WorldWideScience

Sample records for phase change teplomassoobmen

  1. Phase change memory

    CERN Document Server

    Qureshi, Moinuddin K

    2011-01-01

    As conventional memory technologies such as DRAM and Flash run into scaling challenges, architects and system designers are forced to look at alternative technologies for building future computer systems. This synthesis lecture begins by listing the requirements for a next generation memory technology and briefly surveys the landscape of novel non-volatile memories. Among these, Phase Change Memory (PCM) is emerging as a leading contender, and the authors discuss the material, device, and circuit advances underlying this exciting technology. The lecture then describes architectural solutions t

  2. Phase-change materials handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, D. V.; Hoover, M. J.; Oneill, M. J.

    1972-01-01

    Handbook describes relationship between phase-change materials and more conventional thermal control techniques and discusses materials' space and terrestrial applications. Material properties of most promising phase-change materials and purposes and uses of metallic filler materials in phase-change material composites are provided.

  3. Phase change materials handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, D. V.; Hoover, M. J.; Oneill, M. J.

    1971-01-01

    This handbook is intended to provide theory and data needed by the thermal design engineer to bridge the gap between research achievements and actual flight systems, within the limits of the current state of the art of phase change materials (PCM) technology. The relationship between PCM and more conventional thermal control techniques is described and numerous space and terrestrial applications of PCM are discussed. Material properties of the most promising PCMs are provided; the purposes and use of metallic filler materials in PCM composites are presented; and material compatibility considerations relevant to PCM design are included. The engineering considerations of PCM design are described, especially those pertaining to the thermodynamic and heat transfer phenomena peculiar to PCM design. Methods of obtaining data not currently available are presented. The special problems encountered in the space environment are described. Computational tools useful to the designer are discussed. In summary, each aspect of the PCM problem important to the design engineer is covered to the extent allowed by the scope of this effort and the state of the art.

  4. Multiphase flows with phase change

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Multiphase flows with phase change are ubiquitous in many industrial sectors ranging from energy and infra-structure to specialty chemicals and pharmaceuticals. My own interest in mul- tiphase flows with phase change started more than 15 years ago when I had initiated work on riser reactor for fluid catalytic cracking and ...

  5. Nanoscale phase change memory materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Marissa A; Jeyasingh, Rakesh Gnana David; Wong, H-S Philip; Milliron, Delia J

    2012-08-07

    Phase change memory materials store information through their reversible transitions between crystalline and amorphous states. For typical metal chalcogenide compounds, their phase transition properties directly impact critical memory characteristics and the manipulation of these is a major focus in the field. Here, we discuss recent work that explores the tuning of such properties by scaling the materials to nanoscale dimensions, including fabrication and synthetic strategies used to produce nanoscale phase change memory materials. The trends that emerge are relevant to understanding how such memory technologies will function as they scale to ever smaller dimensions and also suggest new approaches to designing materials for phase change applications. Finally, the challenges and opportunities raised by integrating nanoscale phase change materials into switching devices are discussed.

  6. Nanoscale phase-change materials and devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Qinghui; Wang, Yuxi; Zhu, Jia

    2017-01-01

    Phase-change materials (PCMs) that can reversibly transit between crystalline and amorphous phases have been widely used for data-storage and other functional devices. As PCMs scale down to nanoscale, the properties and transition procedures can vary, bringing both challenges and opportunities in scalability. This article describes the physical structures, properties and applications of nanoscale phase-change materials and devices. The limitations and performance of scaling properties in phase-change materials and the recent progress and challenges in phase-change devices are presented. At the end, some emerging applications related to phase-change materials are also introduced. (topical review)

  7. Nanoscale phase-change materials and devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Qinghui; Wang, Yuxi; Zhu, Jia

    2017-06-01

    Phase-change materials (PCMs) that can reversibly transit between crystalline and amorphous phases have been widely used for data-storage and other functional devices. As PCMs scale down to nanoscale, the properties and transition procedures can vary, bringing both challenges and opportunities in scalability. This article describes the physical structures, properties and applications of nanoscale phase-change materials and devices. The limitations and performance of scaling properties in phase-change materials and the recent progress and challenges in phase-change devices are presented. At the end, some emerging applications related to phase-change materials are also introduced.

  8. Polymers in phase change materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, M.C.; Brites, M.J.; Alexandre, J.H. [National Lab. for Energy and Geology, Lisbon (Portugal)

    2010-07-01

    Phase Change Materials (PCMs) which are the core of latent heat thermal energy storage systems are currently an area of investigation of increasing interest. Several substances differing in physical and chemical characteristics as well as in thermal behavior have been studied as PCMS{sup 1-3}. In order to meet the requisites of particular systems, auxiliary materials are often used with specific functions. This bibliographic survey shows that polymeric materials have been proposed either as the PCM itself in solid-liquid or solid-solid transitions or to perform auxiliary functions of shape stabilisation and microencapsulation for solid-liquid PCMs. The PCMs have an operating temperature ranging from around 0 C (for the system water/polyacrilamid) to around 127 C (for crosslinked HDPE). (orig.)

  9. Stochastic modelling of two-phase flows including phase change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurisse, O.; Minier, J.P.

    2011-01-01

    Stochastic modelling has already been developed and applied for single-phase flows and incompressible two-phase flows. In this article, we propose an extension of this modelling approach to two-phase flows including phase change (e.g. for steam-water flows). Two aspects are emphasised: a stochastic model accounting for phase transition and a modelling constraint which arises from volume conservation. To illustrate the whole approach, some remarks are eventually proposed for two-fluid models. (authors)

  10. PCM Concrete. [Phase Change Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juul Andersen, T. [Danish Technological Institute, Taastrup (Denmark); Poulsen, H.-H. [BASF A/S, Roedekro (Denmark); Passov, F. [Spaencom A/S, Hedehusene (Denmark); Heiselberg, P. [Aalborg Univ..Aalborg (Denmark)

    2013-04-01

    PCM-Concrete was a research and development project launched in 2009 and finished in 2012. The project, which was funded by The Danish National Advanced Technology Foundation, had a total budget of 1.7 million Euros and included 4 partners: Danish Technological Institute (project manager), Aalborg University, BASF A/S and Spaencom A/S. The overall vision of the project was to reduce energy consumption for heating and cooling in buildings by developing high-performance concrete structures microencapsulated Phase Change Materials (PCM). The PCM used in the project was Micronal produced by BASF A/S. Micronal is small capsules with an acrylic shell and inside a wax with a melting point at approx. 23 deg. C equal to a comfortable indoor temperature. During the melting process thermal energy is transferred to chemical reaction (melting/solidification) depending on PCM being heated up or cooled down. Adding Micronal to concrete would theoretically increase the thermal mass of the concrete and improve the diurnal heat capacity which is the amount of energy that can be stored and released during 24 hours. Nevertheless, it is a relatively new technology that has not received much attention, yet. In the PCM-Concrete project 5 main investigations were carried out: 1) Development of concrete mix design with PCM. 2) Investigation of thermal properties of the PCM concrete: thermal conductivity, specific heat capacity, density. 3) Up-scaling the research to industrial production of PCM-concrete structures. 4) Testing energy efficiency in full scale. 5) Confronting aesthetic and acoustic barriers to full exploitation of the potential of PCM-concrete structures. The results from the test program showed: 1) That the diurnal heat storage capacity is higher for all 4 hollow core decks with tiles attached compared to the reference hollow core deck. 2) The hollow core decks with concrete tiles without PCM performs slightly better than the tiles with PCM. 3) That is was impossible to

  11. Flexible, Phase Change Fabric for Deployable Decelerators, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — SDMA proposes to develop a flexible fabric containing Phase Change Materials that is suitable for use on Deployable Decelerators. This technology will make...

  12. Blue laser phase change recording system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, Holger; Dambach, S.Soeren; Richter, Hartmut

    2002-01-01

    The migration paths from DVD phase change recording with red laser to the next generation optical disk formats with blue laser and high NA optics are discussed with respect to optical aberration margins and disc capacities. A test system for the evaluation of phase change disks with more than 20 GB capacity is presented and first results of the recording performance are shown

  13. Engineering Changes During the Service Phase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vianello, Giovanna; Ahmed, Saeema

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses upon understanding the characteristics of engineering changes, in particular changes that emerge during the service phase of complex products, and on how these changes can be related to the product development process. For this purpose, a set of engineering change reports from...... an aerospace engine has been analyzed and the findings have been compared with change documentation from drilling machinery for the oil industry. These findings give insights into which phases of the design process should be modified in order to reduce the number of change requests from the service phase...... and to enable designers to efficiently answer the unavoidable change requests. This can be used to improve the product development process in order to take into account the factors leading to changes....

  14. From phase-change materials to thermoelectrics?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Matthias N.; Rosenthal, Tobias; Oeckler, Oliver [Dept. of Chemistry, Ludwig Maximilian Univ. Munich (Germany); Stiewe, Christian [German Aerospace Center, Cologne (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Metastable tellurides play an important role as phase-change materials in data storage media and non-volatile RAM devices. The corresponding crystalline phases with very simple basic structures are not stable as bulk materials at ambient conditions, however, for a broad range of compositions they represent stable high-temperature phases. In the system Ge/Sb/Te, rocksalt-type high-temperature phases are characterized by a large number of vacancies randomly distributed over the cation position, which order as 2D vacancy layers upon cooling. Short-range order in quenched samples produces pronounced nanostructures by the formation of twin domains and finite intersecting vacancy layers. As phase-change materials are usually semimetals or small-bandgap semiconductors and efficient data storage requires low thermal conductivity, bulk materials with similar compositions and properties can be expected to exhibit promising thermoelectric characteristics. Nanostructuring by phase transitions that involve partial vacancy ordering may enhance the efficiency of such thermoelectrics. We have shown that germanium antimony tellurides with compositions close to those used as phase-change materials in rewritable Blu-Ray Discs, e.g. (GeTe){sub 12}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3}, exhibit thermoelectric figures of merit of up to ZT = 1.3 at 450 C if a nanodomain structure is induced by rapidly quenching the cubic high-temperature phase. Structural changes have been elucidated by X-ray diffraction and high-resolution electron microscopy. (orig.)

  15. Phase change materials science and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Raoux, Simone

    2009-01-01

    ""Phase Change Materials: Science and Applications"" provides a unique introduction of this rapidly developing field. This clearly written volume describes the material science of these fascinating materials from a theoretical and experimental perspective.

  16. Entransy in phase-change systems

    CERN Document Server

    Gu, Junjie

    2014-01-01

    Entransy in Phase-Change Systems summarizes recent developments in the area of entransy, especially on phase-change processes. This book covers new developments in the area including the great potential for energy saving for process industries, decreasing carbon dioxide emissions, reducing energy bills and improving overall efficiency of systems. This concise volume is an ideal book for engineers and scientists in energy-related industries.

  17. Reversible switching in phase-change materials

    OpenAIRE

    Wojciech Wełnic; Matthias Wuttig

    2008-01-01

    Phase-change materials are successfully employed in optical data storage and are becoming a promising candidate for future electronic storage applications. Despite the increasing technological interest, many fundamental properties of these materials remain poorly understood. However, in the last few years the understanding of the material properties of phase-change materials has increased significantly. At the same time, great advances have been achieved in technological applications in elect...

  18. Phase Change Materials for Thermal Energy Storage

    OpenAIRE

    Stiebra, L; Cabulis, U; Knite, M

    2014-01-01

    Phase change materials (PCMs) for thermal energy storage (TES) have become an important subject of research in recent years. Using PCMs for thermal energy storage provides a solution to increase the efficiency of the storage and use of energy in many domestic and industrial sectors. Phase change TES systems offer a number of advantages over other systems (e.g. chemical storage systems): particularly small temperature distance between the storage and retrieval cycles, small unit sizes and lo...

  19. Chalcogenides Metastability and Phase Change Phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Kolobov, Alexander V

    2012-01-01

    A state-of-the-art description of metastability observed in chalcogenide alloys is presented with the accent on the underlying physics. A comparison is made between sulphur(selenium)-based chalcogenide glasses, where numerous photo-induced phenomena take place entirely within the amorphous phase, and tellurides where a reversible crystal-to-amorphous phase-change transformation is a major effect. Applications of metastability in devices¿optical memories and nonvolatile electronic phase-change random-access memories among others are discussed, including the latest trends. Background material essential for understanding current research in the field is also provided.

  20. Thermal Energy Storage with Phase Change Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavinia Gabriela SOCACIU

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Thermal energy storage (TES systems provide several alternatives for efficient energy use and conservation. Phase change materials (PCMs for TES are materials supplying thermal regulation at particular phase change temperatures by absorbing and emitting the heat of the medium. TES in general and PCMs in particular, have been a main topic in research for the last 30 years, but although the information is quantitatively enormous, it is also spread widely in the literature, and difficult to find. PCMs absorb energy during the heating process as phase change takes place and release energy to the environment in the phase change range during a reverse cooling process. PCMs possesses the ability of latent thermal energy change their state with a certain temperature. PCMs for TES are generally solid-liquid phase change materials and therefore they need encapsulation. TES systems using PCMs as a storage medium offers advantages such as high TES capacity, small unit size and isothermal behaviour during charging and discharging when compared to the sensible TES.

  1. Similarity solutions for phase-change problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canright, D.; Davis, S. H.

    1989-01-01

    A modification of Ivantsov's (1947) similarity solutions is proposed which can describe phase-change processes which are limited by diffusion. The method has application to systems that have n-components and possess cross-diffusion and Soret and Dufour effects, along with convection driven by density discontinuities at the two-phase interface. Local thermal equilibrium is assumed at the interface. It is shown that analytic solutions are possible when the material properties are constant.

  2. Crystallization kinetics of phase change materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, Michael; Sontheimer, Tobias; Wuttig, Matthias [I. Physikalisches Institut (1A), RWTH Aachen (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    Phase change materials are fascinating materials. They can be rapidly switched between two metastable states, the amorphous and crystalline phase, which show pronounced contrast in their optical and electrical properties. They are already widely used as the active layer in rewritable optical media and are expected to be used in the upcoming phase change random access memory (PRAM). Here we show measurements of the crystallization kinetics of chalcogenide materials that lead to a deeper understanding of these processes. This work focuses mainly on the Ge-Sb-Te system but also includes Ag-In-Te materials. The crystallization behaviour of these materials was investigated with an ex-situ annealing method employing the precise oven of a differential scanning calorimeter and imaging techniques employing atomic force microscopy and optical microscopy.

  3. Simulation studies of GST phase change alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martyna, Glenn

    2008-03-01

    In order to help drive post-Moore's Law technology development, switching processes involving novel materials, in particular, GeSbTe (GST) alloys are being investigated for use in memory and eFuse applications. An anneal/quench thermal process crystallizes/amorphosizes a GST alloy which then has a low/high resistance and thereby forms a readable/writeable bit; for example, a ``one'' might be the low resistance, conducting crystalline state and a ``zero'' might be the high resistance, glassy state. There are many open questions about the precise nature of the structural transitions and the coupling to electronic structure changes. Computational and experimental studies of the effect of pressure on the GST materials were initiated in order to probe the physics behind the thermal switching process. A new pathway to reversible phase change involving pressure-induced structural metal insulator transitions was discovered. In a binary GS system, a room-temperature, direct, pressure-induced transformation from the high resistance amorphous phase to the low resistance crystalline phase was observed experimentally while the reverse process under tensile load was demonstrated via ab initio MD simulations performed on IBM's Blue Gene/L enabled by massively parallel software. Pressure induced transformations of the ternary material GST-225 (Ge2Sb2Te5) were, also, examined In the talk, the behavior of the two systems will be compared and insight into the nature of the phase change given.

  4. Quality criteria for phase change materials selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitorino, Nuno; Abrantes, João C.C.; Frade, Jorge R.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Selection criteria of phase change materials for representative applications. • Selection criteria based on reliable solutions for latent heat transfer. • Guidelines for the role of geometry and heat transfer mechanisms. • Performance maps based on PCM properties, operating conditions, size and time scales. - Abstract: Selection guidelines are primary criterion for optimization of materials for specific applications in order to meet simultaneous and often conflicting requirements. This is mostly true for technologies and products required to meet the main societal needs, such as energy. In this case, gaps between supply and demand require strategies for energy conversion and storage, including thermal storage mostly based on phase change materials. Latent heat storage is also very versatile for thermal management and thermal control by allowing high storage density within narrow temperature ranges without strict dependence between stored thermal energy and temperature. Thus, this work addressed the main issues of latent heat storage from a materials selection perspective, based on expected requirements of applications in thermal energy storage or thermal regulation. Representative solutions for the kinetics of latent heat charge/discharge were used to derive optimization guidelines for high energy density, high power, response time (from fast response to thermal inertia), etc. The corresponding property relations were presented in graphical forms for a wide variety of prospective phase change materials, and for wide ranges of operating conditions, and accounting for changes in geometry and mechanisms.

  5. Shear-induced phase changes in mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romig, K.D.; Hanley, H.J.M.

    1986-01-01

    A thermodynamic theory to account for the behavior of liquid mixtures exposed to a shear is developed. One consequence of the theory is that shear-induced phase changes are predicted. The theory is based on a thermodynamics that includes specifically the shear rate in the formalism and is applied to mixtures by a straightforward modification of the corresponding states, conformalsolution approach. The approach is general but is used here for a mixture of Lennard-Jones particles with a Lennard-Jones equation of state as a reference fluid. The results are discussed in the context of the Scott and Van Konynenberg phase classification. It is shown that the influence of a shear does affect substantially the type of the phase behavior. Results from the model mixture are equated loosely with those from real polymeric liquids

  6. Transitional Phenomena on Phase Change Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wójcik Tadeusz M.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the most significant problem with technology development is transferring of large heat fluxes, which requires constant heat transfer temperature (in the specified temperature range. This problem concern mainly the nuclear energetics, space technologies, military technologies and most of all electronics containing integrated circuits with very large scale of integrations. Intensive heat transfer and thermal energy storage are possible by the use of phase change materials (PCMs. In the paper there are presented preliminary results of research on the use of liquid-gas (L-G PCMs and solid-solid phase change materials (S-S PCMs. For L-G PCMs the boiling characteristics were determined by increasing and decreasing the heat flux, which for certain sets of structural parameters of the heating surface and the physical properties of the liquid induce a variety of forms of transitional phenomena. Thermal energy storage is much more effective when using PCMs than sensible heat.

  7. Thermodynamics phase changes of nanopore fluids

    KAUST Repository

    Islam, Akand W.; Patzek, Tadeusz; Sun, Alexander Y.

    2015-01-01

    The van der Waals (vdW) equation (Eq.) is modified to describe thermodynamic of phase behavior of fluids confined in nanopore. Our aim is to compute pressures exerted by the fluid molecules and to investigate how they change due to pore proximity by assuming the pore wall is inert. No additional scaling of model parameters is imposed and original volume and energy parameters are used in the calculations. Our results clearly show the phase changes due to confinement. The critical shifts of temperatures and pressures are in good agreement compared to the laboratory data and molecular simulation. Peng-Robinson (PR) equation-of-state (EOS) has resulted in different effect than the vdW. This work delivers insights into the nature of fluid behavior in extremely low-permeability nanoporous media, especially in the tight shale reservoirs, below the critical temperatures. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

  8. Thermodynamics phase changes of nanopore fluids

    KAUST Repository

    Islam, Akand W.

    2015-07-01

    The van der Waals (vdW) equation (Eq.) is modified to describe thermodynamic of phase behavior of fluids confined in nanopore. Our aim is to compute pressures exerted by the fluid molecules and to investigate how they change due to pore proximity by assuming the pore wall is inert. No additional scaling of model parameters is imposed and original volume and energy parameters are used in the calculations. Our results clearly show the phase changes due to confinement. The critical shifts of temperatures and pressures are in good agreement compared to the laboratory data and molecular simulation. Peng-Robinson (PR) equation-of-state (EOS) has resulted in different effect than the vdW. This work delivers insights into the nature of fluid behavior in extremely low-permeability nanoporous media, especially in the tight shale reservoirs, below the critical temperatures. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

  9. Dimension changing phase transitions in instanton crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplunovsky, Vadim; Sonnenschein, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    We investigate lattices of instantons and the dimension-changing transitions between them. Our ultimate goal is the 3D→4D transition, which is holographically dual to the phase transition between the baryonic and the quarkyonic phases of cold nuclear matter. However, in this paper (just as in http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP11(2012)047) we focus on lower dimensions — the 1D lattice of instantons in a harmonic potential V∝M 2 2 x 2 2 +M 3 2 x 2 2 +M 4 2 x 4 2 , and the zigzag-shaped lattice as a first stage of the 1D→2D transition. We prove that in the low- and moderate-density regimes, interactions between the instantons are dominated by two-body forces. This drastically simplifies finding the ground state of the instantons’ orientations, so we made a numeric scan of the whole orientation space instead of assuming any particular ansatz. We find that depending on the M 2 /M 3 /M 4 ratios, the ground state of instanton orientations can follow a wide variety of patterns. For the straight 1D lattices, we found orientations periodically running over elements of a ℤ 2 , Klein, prismatic, or dihedral subgroup of the SU(2)/ℤ 2 , as well as irrational but link-periodic patterns. For the zigzag-shaped lattices, we detected 4 distinct orientation phases — the anti-ferromagnet, another abelian phase, and two non-abelian phases. Allowing the zigzag amplitude to vary as a function of increasing compression force, we obtained the phase diagrams for the straight and zigzag-shaped lattices in the (force,M 3 /M 4 ), (chemical potential,M 3 /M 4 ), and (density,M 3 /M 4 ) planes. Some of the transitions between these phases are second-order while others are first-order. Our techniques can be applied to other types of non-abelian crystals

  10. Sprayable Phase Change Coating Thermal Protection Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Rod W.; Hayes, Paul W.; Kaul, Raj

    2005-01-01

    NASA has expressed a need for reusable, environmentally friendly, phase change coating that is capable of withstanding the heat loads that have historically required an ablative thermal insulation. The Space Shuttle Program currently relies on ablative materials for thermal protection. The problem with an ablative insulation is that, by design, the material ablates away, in fulfilling its function of cooling the underlying substrate, thus preventing the insulation from being reused from flight to flight. The present generation of environmentally friendly, sprayable, ablative thermal insulation (MCC-l); currently use on the Space Shuttle SRBs, is very close to being a reusable insulation system. In actual flight conditions, as confirmed by the post-flight inspections of the SRBs, very little of the material ablates. Multi-flight thermal insulation use has not been qualified for the Space Shuttle. The gap that would have to be overcome in order to implement a reusable Phase Change Coating (PCC) is not unmanageable. PCC could be applied robotically with a spray process utilizing phase change material as filler to yield material of even higher strength and reliability as compared to MCC-1. The PCC filled coatings have also demonstrated potential as cryogenic thermal coatings. In experimental thermal tests, a thin application of PCC has provided the same thermal protection as a much thicker and heavier application of a traditional ablative thermal insulation. In addition, tests have shown that the structural integrity of the coating has been maintained and phase change performance after several aero-thermal cycles was not affected. Experimental tests have also shown that, unlike traditional ablative thermal insulations, PCC would not require an environmental seal coat, which has historically been required to prevent moisture absorption by the thermal insulation, prevent environmental degradation, and to improve the optical and aerodynamic properties. In order to reduce

  11. interThermalPhaseChangeFoam—A framework for two-phase flow simulations with thermally driven phase change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Nabil

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The volume-of-fluid (VOF approach is a mature technique for simulating two-phase flows. However, VOF simulation of phase-change heat transfer is still in its infancy. Multiple closure formulations have been proposed in the literature, each suited to different applications. While these have enabled significant research advances, few implementations are publicly available, actively maintained, or inter-operable. Here, a VOF solver is presented (interThermalPhaseChangeFoam, which incorporates an extensible framework for phase-change heat transfer modeling, enabling simulation of diverse phenomena in a single environment. The solver employs object oriented OpenFOAM library features, including Run-Time-Type-Identification to enable rapid implementation and run-time selection of phase change and surface tension force models. The solver is packaged with multiple phase change and surface tension closure models, adapted and refined from earlier studies. This code has previously been applied to study wavy film condensation, Taylor flow evaporation, nucleate boiling, and dropwise condensation. Tutorial cases are provided for simulation of horizontal film condensation, smooth and wavy falling film condensation, nucleate boiling, and bubble condensation. Validation and grid sensitivity studies, interfacial transport models, effects of spurious currents from surface tension models, effects of artificial heat transfer due to numerical factors, and parallel scaling performance are described in detail in the Supplemental Material (see Appendix A. By incorporating the framework and demonstration cases into a single environment, users can rapidly apply the solver to study phase-change processes of interest.

  12. interThermalPhaseChangeFoam-A framework for two-phase flow simulations with thermally driven phase change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabil, Mahdi; Rattner, Alexander S.

    The volume-of-fluid (VOF) approach is a mature technique for simulating two-phase flows. However, VOF simulation of phase-change heat transfer is still in its infancy. Multiple closure formulations have been proposed in the literature, each suited to different applications. While these have enabled significant research advances, few implementations are publicly available, actively maintained, or inter-operable. Here, a VOF solver is presented (interThermalPhaseChangeFoam), which incorporates an extensible framework for phase-change heat transfer modeling, enabling simulation of diverse phenomena in a single environment. The solver employs object oriented OpenFOAM library features, including Run-Time-Type-Identification to enable rapid implementation and run-time selection of phase change and surface tension force models. The solver is packaged with multiple phase change and surface tension closure models, adapted and refined from earlier studies. This code has previously been applied to study wavy film condensation, Taylor flow evaporation, nucleate boiling, and dropwise condensation. Tutorial cases are provided for simulation of horizontal film condensation, smooth and wavy falling film condensation, nucleate boiling, and bubble condensation. Validation and grid sensitivity studies, interfacial transport models, effects of spurious currents from surface tension models, effects of artificial heat transfer due to numerical factors, and parallel scaling performance are described in detail in the Supplemental Material (see Appendix A). By incorporating the framework and demonstration cases into a single environment, users can rapidly apply the solver to study phase-change processes of interest.

  13. Electrical transport in crystalline phase change materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woda, Michael

    2012-01-01

    In this thesis, the electrical transport properties of crystalline phase change materials are discussed. Phase change materials (PCM) are a special class of semiconducting and metallic thin film alloys, typically with a high amount of the group five element antimony or the group six element tellurium, such as Ge 2 Sb 2 Te 5 . The unique property portfolio of this material class makes it suitable for memory applications. PCMs reveal fast switching between two stable room-temperature phases (amorphous and crystalline) realized by optical laser or electrical current pulses in memory devices. Additionally, a pronounced property contrast in form of optical reflectivity and electrical conductivity between the amorphous and crystalline phase is the characteristic fingerprint of PCMs. The emerging electrical solid state memory PCRAM is a very promising candidate to replace Flash memory in the near future or to even become a universal memory, which is non-volatile and shows the speed and cyclability of DRAM. One of the main technological challenges is the switching process into the amorphous state, which is the most power demanding step. In order to reduce the switching power, the crystalline resistivity needs to be increased at a given voltage. Thus understanding and tayloring of this property is mandatory. In this work, first the technological relevance, i.e. optical and electrical memory concepts based on PCMs are introduced. Subsequently a description of the physical properties of PCMs in four categories is given. Namely, structure, kinetics, optical properties and electrical properties are discussed. Then important recent developments such as the identification of resonant bonding in crystalline PCMs and a property predicting coordination scheme are briefly reviewed. The following chapter deals with the theoretical background of electrical transport, while the next chapter introduces the experimental techniques: Sputtering, XRR, XRD, DSC, thermal annealing

  14. Electrical transport in crystalline phase change materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woda, Michael

    2012-01-06

    In this thesis, the electrical transport properties of crystalline phase change materials are discussed. Phase change materials (PCM) are a special class of semiconducting and metallic thin film alloys, typically with a high amount of the group five element antimony or the group six element tellurium, such as Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5}. The unique property portfolio of this material class makes it suitable for memory applications. PCMs reveal fast switching between two stable room-temperature phases (amorphous and crystalline) realized by optical laser or electrical current pulses in memory devices. Additionally, a pronounced property contrast in form of optical reflectivity and electrical conductivity between the amorphous and crystalline phase is the characteristic fingerprint of PCMs. The emerging electrical solid state memory PCRAM is a very promising candidate to replace Flash memory in the near future or to even become a universal memory, which is non-volatile and shows the speed and cyclability of DRAM. One of the main technological challenges is the switching process into the amorphous state, which is the most power demanding step. In order to reduce the switching power, the crystalline resistivity needs to be increased at a given voltage. Thus understanding and tayloring of this property is mandatory. In this work, first the technological relevance, i.e. optical and electrical memory concepts based on PCMs are introduced. Subsequently a description of the physical properties of PCMs in four categories is given. Namely, structure, kinetics, optical properties and electrical properties are discussed. Then important recent developments such as the identification of resonant bonding in crystalline PCMs and a property predicting coordination scheme are briefly reviewed. The following chapter deals with the theoretical background of electrical transport, while the next chapter introduces the experimental techniques: Sputtering, XRR, XRD, DSC, thermal annealing

  15. PHASE CHANGE AROUND A FINNED TUBE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aytunç EREK

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the heat transfer enhancement in the thermal energy storage system by using radially finned tube. The solution of the system consists of the solving the equations of the heat transfer fluid (HTF, the pipe wall and fin, and the phase change material (PCM as one domain. The control volume finite difference approach and the semi implicit solver (SIS are used to solve the equations. Fully developed velocity distribution is taken in the HTF. Flow parameters (Re number and inlet temperature of coolant and fin parameters (the number of fins, fin length, fin thickness are found to influence solidification fronts and the total stored energy.

  16. Phase change based cooling for high burst mode heat loads with temperature regulation above the phase change temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    The United States of America as represented by the United States Department of Energy

    2009-12-15

    An apparatus and method for transferring thermal energy from a heat load is disclosed. In particular, use of a phase change material and specific flow designs enables cooling with temperature regulation well above the fusion temperature of the phase change material for medium and high heat loads from devices operated intermittently (in burst mode). Exemplary heat loads include burst mode lasers and laser diodes, flight avionics, and high power space instruments. Thermal energy is transferred from the heat load to liquid phase change material from a phase change material reservoir. The liquid phase change material is split into two flows. Thermal energy is transferred from the first flow via a phase change material heat sink. The second flow bypasses the phase change material heat sink and joins with liquid phase change material exiting from the phase change material heat sink. The combined liquid phase change material is returned to the liquid phase change material reservoir. The ratio of bypass flow to flow into the phase change material heat sink can be varied to adjust the temperature of the liquid phase change material returned to the liquid phase change material reservoir. Varying the flowrate and temperature of the liquid phase change material presented to the heat load determines the magnitude of thermal energy transferred from the heat load.

  17. Passive thermal management using phase change materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganatra, Yash Yogesh

    The trend of enhanced functionality and reducing thickness of mobile devices has. led to a rapid increase in power density and a potential thermal bottleneck since. thermal limits of components remain unchanged. Active cooling mechanisms are not. feasible due to size, weight and cost constraints. This work explores the feasibility. of a passive cooling system based on Phase Change Materials (PCMs) for thermal. management of mobile devices. PCMs stabilize temperatures due to the latent heat. of phase change thus increasing the operating time of the device before threshold. temperatures are exceeded. The primary contribution of this work is the identification. of key parameters which influence the design of a PCM based thermal management. system from both the experiments and the numerical models. This work first identifies strategies for integrating PCMs in an electronic device. A. detailed review of past research, including experimental techniques and computational. models, yields key material properties and metrics to evaluate the performance of. PCMs. Subsequently, a miniaturized version of a conventional thermal conductivity. measurement technique is developed to characterize thermal resistance of PCMs. Further, latent heat and transition temperatures are also characterized for a wide. range of PCMs. In-situ measurements with PCMs placed on the processor indicate that some. PCMs can extend the operating time of the device by as much as a factor of 2.48. relative to baseline tests (with no PCMs). This increase in operating time is investigated. by computational thermal models that explore various integration locations, both at the package and device level.

  18. Material Engineering for Phase Change Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, David M.

    As semiconductor devices continue to scale downward, and portable consumer electronics become more prevalent there is a need to develop memory technology that will scale with devices and use less energy, while maintaining performance. One of the leading prototypical memories that is being investigated is phase change memory. Phase change memory (PCM) is a non-volatile memory composed of 1 transistor and 1 resistor. The resistive structure includes a memory material alloy which can change between amorphous and crystalline states repeatedly using current/voltage pulses of different lengths and magnitudes. The most widely studied PCM materials are chalcogenides - Germanium-Antimony-Tellerium (GST) with Ge2Sb2Te3 and Germanium-Tellerium (GeTe) being some of the most popular stochiometries. As these cells are scaled downward, the current/voltage needed to switch these materials becomes comparable to the voltage needed to sense the cell's state. The International Roadmap for Semiconductors aims to raise the threshold field of these devices from 66.6 V/mum to be at least 375 V/mum for the year 2024. These cells are also prone to resistance drift between states, leading to bit corruption and memory loss. Phase change material properties are known to influence PCM device performance such as crystallization temperature having an effect on data retention and litetime, while resistivity values in the amorphous and crystalline phases have an effect on the current/voltage needed to write/erase the cell. Addition of dopants is also known to modify the phase change material parameters. The materials G2S2T5, GeTe, with dopants - nitrogen, silicon, titanium, and aluminum oxide and undoped Gallium-Antimonide (GaSb) are studied for these desired characteristics. Thin films of these compositions are deposited via physical vapor deposition at IBM Watson Research Center. Crystallization temperatures are investigated using time resolved x-ray diffraction at Brookhaven National Laboratory

  19. Dry powder mixes comprising phase change materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salyer, Ival O.

    1992-01-01

    Free flowing, conformable powder-like mix of silica particles and a phase change material (p.c.m.) is disclosed. The silica particles have a critical size of about 7.times.10.sup.-3 to about 7.times.10.sup.-2 microns and the pcm must be added to the silica in an amount of 80 wt. % or less pcm per combined weight of silica and pcm. The powder-like mix can be used in tableware items, medical wraps, tree wraps, garments, quilts and blankets, and in cementitious compositions of the type in which it is beneficial to use a pcm material. The silica-pcm mix can also be admixed with soil to provide a soil warming effect and placed about a tree, flower, or shrub.

  20. Dry powder mixes comprising phase change materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salyer, I.O.

    1994-02-01

    Free flowing, conformable powder-like mix of silica particles and a phase change material (PCM) is provided. The silica particles have a critical size of about 0.005 to about 0.025 microns and the PCM must be added to the silica in an amount of 75% or less PCM per combined weight of silica and PCM. The powder-like mix can be used in tableware items, medical wraps, tree wraps, garments, quilts and blankets, and in cementitious compositions of the type in which it is beneficial to use a PCM material. The silica-PCM mix can also be admixed with soil to provide a soil warming effect and placed about a tree, flower, or shrub. 2 figures.

  1. Projected phase-change memory devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koelmans, Wabe W; Sebastian, Abu; Jonnalagadda, Vara Prasad; Krebs, Daniel; Dellmann, Laurent; Eleftheriou, Evangelos

    2015-09-03

    Nanoscale memory devices, whose resistance depends on the history of the electric signals applied, could become critical building blocks in new computing paradigms, such as brain-inspired computing and memcomputing. However, there are key challenges to overcome, such as the high programming power required, noise and resistance drift. Here, to address these, we present the concept of a projected memory device, whose distinguishing feature is that the physical mechanism of resistance storage is decoupled from the information-retrieval process. We designed and fabricated projected memory devices based on the phase-change storage mechanism and convincingly demonstrate the concept through detailed experimentation, supported by extensive modelling and finite-element simulations. The projected memory devices exhibit remarkably low drift and excellent noise performance. We also demonstrate active control and customization of the programming characteristics of the device that reliably realize a multitude of resistance states.

  2. Phase change material thermal capacitor clothing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Theresa M. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    An apparatus and method for metabolic cooling and insulation of a user in a cold environment. In its preferred embodiment the apparatus is a highly flexible composite material having a flexible matrix containing a phase change thermal storage material. The apparatus can be made to heat or cool the body or to act as a thermal buffer to protect the wearer from changing environmental conditions. The apparatus may also include an external thermal insulation layer and/or an internal thermal control layer to regulate the rate of heat exchange between the composite and the skin of the wearer. Other embodiments of the apparatus also provide 1) a path for evaporation or direct absorption of perspiration from the skin of the wearer for improved comfort and thermal control, 2) heat conductive pathways within the material for thermal equalization, 3) surface treatments for improved absorption or rejection of heat by the material, and 4) means for quickly regenerating the thermal storage capacity for reuse of the material. Applications of the composite materials are also described which take advantage of the composite's thermal characteristics. The examples described include a diver's wet suit, ski boot liners, thermal socks, gloves and a face mask for cold weather activities, and a metabolic heating or cooling blanket useful for treating hypothermia or fever patients in a medical setting and therapeutic heating or cooling orthopedic joint supports.

  3. A self-resetting spiking phase-change neuron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobley, R. A.; Hayat, H.; Wright, C. D.

    2018-05-01

    Neuromorphic, or brain-inspired, computing applications of phase-change devices have to date concentrated primarily on the implementation of phase-change synapses. However, the so-called accumulation mode of operation inherent in phase-change materials and devices can also be used to mimic the integrative properties of a biological neuron. Here we demonstrate, using physical modelling of nanoscale devices and SPICE modelling of associated circuits, that a single phase-change memory cell integrated into a comparator type circuit can deliver a basic hardware mimic of an integrate-and-fire spiking neuron with self-resetting capabilities. Such phase-change neurons, in combination with phase-change synapses, can potentially open a new route for the realisation of all-phase-change neuromorphic computing.

