measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwarzhuber, Felix, E-mail: felix.schwarzhuber@ur.de; Melzl, Peter; Zweck, Josef

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • Practical guide to calibrate a DPC setup considering geometrical parameters. • Optimizing the field sensitivity of a segmented annular DPC detector. • Determination of maximum electric and magnetic field sensitivity of a DPC setup. - Abstract: Differential phase contrast microscopy measures minute deflections of the electron probe due to electric and/or magnetic fields, using a position sensitive device. Although recently, pixelated detectors have become available which also serve as a position sensitive device, the most frequently used detector is a four-segmented annular semiconducting detector ring (or variations thereof), where the difference signals of opposing detector elements represent the components of the deflection vector. This deflection vector can be used directly to quantitatively determine the deflecting field, provided the specimen’s thickness is known. While there exist many measurements of both electric and magnetic fields, even at an atomic level, until now the question of the smallest clearly resolvable field value for this detector has not yet been answered. This paper treats the problem theoretically first, leading to a calibration factor κ which depends solely on simple, experimentally accessible parameters and relates the deflecting field to the measured deflection vector. In a second step, the calibration factor for our combination of microscope and detector is determined experimentally for various combinations of camera length, condenser aperture and spot size to determine the optimum setup. From this optimized condition we determine the minimum change in field which leads to a clearly measurable signal change for both HMSTEM and LMSTEM operation. A strategy is described which allows the experimenter to choose the setup giving the highest field sensitivity. Quantification problems due to scattering processes in the specimen are addressed and ways are shown to choose a setup which is less sensitive to these artefacts.

  2. Comparison of propagation-based phase-contrast tomography approaches for the evaluation of dentin microstructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deyhle, Hans; Weitkamp, Timm; Lang, Sabrina; Schulz, Georg; Rack, Alexander; Zanette, Irene; Müller, Bert

    2012-10-01

    The complex hierarchical structure of human tooth hard tissues, enamel and dentin, guarantees function for decades. On the micrometer level the dentin morphology is dominated by the tubules, micrometer-narrow channels extending from the dentin-enamel junction to the pulp chamber. Their structure has been extensively studied, mainly with two-dimensional approaches. Dentin tubules are formed during tooth growth and their orientation is linked to the morphology of the nanometer-sized components, which is of interest for example for the development of bio-inspired dental fillings. Therefore, a method has to be identified that can access the three-dimensional organization of the tubules, e.g. density and orientation. Tomographic setups with pixel sizes in the sub-micrometer range allow for the three-dimensional visualization of tooth dentin tubules both in phase and absorption contrast modes. We compare high-resolution tomographic scans reconstructed with propagation based phase retrieval algorithms as well as reconstructions without phase retrieval concerning spatial and density resolution as well as rendering of the dentin microstructure to determine the approach best suited for dentin tubule imaging. Reasonable results were obtained with a single-distance phase retrieval algorithm and a propagation distance of about 75% of the critical distance of d2/λ, where d is the size of the smallest objects identifiable in the specimen and λ is the X-ray wavelength.

  3. Phase contrast MRI assessment of pedal blood flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debatin, J.F.; Dalman, R.; Herfkens, R.J.; Harris, E.J.; Pelc, N.J.

    1995-01-01

    This study attempts to evaluate the reliability of cine phase contrast (PC) flow measurements in the assessment of normal pedal blood flow and quantitation of revascularisation-induced flow changes in patients with end-stage peripheral vascular occlusive disease (PVOD). Oblique axial cine-PC acquisitions were obtained on a 1.5 T MRI system at the level of the talotibial joints in 8 normal subjects on four separate occasions. Subsequently 8 patients with end-stage PVOD were examined before and after surgical revascularisation (bilateral, n = 2; unilateral, n = 6). Measured flow in the trifurcation vessels was highly variable among normal subjects. Total pedal flow ranged from 32 to 183 ml/min (mean 91 ml/min) and was significantly different between the subjects evaluated (P < 0.0001). Measurements in the same subject over time were considerably less variable (P < 0.005). Normal arterial flow patterns were consistently triphasic; those in patients with PVOD were either mono- or biphasic. Pedal flow measured by cine-PC in patients was reduced compared with normal subjects (mean 38.3 ml/min). Flow was slower in symptomatic limbs (26.7 ml/min) compared with asymptomatic ones (48.9 ml/min). Flow increases in revascularised limbs (mean 315%) were significantly different from those observed in non-affected limbs (P < 0.005). The ability to quantitate pedal blood flow and subsequent revascularisation-induced flow increases appears promising for the identification of optimal treatment options and monitoring of treatment results. (orig.)

  4. Edge fluctuation measurements by phase contrast imaging on DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coda, S.; Porkolab, M.

    1994-05-01

    A novel CO 2 laser phase contrast imaging diagnostic has been developed for the DIII-D tokamak, where it is being employed to investigate density fluctuations at the outer edge of the plasma. This system generates 16-point, 1-D images of a 7.6 cm wide region in the radial direction, and is characterized by long wavelength (7.6 cm) and high frequency (100 MHz) capability, as well as excellent sensitivity (rvec n approx-gt 10 9 cm -3 ). The effects of vertical line integration have been studied in detail, both analytically and numerically with actual flux surface geometries generated by the EFITD magnetic equilibrium code. It is shown that in the present configuration the measurement is mostly sensitive to radial wave vectors. Experimental results on fluctuation suppression at the L- to H-mode transition and on the L-mode wave number spectrum are discussed briefly. Finally, future plans for extending the measurement to the core of the plasma and for investigating externally launched fast waves are presented

  5. Hepatocellular carcinoma on MR diffusion weighted imaging and dynamic contrast-enhanced imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Aisheng; Zuo Changjing; Tian Jianming; Lu Jianping; Wang Jian; Wang Li; Wang Fei

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the findings of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) on DWI and dynamic Gd-DTPA-enhanced MR imaging. Methods: Eighty one patients with chronic hepatitis or liver cirrhosis underwent both DWI and dynamic Gd-DTPA-enhanced MRI studies of the liver for HCC detection. MR data of were retrospectively analyzed. Two observers determined in consensus the location and the number of focal lesions. The signal manifestation of the lesions on DWI and dynamic Gd-DTPA-enhanced MR imaging were analyzed. Results: DWI and Gd-DTPA-enhanced MR images detected 122 HCCs and 14 benign lesions. One hundred and sixteen HCCs (95.1%) showed hyperintensity on DWI and 6 HCCs in patients with severe cirrhosis showed isointensity. One hundred and five HCCs (86.1%) revealed hypointensity, 11 HCCs (9.0%) showed isointensity and 6 HCCs (4.9%) exhibited hyperintensity on T 1 weighted images. On Gd-DTPA-enhanced MR images, 101 HCCs(82.8%) were significantly enhanced on arterial phase and 99 HCCs showed hypointensity on portal and equilibrium phases. Twenty HCCs (16.4%), 18 of 20 less than 20 mm in diameter, showed isointensity on arterial phase and hyperintensity on DWI. Eight of 14 benign lesions showed hyperintensity and 6 isointensity on DWI. Five benign lesions with hypointensity on T 1 weighted images without contrast and hyperintensity on DWI showed no enhancement on Gd-DTPA-enhanced MR images; 6 benign lesions with isointensity on both T 1 weighted imaging without contrast and DWI exhibited avid enhancement on arterial phase and isointensty on portal and equilibrium phases; one of the two benign lesions, with isointensity before and after contrast images and hyperintentiy on DWI, was a regenerative nodule; another regenerative nodule with hyperintensity on both T 1 weighted images without contrast and DWI was greatly enhanced on arterial phase and showed isointensity on portal and equilibrium phases. Conclusions: Most of the HCCs were greatly enhanced on arterial phase on Gd

  6. Triphasic contrast enhanced CT simulation with bolus tracking for pancreas SBRT target delineation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfrey, Devon J; Patel, Bhavik N; Adamson, Justus D; Subashi, Ergys; Salama, Joseph K; Palta, Manisha

    Bolus-tracked multiphasic contrast computed tomography (CT) is often used in diagnostic radiology to enhance the visibility of pancreas tumors, but is uncommon in radiation therapy pancreas CT simulation, and its impact on gross tumor volume (GTV) delineation is unknown. This study evaluates the lesion conspicuity and consistency of pancreas stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) GTVs contoured in the different contrast phases of triphasic CT simulation scans. Triphasic, bolus-tracked planning CT simulation scans of 10 consecutive pancreas SBRT patients were acquired, yielding images of the pancreas during the late arterial (LA), portal venous (PV), and either the early arterial or delayed phase. GTVs were contoured on each phase by a gastrointestinal-specialized radiation oncologist and reviewed by a fellowship-trained abdominal radiologist who specializes in pancreatic imaging. The volumes of the registered GTVs, their overlap ratio, and the 3-dimensional margin expansions necessary for each GTV to fully encompass GTVs from the other phases were calculated. The contrast difference between tumor and normal pancreas was measured, and 2 radiation oncologists rank-ordered the phases according to their value for the lesion-contouring task. Tumor-to-pancreas enhancement was on average much larger for the LA and PV than the delayed phase or early arterial phases; the LA and PV phases were also consistently preferred by the radiation oncologists. Enhancement differences among the phases resulted in highly variable GTV volumes with no observed trends. Overlap ratios ranged from 18% to 75% across all 3 phases, improving to 43% to 91% when considering only the preferred LA and PV phases. GTV expansions necessary to encompass all GTVs ranged from 0.3 to 1.8 cm for all 3 phases, improving slightly to 0.1 to 1.4 cm when considering just the LA and PV phases. For pancreas SBRT, we recommend combining the GTVs from a multiphasic CT simulation with bolus-tracking, including

  7. Contrast-enhanced 3D MR angiography of the chest and abdomen with breath-holding using phase reordering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amanuma, Makoto; Sugimoto, Eiichi; Enomoto, Kyoko; Watabe, Tsuneya; Heshiki, Atsuko; Hirata, Hisashi; Kimura, Toshihiko; Takizawa, Osamu.