  4. A self-resetting spiking phase-change neuron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobley, R A; Hayat, H; Wright, C D

    2018-05-11

    Neuromorphic, or brain-inspired, computing applications of phase-change devices have to date concentrated primarily on the implementation of phase-change synapses. However, the so-called accumulation mode of operation inherent in phase-change materials and devices can also be used to mimic the integrative properties of a biological neuron. Here we demonstrate, using physical modelling of nanoscale devices and SPICE modelling of associated circuits, that a single phase-change memory cell integrated into a comparator type circuit can deliver a basic hardware mimic of an integrate-and-fire spiking neuron with self-resetting capabilities. Such phase-change neurons, in combination with phase-change synapses, can potentially open a new route for the realisation of all-phase-change neuromorphic computing.

  5. Phase Change Material Heat Exchanger Life Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillibridge, Sean; Stephan, Ryan

    2009-01-01

    Low Lunar Orbit (LLO) poses unique thermal challenges for the orbiting space craft, particularly regarding the performance of the radiators. The IR environment of the space craft varies drastically from the light side to the dark side of the moon. The result is a situation where a radiator sized for the maximal heat load in the most adverse situation is subject to freezing on the dark side of the orbit. One solution to this problem is to implement Phase Change Material (PCM) Heat Exchangers. PCM Heat Exchangers act as a "thermal capacitor," storing thermal energy when there is too much being produced by the space craft to reject to space, and then feeding that energy back into the thermal loop when conditions are more favorable. Because they do not use an expendable resource, such as the feed water used by sublimators and evaporators, PCM Heat Exchangers are ideal for long duration LLO missions. In order to validate the performance of PCM Heat Exchangers, a life test is being conducted on four n-Pentadecane, carbon filament heat exchangers. Fluid loop performance, repeatability, and measurement of performance degradation over 2500 melt-freeze cycles will be performed.

  6. Reconfigurable Braille display with phase change locking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soule, Cody W.; Lazarus, Nathan

    2016-07-01

    Automatically updated signs and displays for sighted people are common in today’s world. However, there is no cheap, low power equivalent available for the blind. This work demonstrates a reconfigurable Braille cell using the solid-to-liquid phase change of a low melting point alloy as a zero holding power locking mechanism. The device is actuated with the alloy in the liquid state, and is then allowed to solidify to lock the Braille dot in the actuated position. A low-cost manufacturing process is developed that includes molding of a rigid silicone to create pneumatic channels, and bonding of a thin membrane of a softer silicone on the surface for actuation. A plug of Field’s metal (melting point 62 °C) is placed in the pneumatic channels below each Braille dot to create the final device. The device is well suited for low duty cycle operation in applications such as signs, and is able to maintain its state indefinitely without additional power input. The display requires a pneumatic pressure of only 24 kPa for actuation, and reconfiguration has been demonstrated in less than a minute and a half.

  7. A Survey of Phase Change Memory Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏飞; 蒋德钧; 熊劲; 孙凝晖

    2015-01-01

    As the scaling of applications increases, the demand of main memory capacity increases in order to serve large working set. It is difficult for DRAM (dynamic random access memory) based memory system to satisfy the memory capacity requirement due to its limited scalability and high energy consumption. Compared to DRAM, PCM (phase change memory) has better scalability, lower energy leakage, and non-volatility. PCM memory systems have become a hot topic of academic and industrial research. However, PCM technology has the following three drawbacks: long write latency, limited write endurance, and high write energy, which raises challenges to its adoption in practice. This paper surveys architectural research work to optimize PCM memory systems. First, this paper introduces the background of PCM. Then, it surveys research efforts on PCM memory systems in performance optimization, lifetime improving, and energy saving in detail, respectively. This paper also compares and summarizes these techniques from multiple dimensions. Finally, it concludes these optimization techniques and discusses possible research directions of PCM memory systems in future.

  8. Fabrication of Phase-Change Polymer Colloidal Photonic Crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianyi Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the preparation of phase-change polymer colloidal photonic crystals (PCs by assembling hollow latex spheres encapsulated with dodecanol for the first time. The monodispersed hollow latex spheres were obtained by phase reversion of monodispersed core-shell latex spheres in the n-hexane, which dissolves the PS core and retains the PMMA/PAA shell. The as-prepared phase-change colloidal PCs show stable phase-change behavior. This fabrication of phase-change colloidal PCs would be significant for PC’s applications in functional coatings and various optic devices.

  9. Application of phase-change materials in memory taxonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Tu, Liang; Wen, Jing

    2017-01-01

    Phase-change materials are suitable for data storage because they exhibit reversible transitions between crystalline and amorphous states that have distinguishable electrical and optical properties. Consequently, these materials find applications in diverse memory devices ranging from conventional optical discs to emerging nanophotonic devices. Current research efforts are mostly devoted to phase-change random access memory, whereas the applications of phase-change materials in other types of memory devices are rarely reported. Here we review the physical principles of phase-change materials and devices aiming to help researchers understand the concept of phase-change memory. We classify phase-change memory devices into phase-change optical disc, phase-change scanning probe memory, phase-change random access memory, and phase-change nanophotonic device, according to their locations in memory hierarchy. For each device type we discuss the physical principles in conjunction with merits and weakness for data storage applications. We also outline state-of-the-art technologies and future prospects.

  10. Application of phase-change materials in memory taxonomy

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Lei; Tu, Liang; Wen, Jing

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Phase-change materials are suitable for data storage because they exhibit reversible transitions between crystalline and amorphous states that have distinguishable electrical and optical properties. Consequently, these materials find applications in diverse memory devices ranging from conventional optical discs to emerging nanophotonic devices. Current research efforts are mostly devoted to phase-change random access memory, whereas the applications of phase-change materials in other...

  11. Anomalous phase change characteristics in Fe-Te materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, X. T.; Song, W. D.; Ji, R.; Ho, H. W.; Wang, L.; Hong, M. H.

    2012-01-01

    Phase change materials have become significantly attractive due to its unique characteristics for its extensive applications. In this paper, a kind of phase change material, which consists of Fe and Te components, is developed. The crystallization temperature of the Fe-Te materials is 180 deg. C for Fe 1.19 Te and can be adjusted by the Fe/Te ratio. High-speed phase change in the Fe-Te materials has been demonstrated by nanosecond laser irradiation. Comparing to conventional phase change materials, the Fe-Te materials exhibit an anomalous optical property that has higher reflectivity at amorphous than crystalline state, which is useful for data storage design.

  12. Crystal growth within a phase change memory cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastian, Abu; Le Gallo, Manuel; Krebs, Daniel

    2014-07-07

    In spite of the prominent role played by phase change materials in information technology, a detailed understanding of the central property of such materials, namely the phase change mechanism, is still lacking mostly because of difficulties associated with experimental measurements. Here, we measure the crystal growth velocity of a phase change material at both the nanometre length and the nanosecond timescale using phase-change memory cells. The material is studied in the technologically relevant melt-quenched phase and directly in the environment in which the phase change material is going to be used in the application. We present a consistent description of the temperature dependence of the crystal growth velocity in the glass and the super-cooled liquid up to the melting temperature.

  13. Phase characteristics of rheograms. Original classification of phase-related changes of rheos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail Y. Rudenko

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The phase characteristics of a rheogram are described in literature in general only. The existing theory of impedance rheography is based on an analysis of the form of rheogram envelopes, but not on the phase-related processes and their interpretation according to the applicable laws of physics. The aim of the present paper is to describe the phase-related characteristics of a rheogram of the ascending aorta. The method of the heart cycle phase analysis has been used for this purpose. By synchronizing an ECG of the aorta and a rheogram, an analysis of specific changes in the aorta blood filling in each phase is provided. As a result, the phase changes of a rheogram associated with the ECG phase structure are described and tabulated for first time. The author hereof offers his own original classification of the phase-related changes of rheograms.

  14. Phase change materials in non-volatile storage

    OpenAIRE

    Ielmini, Daniele; Lacaita, Andrea L.

    2011-01-01

    After revolutionizing the technology of optical data storage, phase change materials are being adopted in non-volatile semiconductor memories. Their success in electronic storage is mostly due to the unique properties of the amorphous state where carrier transport phenomena and thermally-induced phase change cooperate to enable high-speed, low-voltage operation and stable data retention possible within the same material. This paper reviews the key physical properties that make this phase so s...

  15. Phase-change radiative thermal diode

    OpenAIRE

    Ben-Abdallah, Philippe; Biehs, Svend-Age

    2013-01-01

    A thermal diode transports heat mainly in one preferential direction rather than in the opposite direction. This behavior is generally due to the non-linear dependence of certain physical properties with respect to the temperature. Here we introduce a radiative thermal diode which rectifies heat transport thanks to the phase transitions of materials. Rectification coefficients greater than 70% and up to 90% are shown, even for small temperature differences. This result could have important ap...

  16. Heat storage system utilizing phase change materials government rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salyer, Ival O.

    2000-09-12

    A thermal energy transport and storage system is provided which includes an evaporator containing a mixture of a first phase change material and a silica powder, and a condenser containing a second phase change material. The silica powder/PCM mixture absorbs heat energy from a source such as a solar collector such that the phase change material forms a vapor which is transported from the evaporator to the condenser, where the second phase change material melts and stores the heat energy, then releases the energy to an environmental space via a heat exchanger. The vapor is condensed to a liquid which is transported back to the evaporator. The system allows the repeated transfer of thermal energy using the heat of vaporization and condensation of the phase change material.

  17. Polarization selective phase-change nanomodulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appavoo, Kannatassen; Haglund, Richard F

    2014-10-27

    Manipulating optical signals below the diffraction limit is crucial for next-generation data-storage and telecommunication technologies. Although controlling the flow of light around nanoscale waveguides was achieved over a decade ago, modulating optical signals at terahertz frequencies within nanoscale volumes remains a challenge. Since the physics underlying any modulator relies on changes in dielectric properties, the incorporation of strongly electron-correlated materials (SECMs) has been proposed because they can exhibit orders of magnitude changes in electrical and optical properties with modest thermal, electrical or optical trigger signals. Here we demonstrate a hybrid nanomodulator of deep sub-wavelength dimensions with an active volume of only 0.002 µm(3) by spatially confining light on the nanometre length scale using a plasmonic nanostructure while simultaneously controlling the reactive near-field environment at its optical focus with a single, precisely positioned SECM nanostructure. Since the nanomodulator functionality hinges on this near-field electromagnetic interaction, the modulation is also selectively responsive to polarization. This architecture suggests one path for designing reconfigurable optoelectronic building blocks with responses that can be tailored with exquisite precision by varying size, geometry, and the intrinsic materials properties of the hybrid elements.

  18. Design and Construction of an Automatic Three-Phase Change ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The device can also amplify input voltage as low as 50V a.c to a constant 220V a.c. Furthermore, if no power is sensed, from the three live phases, that is if all the phases are in OFF STATE, the device auto-connect to a power generating plant. Keywords: Power Supply; stabilizer; phase Change-over Switch ...

  19. Phase Change Material Thermal Power Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jack A. (Inventor); Chao, Yi (Inventor); Valdez, Thomas I. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    An energy producing device, for example a submersible vehicle for descending or ascending to different depths within water or ocean, is disclosed. The vehicle comprises a temperature-responsive material to which a hydraulic fluid is associated. A pressurized storage compartment stores the fluid as soon as the temperature-responsive material changes density. The storage compartment is connected with a hydraulic motor, and a valve allows fluid passage from the storage compartment to the hydraulic motor. An energy storage component, e.g. a battery, is connected with the hydraulic motor and is charged by the hydraulic motor when the hydraulic fluid passes through the hydraulic motor. Upon passage in the hydraulic motor, the fluid is stored in a further storage compartment and is then sent back to the area of the temperature-responsive material.

  20. Phase Change Permeation Technology for Environmental Control & Life Support Systems

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA is evaluating Dutyion™, a phase change permeation membrane technology developed by Design Technology and Irrigation (DTI), for use in future advanced life...

  1. Aging mechanisms in amorphous phase-change materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raty, Jean Yves; Zhang, Wei; Luckas, Jennifer; Chen, Chao; Mazzarello, Riccardo; Bichara, Christophe; Wuttig, Matthias

    2015-06-24

    Aging is a ubiquitous phenomenon in glasses. In the case of phase-change materials, it leads to a drift in the electrical resistance, which hinders the development of ultrahigh density storage devices. Here we elucidate the aging process in amorphous GeTe, a prototypical phase-change material, by advanced numerical simulations, photothermal deflection spectroscopy and impedance spectroscopy experiments. We show that aging is accompanied by a progressive change of the local chemical order towards the crystalline one. Yet, the glass evolves towards a covalent amorphous network with increasing Peierls distortion, whose structural and electronic properties drift away from those of the resonantly bonded crystal. This behaviour sets phase-change materials apart from conventional glass-forming systems, which display the same local structure and bonding in both phases.

  2. Freezing Point Depressions of Phase Change CO2 Solvents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arshad, Muhammad Waseem; Fosbøl, Philip Loldrup; von Solms, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    Freezing point depressions (FPD) in phase change solvents containing 2-(diethylamino)ethanol (DEEA) and 3-(methylamino)propylamine (MAPA) were measured using a modified Beckmann apparatus. The measurements were performed for the binary aqueous DEEA and MAPA solutions, respectively...

  3. Organic Phase Change Materials And Their Textile Applications: An Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Sarıer, Nihal; Önder, Emel

    2012-01-01

    An organic phase change material (PCM) possesses the ability to absorb and release large quantity of latent heat during a phase change process over a certain temperature range. The use of PCMs in energy storage and thermal insulation has been tested scientifically and industrially in many applications. The broad based research and development studies concentrating on the characteristics of known organic PCMs and new materials as PCM candidates, the storage methods of PCMs, as well as the reso...

  4. Phase change materials in energy sector - applications and material requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuta, Marta; Wójcik, Tadeusz M.

    2015-05-01

    Phase change materials (PCMs) have been applying in many areas. One of them is energy field. PCMs are interesting for the energy sector because their use enables thermal stabilization and storage of large amount of heat. It is major issue for safety of electronic devices, thermal control of buildings and vehicles, solar power and many others energy domains. This paper contains preliminary results of research on solid-solid phase change materials designed for thermal stabilisation of electronic devices.

  5. Recent Advances on Neuromorphic Systems Using Phase-Change Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Lu, Shu-Ren; Wen, Jing

    2017-05-01

    Realization of brain-like computer has always been human's ultimate dream. Today, the possibility of having this dream come true has been significantly boosted due to the advent of several emerging non-volatile memory devices. Within these innovative technologies, phase-change memory device has been commonly regarded as the most promising candidate to imitate the biological brain, owing to its excellent scalability, fast switching speed, and low energy consumption. In this context, a detailed review concerning the physical principles of the neuromorphic circuit using phase-change materials as well as a comprehensive introduction of the currently available phase-change neuromorphic prototypes becomes imperative for scientists to continuously progress the technology of artificial neural networks. In this paper, we first present the biological mechanism of human brain, followed by a brief discussion about physical properties of phase-change materials that recently receive a widespread application on non-volatile memory field. We then survey recent research on different types of neuromorphic circuits using phase-change materials in terms of their respective geometrical architecture and physical schemes to reproduce the biological events of human brain, in particular for spike-time-dependent plasticity. The relevant virtues and limitations of these devices are also evaluated. Finally, the future prospect of the neuromorphic circuit based on phase-change technologies is envisioned.

  6. Recent Advances on Neuromorphic Systems Using Phase-Change Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Lu, Shu-Ren; Wen, Jing

    2017-12-01

    Realization of brain-like computer has always been human's ultimate dream. Today, the possibility of having this dream come true has been significantly boosted due to the advent of several emerging non-volatile memory devices. Within these innovative technologies, phase-change memory device has been commonly regarded as the most promising candidate to imitate the biological brain, owing to its excellent scalability, fast switching speed, and low energy consumption. In this context, a detailed review concerning the physical principles of the neuromorphic circuit using phase-change materials as well as a comprehensive introduction of the currently available phase-change neuromorphic prototypes becomes imperative for scientists to continuously progress the technology of artificial neural networks. In this paper, we first present the biological mechanism of human brain, followed by a brief discussion about physical properties of phase-change materials that recently receive a widespread application on non-volatile memory field. We then survey recent research on different types of neuromorphic circuits using phase-change materials in terms of their respective geometrical architecture and physical schemes to reproduce the biological events of human brain, in particular for spike-time-dependent plasticity. The relevant virtues and limitations of these devices are also evaluated. Finally, the future prospect of the neuromorphic circuit based on phase-change technologies is envisioned.

  7. Phase changes in superaustenitic steels after long-term annealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svoboda, M.; Kroupa, A. [Inst. of Physics of Materials, Academy of Sciences of Czech Republic, Brno (Czech Republic); Sopousek, J.; Vrest' al, J. [Inst. of Theoretical and Physical Chemistry, Masaryk Univ., Brno (Czech Republic); Miodownik, P. [Thermotech Ltd, The Surrey Research Park, Guildford (United Kingdom)

    2004-11-01

    A structural study was performed on the austenitic steels Avesta 254 SMO and Avesta 654 SMO after annealing at 700 C for 500, 3188, and 6170 h. Both Avesta steels initially show an unexpectedly large amount of the Laves phase, followed by a relatively slow development of the Sigma phase with equilibrium apparently not yet reached after 3188 h. Thermodynamic calculations confirm that the driving forces for alternative precipitates are very similar thus making it easy to form metastable precipitates that only change very slowly to the equilibrium state. TTT calculations also confirm that the Laves phase precipitates earlier than the Sigma phase as the temperature is lowered. (orig.)

  8. Modeling and impacts of the latent heat of phase change and specific heat for phase change materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scoggin, J.; Khan, R. S.; Silva, H.; Gokirmak, A.

    2018-05-01

    We model the latent heats of crystallization and fusion in phase change materials with a unified latent heat of phase change, ensuring energy conservation by coupling the heat of phase change with amorphous and crystalline specific heats. We demonstrate the model with 2-D finite element simulations of Ge2Sb2Te5 and find that the heat of phase change increases local temperature up to 180 K in 300 nm × 300 nm structures during crystallization, significantly impacting grain distributions. We also show in electrothermal simulations of 45 nm confined and 10 nm mushroom cells that the higher amorphous specific heat predicted by this model increases nucleation probability at the end of reset operations. These nuclei can decrease set time, leading to variability, as demonstrated for the mushroom cell.

  9. A phase change processor method for solving a one-dimensional phase change problem with convection boundary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halawa, E.; Saman, W.; Bruno, F. [Institute for Sustainable Systems and Technologies, School of Advanced Manufacturing and Mechanical Engineering, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes SA 5095 (Australia)

    2010-08-15

    A simple yet accurate iterative method for solving a one-dimensional phase change problem with convection boundary is described. The one-dimensional model takes into account the variation in the wall temperature along the direction of the flow as well as the sensible heat during preheating/pre-cooling of the phase change material (PCM). The mathematical derivation of convective boundary conditions has been integrated into a phase change processor (PCP) algorithm that solves the liquid fraction and temperature of the nodes. The algorithm is based on the heat balance at each node as it undergoes heating or cooling which inevitably involves phase change. The paper presents the model and its experimental validation. (author)

  10. Structural Changes of PVDF Membranes by Phase Separation Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Semin; Kim, Sung Soo

    2016-01-01

    Thermally induced phase separation (TIPS) and nonsolvent induced phase separation (NIPS) were simultaneously induced for the preparation of flat PVDF membranes. N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) was used as a solvent and dibutyl-phthlate (DBP) was used as a diluent for PVDF. When PVDF was melt blended with NMP and DBP, crystallization temperature was lowered for TIPS and unstable region was expanded for NIPS. Ratio of solvent to diluent changed the phase separation mechanism to obtain the various membrane structures. Contact mode of dope solution with nonsolvent determined the dominant phase separation behavior. Since heat transfer rate was greater than mass transfer rate, surface structure was formed by NIPS and inner structure was by TIPS. Quenching temperature of dope solution also affected the phase separation mechanism and phase separation rate to result in the variation of structure

  11. Phase change materials and the perception of wetness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergmann Tiest, W.M.; Kosters, N.D.; Kappers, A.M.L.; Daanen, H.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    Phase change materials (PCMs) are increasingly incorporated in textiles in order to serve as a thermal buffer when humans change from a hot to a cold environment and the reverse. Due to the absence of wetness sensors in the skin, cooling of the skin may be perceived as a sensation of wetness instead

  12. Phase Change Materials and the perception of wetness.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergmann Tiest, W.M.; Kappers, A.M.L.; Daanen, H.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    Phase change materials (PCMs) are increasingly incorporated in textiles in order to serve as a thermal buffer when humans change from a hot to a cold environment and the reverse. Due to the absence of wetness sensors in the skin, cooling of the skin may be perceived as a sensation of wetness instead

  13. An Energy Based Numerical Approach to Phase Change Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauggaard-Nielsen, Anders Boe; Damkilde, Lars; Krenk, Steen

    1996-01-01

    Phase change problems, occurring e.g. in melting, casting and freezing processes, are often characterized by a very narrow transition zone with very lareg changes in heat capacity and conductivity. This leads to problems in numerical procedures, where the transition zone propagates through a mesh...

  14. miRNA control of vegetative phase change in trees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Wei Wang

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available After germination, plants enter juvenile vegetative phase and then transition to an adult vegetative phase before producing reproductive structures. The character and timing of the juvenile-to-adult transition vary widely between species. In annual plants, this transition occurs soon after germination and usually involves relatively minor morphological changes, whereas in trees and other perennial woody plants it occurs after months or years and can involve major changes in shoot architecture. Whether this transition is controlled by the same mechanism in annual and perennial plants is unknown. In the annual forb Arabidopsis thaliana and in maize (Zea mays, vegetative phase change is controlled by the sequential activity of microRNAs miR156 and miR172. miR156 is highly abundant in seedlings and decreases during the juvenile-to-adult transition, while miR172 has an opposite expression pattern. We observed similar changes in the expression of these genes in woody species with highly differentiated, well-characterized juvenile and adult phases (Acacia confusa, Acacia colei, Eucalyptus globulus, Hedera helix, Quercus acutissima, as well as in the tree Populus x canadensis, where vegetative phase change is marked by relatively minor changes in leaf morphology and internode length. Overexpression of miR156 in transgenic P. x canadensis reduced the expression of miR156-targeted SPL genes and miR172, and it drastically prolonged the juvenile phase. Our results indicate that miR156 is an evolutionarily conserved regulator of vegetative phase change in both annual herbaceous plants and perennial trees.

  15. Effects of phase change on reflection in phase-measuring interference microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Dubois , Arnaud

    2004-01-01

    International audience; We show by analytical and numerical calculations that the phase change on reflection that occurs in interference microscopy is almost independent of the numerical aperture of the objective. The shift of the microscope interferogram response due to the phase change on reflection, however, increases with the numerical aperture. Measurements of the interferogram shift are made with a Linnik interference microscope equipped with various numerical-aperture objectives and ar...

  16. Understanding Phase-Change Memory Alloys from a Chemical Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolobov, A. V.; Fons, P.; Tominaga, J.

    2015-09-01

    Phase-change memories (PCM) are associated with reversible ultra-fast low-energy crystal-to-amorphous switching in GeTe-based alloys co-existing with the high stability of the two phases at ambient temperature, a unique property that has been recently explained by the high fragility of the glass-forming liquid phase, where the activation barrier for crystallisation drastically increases as the temperature decreases from the glass-transition to room temperature. At the same time the atomistic dynamics of the phase-change process and the associated changes in the nature of bonding have remained unknown. In this work we demonstrate that key to this behavior is the formation of transient three-center bonds in the excited state that is enabled due to the presence of lone-pair electrons. Our findings additionally reveal previously ignored fundamental similarities between the mechanisms of reversible photoinduced structural changes in chalcogenide glasses and phase-change alloys and offer new insights into the development of efficient PCM materials.

  17. A review on phase change energy storage: materials and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farid, Mohammed M.; Khudhair, Amar M.; Razack, Siddique Ali K.; Al-Hallaj, Said

    2004-01-01

    Latent heat storage is one of the most efficient ways of storing thermal energy. Unlike the sensible heat storage method, the latent heat storage method provides much higher storage density, with a smaller temperature difference between storing and releasing heat. This paper reviews previous work on latent heat storage and provides an insight to recent efforts to develop new classes of phase change materials (PCMs) for use in energy storage. Three aspects have been the focus of this review: PCM materials, encapsulation and applications. There are large numbers of phase change materials that melt and solidify at a wide range of temperatures, making them attractive in a number of applications. Paraffin waxes are cheap and have moderate thermal energy storage density but low thermal conductivity and, hence, require large surface area. Hydrated salts have larger energy storage density and higher thermal conductivity but experience supercooling and phase segregation, and hence, their application requires the use of some nucleating and thickening agents. The main advantages of PCM encapsulation are providing large heat transfer area, reduction of the PCMs reactivity towards the outside environment and controlling the changes in volume of the storage materials as phase change occurs. The different applications in which the phase change method of heat storage can be applied are also reviewed in this paper. The problems associated with the application of PCMs with regards to the material and the methods used to contain them are also discussed

  18. State of the art on phase change material slurries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youssef, Ziad; Delahaye, Anthony; Huang Li; Trinquet, François; Fournaison, Laurence; Pollerberg, Clemens; Doetsch, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► A bibliographic study on PCM slurries. ► Clathrate Hydrate slurry, Microencapsulated PCM Slurry, shape-stabilized PCM slurries and Phase Change Material Emulsions. ► Formation, thermo-physical, rheological, heat transfers properties and applications of these four PCS systems. ► The use of thermal energy storage and distribution based on PCM slurries can improve the refrigerating machine performances. - Abstract: The interest in using phase change slurry (PCS) media as thermal storage and heat transfer fluids is increasing and thus leading to an enhancement in the number of articles on the subject. In air-conditioning and refrigeration applications, PCS systems represent a pure benefit resulting in the increase of thermal energy storage capacity, high heat transfer characteristics and positive phase change temperatures which can occur under low pressures. Hence, they allow the increase of energy efficiency and reduce the quantity of thermal fluids. This review describes the formation, thermo-physical, rheological, heat transfer properties and applications of four PCS systems: Clathrate hydrate slurry (CHS), Microencapsulated Phase Change Materials Slurry (MPCMS), shape-stabilized PCM slurries (SPCMSs) and Phase Change Material Emulsions (PCMEs). It regroups a bibliographic summary of important information that can be very helpful when such systems are used. It also gives interesting and valuable insights on the choice of the most suitable PCS media for laboratory and industrial applications.

  19. Parameterization of phase change of water in a mesoscale model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levkov, L; Eppel, D; Grassl, H

    1987-01-01

    A parameterization scheme of phase change of water is suggested to be used in the 3-D numerical nonhydrostatic model GESIMA. The microphysical formulation follows the so-called bulk technique. With this procedure the net production rates in the balance equations for water and potential temperature are given both for liquid and ice-phase. Convectively stable as well as convectively unstable mesoscale systems are considered. With 2 figs..

  20. Uncertainty in project phases: A framework for organisational change management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreye, Melanie; Balangalibun, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    in the early stage of the change project but was delayed until later phases. Furthermore, the sources of uncertainty were found to be predominantly within the organisation that initiated the change project and connected to the project scope. Based on these findings, propositions for future research are defined......Uncertainty is an integral challenge when managing organisational change projects (OCPs). Current literature highlights the importance of uncertainty; however, falls short of giving insights into the nature of uncertainty and suggestions for managing it. Specifically, no insights exist on how...... uncertainty develops over the different phases of OCPs. This paper presents case-based evidence on different sources of uncertainty in OCPs and how these develop over the different project phases. The results showed some surprising findings as the majority of the uncertainty did not manifest itself...

  1. Non-linear elastic thermal stress analysis with phase changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amada, S.; Yang, W.H.

    1978-01-01

    The non-linear elastic, thermal stress analysis with temperature induced phase changes in the materials is presented. An infinite plate (or body) with a circular hole (or tunnel) is subjected to a thermal loading on its inner surface. The peak temperature around the hole reaches beyond the melting point of the material. The non-linear diffusion equation is solved numerically using the finite difference method. The material properties change rapidly at temperatures where the change of crystal structures and solid-liquid transition occur. The elastic stresses induced by the transient non-homogeneous temperature distribution are calculated. The stresses change remarkably when the phase changes occur and there are residual stresses remaining in the plate after one cycle of thermal loading. (Auth.)

  2. Subthreshold electrical transport in amorphous phase-change materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallo, Manuel Le; Kaes, Matthias; Sebastian, Abu; Krebs, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Chalcogenide-based phase-change materials play a prominent role in information technology. In spite of decades of research, the details of electrical transport in these materials are still debated. In this article, we present a unified model based on multiple-trapping transport together with 3D Poole–Frenkel emission from a two-center Coulomb potential. With this model, we are able to explain electrical transport both in as-deposited phase-change material thin films, similar to experimental conditions in early work dating back to the 1970s, and in melt-quenched phase-change materials in nanometer-scale phase-change memory devices typically used in recent studies. Experimental measurements on two widely different device platforms show remarkable agreement with the proposed mechanism over a wide range of temperatures and electric fields. In addition, the proposed model is able to seamlessly capture the temporal evolution of the transport properties of the melt-quenched phase upon structural relaxation. (paper)

  3. Encapsulation of phase change materials using rice-husk-char

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gondora, Wayne; Doudin, Khalid; Nowakowski, Daniel J.; Xiao, Bo; Ding, Yulong; Bridgwater, Tony; Yuan, Qingchun

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Rice-husk-char particles are successfully used in the encapsulation of phase change materials. • Carbon-based phase change microcapsules aim at using the high thermal conductivity of carbon materials. • Carbon from biomass can be used in low and intermediate heat harvest and storage. • Carbon in biomass is captured and to be used in improving energy efficiency. - Abstract: This paper explored a new approach to prepare phase change microcapsules using carbon-based particles via Pickering emulsions for energy storage applications. Rice-husk-char, a by-product in biofuel production, containing 53.58 wt% of carbon was used as a model carbon-based material to encapsulate hexadecane. As a model phase change material, hexadecane was emulsified in aqueous suspensions of rice-husk-char nanoparticles. Water soluble polymers poly(diallyldimethyl-ammonium chloride) and poly(sodium styrene sulfonate) were used to fix the rice-husk-char nanoparticles on the emulsion droplets through layer-by-layer assembly to enhance the structural stability of the microcapsules. The microcapsules formed are composed of a thin shell encompassing a large core consisting of hexadecane. Thermal gravimetrical and differential scanning calorimeter analyses showed the phase change enthalpy of 80.9 kJ kg"−"1 or 120.0 MJ m"−"3. Design criteria of phase change microcapsules and preparation considerations were discussed in terms of desired applications. This work demonstrated possible utilisations of biomass-originated carbon-based material for thermal energy recovery and storage applications, which can be a new route of carbon capture and utilisation.

  4. An SPICE model for phase-change memory simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xi; Song Zhitang; Cai Daolin; Chen Xiaogang; Chen Houpeng

    2011-01-01

    Along with a series of research works on the physical prototype and properties of the memory cell, an SPICE model for phase-change memory (PCM) simulations based on Verilog-A language is presented. By handling it with the heat distribution algorithm, threshold switching theory and the crystallization kinetic model, the proposed SPICE model can effectively reproduce the physical behaviors of the phase-change memory cell. In particular, it can emulate the cell's temperature curve and crystallinity profile during the programming process, which can enable us to clearly understand the PCM's working principle and program process. (semiconductor devices)

  5. Phase change material for temperature control and material storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessling, Jr., Francis C. (Inventor); Blackwood, James M. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A phase change material comprising a mixture of water and deuterium oxide is described, wherein the mole fraction of deuterium oxide is selected so that the mixture has a selected phase change temperature within a range between 0.degree. C. and 4.degree. C. The mixture is placed in a container and used for passive storage and transport of biomaterials and other temperature sensitive materials. Gels, nucleating agents, freezing point depression materials and colorants may be added to enhance the characteristics of the mixture.

  6. Lightweight Phase-Change Material For Solar Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Philip

    1993-01-01

    Lightweight panels containing phase-change materials developed for use as heat-storage elements of compact, lightweight, advanced solar dynamic power system. During high insolation, heat stored in panels via latent heat of fusion of phase-change material; during low insolation, heat withdrawn from panels. Storage elements consist mainly of porous carbon-fiber structures imbued with germanium. Developed for use aboard space station in orbit around Earth, also adapted to lightweight, compact, portable solar-power systems for use on Earth.

  7. Cold storage with phase change material for building ventilation

    OpenAIRE

    Butala, Vincenc; Stritih, Uroš

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental and numerical analysis of building coolingusing night-time cold accumulation in phase change material (PCM), otherwise known as the "free-cooling" or "passive-cooling" principle. The phase change materials were used in ceilings and floors. The free-cooling principle is explained and some of the types of PCMs suitable for summer cooling are listed. An experiment was conducted using paraffin with a melting point of 22 °C as the PCM to store cold during the ni...

  8. Using adversary text to detect adversary phase changes.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Speed, Ann Elizabeth; Doser, Adele Beatrice; Warrender, Christina E.

    2009-05-01

    The purpose of this work was to help develop a research roadmap and small proof ofconcept for addressing key problems and gaps from the perspective of using text analysis methods as a primary tool for detecting when a group is undergoing a phase change. Self- rganizing map (SOM) techniques were used to analyze text data obtained from the tworld-wide web. Statistical studies indicate that it may be possible to predict phase changes, as well as detect whether or not an example of writing can be attributed to a group of interest.

  9. Analysis of writing and erasing behaviours in phase change materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyot, B. E-mail: bhyot@cea.fr; Poupinet, L.; Gehanno, V.; Desre, P.J

    2002-09-01

    An understanding of the process involved in writing and erasing of phase-change optical recording media is vital to the development of new, and the improvement of existing, products. The present work investigates both experimental and theoretical laser-induced fast structural transformations of GeSbTe thin films. Optical and microstructural changes are correlated using both a static tester and transmission electron microscopy. In the second part of this paper we try to elucidate the physics underlying the amorphous-to-crystalline phase transformation under short-pulse laser excitation. Both thermal and thermodynamical behaviours must be taken into account to illustrate real processes.

  10. Nonvolatile memory design magnetic, resistive, and phase change

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Hai

    2011-01-01

    The manufacture of flash memory, which is the dominant nonvolatile memory technology, is facing severe technical barriers. So much so, that some emerging technologies have been proposed as alternatives to flash memory in the nano-regime. Nonvolatile Memory Design: Magnetic, Resistive, and Phase Changing introduces three promising candidates: phase-change memory, magnetic random access memory, and resistive random access memory. The text illustrates the fundamental storage mechanism of these technologies and examines their differences from flash memory techniques. Based on the latest advances,

  11. Analysis of writing and erasing behaviours in phase change materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyot, B.; Poupinet, L.; Gehanno, V.; Desre, P.J.

    2002-01-01

    An understanding of the process involved in writing and erasing of phase-change optical recording media is vital to the development of new, and the improvement of existing, products. The present work investigates both experimental and theoretical laser-induced fast structural transformations of GeSbTe thin films. Optical and microstructural changes are correlated using both a static tester and transmission electron microscopy. In the second part of this paper we try to elucidate the physics underlying the amorphous-to-crystalline phase transformation under short-pulse laser excitation. Both thermal and thermodynamical behaviours must be taken into account to illustrate real processes

  12. An SPICE model for phase-change memory simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Xi; Song Zhitang; Cai Daolin; Chen Xiaogang; Chen Houpeng, E-mail: ituluck@mail.sim.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Informatics, Laboratory of Nanotechnology, Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China)

    2011-09-15

    Along with a series of research works on the physical prototype and properties of the memory cell, an SPICE model for phase-change memory (PCM) simulations based on Verilog-A language is presented. By handling it with the heat distribution algorithm, threshold switching theory and the crystallization kinetic model, the proposed SPICE model can effectively reproduce the physical behaviors of the phase-change memory cell. In particular, it can emulate the cell's temperature curve and crystallinity profile during the programming process, which can enable us to clearly understand the PCM's working principle and program process. (semiconductor devices)

  13. Inserting Phase Change Lines into Microsoft Excel® Graphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubuque, Erick M

    2015-10-01

    Microsoft Excel® is a popular graphing tool used by behavior analysts to visually display data. However, this program is not always friendly to the graphing conventions used by behavior analysts. For example, adding phase change lines has typically been a cumbersome process involving the insertion of line objects that do not move when new data is added to a graph. The purpose of this article is to describe a novel way to add phase change lines that move when new data is added and when graphs are resized.

  14. Vibration damping and heat transfer using material phase changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloucek, Petr (Inventor); Reynolds, Daniel R. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A method and apparatus wherein phase changes in a material can dampen vibrational energy, dampen noise and facilitate heat transfer. One embodiment includes a method for damping vibrational energy in a body. The method comprises attaching a material to the body, wherein the material comprises a substrate, a shape memory alloy layer, and a plurality of temperature change elements. The method further comprises sensing vibrations in the body. In addition, the method comprises indicating to at least a portion of the temperature change elements to provide a temperature change in the shape memory alloy layer, wherein the temperature change is sufficient to provide a phase change in at least a portion of the shape memory alloy layer, and further wherein the phase change consumes a sufficient amount of kinetic energy to dampen at least a portion of the vibrational energy in the body. In other embodiments, the shape memory alloy layer is a thin film. Additional embodiments include a sensor connected to the material.

  15. Vibration damping and heat transfer using material phase changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloucek, Petr [Houston, TX; Reynolds, Daniel R [Oakland, CA

    2009-03-24

    A method and apparatus wherein phase changes in a material can dampen vibrational energy, dampen noise and facilitate heat transfer. One embodiment includes a method for damping vibrational energy in a body. The method comprises attaching a material to the body, wherein the material comprises a substrate, a shape memory alloy layer, and a plurality of temperature change elements. The method further comprises sensing vibrations in the body. In addition, the method comprises indicating to at least a portion of the temperature change elements to provide a temperature change in the shape memory alloy layer, wherein the temperature change is sufficient to provide a phase change in at least a portion of the shape memory alloy layer, and further wherein the phase change consumes a sufficient amount of kinetic energy to dampen at least a portion of the vibrational energy in the body. In other embodiments, the shape memory alloy layer is a thin film. Additional embodiments include a sensor connected to the material.

  16. High-pressure Raman spectroscopy of phase change materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsieh, Wen-Pin, E-mail: wphsieh@stanford.edu; Mao, Wendy L. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford Institute for Materials and Energy Sciences, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Department of Geological and Environmental Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Zalden, Peter [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford Institute for Materials and Energy Sciences, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Wuttig, Matthias [I. Physikalisches Institut (IA), RWTH Aachen University, 52056 Aachen (Germany); JARA – Fundamentals of Future Information Technology, RWTH Aachen University, 52056 Aachen (Germany); Lindenberg, Aaron M. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford Institute for Materials and Energy Sciences, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, PULSE Institute, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States)

    2013-11-04

    We used high-pressure Raman spectroscopy to study the evolution of vibrational frequencies of the phase change materials (PCMs) Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5}, GeSb{sub 2}Te{sub 4}, and SnSb{sub 2}Te{sub 4}. We found that the critical pressure for triggering amorphization in the PCMs decreases with increasing vacancy concentration, demonstrating that the presence of vacancies, rather than differences in the atomic covalent radii, is crucial for pressure-induced amorphization in PCMs. Compared to the as-deposited amorphous phase, the pressure-induced amorphous phase has a similar vibrational spectrum but requires much lower laser power to transform into the crystalline phase, suggesting different kinetics of crystallization, which may have implications for applications of PCMs in non-volatile data storage.

  17. Synthesis and nanoscale thermal encoding of phase-change nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Xuhui; Yu Bin; Meyyappan, M.

    2007-01-01

    Low-dimensional phase-change nanostructures provide a valuable research platform for understanding the phase-transition behavior and thermal properties at nanoscale and their potential in achieving superdense data storage. Ge 2 Sb 2 Te 5 nanowires have been grown using a vapor-liquid-solid technique and shown to exhibit distinctive properties that may overcome the present data storage scaling barrier. Local heating of an individual nanowire with a focused electron beam was used to shape a nano-bar-code on a Ge 2 Sb 2 Te 5 nanowire. The data encoding on Ge 2 Sb 2 Te 5 nanowire may promote novel device concepts to implement ultrahigh density, low energy, high speed data storage using phase-change nanomaterials with diverse thermal-programing strategies

  18. Phase change in uranium: Discrepancy between experiment and theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akella, J.

    1996-01-01

    Using a diamond-anvil cell (DAC) phase transformation and room temperature Equation of State (EOS) for some actinides and lanthanides were studied to multimegabar (megabar = 100 GPa) pressures. Experimental data are compared with the theoretically predicted crystal structural changes and the pressure-volume relationships. There is a general agreement between theory and experiment for the structural changes in the lighter actinides, however in detail there are some discrepancies still. A generalized trend for the phase transformations in the lanthanides can be seen, which again has broad agreement with theory. We conclude that an accurate and robust theoretical base for predicting the phase transformations in the f-electron metals can be developed by incorporating the DAC data

  19. Ultrafast characterization of phase-change material crystallization properties in the melt-quenched amorphous phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeyasingh, Rakesh; Fong, Scott W; Lee, Jaeho; Li, Zijian; Chang, Kuo-Wei; Mantegazza, Davide; Asheghi, Mehdi; Goodson, Kenneth E; Wong, H-S Philip

    2014-06-11

    Phase change materials are widely considered for application in nonvolatile memories because of their ability to achieve phase transformation in the nanosecond time scale. However, the knowledge of fast crystallization dynamics in these materials is limited because of the lack of fast and accurate temperature control methods. In this work, we have developed an experimental methodology that enables ultrafast characterization of phase-change dynamics on a more technologically relevant melt-quenched amorphous phase using practical device structures. We have extracted the crystallization growth velocity (U) in a functional capped phase change memory (PCM) device over 8 orders of magnitude (10(-10) 10(8) K/s), which reveals the extreme fragility of Ge2Sb2Te5 in its supercooled liquid phase. Furthermore, these crystallization properties were studied as a function of device programming cycles, and the results show degradation in the cell retention properties due to elemental segregation. The above experiments are enabled by the use of an on-chip fast heater and thermometer called as microthermal stage (MTS) integrated with a vertical phase change memory (PCM) cell. The temperature at the PCM layer can be controlled up to 600 K using MTS and with a thermal time constant of 800 ns, leading to heating rates ∼10(8) K/s that are close to the typical device operating conditions during PCM programming. The MTS allows us to independently control the electrical and thermal aspects of phase transformation (inseparable in a conventional PCM cell) and extract the temperature dependence of key material properties in real PCM devices.

  20. Unusual crystallization behavior in Ga-Sb phase change alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magali Putero

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Combined in situ X-ray scattering techniques using synchrotron radiation were applied to investigate the crystallization behavior of Sb-rich Ga-Sb alloys. Measurements of the sheet resistance during heating indicated a reduced crystallization temperature with increased Sb content, which was confirmed by in situ X-ray diffraction. The electrical contrast increased with increasing Sb content and the resistivities in both the amorphous and crystalline phases decreased. It was found that by tuning the composition between Ga:Sb = 9:91 (in at.% and Ga:Sb = 45:55, the change in mass density upon crystallization changes from an increase in mass density which is typical for most phase change materials to a decrease in mass density. At the composition of Ga:Sb = 30:70, no mass density change is observed which should be very beneficial for phase change random access memory (PCRAM applications where a change in mass density during cycling is assumed to cause void formation and PCRAM device failure.

  1. Kodak phase-change media for optical tape applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyan, Yuan-Sheng; Preuss, Donald R.; Olin, George R.; Vazan, Fridrich; Pan, Kee-Chuan; Raychaudhuri, Pranab. K.

    1993-01-01

    The SbInSn phase-change write-once optical medium developed by Eastman Kodak Company is particularly suitable for development into the next generation optical tape media. Its performance for optical recording has already been demonstrated in some of the highest performance optical disk systems. Some of the key performance features are presented.

  2. Phase Change Permeation Technology For Environmental Control Life Support Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2014-01-01

    Use of a phase change permeation membrane (Dutyion [Trademark]) to passively and selectively mobilize water in microgravity to enable improved water recovery from urine/brine for Environment Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) and water delivery to plans for potential use in microgravity.

  3. Doped SbTe phase change material in memory cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    in ‘t Zandt, M.A.A.; Jedema, F.J.; Gravesteijn, Dirk J; Gravesteijn, D.J.; Attenborough, K.; Wolters, Robertus A.M.

    2009-01-01

    Phase Change Random Access Memory (PCRAM) is investigated as replacement for Flash. The memory concept is based on switching a chalcogenide from the crystalline (low ohmic) to the amorphous (high ohmic) state and vice versa. Basically two memory cell concepts exist: the Ovonic Unified Memory (OUM)

  4. Phase-change drywalls in a passive-solar building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darkwa, K.; O' Callaghan, P.W.; Tetlow, D. [School of the Built Environment, The Applied Energy and Environmental Engineering Group, Nottingham Trent University, Burton Street, Nottingham NG1 4BU (United Kingdom)

    2006-05-15

    Integration of phase-change materials (PCMs) into building fabrics is considered to be one of the potential and effective ways of minimising energy-consumption and CO{sub 2}-emissions in the building sector. In order to assess the thermal effectiveness of this concept, composite PCM drywall samples (i.e., randomly mixed and laminated PCM drywalls) have been evaluated in a model passive-solar building. For a broader assessment, the effects of three phase-change zones (narrow, intermediate and wide) of the PCM sample were considered. The results showed that the laminated PCM sample with a narrow phase-change zone was capable of increasing the minimum room temperature by about 17% more than the randomly mixed type. Even though there was some display of a non-isothermal phase-change process, the laminated system proved to be thermally more effective in terms of evolution and utilisation of latent heat. A further heat-transfer enhancement process is, however, required for the development of the laminated system. . (author)

  5. Simulation of phase change drywalls in a passive solar building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darkwa, K.; O' Callaghan, P.W. [School of the Built Environment, The Applied Energy and Environmental Engineering Group, Nottingham Trent University, Burton Street, Nottingham NG1 4BU (United Kingdom)

    2006-06-15

    Integration of phase change materials (PCMs) into building fabrics is considered to be one of the potential and effective ways of minimizing energy consumption and CO{sub 2} emissions in the building sector. In order to assess the thermal effectiveness of this concept, composite PCM drywall samples (i.e. randomly-mixed and laminated PCM drywalls) have been evaluated in a model passive solar building. For a broader assessment, effects of three phase change zones (narrow, intermediate and wide) of the PCM sample were considered. The results showed that the laminated PCM sample with a narrow phase change zone was capable of increasing the minimum room temperature by about 17% more than the randomly-mixed type. Even though there was some display of non-isothermal phase change process, the laminated system proved to be thermally more effective in terms of evolution and utilization of latent heat. Further heat transfer enhancement process is however required towards the development of the laminated system. [Author].

  6. Performance enhancement of hermetic compressor using phase change materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, I. M.; Rady, M. A.; Huzayyin, A. S.

    2015-08-01

    The present study is motivated by the need for the research of simple measures for increasing energy efficiency of hermetic compressor. The measure is the application of phase change materials for performance enhancement. The first experimental study should be guide for choice of PCM. It has been performed to investigate the effects of thermostat setting temperature on the performance of hermetic compressor. The effects of thermostat setting temperature with and without load on power consumption have been analyzed. Performance enhancement using phase change materials (PCMs) has been studied by employing a phase change material Rubitherm-42 (RT-42) on the top surface of compressor. Choice of PCM material is based on basic compressor performance measured in the first part of the present study. Experiments have been carried out for different load values and different quantities of PCM. The quantity and phase change characteristic of PCM are essential parameters that determine the percentage of performance enhancement in term of energy consumption. Reduction of energy consumption of about 10% has been achieved in the present study by using PCM. The present study shows that how to reduce the electrical power consumption to enhance compressor heat dissipation method to improve efficiency.

  7. Phase change thermal energy storage methods for combat vehicles, phase 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, F. E.

    1986-06-01

    Three alternative cooling methods, based on latent heat absorption during phase changes, were studied for potential use in combat vehicle microclimate temperature control. Metal hydrides absorb heat as they release hydrogen gas. Plastic crystals change from one solid phase to another, absorbing heat in the process. Liquid air boils at cryogenic temperature and absorbs additional sensible heat as the cold gas mixes with the microclimate air flow. System designs were prepared for each of the three microclimate cooling concepts. These designs provide details about the three phase change materials, their containers and the auxiliary equipment needed to implement each option onboard a combat vehicle. The three concepts were compared on the basis of system mass, system volume and the energy required to regenerate them after use. Metal hydrides were found to be the lightest and smallest option by a large margin. The energy needed to regenerate a hydride thermal storage system can be extracted from the vehicle's exhaust gases.

  8. Irreversible altering of crystalline phase of phase-change Ge-Sb thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krusin-Elbaum, L.; Shakhvorostov, D.; Cabral, C. Jr.; Raoux, S.; Jordan-Sweet, J. L.

    2010-01-01

    The stability of the crystalline phase of binary phase-change Ge x Sb 1-x films is investigated over a wide range of Ge content. From Raman spectroscopy we find the Ge-Sb crystalline structure irreversibly altered after exposure to a laser beam. We show that with increasing beam intensity/temperature Ge agglomerates and precipitates out in the amount growing with x. A simple empirical relation links Ge precipitation temperature T Ge p to the rate of change dT cryst /dx of crystallization, with the precipitation easiest on the mid-range x plateau, where T cryst is nearly constant. Our findings point to a preferable 15% < or approx. x < 50% window, that may achieve the desired cycling/archival properties of a phase-change cell.

  9. In Situ Transmission Electron Microscopy Observation of Nanostructural Changes in Phase-Change Memory

    KAUST Repository

    Meister, Stefan; Kim, SangBum; Cha, Judy J.; Wong, H.-S. Philip; Cui, Yi

    2011-01-01

    Phase-change memory (PCM) has been researched extensively as a promising alternative to flash memory. Important studies have focused on its scalability, switching speed, endurance, and new materials. Still, reliability issues and inconsistent

  10. Phase-change related epigenetic and physiological changes in Pinus radiata D. Don.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraga, Mario F; Cañal, Maria Jesús; Rodríguez, Roberto

    2002-08-01

    DNA methylation and polyamine levels were analysed before and after Pinus radiata D. Don. phase change in order to identify possible molecular and physiological phase markers. Juvenile individuals (without reproductive ability) were characterised by a degree of DNA methylation of 30-35% and a ratio of free polyamines to perchloric acid-soluble polyamine conjugates greater than 1, while mature trees (with reproductive ability) had 60% 5-methylcytosine and a ratio of free polyamines to perchloric acid-soluble polyamine conjugates of less than 1. Results obtained with trees that attained reproductive capacity during the experimental period confirmed that changes in the degree of DNA methylation and polyamine concentrations found among juvenile and mature states come about immediately after the phase change. We suggest that both indicators may be associated with the loss of morphogenic ability during ageing, particularly after phase change, through a number of molecular interactions, which are subsequently discussed.

  11. Fundamental incorporation of the density change during melting of a confined phase change material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Ernesto M.; Otero, José A.

    2018-02-01

    The modeling of thermal diffusion processes taking place in a phase change material presents a challenge when the dynamics of the phase transition is coupled to the mechanical properties of the container. Thermo-mechanical models have been developed by several authors, however, it will be shown that these models only explain the phase transition dynamics at low pressures when the density of each phase experiences negligible changes. In our proposal, a new energy-mass balance equation at the interface is derived and found to be a consequence of mass conservation. The density change experienced in each phase is predicted by the proposed formulation of the problem. Numerical and semi-analytical solutions to the proposed model are presented for an example on a high temperature phase change material. The solutions to the models presented by other authors are observed to be well-behaved close to the isobaric limit. However, compared to the results obtained from our model, the change in the fusion temperature, latent heat, and absolute pressure is found to be greatly overestimated by other proposals when the phase transition is studied close to the isochoric regime.

  12. Void fraction prediction in two-phase flows independent of the liquid phase density changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazemi, E.; Feghhi, S.A.H.; Roshani, G.H.

    2014-01-01

    Gamma-ray densitometry is a frequently used non-invasive method to determine void fraction in two-phase gas liquid pipe flows. Performance of flow meters using gamma-ray attenuation depends strongly on the fluid properties. Variations of the fluid properties such as density in situations where temperature and pressure fluctuate would cause significant errors in determination of the void fraction in two-phase flows. A conventional solution overcoming such an obstacle is periodical recalibration which is a difficult task. This paper presents a method based on dual modality densitometry using Artificial Neural Network (ANN), which offers the advantage of measuring the void fraction independent of the liquid phase changes. An experimental setup was implemented to generate the required input data for training the network. ANNs were trained on the registered counts of the transmission and scattering detectors in different liquid phase densities and void fractions. Void fractions were predicted by ANNs with mean relative error of less than 0.45% in density variations range of 0.735 up to 0.98 gcm −3 . Applying this method would improve the performance of two-phase flow meters and eliminates the necessity of periodical recalibration. - Highlights: • Void fraction was predicted independent of density changes. • Recorded counts of detectors/void fraction were used as inputs/output of ANN. • ANN eliminated necessity of recalibration in changeable density of two-phase flows

  13. Phase field modeling of rapid crystallization in the phase-change material AIST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabatabaei, Fatemeh; Boussinot, Guillaume; Spatschek, Robert; Brener, Efim A.; Apel, Markus

    2017-07-01

    We carry out phase field modeling as a continuum simulation technique in order to study rapid crystallization processes in the phase-change material AIST (Ag4In3Sb67Te26). In particular, we simulate the spatio-temporal evolution of the crystallization of a molten area of the phase-change material embedded in a layer stack. The simulation model is adapted to the experimental conditions used for recent measurements of crystallization rates by a laser pulse technique. Simulations are performed for substrate temperatures close to the melting temperature of AIST down to low temperatures when an amorphous state is involved. The design of the phase field model using the thin interface limit allows us to retrieve the two limiting regimes of interface controlled (low temperatures) and thermal transport controlled (high temperatures) dynamics. Our simulations show that, generically, the crystallization velocity presents a maximum in the intermediate regime where both the interface mobility and the thermal transport, through the molten area as well as through the layer stack, are important. Simulations reveal the complex interplay of all different contributions. This suggests that the maximum switching velocity depends not only on material properties but also on the precise design of the thin film structure into which the phase-change material is embedded.

  14. Disorder-induced localization in crystalline phase-change materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegrist, T; Jost, P; Volker, H; Woda, M; Merkelbach, P; Schlockermann, C; Wuttig, M

    2011-03-01

    Localization of charge carriers in crystalline solids has been the subject of numerous investigations over more than half a century. Materials that show a metal-insulator transition without a structural change are therefore of interest. Mechanisms leading to metal-insulator transition include electron correlation (Mott transition) or disorder (Anderson localization), but a clear distinction is difficult. Here we report on a metal-insulator transition on increasing annealing temperature for a group of crystalline phase-change materials, where the metal-insulator transition is due to strong disorder usually associated only with amorphous solids. With pronounced disorder but weak electron correlation, these phase-change materials form an unparalleled quantum state of matter. Their universal electronic behaviour seems to be at the origin of the remarkable reproducibility of the resistance switching that is crucial to their applications in non-volatile-memory devices. Controlling the degree of disorder in crystalline phase-change materials might enable multilevel resistance states in upcoming storage devices.

  15. Reconfigurable optical manipulation by phase change material waveguides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tianhang; Mei, Shengtao; Wang, Qian; Liu, Hong; Lim, Chwee Teck; Teng, Jinghua

    2017-05-25

    Optical manipulation by dielectric waveguides enables the transportation of particles and biomolecules beyond diffraction limits. However, traditional dielectric waveguides could only transport objects in the forward direction which does not fulfill the requirements of the next generation lab-on-chip system where the integrated manipulation system should be much more flexible and multifunctional. In this work, bidirectional transportation of objects on the nanoscale is demonstrated on a rectangular waveguide made of the phase change material Ge 2 Sb 2 Te 5 (GST) by numerical simulations. Either continuous pushing forces or pulling forces are generated on the trapped particles when the GST is in the amorphous or crystalline phase. With the technique of a femtosecond laser induced phase transition on the GST, we further proposed a reconfigurable optical trap array on the same waveguide. This work demonstrates GST waveguide's potential of achieving multifunctional manipulation of multiple objects on the nanoscale with plausible optical setups.

  16. Controllable biomimetic adhesion using embedded phase change material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krahn, J; Sameoto, D; Menon, C

    2011-01-01

    In many cases, such as in the instance of climbing robots or temporary adhesives, there is the need to be able to dynamically control the level of adhesion a biomimetic dry adhesive can provide. In this study, the effect of changing the backing layer stiffness of a dry adhesive is examined. Embedding a phase change material within the backing of a synthetic dry adhesive sheet allows the stiffness to be tailored at different points of a preload and adhesion cycle. Larger contact areas and more equal load sharing between adhesive fibres can be achieved by increasing the backing layer stiffness after initial deformation when the adhesive backing is loaded in its softened state. Adhesion behaviour is examined when the backing layer is maintained in solid and softened phases during complete load cycles and for load cycles under the condition of contact with the softened phase backing followed by pull-off during the solid phase. Absolute adhesion force is increased for trials in which a soft backing layer hardens prior to pull-off. This effect is due to the increased contact area made between the rounded probe and the softened material during preloading and the more equal load sharing condition during pull-off when the backing layer becomes stiff again

  17. Complex Nonlinearity Chaos, Phase Transitions, Topology Change and Path Integrals

    CERN Document Server

    Ivancevic, Vladimir G

    2008-01-01

    Complex Nonlinearity: Chaos, Phase Transitions, Topology Change and Path Integrals is a book about prediction & control of general nonlinear and chaotic dynamics of high-dimensional complex systems of various physical and non-physical nature and their underpinning geometro-topological change. The book starts with a textbook-like expose on nonlinear dynamics, attractors and chaos, both temporal and spatio-temporal, including modern techniques of chaos–control. Chapter 2 turns to the edge of chaos, in the form of phase transitions (equilibrium and non-equilibrium, oscillatory, fractal and noise-induced), as well as the related field of synergetics. While the natural stage for linear dynamics comprises of flat, Euclidean geometry (with the corresponding calculation tools from linear algebra and analysis), the natural stage for nonlinear dynamics is curved, Riemannian geometry (with the corresponding tools from nonlinear, tensor algebra and analysis). The extreme nonlinearity – chaos – corresponds to th...

  18. The role of phase change materials for the sustainable energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuta Marta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Unceasing global economic development leads to continuous increase of energy demand. Considering the limited conventional resources of energy as well as impact on the environment associated with its use, it is important to focus on the rational management of energy resources and on supporting the development of new technologies related to both conventional and renewable energy resources. In a number of cases the use of phase change materials (PCMs turns out to be a reasonable solution. This paper contains a summary of well-studied and known, previously used solutions based on phase change materials as well as novel possibilities, which are under development. It has been decided to investigate this topic due to the wide range of highly effective solutions. The review is focused on selected applications of PCMs for technologies which are designed to improve energy efficiency and on PCMs used in technologies based on renewable energy sources.

  19. Development of Latent Heat Storage Phase Change Material Containing Plaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana BAJARE

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the development of latent heat storage Phase Change Material (PCM containing plaster as in passive application. Due to the phase change, these materials can store higher amounts of thermal energy than traditional building materials and can be used to add thermal inertia to lightweight constructions. It was shown that the use of PCMs have advantages stabilizing the room temperature variations during summer days, provided sufficient night ventilation is allowed. Another advantage of PCM usage is stabilized indoor temperature on the heating season. The goal of this study is to develop cement and lime based plaster containing microencapsulated PCM. The plaster is expected to be used for passive indoor applications and enhance the thermal properties of building envelope. The plaster was investigated under Scanning Electron Microscope and the mechanical, physical and thermal properties of created plaster samples were determined.

  20. Dynamically Reconfigurable Metadevice Employing Nanostructured Phase-Change Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhihua; Evans, Philip G; Haglund, Richard F; Valentine, Jason G

    2017-08-09

    Mastering dynamic free-space spectral control and modulation in the near-infrared (NIR) and optical regimes remains a challenging task that is hindered by the available functional materials at high frequencies. In this work, we have realized an efficient metadevice capable of spectral control by minimizing the thermal mass of a vanadium dioxide phase-change material (PCM) and placing the PCM at the feed gap of a bow-tie field antenna. The device has an experimentally measured tuning range of up to 360 nm in the NIR and a modulation depth of 33% at the resonant wavelength. The metadevice is configured for integrated and local heating, leading to faster switching and more precise spatial control compared with devices based on phase-change thin films. We envisage that the combined advantages of this device will open new opportunities for signal processing, memory, security, and holography at optical frequencies.

  1. Change in generally accepted regularity of phase transformations of quartzite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukartsev, V. A.; Kukartsev, V. V.; Chzhan, E. A.; Tynchenko, V. S.; Stupina, A. A.

    2018-05-01

    The subject of this research is phasic transformations of quartzites that are under temperature treatment to remove moisture. This technology is used in enterprises operating melting furnaces. The studies have shown that using a temperature regime consisting in heating to 800° C and holding for 2 hours, after cooling, quartzite changes its color and appears a shift in the angle of the interplanar distances of the crystal lattice by 6.6% in it. The use of a temperature treatment regime consisting in heating to 200° C and holding for 4 hours does not reveal such changes. With subsequent exposure to these samples of the temperature regime corresponding to the sintering process of the liner, the following is established. In a sample pretreated with a temperature of 800° C, at a temperature of 1550° C, a tridymite phase appears. In the sample of a 200° C pretreated with temperature, a phase of cristobalite appears without tridymite.

  2. Optimization of a phase change material wallboard for building use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznik, Frederic; Virgone, Joseph; Noel, Jean

    2008-01-01

    In construction, the use of phase change materials (PCM) allows the storage/release of energy from the solar radiation and/or internal loads. The application of such materials for lightweight construction (e.g., a wood house) makes it possible to improve thermal comfort and reduce energy consumption. A wallboard composed of a new PCM material is investigated in this paper to enhance the thermal behavior of a lightweight internal partition wall. The paper focuses on the optimization of phase change material thickness. The in-house software CODYMUR is used to optimize the PCM wallboard by the means of numerical simulations. The results show that an optimal PCM thickness exists. The optimal PCM thickness value is then calculated for use in construction

  3. Dynamics of energy storage in phase change drywall systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darkwa, K.; Kim, J.-S. [Nottingham Trent University (United Kingdom). School of the Built Environment

    2005-07-01

    Experimental evaluations of manufactured samples of laminated and randomly mixed phase change material (PCM) drywalls have been carried out and compared with numerical results. The analysis showed that the laminated PCM drywall performed thermally better. Even though there was a maximum 3% deviation of the average experimental result from the numerical values, the laminated PCM board achieved about 55% of the phase change process as against 48% for the randomly distributed drywall sample. The laminated board sample also released about 27% more latent heat than the randomly distributed type at the optimum time of 90 min thus validating previous simulation study. Given the experimental conditions and assumptions the experiment has proved that it is feasible to develop the laminated PCM technique for enhancing and minimising multi-dimensional heat transfers in drywall systems. Further practical developments are however encouraged to improve the overall level of heat transfer. (author)

  4. Heat transfer in neuron composite laminated phase-change drywall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darkwa, K.; Kim, J.S. [Nottingham Trent University (United Kingdom). School of Property and Construction

    2004-04-01

    Inadequate heat transfer and overall reduction in thermal conductivities during energy recovery are identified as the main barriers affecting the performance of a phase-change material (PCM) wallboard system. Two integrated PCM drywall systems have been evaluated numerically, and the results showed a great advantage of the laminated PCM wallboard system over the randomly mixed PCM type in terms of enhanced thermal performance and rapid heat transfer rates under a narrow temperature swing. For instance, the maximum instantaneous enhancement in heat flux obtained was between 20 and 50 per cent higher during the phase change process, with up to about 18 per cent more heat storage and release capacity. However, experimental evaluation is required for validation and development. (author)

  5. Optimization of a phase change material wallboard for building use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuznik, Frederic; Virgone, Joseph [Thermal Sciences Center of Lyon, CNRS, UMR 5008, INSA de Lyon, Universite Lyon 1, Bat Freyssinet, 40 Rue des Arts, 69621 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Noel, Jean [Free-lance Scientific Software Developer, 15 Place Carnot, 69002 Lyon (France)

    2008-08-15

    In construction, the use of phase change materials (PCM) allows the storage/release of energy from the solar radiation and/or internal loads. The application of such materials for lightweight construction (e.g., a wood house) makes it possible to improve thermal comfort and reduce energy consumption. A wallboard composed of a new PCM material is investigated in this paper to enhance the thermal behavior of a lightweight internal partition wall. The paper focuses on the optimization of phase change material thickness. The in-house software CODYMUR is used to optimize the PCM wallboard by the means of numerical simulations. The results show that an optimal PCM thickness exists. The optimal PCM thickness value is then calculated for use in construction. (author)

  6. Round-Robin Test of Paraffin Phase-Change Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidi, S.; Mehling, H.; Hemberger, F.; Haussmann, Th.; Laube, A.

    2015-11-01

    A round-robin test between three institutes was performed on a paraffin phase-change material (PCM) in the context of the German quality association for phase-change materials. The aim of the quality association is to define quality and test specifications for PCMs and to award certificates for successfully tested materials. To ensure the reproducibility and comparability of the measurements performed at different institutes using different measuring methods, a round-robin test was performed. The sample was unknown. The four methods used by the three participating institutes in the round-robin test were differential scanning calorimetry, Calvet calorimetry and three-layer calorimetry. Additionally, T-history measurements were made. The aim of the measurements was the determination of the enthalpy as a function of temperature. The results achieved following defined test specifications are in excellent agreement.

  7. Microencapsulated Phase-Change Materials For Storage Of Heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colvin, David P.

    1989-01-01

    Report describes research on engineering issues related to storage and transport of heat in slurries containing phase-change materials in microscopic capsules. Specific goal of project to develop lightweight, compact, heat-management systems used safely in inhabited areas of spacecraft. Further development of obvious potential of technology expected to lead to commercialization and use in aircraft, electronic equipment, machinery, industrial processes, and other sytems in which requirements for management of heat compete with severe restrictions on weight or volume.

  8. Portable Thermoelectric Power Generator Coupled with Phase Change Material

    OpenAIRE

    Lim Chong C.; Al-Kayiem Hussain H.; Sing Chin Y.

    2014-01-01

    Solar is the intermittent source of renewable energy and all thermal solar systems having a setback on non-functioning during the night and cloudy environment. This paper presents alternative solution for power generation using thermoelectric which is the direct conversion of temperature gradient of hot side and cold side of thermoelectric material to electric voltage. Phase change material with latent heat effect would help to prolong the temperature gradient across thermoelectric material f...

  9. Innovative Phase Change Approach for Significant Energy Savings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    related to the production, use, transmission , storage, control, or conservation of energy that will – (A) reduce the need for additional energy supplies...Conditions set for operation were: a. The computer with the broadband wireless card is to be used for data collection, transmission and...FINAL REPORT Innovative Phase Change Approach for Significant Energy Savings ESTCP Project EW-201138 SEPTEMBER 2016 Dr. Aly H Shaaban Applied

  10. Study of large nonlinear change phase in Hibiscus Sabdariffa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trejo-Durán, M.; Alvarado-Méndez, E.; Andrade-Lucio, J. A.; Rojas-Laguna, R.; Vázquez-Guevara, M. A.

    2015-09-01

    High intensities electromagnetic energy interacting with organic media gives rise to nonlinear optical effects. Hibiscus Sabdariffa is a flower whose concentrated solution presents interesting nonlinear optical properties. This organic material shows an important self-phase modulation with changes bigger than 2π. We present a diffraction ring patterns study of the Hibiscus Sabdariffa solution. Numerical results of transmittance, with refraction and simultaneous absorption, are shown.

  11. Phase change - memory materials - composition, structure, and properties

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Frumar, M.; Frumarová, Božena; Wágner, T.; Hrdlička, M.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 18, suppl.1 (2007), S169-S174 ISSN 0957-4522. [International Conference on Optical and Optoelectronic Properties of Materials and Applications 2006. Darwin, 16.06.2006-20.06.2006] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/06/0627 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : phase change memory Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 0.947, year: 2007

  12. Compressive and flexural strength of high strength phase change mortar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Qingyao; Fang, Changle

    2018-04-01

    High-strength cement produces a lot of hydration heat when hydrated, it will usually lead to thermal cracks. Phase change materials (PCM) are very potential thermal storage materials. Utilize PCM can help reduce the hydration heat. Research shows that apply suitable amount of PCM has a significant effect on improving the compressive strength of cement mortar, and can also improve the flexural strength to some extent.

  13. Forced Ion Migration for Chalcogenide Phase Change Memory Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Kristy A (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Non-volatile memory devices with two stacked layers of chalcogenide materials comprising the active memory device have been investigated for their potential as phase-change memories. The devices tested included GeTe/SnTe, Ge2Se3/SnTe, and Ge2Se3/SnSe stacks. All devices exhibited resistance switching behavior. The polarity of the applied voltage with respect to the SnTe or SnSe layer was critical to the memory switching properties, due to the electric field induced movement of either Sn or Te into the Ge-chalcogenide layer. One embodiment of the invention is a device comprising a stack of chalcogenide-containing layers which exhibit phase-change switching only after a reverse polarity voltage potential is applied across the stack causing ion movement into an adjacent layer and thus "activating" the device to act as a phase-change random access memory device or a reconfigurable electronics device when the applied voltage potential is returned to the normal polarity. Another embodiment of the invention is a device that is capable of exhibiting more than two data states.

  14. Electronic transport in amorphous phase-change materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luckas, Jennifer Maria

    2012-09-14

    Phase change materials combine a pronounced contrast in resistivity and reflectivity between their disordered amorphous and ordered crystalline state with very fast crystallization kinetics. Due to this exceptional combination of properties phase-change materials find broad application in non-volatile optical memories such as CD, DVD or Bluray Disc. Furthermore, this class of materials demonstrates remarkable electrical transport phenomena in their disordered state, which have shown to be crucial for their application in electronic storage devices. The threshold switching phenomenon denotes the sudden decrease in resistivity beyond a critical electrical threshold field. The threshold switching phenomenon facilitates the phase transitions at practical small voltages. Below this threshold the amorphous state resistivity is thermally activated and is observed to increase with time. This effect known as resistance drift seriously hampers the development of multi-level storage devices. Hence, understanding the physical origins of threshold switching and resistance drift phenomena is crucial to improve non-volatile phase-change memories. Even though both phenomena are often attributed to localized defect states in the band gap, the defect state density in amorphous phase-change materials has remained poorly studied. Starting from a brief introduction of the physics of phase-change materials this thesis summarizes the most important models behind electrical switching and resistance drift with the aim to discuss the role of localized defect states. The centerpiece of this thesis is the investigation of defects state densities in different amorphous phase-change materials and electrical switching chalcogenides. On the basis of Modulated Photo Current (MPC) Experiments and Photothermal Deflection Spectroscopy, a sophisticated band model for the disordered phase of the binary phase-change alloy GeTe has been developed. By this direct experimental approach the band-model for a

  15. Electronic transport in amorphous phase-change materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luckas, Jennifer Maria

    2012-01-01

    Phase change materials combine a pronounced contrast in resistivity and reflectivity between their disordered amorphous and ordered crystalline state with very fast crystallization kinetics. Due to this exceptional combination of properties phase-change materials find broad application in non-volatile optical memories such as CD, DVD or Bluray Disc. Furthermore, this class of materials demonstrates remarkable electrical transport phenomena in their disordered state, which have shown to be crucial for their application in electronic storage devices. The threshold switching phenomenon denotes the sudden decrease in resistivity beyond a critical electrical threshold field. The threshold switching phenomenon facilitates the phase transitions at practical small voltages. Below this threshold the amorphous state resistivity is thermally activated and is observed to increase with time. This effect known as resistance drift seriously hampers the development of multi-level storage devices. Hence, understanding the physical origins of threshold switching and resistance drift phenomena is crucial to improve non-volatile phase-change memories. Even though both phenomena are often attributed to localized defect states in the band gap, the defect state density in amorphous phase-change materials has remained poorly studied. Starting from a brief introduction of the physics of phase-change materials this thesis summarizes the most important models behind electrical switching and resistance drift with the aim to discuss the role of localized defect states. The centerpiece of this thesis is the investigation of defects state densities in different amorphous phase-change materials and electrical switching chalcogenides. On the basis of Modulated Photo Current (MPC) Experiments and Photothermal Deflection Spectroscopy, a sophisticated band model for the disordered phase of the binary phase-change alloy GeTe has been developed. By this direct experimental approach the band-model for a

  16. Phase change materials and the perception of wetness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiest, Wouter M Bergmann; Kosters, N Dolfine; Kappers, Astrid M L; Daanen, Hein A M

    2012-01-01

    Phase change materials (PCMs) are increasingly incorporated in textiles in order to serve as a thermal buffer when humans change from a hot to a cold environment and the reverse. Due to the absence of wetness sensors in the skin, cooling of the skin may be perceived as a sensation of wetness instead of cold. In order to investigate if this phenomenon occurs when manipulating textiles, nine subjects were asked to touch or manipulate PCM-treated and untreated fabrics. In 75% of the cases, the subjects indicated that the treated material felt wetter than the untreated material independent of the way the textiles were manipulated. We conclude that incorporating PCMs in textiles may lead to a feeling of wetness which might be uncomfortable. Therefore, we recommend investigating a change in cooling properties to minimise this feeling. This article describes a psychophysical experiment into the sensation of wetness of textiles treated with phase change materials. It was found that in 75% of the cases, subjects found the treated fabric to feel wetter than the untreated. This may affect the comfort of wearing clothes made of these textiles.

  17. Recent progresses and achievements in photovoltaic-phase change material technology: A review with special treatment on photovoltaic thermal-phase change material systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Islam, M.M.; Pandey, A.K.; Hasanuzzaman, M.; Rahim, N.A.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Broad summary of phase change materials based cooling for photovoltaic modules. • Compendium on phase change materials that are mostly used in photovoltaic systems. • Extension of heat availability period by 75–100% with phase change material. • Heat storage potential improves by 33–50% more with phase change material. • Future trend and move in photovoltaic thermal research. - Abstract: This communication lays out an appraisal on the recent works of phase change materials based thermal management techniques for photovoltaic systems with special focus on the so called photovoltaic thermal-phase change material system. Attempt has also been made to draw wide-ranging classification of both photovoltaic and photovoltaic thermal systems and their conventional cooling or heat harvesting methods developed so far so that feasible phase change materials application area in these systems can be pointed out. In addition, a brief literature on phase change materials with particular focus on their solar application has also been presented. Overview of the researches and studies establish that using phase change materials for photovoltaic thermal control is technically viable if some issues like thermal conductivity or phase stability are properly addressed. The photovoltaic thermal-phase change material systems are found to offer 33% (maximum 50%) more heat storage potential than the conventional photovoltaic-thermal water system and that with 75–100% extended heat availability period and around 9% escalation in output. Reduction in temperature attained with photovoltaic thermal-phase change material system is better than that with regular photovoltaic-thermal water system, too. Studies also show the potential of another emerging technology of photovoltaic thermal-microencapsulated phase change material system that makes use of microencapsulated phase change materials in thermal regulation. Future focus areas on photovoltaic thermal-phase change

  18. Phase transformation changes in thermocycled nickel-titanium orthodontic wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berzins, David W; Roberts, Howard W

    2010-07-01

    In the oral environment, orthodontic wires will be subject to thermal fluctuations. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of thermocycling on nickel-titanium (NiTi) wire phase transformations. Straight segments from single 27 and 35 degrees C copper NiTi (Ormco), Sentalloy (GAC), and Nitinol Heat Activated (3M Unitek) archwires were sectioned into 5mm segments (n=20). A control group consisted of five randomly selected non-thermocycled segments. The remaining segments were thermocycled between 5 and 55 degrees C with five randomly selected segments analyzed with differential scanning calorimetry (DSC; -100150 degrees C at 10 degrees C/min) after 1000, 5000, and 10,000 cycles. Thermal peaks were evaluated with results analyzed via ANOVA (alpha=0.05). Nitinol HA and Sentalloy did not demonstrate qualitative or quantitative phase transformation behavior differences. Significant differences were observed in some of the copper NiTi transformation temperatures, as well as the heating enthalpy with the 27 degrees C copper NiTi wires (p<0.05). Qualitatively, with increased thermocycling the extent of R-phase in the heating peaks decreased in the 35 degrees C copper NiTi, and an austenite to martensite peak shoulder developed during cooling in the 27 degrees C copper NiTi. Repeated temperature fluctuations may contribute to qualitative and quantitative phase transformation changes in some NiTi wires. Copyright 2010 Academy of Dental Materials. All rights reserved.