    1995-01-01

    This report presents the feasibility of phase-reordered contrast-enhanced three-dimensional MR angiography in 32 consecutive patients with vascular abnormalities in the chest and abdomen. To suppress motion artifacts due to respiratory corruption, a phase-reordering technique was introduced so that the low frequency components of the phase data were obtained first during the imaging period. Image quality and degree of motion suppression were assessed by four radiologists independently without information on breath-holding time. Abnormalities were detected in 30 cases (93.8%), and their extent was correctly assessed in 28 cases (87.5%). More confident assessment was possible in abnormalities of the pulmonary vessels and thoracic aorta than in those of the abdominal aorta and portal venous system. With phase reordering, more than 20 seconds of breath-holding ensured image quality sufficient to correctly assess the vascular abnormalities. While this technique is easy and requires only single breath-holding, it can provide excellent MRA without slice-to-slice spatial misregistration. (author)

  8. Quantitative investigation of the edge enhancement in in-line phase contrast projections and tomosynthesis provided by distributing microbubbles on the interface between two tissues: a phantom study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Di; Donovan Wong, Molly; Li, Yuhua; Fajardo, Laurie; Zheng, Bin; Wu, Xizeng; Liu, Hong

    2017-12-01

    The objective of this study was to quantitatively investigate the ability to distribute microbubbles along the interface between two tissues, in an effort to improve the edge and/or boundary features in phase contrast imaging. The experiments were conducted by employing a custom designed tissue simulating phantom, which also simulated a clinical condition where the ligand-targeted microbubbles are self-aggregated on the endothelium of blood vessels surrounding malignant cells. Four different concentrations of microbubble suspensions were injected into the phantom: 0%, 0.1%, 0.2%, and 0.4%. A time delay of 5 min was implemented before image acquisition to allow the microbubbles to become distributed at the interface between the acrylic and the cavity simulating a blood vessel segment. For comparison purposes, images were acquired using three system configurations for both projection and tomosynthesis imaging with a fixed radiation dose delivery: conventional low-energy contact mode, low-energy in-line phase contrast and high-energy in-line phase contrast. The resultant images illustrate the edge feature enhancements in the in-line phase contrast imaging mode when the microbubble concentration is extremely low. The quantitative edge-enhancement-to-noise ratio calculations not only agree with the direct image observations, but also indicate that the edge feature enhancement can be improved by increasing the microbubble concentration. In addition, high-energy in-line phase contrast imaging provided better performance in detecting low-concentration microbubble distributions.

  9. Design of a sensitive grating-based phase contrast mammography prototype (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arboleda Clavijo, Carolina; Wang, Zhentian; Köhler, Thomas; van Stevendaal, Udo; Martens, Gerhard; Bartels, Matthias; Villanueva-Perez, Pablo; Roessl, Ewald; Stampanoni, Marco

    2017-03-01

    Grating-based phase contrast mammography can help facilitate breast cancer diagnosis, as several research works have demonstrated. To translate this technique to the clinics, it has to be adapted to cover a large field of view within a limited exposure time and with a clinically acceptable radiation dose. This indicates that a straightforward approach would be to install a grating interferometer (GI) into a commercial mammography device. We developed a wave propagation based optimization method to select the most convenient GI designs in terms of phase and dark-field sensitivities for the Philips Microdose Mammography (PMM) setup. The phase sensitivity was defined as the minimum detectable breast tissue electron density gradient, whereas the dark-field sensitivity was defined as its corresponding signal-to-noise Ratio (SNR). To be able to derive sample-dependent sensitivity metrics, a visibility reduction model for breast tissue was formulated, based on previous research works on the dark-field signal and utilizing available Ultra-Small-Angle X-ray Scattering (USAXS) data and the outcomes of measurements on formalin-fixed breast tissue specimens carried out in tube-based grating interferometers. The results of this optimization indicate the optimal scenarios for each metric are different and fundamentally depend on the noise behavior of the signals and the visibility reduction trend with respect to the system autocorrelation length. In addition, since the inter-grating distance is constrained by the space available between the breast support and the detector, the best way we have to improve sensitivity is to count on a small G2 pitch.

  10. X-ray phase-contrast micro-tomography and image analysis of wood microstructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayo, Sheridan; Evans, Robert; Chen, Fiona; Lagerstrom, Ryan

    2009-01-01

    A number of commercially important properties of wood depend on details of the wood micro- and nano- structure. CSIRO Forest Biosciences have developed SilviScan, an analytical instrument which uses a number of high-speed techniques for analyzing these properties. X-ray micro-tomographic analysis of wood samples provides detailed 3D reconstructions of the wood microstructure which can be used to validate results from SilviScan measurements. A series of wood samples was analysed using laboratory-based phase-contrast x-ray micro-tomography. Image analysis techniques were applied to the 3D data sets to extract significant features and statistical properties of the specimens. These data provide a means of verification of results from the more rapid SilviScan techniques, and will clarify the results of micro-diffraction studies of wood microfibrils.

  11. Laser-wakefield accelerators for medical phase contrast imaging: Monte Carlo simulations and experimental studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipiccia, S.; Reboredo, D.; Vittoria, Fabio A.; Welsh, G. H.; Grant, P.; Grant, D. W.; Brunetti, E.; Wiggins, S. M.; Olivo, A.; Jaroszynski, D. A.

    2015-05-01

    X-ray phase contrast imaging (X-PCi) is a very promising method of dramatically enhancing the contrast of X-ray images of microscopic weakly absorbing objects and soft tissue, which may lead to significant advancement in medical imaging with high-resolution and low-dose. The interest in X-PCi is giving rise to a demand for effective simulation methods. Monte Carlo codes have been proved a valuable tool for studying X-PCi including coherent effects. The laser-plasma wakefield accelerators (LWFA) is a very compact particle accelerator that uses plasma as an accelerating medium. Accelerating gradient in excess of 1 GV/cm can be obtained, which makes them over a thousand times more compact than conventional accelerators. LWFA are also sources of brilliant betatron radiation, which are promising for applications including medical imaging. We present a study that explores the potential of LWFA-based betatron sources for medical X-PCi and investigate its resolution limit using numerical simulations based on the FLUKA Monte Carlo code, and present preliminary experimental results.

  12. Dual-energy CT for detection of contrast enhancement or leakage within high-density haematomas in patients with intracranial haemorrhage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Yoshiyuki; Tsukabe, Akio; Kunitomi, Yuki; Nishizawa, Mitsuo; Arisawa, Atsuko; Tanaka, Hisashi; Tomiyama, Noriyuki [Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Suita, Osaka (Japan); Yoshiya, Kazuhisa; Shimazu, Takeshi [Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Traumatology and Acute Critical Medicine, Osaka (Japan)

    2014-04-15

    Our study aimed to elucidate the diagnostic performance of dual-energy CT (DECT) in the detection of contrast enhancement in intracranial haematomas (ICrH) with early phase dual-energy computed tomography angiography (CTA) and compare the results with those obtained by delayed CT enhancement. Thirty-six patients with ICrH were retrospectively included in this study. All patients had undergone single-energy non-contrast CT and contrast-enhanced dual-source DECT. DECT images were post-processed with commercial software, followed by obtaining iodine images and virtual non-contrast images and generating combined images that created the impression of 120-kVp images. Two neuroradiologists, blinded to the patients' data, reviewed two reading sessions: session A (non-contrast CT and combined CT) and session B (non-contrast CT, combined CT, and iodine images) for detection of contrast enhancement in the haematomas. Contrast leakage or enhancement was detected in 23 (57.5 %) out of 40 haemorrhagic lesions in 36 patients on delayed CT. Three enhanced lesions were depicted only in the DECT iodine images. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of session A were 82.6, 94.1, 95.0, and 80.0 %, respectively, and those of session B were 95.7, 94.1, 95.7, and 94.1 %, respectively. DECT emphasised the iodine enhancement and facilitated the detection of contrast enhancement or leakage. (orig.)