  19. Mechanical aspects of allotropic phase change at the mesoscopic scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valance, St.

    2007-12-01

    The prediction of the mechanical state of steel structures submit to thermo-mechanical loading must take into account consequences of allotropic phase change. Indeed, phase change induce, at least for steels, a mechanism of TRansformation Induced Plasticity (TRIP) leading to irreversible deformation even for loading less than elastic yield limit. Homogenized analytical models generally fail to achieve a correct prediction for complex loading. In order to overcome these difficulties, we present a model achieving a sharper description of the phenomenon. The mesoscopic working scale we adopt here is the grain scale size. Hence, we consider that the behaviour of each phase is homogenous in the sense of continuous media mechanic, whereas the front is explicitly described. We work both experimentally and numerically. Experimentally, we designed a test facility enabling thermo mechanical loading of the sample under partial vacuum. Acquisition of sample surface while martensitic transformation is happening leads, under some hypothesis and thanks to Digital Image Correlation, to the partial identification of area affected by transformation. Numerically, the eXtended Finite Element Method is applied for weakly discontinuous displacement fields. Used of this method needs to numerically track the transformation front -discontinuity support. In that goal, based on level set method, we develop FEM numerical scheme enabling recognition and propagation of discontinuity support. Finally, this work is complete by an approach of driving forces introduced through Eshelbian mechanics which are dual of front velocity. (author)

  20. A phenomenological approach of solidification of polymeric phase change materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrani, Seyed Amir; Royon, Laurent; Abou, Bérengère; Osipian, Rémy; Azzouz, Kamel; Bontemps, André

    2017-01-01

    Phase Change Materials (PCMs) are widely used in thermal energy storage and thermal management systems due to their small volume for a given stored energy and their capability for maintaining nearly constant temperatures. However, their performance is limited by their low thermal conductivity and possible leaks while in the liquid phase. One solution is to imprison the PCM inside a polymer mesh to create a Polymeric Phase Change Material (PPCM). In this work, we have studied the cooling and solidification of five PPCMs with different PCMs and polymer fractions. To understand the heat transfer mechanisms involved, we have carried out micro- and macrorheological measurements in which Brownian motion of tracers embedded in PPCMs has been depicted and viscoelastic moduli have been measured, respectively. Beyond a given polymer concentration, it was shown that the Brownian motion of the tracers is limited by the polymeric chains and that the material exhibits an elastic behavior. This would suggest that heat transfer essentially occurs by conduction, instead of convection. Experiments were conducted to measure temperature variation during cooling of the five samples, and a semi-empirical model based on a phenomenological approach was proposed as a practical tool to choose and size PPCMs.

  1. Microencapsulated Phase Change Composite Materials for Energy Efficient Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiele, Alexander

    This study aims to elucidate how phase change material (PCM)-composite materials can be leveraged to reduce the energy consumption of buildings and to provide cost savings to ratepayers. Phase change materials (PCMs) can store thermal energy in the form of latent heat when subjected to temperatures exceeding their melting point by undergoing a phase transition from solid to liquid state. Reversibly, PCMs can release this thermal energy when the system temperature falls below their solidification point. The goal in implementing composite PCM walls is to significantly reduce and time-shift the maximum thermal load on the building in order to reduce and smooth out the electricity demand for heating and cooling. This Ph.D. thesis aims to develop a set of thermal design methods and tools for exploring the use of PCM-composite building envelopes and for providing design rules for their practical implementation. First, detailed numerical simulations were used to show that the effective thermal conductivity of core-shell-matrix composites depended only on the volume fraction and thermal conductivity of the constituent materials. The effective medium approximation reported by Felske (2004) was in very good agreement with numerical predictions of the effective thermal conductivity. Second, a carefully validated transient thermal model was used to simulate microencapsulated PCM-composite walls subjected to diurnal or annual outdoor temperature and solar radiation flux. It was established that adding microencapsulated PCM to concrete walls both substantially reduced and delayed the thermal load on the building. Several design rules were established, most notably, (i) increasing the volume fraction of microencapsulated PCM within the wall increases the energy savings but at the potential expense of mechanical properties [1], (ii) the phase change temperature leading to the maximum energy and cost savings should equal the desired indoor temperature regardless of the climate

  2. Three-dimensional nanomechanical mapping of amorphous and crystalline phase transitions in phase-change materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grishin, Ilja; Huey, Bryan D; Kolosov, Oleg V

    2013-11-13

    The nanostructure of micrometer-sized domains (bits) in phase-change materials (PCM) that undergo switching between amorphous and crystalline phases plays a key role in the performance of optical PCM-based memories. Here, we explore the dynamics of such phase transitions by mapping PCM nanostructures in three dimensions with nanoscale resolution by combining precision Ar ion beam cross-sectional polishing and nanomechanical ultrasonic force microscopy (UFM) mapping. Surface and bulk phase changes of laser written submicrometer to micrometer sized amorphous-to-crystalline (SET) and crystalline-to-amorphous (RESET) bits in chalcogenide Ge2Sb2Te5 PCM are observed with 10-20 nm lateral and 4 nm depth resolution. UFM mapping shows that the Young's moduli of crystalline SET bits exceed the moduli of amorphous areas by 11 ± 2%, with crystalline content extending from a few nanometers to 50 nm in depth depending on the energy of the switching pulses. The RESET bits written with 50 ps pulses reveal shallower depth penetration and show 30-50 nm lateral and few nanometer vertical wavelike topography that is anticorrelated with the elastic modulus distribution. Reverse switching of amorphous RESET bits results in the full recovery of subsurface nanomechanical properties accompanied with only partial topography recovery, resulting in surface corrugations attributed to quenching. This precision sectioning and nanomechanical mapping approach could be applicable to a wide range of amorphous, nanocrystalline, and glass-forming materials for 3D nanomechanical mapping of amorphous-crystalline transitions.

  3. Thermal analysis of a double layer phase change material floor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Xing; Zhang Xiaosong

    2011-01-01

    Phase change materials (PCMs) can be used to shift the cooling or heating load from the peak period to the off-peak period. In this paper, a new double layer phase change material (PCM) floor is put forward. The two layers of PCM have different melting temperature. The system is used to store heat or cold energy in the off-peak period and release them in the peak period during heating or cooling. According to the numerical model built in this paper, the thermal performances of the floor are analyzed. The results show that the optimal melting temperatures of PCMs exist. The fluctuations of the floor surface temperatures and the heat fluxes will be reduced and the system still can provide a certain amount of heat or cold energy after the heat pump or chiller has been turned off for a long time. Compared to the floor without PCM, the energy released by the floor with PCM in peak period will be increased by 41.1% and 37.9% during heating and cooling when the heat of fusion of PCM is 150 kJ/kg. - Highlights: → A new double layer phase change material floor is put forward. → The system is used to store heat or cold energy in the off-peak period and release them in the peak period during heating or cooling. → The optimal melting temperatures of PCMs in the system exist. → The heat and cold energy released by the floor with PCM in peak period can be increased by 41.1% and 37.9%.

  4. Heat transfer characteristics of building walls using phase change material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irsyad, M.; Pasek, A. D.; Indartono, Y. S.; Pratomo, A. W.

    2017-03-01

    Minimizing energy consumption in air conditioning system can be done with reducing the cooling load in a room. Heat from solar radiation which passes through the wall increases the cooling load. Utilization of phase change material on walls is expected to decrease the heat rate by storing energy when the phase change process takes place. The stored energy is released when the ambient temperature is low. Temperature differences at noon and evening can be utilized as discharging and charging cycles. This study examines the characteristics of heat transfer in walls using phase change material (PCM) in the form of encapsulation and using the sleeve as well. Heat transfer of bricks containing encapsulated PCM, tested the storage and released the heat on the walls of the building models were evaluated in this study. Experiments of heat transfer on brick consist of time that is needed for heat transfer and thermal conductivity test as well. Experiments were conducted on a wall coated by PCM which was exposed on a day and night cycle to analyze the heat storage and heat release. PCM used in these experiments was coconut oil. The measured parameter is the temperature at some points in the brick, walls and ambient temperature as well. The results showed that the use of encapsulation on an empty brick can increase the time for thermal heat transfer. Thermal conductivity values of a brick containing encapsulated PCM was lower than hollow bricks, where each value was 1.3 W/m.K and 1.6 W/m.K. While the process of heat absorption takes place from 7:00 am to 06:00 pm, and the release of heat runs from 10:00 pm to 7:00 am. The use of this PCM layer can reduce the surface temperature of the walls of an average of 2°C and slows the heat into the room.

  5. Polymeric compositions incorporating polyethylene glycol as a phase change material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salyer, Ival O.; Griffen, Charles W.

    1989-01-01

    A polymeric composition comprising a polymeric material and polyethylene glycol or end-capped polyethylene glycol as a phase change material, said polyethylene glycol and said end-capped polyethylene glycol having a molecular weight greater than about 400 and a heat of fusion greater than about 30 cal/g; the composition is useful in making molded and/or coated materials such as flooring, tiles, wall panels and the like; paints containing polyethylene glycols or end-capped polyethylene glycols are also disclosed.

  6. Thermal energy storage using phase change materials fundamentals and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Fleischer, Amy S

    2015-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive introduction to the use of solid‐liquid phase change materials to store significant amounts of energy in the latent heat of fusion. The proper selection of materials for different applications is covered in detail, as is the use of high conductivity additives to enhance thermal diffusivity. Dr. Fleischer explores how applications of PCMS have expanded over the past 10 years to include the development of high efficiency building materials to reduce heating and cooling needs, smart material design for clothing, portable electronic systems thermal management, solar thermal power plant design and many others. Additional future research directions and challenges are also discussed.

  7. Multistate and phase change selection in constitutional multivalent systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barboiu, Mihail

    2012-01-01

    Molecular architectures and materials can be constitutionally self-sorted in the presence of different biomolecular targets or external physical stimuli or chemical effectors, thus responding to an external selection pressure. The high selectivity and specificity of different bioreceptors or self-correlated internal interactions may be used to describe the complex constitutional behaviors through multistate component selection from a dynamic library. The self-selection may result in the dynamic amplification of self-optimized architectures during the phase change process. The sol-gel resolution of dynamic molecular/supramolecular libraries leads to higher self-organized constitutional hybrid materials, in which organic (supramolecular)/inorganic domains are reversibily connected.

  8. Phase change thermal storage for a solar total energy system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, R. E.; Cohen, B. M.

    1978-01-01

    An analytical and experimental program is being conducted on a one-tenth scale model of a high-temperature (584 K) phase-change thermal energy storage system for installation in a solar total energy test facility at Albuquerque, New Mexico, U.S.A. The thermal storage medium is anhydrous sodium hydroxide with 8% sodium nitrate. The program will produce data on the dynamic response of the system to repeated cycles of charging and discharging simulating those of the test facility. Data will be correlated with a mathematical model which will then be used in the design of the full-scale system.

  9. Automated baseline change detection phase I. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    The Automated Baseline Change Detection (ABCD) project is supported by the DOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) as part of its ER&WM cross-cutting technology program in robotics. Phase 1 of the Automated Baseline Change Detection project is summarized in this topical report. The primary objective of this project is to apply robotic and optical sensor technology to the operational inspection of mixed toxic and radioactive waste stored in barrels, using Automated Baseline Change Detection (ABCD), based on image subtraction. Absolute change detection is based on detecting any visible physical changes, regardless of cause, between a current inspection image of a barrel and an archived baseline image of the same barrel. Thus, in addition to rust, the ABCD system can also detect corrosion, leaks, dents, and bulges. The ABCD approach and method rely on precise camera positioning and repositioning relative to the barrel and on feature recognition in images. In support of this primary objective, there are secondary objectives to determine DOE operational inspection requirements and DOE system fielding requirements.

  10. Automated baseline change detection phase I. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-12-01

    The Automated Baseline Change Detection (ABCD) project is supported by the DOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) as part of its ER ampersand WM cross-cutting technology program in robotics. Phase 1 of the Automated Baseline Change Detection project is summarized in this topical report. The primary objective of this project is to apply robotic and optical sensor technology to the operational inspection of mixed toxic and radioactive waste stored in barrels, using Automated Baseline Change Detection (ABCD), based on image subtraction. Absolute change detection is based on detecting any visible physical changes, regardless of cause, between a current inspection image of a barrel and an archived baseline image of the same barrel. Thus, in addition to rust, the ABCD system can also detect corrosion, leaks, dents, and bulges. The ABCD approach and method rely on precise camera positioning and repositioning relative to the barrel and on feature recognition in images. In support of this primary objective, there are secondary objectives to determine DOE operational inspection requirements and DOE system fielding requirements

  11. Analysis of Lipoplex Structure and Lipid Phase Changes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koynova, Rumiana

    2012-07-18

    Efficient delivery of genetic material to cells is needed for tasks of utmost importance in the laboratory and clinic, such as gene transfection and gene silencing. Synthetic cationic lipids can be used as delivery vehicles for nucleic acids and are now considered the most promising nonviral gene carriers. They form complexes (lipoplexes) with the polyanionic nucleic acids. A critical obstacle for clinical application of the lipid-mediated DNA delivery (lipofection) is its unsatisfactory efficiency for many cell types. Understanding the mechanism of lipid-mediated DNA delivery is essential for their successful application, as well as for a rational design and synthesis of novel cationic lipoid compounds for enhanced gene delivery. A viewpoint now emerging is that the critical factor in lipid-mediated transfection is the structural evolution of lipoplexes within the cell, upon interacting and mixing with cellular lipids. In particular, recent studies showed that the phase evolution of lipoplex lipids upon interaction and mixing with membrane lipids appears to be decisive for transfection success: specifically, lamellar lipoplex formulations, which were readily susceptible to undergoing lamellar-nonlamellar phase transition upon mixing with cellular lipids and were found rather consistently associated with superior transfection potency, presumably as a result of facilitated DNA release. Thus, understanding the lipoplex structure and the phase changes upon interacting with membrane lipids is important for the successful application of the cationic lipids as gene carriers.

  12. Subscale Water Based Phase Change Material Heat Exchanger Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheth, Rubik; Hansen, Scott

    2016-01-01

    Supplemental heat rejection devices are required in many spacecraft as the radiators are not sized to meet the full heat rejection demand. One means of obtaining additional heat rejection is through the use of phase change material heat exchangers (PCM HX's). PCM HX's utilize phase change to store energy in unfavorable thermal environments (melting) and reject the energy in favorable environments (freezing). Traditionally, wax has been used as a PCM on spacecraft. However, water is an attractive alternative because it is capable of storing about 40% more energy per unit mass due to its higher latent heat of fusion. The significant problem in using water as a PCM is its expansion while freezing, leading to structural integrity concerns when housed in an enclosed heat exchanger volume. Significant investigation and development has taken place over the past five years to understand and overcome the problems associated with water PCM HX's. This paper reports on the final efforts by Johnson Space Center's Thermal Systems Branch to develop a water based PCM HX. The test article developed and reported on is a subscale version of the full-scale water-based PCM HX's constructed by Mezzo Technologies. The subscale unit was designed by applying prior research on freeze front propagation and previous full-scale water PCM HX development. Design modifications to the subscale unit included use of urethane bladder, decreased aspect ratio, perforated protection sheet, and use of additional mid-plates. Testing of the subscale unit was successful and 150 cycles were completed without fail.

  13. Analysis of wallboard containing a phase change material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson, J. J.; Heberle, D. P.

    Phase change materials (PCMs) used on the interior of buildings hold the promise for improved thermal performance by reducing the energy requirements for space conditioning and by improving thermal comfort by reducing temperature swings inside the building. Efforts are underway to develop a gypsum wallboard containing a hydrocarbon PCM. With a phase change temperature in the room temperature range, the PCM wallboard adds substantially to the thermal mass of the building while serving the same architectural function as conventional wallboard. To determine the thermal and economic performance of this PCM wallboard, the Transient Systems Simulation Program (TRNSYS) was modified to accommodate walls that are covered with PCM plasterboard, and to apportion the direct beam solar radiation to interior surfaces of a building. The modified code was used to simulate the performance of conventional and direct-gain passive solar residential-sized buildings with and without PCM wallboard. Space heating energy savings were determined as a function of PCM wallboard characteristics. Thermal comfort improvements in buildings containing the PCM were qualified in terms of energy savings. The report concludes with a present worth economic analysis of these energy savings and arrives at system costs and economic payback based on current costs of PCMs under study for the wallboard application.

  14. Portable Thermoelectric Power Generator Coupled with Phase Change Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lim Chong C.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Solar is the intermittent source of renewable energy and all thermal solar systems having a setback on non-functioning during the night and cloudy environment. This paper presents alternative solution for power generation using thermoelectric which is the direct conversion of temperature gradient of hot side and cold side of thermoelectric material to electric voltage. Phase change material with latent heat effect would help to prolong the temperature gradient across thermoelectric material for power generation. Besides, the concept of portability will enable different power source like solar, wasted heat from air conditioner, refrigerator, stove etc, i.e. to create temperature different on thermoelectric material for power generation. Furthermore, thermoelectric will generate direct current which is used by all the gadgets like Smartphone, tablet, laptop etc. The portable concept of renewable energy will encourage the direct usage of renewable energy for portable gadgets. The working principle and design of portable thermoelectric power generator coupled with phase change material is presented in this paper.

  15. Control of group velocity by phase-changing collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goren, C.; Rosenbluh, M.; Wilson-Gordon, A.D.; Friedmann, H.

    2005-01-01

    We discuss the influence of phase-changing collisions on the group velocities in Doppler-broadened, cycling, degenerate two-level systems where F e =F g +1 and F g >0, interacting with pump and probe lasers, that exhibit electromagnetically induced absorption (EIA). Two model systems are considered: the N system where the pump and probe are polarized perpendicularly, and EIA is due to transfer of coherence (TOC), and the double two-level system (TLS) where both lasers have the same polarization, and EIA is due to transfer of population (TOP). For the case of Doppler-broadened EIA TOC, which occurs at low pump intensity, there is a switch from positive to negative dispersion and group velocity, as the rate of phase-changing collisions is increased. For the case of EIA TOP at low pump intensity, the dispersion and group velocity remain negative even when the collision rate is increased. Pressure-induced narrowing, accompanied by an increase in the magnitude of the negative dispersion and a decrease in the magnitude of the negative group velocity, occurs in both EIA TOC and EIA TOP, at low pump intensity. When the pump intensity is increased, a switch from negative to positive dispersion and group velocity, with increasing collision rate, also occurs in the double TLS system. However, the effect is far smaller than in the case of the N system at low pump intensity

  16. Integrating Phase-Change Materials into Automotive Thermoelectric Generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein Altstedde, Mirko; Rinderknecht, Frank; Friedrich, Horst

    2014-06-01

    Because the heat emitted by conventional combustion-engine vehicles during operation has highly transient properties, automotive thermoelectric generators (TEG) are intended for a particular operating state (design point). This, however, leads to two problems. First, whenever the combustion engine runs at low load, the maximum operating temperature cannot be properly utilised; second, a combustion engine at high load requires partial diversion of exhaust gas away from the TEG to protect the thermoelectric modules. An attractive means of stabilising dynamic exhaust behaviour (thereby keeping the TEG operating status at the design point for as long as possible) is use of latent heat storage, also known as phase-change materials (PCM). By positioning PCM between module and exhaust heat conduit, and choosing a material with a phase-change temperature matching the module's optimum operating temperature, it can be used as heat storage. This paper presents results obtained during examination of the effect of integration of latent heat storage on the potential of automotive TEG to convert exhaust heat. The research resulted in the development of a concept based on the initial integration idea, followed by proof of concept by use of a specially created prototype. In addition, the potential amount of energy obtained by use of a PCM-equipped TEG was calculated. The simulations indicated a significant increase in electrical energy was obtained in the selected test cycle.

  17. Direct numerical simulation of incompressible multiphase flow with phase change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Moon Soo; Riaz, Amir; Aute, Vikrant

    2017-09-01

    Simulation of multiphase flow with phase change is challenging because of the potential for unphysical pressure oscillations, spurious velocity fields and mass flux errors across the interface. The resulting numerical errors may become critical when large density contrasts are present. To address these issues, we present a new approach for multiphase flow with phase change that features, (i) a smooth distribution of sharp velocity jumps and mass flux within a narrow region surrounding the interface, (ii) improved mass flux projection from the implicit interface onto the uniform Cartesian grid and (iii) post-advection velocity correction step to ensure accurate velocity divergence in interfacial cells. These new features are implemented in combination with a sharp treatment of the jumps in pressure and temperature gradient. A series of 1-D, 2-D, axisymmetric and 3-D problems are solved to verify the improvements afforded by the new approach. Axisymmetric film boiling results are also presented, which show good qualitative agreement with heat transfer correlations as well as experimental observations of bubble shapes.

  18. Phase change energy storage for solar dynamic power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiaramonte, F. P.; Taylor, J. D.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a transient computer simulation that was developed to study phase change energy storage techniques for Space Station Freedom (SSF) solar dynamic (SD) power systems. Such SD systems may be used in future growth SSF configurations. Two solar dynamic options are considered in this paper: Brayton and Rankine. Model elements consist of a single node receiver and concentrator, and takes into account overall heat engine efficiency and power distribution characteristics. The simulation not only computes the energy stored in the receiver phase change material (PCM), but also the amount of the PCM required for various combinations of load demands and power system mission constraints. For a solar dynamic power system in low earth orbit, the amount of stored PCM energy is calculated by balancing the solar energy input and the energy consumed by the loads corrected by an overall system efficiency. The model assumes an average 75 kW SD power system load profile which is connected to user loads via dedicated power distribution channels. The model then calculates the stored energy in the receiver and subsequently estimates the quantity of PCM necessary to meet peaking and contingency requirements. The model can also be used to conduct trade studies on the performance of SD power systems using different storage materials.

  19. Oxygen incorporation into GST phase-change memory matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golovchak, R., E-mail: holovchakr@apsu.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Austin Peay State University, Clarksville, TN 37044 (United States); Choi, Y.G. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea Aerospace University, Gyeonggi 412-791 (Korea, Republic of); Kozyukhin, S. [Kurnakov Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry of RAS, 31 Leninsky Pr., Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); National Research Tomsk State University, 36 Lenin Pr., Tomsk 634050 (Russian Federation); Chigirinsky, Yu. [Scientific-Research Physicotechnical Institute at the Nizhnii Novgorod State University, Nizhnii Novgorod 603600 (Russian Federation); Kovalskiy, A.; Xiong-Skiba, P.; Trimble, J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Austin Peay State University, Clarksville, TN 37044 (United States); Pafchek, R.; Jain, H. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Lehigh University, 5 East Packer Avenue, Bethlehem, PA 18015-3195 (United States)

    2015-03-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Surfaces of GST-225 films are depleted in Te as a result of the reaction with oxygen. • Top layers of oxidized GST-225 are formed by Sb and Ge oxide complexes. • Depth profiles of Sb and Ge oxide complexes are found to be different. • Crystallization at 300 °C in O{sub 2} atmosphere leads to Ge redistribution. - Abstract: Structural changes in amorphous and crystallized GST-225 films induced by the reaction with oxygen are studied at different depth scales. The mechanism of interaction of the very top surface layers with oxygen is studied with low-energy ion scattering (LEIS) technique, while the modifications of chemistry in the underlying surface layers are investigated with high-resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The changes averaged through the overall film thickness are characterized by micro-Raman spectroscopy. The oxygen exposure leads to a depletion of GST-225 film surfaces in Te and formation of the antimony and germanium oxides. The antimony oxide complexes are found throughout the whole thickness of the films after their prolonged storage in air, whereas no evidence for formation of pure GeO{sub 2} phase is found in the volume of the films through Raman spectroscopy. A tendency to form Ge-rich phase within the ∼10 nm surface layer is additionally observed by LEIS profiling during crystallization of GST-225 film at 300 °C in oxygen atmosphere.

  20. Gradient augmented level set method for phase change simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anumolu, Lakshman; Trujillo, Mario F.

    2018-01-01

    A numerical method for the simulation of two-phase flow with phase change based on the Gradient-Augmented-Level-set (GALS) strategy is presented. Sharp capturing of the vaporization process is enabled by: i) identification of the vapor-liquid interface, Γ (t), at the subgrid level, ii) discontinuous treatment of thermal physical properties (except for μ), and iii) enforcement of mass, momentum, and energy jump conditions, where the gradients of the dependent variables are obtained at Γ (t) and are consistent with their analytical expression, i.e. no local averaging is applied. Treatment of the jump in velocity and pressure at Γ (t) is achieved using the Ghost Fluid Method. The solution of the energy equation employs the sub-grid knowledge of Γ (t) to discretize the temperature Laplacian using second-order one-sided differences, i.e. the numerical stencil completely resides within each respective phase. To carefully evaluate the benefits or disadvantages of the GALS approach, the standard level set method is implemented and compared against the GALS predictions. The results show the expected trend that interface identification and transport are predicted noticeably better with GALS over the standard level set. This benefit carries over to the prediction of the Laplacian and temperature gradients in the neighborhood of the interface, which are directly linked to the calculation of the vaporization rate. However, when combining the calculation of interface transport and reinitialization with two-phase momentum and energy, the benefits of GALS are to some extent neutralized, and the causes for this behavior are identified and analyzed. Overall the additional computational costs associated with GALS are almost the same as those using the standard level set technique.

  1. A zero density change phase change memory material: GeTe-O structural characteristics upon crystallisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xilin; Dong, Weiling; Zhang, Hao; Simpson, Robert E

    2015-06-11

    Oxygen-doped germanium telluride phase change materials are proposed for high temperature applications. Up to 8 at.% oxygen is readily incorporated into GeTe, causing an increased crystallisation temperature and activation energy. The rhombohedral structure of the GeTe crystal is preserved in the oxygen doped films. For higher oxygen concentrations the material is found to phase separate into GeO2 and TeO2, which inhibits the technologically useful abrupt change in properties. Increasing the oxygen content in GeTe-O reduces the difference in film thickness and mass density between the amorphous and crystalline states. For oxygen concentrations between 5 and 6 at.%, the amorphous material and the crystalline material have the same density. Above 6 at.% O doping, crystallisation exhibits an anomalous density change, where the volume of the crystalline state is larger than that of the amorphous. The high thermal stability and zero-density change characteristic of Oxygen-incorporated GeTe, is recommended for efficient and low stress phase change memory devices that may operate at elevated temperatures.

  2. Experimental Studies of Phase Change and Microencapsulated Phase Change Materials in a Cold Storage/Transportation System with Solar Driven Cooling Cycle

    OpenAIRE

    Lin Zheng; Wei Zhang; Fei Liang; Shuang Lin; Xiangyu Jin

    2017-01-01

    The paper presents the different properties of phase change material (PCM) and Microencapsulated phase change material (MEPCM) employed to cold storage/transportation system with a solar-driven cooling cycle. Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC) tests have been performed to analyze the materials enthalpy, melting temperature range, and temperature range of solidification. KD2 Pro is used to test the thermal conductivities of phase change materials slurry and the results were used to compar...

  3. Changes in electrical transport and density of states of phase change materials upon resistance drift

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krebs, Daniel; Bachmann, Tobias; Jonnalagadda, Prasad; Dellmann, Laurent; Raoux, Simone

    2014-01-01

    Phase-change memory technology has become more mature in recent years. But some fundamental problems linked to the electrical transport properties in the amorphous phase of phase-change materials still need to be solved. The increase of resistance over time, called resistance drift, for example, poses a major challenge for the implementation of multilevel storage, which will eventually be necessary to remain competitive in terms of high storage densities. To link structural properties with electrical transport, a broader knowledge of (i) changes in the density of states (DoS) upon structural relaxation and (ii) the influence of defects on electrical transport is required. In this paper, we present temperature-dependent conductivity and photo-conductivity measurements on the archetype phase change material GeTe. It is shown that trap-limited band transport at high temperatures (above 165 K) and variable range hopping at low temperatures are the predominating transport mechanism. Based on measurements of the temperature dependence of the optical band gap, modulated photo-conductivity and photo-thermal deflection spectroscopy, a DoS model for GeTe was proposed. Using this DoS, the temperature dependence of conductivity and photo-conductivity has been simulated. Our work shows how changes in the DoS (band gap and defect distributions) will affect the electrical transport before and after temperature-accelerated drift. The decrease in conductivity upon annealing can be explained entirely by an increase of the band gap by about 12%. However, low-temperature photo-conductivity measurements revealed that a change in the defect density may also play a role

  4. Heat-transfer testing procedures in phase B shuttle studies with emphasis on phase change data improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Throckmorton, D. A.

    1972-01-01

    The procedures used in the application of the phase change technique to the phase B shuttle configuration are discussed along with factors which may affect data accuracy. These factors include variation of thermal properties of phase change model material, sensitivity of measured heat transfer coefficients to the assumed value of the adiabatic to total temperature ratio, and wall temperature effects. These sensitivities are illustrated in sample calculations for a shuttle geometry. Factors which may affect the visual clarity and interpretation of phase change data are discussed, and a method of improving photographic data quality through the use of polarized light is presented.

  5. Phase Change Material Heat Sink for an ISS Flight Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Gregory; Stieber, Jesse; Sheth, Rubik; Ahlstrom, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    A flight experiment is being constructed to utilize the persistent microgravity environment of the International Space Station (ISS) to prove out operation of a microgravity compatible phase change material (PCM) heat sink. A PCM heat sink can help to reduce the overall mass and volume of future exploration spacecraft thermal control systems (TCS). The program is characterizing a new PCM heat sink that incorporates a novel phase management approach to prevent high pressures and structural deformation that often occur with PCM heat sinks undergoing cyclic operation in microgravity. The PCM unit was made using brazed aluminum construction with paraffin wax as the fusible material. It is designed to be installed into a propylene glycol and water cooling loop, with scaling consistent with the conceptual designs for the Orion Multipurpose Crew Vehicle. This paper reports on the construction of the PCM heat sink and on initial ground test results conducted at UTC Aerospace Systems prior to delivery to NASA. The prototype will be tested later on the ground and in orbit via a self-contained experiment package developed by NASA Johnson Space Center to operate in an ISS EXPRESS rack.

  6. Phase Change Energy Storage Material Suitable for Solar Heating System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaohui; Li, Haihua; Zhang, Lihui; Liu, Zhenfa

    2018-01-01

    Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used to investigate the thermal properties of palmitic acid, myristic acid, laurel acid and the binary composite of palmitic/laurel acid and palmitic/myristic acid. The results showed that the phase transition temperatures of the three monomers were between 46.9-65.9°C, and the latent heats were above 190 J/g, which could be used as solar energy storage material. When the mass ratio of Palmitic acid and myristic was 1:1, the eutectic mixture could be formed. The latent heat of the eutectic mixture was 186.6 J/g, the melting temperature and the solidification temperature was 50.6°C and 43.8°C respectively. The latent heat of phase change and the melting temperature had not obvious variations after 400 thermal cycles, which proved that the binary composite had good thermal stability and was suitable for solar floor radiant heating system.

  7. Combined conduction and radiation with phase change in teflon slabs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shih, T.M.; Hsu, I.C.; Cunnington, G.R. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    A new approach to investigate, numerically, an one-dimensional Stefan problem with combined radiation and conduction has been developed. This numerical scheme is a modified version of the heat flux method and the scheme tracks the moving phase changing interface by coordinate transformation. The physical problem involves the radiative heating on one side of a Teflon slab; causing the material to melt and sublime as the melt-solid interface recedes. The other side of the Teflon slab is insulated. The results of this numerical scheme has been compared with results reported in the literature; before attempting to use this scheme to predict the experimental data. Satisfactory agreement between numerical results and the results in the literature as well as the experimental data has been obtained in both comparisons

  8. Electric vehicles batteries thermal management systems employing phase change materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ianniciello, Lucia; Biwolé, Pascal Henry; Achard, Patrick

    2018-02-01

    Battery thermal management is necessary for electric vehicles (EVs), especially for Li-ion batteries, due to the heat dissipation effects on those batteries. Usually, air or coolant circuits are employed as thermal management systems in Li-ion batteries. However, those systems are expensive in terms of investment and operating costs. Phase change materials (PCMs) may represent an alternative which could be cheaper and easier to operate. In fact, PCMs can be used as passive or semi-passive systems, enabling the global system to sustain near-autonomous operations. This article presents the previous developments introducing PCMs for EVs battery cooling. Different systems are reviewed and solutions are proposed to enhance PCMs efficiency in those systems.

  9. Characterization of Concrete Mixes Containing Phase Change Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paksoy, H.; Kardas, G.; Konuklu, Y.; Cellat, K.; Tezcan, F.

    2017-10-01

    Phase change materials (PCM) can be used in passive building applications to achieve near zero energy building goals. For this purpose PCM can be added in building structures and materials in different forms. Direct incorporation, form stabilization and microencapsulation are different forms used for PCM integration in building materials. In addition to thermal properties of PCM itself, there are several other criteria that need to be fulfilled for the PCM enhanced building materials. Mechanical properties, corrosive effects, morphology and thermal buffering have to be determined for reliable and long-term applications in buildings. This paper aims to give an overview of characterization methods used to determine these properties in PCM added fresh concrete mixes. Thermal, compressive strength, corrosion, and microscopic test results for concrete mixes with PCM are discussed.

  10. Modeling of subcooling and solidification of phase change materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günther, Eva; Mehling, Harald; Hiebler, Stefan

    2007-12-01

    Phase change materials (PCM) are able to store thermal energy in small temperature intervals very efficiently due to their high latent heat. Particularly high storage capacity is found in salt hydrates. Salt hydrates however often show subcooling, thus inhibiting the release of the stored heat. In the state of the art simulations of PCM, the effect of subcooling is almost always neglected. This is a practicable approach for small subcooling, but it is problematic for subcooling in the order of the driving temperature gradient on unloading the storage. In this paper, we first present a new algorithm to simulate subcooling in a physically proper way. Then, we present a parametric study to demonstrate the main features of the algorithm and a comparison of computed and experimentally obtained data. The new algorithm should be particularly useful in simulating applications with low cooling rates, for example building applications.

  11. Color printing enabled by phase change materials on paper substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Kai Ji

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available We have coated phase change materials (PCMs on rough and flexible substrates to achieve multicolor changeable devices. The principle of the device is based on an earlier discovery that lights have strong interference effect in PCM films, leading to various colors by reflection. In this work, paper substrates are laminated by parylene layers to protect the device from water before coated with functional PCM films. The PCM-based color printing (PCP on paper is not affected by rough surfaces and shows a similar color appearance as that on smooth surfaces. In particular, the color-printed device can be patterned by UV lithography to display a clear and tunable optical image, and it exhibits a low sensitivity to the angle of view. Such PCP has potential applications for low-cost, disposable, and flexible displays.

  12. Plastic phase change material and articles made therefrom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abhari, Ramin

    2016-04-19

    The present invention generally relates to a method for manufacturing phase change material (PCM) pellets. The method includes providing a melt composition, including paraffin and a polymer. The paraffin has a melt point of between about 10.degree. C. and about 50.degree. C., and more preferably between about 18.degree. C. and about 28.degree. C. In one embodiment, the melt composition includes various additives, such as a flame retardant. The method further includes forming the melt composition into PCM pellets. The method further may include the step of cooling the melt to increase the melt viscosity before pelletizing. Further, PCM compounds are provided having an organic PCM and a polymer. Methods are provided to convert the PCM compounds into various form-stable PCMs. A method of coating the PCMs is included to provide PCMs with substantially no paraffin seepage and with ignition resistance properties.

  13. Review on phase change materials for building applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavinia SOCACIU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In nowadays, the Phase Change Material (PCM is a viable alternative for reducing the energy consumption and for increase the thermal comfort in buildings. The use of PCM in building applications provides the potential to increase the indoor thermal comfort for occupants due to the reduced indoor temperature fluctuations and lower global energy consumption. The possibility to incorporate the PCM into the material of construction for cooling and heating the buildings gained the interest of researchers from all the world because the PCM have a high heat of fusion, meaning it is capable to storing and release large amounts of energy in the form of heat during its melting and solidifying process at a specific temperature.

  14. Color printing enabled by phase change materials on paper substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Hong-Kai; Tong, Hao; Qian, Hang; Liu, Nian; Xu, Ming; Miao, Xiang-Shui

    2017-12-01

    We have coated phase change materials (PCMs) on rough and flexible substrates to achieve multicolor changeable devices. The principle of the device is based on an earlier discovery that lights have strong interference effect in PCM films, leading to various colors by reflection. In this work, paper substrates are laminated by parylene layers to protect the device from water before coated with functional PCM films. The PCM-based color printing (PCP) on paper is not affected by rough surfaces and shows a similar color appearance as that on smooth surfaces. In particular, the color-printed device can be patterned by UV lithography to display a clear and tunable optical image, and it exhibits a low sensitivity to the angle of view. Such PCP has potential applications for low-cost, disposable, and flexible displays.

  15. Investigation of switching region in superlattice phase change memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohyanagi, T.; Takaura, N.

    2016-10-01

    We investigated superlattice phase change memories (PCMs) to clarify which regions were responsible for switching. We observed atomic structures in a superlattice PCM film with a stack of GeTe / Sb2Te3 layers using atomically resolved EDX maps, and we found an intermixed region with three atom species of the Ge, Sb and Te around the top GeTe layer under the top electrode. We also found that a device with a GeTe layer on an Sb2Te3 layer without superlattice structure had the same switching characteristics as a device with a superlattice PCM, that had the same top GeTe layer. We developed and fabricated a modified superlattice PCM that attained ultra low Reset / Set currents under 60 μ A .

  16. Sb-Te Phase-change Materials under Nanoscale Confinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihalawela, Chandrasiri A.

    Size, speed and efficiency are the major challenges of next generation nonvolatile memory (NVM), and phase-change memory (PCM) has captured a great attention due to its promising features. The key for PCM is rapid and reversible switching between amorphous and crystalline phases with optical or electrical excitation. The structural transition is associated with significant contrast in material properties which can be utilized in optical (CD, DVD, BD) and electronic (PCRAM) memory applications. Importantly, both the functionality and the success of PCM technology significantly depend on the core material and its properties. So investigating PC materials is crucial for the development of PCM technology to realized enhanced solutions. In regards to PC materials, Sb-Te binary plays a significant role as a basis to the well-known Ge-Sb-Te system. Unlike the conventional deposition methods (sputtering, evaporation), electrochemical deposition method is used due to its multiple advantages, such as conformality, via filling capability, etc. First, the controllable synthesis of Sb-Te thin films was studied for a wide range of compositions using this novel deposition method. Secondly, the solid electrolytic nature of stoichiometric Sb2Te3 was studied with respect to precious metals. With the understanding of 2D thin film synthesis, Sb-Te 1D nanowires (18 - 220 nm) were synthesized using templated electrodeposition, where nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) was used as a template for the growth of nanowires. In order to gain the controllability over the deposition in high aspect ratio structures, growth mechanisms of both the thin films and nanowires were investigated. Systematic understanding gained thorough previous studies helped to formulate the ultimate goal of this dissertation. In this dissertation, the main objective is to understand the size effect of PC materials on their phase transition properties. The reduction of effective memory cell size in conjunction with

  17. Young's modulus and residual stress of GeSbTe phase-change thin films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nazeer, H.; Bhaskaran, Harish; Woldering, L.A.; Abelmann, Leon

    2015-01-01

    The mechanical properties of phase change materials alter when the phase is transformed. In this paper, we report on experiments that determine the change in crucial parameters such as Young's modulus and residual stress for two of the most widely employed compositions of phase change films,

  18. Phase change thermal control materials, method and apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Theresa M. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    An apparatus and method for metabolic cooling and insulation of a user in a cold environment. In its preferred embodiment the apparatus is a highly flexible composite material having a flexible matrix containing a phase change thermal storage material. The apparatus can be made to heat or cool the body or to act as a thermal buffer to protect the wearer from changing environmental conditions. The apparatus may also include an external thermal insulation layer and/or an internal thermal control layer to regulate the rate of heat exchange between the composite and the skin of the wearer. Other embodiments of the apparatus also provide 1) a path for evaporation or direct absorption of perspiration from the skin of the wearer for improved comfort and thermal control, 2) heat conductive pathways within the material for thermal equalization, 3) surface treatments for improved absorption or rejection of heat by the material, and 4) means for quickly regenerating the thermal storage capacity for reuse of the material. Applications of the composite materials are also described which take advantage of the composite's thermal characteristics. The examples described include a diver's wet suit, ski boot liners, thermal socks, gloves and a face mask for cold weather activities, and a metabolic heating or cooling blanket useful for treating hypothermia or fever patients in a medical setting and therapeutic heating or cooling orthopedic joint supports.

  19. Flexible composite material with phase change thermal storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Theresa M. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A highly flexible composite material having a flexible matrix containing a phase change thermal storage material. The composite material can be made to heat or cool the body or to act as a thermal buffer to protect the wearer from changing environmental conditions. The composite may also include an external thermal insulation layer and/or an internal thermal control layer to regulate the rate of heat exchange between the composite and the skin of the wearer. Other embodiments of the PCM composite also provide 1) a path for evaporation or direct absorption of perspiration from the skin of the wearer for improved comfort and thermal control, 2) heat conductive pathways within the material for thermal equalization, 3) surface treatments for improved absorption or rejection of heat by the material, and 4) means for quickly regenerating the thermal storage capacity for reuse of the material. Applications of the composite materials are also described which take advantage of the composite's thermal characteristics. The examples described include a diver's wet suit, ski boot liners, thermal socks, ,gloves and a face mask for cold weather activities, and a metabolic heating or cooling blanket useful for treating hypothermia or fever patients in a medical setting and therapeutic heating or cooling orthopedic joint supports.

  20. Si-Sb-Te materials for phase change memory applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao Feng; Song Zhitang; Ren Kun; Zhou Xilin; Cheng Yan; Wu Liangcai; Liu Bo

    2011-01-01

    Si-Sb-Te materials including Te-rich Si 2 Sb 2 Te 6 and Si x Sb 2 Te 3 with different Si contents have been systemically studied with the aim of finding the most suitable Si-Sb-Te composition for phase change random access memory (PCRAM) use. Si x Sb 2 Te 3 shows better thermal stability than Ge 2 Sb 2 Te 5 or Si 2 Sb 2 Te 6 in that Si x Sb 2 Te 3 does not have serious Te separation under high annealing temperature. As Si content increases, the data retention ability of Si x Sb 2 Te 3 improves. The 10 years retention temperature for Si 3 Sb 2 Te 3 film is ∼ 393 K, which meets the long-term data storage requirements of automotive electronics. In addition, Si richer Si x Sb 2 Te 3 films also show improvement on thickness change upon annealing and adhesion on SiO 2 substrate compared to those of Ge 2 Sb 2 Te 5 or Si 2 Sb 2 Te 6 films. However, the electrical performance of PCRAM cells based on Si x Sb 2 Te 3 films with x > 3.5 becomes worse in terms of stable and long-term operations. Si x Sb 2 Te 3 materials with 3 < x < 3.5 are proved to be suitable for PCRAM use to ensure good overall performance.

  1. FPGA-based prototype storage system with phase change memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gezi; Chen, Xiaogang; Chen, Bomy; Li, Shunfen; Zhou, Mi; Han, Wenbing; Song, Zhitang

    2016-10-01

    With the ever-increasing amount of data being stored via social media, mobile telephony base stations, and network devices etc. the database systems face severe bandwidth bottlenecks when moving vast amounts of data from storage to the processing nodes. At the same time, Storage Class Memory (SCM) technologies such as Phase Change Memory (PCM) with unique features like fast read access, high density, non-volatility, byte-addressability, positive response to increasing temperature, superior scalability, and zero standby leakage have changed the landscape of modern computing and storage systems. In such a scenario, we present a storage system called FLEET which can off-load partial or whole SQL queries to the storage engine from CPU. FLEET uses an FPGA rather than conventional CPUs to implement the off-load engine due to its highly parallel nature. We have implemented an initial prototype of FLEET with PCM-based storage. The results demonstrate that significant performance and CPU utilization gains can be achieved by pushing selected query processing components inside in PCM-based storage.

  2. Development of Phase Change Materials for RF Switch Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Matthew Russell

    For decades chalcogenide-based phase change materials (PCMs) have been reliably implemented in optical storage and digital memory platforms. Owing to the substantial differences in optical and electronic properties between crystalline and amorphous states, device architectures requiring a "1" and "0" or "ON" and "OFF" states are attainable with PCMs if a method for amorphizing and crystallizing the PCM is demonstrated. Taking advantage of more than just the binary nature of PCM electronic properties, recent reports have shown that the near-metallic resistivity of some PCMs allow one to manufacture high performance RF switches and related circuit technologies. One of the more promising RF switch technologies is the Inline Phase Change Switch (IPCS) which utilizes GeTe as the active material. Initial reports show that an electrically isolated, thermally coupled thin film heater can successfully convert GeTe between crystalline and amorphous states, and with proper design an RF figure of merit cutoff frequency (FCO) of 12.5 THz can be achieved. In order to realize such world class performance a significant development effort was undertaken to understand the relationship between fundamental GeTe properties, thin film deposition method and resultant device properties. Deposition pressure was found to be the most important deposition process parameter, as it was found to control Ge:Te ratio, oxygen content, Ar content, film density and surface roughness. Ultimately a first generation deposition process produced GeTe films with a crystalline resistivity of 3 ohm-mum. Upon implementing these films into IPCS devices, post-cycling morphological analysis was undertaken using STEM and related analyses. It was revealed that massive structural changes occur in the GeTe during switching, most notably the formation of an assembly of voids along the device centerline and large GeTe grains on either side of the so-called active region. Restructuring of this variety was tied to

  3. In Situ Transmission Electron Microscopy Observation of Nanostructural Changes in Phase-Change Memory

    KAUST Repository

    Meister, Stefan

    2011-04-26

    Phase-change memory (PCM) has been researched extensively as a promising alternative to flash memory. Important studies have focused on its scalability, switching speed, endurance, and new materials. Still, reliability issues and inconsistent switching in PCM devices motivate the need to further study its fundamental properties. However, many investigations treat PCM cells as black boxes; nanostructural changes inside the devices remain hidden. Here, using in situ transmission electron microscopy, we observe real-time nanostructural changes in lateral Ge2Sb2Te5 (GST) PCM bridges during switching. We find that PCM devices with similar resistances can exhibit distinct threshold switching behaviors due to the different initial distribution of nanocrystalline and amorphous domains, explaining variability of switching behaviors of PCM cells in the literature. Our findings show a direct correlation between nanostructure and switching behavior, providing important guidelines in the design and operation of future PCM devices with improved endurance and lower variability. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  4. Experimental Investigation of Ice Phase Change Material Heat Exchangers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leimkuehler, Thomas O.; Stephan, Ryan A.

    2012-01-01

    Phase change materials (PCM) may be useful for spacecraft thermal control systems that involve cyclical heat loads or cyclical thermal environments. Thermal energy can be stored in the PCM during peak heat loads or in adverse thermal environments. The stored thermal energy can then be released later during minimum heat loads or in more favorable thermal environments. This can result in a decreased turndown ratio for the radiator and a reduced system mass. The use of water as a PCM rather than the more traditional paraffin wax has the potential for significant mass reduction since the latent heat of formation of water is approximately 70% greater than that of wax. One of the potential drawbacks of using ice as a PCM is its potential to rupture its container as water expands upon freezing. In order to develop a space qualified ice PCM heat exchanger, failure mechanisms must first be understood. Therefore, a methodical experimental investigation has been undertaken to demonstrate and document specific failure mechanisms due to ice expansion in the PCM. A number of ice PCM heat exchangers were fabricated and tested. Additionally, methods for controlling void location in order to reduce the risk of damage due to ice expansion were investigated. This paper presents an overview of the results of this investigation from the past three years.

  5. Continued Water-Based Phase Change Material Heat Exchanger Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Scott W.; Sheth, Rubik B.; Poynot, Joe; Giglio, Tony; Ungar, Gene K.

    2015-01-01

    In a cyclical heat load environment such as low Lunar orbit, a spacecraft's radiators are not sized to meet the full heat rejection demands. Traditionally, a supplemental heat rejection device (SHReD) such as an evaporator or sublimator is used to act as a "topper" to meet the additional heat rejection demands. Utilizing a Phase Change Material (PCM) heat exchanger (HX) as a SHReD provides an attractive alternative to evaporators and sublimators as PCM HX's do not use a consumable, thereby leading to reduced launch mass and volume requirements. In continued pursuit of water PCM HX development two full-scale, Orion sized water-based PCM HX's were constructed by Mezzo Technologies. These HX's were designed by applying prior research on freeze front propagation to a full-scale design. Design options considered included bladder restraint and clamping mechanisms, bladder manufacturing, tube patterns, fill/drain methods, manifold dimensions, weight optimization, and midplate designs. Two units, Units A and B, were constructed and differed only in their midplate design. Both units failed multiple times during testing. This report highlights learning outcomes from these tests and are applied to a final sub-scale PCM HX which is slated to be tested on the ISS in early 2017.

  6. Bonding in phase change materials: concepts and misconceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, R. O.

    2018-04-01

    Bonding concepts originating in chemistry are surveyed from a condensed matter perspective, beginning around 1850 with ‘valence’ and the word ‘bond’ itself. The analysis of chemical data in the 19th century resulted in astonishing progress in understanding the connectivity and stereochemistry of molecules, almost without input from physicists until the development of quantum mechanics in 1925 and afterwards. The valence bond method popularized by Pauling and the molecular orbital methods of Hund, Mulliken, Bloch, and Hückel play major roles in the subsequent development, as does the central part played by the kinetic energy in covalent bonding (Ruedenberg and others). ‘Metallic’ (free electron) and related approaches, including pseudopotential and density functional theories, have been remarkably successful in understanding structures and bonding in molecules and solids. We discuss these concepts in the context of phase change materials, which involve the rapid and reversible transition between amorphous and crystalline states, and note the confusion that some have caused, in particular ‘resonance’ and ‘resonant bonding’.

  7. Self-Healing Phase Change Salogels with Tunable Gelation Temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimineghlani, Parvin; Palanisamy, Anbazhagan; Sukhishvili, Svetlana A

    2018-04-19

    Chemically cross-linked polymer matrices have demonstrated strong potential for shape stabilization of molten phase change materials (PCM). However, they are not designed to be fillable and removable from a heat exchange module for an easy replacement with new PCM matrices and lack self-healing capability. Here, a new category of shapeable, self-healing gels, "salogels", is introduced. The salogels reversibly disassemble in a high-salinity environment of a fluid inorganic PCM [lithium nitrate trihydrate (LNH)], at a preprogrammed temperature. LNH was employed as a high latent heat PCM and simultaneously as a solvent, which supported the formation of a network of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) chains via physical cross-linking through poly(amidoamine) dendrimers of various generations. The existence of hydrogen bonding and the importance of low-hydration state of PVA for the efficient gelation were experimentally confirmed. The thermal behavior of PCM salogels was highly reversible and repeatable during multiple heating/cooling cycles. Importantly, the gel-sol transition temperature could be precisely controlled within a range of temperature above LNH's melting point by the choice of dendrimer generation and their concentration. Shape stabilization and self-healing properties of the salogels, taken together with tunability of their temperature-induced fluidization make these materials attractive for thermal energy storage applications that require on-demand removal and replacement of used inorganic PCM salt hydrates.

  8. Applications of fibrous substrates containing insolubilized phase change polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigo, Tyrone L.; Bruno, Joseph S.

    1993-01-01

    Incorporation of polyethylene glycols into fibrous substrates produces several improved functional properties when they are insolubilized by crosslinking with a methylolamide resin or by polyacetal formation by their reaction with glyoxal. The range of molecular weights of polyols that may be insolubilized is broad as are the curing conditions (0.25-10 min at 80-200C). Most representative fiber types and blends (natural and synthetic) and all types of fabric constructions (woven, nonwoven and knit) have been modified by incorporation of the bound polyols. The most novel property is the thermal adaptability of the modified substrates to many climatic conditions. This adaptability is due to the high latent heat of the crosslinked polyols that function as phase change materials, the hydrophilic nature of the crosslinked polymer and its enhanced thermal conductivity. Other enhanced properties imparted to fabrics include flex and flat abrasion, antimicrobial activity, reduced static charge, resistance to oily soils, resiliency, wind resistance and reduced lint loss. Applications commercialized in the U.S. and Japan include sportswear and skiwear. Several examples of electric sets of properties useful for specific end uses are given. In addition, other uses are biomedical horticultural, aerospace, indoor insulation, automotive interiors and components and packaging material.

  9. Study of Phase Change Materials Applied to CPV Receivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zun-Hao Shih

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There are lots of factors which can directly affect output efficiency of photovoltaic device. One of them is high temperature which would cause adverse effect to solar cell. When solar cell is operated in high temperature, the cell’s output efficiency will become low. Therefore, improving thermal spreading of solar cell is an important issue. In this study, we focused on finding new materials to enhance the thermal dispreading and keep the temperature of solar cell as low as possible. The new materials are different from conventional metal ones; they are called “phase change materials (PCMs” which are mainly applied to green buildings. We chose two kinds of PSMs to study their thermal dispreading ability and to compare them with traditional aluminum material. These two kinds of PCMs are wax and lauric acid. We made three aluminum-based cuboids as heat sinking units and two of them were designed with hollow space to fill in the PCMs. We applied electric forward bias on solar cells to simulate the heat contributed from the concentrated sunlight. Then we observed the thermal distribution of these three kinds of thermal spreading materials. Two levels of forward biases were chosen to test the samples and analyze the experiment results.

  10. Modeling of MEMS Mirrors Actuated by Phase-Change Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Torres

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Given the multiple applications for micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS mirror devices, most of the research efforts are focused on improving device performance in terms of tilting angles, speed, and their integration into larger arrays or systems. The modeling of these devices is crucial for enabling a platform, in particular, by allowing for the future control of such devices. In this paper, we present the modeling of a MEMS mirror structure with four actuators driven by the phase-change of a thin film. The complexity of the device structure and the nonlinear behavior of the actuation mechanism allow for a comprehensive study that encompasses simpler electrothermal designs, thus presenting a general approach that can be adapted to most MEMS mirror designs based on this operation principle. The MEMS mirrors presented in this work are actuated by Joule heating and tested using optical techniques. Mechanical and thermal models including both pitch and roll displacements are developed by combining theoretical analysis (using both numerical and analytical tools with experimental data and subsequently verifying with quasi-static and dynamic experiments.

  11. Radiation and phase change of lithium fluoride in an annulus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Kurt O.

    1993-01-01

    A one-dimensional thermal model is developed to evaluate the effect of radiation on the phase change of lithium-fluoride (LiF) in an annular canister under gravitational and microgravitational conditions. Specified heat flux at the outer wall of the canister models focused solar flux; adiabatic and convective conditions are considered for the inner wall. A two-band radiation model is used for the combined-mode heat transfer within the canister, and LiF optical properties relate metal surface properties in vacuum to those in LiF. For axial gravitational conditions, the liquid LiF remains in contact with the two bounding walls, whereas a void gap is used at the outer wall to model possible microgravitational conditions. For the adiabatic cases, exact integrals are obtained for the time required for complete melting of the LiF. Melting was found to occur primarily from the outer wall in the 1-g model, whereas it occurred primarily from the inner wall in the mu-g model. For the convective cases, partially melted steady-state conditions and fully melted conditions are determined to depend on the source flux level, with radiation extending the melting times.

  12. Automated first-principles mapping for phase-change materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esser, Marc; Maintz, Stefan; Dronskowski, Richard

    2017-04-05

    Plotting materials on bi-coordinate maps according to physically meaningful descriptors has a successful tradition in computational solid-state science spanning more than four decades. Equipped with new ab initio techniques introduced in this work, we generate an improved version of the treasure map for phase-change materials (PCMs) as introduced previously by Lencer et al. which, other than before, charts all industrially used PCMs correctly. Furthermore, we suggest seven new PCM candidates, namely SiSb 4 Te 7 , Si 2 Sb 2 Te 5 , SiAs 2 Te 4 , PbAs 2 Te 4 , SiSb 2 Te 4 , Sn 2 As 2 Te 5 , and PbAs 4 Te 7 , to be used as synthetic targets. To realize aforementioned maps based on orbital mixing (or "hybridization") and ionicity coordinates, structural information was first included into an ab initio numerical descriptor for sp 3 orbital mixing and then generalized beyond high-symmetry structures. In addition, a simple, yet powerful quantum-mechanical ionization measure also including structural information was introduced. Taken together, these tools allow for (automatically) generating materials maps solely relying on first-principles calculations. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. THE EFFECT OF PHASE CHANGE MATERIALS ON THE TENSILE STRENGTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HERROELEN Thomas

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available PCM’s need some important properties to have use such as high heat storage capacity, easy availability and low cost and can have different effects such as flavour, softness or exchange of heat. They are put inside of microcapsules, so they can be inbedded inside the strain, otherwise it wouldn’t be so effective. So basically the microcapsules consist of a core that’s the PCM and a polymer shell. This shell needs to be strong enough to hold the PCM and also withstand up to a certain level of heat and mechanical damage. This study investigates the tensile strength of fabrics composed by fibres, some of these fibres have benn inbedded phase change microcapsules (PCM’s. The investigated fabrics are divided by composition and by structure. By knitting the fabrics in different structures you could be able to investigate which knitting way could be the most effective to have a high tensile strength. Tensile strength tests are performed on specimens with different structures but also with different compositions which could indicate that some strains are tougher then others and more specifically if the PCM’s have a different effect on them.

  14. Enhanced laminated composite phase change material for energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darkwa, J.; Zhou, T. [Centre for Sustainable Energy Technologies (CSET), The University of Nottingham Ningbo, 199 Taikang East Road, Ningbo 315100 (China)

    2011-02-15

    This paper summarises studies undertaken towards the development of a laminated composite aluminium/hexadecane phase change material (PCM) drywall based on previous analytical work. The study also covered the selection and testing of various types of adhesive materials and identified Polyvinyl acetate (PVA) material as a suitable bonding material. For the purpose of comparison pure hexadecane and composite aluminium/hexadecane samples were developed and tested. The test results revealed faster thermal response by the aluminium/hexadecane sample regarding the rate of heat flux and also achieved about 10% and 15% heat transfer enhancements during the charging and discharging periods respectively. Its measured effective thermal conductivity also increased remarkably to 1.25 W/mK as compared with 0.15 W/mK for pure hexadecane. However there was about 5% less total cumulative thermal energy discharged at the end of the test which indicates that its effective thermal capacity was reduced by the presence of the aluminium particles. The study has shown that some of the scientific and technical barriers associated with the development of laminated composite PCM drywall systems can be overcome but further investigations of effects of adhesive materials are needed. (author)

  15. Water Based Phase Change Material Heat Exchanger Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Scott W.; Sheth, Ribik B.; Atwell, Matt; Cheek, Ann; Agarwal, Muskan; Hong, Steven; Patel, Aashini,; Nguyen, Lisa; Posada, Luciano

    2014-01-01

    In a cyclical heat load environment such as low Lunar orbit, a spacecraft’s radiators are not sized to reject the full heat load requirement. Traditionally, a supplemental heat rejection device (SHReD) such as an evaporator or sublimator is used to act as a “topper” to meet the additional heat rejection demands. Utilizing a Phase Change Material (PCM) heat exchanger (HX) as a SHReD provides an attractive alternative to evaporators and sublimators as PCM HXs do not use a consumable, thereby leading to reduced launch mass and volume requirements. Studies conducted in this paper investigate utilizing water’s high latent heat of formation as a PCM, as opposed to traditional waxes, and corresponding complications surrounding freezing water in an enclosed volume. Work highlighted in this study is primarily visual and includes understanding ice formation, freeze front propagation, and the solidification process of water/ice. Various test coupons were constructed of copper to emulate the interstitial pin configuration (to aid in conduction) of the proposed water PCM HX design. Construction of a prototypic HX was also completed in which a flexible bladder material and interstitial pin configurations were tested. Additionally, a microgravity flight was conducted where three copper test articles were frozen continuously during microgravity and 2-g periods and individual water droplets were frozen during microgravity.

  16. Continued Water-Based Phase Change Material Heat Exchanger Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Scott; Poynot, Joe

    2014-01-01

    In a cyclical heat load environment such as low Lunar orbit, a spacecraft's radiators are not sized to reject the full heat load requirement. Traditionally, a supplemental heat rejection device (SHReD) such as an evaporator or sublimator is used to act as a "topper" to meet the additional heat rejection demands. Utilizing a Phase Change Material (PCM) heat exchanger (HX) as a SHReD provides an attractive alternative to evaporators and sublimators as PCM HXs do not use a consumable, thereby leading to reduced launch mass and volume requirements. In continued pursuit of water PCM HX development two full-scale, Orion sized water-based PCM HX's were constructed by Mezzo Technologies. These HX's were designed by applying prior research and experimentation to the full scale design. Design options considered included bladder restraint and clamping mechanisms, bladder manufacturing, tube patterns, fill/drain methods, manifold dimensions, weight optimization, and midplate designs. Design and construction of these HX's led to successful testing of both PCM HX's.

  17. Applications of fibrous substrates containing insolubilized phase change polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigo, Tyrone L.; Bruno, Joseph S.

    1993-02-01

    Incorporation of polyethylene glycols into fibrous substrates produces several improved functional properties when they are insolubilized by crosslinking with a methylolamide resin or by polyacetal formation by their reaction with glyoxal. The range of molecular weights of polyols that may be insolubilized is broad as are the curing conditions (0.25-10 min at 80-200C). Most representative fiber types and blends (natural and synthetic) and all types of fabric constructions (woven, nonwoven and knit) have been modified by incorporation of the bound polyols. The most novel property is the thermal adaptability of the modified substrates to many climatic conditions. This adaptability is due to the high latent heat of the crosslinked polyols that function as phase change materials, the hydrophilic nature of the crosslinked polymer and its enhanced thermal conductivity. Other enhanced properties imparted to fabrics include flex and flat abrasion, antimicrobial activity, reduced static charge, resistance to oily soils, resiliency, wind resistance and reduced lint loss. Applications commercialized in the U.S. and Japan include sportswear and skiwear. Several examples of electric sets of properties useful for specific end uses are given. In addition, other uses are biomedical horticultural, aerospace, indoor insulation, automotive interiors and components and packaging material.

  18. The use of lipids as phase change materials for thermal energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phase change materials (PCMs) are substances capable of absorbing and releasing large 2 amounts of thermal energy (heat or cold) as latent heat over constant temperature as they 3 undergo a change in state of matter (phase transition), commonly, between solid and 4 liquid phases. Since the late 194...

  19. Personality Change in the Preclinical Phase of Alzheimer Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terracciano, Antonio; An, Yang; Sutin, Angelina R; Thambisetty, Madhav; Resnick, Susan M

    2017-12-01

    Changes in behavior and personality are 1 criterion for the diagnosis of dementia. It is unclear, however, whether such changes begin before the clinical onset of the disease. To determine whether increases in neuroticism, declines in conscientiousness, and changes in other personality traits occur before the onset of mild cognitive impairment or dementia. A cohort of 2046 community-dwelling older adults who volunteered to participate in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging were included. The study examined personality and clinical assessments obtained between 1980 and July 13, 2016, from participants with no cognitive impairment at first assessment who were followed up for as long as 36 years (mean [SD], 12.05 [9.54] years). The self-report personality scales were not considered during consensus diagnostic conferences. Change in self-rated personality traits assessed in the preclinical phase of Alzheimer disease and other dementias with the Revised NEO Personality Inventory, a 240-item questionnaire that assesses 30 facets, 6 for each of the 5 major dimensions: neuroticism, extraversion, openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness. Of the 2046 participants, 931 [45.5%] were women; mean (SD) age at first assessment was 62.56 (14.63) years. During 24 569 person-years, mild cognitive impairment was diagnosed in 104 (5.1%) individuals, and all-cause dementia was diagnosed in 255 (12.5%) participants, including 194 (9.5%) with Alzheimer disease. Multilevel modeling that accounted for age, sex, race, and educational level found significant differences on the intercept of several traits: individuals who developed dementia scored higher on neuroticism (β = 2.83; 95% CI, 1.44 to 4.22; P Alzheimer disease groups (eg, neuroticism: β = 0.00; 95% CI, -0.08 to 0.08; P = .91; conscientiousness: β = -0.06; 95% CI, -0.16 to 0.04; P = .24). Slopes for individuals who developed mild cognitive impairment (eg, neuroticism: β = 0.00; 95% CI, -0

  20. Geometric structure and information change in phase transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun-jin; Hollerbach, Rainer

    2017-06-01

    We propose a toy model for a cyclic order-disorder transition and introduce a geometric methodology to understand stochastic processes involved in transitions. Specifically, our model consists of a pair of forward and backward processes (FPs and BPs) for the emergence and disappearance of a structure in a stochastic environment. We calculate time-dependent probability density functions (PDFs) and the information length L , which is the total number of different states that a system undergoes during the transition. Time-dependent PDFs during transient relaxation exhibit strikingly different behavior in FPs and BPs. In particular, FPs driven by instability undergo the broadening of the PDF with a large increase in fluctuations before the transition to the ordered state accompanied by narrowing the PDF width. During this stage, we identify an interesting geodesic solution accompanied by the self-regulation between the growth and nonlinear damping where the time scale τ of information change is constant in time, independent of the strength of the stochastic noise. In comparison, BPs are mainly driven by the macroscopic motion due to the movement of the PDF peak. The total information length L between initial and final states is much larger in BPs than in FPs, increasing linearly with the deviation γ of a control parameter from the critical state in BPs while increasing logarithmically with γ in FPs. L scales as |lnD | and D-1 /2 in FPs and BPs, respectively, where D measures the strength of the stochastic forcing. These differing scalings with γ and D suggest a great utility of L in capturing different underlying processes, specifically, diffusion vs advection in phase transition by geometry. We discuss physical origins of these scalings and comment on implications of our results for bistable systems undergoing repeated order-disorder transitions (e.g., fitness).

  1. Nature of phase transitions in crystalline and amorphous GeTe-Sb2Te3 phase change materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkan, B; Sen, S; Clark, S M

    2011-09-28

    The thermodynamic nature of phase stabilities and transformations are investigated in crystalline and amorphous Ge(1)Sb(2)Te(4) (GST124) phase change materials as a function of pressure and temperature using high-resolution synchrotron x-ray diffraction in a diamond anvil cell. The phase transformation sequences upon compression, for cubic and hexagonal GST124 phases are found to be: cubic → amorphous → orthorhombic → bcc and hexagonal → orthorhombic → bcc. The Clapeyron slopes for melting of the hexagonal and bcc phases are negative and positive, respectively, resulting in a pressure dependent minimum in the liquidus. When taken together, the phase equilibria relations are consistent with the presence of polyamorphism in this system with the as-deposited amorphous GST phase being the low entropy low-density amorphous phase and the laser melt-quenched and high-pressure amorphized GST being the high entropy high-density amorphous phase. The metastable phase boundary between these two polyamorphic phases is expected to have a negative Clapeyron slope. © 2011 American Institute of Physics

  2. Changes in the phase and amplitude images in the rehabilitation phase after myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Csernay, L.; Mester, J.; Vidakovich, T.; Rajtar, M.; Pavics, L.; Szasz, K.

    1984-01-01

    A studing involving patients with completed myocardial infarction, who underwent a 3-week exercise program at a cardiocirculatory rehabilitation center in Southern Hungary, is described. Infarctions were confirmed by the typical clinical and ECG signs and symptoms as well as by 201-T1 imaging at rest. Patients with normal 201-T1 activity distribution were excluded. Three ECG-gated equilibrium radionuclide studies were performed in each case: The first was done on the first day of rehabilitation (at a mean post-infarction interval of 1.5 months); the second study was scheduled 3 weeks after the first on completion of the exercise program and the last 9 weeks after the first (on an outpatient basis). From April 25, 1983 to September 9, 1983 a total of 25 patients were investigated. Of these, 9 had normal 201-T1 images. Of the remaining 16, 9 showed no significant changes of the phase and amplitude images. In 2 cases dyskinesia was found to have been replaced by akinesia, and in another 3 akinesia was replaced by hypokinesia. By contrast, 2 previously akinetic patients became dyskinetic. We expect to increase our patient material to at least 50 cases by the end of 1983 and would like to present our results, illustrating them by some typical examples. (Author)

  3. Maxwell rigidity and topological constraints in amorphous phase-change networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Micoulaut, M.; Otjacques, C.; Raty, J.-Y.; Bichara, C.

    2011-01-01

    By analyzing first-principles molecular-dynamics simulations of different telluride amorphous networks, we develop a method for the enumeration of radial and angular topological constraints, and show that the phase diagram of the most popular system Ge-Sb-Te can be split into two compositional elastic phases: a tellurium rich flexible phase and a stressed rigid phase that contains most of the materials used in phase-change applications. This sound atomic scale insight should open new avenues for the understanding of phase-change materials and other complex amorphous materials from the viewpoint of rigidity.

  4. Mass transport in Ti0.5Sb2Te3 phase-change nanobridge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji, Xinglong; Wu, Liangcai; Lv, Shilong; Rao, Feng; Zhu, Min; Song, Zhitang; Zhou, Xilin; Feng, Songlin

    2014-01-01

    Investigation of atomic migration behavior in nanoscale phase-change material is very valuable for phase-change memory applications. In this work, Ti 0.5 Sb 2 Te 3 -based phase-change nanobridges were fabricated and mass transport by atomic migration was studied. A 3-D finite-element simulation on the electrothermal field was introduced to describe the electrothermal environment in the phase-change region. During the nanosecond operation, an obvious compositional distribution resulting from atomic migration was observed in the Ti 0.5 Sb 2 Te 3 phase-change nanobridge. Based on the mass continuity equation, a physical model for mass transport is proposed to illustrate that the density variation during the amorphous-to-crystalline structural transformation is the main reason for the atomic migration in nanoscale Ti 0.5 Sb 2 Te 3 phase-change material

  5. A design handbook for phase change thermal control and energy storage devices. [selected paraffins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, W. R.; Griggs, E. I.

    1977-01-01

    Comprehensive survey is given of the thermal aspects of phase change material devices. Fundamental mechanisms of heat transfer within the phase change device are discussed. Performance in zero-g and one-g fields are examined as it relates to such a device. Computer models for phase change materials, with metal fillers, undergoing conductive and convective processes are detailed. Using these models, extensive parametric data are presented for a hypothetical configuration with a rectangular phase change housing, using straight fins as the filler, and paraffin as the phase change material. These data are generated over a range of realistic sizes, material properties, and thermal boundary conditions. A number of illustrative examples are given to demonstrate use of the parametric data. Also, a complete listing of phase change material property data are reproduced herein as an aid to the reader.

  6. Preparation and characterization of a novel polymeric based solid-solid phase change heat storage material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xi Peng; Gu Xiaohua; Cheng Bowen; Wang Yufei

    2009-01-01

    Here we reported a two-step procedure for preparing a novel polymeric based solid-solid phase change heat storage material. Firstly, a copolymer monomer containing a polyethylene glycol monomethyl ether (MPEG) phase change unit and a vinyl unit was synthesized via the modification of hydrogen group of MPEG. Secondly, by copolymerization of the copolymer monomer and phenyl ethylene, a novel polymeric based solid-solid phase change heat storage material was prepared. The composition, structure and properties of the novel polymeric based solid-solid phase change material were characterized by IR, 1 H NMR, DSC, WAXD, and POM, respectively. The results show that the novel polymeric based solid-solid phase change material possesses of excellent crystal properties and high phase change enthalpy.

  7. Thermal Stability Test of Sugar Alcohols as Phase Change Materials for Medium Temperature Energy Storage Application

    OpenAIRE

    Solé, Aran; Neumann, Hannah; Niedermaier, Sophia; Cabeza, Luisa F.; Palomo, Elena

    2014-01-01

    Sugar alcohols are potential phase change materials candidates as they present high phase change enthalpy values, are non-toxic and low cost products. Three promising sugar-alcohols were selected: D-mannitol, myo-inositol and dulcitol under high melting enthalpy and temperature criterion. Thermal cycling tests were performed to study its cycling stability which can be determining when selecting the suitable phase change material. D-mannitol and dulcitol present poor thermal stability...

  8. Thermal Management of Transient Power Spikes in Electronics - Phase Change Energy Storage or Copper Heat Sinks?

    OpenAIRE

    Krishnan, S.; Garimella, S V

    2004-01-01

    A transient thermal analysis is performed to investigate thermal control of power semiconductors using phase change materials, and to compare the performance of this approach to that of copper heat sinks. Both the melting of the phase change material under a transient power spike input, as well as the resolidification process, are considered. Phase change materials of different kinds (paraffin waxes and metallic alloys) are considered, with and without the use of thermal conductivity enhancer...

  9. Energy Saving Potentials of Phase Change Materials Applied to Lightweight Building Envelopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon-Bok Seong

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Phase change materials (PCMs have been considered as an innovative technology that can reduce the peak loads and heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC energy consumption in buildings. Basically they are substances capable of storing or releasing thermal energy as latent heat. Because the amount of latent heat absorbed or released is much larger than the sensible heat, the application of PCMs in buildings has significant potential to reduce energy consumption. However, because each PCM has its own phase change temperature, which is the temperature at which latent heat is absorbed or released, it is important to use an appropriate PCM for the purpose of building envelope design. Therefore, this paper aims to investigate the energy saving potentials in buildings when various PCMs with different phase change temperatures are applied to a lightweight building envelope by analyzing the thermal load characteristics. As results, the annual heating load increased at every phase change temperature, but the peak heating load decreased by 3.19% with heptadecane (phase change temperature 21 °C, and the lowest indoor temperature increased by 0.86 °C with heptadecane (phase change temperature 21 °C. The annual cooling load decreased by 1.05% with dodecanol (phase change temperature 24 °C, the peak cooling load decreased by 1.30% with octadecane (phase change temperature 29 °C, and the highest indoor temperature dropped by 0.50 °C with octadecane (phase change temperature 29 °C. When the night ventilation was applied to the building HVAC system for better passive cooling performance, the annual cooling load decreased by 9.28% with dodecanol (phase change temperature 24 °C, the peak load decreased by 11.33% with octadecane (phase change temperature 29 °C, and the highest indoor temperature dropped by 0.85 °C with octadecane (phase change temperature 29 °C.

  10. Observation of polyamorphism in the phase change alloy Ge1Sb2Te4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkan, B.; Sen, S.; Cho, J.-Y.; Joo, Y.-C.; Clark, S. M.

    2012-10-01

    A high-pressure synchrotron x-ray diffraction study of the phase change alloy Ge1Sb2Te4 demonstrates the existence of a polyamorphic phase transition between the "as deposited" low density amorphous (LDA) phase and a high density amorphous (HDA) phase at ˜10 GPa. The entropy of the HDA phase is expected to be higher than that of the LDA phase resulting in a negative Clapeyron slope for this transition. These phase relations may enable the polyamorphic transition to play a role in the memory and data storage applications.