  13. Dual-energy CT for detection of contrast enhancement or leakage within high-density haematomas in patients with intracranial haemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Yoshiyuki; Tsukabe, Akio; Kunitomi, Yuki; Nishizawa, Mitsuo; Arisawa, Atsuko; Tanaka, Hisashi; Yoshiya, Kazuhisa; Shimazu, Takeshi; Tomiyama, Noriyuki

    2014-04-01

    Our study aimed to elucidate the diagnostic performance of dual-energy CT (DECT) in the detection of contrast enhancement in intracranial haematomas (ICrH) with early phase dual-energy computed tomography angiography (CTA) and compare the results with those obtained by delayed CT enhancement. Thirty-six patients with ICrH were retrospectively included in this study. All patients had undergone single-energy non-contrast CT and contrast-enhanced dual-source DECT. DECT images were post-processed with commercial software, followed by obtaining iodine images and virtual non-contrast images and generating combined images that created the impression of 120-kVp images. Two neuroradiologists, blinded to the patients' data, reviewed two reading sessions: session A (non-contrast CT and combined CT) and session B (non-contrast CT, combined CT, and iodine images) for detection of contrast enhancement in the haematomas. Contrast leakage or enhancement was detected in 23 (57.5 %) out of 40 haemorrhagic lesions in 36 patients on delayed CT. Three enhanced lesions were depicted only in the DECT iodine images. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of session A were 82.6, 94.1, 95.0, and 80.0 %, respectively, and those of session B were 95.7, 94.1, 95.7, and 94.1 %, respectively. DECT emphasised the iodine enhancement and facilitated the detection of contrast enhancement or leakage.

  14. Dual-energy CT for detection of contrast enhancement or leakage within high-density haematomas in patients with intracranial haemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Yoshiyuki; Tsukabe, Akio; Kunitomi, Yuki; Nishizawa, Mitsuo; Arisawa, Atsuko; Tanaka, Hisashi; Tomiyama, Noriyuki; Yoshiya, Kazuhisa; Shimazu, Takeshi

    2014-01-01

    Our study aimed to elucidate the diagnostic performance of dual-energy CT (DECT) in the detection of contrast enhancement in intracranial haematomas (ICrH) with early phase dual-energy computed tomography angiography (CTA) and compare the results with those obtained by delayed CT enhancement. Thirty-six patients with ICrH were retrospectively included in this study. All patients had undergone single-energy non-contrast CT and contrast-enhanced dual-source DECT. DECT images were post-processed with commercial software, followed by obtaining iodine images and virtual non-contrast images and generating combined images that created the impression of 120-kVp images. Two neuroradiologists, blinded to the patients' data, reviewed two reading sessions: session A (non-contrast CT and combined CT) and session B (non-contrast CT, combined CT, and iodine images) for detection of contrast enhancement in the haematomas. Contrast leakage or enhancement was detected in 23 (57.5 %) out of 40 haemorrhagic lesions in 36 patients on delayed CT. Three enhanced lesions were depicted only in the DECT iodine images. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of session A were 82.6, 94.1, 95.0, and 80.0 %, respectively, and those of session B were 95.7, 94.1, 95.7, and 94.1 %, respectively. DECT emphasised the iodine enhancement and facilitated the detection of contrast enhancement or leakage. (orig.)

  15. A Combined Pharmacokinetic and Radiologic Assessment of Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging Predicts Response to Chemoradiation in Locally Advanced Cervical Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semple, Scott; Harry, Vanessa N. MRCOG.; Parkin, David E.; Gilbert, Fiona J.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the combination of pharmacokinetic and radiologic assessment of dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as an early response indicator in women receiving chemoradiation for advanced cervical cancer. Methods and Materials: Twenty women with locally advanced cervical cancer were included in a prospective cohort study. Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI was carried out before chemoradiation, after 2 weeks of therapy, and at the conclusion of therapy using a 1.5-T MRI scanner. Radiologic assessment of uptake parameters was obtained from resultant intensity curves. Pharmacokinetic analysis using a multicompartment model was also performed. General linear modeling was used to combine radiologic and pharmacokinetic parameters and correlated with eventual response as determined by change in MRI tumor size and conventional clinical response. A subgroup of 11 women underwent repeat pretherapy MRI to test pharmacokinetic reproducibility. Results: Pretherapy radiologic parameters and pharmacokinetic K trans correlated with response (p < 0.01). General linear modeling demonstrated that a combination of radiologic and pharmacokinetic assessments before therapy was able to predict more than 88% of variance of response. Reproducibility of pharmacokinetic modeling was confirmed. Conclusions: A combination of radiologic assessment with pharmacokinetic modeling applied to dynamic MRI before the start of chemoradiation improves the predictive power of either by more than 20%. The potential improvements in therapy response prediction using this type of combined analysis of dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI may aid in the development of more individualized, effective therapy regimens for this patient group.

  16. Application of X-ray phase-contrast tomography in quantative studies of heat induced structural changes in meat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miklos, R.; Nielsen, M. S.; Einarsdottir, Hildur

    2013-01-01

    X-ray computed tomography is increasingly used in the studies of food structure. This paper describes the perspectives of use of phase contrast computed tomography in studies of heat induced structural changes in meat. From the data it was possible to obtain reconstructed images of the sample...... structure for visualization and qualitative studies of the sample structure. Further data segmentation allowed structural changes to be quantified....

  17. Interferometric phase-contrast X-ray CT imaging of VX2 rabbit cancer at 35keV X-ray energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Tohoru; Wu, Jin; Tsuchiya, Yoshinori; Yoneyama, Akio; Lwin, Thet-Thet; Hyodo, Kazuyuki; Itai, Yuji

    2004-05-01

    Imaging of large objects at 17.7-keV low x-ray energy causes huge x-ray exposure to the objects even using interferometric phase-contrast x-ray CT (PCCT). Thus, we tried to obtain PCCT images at high x-ray energy of 35keV and examined the image quality using a formalin-fixed VX2 rabbit cancer specimen with 15-mm in diameter. The PCCT system consisted of an asymmetrically cut silicon (220) crystal, a monolithic x-ray interferometer, a phase-shifter, an object cell and an x-ray CCD camera. The PCCT at 35 keV clearly visualized various inner structures of VX2 rabbit cancer such as necrosis, cancer, the surrounding tumor vessels, and normal liver tissue. Besides, image-contrast was not degraded significantly. These results suggest that the PCCT at 35 KeV is sufficient to clearly depict the histopathological morphology of VX2 rabbit cancer specimen.

  18. Technique for arterial-phase contrast-enhanced three-dimensional MR angiography of the carotid and vertebral arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isoda, H; Takehara, Y; Isogai, S; Takeda, H; Kaneko, M; Nozaki, A; Sun, Y; Foo, T K

    1998-08-01

    Our goal was to evaluate whether contrast-enhanced three-dimensional MR angiography using the MR Smartprep technique would enable us to obtain arterial-phase MR angiograms of the carotid and vertebral arteries. The study included 35 patients with suspected lesions of the neck in whom the MR Smartprep technique was used for MR angiography performed with a 1.5-T superconducting system. The tracker volume was placed primarily in the middle part of the right common carotid artery. The imaging volume was placed in a coronal direction to include the carotid and vertebral arteries from the aortic arch to the skull base. A centric phase-ordering scheme was used. Imaging times were 20 to 38 seconds for 14 patients and 11 to 16 seconds for 21 patients. By using a smaller tracker volume and an imaging time of less than 16 seconds, we were able to achieve a 100% successful triggering rate and to delineate selectively arterial-phase carotid and vertebral arteries with almost no venous contamination. Contract-enhanced 3-D MR angiography with the MR Smartprep technique was useful for showing arterial-phase carotid and vertebral arteries selectively.

  19. Inpainting approaches to fill in detector gaps in phase contrast computed tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brun, F.; Delogu, P.; Longo, R.; Dreossi, D.; Rigon, L.

    2018-01-01

    Photon counting semiconductor detectors in radiation imaging present attractive properties, such as high efficiency, low noise, and energy sensitivity. The very complex electronics limits the sensitive area of current devices to a few square cm. This disadvantage is often compensated by tiling a larger matrix with an adequate number of detector units but this usually results in non-negligible insensitive gaps between two adjacent modules. When considering the case of Computed Tomography (CT), these gaps lead to degraded reconstructed images with severe streak and ring artifacts. This work presents two digital image processing solutions to fill in these gaps when considering the specific case of synchrotron radiation x-ray parallel beam phase contrast CT. While not discussed with experimental data, other CT modalities, such as spectral, cone beam and other geometries might benefit from the presented approaches.