  11. Phase-change material as a thermal storage media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Chazly, Nihad M; Khattab, Nagwa M [Dokki, Cairo (Egypt)

    2000-07-01

    Heat storage based on the sensible heating of media such as water, rock and earth represent the first generation of solar energy storage subsystems and technology for their utilization. However, recently the heat storage based on the latent heat associated with a change in phase of a material offers many advantages over sensible heat storage. The most important characteristic of such a subsystem is its a sufficient storage capacity. An idealized model visualizing a thermal capacitor using a phase change material is constructed and subjected to simulated solar system environmental conditions. The proposed model is of a flat plate geometry consisting of two panels compartments forming the body of the capacitor containing the paraffin, leaving at their inner surfaces a thin passage allowing the water flow. The whole structure was assumed to be insulated to minimize heat loss. An analysis of the model is conducted using Goodman technique to generate data about the temperature distribution, the melt thickness, and the heat stored in the PCM under conditions of: ( i ) constant mass flow rate tests for various water inlet temperatures and ( ii ) constant water inlet temperature for various mass flow rate. A FORTRAN computer program was constructed to perform the analysis. It was found the water outlet temperature increases with time until it becomes nearly equals to the inlet temperature. Increasing the mass flow rate for a given inlet temperature, decreases the time required for outlet temperature to reach a given value. Increasing inlet temperature for a given mass flow rate gives a very rapid decrease in the time required for the outlet water temperature to reach a given value. Instantaneous rate of heat storage was determined from the inlet-to- exit temperature differential and measured flow rate. This rate was then integrated numerically to determine the cumulative total energy stored as a function of time. It was found that the instantaneous rate of heat storage

  12. Microstructure characterization of multi-phase composites and utilization of phase change materials and recycled rubbers in cementitious materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshgin, Pania

    2011-12-01

    This research focuses on two important subjects: (1) Characterization of heterogeneous microstructure of multi-phase composites and the effect of microstructural features on effective properties of the material. (2) Utilizations of phase change materials and recycled rubber particles from waste tires to improve thermal properties of insulation materials used in building envelopes. Spatial pattern of multi-phase and multidimensional internal structures of most composite materials are highly random. Quantitative description of the spatial distribution should be developed based on proper statistical models, which characterize the morphological features. For a composite material with multi-phases, the volume fraction of the phases as well as the morphological parameters of the phases have very strong influences on the effective property of the composite. These morphological parameters depend on the microstructure of each phase. This study intends to include the effect of higher order morphological details of the microstructure in the composite models. The higher order statistics, called two-point correlation functions characterize various behaviors of the composite at any two points in a stochastic field. Specifically, correlation functions of mosaic patterns are used in the study for characterizing transport properties of composite materials. One of the most effective methods to improve energy efficiency of buildings is to enhance thermal properties of insulation materials. The idea of using phase change materials and recycled rubber particles such as scrap tires in insulation materials for building envelopes has been studied.

  13. Multilayer SnSb4-SbSe Thin Films for Phase Change Materials Possessing Ultrafast Phase Change Speed and Enhanced Stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ruirui; Zhou, Xiao; Zhai, Jiwei; Song, Jun; Wu, Pengzhi; Lai, Tianshu; Song, Sannian; Song, Zhitang

    2017-08-16

    A multilayer thin film, comprising two different phase change material (PCM) components alternatively deposited, provides an effective means to tune and leverage good properties of its components, promising a new route toward high-performance PCMs. The present study systematically investigated the SnSb 4 -SbSe multilayer thin film as a potential PCM, combining experiments and first-principles calculations, and demonstrated that these multilayer thin films exhibit good electrical resistivity, robust thermal stability, and superior phase change speed. In particular, the potential operating temperature for 10 years is shown to be 122.0 °C and the phase change speed reaches 5 ns in the device test. The good thermal stability of the multilayer thin film is shown to come from the formation of the Sb 2 Se 3 phase, whereas the fast phase change speed can be attributed to the formation of vacancies and a SbSe metastable phase. It is also demonstrated that the SbSe metastable phase contributes to further enhancing the electrical resistivity of the crystalline state and the thermal stability of the amorphous state, being vital to determining the properties of the multilayer SnSb 4 -SbSe thin film.

  14. Phase change heat transfer device for process heat applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabharwall, Piyush; Patterson, Mike; Utgikar, Vivek; Gunnerson, Fred

    2010-01-01

    The next generation nuclear plant (NGNP) will most likely produce electricity and process heat, with both being considered for hydrogen production. To capture nuclear process heat, and transport it to a distant industrial facility requires a high temperature system of heat exchangers, pumps and/or compressors. The heat transfer system is particularly challenging not only due to the elevated temperatures (up to ∼1300 K) and industrial scale power transport (≥50 MW), but also due to a potentially large separation distance between the nuclear and industrial plants (100+ m) dictated by safety and licensing mandates. The work reported here is the preliminary analysis of two-phase thermosyphon heat transfer performance with alkali metals. A thermosyphon is a thermal device for transporting heat from one point to another with quite extraordinary properties. In contrast to single-phased forced convective heat transfer via 'pumping a fluid', a thermosyphon (also called a wickless heat pipe) transfers heat through the vaporization/condensing process. The condensate is further returned to the hot source by gravity, i.e., without any requirement of pumps or compressors. With this mode of heat transfer, the thermosyphon has the capability to transport heat at high rates over appreciable distances, virtually isothermally and without any requirement for external pumping devices. Two-phase heat transfer by a thermosyphon has the advantage of high enthalpy transport that includes the sensible heat of the liquid, the latent heat of vaporization, and vapor superheat. In contrast, single-phase forced convection transports only the sensible heat of the fluid. Additionally, vapor-phase velocities within a thermosyphon are much greater than single-phase liquid velocities within a forced convective loop. Thermosyphon performance can be limited by the sonic limit (choking) of vapor flow and/or by condensate entrainment. Proper thermosyphon requires analysis of both.

  15. Application of non-equilibrium thermodynamics to two-phase flows with a change of phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delhaye, J.M.

    1969-01-01

    In this report we use the methods of non-equilibrium thermodynamics in two-phase flows. This paper follows a prior one in which we have studied the conservation laws and derived the general equations of two-phase flow. In the first part the basic ideas of thermodynamics of irreversible systems are given. We follow the classical point of view. The second part is concerned with the derivation of a closed set of equations for the two phase elementary volume model. In this model we assume that the elementary volume contains two phases and that it is possible to define a volumetric local concentration. To obtain the entropy balance we can choose either the reversibility of the barycentric motion or the reversibility of each phase. We adopt the last assumption and our derivation is the same as this of I.Prigogine and P. Mazur about the hydrodynamics of liquid helium. The scope of this work is not to find a general solution to the problems of two phase flows but to obtain a new set of equations which may be used to explain some characteristic phenomena of two-phase flow such as wave propagation or critical states. (author) [fr

  16. Thermal property prediction and measurement of organic phase change materials in the liquid phase near the melting point

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O’Connor, William E.; Warzoha, Ronald; Weigand, Rebecca; Fleischer, Amy S.; Wemhoff, Aaron P.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Liquid-phase thermal properties for five phase change materials were estimated. • Various liquid phase and phase transition thermal properties were measured. • The thermal diffusivity was found using a best path to prediction approach. • The thermal diffusivity predictive method shows 15% agreement for organic PCMs. - Abstract: Organic phase change materials (PCMs) are a popular choice for many thermal energy storage applications including solar energy, building envelope thermal barriers, and passive cooling of portable electronics. Since the extent of phase change during a heating or cooling process is dependent upon rapid thermal penetration into the PCM, accurate knowledge of the thermal diffusivity of the PCM in both solid and liquid phases is crucial. This study addresses the existing gaps in information for liquid-phase PCM properties by examining an approach that determines the best path to prediction (BPP) for the thermal diffusivity of both alkanes and unsaturated acids. Knowledge of the BPP will enable researchers to explore the influence of PCM molecular structure on bulk thermophysical properties, thereby allowing the fabrication of optimized PCMs. The BPP method determines which of the tens of thousands of combinations of 22 different available theoretical techniques provides best agreement with thermal diffusivity values based on reported or measured density, heat capacity, and thermal conductivity for each of five PCMs (heneicosane, tricosane, tetracosane, oleic acid, and linoleic acid) in the liquid phase near the melting point. Separate BPPs were calibrated for alkanes based on heneicosane and tetracosane, and for the unsaturated acids. The alkane and unsaturated acid BPPs were then tested on a variety of similar materials, showing agreement with reported/measured thermal diffusivity within ∼15% for all materials. The alkane BPP was then applied to find that increasing the length of alkane chains decreases the PCM thermal

  17. Crystallization phenomena in germanium antimony phase-change films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eising, Gert

    2013-01-01

    Phase-changematerialen worden momenteel op grote schaal toegepast in herschrijfbare DVD's en Blu-rays. Hierbij wordt het verschil in optisch contrast tussen de meta-stabiele amorfe fase en stabiele kristallijne fase gebruikt om binair data op te slaan. Naast het optische contrast is er ook een sterk

  18. Control surface wettability with nanoparticles from phase-change materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ten Brink, G. H.; van het Hof, P. J.; Chen, B.; Sedighi, M.; Kooi, B. J.; Palasantzas, G.

    2016-01-01

    The wetting state of surfaces can be controlled physically from the highly hydrophobic to hydrophilic states using the amorphous-to-crystalline phase transition of Ge2Sb2Te5 (GST) nanoparticles as surfactant. Indeed, contact angle measurements show that by increasing the surface coverage of the

  19. Thermal conductivity of an organic phase change material/expanded graphite composite across the phase change temperature range and a novel thermal conductivity model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ling, Ziye; Chen, Jiajie; Xu, Tao; Fang, Xiaoming; Gao, Xuenong; Zhang, Zhengguo

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Expanded graphite can improve thermal conductivity of RT44HC by 20–60 times. • Thermal conductivity of PCM/EG composites keeps constant before/after melting. • Thermal conductivity of PCMs nearly doubled during phase changing. • Thermal conductivity of composite PCM increases with density and percentage of EG. • The simple model predicts thermal conductivity of EG-based composites accurately. - Abstract: This work studies factors that affect the thermal conductivity of an organic phase change material (PCM), RT44HC/expanded graphite (EG) composite, which include: EG mass fraction, composite PCM density and temperature. The increase of EG mass fraction and bulk density will both enhance thermal conductivity of composite PCMs, by up to 60 times. Thermal conductivity of RT44HC/EG composites remains independent on temperature outside the phase change range (40–45 °C), but nearly doubles during the phase change. The narrow temperature change during the phase change allows the maximum heat flux or minimum temperature for heat source if attaching PCMs to a first (constant temperature) or second (constant heat flux) thermal boundary. At last, a simple thermal conductivity model for EG-based composites is put forward, based on only two parameters: mass fraction of EG and bulk density of the composite. This model is validated with experiment data presented in this paper and in literature, showing this model has general applicability to any composite of EG and poor thermal conductive materials

  20. Solid state phase change materials for thermal energy storage in passive solar heated buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, D. K.; Christensen, C.

    1983-11-01

    A set of solid state phase change materials was evaluated for possible use in passive solar thermal energy storage systems. The most promising materials are organic solid solutions of pentaerythritol, pentaglycerine and neopentyl glycol. Solid solution mixtures of these compounds can be tailored so that they exhibit solid-to-solid phase transformations at any desired temperature within the range from less than 25 deg to 188 deg. Thermophysical properties such as thermal conductivity, density and volumetric expansion were measured. Computer simulations were used to predict the performance of various Trombe wall designs incorporating solid state phase change materials. Optimum performance was found to be sensitive to the choice of phase change temperatures and to the thermal conductivity of the phase change material. A molecular mechanism of the solid state phase transition is proposed and supported by infrared spectroscopic evidence.

  1. Speci﬿c contact resistance of phase change materials to metal electrode

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roy, Deepu; in 't Zandt, Micha A.A.; Wolters, Robertus A.M.

    2010-01-01

    For phase change random access memory (PCRAM) cells, it is important to know the contact resistance of phase change materials (PCMs) to metal electrodes at the contacts. In this letter, we report the systematic determination of the speci﬿c contact resistance (Ͽc ) of doped Sb2Te and Ge2Sb2Te5 to TiW

  2. Analyse of possibilities of increasing housing energy efficiency by application of phase-changing materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vučeljić-Vavan Sanja

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Refurbishment of existing building stock using energy-saving phase-changing smart materials and technologies, in addition to improved indoor climatic conditions, offer an opportunity for increasing housing energy efficiency and value. This fast developing technology becomes increasingly cost-effective with much shorter payback periods. However, it is undertaken only on a limited scale; because of lack of knowledge about their changeable properties and dynamism in that they behave in response to energy fields. Main characteristics, which make them different form others, are: immediacy transience, self-actuation, selectivity and directness. Phase change processes invariably involve the absorbing, storing or releasing of large amounts of energy in the form of latent heat. These processes are reversible and phase-changing materials can undergo an unlimited number of cycles without degradation. Since phase-changing materials can be designed to absorb or release energy at predictable temperatures, they have naturally been explored for use in architecture as a way of helping deal with the thermal environment in a building. Technologies based on sealing phase-changing materials into small pellets have achieved widespread use in connection with radiant floor heating systems, phase change wallboards, mortar or facade systems. Thermal characteristics of existing buildings can be improved on increasing their thermal-stored mass by implementation products of phase-changing smart materials. In addition to contributing to carbon reduction and energy security, using phase-changing materials in the building sector stimulates innovations.

  3. Crystallization Kinetics of GeSbTe Phase-Change Nanoparticles Resolved by Ultrafast Calorimetry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Bin; Brink, ten Gert; Palasantzas, Georgios; Kooi, Bart J.

    2017-01-01

    Although nanostructured phase-change materials (PCMs) are considered as the building blocks of next-generation phase-change memory and other emerging optoelectronic applications, the kinetics of the crystallization, the central property in switching, remains ambiguous in the high-temperature regime.

  4. Stress-Induced Crystallization of Ge-Doped Sb Phase-Change Thin Films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eising, Gert; Pauza, Andrew; Kooi, Bart J.

    The large effects of moderate stresses on the crystal growth rate in Ge-doped Sb phase-change thin films are demonstrated using direct optical imaging. For Ge6Sb94 and Ge7Sb93 phase-change films, a large increase in crystallization temperature is found when using a polycarbonate substrate instead of

  5. Is the use of ergonomic measures associated with behavioural change phases?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Molen, Henk F.; Sluiter, Judith K.; Frings-Dresen, Monique H. W.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that the absolute number of completed behavioural change phases (ABP) and the sequentially ordered number of completed behavioural change phases (SBP) are positively associated with the use of ergonomic measures by two groups of stakeholders in

  6. Bias dependent specic contact resistance of phase change material to metal contacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roy, Deepu; in 't Zandt, Micha; Wolters, Robertus A.M.

    2010-01-01

    Knowledge of contact resistance of phase change materials (PCM) to metal electrodes is important for scaling, device modeling and optimization of phase change random access memory (PCRAM) cells. In this article, we report the systematic determination of the speci_c contact resistance (_c) with

  7. Heat transfer during phase change. Evaporation. Application to cooling towers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merigoux, J.

    1973-01-01

    Evaporation near a water sheet, without convection, is considered. The displacement of water molecules in the gaseous phase, due to concentration gradients, is especially studied. This displacement governs the development of evaporation. The calculation is made to derive the velocity of water evaporation as a function of the partial pressure of the surrounding air, the temperature and physical properties of the air and steam. Diffusion laws are used. The calculation is applied to cooling towers, according to Merkel theory [fr

  8. Nonlinear evolution inclusions arising from phase change models

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Colli, P.; Krejčí, Pavel; Rocca, E.; Sprekels, J.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 4 (2007), s. 1067-1098 ISSN 0011-4642 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/02/1058 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : nonlinear and nonlocal evolution equations * Cahn-Hilliard type dynamics * phase transitions models Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.155, year: 2007 http://www.dml.cz/bitstream/handle/10338.dmlcz/128228/CzechMathJ_57-2007-4_2.pdf

  9. Pore-scale modeling of phase change in porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juanes, Ruben; Cueto-Felgueroso, Luis; Fu, Xiaojing

    2017-11-01

    One of the main open challenges in pore-scale modeling is the direct simulation of flows involving multicomponent mixtures with complex phase behavior. Reservoir fluid mixtures are often described through cubic equations of state, which makes diffuse interface, or phase field theories, particularly appealing as a modeling framework. What is still unclear is whether equation-of-state-driven diffuse-interface models can adequately describe processes where surface tension and wetting phenomena play an important role. Here we present a diffuse interface model of single-component, two-phase flow (a van der Waals fluid) in a porous medium under different wetting conditions. We propose a simplified Darcy-Korteweg model that is appropriate to describe flow in a Hele-Shaw cell or a micromodel, with a gap-averaged velocity. We study the ability of the diffuse-interface model to capture capillary pressure and the dynamics of vaporization/condensation fronts, and show that the model reproduces pressure fluctuations that emerge from abrupt interface displacements (Haines jumps) and from the break-up of wetting films.

  10. Theoretical potential for low energy consumption phase change memory utilizing electrostatically-induced structural phase transitions in 2D materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehn, Daniel A.; Li, Yao; Pop, Eric; Reed, Evan J.

    2018-01-01

    Structural phase-change materials are of great importance for applications in information storage devices. Thermally driven structural phase transitions are employed in phase-change memory to achieve lower programming voltages and potentially lower energy consumption than mainstream nonvolatile memory technologies. However, the waste heat generated by such thermal mechanisms is often not optimized, and could present a limiting factor to widespread use. The potential for electrostatically driven structural phase transitions has recently been predicted and subsequently reported in some two-dimensional materials, providing an athermal mechanism to dynamically control properties of these materials in a nonvolatile fashion while achieving potentially lower energy consumption. In this work, we employ DFT-based calculations to make theoretical comparisons of the energy required to drive electrostatically-induced and thermally-induced phase transitions. Determining theoretical limits in monolayer MoTe2 and thin films of Ge2Sb2Te5, we find that the energy consumption per unit volume of the electrostatically driven phase transition in monolayer MoTe2 at room temperature is 9% of the adiabatic lower limit of the thermally driven phase transition in Ge2Sb2Te5. Furthermore, experimentally reported phase change energy consumption of Ge2Sb2Te5 is 100-10,000 times larger than the adiabatic lower limit due to waste heat flow out of the material, leaving the possibility for energy consumption in monolayer MoTe2-based devices to be orders of magnitude smaller than Ge2Sb2Te5-based devices.

  11. Examination of rapid phase change in copper wires to improve material models and understanding of burst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olles, Joseph; Garasi, Christopher; Ball, J. Patrick

    2017-11-01

    Electrically-pulsed wires undergo multiple phase changes including a postulated metastable phase resulting in explosive wire growth. Simulations using the MHD approximation attempt to account for the governing physics, but lack the material properties (equations-of-state and electrical conductivity) to accurately predict the phase evolution of the exploding (bursting) wire. To explore the dynamics of an exploding copper wire (in water), we employ a digital micro-Schlieren streak photography technique. This imaging quantifies wire expansion and shock waves emitted from the wire during phase changes. Using differential voltage probes, a Rogowski coil, and timing fiducials, the phase change of the wire is aligned with electrical power and energy deposition. Time-correlated electrical diagnostics and imaging allow for detailed validation of MHD simulations, comparing observed phases with phase change details found in the material property descriptions. In addition to streak imaging, a long exposure image is taken to capture axial striations along the length of the wire. These images are used to compare with results from 3D MHD simulations which propose that these perturbations impact the rate of wire expansion and temporal change in phases. If successful, the experimental data will identify areas for improvement in the material property models, and modeling results will provide insight into the details of phase change in the wire with correlation to variations in the electrical signals.

  12. Comparative analyses on dynamic performances of photovoltaic–thermal solar collectors integrated with phase change materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, Di; Jia, Yuting; Alva, Guruprasad; Liu, Lingkun; Fang, Guiyin

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The dynamic model of photovoltaic–thermal collector with phase change material was developed. • The performances of photovoltaic–thermal collector are performed comparative analyses. • The performances of photovoltaic–thermal collector with phase change material were evaluated. • Upper phase change material mode can improve performances of photovoltaic–thermal collector. - Abstract: The operating conditions (especially temperature) of photovoltaic–thermal solar collectors have significant influence on dynamic performance of the hybrid photovoltaic–thermal solar collectors. Only a small percentage of incoming solar radiation can be converted into electricity, and the rest is converted into heat. This heat leads to a decrease in efficiency of the photovoltaic module. In order to improve the performance of the hybrid photovoltaic–thermal solar collector, we performed comparative analyses on a hybrid photovoltaic–thermal solar collector integrated with phase change material. Electrical and thermal parameters like solar cell temperature, outlet temperature of air, electrical power, thermal power, electrical efficiency, thermal efficiency and overall efficiency are simulated and analyzed to evaluate the dynamic performance of the hybrid photovoltaic–thermal collector. It is found that the position of phase change material layer in the photovoltaic–thermal collector has a significant effect on the performance of the photovoltaic–thermal collector. The results indicate that upper phase change material mode in the photovoltaic–thermal collector can significantly improve the thermal and electrical performance of photovoltaic–thermal collector. It is found that overall efficiency of photovoltaic–thermal collector in ‘upper phase change material’ mode is 10.7% higher than that in ‘no phase change material’ mode. Further, for a photovoltaic–thermal collector with upper phase change material, it is verified that 3 cm

  13. The African Climate Change Fellowship Program Phase III | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The Economic Commission for Africa argues that scientists and policymakers must learn ... The program team will: -synthesize, publish, and communicate research ... experts in climate change science, policy, and teaching; -journal articles and ...

  14. First principles study of the optical contrast in phase change materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caravati, S; Parrinello, M [Department of Chemistry and Applied Biosciences, ETH Zurich, USI Campus, Via Giuseppe Buffi 13, 6900 Lugano (Switzerland); Bernasconi, M, E-mail: marco.bernasconi@mater.unimib.i [Dipartimento di Scienza dei Materiali, Universita di Milano-Bicocca, Via R Cozzi 53, I-20125, Milano (Italy)

    2010-08-11

    We study from first principles the optical properties of the phase change materials Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5} (GST), GeTe and Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3} in the crystalline phase and in realistic models of the amorphous phase generated by quenching from the melt in ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. The calculations reproduce the strong optical contrast between the crystalline and amorphous phases measured experimentally and exploited in optical data storage. It is demonstrated that the optical contrast is due to a change in the optical matrix elements across the phase change in all the compounds. It is concluded that the reduction of the optical matrix elements in the amorphous phases is due to angular disorder in p-bonding which dominates the amorphous network in agreement with previous proposals (Huang and Robertson 2010 Phys. Rev. B 81 081204) based on calculations on crystalline models.

  15. Phase change behaviors of Zn-doped Ge2Sb2Te5 films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Guoxiang; Nie Qiuhua; Shen Xiang; Fu Jing; Xu Tiefeng; Dai Shixun; Wang, R. P.; Wu Liangcai

    2012-01-01

    Zn-doped Ge 2 Sb 2 Te 5 phase-change materials have been investigated for phase change memory applications. Zn 15.16 (Ge 2 Sb 2 Te 5 ) 84.84 phase change film exhibits a higher crystallization temperature (∼258 °C), wider band gap (∼0.78 eV), better data retention of 10 years at 167.5 °C, higher crystalline resistance, and faster crystallization speed compared with the conventional Ge 2 Sb 2 Te 5 . The proper Zn atom added into Ge 2 Sb 2 Te 5 serves as a center for suppression of the face-centered-cubic (fcc) phase to hexagonal close-packed (hcp) phase transition, and fcc phase has high thermal stability partially due to the bond recombination among Zn, Sb, and Te atoms.

  16. Graphene Aerogel Templated Fabrication of Phase Change Microspheres as Thermal Buffers in Microelectronic Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuchun; Li, Guangyong; Hong, Guo; Guo, Qiang; Zhang, Xuetong

    2017-11-29

    Phase change materials, changing from solid to liquid and vice versa, are capable of storing and releasing a large amount of thermal energy during the phase change, and thus hold promise for numerous applications including thermal protection of electronic devices. Shaping these materials into microspheres for additional fascinating properties is efficient but challenging. In this regard, a novel phase change microsphere with the design for electrical-regulation and thermal storage/release properties was fabricated via the combination of monodispersed graphene aerogel microsphere (GAM) and phase change paraffin. A programmable method, i.e., coupling ink jetting-liquid marbling-supercritical drying (ILS) techniques, was demonstrated to produce monodispersed graphene aerogel microspheres (GAMs) with precise size-control. The resulting GAMs showed ultralow density, low electrical resistance, and high specific surface area with only ca. 5% diameter variation coefficient, and exhibited promising performance in smart switches. The phase change microspheres were obtained by capillary filling of phase change paraffin inside the GAMs and exhibited excellent properties, such as low electrical resistance, high latent heat, well sphericity, and thermal buffering. Assembling the phase change microsphere into the microcircuit, we found that this tiny device was quite sensitive and could respond to heat as low as 0.027 J.

  17. Impact of Compound Hydrate Dynamics on Phase Boundary Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osegovic, J. P.; Max, M. D.

    2006-12-01

    Compound hydrate reactions are affected by the local concentration of hydrate forming materials (HFM). The relationship between HFM composition and the phase boundary is as significant as temperature and pressure. Selective uptake and sequestration of preferred hydrate formers (PF) has wide ranging implications for the state and potential use of natural hydrate formation, including impact on climate. Rising mineralizing fluids of hydrate formers (such as those that occur on Earth and are postulated to exist elsewhere in the solar system) will sequester PF before methane, resulting in a positive relationship between depth and BTU content as ethane and propane are removed before methane. In industrial settings the role of preferred formers can separate gases. When depressurizing gas hydrate to release the stored gas, the hydrate initial composition will set the decomposition phase boundary because the supporting solution takes on the composition of the hydrate phase. In other settings where hydrate is formed, transported, and then dissociated, similar effects can control the process. The behavior of compound hydrate systems can primarily fit into three categories: 1) In classically closed systems, all the material that can form hydrate is isolated, such as in a sealed laboratory vessel. In such systems, formation and decomposition are reversible processes with observed hysteresis related to mass or heat transfer limitations, or the order and magnitude in which individual hydrate forming gases are taken up from the mixture and subsequently released. 2) Kinetically closed systems are exposed to a solution mass flow across a hydrate mass. These systems can have multiple P-T phase boundaries based on the local conditions at each face of the hydrate mass. A portion of hydrate that is exposed to fresh mineralizing solution will contain more preferred hydrate formers than another portion that is exposed to a partially depleted solution. Examples of kinetically closed

  18. Investigations of binary and ternary phase change alloys for future memory applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rausch, Pascal

    2012-01-01

    The understanding of phase change materials is of great importance because it enables us to predict properties and tailor alloys which might be even better suitable to tackle challenges of future memory applications. Within this thesis two topics have been approached: on the one hand the understanding of the alloy In 3 Sb 1 Te 2 and on the other hand the so called resistivity drift of amorphous Ge-Sn-Te phase change materials. The main topic covers an in depth discussion of the ternary alloy In 3 Sb 1 Te 2 . At first glance, this alloy does not fit into the established concepts of phase alloys: e.g. the existence of resonant bonding in the crystalline phase is not obvious and the number of p-electrons is very low compared to other phase change alloys. Furthermore amorphous phase change alloys with high indium content are usually not discussed in literature, an exception being the recent work by Spreafico et al. on InGeTe 2 . For the first time a complete description of In 3 Sb 1 Te 2 alloy is given in this work for the crystalline phase, amorphous phase and crystallization process. In addition comparisons are drawn to typical phase change materials like Ge 2 Sb 2 Te 5 /GeTe or prototype systems like AgInTe 2 and InTe. The second topic of this thesis deals with the issue of resistivity drift, i.e. the increase of resistivity of amorphous phase change alloys with aging. This drift effect greatly hampers the introduction of multilevel phase change memory devices into the market. Recently a systematic decrease of drift coefficient with stoichiometry has been observed in our group going from GeTe over Ge 3 Sn 1 Te 4 to Ge 2 Sn 2 Te 4 . These alloys are investigated with respect to constraint theory.

  19. IMPACTS OF TECHNOLOGICAL CHANGES IN WAREHOUSING, PHASE I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    HAMILTON, PHYLLIS D.; KINCAID, HARRY V.

    THE OBJECTIVES OF THIS STUDY WERE (1) TO DETERMINE THE AVAILABILITY, NATURE, AND RELIABILITY OF DATA ON THE RAPID CHANGE IN THE WAREHOUSING FUNCTION IN INDUSTRY AND (2) TO PROVIDE A BASIS FOR DECISIONS CONCERNING THE DESIRABILITY AND FEASIBILITY OF CONDUCTING SUBSEQUENT STUDIES. THREE MAJOR SOURCES OF INFORMATION ON CALIFORNIA, OREGON, WASHINGTON,…

  20. Autobiographical memory and structural brain changes in chronic phase TBI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esopenko, Carrie; Levine, Brian

    2017-04-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is associated with a range of neuropsychological deficits, including attention, memory, and executive functioning attributable to diffuse axonal injury (DAI) with accompanying focal frontal and temporal damage. Although the memory deficit of TBI has been well characterized with laboratory tests, comparatively little research has examined retrograde autobiographical memory (AM) at the chronic phase of TBI, with no prior studies of unselected patients drawn directly from hospital admissions for trauma. Moreover, little is known about the effects of TBI on canonical episodic and non-episodic (e.g., semantic) AM processes. In the present study, we assessed the effects of chronic-phase TBI on AM in patients with focal and DAI spanning the range of TBI severity. Patients and socioeconomic- and age-matched controls were administered the Autobiographical Interview (AI) (Levine, Svoboda, Hay, Winocur, & Moscovitch, 2002) a widely used method for dissociating episodic and semantic elements of AM, along with tests of neuropsychological and functional outcome. Measures of episodic and non-episodic AM were compared with regional brain volumes derived from high-resolution structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Severe TBI (but not mild or moderate TBI) was associated with reduced recall of episodic autobiographical details and increased recall of non-episodic details relative to healthy comparison participants. There were no significant associations between AM performance and neuropsychological or functional outcome measures. Within the full TBI sample, autobiographical episodic memory was associated with reduced volume distributed across temporal, parietal, and prefrontal regions considered to be part of the brain's AM network. These results suggest that TBI-related distributed volume loss affects episodic autobiographical recollection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Electrospun phase change fibers based on polyethylene glycol/cellulose acetate blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Changzhong; Wang, Linge; Huang, Yong

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Ultrafine PEG/CA phase change fibers were fabricated by electrospinning. → PEG content dramatically influenced the fiber morphology and phase change behaviors. → The electrospun fibers have excellent thermal properties for thermal energy storage. - Abstract: Ultrafine phase change fibers based on polyethylene glycol (PEG)/cellulose acetate (CA) blends in which PEG acts as a model phase change material (PCM) and CA acts as a supporting material, were successfully prepared via electrospinning. The effect of PEG content on the morphology, crystalline properties, phase change behaviors and tensile properties of the composite fibers was studied systematically by field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and a tensile tester, respectively. The SEM observation indicates that maximum PEG content in the fibers could reach up to 70 wt%, and the morphology and average diameter of the composite fibers vary with PEG content. Thermal analysis results show that the latent heats of the phase change fibers increase with the increasing of PEG content in the fibers, and the PEG/CA fibers with high enthalpies have a good capability to regulate their interior temperature as the ambient temperature alters. Therefore, the developed phase change fibers have enormous applicable potentials in thermal energy storage and temperature regulation.

  2. Enabling universal memory by overcoming the contradictory speed and stability nature of phase-change materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weijie; Loke, Desmond; Shi, Luping; Zhao, Rong; Yang, Hongxin; Law, Leong-Tat; Ng, Lung-Tat; Lim, Kian-Guan; Yeo, Yee-Chia; Chong, Tow-Chong; Lacaita, Andrea L

    2012-01-01

    The quest for universal memory is driving the rapid development of memories with superior all-round capabilities in non-volatility, high speed, high endurance and low power. Phase-change materials are highly promising in this respect. However, their contradictory speed and stability properties present a key challenge towards this ambition. We reveal that as the device size decreases, the phase-change mechanism changes from the material inherent crystallization mechanism (either nucleation- or growth-dominated), to the hetero-crystallization mechanism, which resulted in a significant increase in PCRAM speeds. Reducing the grain size can further increase the speed of phase-change. Such grain size effect on speed becomes increasingly significant at smaller device sizes. Together with the nano-thermal and electrical effects, fast phase-change, good stability and high endurance can be achieved. These findings lead to a feasible solution to achieve a universal memory.

  3. On entropy change measurements around first order phase transitions in caloric materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caron, Luana; Ba Doan, Nguyen; Ranno, Laurent

    2017-02-22

    In this work we discuss the measurement protocols for indirect determination of the isothermal entropy change associated with first order phase transitions in caloric materials. The magneto-structural phase transitions giving rise to giant magnetocaloric effects in Cu-doped MnAs and FeRh are used as case studies to exemplify how badly designed protocols may affect isothermal measurements and lead to incorrect entropy change estimations. Isothermal measurement protocols which allow correct assessment of the entropy change around first order phase transitions in both direct and inverse cases are presented.

  4. Structural properties of the metastable state of phase change materials investigated by synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merkelbach, Philipp; Eijk, Julia van; Wuttig, Matthias [I. Phys. Institut (IA), RWTH Aachen, 52056 Aachen (Germany); Braun, Carolin [Institut fuer Anorg. Chemie, CAU Kiel, 24098 Kiel (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    Phase change alloys are among the most promising materials for novel data storage devices. Since several years Phase Change Materials based on Ge-Sb-Te- alloys have been used in optical data storage solutions like rewriteable CDs and DVDs. Recently these alloys have been explored as potential candidates for fast nonvolatile electrical data storage devices in Phase Change Random Access Memory (PCRAM). Besides attracting considerable interest from the commercial point of view phase change materials are very interesting also due to their remarkable physical properties. They have the ability to be reversibly switched within a few nanoseconds between the amorphous and the crystalline phase, while changing their physical properties such as optical reflectivity and electrical resistivity significantly. Even though the electronic properties show a drastical contrast such fast transitions can only be caused by small atomic rearrangements. This behavior calls for a deeper understanding of the structural properties of the alloys. We have performed powder diffraction measurements of the crystal phase of various GeSbTe alloys, to determine the structural similarities and differences of several alloys. Understanding the crystal structure of phase change materials is a key to a deeper insight into the properties of these promising materials.

  5. Thermal Protection Performance of Carbon Aerogels Filled with Magnesium Chloride Hexahydrate as a Phase Change Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Kazemi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Carbon aerogels are comprised of a class of low density open-cell foams with large void space, nanometer pore size and composed of sparsely semi-colloidal nanometer sized particles forming an open porous structure. Phase change materials are those with high heat of fusion that could absorb and release a large amount of energy at the time of phase transition. These materials are mostly used as thermal energy storage materials but in addition they could serve as an obstacle for passage of heat during phase changes and this has led to their use in thermal protection systems. In this study, the effect of magnesium chloride hexahydrate, as a phase change material (melting point 115°C, on thermal properties of carbon aerogels is investigated. Thermal performance tests are designed and used for comparing the temperature-time behavior of the samples. DSC is applied to obtain the latent heat of melting of the phase change materials and the SEM tests are used to analyze the microstructure and morphology of carbon aerogels. The results show that the low percentage of phase change materials in carbon aerogels does not have any significant positive effect on carbon aerogels thermal properties. However, these properties are improved by increasing the percentage of phase change materials. With high percentage of phase change materials, a sample surface at 300°C would display an opposite surface with a significant drop in temperature increases, while at 115-200°C, with carbon aerogels, having no phase change materials, there is a severe reduction in the rate of temperature increase of the sample.

  6. Automated baseline change detection - Phases 1 and 2. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byler, E.

    1997-01-01

    The primary objective of this project is to apply robotic and optical sensor technology to the operational inspection of mixed toxic and radioactive waste stored in barrels, using Automated Baseline Change Detection (ABCD), based on image subtraction. Absolute change detection is based on detecting any visible physical changes, regardless of cause, between a current inspection image of a barrel and an archived baseline image of the same barrel. Thus, in addition to rust, the ABCD system can also detect corrosion, leaks, dents, and bulges. The ABCD approach and method rely on precise camera positioning and repositioning relative to the barrel and on feature recognition in images. The ABCD image processing software was installed on a robotic vehicle developed under a related DOE/FETC contract DE-AC21-92MC29112 Intelligent Mobile Sensor System (IMSS) and integrated with the electronics and software. This vehicle was designed especially to navigate in DOE Waste Storage Facilities. Initial system testing was performed at Fernald in June 1996. After some further development and more extensive integration the prototype integrated system was installed and tested at the Radioactive Waste Management Facility (RWMC) at INEEL beginning in April 1997 through the present (November 1997). The integrated system, composed of ABCD imaging software and IMSS mobility base, is called MISS EVE (Mobile Intelligent Sensor System--Environmental Validation Expert). Evaluation of the integrated system in RWMC Building 628, containing approximately 10,000 drums, demonstrated an easy to use system with the ability to properly navigate through the facility, image all the defined drums, and process the results into a report delivered to the operator on a GUI interface and on hard copy. Further work is needed to make the brassboard system more operationally robust

  7. Enhancing heat capacity of colloidal suspension using nanoscale encapsulated phase-change materials for heat transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Yan; Ding, Shujiang; Wu, Wei; Hu, Jianjun; Voevodin, Andrey A; Gschwender, Lois; Snyder, Ed; Chow, Louis; Su, Ming

    2010-06-01

    This paper describes a new method to enhance the heat-transfer property of a single-phase liquid by adding encapsulated phase-change nanoparticles (nano-PCMs), which absorb thermal energy during solid-liquid phase changes. Silica-encapsulated indium nanoparticles and polymer-encapsulated paraffin (wax) nanoparticles have been made using colloid method, and suspended into poly-alpha-olefin (PAO) and water for potential high- and low-temperature applications, respectively. The shells prevent leakage and agglomeration of molten phase-change materials, and enhance the dielectric properties of indium nanoparticles. The heat-transfer coefficients of PAO containing indium nanoparticles (30% by mass) and water containing paraffin nanoparticles (10% by mass) are 1.6 and 1.75 times higher than those of corresponding single-phase fluids. The structural integrity of encapsulation allows repeated use of such nanoparticles for many cycles in high heat generating devices.

  8. Experimental Studies of Phase Change and Microencapsulated Phase Change Materials in a Cold Storage/Transportation System with Solar Driven Cooling Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Zheng

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the different properties of phase change material (PCM and Microencapsulated phase change material (MEPCM employed to cold storage/transportation system with a solar-driven cooling cycle. Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC tests have been performed to analyze the materials enthalpy, melting temperature range, and temperature range of solidification. KD2 Pro is used to test the thermal conductivities of phase change materials slurry and the results were used to compare the materials heat transfer performance. The slurry flow characteristics of MEPCM slurry also have been tested. Furthermore, in order to analyze the improvement effect on stability, the stability of MEPCM slurry with different surfactants have been tested. The researches of the PCM and MEPCM thermal properties revealed a more prospective application for phase change materials in energy storage/transportation systems. The study aims to find the most suitable chilling medium to further optimize the design of the cold storage/transportation systems with solar driven cooling cycles.

  9. Nitrogen-doped Sb-rich Si–Sb–Te phase-change material for high-performance phase-change memory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Xilin; Wu, Liangcai; Song, Zhitang; Cheng, Yan; Rao, Feng; Ren, Kun; Song, Sannian; Liu, Bo; Feng, Songlin

    2013-01-01

    The effects of nitrogen doping on the phase-change performance of Sb-rich Si–Sb–Te materials are systemically investigated, focusing on the chemical state and the role of nitrogen upon crystallization. The tendency of N atoms to bond with Si (SiN x ) in the crystalline film is analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The microstructures of the materials mixed with Sb 2 Te crystal grains and amorphous Si/SiN x regions are elucidated via in situ transmission electron microscopy, from which a percolation behavior is demonstrated to possibly describe the random crystallization feature in the nucleation-dominated nanocomposite material. The phase-change memory cells based on N-doped Sb-rich Si–Sb–Te materials display more stable and reliable electrical performance than the nitrogen-free ones. An endurance characteristic in the magnitude of 10 7 cycles of the phase-change memory cells is realized with moderate nitrogen addition, meaning that the nitrogen incorporation into Si–Sb–Te material is a suitable method to achieve high-performance phase-change memory for commercial applications

  10. Chalcogenide phase-change thin films used as grayscale photolithography materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui; Wei, Jingsong; Fan, Yongtao

    2014-03-10

    Chalcogenide phase-change thin films are used in many fields, such as optical information storage and solid-state memory. In this work, we present another application of chalcogenide phase-change thin films, i.e., as grayscale photolithgraphy materials. The grayscale patterns can be directly inscribed on the chalcogenide phase-change thin films by a single process through direct laser writing method. In grayscale photolithography, the laser pulse can induce the formation of bump structure, and the bump height and size can be precisely controlled by changing laser energy. Bumps with different height and size present different optical reflection and transmission spectra, leading to the different gray levels. For example, the continuous-tone grayscale images of lifelike bird and cat are successfully inscribed onto Sb(2)Te(3) chalcogenide phase-change thin films using a home-built laser direct writer, where the expression and appearance of the lifelike bird and cat are fully presented. This work provides a way to fabricate complicated grayscale patterns using laser-induced bump structures onto chalcogenide phase-change thin films, different from current techniques such as photolithography, electron beam lithography, and focused ion beam lithography. The ability to form grayscale patterns of chalcogenide phase-change thin films reveals many potential applications in high-resolution optical images for micro/nano image storage, microartworks, and grayscale photomasks.

  11. Graphene/phase change material nanocomposites: light-driven, reversible electrical resistivity regulation via form-stable phase transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yunming; Mi, Hongyi; Zheng, Qifeng; Ma, Zhenqiang; Gong, Shaoqin

    2015-02-04

    Innovative photoresponsive materials are needed to address the complexity of optical control systems. Here, we report a new type of photoresponsive nanomaterial composed of graphene and a form-stable phase change material (PCM) that exhibited a 3 orders of magnitude change in electrical resistivity upon light illumination while retaining its overall original solid form at the macroscopic level. This dramatic change in electrical resistivity also occurred reversibly through the on/off control of light illumination. This was attributed to the reversible phase transition (i.e., melting/recrystallization) behavior of the microscopic crystalline domains present in the form-stable PCM. The reversible phase transition observed in the graphene/PCM nanocomposite was induced by a reversible temperature change through the on/off control of light illumination because graphene can effectively absorb light energy and convert it to thermal energy. In addition, this graphene/PCM nanocomposite also possessed excellent mechanical properties. Such photoresponsive materials have many potential applications, including flexible electronics.

  12. Aluminum-centered tetrahedron-octahedron transition in advancing Al-Sb-Te phase change properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Mengjiao; Ding, Keyuan; Rao, Feng; Li, Xianbin; Wu, Liangcai; Song, Zhitang

    2015-02-24

    Group IIIA elements, Al, Ga, or In, etc., doped Sb-Te materials have proven good phase change properties, especially the superior data retention ability over popular Ge2Sb2Te5, while their phase transition mechanisms are rarely investigated. In this paper, aiming at the phase transition of Al-Sb-Te materials, we reveal a dominant rule of local structure changes around the Al atoms based on ab initio simulations and nuclear magnetic resonance evidences. By comparing the local chemical environments around Al atoms in respective amorphous and crystalline Al-Sb-Te phases, we believe that Al-centered motifs undergo reversible tetrahedron-octahedron reconfigurations in phase transition process. Such Al-centered local structure rearrangements significantly enhance thermal stability of amorphous phase compared to that of undoped Sb-Te materials, and facilitate a low-energy amorphization due to the weak links among Al-centered and Sb-centered octahedrons. Our studies may provide a useful reference to further understand the underlying physics and optimize performances of all IIIA metal doped Sb-Te phase change materials, prompting the development of NOR/NAND Flash-like phase change memory technology.

  13. Ultrafast Ge-Te bond dynamics in a phase-change superlattice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malvestuto, Marco; Caretta, Antonio; Casarin, Barbara; Cilento, Federico; Dell'Angela, Martina; Fausti, Daniele; Calarco, Raffaella; Kooi, Bart J.; Varesi, Enrico; Robertson, John; Parmigiani, Fulvio

    2016-01-01

    A long-standing question for avant-garde data storage technology concerns the nature of the ultrafast photoinduced phase transformations in the wide class of chalcogenide phase-change materials (PCMs). Overall, a comprehensive understanding of the microstructural evolution and the relevant kinetics

  14. Impact of global warming on ENSO phase change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Cabos Narvaez

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We compare the physical mechanisms involved in the generation and decay of ENSO events in a control (present day conditions and Scenario (Is92a, IPCC 1996 simulations performed with the coupled ocean-atmosphere GCM ECHAM4-OPYC3. A clustering technique which objectively discriminates common features in the evolution of the Tropical Pacific Heat Content anomalies leading to the peak of ENSO events allows us to group into a few classes the ENSO events occurring in 240 years of data in the control and scenario runs. In both simulations, the composites of the groups show differences in the generation and development of ENSO. We present the changes in the statistics of the groups and explore the possible mechanisms involved.

  15. Solid-solid phase change thermal storage application to space-suit battery pack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Chang H.; Morehouse, Jeffrey H.

    1989-01-01

    High cell temperatures are seen as the primary safety problem in the Li-BCX space battery. The exothermic heat from the chemical reactions could raise the temperature of the lithium electrode above the melting temperature. Also, high temperature causes the cell efficiency to decrease. Solid-solid phase-change materials were used as a thermal storage medium to lower this battery cell temperature by utilizing their phase-change (latent heat storage) characteristics. Solid-solid phase-change materials focused on in this study are neopentyl glycol and pentaglycerine. Because of their favorable phase-change characteristics, these materials appear appropriate for space-suit battery pack use. The results of testing various materials are reported as thermophysical property values, and the space-suit battery operating temperature is discussed in terms of these property results.

  16. Estuary 2100 Project, Phase 1: Resilient Watersheds for a Changing Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information about the SFBWQP Estuary 2100 Project, Phase 1: Resilient Watersheds for a Changing Climate , part of an EPA competitive grant program to improve SF Bay water quality focused on restoring impaired waters and enhancing aquatic resources.

  17. Radiation Heat Transfer Modeling Improved for Phase-Change, Thermal Energy Storage Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerslake, Thomas W.; Jacqmin, David A.

    1998-01-01

    Spacecraft solar dynamic power systems typically use high-temperature phase-change materials to efficiently store thermal energy for heat engine operation in orbital eclipse periods. Lithium fluoride salts are particularly well suited for this application because of their high heat of fusion, long-term stability, and appropriate melting point. Considerable attention has been focused on the development of thermal energy storage (TES) canisters that employ either pure lithium fluoride (LiF), with a melting point of 1121 K, or eutectic composition lithium-fluoride/calcium-difluoride (LiF-20CaF2), with a 1040 K melting point, as the phase-change material. Primary goals of TES canister development include maximizing the phase-change material melt fraction, minimizing the canister mass per unit of energy storage, and maximizing the phase-change material thermal charge/discharge rates within the limits posed by the container structure.

  18. Forced convection heat transfer with slurry of phase change material in circular ducts: A phenomenological approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Royon, Laurent; Guiffant, Gerard

    2008-01-01

    A model describing the thermal behaviour of a slurry of phase change material flow in a circular duct is presented. Reactors connected in series are considered for the representation of the circular duct with constant wall temperature. A phenomenological equation is formulated to take account of the heat generation due to phase change in the particles. Results of the simulation present a plateau of temperature along the longitudinal direction, characteristic of the phase change. The effect of different parameters such as the Reynolds number, the weight fraction and the temperature of the cold spring on the length of the plateau is analysed. A correlation resulting from numerical results is proposed for use in the determination of the characteristics of the exchanger for a phase change material slurry

  19. Microencapsulation of butyl stearate as a phase change material by interfacial polycondensation in a polyurea system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Liang [College of Material Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Technology, Nanjing 210009 (China)], E-mail: doseng_1982@hotmail.com; Xu Lingling; Shang Hongbo; Zhang Zhibin [College of Material Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Technology, Nanjing 210009 (China)

    2009-03-15

    For the last 20 years, microencapsulated phase change materials (MicroPCMs), which combine microencapsulation technology and phase change material, have been attracted more and more interest. By overcoming some limitations of the PCMs, the MicroPCMs improve the efficiency of PCMs and make it possible to apply PCMs in many areas. In this experiment, polyurea microcapsules containing phase change materials were prepared using interfacial polycondensation method. Toluene-2,4-diisocyanate (TDI) and ethylenediamine (EDA) were chosen as monomers. Butyl stearate was employed as a core material. The MicroPCMs' properties have been characterized by dry weight analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, Fourier transform IR spectra analysis and optical microscopy. The results show that the MicroPCMs were synthesized successfully and that, the phase change temperature was about 29 deg. C, the latent heat of fusion was about 80 J g{sup -1}, the particle diameter was 20-35 {mu}m.

  20. Microencapsulation of butyl stearate as a phase change material by interfacial polycondensation in a polyurea system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Liang; Xu Lingling; Shang Hongbo; Zhang Zhibin

    2009-01-01

    For the last 20 years, microencapsulated phase change materials (MicroPCMs), which combine microencapsulation technology and phase change material, have been attracted more and more interest. By overcoming some limitations of the PCMs, the MicroPCMs improve the efficiency of PCMs and make it possible to apply PCMs in many areas. In this experiment, polyurea microcapsules containing phase change materials were prepared using interfacial polycondensation method. Toluene-2,4-diisocyanate (TDI) and ethylenediamine (EDA) were chosen as monomers. Butyl stearate was employed as a core material. The MicroPCMs' properties have been characterized by dry weight analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, Fourier transform IR spectra analysis and optical microscopy. The results show that the MicroPCMs were synthesized successfully and that, the phase change temperature was about 29 deg. C, the latent heat of fusion was about 80 J g -1 , the particle diameter was 20-35 μm

  1. Microencapsulation of butyl stearate as a phase change material by interfacial polycondensation in a polyurea system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Chen; Lingling, Xu; Hongbo, Shang; Zhibin, Zhang [College of Material Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Technology, Nanjing 210009 (China)

    2009-03-15

    For the last 20 years, microencapsulated phase change materials (MicroPCMs), which combine microencapsulation technology and phase change material, have been attracted more and more interest. By overcoming some limitations of the PCMs, the MicroPCMs improve the efficiency of PCMs and make it possible to apply PCMs in many areas. In this experiment, polyurea microcapsules containing phase change materials were prepared using interfacial polycondensation method. Toluene-2,4-diisocyanate (TDI) and ethylenediamine (EDA) were chosen as monomers. Butyl stearate was employed as a core material. The MicroPCMs' properties have been characterized by dry weight analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, Fourier transform IR spectra analysis and optical microscopy. The results show that the MicroPCMs were synthesized successfully and that, the phase change temperature was about 29 C, the latent heat of fusion was about 80 J g{sup -1}, the particle diameter was 20-35 {mu}m. (author)

  2. Locally formation of Ag nanoparticles in chalcogenide phase change thin films induced by nanosecond laser pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Huan; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Yang; Han, Xiaodong; Wu, Yiqun; Zhang, Ze; Gan, Fuxi

    2012-01-01

    A simple method to optically synthesize Ag nanoparticles in Ge 2 Sb 2 Te 5 phase change matrix is described. The fine structures of the locally formed phase change chalcogenide nanocomposite are characterized by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The formation mechanism of the nanocomposite is discussed with temperature evolution and distribution simulations. This easy-prepared metal nano-particle-embedded phase change microstructure will have great potential in nanophotonics applications, such as for plasmonic functional structures. This also provides a generalized approach to the preparation of well-dispersed nanoparticle-embedded composite thin films in principle. -- Highlights: ► We describe a method to prepare chalcogenide microstructures with Ag nanoparticles. ► We give the fine structural images of phase change nanocomposites. ► We discuss the laser-induced fusion mechanism by temperature simulation. ► This microstructure will have great potential in nanophotonics applications.

  3. A Mixed Enthalpy-Temperature Finite Element Method For Generalized Phase-Change Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    krabbenhøft, Kristian; Damkilde, Lars

    2003-01-01

    In a large number of problems of engineering interest the transition of the material from one phase to another is of vital importance in describing the overall physical behaviour. Common applications include metal casting, freezing and thawing of foodstuffs and other biological materials, ground ...... freezing and solar energy storage. The phase-change problem is characterized by an abrupt change in enthalpy per unit temperature in a narrow temperature range around the freezing point....

  4. Thermodynamic nonequilibrium phase change behavior and thermal properties of biological solutions for cryobiology applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Bumsoo; Bischof, John C

    2004-04-01

    Understanding the phase change behavior of biomaterials during freezing/thawing including their thermal properties at low temperatures is essential to design and improve cryobiology applications such as cryopreservation and cryosurgery. However, knowledge of phase change behavior and thermal properties of various biomaterials is still incomplete, especially at cryogenic temperatures (solutions--either water-NaCl or phosphate buffered saline (PBS)--with various chemical additives were investigated. The chemical additives studied are glycerol and raffinose as CPAs, an AFP (Type III, molecular weight = 6500), and NaCl as a cryosurgical adjuvant. The phase change behavior was investigated using a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and a cryomicroscope. The specific and latent heat of these solutions were also measured with the DSC. The saline solutions have two distinct phase changes--water/ice and eutectic phase changes. During freezing, eutectic solidification of both water-NaCl and PBS are significantly supercooled below their thermodynamic equilibrium eutectic temperatures. However, their melting temperatures are close to thermodynamic equilibrium during thawing. These eutectic phase changes disappear when even a small amount (0.1 M glycerol) of CPA was added, but they are still observed after the addition of an AFP. The specific heats of these solutions are close to that of ice at very low temperatures (< or = -100 degrees C) regardless of the additives, but they increase between -100 degrees C and -30 degrees C with the addition of CPAs. The amount of latent heat, which is evaluated with sample weight, generally decreases with the addition of the additives, but can be normalized to approximately 300 J/g based on the weight of water which participates in the phase change. This illustrates that thermal properties, especially latent heat, of a biomaterial should be evaluated based on the understanding of its phase change behavior. The results of the present

  5. Detecting Output Pressure Change of Positive-Displacement Pump by Phase Trajectory Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Stojek

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The monitoring of hydraulic system condition change during its exploitation ran its complex problem. The main task is to identifyearly phase damage of hydraulic system elements (pumps, valves, ect. in order to take decision which can avoid hydraulic system breakdown. This paper presents the possibility of phase trajectories use in detecting output pressure change of hydraulic system causedby positive-displacement pump wear.

  6. Evaluation of regenerative phase change drywalls: low-energy building application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darkwa, K. [Nottingham Trent Unv., Applied Energy and Environmental Engineering Unit, Nottingham (United Kingdom)

    1999-07-01

    An integrated phase change drywall system has been analytically evaluated for low-energy building applications. The mathematical model indicates that it is possible to attain higher levels of thermal performance and efficiency with lower values of transfer units (NTU). Even though the model does not take into account the variable nature of the thermophysical properties of phase change materials (PCMs), reasonable thermal performance is achievable. Experimental validation is therefore recommended. (Author)

  7. Experiment of forced convection heat transfer using microencapsulated phase-change-material slurries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubo, Shinji; Akino, Norio; Tanaka, Amane; Nagashima, Akira.

    1997-01-01

    The present study describes an experiment on forced convective heat transfer using a water slurry of Microencapsulated Phase-change-material. A normal paraffin hydrocarbon is microencapsulated by melamine resin, melting point of 28.1degC. The heat transfer coefficient and pressure drop in a circular tube were evaluated. The heat transfer coefficient using the slurry in case with and without phase change were compared to in case of using pure water. (author)

  8. A Mixed Enthalpy-Temperature Finite Element Method For Generalized Phase-Change Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    krabbenhøft, Kristian; Damkilde, Lars

    2003-01-01

    In a large number of problems of engineering interest the transition of the material from one phase to another is of vital importance in describing the overall physical behaviour. Common applications include metal casting, freezing and thawing of foodstuffs and other biological materials, ground...... freezing and solar energy storage. The phase-change problem is characterized by an abrupt change in enthalpy per unit temperature in a narrow temperature range around the freezing point....

  9. The effect of molybdenum content with changes in phase and heat capacity of UMo alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aslina Br Ginting; Supardjo; Agoeng Kadarjono; Dian Anggraini

    2011-01-01

    Has done the analysis of phase and heat capacity change of the UMo alloy by variation of 7% Mo, 8% and 9% Mo. Analysis performed using phase change Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA) at a temperature between 30°C until 1400°C with heating rate 10°C/minute and heat capacity analysis carried out using Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) at a temperature between 30°C to 450°C with heating rate 5°C/minute. The purpose of this study was to determine the character of the UMo alloy include phase change and heat capacity variation with Mo content due to higher content of Mo is expected to change both the character U-7% Mo alloy, U-8% Mo and U-9% Mo. The analysis showed that of 7% Mo, 8% Mo and 9% Mo the combination experiencing α+ δ a phase change becomes α + β phase at temperatures of 578.63°C to 580.16°C. At the temperature 606.50°C to 627.58°C having a phase change of α+ β to β + γ be followed by the endothermic reaction in the content of 9% Mo with the enthalpy ΔH = 6.5989 J / g. At temperatures 1075.45°C up to 1160.51°C phase change β + γ into γ phase. The increase in Mo content to heating at a temperature 1100°C not cause a significant phase change. At temperatures above 1177.21°C, the increase in Mo content leads to changes in the γ phase of forming L + γ phase which followed the reaction of uranium with Mo to form γ phase - solid solution. The higher content of Mo, the reaction heat is needed and released the greater. The results of the analysis of the heat capacity is obtained that the increase in Mo content in the U-7% Mo, U-8% Mo, and U-9% Mo alloy does not give a significant difference in heat capacity. This is attested by doing different test (F test) at 95% degree of confidence. This data is expected to be as a first step to study the manufacture of UMo alloy as a fuel of high uranium density for research reactor. (author)

  10. Calculation of Heat Exchange and Changing Phase Ratio in Extended Flowing Heat Accumulators on Phase Transitions with Rectangular Inserts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. G. Zorina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To use the renewable power sources such as solar, wind, biogas, and others is complicated because of their sporadic supply. Thus and so, energy accumulation makes the user independent on the operating mode of the power source.Some of the heat accumulation methods can be realized with accumulators using phase transitions and based on the heat storage materials that change their state of aggregation during storage and rejection of thermal energy. In comparison with the gravel or liquid heat accumulators these devices are compact and provide high density of stored energy. To intensify heat exchange in such devices, are used highly heat-conductive metallic inсlusions of different shape, capsular laying or heat storage materials placed in the form of inserts, extended heat exchange surfaces, etc.Heat transfer of accumulator using phase transitions is calculated through solving a nonlinear Stefan problem. For calculation, are, usually, used various sufficiently time-consuming methods.The paper presents a heat transfer calculation when changing the aggregation state of substance. Its recommendation is to use the analytical dependences that allow calculation of heat exchange characteristics with charging phase transition accumulators of a capsular type in which a heat storage material is in cross-inserts.It is assumed that heat transfer in the coolant flow is one-dimensional, thermal and physical properties of heat storage material and coolant are constant, and heat transfer in the accumulator using phase transitions is quasi-stationary.

  11. Theoretical study of heat transfer with moving phase-change interface in thawing of frozen food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leung, M; Ching, W H; Leung, D Y C; Lam, G C K

    2005-01-01

    A theoretical solution was obtained for a transient phase-change heat transfer problem in thawing of frozen food. In the physical model, a sphere originally at a uniform temperature below the phase-change temperature is suddenly immersed in a fluid at a temperature above the phase-change temperature. As the body temperature increases, the phase-change interface will be first formed on the surface. Subsequently, the interface will absorb the latent heat and move towards the centre until the whole body undergoes complete phase change. In the mathematical formulation, the nonhomogeneous problem arises from the moving phase-change interface. The solution in terms of the time-dependent temperature field was obtained by use of Green's function. A one-step Newton-Raphson method was specially designed to solve for the position of the moving interface to satisfy the interface condition. The theoretical results were compared with numerical results generated by a finite difference model and experimental measurements collected from a cold water thawing process. As a good agreement was found, the theoretical solution developed in this study was verified numerically and experimentally. Besides thawing of frozen food, there are many other practical applications of the theoretical solution, such as food freezing, soil freezing/thawing, metal casting and bath quenching heat treatment, among others

  12. Unique Bond Breaking in Crystalline Phase Change Materials and the Quest for Metavalent Bonding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Min; Cojocaru-Mirédin, Oana; Mio, Antonio M; Keutgen, Jens; Küpers, Michael; Yu, Yuan; Cho, Ju-Young; Dronskowski, Richard; Wuttig, Matthias

    2018-05-01

    Laser-assisted field evaporation is studied in a large number of compounds, including amorphous and crystalline phase change materials employing atom probe tomography. This study reveals significant differences in field evaporation between amorphous and crystalline phase change materials. High probabilities for multiple events with more than a single ion detected per laser pulse are only found for crystalline phase change materials. The specifics of this unusual field evaporation are unlike any other mechanism shown previously to lead to high probabilities of multiple events. On the contrary, amorphous phase change materials as well as other covalently bonded compounds and metals possess much lower probabilities for multiple events. Hence, laser-assisted field evaporation in amorphous and crystalline phase change materials reveals striking differences in bond rupture. This is indicative for pronounced differences in bonding. These findings imply that the bonding mechanism in crystalline phase change materials differs substantially from conventional bonding mechanisms such as metallic, ionic, and covalent bonding. Instead, the data reported here confirm a recently developed conjecture, namely that metavalent bonding is a novel bonding mechanism besides those mentioned previously. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Theoretical study of heat transfer with moving phase-change interface in thawing of frozen food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, M.; Ching, W. H.; Leung, D. Y. C.; Lam, G. C. K.

    2005-02-01

    A theoretical solution was obtained for a transient phase-change heat transfer problem in thawing of frozen food. In the physical model, a sphere originally at a uniform temperature below the phase-change temperature is suddenly immersed in a fluid at a temperature above the phase-change temperature. As the body temperature increases, the phase-change interface will be first formed on the surface. Subsequently, the interface will absorb the latent heat and move towards the centre until the whole body undergoes complete phase change. In the mathematical formulation, the nonhomogeneous problem arises from the moving phase-change interface. The solution in terms of the time-dependent temperature field was obtained by use of Green's function. A one-step Newton-Raphson method was specially designed to solve for the position of the moving interface to satisfy the interface condition. The theoretical results were compared with numerical results generated by a finite difference model and experimental measurements collected from a cold water thawing process. As a good agreement was found, the theoretical solution developed in this study was verified numerically and experimentally. Besides thawing of frozen food, there are many other practical applications of the theoretical solution, such as food freezing, soil freezing/thawing, metal casting and bath quenching heat treatment, among others.

  14. Phase-change materials: vibrational softening upon crystallization and its impact on thermal properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsunaga, Toshiyuki [Materials Science and Analysis Technology Centre, Panasonic Corporation, Osaka (Japan); Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute Hyogo (Japan); Yamada, Noboru [Digital and Network Technology Development Centre, Panasonic Corporation, Osaka (Japan); Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute Hyogo (Japan); Kojima, Rie [Digital and Network Technology Development Centre, Panasonic Corporation, Osaka (Japan); Shamoto, Shinichi [Neutron Science Research Centre, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Ibaraki (Japan); Sato, Masugu; Tanida, Hajime; Uruga, Tomoya; Kohara, Shinji [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute, Hyogo (Japan); Takata, Masaki [SPring-8/RIKEN, Hyogo, Japan, Department of Advanced Materials Science, School of Frontier Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Chiba (Japan); Zalden, Peter; Bruns, Gunnar; Wuttig, Matthias [I. Physikalisches Institut und JARA-FIT, RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany); Sergueev, Ilya [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Grenoble (France); Wille, Hans Christian [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, Hamburg (Germany); Hermann, Raphael Pierre [Juelich Centre for Neutron Science JCNS and Peter Gruenberg, Institut PGI, JARA-FIT, Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany); Faculte des Sciences, Universite de Liege (Belgium)

    2011-06-21

    Crystallization of an amorphous solid is usually accompanied by a significant change of transport properties, such as an increase in thermal and electrical conductivity. This fact underlines the importance of crystalline order for the transport of charge and heat. Phase-change materials, however, reveal a remarkably low thermal conductivity in the crystalline state. The small change in this conductivity upon crystallization points to unique lattice properties. The present investigation reveals that the thermal properties of the amorphous and crystalline state of phase-change materials show remarkable differences such as higher thermal displacements and a more pronounced anharmonic behavior in the crystalline phase. These findings are related to the change of bonding upon crystallization, which leads to an increase of the sound velocity and a softening of the optical phonon modes at the same time. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  15. Initial Atomic Motion Immediately Following Femtosecond-Laser Excitation in Phase-Change Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsubara, E; Okada, S; Ichitsubo, T; Kawaguchi, T; Hirata, A; Guan, P F; Tokuda, K; Tanimura, K; Matsunaga, T; Chen, M W; Yamada, N

    2016-09-23

    Despite the fact that phase-change materials are widely used for data storage, no consensus exists on the unique mechanism of their ultrafast phase change and its accompanied large and rapid optical change. By using the pump-probe observation method combining a femtosecond optical laser and an x-ray free-electron laser, we substantiate experimentally that, in both GeTe and Ge_{2}Sb_{2}Te_{5} crystals, rattling motion of mainly Ge atoms takes place with keeping the off-center position just after femtosecond-optical-laser irradiation, which eventually leads to a higher symmetry or disordered state. This very initial rattling motion in the undistorted lattice can be related to instantaneous optical change due to the loss of resonant bonding that characterizes GeTe-based phase change materials. Based on the amorphous structure derived by first-principles molecular dynamics simulation, we infer a plausible ultrafast amorphization mechanism via nonmelting.

  16. Stoichiometrical trends in differential scanning calorimetry measurements on phase-change materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, Michael; Linn, Malte; Wuttig, Matthias [I. Physikalisches Institut, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    Phase-change materials are alloys which can be rapidly switched between two metastable states, the amorphous and the crystalline phase. At the same time they show pronounced contrast in their electrical and optical properties. They are widely used as the functional layer in rewritable optical discs. Prototypes of electrical devices employing phase change materials as non-volatile memory are already entering the market. Here we present calorimetric measurements, mainly on ternary Ge-Sb-Te alloys. Scratched-off thin film samples were heated in a differential scanning calorimeter to measure the transition from as-deposited amorphous to metastable crystalline phase and finally to the stable crystalline phase. The different transition temperatures will be analysed as a function of stoichiometry in order to improve the understanding of their interconnection.

  17. Self-regulated transport in photonic crystals with phase-changing defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Roney; Ellis, Fred M.; Vitebskiy, Ilya; Kottos, Tsampikos

    2018-01-01

    Phase-changing materials (PCMs) are widely used for optical data recording, sensing, all-optical switching, and optical limiting. Our focus here is on the case when the change in transmission characteristics of the optical material is caused by the input light itself. Specifically, the light-induced heating triggers the phase transition in the PCM. In this paper, using a numerical example, we demonstrate that the incorporation of the PCM in a photonic structure can lead to a dramatic modification of the effects of light-induced phase transition, as compared to a stand-alone sample of the same PCM. Our focus is on short pulses. We discuss some possible applications of such phase-changing photonic structures for optical sensing and limiting.

  18. Role of an encapsulating layer for reducing resistance drift in phase change random access memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Jin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Phase change random access memory (PCRAM devices exhibit a steady increase in resistance in the amorphous phase upon aging and this resistance drift phenomenon directly affects the device reliability. A stress relaxation model is used here to study the effect of a device encapsulating layer material in addressing the resistance drift phenomenon in PCRAM. The resistance drift can be increased or decreased depending on the biaxial moduli of the phase change material (YPCM and the encapsulating layer material (YELM according to the stress relationship between them in the drift regime. The proposed model suggests that the resistance drift can be effectively reduced by selecting a proper material as an encapsulating layer. Moreover, our model explains that reducing the size of the phase change material (PCM while fully reset and reducing the amorphous/crystalline ratio in PCM help to improve the resistance drift, and thus opens an avenue for highly reliable multilevel PCRAM applications.

  19. Automating Phase Change Lines and Their Labels Using Microsoft Excel(R).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deochand, Neil

    2017-09-01

    Many researchers have rallied against drawn in graphical elements and offered ways to avoid them, especially regarding the insertion of phase change lines (Deochand, Costello, & Fuqua, 2015; Dubuque, 2015; Vanselow & Bourret, 2012). However, few have offered a solution to automating the phase labels, which are often utilized in behavior analytic graphical displays (Deochand et al., 2015). Despite the fact that Microsoft Excel® is extensively utilized by behavior analysts, solutions to resolve issues in our graphing practices are not always apparent or user-friendly. Considering the insertion of phase change lines and their labels constitute a repetitious and laborious endeavor, any minimization in the steps to accomplish these graphical elements could offer substantial time-savings to the field. The purpose of this report is to provide an updated way (and templates in the supplemental materials) to add phase change lines with their respective labels, which stay embedded to the graph when they are moved or updated.

  20. Tailoring phase change materials: Stoichiometrical trends in the Ge-Sb-Te system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, Michael; Wamwangi, Daniel; Wuttig, Matthias [I. Physikalisches Institut 1A, RWTH Aachen, 52056 Aachen (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    Phase change materials are widely used as the active layer in rewritable optical media. This layer can be reversibly switched with a laser beam between an amorphous and crystalline state. As there is a pronounced optical contrast between these two phases, this provides the possibility to write, read and erase data. The speed of this method is limited by the speed of crystallization, as crystallization is the slower process. One possibility to make this process faster is to change the composition of this active layer. Thus it is very interesting to investigate how the process of crystallization is affected by a variation of stoichiometry. Although phase change materials technology is already used, there is little knowledge of the phase change process itself. Today the usability of phase change materials is still identified by try and error methods. We will show stoichiometrical trends of different properties relevant for data storage, e.g. the crystallisation temperature, which governs the room temperature stability of the amorphous phase and thus is a measure for the data retention time.

  1. Preparation and performance of porous phase change polyethylene glycol/polyurethane membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ke Guizhen; Xie Huifang; Ruan Ruping; Yu Weidong

    2010-01-01

    Based on the theory of clotty porous phase change materials, the porous membrane was prepared with the blend of polyurethane (PU) and two polyethylene glycol (PEG) systems. Studied by scanning electron microscope (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermo-gravimetric (TG) tests, the morphology structure, chemical composition, crystalline morphology, phase change behaviors and thermal stability of porous phase change membrane were investigated. The results showed that the PU/PEG membrane had obvious porous structural feature, suitable transition temperature and high transition enthalpy. It is a flexible membrane with good energy storage function. When it is between solid and liquid transfer state in microcosms, the membrane can still keep solid shape in macroscopic state at high temperature during phase transition processing. It means that porous membrane PCM can be regarded as functional polymer. This method solved the problem of low working materials content in phase change textile. It succeeded in introducing the porous technology into functional textile's formation, and developed a new way to improve the phase change enthalpy largely for adjustable textile.

  2. Auditory cortical neurons are sensitive to static and continuously changing interaural phase cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reale, R A; Brugge, J F

    1990-10-01

    1. The interaural-phase-difference (IPD) sensitivity of single neurons in the primary auditory (AI) cortex of the anesthetized cat was studied at stimulus frequencies ranging from 120 to 2,500 Hz. Best frequencies of the 43 AI cells sensitive to IPD ranged from 190 to 2,400 Hz. 2. A static IPD was produced when a pair of low-frequency tone bursts, differing from one another only in starting phase, were presented dichotically. The resulting IPD-sensitivity curves, which plot the number of discharges evoked by the binaural signal as a function of IPD, were deeply modulated circular functions. IPD functions were analyzed for their mean vector length (r) and mean interaural phase (phi). Phase sensitivity was relatively independent of best frequency (BF) but highly dependent on stimulus frequency. Regardless of BF or stimulus frequency within the excitatory response area the majority of cells fired maximally when the ipsilateral tone lagged the contralateral signal and fired least when this interaural-phase relationship was reversed. 3. Sensitivity to continuously changing IPD was studied by delivering to the two ears 3-s tones that differed slightly in frequency, resulting in a binaural beat. Approximately 26% of the cells that showed a sensitivity to static changes in IPD also showed a sensitivity to dynamically changing IPD created by this binaural tonal combination. The discharges were highly periodic and tightly synchronized to a particular phase of the binaural beat cycle. High synchrony can be attributed to the fact that cortical neurons typically respond to an excitatory stimulus with but a single spike that is often precisely timed to stimulus onset. A period histogram, binned on the binaural beat frequency (fb), produced an equivalent IPD-sensitivity function for dynamically changing interaural phase. For neurons sensitive to both static and continuously changing interaural phase there was good correspondence between their static (phi s) and dynamic (phi d

  3. Changes in functioning of mesolimbic incentive processing circuits during the premenstrual phase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ossewaarde, Lindsey; van Wingen, Guido A.; Kooijman, Sabine C.; Bäckström, Torbjörn; Fernández, Guillén; Hermans, Erno J.

    2011-01-01

    The premenstrual phase of the menstrual cycle is associated with marked changes in normal and abnormal motivated behaviors. Animal studies suggest that such effects may result from actions of gonadal hormones on the mesolimbic dopamine (DA) system. We therefore investigated premenstrual changes in

  4. Preparation and thermal properties characterization of carbonate salt/carbon nanomaterial composite phase change material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao, Y.B.; Lin, C.H.; He, Y.L.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Nanocomposite phase change materials were prepared and characterized. • Larger specific surface area is more efficient to enhance specific heat. • Columnar structure is more efficient to enhance thermal conductivity. • Thermal conductivity enhancement is the key. • Single walled carbon nanotube is the optimal nanomaterial additive. - Abstract: To enhance the performance of high temperature salt phase change material, four kinds of carbon nanomaterials with different microstructures were mixed into binary carbonate eutectic salts to prepare carbonate salt/nanomaterial composite phase change material. The microstructures of the nanomaterial and composite phase change material were characterized by scanning electron microscope. The thermal properties such as melting point, melting enthalpy, specific heat, thermal conductivity and total thermal energy storage capacity were characterized. The results show that the nanomaterial microstructure has great effects on composite phase change material thermal properties. The sheet structure Graphene is the best additive to enhance specific heat, which could be enhanced up to 18.57%. The single walled carbon nanotube with columnar structure is the best additive to enhance thermal conductivity, which could be enhanced up to 56.98%. Melting point increases but melting enthalpy decreases with nanomaterial specific surface area increase. Although the additives decrease the melting enthalpy of composite phase change material, they also enhance the specific heat. As a combined result, the additives have little effects on thermal energy storage capacity. So, for phase change material performance enhancement, more emphasis should be placed on thermal conductivity enhancement and single walled carbon nanotube is the optimal nanomaterial additive

  5. Preparation and characterization of sepiolite-based phase change material nanocomposites for thermal energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konuklu, Yeliz; Ersoy, Orkun

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Sepiolite-based phase change material nanocomposites were prepared. • An easy direct impregnation process was used. • This paper is one of the first study about sepiolite-based phase change material nanocomposites. • Influence of PCM type on thermal properties of nanocomposites was reported. - Abstract: This paper is one of the first study about the preparation and characterization of sepiolite-based phase change material nanocomposites for thermal energy storage applications. Sepiolite is an important natural fibrous raw material. Nanoscale fibrous tubular structure of sepiolite becomes important in nanocomposite preparation. In this study, sepiolite/paraffin and sepiolite/decanoic acid nanocomposites were manufactured by the direct impregnation method. By the preparation of nanocomposites, PCM move in tubular channels of sepiolite, phase changing occurs in these tubes and surface area increases like as in microencapsulation. The structure and properties of nanocomposites PCMs (CPCM) have been characterized via scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The SEM results prove the successful preparation of phase change material/sepiolite nanocomposites and point out that the fibers of sepiolite is modified with phase change materials in the nanocomposite. The phase change enthalpies of melting and freezing were about 62.08 J/g and −62.05 J/g for sepiolite/paraffin nanocomposites and 35.69 J/g and −34.55 J/g for sepiolite/decanoic acid nanocomposites, respectively. The results show that PCM/sepiolite nanocomposites were prepared successfully and their properties are very suitable for thermal energy storage applications.