  20. Dose and diagnostic performance comparison between phase-contrast mammography with synchrotron radiation and digital mammography: a clinical study report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedon, Christian; Rigon, Luigi; Arfelli, Fulvia; Dreossi, Diego; Quai, Elisa; Tonutti, Maura; Tromba, Giuliana; Cova, Maria Assunta; Longo, Renata

    2018-01-01

    Two dosimetric quantities [mean glandular dose (MGD) and entrance surface air kerma (ESAK)] and the diagnostic performance of phase-contrast mammography with synchrotron radiation (MSR) are compared to conventional digital mammography (DM). Seventy-one patients (age range, 41 to 82 years) underwent MSR after a DM examination if questionable or suspicious breast abnormalities were not clarified by ultrasonography. The MGD and the ESAK delivered in both examinations were evaluated and compared. Two on-site radiologists rated the images in consensus according to the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System assessment categories, which were then correlated with the final diagnoses by means of statistical generalized linear models (GLMs). Receiver operating characteristic curves were also used to assess the diagnostic performance by comparing the area under the curve (AUC). An important MGD and ESAK reduction was observed in MSR due to the monoenergetic beam. In particular, an average 43% reduction was observed for the MGD and a reduction of more than 50% for the ESAK. GLM showed higher diagnostic accuracy, especially in terms of specificity, for MSR, confirmed by AUC analysis ([Formula: see text]). The study design implied that the population was characterized by a high prevalence of disease and that the radiologists, who read the DM images before referring the patient to MSR, could have been influenced in their assessments. Within these limitations, the use of synchrotron radiation with the phase-contrast technique applied to mammography showed an important dose reduction and a higher diagnostic accuracy compared with DM. These results could further encourage research on the translation of x-ray phase-contrast imaging into the clinics.

  1. Wide-field phase imaging for the endoscopic detection of dysplasia and early-stage esophageal cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, C. R. M.; Gordon, G. S. D.; Sawyer, T. W.; Wilkinson, T. D.; Bohndiek, S. E.

    2018-02-01

    Esophageal cancer has a 5-year survival rate below 20%, but can be curatively resected if it is detected early. At present, poor contrast for early lesions in white light imaging leads to a high miss rate in standard-of- care endoscopic surveillance. Early lesions in the esophagus, referred to as dysplasia, are characterized by an abundance of abnormal cells with enlarged nuclei. This tissue has a different refractive index profile to healthy tissue, which results in different light scattering properties and provides a source of endogenous contrast that can be exploited for advanced endoscopic imaging. For example, point measurements of such contrast can be made with scattering spectroscopy, while optical coherence tomography generates volumetric data. However, both require specialist interpretation for diagnostic decision making. We propose combining wide-field phase imaging with existing white light endoscopy in order to provide enhanced contrast for dysplasia and early-stage cancer in an image format that is familiar to endoscopists. Wide-field phase imaging in endoscopy can be achieved using coherent illumination combined with phase retrieval algorithms. Here, we present the design and simulation of a benchtop phase imaging system that is compatible with capsule endoscopy. We have undertaken preliminary optical modelling of the phase imaging setup, including aberration correction simulations and an investigation into distinguishing between different tissue phantom scattering coefficients. As our approach is based on phase retrieval rather than interferometry, it is feasible to realize a device with low-cost components for future clinical implementation.

  2. Phase change events of volatile liquid perfluorocarbon contrast agents produce unique acoustic signatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheeran, Paul S; Dayton, Paul A; Matsunaga, Terry O

    2014-01-01

    Phase-change contrast agents (PCCAs) provide a dynamic platform to approach problems in medical ultrasound (US). Upon US-mediated activation, the liquid core vaporizes and expands to produce a gas bubble ideal for US imaging and therapy. In this study, we demonstrate through high-speed video microscopy and US interrogation that PCCAs composed of highly volatile perfluorocarbons (PFCs) exhibit unique acoustic behavior that can be detected and differentiated from standard microbubble contrast agents. Experimental results show that when activated with short pulses PCCAs will over-expand and undergo unforced radial oscillation while settling to a final bubble diameter. The size-dependent oscillation phenomenon generates a unique acoustic signal that can be passively detected in both time and frequency domain using confocal piston transducers with an ‘activate high’ (8 MHz, 2 cycles), ‘listen low’ (1 MHz) scheme. Results show that the magnitude of the acoustic ‘signature’ increases as PFC boiling point decreases. By using a band-limited spectral processing technique, the droplet signals can be isolated from controls and used to build experimental relationships between concentration and vaporization pressure. The techniques shown here may be useful for physical studies as well as development of droplet-specific imaging techniques. (paper)

  3. Design of tangential viewing phase contrast imaging for turbulence measurements in JT-60SA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, K., E-mail: ktanaka@nifs.ac.jp [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan); Department of Advanced Energy Engineering, Kyushu University, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); Coda, S. [EPFL–SPC, Lausanne (Switzerland); Yoshida, M.; Sasao, H.; Kawano, Y.; Imazawa, R.; Kubo, H.; Kamada, Y. [National Institutes for Quantum and Radiological Science and Technology, Naka, Ibaraki 311-0193 (Japan)

    2016-11-15

    A tangential viewing phase contrast imaging system is being designed for the JT-60SA tokamak to investigate microturbulence. In order to obtain localized information on the turbulence, a spatial-filtering technique is applied, based on magnetic shearing. The tangential viewing geometry enhances the radial localization. The probing laser beam is injected tangentially and traverses the entire plasma region including both low and high field sides. The spatial resolution for an Internal Transport Barrier discharge is estimated at 30%–70% of the minor radius at k = 5 cm{sup −1}, which is the typical expected wave number of ion scale turbulence such as ion temperature gradient/trapped electron mode.

  4. Anisotropic contrast optical microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peev, D; Hofmann, T; Kananizadeh, N; Beeram, S; Rodriguez, E; Wimer, S; Rodenhausen, K B; Herzinger, C M; Kasputis, T; Pfaunmiller, E; Nguyen, A; Korlacki, R; Pannier, A; Li, Y; Schubert, E; Hage, D; Schubert, M

    2016-11-01

    An optical microscope is described that reveals contrast in the Mueller matrix images of a thin, transparent, or semi-transparent specimen located within an anisotropic object plane (anisotropic filter). The specimen changes the anisotropy of the filter and thereby produces contrast within the Mueller matrix images. Here we use an anisotropic filter composed of a semi-transparent, nanostructured thin film with sub-wavelength thickness placed within the object plane. The sample is illuminated as in common optical microscopy but the light is modulated in its polarization using combinations of linear polarizers and phase plate (compensator) to control and analyze the state of polarization. Direct generalized ellipsometry data analysis approaches permit extraction of fundamental Mueller matrix object plane images dispensing with the need of Fourier expansion methods. Generalized ellipsometry model approaches are used for quantitative image analyses. These images are obtained from sets of multiple images obtained under various polarizer, analyzer, and compensator settings. Up to 16 independent Mueller matrix images can be obtained, while our current setup is limited to 11 images normalized by the unpolarized intensity. We demonstrate the anisotropic contrast optical microscope by measuring lithographically defined micro-patterned anisotropic filters, and we quantify the adsorption of an organic self-assembled monolayer film onto the anisotropic filter. Comparison with an isotropic glass slide demonstrates the image enhancement obtained by our method over microscopy without the use of an anisotropic filter. In our current instrument, we estimate the limit of detection for organic volumetric mass within the object plane of ≈49 fg within ≈7 × 7 μm 2 object surface area. Compared to a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation instrumentation, where contemporary limits require a total load of ≈500 pg for detection, the instrumentation demonstrated here improves

  5. Study of abdominal CT angiography in low tube voltage setting combined with personalized contrast media application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Jianxin; Wang Yiming; Zhang Yu; Tao Wei; Zhang Xiaodong; Wang Aijun; Liu Li; Wang Peng

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the feasibility of decreasing radiation dose and contrast media dose of abdominal CTA using low tube voltage setting combined with personalized contrast media application. Methods: One hundred and twenty patients were randomly divided into 3 groups, and there were 40 patients in each group. 120 kV tube voltage was used in group A, and 100 kV tube voltage was used in group B and C. Personalized injection flow rate of contrast media which determined according to patient's body mass (injection flow rate =λ × body mass) was used for all groups, and the λ values for group A, B and C were 0.07, 0.07 and 0.06 ml · kg -1 · s -1 respectively. CT dose index volume (CTDIvol) effective dose (ED) and contrast media dose were evaluated,and these parameters were all analyzed using one-way ANOVA analysis. Image quality of abdominal aorta and branch arteries was rated using a three-point ordinal for all 3 groups, and image quality score was analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis test. Results: CTDIvol were (8.2±0.8), (6.0 ±1.0) and (6.1 ±1.1)mGy for group A, B and C, ED were (5.2 ±0.8), (3.5 ± 0.7) and (3.6 ± 0.6) mSv, and contrast media dose were (72.3 ± 10.3),(73.5 ± 11.3) and (61.6 ±9.4) ml, respectively. There were significant differences in CTDIvol, ED and contrast media dose among 3 groups (F=66.094, 77.812,15.919; P=0.000). Compare with group A, the ED of group B was decreased 32.7%, and the ED and contrast media dose of group C were decreased 30.8% and 14.8%, respectively. Image quality was rated as excellent, good, and general for 20, 19 and 1 patients in group A, 25, 15 and 0 patients in group B, and 23, 17 and 0 patients in group C, respectively. There was no significant difference in image quality score among 3 groups (χ 2 =1.492, P=0.474). Conclusions: The radiation dose and contrast media dose can be decreased in abdominal CTA using low tube voltage and personalized contrast media application while image quality can be preserved

  6. Feasibility of measuring renal blood flow by phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spithoven, Edwin M.; Meijer, E.; Borns, C.; Boertien, W. E.; Gaillard, C. A. J. M.; Kappert, P.; Greuter, Marcel J W; van der Jagt, E.; Vart, P.; de Jong, P. E.; Gansevoort, Ron T.

    Renal blood flow (RBF) has been shown to predict disease progression in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). We investigated the feasibility and accuracy of phase-contrast RBF by MRI (RBFMRI) in ADPKD patients with a wide range of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR)

  7. Assessment of the effects of different sample perfusion procedures on phase-contrast tomographic images of mouse spinal cord

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanutti, E.; Sierra, A.; Miocchi, P.; Massimi, L.; Brun, F.; Maugeri, L.; Bukreeva, I.; Nurmi, A.; Begani Provinciali, G.; Tromba, G.; Gröhn, O.; Giove, F.; Cedola, A.; Fratini, M.

    2018-03-01

    Synchrotron X-ray Phase Contrast micro-Tomography (SXrPCμT) is a powerful tool in the investigation of biological tissues, including the central nervous system (CNS), and it allows to simultaneously detect the vascular and neuronal network avoiding contrast agents or destructive sample preparations. However, specific sample preparation procedures aimed to optimize the achievable contrast- and signal-to-noise ratio (CNR and SNR, respectively) are required. Here we report and discuss the effects of perfusion with two different fixative agents (ethanol and paraformaldehyde) and with a widely used contrast medium (MICROFIL®) on mouse spinal cord. As a main result, we found that ethanol enhances contrast at the grey/white matter interface and increases the contrast in correspondence of vascular features and fibres, thus providing an adequate spatial resolution to visualise the vascular network at the microscale. On the other hand, ethanol is known to induce tissue dehydration, likely reducing cell dimensions below the spatial resolution limit imposed by the experimental technique. Nonetheless, neurons remain well visible using either perfused paraformaldehyde or MICROFIL® compound, as these latter media do not affect tissues with dehydration effects. Paraformaldehyde appears as the best compromise: it is not a contrast agent, like MICROFIL®, but it is less invasive than ethanol and permits to visualise well both cells and blood vessels. However, a quantitative estimation of the relative grey matter volume of each sample has led us to conclude that no significant alterations in the grey matter extension compared to the white matter occur as a consequence of the perfusion procedures tested in this study.

  8. Evaluation of edge enhancement effect of phase contrast imaging using newly-developed photostimulable phosphor plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuo, Satoru; Morishita, Junji; Katafuchi, Tetsuro; Fujita, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    We investigated whether the use of a newly developed columnar-crystal-type photostimulable-phosphor plate (CP1M200, referred to as system C) helps to provide improved edge-enhanced effect in phase contrast imaging. Physical characteristics of 2 conventional particulate-crystal-type photostimulable-phosphor plates (RP-5PM, referred to as system A and RP-6M, referred to as system B) and system C were measured. Then, an acrylic plate phantom and RMI152 phantom were imaged using 3 types of plates, and the edge-enhancement effects were evaluated based on the profile curve of the acrylic plate phantom. Visual evaluation of the RMI152 phantom images was conducted. The results showed that the modulation transfer function (MTF) of system C was superior to those of the other systems. The WS of system C was superior to those of the other systems in the low frequency band region, and inferior to those of the other systems in the high frequency band region. The presence of an edge-enhanced image was not detectable in the profile curve of the acrylic plate in system A, although that was shown in systems B and C due to their excellent sharpness. In the visual image evaluation of the RMI152 phantom, image quality of system C was superior to those of the other systems. Phase contrast imaging with a digital detector of a columnar-crystal-type photostimulable-phosphor plate is considered to provide improved edge-enhancement over that of conventional plates. (author)

  9. Characterization of Mechanical Properties of Tissue Scaffolds by Phase Contrast Imaging and Finite Element Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bawolin, Nahshon K; Dolovich, Allan T; Chen, Daniel X B; Zhang, Chris W J

    2015-08-01

    In tissue engineering, the cell and scaffold approach has shown promise as a treatment to regenerate diseased and/or damaged tissue. In this treatment, an artificial construct (scaffold) is seeded with cells, which organize and proliferate into new tissue. The scaffold itself biodegrades with time, leaving behind only newly formed tissue. The degradation qualities of the scaffold are critical during the treatment period, since the change in the mechanical properties of the scaffold with time can influence cell behavior. To observe in time the scaffold's mechanical properties, a straightforward method is to deform the scaffold and then characterize scaffold deflection accordingly. However, experimentally observing the scaffold deflection is challenging. This paper presents a novel study on characterization of mechanical properties of scaffolds by phase contrast imaging and finite element modeling, which specifically includes scaffold fabrication, scaffold imaging, image analysis, and finite elements (FEs) modeling of the scaffold mechanical properties. The innovation of the work rests on the use of in-line phase contrast X-ray imaging at 20 KeV to characterize tissue scaffold deformation caused by ultrasound radiation forces and the use of the Fourier transform to identify movement. Once deformation has been determined experimentally, it is then compared with the predictions given by the forward solution of a finite element model. A consideration of the number of separate loading conditions necessary to uniquely identify the material properties of transversely isotropic and fully orthotropic scaffolds is also presented, along with the use of an FE as a form of regularization.

  10. Functionalized synchrotron in-line phase-contrast computed tomography: a novel approach for simultaneous quantification of structural alterations and localization of barium-labelled alveolar macrophages within mouse lung samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dullin, Christian; dal Monego, Simeone; Larsson, Emanuel; Mohammadi, Sara; Krenkel, Martin; Garrovo, Chiara; Biffi, Stefania; Lorenzon, Andrea; Markus, Andrea; Napp, Joanna; Salditt, Tim; Accardo, Agostino; Alves, Frauke; Tromba, Giuliana

    2015-01-01

    Functionalized computed tomography (CT) in combination with labelled cells is virtually non-existent due to the limited sensitivity of X-ray-absorption-based imaging, but would be highly desirable to realise cell tracking studies in entire organisms. In this study we applied in-line free propagation X-ray phase-contrast CT (XPCT) in an allergic asthma mouse model to assess structural changes as well as the biodistribution of barium-labelled macrophages in lung tissue. Alveolar macrophages that were barium-sulfate-loaded and fluorescent-labelled were instilled intratracheally into asthmatic and control mice. Mice were sacrificed after 24 h, lungs were kept in situ, inflated with air and scanned utilizing XPCT at the SYRMEP beamline (Elettra Synchrotron Light Source, Italy). Single-distance phase retrieval was used to generate data sets with ten times greater contrast-to-noise ratio than absorption-based CT (in our setup), thus allowing to depict and quantify structural hallmarks of asthmatic lungs such as reduced air volume, obstruction of airways and increased soft-tissue content. Furthermore, we found a higher concentration as well as a specific accumulation of the barium-labelled macrophages in asthmatic lung tissue. It is believe that XPCT will be beneficial in preclinical asthma research for both the assessment of therapeutic response as well as the analysis of the role of the recruitment of macrophages to inflammatory sites.

  11. On the combination of molecular replacement and single-wavelength anomalous diffraction phasing for automated structure determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panjikar, Santosh; Parthasarathy, Venkataraman; Lamzin, Victor S.; Weiss, Manfred S.; Tucker, Paul A.

    2009-01-01

    The combination of molecular replacement and single-wavelength anomalous diffraction improves the performance of automated structure determination with Auto-Rickshaw. A combination of molecular replacement and single-wavelength anomalous diffraction phasing has been incorporated into the automated structure-determination platform Auto-Rickshaw. The complete MRSAD procedure includes molecular replacement, model refinement, experimental phasing, phase improvement and automated model building. The improvement over the standard SAD or MR approaches is illustrated by ten test cases taken from the JCSG diffraction data-set database. Poor MR or SAD phases with phase errors larger than 70° can be improved using the described procedure and a large fraction of the model can be determined in a purely automatic manner from X-ray data extending to better than 2.6 Å resolution

  12. Feasibility of measuring renal blood flow by phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spithoven, E. M.; Meijer, E.; Borns, C.; Boertien, W. E.; Gaillard, C. A. J. M.; Kappert, P.; Greuter, M. J. W.; van der Jagt, E.; Vart, P.; de Jong, P. E.; Gansevoort, R. T.

    Renal blood flow (RBF) has been shown to predict disease progression in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). We investigated the feasibility and accuracy of phase-contrast RBF by MRI (RBFMRI) in ADPKD patients with a wide range of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) values.

  13. An experimental study of turbulence by phase-contrast imaging in the DIII-D tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coda, Stefano

    1997-10-01

    A CO2-laser imaging system employing the Zernike phase-contrast technique was designed, built, installed, and operated on the DIII-D tokamak. This system measures the line integrals of plasma density fluctuations along 16 vertical chords at the outer edge of the tokamak (0.85 Mechanical vibrations are damped by a novel dual-axis focal-spot feedback stabilization system. The theoretical treatment of scattering and imaging techniques was extended to finite-frequency fluctuations in the Rytov approximation. An extensive comparative analysis of the properties of phase-contrast imaging (PCI) and of other imaging and scintillation techniques was also carried out. Studies of edge turbulence were performed. The radial- wave-number spectrum peaks at finite wave numbers, both positive and negative. This first observation of radial modes is in agreement with recent predictions from theoretical and numerical work. The dependence of the correlation length and peak wave number on plasma parameters and on the frequency was studied in detail. Frequency spectra typically obey an inverse square law, consistent with a Lorentzian distribution. At the transition from L to H mode the amplitude and correlation length of the turbulence decrease, while the decorrelation time remains approximately constant. The Biglari-Diamond-Terry shear-decorrelation criterion was verified quantitatively; theoretical scaling laws for the correlation parameters were also tested. The turbulence amplitude follows a mixing-length scaling in L mode only: the lower level seen in H mode may indicate a weaker turbulence regime. The fluctuation content of Edge Localized Modes (ELMs) was thoroughly characterized, and systematic differences between type-I and type-III ELMs were discovered. Future applications of PCI, including crossed-beam localization and heterodyne radio-frequency-wave detection, are also discussed. (Copies available exclusively from MIT Libraries, Rm. 14-0551, Cambridge, MA 02139-4307. Ph. 617

  14. Experimental demonstration of continuous variable cloning with phase-conjugate inputs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabuncu, Metin; Andersen, Ulrik Lund; Leuchs, G.

    2007-01-01

    We report the first experimental demonstration of continuous variable cloning of phase-conjugate coherent states as proposed by Cerf and Iblisdir [Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 247903 (2001)]. In contrast to this proposal, the cloning transformation is accomplished using only linear optical components......, homodyne detection, and feedforward. As a result of combining phase conjugation with a joint measurement strategy, superior cloning is demonstrated with cloning fidelities reaching 89%....

  15. Feasibility of low-dose contrast medium high pitch CT angiography for the combined evaluation of coronary, head and neck arteries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiwei Wang

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the image quality and radiation dose of combined heart, head, and neck CT angiography (CTA using prospectively electrocardiography (ECG-triggered high-pitch spiral scan protocol, compared with single coronary CTA. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 151 consecutive patients were prospectively included and randomly divided into three groups. Group 1 (n = 47 underwent combined heart, neck, and head CTA using prospectively ECG-triggered high-pitch spiral (Flash scan protocol with a single-phase intravenous injection of iodinated contrast and saline flush; Group 2 (n = 51 underwent single coronary CTA with Flash scan protocol; and Group 3 (n = 53 underwent single coronary CTA with prospective sequence scan protocol. All patients were examined on a dual source CT (Definition FLASH. The image quality was determined for each CT study. RESULTS: Patients of scanning protocol Group 1, 2, and 3 showed no significant differences in age, sex, heart rates, and BMI. Evaluation of coronary artery image quality showed comparable results in the three scanning protocol groups on a per patient-based analysis. In group 1, image quality was found to be sufficient to be diagnostic in all arterial segments of carotid arteries. The mean dose-length product (DLP for group 1 was 256.3±24.5 mGy×cm and was significantly higher in comparison with group 2 (93.4±19.9 mGy×cm; p < 0.001. However, there was no significant difference of DLP between group 1 and group 3 (254.1±69.9 mGy×cm. CONCLUSIONS: The combined heart, neck, and head arteries scan using prospectively electrocardiography (ECG-triggered high-pitch spiral scan protocol in 1 single examination resulted in an excellent opacification of the aorta, the carotid arteries, and the coronary arteries and provided a good image quality with low radiation dose.

  16. X-ray phase-contrast CT imaging of the acupoints based on synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chenglin, Liu; Xiaohua, Wang; Hua, Xu; Fang, Liu; Ruishan, Dang; Dongming, Zhang; Xinyi, Zhang; Honglan, Xie; Tiqiao, Xiao

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the morphology of the acupuncture point (abbreviated as acupoint hereafter) or tissue where there were no acupoints in the fractional rabbit hind limb was studied by in-line phase contrast CT imaging (PCI-CT) methods based on synchrotron radiation. The density of micro-vessels was calculated for tissues with acupoints or without acupoints. Differences between acupoints area and non-acupoint areas determined by the density of the micro-vessels propose a strong evidence of the existence of acupoints. Our results showed that there were two significantly higher densities of the micro-vessels, where two acupoints were located, respectively. In addition, there were large numbers of involutedly microvascular structure in the acupoint areas. Nevertheless, in non-acupoints area, the microvascular structure was relatively simple and flat

  17. X-ray phase-contrast CT imaging of the acupoints based on synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chenglin, Liu, E-mail: lclyctc@163.com [Physics Department of Yancheng Teachers’ College, Yancheng 224051 (China); Xiaohua, Wang; Hua, Xu [Physics Department of Yancheng Teachers’ College, Yancheng 224051 (China); Fang, Liu; Ruishan, Dang [Anatomy Department of Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Dongming, Zhang; Xinyi, Zhang [Synchrotron Radiation Research Center of Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Honglan, Xie; Tiqiao, Xiao [Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility of Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, CAS, Shanghai 201800 (China)

    2014-10-15

    In this paper, the morphology of the acupuncture point (abbreviated as acupoint hereafter) or tissue where there were no acupoints in the fractional rabbit hind limb was studied by in-line phase contrast CT imaging (PCI-CT) methods based on synchrotron radiation. The density of micro-vessels was calculated for tissues with acupoints or without acupoints. Differences between acupoints area and non-acupoint areas determined by the density of the micro-vessels propose a strong evidence of the existence of acupoints. Our results showed that there were two significantly higher densities of the micro-vessels, where two acupoints were located, respectively. In addition, there were large numbers of involutedly microvascular structure in the acupoint areas. Nevertheless, in non-acupoints area, the microvascular structure was relatively simple and flat.

  18. Contrast optimization in multiphase arterial spin labeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paiva, Fernando F.; Paschoal, Andre M.; Tovar-Moll, Fernanda; Moll, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    Multiphase ASL is an effective way to overcome the regional variation of the transit time that difficult the estimation of perfusion values. However, with conventional multiple phases ASL techniques, the ASL contrast at later phases is impaired due to repeated application of excitation pulses and longitudinal relaxation making it difficult to evaluate the tissue perfusion in regions where the transit time is longer. In the present study, we show an improvement of the acquisition scheme by exploring a modulation on the flip angle of the MR acquisition to keep the ASL contrast constant over multiple phases. (author)

  19. Development and Characterization of Two-Dimensional Gratings for Single-Shot X-ray Phase-Contrast Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Zakharova

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Single-shot grating-based phase-contrast imaging techniques offer additional contrast modalities based on the refraction and scattering of X-rays in a robust and versatile configuration. The utilization of a single optical element is possible in such methods, allowing the shortening of the acquisition time and increasing flux efficiency. One of the ways to upgrade single-shot imaging techniques is to utilize customized optical components, such as two-dimensional (2D X-ray gratings. In this contribution, we present the achievements in the development of 2D gratings with UV lithography and gold electroplating. Absorption gratings represented by periodic free-standing gold pillars with lateral structure sizes from 5 µm to 25 µm and heights from 5 µm to 28 µm have shown a high degree of periodicity and defect-free patterns. Grating performance was tested in a radiographic setup using a self-developed quality assessment algorithm based on the intensity distribution histograms. The algorithm allows the final user to estimate the suitability of a specific grating to be used in a particular setup.

  20. Mammography combined with breast dynamic contrast-enhanced-magnetic resonance imaging for the diagnosis of early breast cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yakun He; Guohui Xu; Jin Ren; Bin Feng; Xiaolei Dong; Hao Lu; Changjiu He

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the application of mammography combined with breast dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) for the diagnosis of early breast cancer. Methods Mammography and DCE-MRI were performed for 120 patients with breast cancer (malignant, 102; benign; 18). Results The sensitivity of mammography for early diagnosis of breast cancer was 66.67%, specificity was 77.78%, and accuracy was 68.33%. The sensitivity of MRI for early diagnosis of breast cancer was 94.12%, specificity was 88.89%, and accuracy was 93.33%. However, the sensitivity of mammography combined with DCE-MRI volume imaging with enhanced water signal (VIEWS) scanning for early diagnosis of breast cancer was 97.06%, specificity was 94.44%, and accuracy was 96.67%. Conclusion Mammography combined with DCE-MRI increased the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of diagnosing early breast cancer.

  1. New developments in simulating X-ray phase contrast imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterzol, A.; Berthier, J.; Duvauchelle, P.; Babot, D.; Ferrero, C.

    2007-01-01

    A deterministic algorithm simulating phase contrast (PC) x-ray images for complex 3- dimensional (3D) objects is presented. This algorithm has been implemented in a simulation code named VXI (Virtual X-ray Imaging). The physical model chosen to account for PC technique is based on the Fresnel-Kirchhoff diffraction theory. The algorithm consists mainly of two parts. The first one exploits the VXI ray-tracing approach to compute the object transmission function. The second part simulates the PC image due to the wave front distortion introduced by the sample. In the first part, the use of computer-aided drawing (CAD) models enables simulations to be carried out with complex 3D objects. Differently from the VXI original version, which makes use of an object description via triangular facets, the new code requires a more 'sophisticated' object representation based on Non-Uniform Rational B-Splines (NURBS). As a first step we produce a spatial high resolution image by using a point and monochromatic source and an ideal detector. To simulate the polychromatic case, the intensity image is integrated over the considered x-ray energy spectrum. Then, in order to account for the system spatial resolution properties, the high spatial resolution image (mono or polychromatic) is convolved with the total point spread function of the imaging system under consideration. The results supplied by the presented algorithm are examined with the help of some relevant examples. (authors)

  2. Detection of cardiac wall motion defects with combined amplitude/phase analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacharach, S.L.; Green, M.V.; Bonow, R.O.; Pace, L.; Brunetti, A.; Larson, S.M.

    1985-01-01

    Fourier phase images have been used with some success to detect and quantify left ventricular (LV) wall motion defects. In abnormal regions of the LV, wall motion asynchronies often cause the time activity curve (TAC) to be shifted in phase. Such regional shifts are detected by analysis of the distribution function of phase values over the LV. However, not all wall motion defects result in detectable regional phase abnormalities. Such abnormalities may cause a reduction in the magnitude of contraction (and hence TAC amplitude) without any appreciable change in TAC shape(and hence phase). In an attempt to improve the sensitivity of the Fourier phase method for the detection of wall motion defects the authors analyzed the distribution function of Fourier amplitude as well as phase. 26 individuals with normal cardiac function and no history of cardiac disease served as controls. The goal was to detect and quantify wall motion as compared to the consensus of 3 independent observers viewing the scintigraphic cines. 26 subjects with coronary artery disease and mild wall motion defects (22 with normal EF) were studied ate rest. They found that analysis of the skew of thew amplitude distribution function improved the sensitivity for the detection of wall motion abnormalities at rest in the group from 65% to 85% (17/26 detected by phase alone, 22/26 by combined phase and amplitude analysis) while retaining a 0 false positive rate in the normal group. The authors conclude that analysis of Fourier amplitude distribution functions can significantly increase the sensitivity of phase imaging for detection of wall motion abnormalities

  3. Contrast-enhanced peripheral MRA. Technique and contrast agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, Yousef W.; Thomsen, Henrik S.

    2012-01-01

    In the last decade contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (CE-MRA) has gained wide acceptance as a valuable tool in the diagnostic work-up of patients with peripheral arterial disease. This review presents current concepts in peripheral CE-MRA with emphasis on MRI technique and contrast agents. Peripheral CE-MRA is defined as an MR angiogram of the arteries from the aortic bifurcation to the feet. Advantages of CE-MRA include minimal invasiveness and lack of ionizing radiation. The basic technique employed for peripheral CE-MRA is the bolus-chase method. With this method a paramagnetic MRI contrast agent is injected intravenously and T1-weighted images are acquired in the subsequent arterial first-pass phase. In order to achieve high quality MR angiograms without interfering venous contamination or artifacts, a number of factors need to be taken into account. This includes magnetic field strength of the MRI system, receiver coil configuration, use of parallel imaging, contrast bolus timing technique, and k-space filling strategies. Furthermore, it is possible to optimize peripheral CE-MRA using venous compression techniques, hybrid scan protocols, time-resolved imaging, and steady-state MRA. Gadolinium(Gd)-based contrast agents are used for CE-MRA of the peripheral arteries. Extracellular Gd agents have a pharmacokinetic profile similar to iodinated contrast media. Accordingly, these agents are employed for first-pass MRA. Blood-pool Gd-based agents are characterized by prolonged intravascular stay, due to macromolecular structure or protein binding. These agents can be used for first-pass, as well as steady-state MRA. Some Gd-based contrast agents with low thermodynamic stability have been linked to development of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis in patients with severe renal insufficiency. Using optimized technique and a stable MRI contrast agent, peripheral CE-MRA is a safe procedure with diagnostic accuracy close to that of conventional catheter X

  4. Hepatobiliary contrast agents for contrast-enhanced MRI of the liver: properties, clinical development and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reimer, Peter; Schneider, Guenter; Schima, Wolfgang

    2004-01-01

    Hepatobiliary contrast agents with uptake into hepatocytes followed by variable biliary excretion represent a unique class of cell-specific MR contrast agents. Two hepatobiliary contrast agents, mangafodipir trisodium and gadobenate dimeglumine, are already clinically approved. A third hepatobiliary contrast agent, Gd-EOB-DTPA, is under consideration. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview on the properties, clinical development and application of these three hepatobiliary contrast agents. Bolus injectable paramagnetic hepatobiliary contrast agents combine established features of extracellular agents with the advantages of hepatocyte specificity. The detection and characterisation of focal liver disease appears to be improved compared to unenhanced MRI, MRI with unspecific contrast agents and contrast-enhanced CT. To decrease the total time spent by a patient in the MR scanner, it is advisable to administer the agent immediately after acquisition of unenhanced T1-w MRI. After infusion or bolus injection (with dynamic FS-T1-w 2D or 3D GRE) of the contrast agent, moderately and heavily T2w images are acquired. Post-contrast T1-w MRI is started upon completion of T2-w MRI for mangafodipir trisodium and Gd-EOB-DTPA as early as 20 min following injection, while gadobenate dimeglumine scans are obtained >60 min following injection. Post-contrast acquisition techniques with near isotropic 3D pulse sequences with fat saturation parallel the technical progress made by MSCT combined with an unparalleled improvement in tumour-liver contrast. The individual decision that hepatobiliary contrast agent one uses is partly based on personal preferences. No comparative studies have been conducted comparing the advantages or disadvantages of all three agents directly against each other. (orig.)

  5. Investigations on microstructure of Chinese traditional medicine using phase-contrast imaging with microfocus X-ray tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Xun; Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing; Xiao Tiqiao; Chen Min; Liu Lixiang; Luo Yuyu; Du Guohao; Xu Hongjie

    2005-01-01

    The microscopic morphology of plant cells and their ergastic substances is an important standard for the identification of Chinese traditional medicine. The authors have developed a new method, X-ray phase-contrast imaging (XPCI) based on the microfocus X-ray tube, to explore microstructures of Chinese herbal medicine. The results indicate that XPCI is capable of distinguishing the structures commonly used in the identification. Non-destructive detection and high sensibility are counted among the major advantages of XPCI. The possibility of future applications of XPCI in the field of medicine identification is discussed. (authors)

  6. Diagnosis of hepatic steatosis by contrast-enhanced abdominal computed tomography; Diagnostico da esteatose hepatica pela tomografia computadorizada de abdome com meio de contraste intravenoso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monjardim, Rodrigo da Fonseca; Costa, Danilo Manuel Cerqueira; Romano, Ricardo Francisco Tavares; Salvadori, Priscila Silveira; Santos, Jaime de Vargas Conde dos; Atzingen, Augusto Castelli Von; Shigueoka, David Carlos; D' Ippolito, Giuseppe, E-mail: giuseppe_dr@uol.com.br [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (EPM/UNIFESP), SP (Brazil). Escola Paulista de Medicina. Dept. de Diagnostico por Imagem

    2013-05-15

    Objective: to evaluate the diagnostic capacity of abdominal computed tomography in the assessment of hepatic steatosis using the portal phase with a simplified calculation method as compared with the non-contrast-enhanced phase. Materials and methods: in the present study, 150 patients were retrospectively evaluated by means of non-contrast-enhanced and contrast-enhanced computed tomography. One hundred patients had hepatic steatosis and 50 were control subjects. For the diagnosis of hepatic steatosis in the portal phase, the authors considered a result of < 104 HU calculated by the formula [L - 0.3 Multiplication-Sign (0.75 Multiplication-Sign P + 0.25 Multiplication-Sign A)] / 0.7, where L, P and A represent the attenuation of the liver, of the main portal vein and abdominal aorta, respectively. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were calculated, using non-contrast-enhanced computed tomography as the reference standard. Results: the simplified calculation method with portal phase for the diagnosis of hepatic steatosis showed 100% sensitivity, 36% specificity, negative predictive value of 100% and positive predictive value of 75.8%. The rate of false positive results was 64%. False negative results were not observed. Conclusion: The portal phase presents an excellent sensitivity in the diagnosis of hepatic steatosis, as compared with the non-contrast-enhanced phase of abdominal computed tomography. However, the method has low specificity. (author)

  7. Contrast and autoshaping in multiple schedules varying reinforcer rate and duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, B E; Silberberg, A

    1978-07-01

    Thirteen master pigeons were exposed to multiple schedules in which reinforcement frequency (Experiment I) or duration (Experiment II) was varied. In Phases 1 and 3 of Experiment I, the values of the first and second components' random-interval schedules were 33 and 99 seconds, respectively. In Phase 2, these values were 99 seconds for both components. In Experiment II, a random-interval 33-second schedule was associated with each component. During Phases 1 and 3, the first and second components had hopper durations of 7.5 and 2.5 seconds respectively. During Phase 2, both components' hopper durations were 2.5 seconds. In each experiment, positive contrast obtained for about half the master subjects. The rest showed a rate increase in both components (positive induction). Each master subject's key colors and reinforcers were synchronously presented on a response-independent basis to a yoked control. Richer component key-pecking occurred during each experiment's Phases 1 and 3 among half these subjects. However, none responded during the contrast condition (unchanged component of each experiment's Phase 2). From this it is inferred that autoshaping did not contribute to the contrast and induction findings among master birds. Little evidence of local contrast (highest rate at beginning of richer component) was found in any subject. These data show that (a) contrast can occur independently from autoshaping, (b) contrast assays during equal-valued components may produce induction, (c) local contrast in multiple schedules often does not occur, and (d) differential hopper durations can produce autoshaping and contrast.

  8. Automated angular and translational tomographic alignment and application to phase-contrast imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cunha Ramos, Tiago Joao; Jørgensen, Jakob Sauer; Andreasen, Jens Wenzel

    2017-01-01

    X-ray computerized tomography (CT) is a 3D imaging technique that makes use of x-ray illumination and image reconstruction techniques to reproduce the internal cross-sections of a sample. Tomographic projection data usually require an initial relative alignment or knowledge of the exact object po...... improvement in the reconstruction resolution. A MATLAB implementation is made publicly available and will allow robust analysis of large volumes of phase-contrast tomography data.......X-ray computerized tomography (CT) is a 3D imaging technique that makes use of x-ray illumination and image reconstruction techniques to reproduce the internal cross-sections of a sample. Tomographic projection data usually require an initial relative alignment or knowledge of the exact object...... reconstruction artifacts and limit the attained resolution in the final tomographic reconstruction. Alignment algorithms that require manual interaction impede data analysis with ever-increasing data acquisition rates, supplied by more brilliant sources. We present in this paper an iterative reconstruction...

  9. Efficient coherent beam combination of two-dimensional phase-locked laser arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Bing; Yan, Aimin; Liu, Liren; Dai, Enwen; Sun, Jianfeng; Shen, Baoliang; Lv, Xiaoyu; Wu, Yapeng

    2011-01-01

    An efficient technique in which a two-dimensional (2D) phase-locked laser array can be coherently combined into a high power and high quality beam by using a conjugate Dammann grating (CDG) is presented. A theoretical model is established to provide a physical interpretation of the proposed scheme. Using this technique, we investigate analytically and numerically the coherent combination of 2D laser arrays such as 5 × 5 and 32 × 32 arrangements. Far-field distributions and the near-field pattern of the combined beam are calculated and compared with experimental results. A verification experiment with a simulated 5 × 5 2D laser array using an aperture mask has been performed. Calculations and experimental results show that the proposed technique in this paper is an efficient coherent beam combination method to obtain a high power and high quality beam from laser arrays

  10. The influence of different contrast medium concentrations and injection protocols on quantitative and clinical assessment of FDG–PET/CT in lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verburg, Frederik A., E-mail: fverburg@ukaachen.de [RWTH Aachen University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Pauwelsstraße 30, 52074 Aachen (Germany); Maastricht University Medical Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, P. Debyelaan 25, 6229 HX Maastricht (Netherlands); Kuhl, Christiane K. [RWTH Aachen University Hospital, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Pauwelsstraße 30, 52074 Aachen (Germany); Pietsch, Hubertus [Bayer Pharma AG, Berlin, Müllerstrasse 178, 13353 Berlin (Germany); Palmowski, Moritz [RWTH Aachen University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Pauwelsstraße 30, 52074 Aachen (Germany); Mottaghy, Felix M. [RWTH Aachen University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Pauwelsstraße 30, 52074 Aachen (Germany); Maastricht University Medical Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, P. Debyelaan 25, 6229 HX Maastricht (Netherlands); Behrendt, Florian F. [RWTH Aachen University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Pauwelsstraße 30, 52074 Aachen (Germany)

    2013-10-01

    Objectives: To compare the effects of two different contrast medium concentrations for use in computed X-ray tomography (CT) employing two different injection protocols on positron emission tomography (PET) reconstruction in combined 2-{sup 18}F-desoxyglucose (FDG) PET/CT in patients with a suspicion of lung cancer. Methods: 120 patients with a suspicion of lung cancer were enrolled prospectively. PET images were reconstructed with the non-enhanced and venous phase contrast CT obtained after injection of iopromide 300 mg/ml or 370 mg/ml using either a fixed-dose or a body surface area adapted injection protocol. Maximum and mean standardized uptake values (SUVmax and SUVmean) and contrast enhancement (HU) were determined in the subclavian vein, ascending aorta, abdominal aorta, inferior vena cava, portal vein, liver and kidney and in the suspicious lung lesion. PET data were evaluated visually for the presence of malignancy and image quality. Results: At none of the sites a significant difference in the extent of the contrast enhancement between the four different protocols was found. However, the variability of the contrast enhancement at several anatomical sites was significantly greater in the fixed dose groups than in the BSA groups for both contrast medium concentrations. At none of the sites a significant difference was found in the extent of the SUVmax and SUVmean increase as a result of the use of the venous phase contrast enhanced CT for attenuation. Visual clinical evaluation of lesions showed no differences between contrast and non-contrast PET/CT (P = 0.32). Conclusions: Contrast enhanced CT for attenuation correction in combined PET/CT in lung cancer affects neither the clinical assessment nor image quality of the PET-images. A body surface adapted contrast medium protocol reduces the interpatient variability in contrast enhancement.

  11. Micro-radiography and micro-computerized tomography with absorption and phase contrast for materials characterization; Mikro-Radiografie und Mikro-Computertomografie mit Absorptions- und Phasenkontrast fuer die Materialcharakterisierung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kastner, Johann [FH Oberoesterreich, Wels (Austria)

    2017-08-01

    The contribution describes modern techniques in micro-radiography and micro-computerized tomography for materials characterization using absorption and phase contrast. Using micro- and nano-focus tubes and adequate high.-resolution detectors it is possible to reach resolutions significantly below 1 micron. The CT technology allows in-situ deformation testing to study the damaging mechanism of materials. The application of the Talbot-Lau interferometer with CT a differential phase contrast tomography is available. Dark-field tomography is used to study individual carbon fiber bundles in carbon fiber reinforced laminates.

  12. Ionic and non-ionic contrast media used for contrast-enhanced computed tomography in experimental pancreatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kivisaari, L.; Nuutinen, P.; Lehtola, A.; Saari, A.; Pitkaeranta, P.; Standertskjoeld-Nordenstam, C.G.; Lempinen, M.; Schroeder, T.; Helsinki Univ. Central Hospital

    1988-01-01

    Contrast enhancement of the pancreas was studied in pigs using dynamic computed tomography in experimental oedematous and haemorrhagic/necrotizing pancreatitis during the first two minutes after injection of an intravenous bolus of non-ionic contrast medium (iohexol). The prospects of separating the two forms of the disease, known to be possible with ionic contrast media, were tested with a non-ionic contrast medium. In the oedematous form, contrast enhancement after 5 hours of the disease was significantly higher than in the haemorrhagic/necrotizing form. Contrast enhancement after 30 hours of disease tended to vary with the severity of the