  6. Dual Phase Change Thermal Diodes for Enhanced Rectification Ratios: Theory and Experiment

    KAUST Repository

    Cottrill, Anton L.; Wang, Song; Liu, Albert Tianxiang; Wang, Wen-Jun; Strano, Michael S.

    2018-01-01

    Thermal diodes are materials that allow for the preferential directional transport of heat and are highly promising devices for energy conservation, energy harvesting, and information processing applications. One form of a thermal diode consists of the junction between a phase change and phase invariant material, with rectification ratios that scale with the square root of the ratio of thermal conductivities of the two phases. In this work, the authors introduce and analyse the concept of a Dual Phase Change Thermal Diode (DPCTD) as the junction of two phase change materials with similar phase boundary temperatures but opposite temperature coefficients of thermal conductivity. Such systems possess a significantly enhanced optimal scaling of the rectification ratio as the square root of the product of the thermal conductivity ratios. Furthermore, the authors experimentally design and fabricate an ambient DPCTD enabled by the junction of an octadecane-impregnated polystyrene foam, polymerized using a high internal phase emulsion template (PFH-O) and a poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) aqueous solution. The DPCTD shows a significantly enhanced thermal rectification ratio both experimentally (2.6) and theoretically (2.6) as compared with ideal thermal diodes composed only of the constituent materials.

  7. Competing covalent and ionic bonding in Ge-Sb-Te phase change materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Saikat; Sun, Jifeng; Subedi, Alaska; Siegrist, Theo; Singh, David J

    2016-05-19

    Ge2Sb2Te5 and related phase change materials are highly unusual in that they can be readily transformed between amorphous and crystalline states using very fast melt, quench, anneal cycles, although the resulting states are extremely long lived at ambient temperature. These states have remarkably different physical properties including very different optical constants in the visible in strong contrast to common glass formers such as silicates or phosphates. This behavior has been described in terms of resonant bonding, but puzzles remain, particularly regarding different physical properties of crystalline and amorphous phases. Here we show that there is a strong competition between ionic and covalent bonding in cubic phase providing a link between the chemical basis of phase change memory property and origins of giant responses of piezoelectric materials (PbTiO3, BiFeO3). This has important consequences for dynamical behavior in particular leading to a simultaneous hardening of acoustic modes and softening of high frequency optic modes in crystalline phase relative to amorphous. This different bonding in amorphous and crystalline phases provides a direct explanation for different physical properties and understanding of the combination of long time stability and rapid switching and may be useful in finding new phase change compositions with superior properties.

  8. Dual Phase Change Thermal Diodes for Enhanced Rectification Ratios: Theory and Experiment

    KAUST Repository

    Cottrill, Anton L.

    2018-01-15

    Thermal diodes are materials that allow for the preferential directional transport of heat and are highly promising devices for energy conservation, energy harvesting, and information processing applications. One form of a thermal diode consists of the junction between a phase change and phase invariant material, with rectification ratios that scale with the square root of the ratio of thermal conductivities of the two phases. In this work, the authors introduce and analyse the concept of a Dual Phase Change Thermal Diode (DPCTD) as the junction of two phase change materials with similar phase boundary temperatures but opposite temperature coefficients of thermal conductivity. Such systems possess a significantly enhanced optimal scaling of the rectification ratio as the square root of the product of the thermal conductivity ratios. Furthermore, the authors experimentally design and fabricate an ambient DPCTD enabled by the junction of an octadecane-impregnated polystyrene foam, polymerized using a high internal phase emulsion template (PFH-O) and a poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) aqueous solution. The DPCTD shows a significantly enhanced thermal rectification ratio both experimentally (2.6) and theoretically (2.6) as compared with ideal thermal diodes composed only of the constituent materials.

  9. Investigations of binary and ternary phase change alloys for future memory applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rausch, Pascal

    2012-09-13

    The understanding of phase change materials is of great importance because it enables us to predict properties and tailor alloys which might be even better suitable to tackle challenges of future memory applications. Within this thesis two topics have been approached: on the one hand the understanding of the alloy In{sub 3}Sb{sub 1}Te{sub 2} and on the other hand the so called resistivity drift of amorphous Ge-Sn-Te phase change materials. The main topic covers an in depth discussion of the ternary alloy In{sub 3}Sb{sub 1}Te{sub 2}. At first glance, this alloy does not fit into the established concepts of phase alloys: e.g. the existence of resonant bonding in the crystalline phase is not obvious and the number of p-electrons is very low compared to other phase change alloys. Furthermore amorphous phase change alloys with high indium content are usually not discussed in literature, an exception being the recent work by Spreafico et al. on InGeTe{sub 2}. For the first time a complete description of In{sub 3}Sb{sub 1}Te{sub 2} alloy is given in this work for the crystalline phase, amorphous phase and crystallization process. In addition comparisons are drawn to typical phase change materials like Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5}/GeTe or prototype systems like AgInTe{sub 2} and InTe. The second topic of this thesis deals with the issue of resistivity drift, i.e. the increase of resistivity of amorphous phase change alloys with aging. This drift effect greatly hampers the introduction of multilevel phase change memory devices into the market. Recently a systematic decrease of drift coefficient with stoichiometry has been observed in our group going from GeTe over Ge{sub 3}Sn{sub 1}Te{sub 4} to Ge{sub 2}Sn{sub 2}Te{sub 4}. These alloys are investigated with respect to constraint theory.

  10. Non-binary Colour Modulation for Display Device Based on Phase Change Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Hong-Kai; Tong, Hao; Qian, Hang; Hui, Ya-Juan; Liu, Nian; Yan, Peng; Miao, Xiang-Shui

    2016-12-01

    A reflective-type display device based on phase change materials is attractive because of its ultrafast response time and high resolution compared with a conventional display device. This paper proposes and demonstrates a unique display device in which multicolour changing can be achieved on a single device by the selective crystallization of double layer phase change materials. The optical contrast is optimized by the availability of a variety of film thicknesses of two phase change layers. The device exhibits a low sensitivity to the angle of incidence, which is important for display and colour consistency. The non-binary colour rendering on a single device is demonstrated for the first time using optical excitation. The device shows the potential for ultrafast display applications.

  11. Study of phase changing characteristics of granular composites using differential scanning calorimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rady, Mohamed

    2009-01-01

    Characterization of the phase changing behavior of granular materials is an important issue for design and optimization of latent heat thermal energy storage (LHTES) systems. In the present work, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) has been used to study the phase changing behavior of granular composites consisting of ceramic encapsulated phase change material (EPCM) with particle diameters of 1-3 mm. The obtained DSC curves characterizing melting and solidification of the composite material are shown to be dependent upon the values of heating and cooling rates. Direct utilization of the measured DSC curves could result in an inexact representation of the sample enthalpy change. A simple procedure has been advised to obtain accurate quantitative results from the DSC measurements based on the estimation of the thermal resistance between the sample and its enclosure. Analysis of the evolution of latent heat of EPCM with temperature at different values of cooling/heating rates is presented.

  12. Penn gap rule in phase-change memory materials: No clear evidence for resonance bonds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Shimakawa

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Although a proposal of resonance bonds in crystalline phase-change materials based on the GeSbTe system has been provided, we do not find any clear evidence in favor of the proposal. The ellipsometric study demonstrates that a change in the high frequency dielectric constant ε∞ between the amorphous and crystalline phases is only scaled by the average bandgap (the Penn gap rule. Even for a pure antimony film, regarded as a prototype resonance bonding material, ε∞ was found to follow the Penn gap rule. Experimentally, we did not find any evidence of a significant change in the optical transition matrix element during the phase change, which is necessary to support the idea of resonance bonds.

  13. Ultrafast optical manipulation of atomic motion in multilayer Ge-Sb-Te phase change materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fons P.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Phase change random access memory devices have evolved dramatically with the recent development of superlattice structure of Ge-Sb-Te material (GST-SL in terms of its low power consumption. The phase change in GST-SL is mainly characterized by the displacement of Ge atoms. Here we examine a new phase change method, that is the manipulation of Ge-Te bonds using linearly-polarized femtosecond near-infrared optical pulses. As a result, we found that the p-polarized pump pulse is more effective in inducing the reversible and irreversible displacement of Ge atoms along [111] direction in the local structure. This structural change would be induced by the anisotropic carrier-phonon interaction along the [111] direction created by the p-polarized pulse.

  14. Electron-beam-irradiation-induced crystallization of amorphous solid phase change materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Dong; Wu, Liangcai; Wen, Lin; Ma, Liya; Zhang, Xingyao; Li, Yudong; Guo, Qi; Song, Zhitang

    2018-04-01

    The electron-beam-irradiation-induced crystallization of phase change materials in a nano sized area was studied by in situ transmission electron microscopy and selected area electron diffraction. Amorphous phase change materials changed to a polycrystalline state after being irradiated with a 200 kV electron beam for a long time. The results indicate that the crystallization temperature strongly depends on the difference in the heteronuclear bond enthalpy of the phase change materials. The selected area electron diffraction patterns reveal that Ge2Sb2Te5 is a nucleation-dominated material, when Si2Sb2Te3 and Ti0.5Sb2Te3 are growth-dominated materials.

  15. Natural convection heat transfer from a heated horizontal cylinder with Microencapsulated Phase-Change-Material slurries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubo, Shinji; Akino, Norio; Tanaka, Amane; Nagashima, Akira

    1998-01-01

    The present study investigates natural convection heat transfer from a heated cylinder cooled by a water slurry of Microencapsulated Phase Change Material (MCPCM). A normal paraffin hydrocarbon with carbon number of 18 and melting point of 27.9degC, is microencapsulated by Melamine resin into particles of which average diameter is 9.5 μm and specific weight is same as water. The slurry of the MCPCM and water is put into a rectangular enclosure with a heated horizontal cylinder. The heat transfer coefficients of the cylinder were evaluated. Changing the concentrations of PCM and temperature difference between cylinder surface and working fluid. Addition of MCPCM into water, the heat transfer is enhanced significantly comparison with pure water in cases with phase change and is reduced slightly in cases without phase change. (author)

  16. Non-binary Colour Modulation for Display Device Based on Phase Change Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Hong-Kai; Tong, Hao; Qian, Hang; Hui, Ya-Juan; Liu, Nian; Yan, Peng; Miao, Xiang-Shui

    2016-12-19

    A reflective-type display device based on phase change materials is attractive because of its ultrafast response time and high resolution compared with a conventional display device. This paper proposes and demonstrates a unique display device in which multicolour changing can be achieved on a single device by the selective crystallization of double layer phase change materials. The optical contrast is optimized by the availability of a variety of film thicknesses of two phase change layers. The device exhibits a low sensitivity to the angle of incidence, which is important for display and colour consistency. The non-binary colour rendering on a single device is demonstrated for the first time using optical excitation. The device shows the potential for ultrafast display applications.

  17. Adversary phase change detection using S.O.M. and text data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Speed, Ann Elizabeth; Doser, Adele Beatrice; Warrender, Christina E.

    2010-01-01

    In this work, we developed a self-organizing map (SOM) technique for using web-based text analysis to forecast when a group is undergoing a phase change. By 'phase change', we mean that an organization has fundamentally shifted attitudes or behaviors. For instance, when ice melts into water, the characteristics of the substance change. A formerly peaceful group may suddenly adopt violence, or a violent organization may unexpectedly agree to a ceasefire. SOM techniques were used to analyze text obtained from organization postings on the world-wide web. Results suggest it may be possible to forecast phase changes, and determine if an example of writing can be attributed to a group of interest.

  18. Synthesis and Screening of Phase Change Chalcogenide Thin Film Materials for Data Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerin, Samuel; Hayden, Brian; Hewak, Daniel W; Vian, Chris

    2017-07-10

    A combinatorial synthetic methodology based on evaporation sources under an ultrahigh vacuum has been used to directly synthesize compositional gradient thin film libraries of the amorphous phases of GeSbTe alloys at room temperature over a wide compositional range. An optical screen is described that allows rapid parallel mapping of the amorphous-to-crystalline phase transition temperature and optical contrast associated with the phase change on such libraries. The results are shown to be consistent with the literature for compositions where published data are available along the Sb 2 Te 3 -GeTe tie line. The results reveal a minimum in the crystallization temperature along the Sb 2 Te 3 -Ge 2 Te 3 tie line, and the method is able to resolve subsequent cubic-to-hexagonal phase transitions in the GST crystalline phase. HT-XRD has been used to map the phases at sequentially higher temperatures, and the results are reconciled with the literature and trends in crystallization temperatures. The results clearly delineate compositions that crystallize to pure GST phases and those that cocrystallize Te. High-throughput measurement of the resistivity of the amorphous and crystalline phases has allowed the compositional and structural correlation of the resistivity contrast associated with the amorphous-to-crystalline transition, which range from 5-to-8 orders of magnitude for the compositions investigated. The results are discussed in terms of the compromises in the selection of these materials for phase change memory applications and the potential for further exploration through more detailed secondary screening of doped GST or similar classes of phase change materials designed for the demands of future memory devices.

  19. Novel Formulations of Phase Change Materials—Epoxy Composites for Thermal Energy Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Elena Arce

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to evaluate the thermal properties of new formulations of phase change materials (PCMs-epoxy composites, containing a thickening agent and a thermally conductive phase. The composite specimens produced consisted of composites fabricated using (a inorganic PCMs (hydrated salts, epoxy resins and aluminum particulates or (b organic PCM (paraffin, epoxy resins, and copper particles. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC was used to analyze the thermal behavior of the samples, while hardness measurements were used to determine changes in mechanical properties at diverse PCM and conductive phase loading values. The results indicate that the epoxy matrix can act as a container for the PCM phase without hindering the heat-absorbing behavior of the PCMs employed. Organic PCMs presented reversible phase transformations over multiple cycles, an advantage that was lacking in their inorganic counterparts. The enthalpy of the organic PCM-epoxy specimens increased linearly with the PCM content in the matrix. The use of thickening agents prevented phase segregation issues and allowed the fabrication of specimens containing up to 40% PCM, a loading significantly higher than others reported. The conductive phase seemed to improve the heat transfer and the mechanical properties of the composites when present in low percentages (<10 wt %; however, given its mass, the enthalpy detected in the composites was reduced as their loading further increased. The conductive phase combination (PCM + epoxy resin + hardener + thickening agent presents great potential as a heat-absorbing material at the temperatures employed.

  20. Novel Formulations of Phase Change Materials—Epoxy Composites for Thermal Energy Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez Feijoo, Miguel Angel

    2018-01-01

    This research aimed to evaluate the thermal properties of new formulations of phase change materials (PCMs)-epoxy composites, containing a thickening agent and a thermally conductive phase. The composite specimens produced consisted of composites fabricated using (a) inorganic PCMs (hydrated salts), epoxy resins and aluminum particulates or (b) organic PCM (paraffin), epoxy resins, and copper particles. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) was used to analyze the thermal behavior of the samples, while hardness measurements were used to determine changes in mechanical properties at diverse PCM and conductive phase loading values. The results indicate that the epoxy matrix can act as a container for the PCM phase without hindering the heat-absorbing behavior of the PCMs employed. Organic PCMs presented reversible phase transformations over multiple cycles, an advantage that was lacking in their inorganic counterparts. The enthalpy of the organic PCM-epoxy specimens increased linearly with the PCM content in the matrix. The use of thickening agents prevented phase segregation issues and allowed the fabrication of specimens containing up to 40% PCM, a loading significantly higher than others reported. The conductive phase seemed to improve the heat transfer and the mechanical properties of the composites when present in low percentages (phase combination (PCM + epoxy resin + hardener + thickening agent) presents great potential as a heat-absorbing material at the temperatures employed. PMID:29373538

  1. Visualising phase change in a brushite-based calcium phosphate ceramic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannerman, A.; Williams, R. L.; Cox, S. C.; Grover, L. M.

    2016-09-01

    The resorption of brushite-based bone cements has been shown to be highly unpredictable, with strong dependence on a number of conditions. One of the major factors is phase transformation, with change to more stable phases such as hydroxyapatite affecting the rate of resorption. Despite its importance, the analysis of phase transformation has been largely undertaken using methods that only detect crystalline composition and give no information on the spatial distribution of the phases. In this study confocal Raman microscopy was used to map cross-sections of brushite cylinders aged in Phosphate Buffered Saline, Foetal Bovine Serum, Dulbecco’s - Minimum Essential Medium (with and without serum). Image maps showed the importance of ageing medium on the phase composition throughout the ceramic structure. When aged without serum, there was dissolution of the brushite phase concomitant to the deposition of octacalcium phosphate (OCP) around the periphery of the sample. The deposition of OCP was detectable within five days and reduced the rate of brushite dissolution from the material. The use of serum, even at a concentration of 10vol% prevented phase transformation. This paper demonstrates the value of confocal Raman microscopy in monitoring phase change in biocements; it also demonstrates the problems with assessing material degradation in non-serum containing media.

  2. Investigations of effect of phase change mass transfer rate on cavitation process with homogeneous relaxation model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Zhixia; Zhang, Liang; Saha, Kaushik; Som, Sibendu; Duan, Lian; Wang, Qian

    2017-12-01

    The super high fuel injection pressure and micro size of nozzle orifice has been an important development trend for the fuel injection system. Accordingly, cavitation transient process, fuel compressibility, amount of noncondensable gas in the fuel and cavitation erosion have attracted more attention. Based on the fact of cavitation in itself is a kind of thermodynamic phase change process, this paper takes the perspective of the cavitation phase change mass transfer process to analyze above mentioned phenomenon. The two-phase cavitating turbulent flow simulations with VOF approach coupled with HRM cavitation model and U-RANS of standard k-ε turbulence model were performed for investigations of cavitation phase change mass transfer process. It is concluded the mass transfer time scale coefficient in the Homogenous Relaxation Model (HRM) representing mass transfer rate should tend to be as small as possible in a condition that ensured the solver stable. At very fast mass transfer rate, the phase change occurs at very thin interface between liquid and vapor phase and condensation occurs more focused and then will contribute predictably to a more serious cavitation erosion. Both the initial non-condensable gas in fuel and the fuel compressibility can accelerate the cavitation mass transfer process.

  3. Phase change memory based on SnSe{sub 4} alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karanja, J.M.; Karimi, P.M.; Njoroge, W.K. [Physics Department, Kenyatta University, P.O. Box 43844, Nairobi (Kenya); Wamwangi, D.M., E-mail: Daniel.Wamwangi@wits.ac.za [School of Physics, University of the Witwatersrand, Private Bag 3, 2050 (South Africa)

    2013-01-01

    A phase change alloy has been synthesized and characterized. The reversible phase transitions between amorphous and crystalline states of SnSe{sub 4} films have been studied using variable electrical pulses and X-ray diffraction. Temperature dependent sheet resistance measurements have shown two distinct resistivity states of more than two orders of magnitude. This high electrical contrast makes the alloy suitable for nonvolatile phase change memory applications. X-ray diffraction has attributed the large electrical contrast to an amorphous–crystalline phase transition. The nonvolatile memory cells have been fabricated using a simple sandwich structure (metal/chalcogenide thin film/metal). A threshold voltage of 3.71 V has been determined for this phase change random access memory cell. Memory switching was initiated using the voltage pulses of 3.71 V, 90 ns, 1.3 V and 26 μs, for the crystallization and amorphization process, respectively. - Highlights: ► Phase transition of SnSe{sub 4} alloys with high set resistivity of 1.43 Ωm ► High transition temperatures of 174 °C ► Transition due to amorphous–crystalline changes ► Threshold switching at a high threshold voltage of 3.71 V.

  4. Preparation and characterization of novel anion phase change heat storage materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Wei; Lil, Qingshan; Sun, Jing; Di, Youbo; Zhao, Zhou; Yu, Wei'an; Qu, Yuan; Jiao, TiFeng; Wang, Guowei; Xing, Guangzhong

    2013-10-01

    In this paper, polyurethane phase change material was successfully prepared with TDI with BDO for hard segments and PEG for soft segments. Moreover, based on this the solid-solid phase change material, A-PCM1030 which can release anions was prepared with the successful addition of anion additives A1030 for the first time. Then the test of the above material was conducted utilizing FT-IR, DSC, TEM, WAXD and Air Ion Detector. The Results indicated that the polyurethane phase change material possesses excellent thermal stability since there was no appearance of liquid leakage and phase separation after 50 times warming-cooling thermal cycles. It also presented reversibility on absorbing and releasing heat. In addition, adding a little A1030 can increase the thermal stability and reduce phase transition temperatures, as well as reduce the undercooling of the polyurethane phase change material. In addition, the anion test results suggested that the supreme amount of anion released by A-PCM1030 could reach 2510 anions/cm3 under dynamic conditions, which is beneficial for human health.

  5. Spontaneous and Flow-Driven Interfacial Phase Change: Dynamics of Microemulsion Formation at the Pore Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagavifar, Mohsen; Xu, Ke; Jang, Sung Hyun; Balhoff, Matthew T; Pope, Gary A

    2017-11-14

    The dynamic behavior of microemulsion-forming water-oil-amphiphiles mixtures is investigated in a 2.5D micromodel. The equilibrium phase behavior of such mixtures is well-understood in terms of macroscopic phase transitions. However, what is less understood and where experimental data are lacking is the coupling between the phase change and the bulk flow. Herein, we study the flow of an aqueous surfactant solution-oil mixture in porous media and analyze the dependence of phase formation and spatial phase configurations on the bulk flow rate. We find that a microemulsion forms instantaneously as a boundary layer at the initial surface of contact between the surfactant solution and oil. The boundary layer is temporally continuous because of the imposed convection. In addition to the imposed flow, we observe spontaneous pulsed Marangoni flows that drag the microemulsion and surfactant solution into the oil stream, forming large (macro)emulsion droplets. The formation of the microemulsion phase at the interface distinguishes the situation from that of the more common Marangoni flow with only two phases present. Additionally, an emulsion forms via liquid-liquid nucleation or the Ouzo effect (i.e., spontaneous emulsification) at low flow rates and via mechanical mixing at high flow rates. With regard to multiphase flow, contrary to the common belief that the microemulsion is the wetting liquid, we observe that the minor oil phase wets the solid surface. We show that a layered flow pattern is formed because of the out-of-equilibrium phase behavior at high volumetric flow rates (order of 2 m/day) where advection is much faster than the diffusive interfacial mass transfer and transverse mixing, which promote equilibrium behavior. At lower flow rates (order of 30 cm/day), however, the dynamic and equilibrium phase behaviors are well-correlated. These results clearly show that the phase change influences the macroscale flow behavior.

  6. Performance evaluation on solar still integrated with nano-composite phase change materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajasekhar, G.; Eswaramoorthy, M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper communicates the performance evaluation of single slope solar still integrated with nano-composite phase change materials and compare with the experimental results of with and without phase change materials. A solar still with 1 m"2 surface area is developed with non-selective coating of absorber sheet with the provision of thermal energy storage materials. The solar still is tested on typical days with and without thermal energy storage materials. It is found that from the experimental studies that nano-materials (Al_2O_3) dispersed in paraffin wax is giving better cumulative yield of distillate than paraffin wax alone and without paraffin wax thermal storage. The daily efficiency of the solar still is computed for solar still with nano-composite phase change materials is 45% and solar still paraffin wax alone thermal storage is 40% and solar still without any thermal storage is 38%. It is concluded from the experimental studies; solar still integrated with nano-composite phase change materials gives better performance than with and without phase change material alone. (authors)

  7. Thermal conductivity and phase-change properties of aqueous alumina nanofluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teng, Tun-Ping

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► The alumina nanofluid with chitosan was produced by two-step synthesis method. ► The k and phase-change properties of alumina nanofluid were examined. ► Adding Al 2 O 3 nanoparticles into water indeed improves the k. ► Adding the chitosan decreases the thermal conductivity of alumina nanofluid. ► The T cp and h c are 53.4% and 97.8% of those in DW with the optimal combination. - Abstract: This study uses thermal conductivity and differential scanning calorimeter experiments to explore the thermal conductivity and phase-change properties of alumina (Al 2 O 3 )–water nanofluid produced using a two-step synthesis method. Deionized water (DW) is used as a control group, and the Al 2 O 3 –water nanofluid uses chitosan as a dispersant. Nanoparticle morphology and materials were confirmed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD), respectively. The results show that adding Al 2 O 3 nanoparticles to DW improves DW thermal conductivity, but adding chitosan reduces the thermal conductivity of Al 2 O 3 –water nanofluid. Adding the nanoparticles to DW affects the phase-change peak temperature and phase change heat. The optimal combination is 0.1 wt.% chitosan and 0.5 wt.% Al 2 O 3 nanoparticles; the charging phase-change peak temperature and latent heat are 53.4% and 97.8% of those in DW, respectively

  8. Preparation and Characterization of Modified Montmorillonite/Paraffin Phase Change Microcapsules for Energy Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIN Sen

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The phase change microcapsules of modified montmorillonite/paraffin were prepared by Pickering emulsion method. Analytic techniques of optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy(SEM, infrared spectroscopy(FTIR, differential scanning calorimetry(DSC and thermogravimetry(TG were utilized for characterizing chemical structure, morphology and thermal properties. Results show that modified montmorillonite as a new type wall material has excellent performance for protecting core material of paraffin. FTIR spectra of phase change of modified montmorillonite/paraffin microcapsules shows that their characteristic peaks match with corresponding peaks of pure paraffin and modified montmorillonite. DSC results indicate that modified montmorillonite/paraffin microcapsules have similar solid-liquid phase change temperature with pure paraffin. The phase transition enthalpy values of microcapsules with paraffin contents varying from 55% to 80% are 110.5-147.2J/g, indicating that microcapsules have excellent thermal storage performance and the phase change properties can be adjusted by changing contents of paraffin. TG results confirm that modified montmorillonite/paraffin microcapsules have outstanding thermal stability. The presented study indicates that modified montmorillonite is a suitable wall material for preparing paraffin microcapsule. Modified montmorillonite/paraffin microcapsules have advantages of low cost and high performance with a great application potential in the field of thermal storage.

  9. Melting with convection and radiation in a participating phase change material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miranda Fuentes, Johann; Johannes, Kévyn; Kuznik, Frédéric; Cosnier, Matthieu; Virgone, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Modelling of the phase change with natural convection and radiation. ► Novel LBM MRT with phase change and energy equation. ► Diffuse radiation increases the heat transfer but not global behavior of phase change. - Abstract: This article presents a novel model to simulate melting of a phase change material, with natural convection and radiation. For the phase change problem, the enthalpy formulation is used. Energy equation is solved by finite differences, whereas fluid flow equations are solved by the lattice Boltzmann method. For radiation intensity, the radiative transfer equation is solved by the discrete ordinates method, and then radiation flux is added into the energy equation. The model is first validated with literature results. Then, a glass brick wall filled with a fatty acid is simulated to evaluate the heat transfer processes. The results show that (1) natural convection plays an important role in the transitional behaviour of the global heat transfer process and (2) the long wave radiation has few impacts on the melting process

  10. Beeswax as phase change material to improve solar panel’s performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaib, R.; Rizal, S.; Riza, M.; Mahlia, T. M. I.; Rizal, T. A.

    2018-02-01

    One of the main obstacles faced during the operation of photovoltaic (PV) panels was overheating due to excessive solar radiation and high ambient temperatures. In this research, investigates the use of beeswax phase change materials (PCM) to maintain the temperature of the panels close to ambient. Solar panels used in this study has 839 mm length, 537 mm wide, and 50 mm thick, with maximum output power at 50 W. During the study, there were two solar panels was evaluated, one without phase change material while the other one was using beeswax phase change material. Solar panels were mounted at 15° slope. Variables observed was the temperature of solar panel’s surface, output voltage and current that produced by PV panels, wind speed around solar panels, and solar radiation. The observation was started at 07:00 am and ended at 06:00 pm. The research shows that maximum temperature of solar panels surface without phase change material is ranging between 46-49 °C, and electrical efficiency is about 7.2-8.8%. Meanwhile, for solar panels with beeswax phase change material, the maximum temperature solar panels surface is relatively low ranging between 33-34 °C, and its electrical efficiency seems to increase about 9.1-9.3%.

  11. Ultrafast Ge-Te bond dynamics in a phase-change superlattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malvestuto, Marco; Caretta, Antonio; Casarin, Barbara; Cilento, Federico; Dell'Angela, Martina; Fausti, Daniele; Calarco, Raffaella; Kooi, Bart J.; Varesi, Enrico; Robertson, John; Parmigiani, Fulvio

    2016-09-01

    A long-standing question for avant-garde data storage technology concerns the nature of the ultrafast photoinduced phase transformations in the wide class of chalcogenide phase-change materials (PCMs). Overall, a comprehensive understanding of the microstructural evolution and the relevant kinetics mechanisms accompanying the out-of-equilibrium phases is still missing. Here, after overheating a phase-change chalcogenide superlattice by an ultrafast laser pulse, we indirectly track the lattice relaxation by time resolved x-ray absorption spectroscopy (tr-XAS) with a sub-ns time resolution. The approach to the tr-XAS experimental results reported in this work provides an atomistic insight of the mechanism that takes place during the cooling process; meanwhile a first-principles model mimicking the microscopic distortions accounts for a straightforward representation of the observed dynamics. Finally, we envisage that our approach can be applied in future studies addressing the role of dynamical structural strain in PCMs.

  12. Temporal Change of Seismic Earth's Inner Core Phases: Inner Core Differential Rotation Or Temporal Change of Inner Core Surface?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, J.; Tian, D.; Sun, L.; Wen, L.

    2017-12-01

    Since Song and Richards [1996] first reported seismic evidence for temporal change of PKIKP wave (a compressional wave refracted in the inner core) and proposed inner core differential rotation as its explanation, it has generated enormous interests in the scientific community and the public, and has motivated many studies on the implications of the inner core differential rotation. However, since Wen [2006] reported seismic evidence for temporal change of PKiKP wave (a compressional wave reflected from the inner core boundary) that requires temporal change of inner core surface, both interpretations for the temporal change of inner core phases have existed, i.e., inner core rotation and temporal change of inner core surface. In this study, we discuss the issue of the interpretation of the observed temporal changes of those inner core phases and conclude that inner core differential rotation is not only not required but also in contradiction with three lines of seismic evidence from global repeating earthquakes. Firstly, inner core differential rotation provides an implausible explanation for a disappearing inner core scatterer between a doublet in South Sandwich Islands (SSI), which is located to be beneath northern Brazil based on PKIKP and PKiKP coda waves of the earlier event of the doublet. Secondly, temporal change of PKIKP and its coda waves among a cluster in SSI is inconsistent with the interpretation of inner core differential rotation, with one set of the data requiring inner core rotation and the other requiring non-rotation. Thirdly, it's not reasonable to invoke inner core differential rotation to explain travel time change of PKiKP waves in a very small time scale (several months), which is observed for repeating earthquakes in Middle America subduction zone. On the other hand, temporal change of inner core surface could provide a consistent explanation for all the observed temporal changes of PKIKP and PKiKP and their coda waves. We conclude that

  13. Finite element analysis of convective heat transfer problems with change of phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gartling, D.K.

    1978-01-01

    A simple approximate method for treating fluid/solid change of phase problems within a finite-element framework is presented. Though still in the initial development stages, the method has proved capable of computing the motion of phase boundaries for various types of fluid flows and geometries. Further investigation of the method is needed to establish its accuracy and stability characteristics as well as its general reliability

  14. Novel Formulations of Phase Change Materials—Epoxy Composites for Thermal Energy Storage

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Elena Arce; Miguel Angel Alvarez Feijoo; Andres Suarez Garcia; Claudia C. Luhrs

    2018-01-01

    This research aimed to evaluate the thermal properties of new formulations of phase change materials (PCMs)-epoxy composites, containing a thickening agent and a thermally conductive phase. The composite specimens produced consisted of composites fabricated using (a) inorganic PCMs (hydrated salts), epoxy resins and aluminum particulates or (b) organic PCM (paraffin), epoxy resins, and copper particles. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) was used to analyze the thermal behavior of the sa...

  15. Indium selenide (In2Se3) thin film for phase-change memory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Heon; Kang, Dae-Hwan; Tran, Lung

    2005-01-01

    A cross-point type phase-change random access memory (PRAM) device without an access transistor is successfully fabricated with the In 2 Se 3 -phase-change resistor, which has much higher electrical resistivity than Ge 2 Sb 2 Te 5 and of which electric resistivity can be varied by the factor of 10 5 times, related with the degree of crystallization. Due to its higher electrical resistivity, the switching power can be delivered more effectively. Since In 2 Se 3 is single-phase binary compound, the device failure related to phase decomposition can be avoided. Since the volume of phase change is very limited, and the heating duration is only for few tens of nanoseconds to 10 μs, the transition of In 2 Se 3 -phase-change material is done under very far from its thermodynamic equilibrium condition, and thus, formation of the secondary phases or different crystalline phases was not observed. The static mode switching (dc test) is tested for the 5 μm-sized In 2 Se 3 PRAM device. In the first sweep, the as-grown amorphous In 2 Se 3 resistor showed the high resistance state at low voltage region. However, when it reached the threshold voltage, the electrical resistance of the device was drastically reduced through the formation of an electrically conducting path. The pulsed mode switching of the 5 μm-sized In 2 Se 3 PRAM device shows that the reset (crystalline → amorphous) of the device was done with a 70 ns-3.1 V pulse and the set (amorphous → crystalline) of the device was done with a 10 μs-1.2 V pulse. As high as 100 of switching dynamic range (ratio of R high to R low ) was observed

  16. Review of solid–liquid phase change materials and their encapsulation technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Su, Weiguang; Darkwa, Jo; Kokogiannakis, Georgios

    2017-01-01

    Various types of solid–liquid phase change materials (PCMs) have been reviewed for thermal energy storage applications. The review has shown that organic solid–liquid PCMs have much more advantages and capabilities than inorganic PCMs but do possess low thermal conductivity and density as well as being flammable. Inorganic PCMs possess higher heat storage capacities and conductivities, cheaper and readily available as well as being non-flammable, but do experience supercooling and phase segre...

  17. Metal - Insulator Transition Driven by Vacancy Ordering in GeSbTe Phase Change Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Bragaglia, Valeria; Arciprete, Fabrizio; Privitera, Stefania; Rimini, Emanuele; Mazzarello, Riccardo; Calarco, Raffaella; Zhang, Wei; Mio, Antonio Massimiliano; Zallo, Eugenio; Perumal, Karthick; Giussani, Alessandro; Cecchi, Stefano; Boschker, Jos Emiel; Riechert, Henning

    2016-01-01

    Phase Change Materials (PCMs) are unique compounds employed in non-volatile random access memory thanks to the rapid and reversible transformation between the amorphous and crystalline state that display large differences in electrical and optical properties. In addition to the amorphous-to-crystalline transition, experimental results on polycrystalline GeSbTe alloys (GST) films evidenced a Metal-Insulator Transition (MIT) attributed to disorder in the crystalline phase. Here we report on a f...

  18. Volume-change-free GeTeN films for high-performance phase-change memory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin, You; Hosaka, Sumio; Zhang, Hui; Liu, Yang; Yu, Qi

    2013-01-01

    N-doping into GeTe is investigated with the aim of reducing the volume change upon crystallization, which usually induces a huge internal stress in phase-change memory devices. It is demonstrated that the thickness change upon crystallization of a N-doped GeTe (GeTeN) film is almost zero when N is doped in an appropriate amount. Cracks resulting from the stress caused by volume change disappear and the mean crystal size decreases by more than 50% upon N-doping into GeTe. It is thought that the volume-change-free behaviour is due to the formation of low-density nitride and grain refinement. (paper)

  19. Direct numerical simulations of fluid flow, heat transfer and phase changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juric, D.; Tryggvason, G.; Han, J.

    1997-01-01

    Direct numerical simulations of fluid flow, heat transfer, and phase changes are presented. The simulations are made possible by a recently developed finite difference/front tracking method based on the one-field formulation of the governing equations where a single set of conservation equations is written for all the phases involved. The conservation equations are solved on a fixed rectangular grid, but the phase boundaries are kept sharp by tracking them explicitly by a moving grid of lower dimension. The method is discussed and applications to boiling heat transfer and the solidification of drops colliding with a wall are shown.

  20. A Phase Transformation with no Change in Space Group Symmetry: Octafluoronaphtalene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pawley, G. S.; Dietrich, O. W.

    1975-01-01

    A solid-state phase transformation in octafluoronaphthalene has been discovered at 266.5K on cooling, and at 15K higher on heating. The symmetry of both phases is found to be the same, namely monoclinic with space group P21/c. The unit cell parameters change by up to 10%, but the integrity...... of a single crystal, which shatters on cooling, is good enough for a single-crystal structure determination. This has been done in both phases to a sufficient accuracy that a mechanism for the transformation can be proposed. Molecules which lie parallel to one another shear to a new parallel position...

  1. Density functional simulations of Sb-rich GeSbTe phase change alloys

    OpenAIRE

    Gabardi, S; Caravati, S; Bernasconi, M; Parrinello, M

    2012-01-01

    We generated models of the amorphous phase of Sb rich GeSbTe phase change alloys by quenching from the melt within density functional molecular dynamics. We considered the two compositions Ge 1Sb 1Te 1 and Ge 2Sb 4Te 5. Comparison with previous results on the most studied Ge 2Sb 2Te 5 allowed us to draw some conclusions on the dependence of the structural properties of the amorphous phase on the alloy composition. Vibrational and electronic properties were also scrutinized. Phonons at high fr...

  2. Structural and phase changes in copper-fullerene films by ion implantation and annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shpilevsky, E.M.; Baran, L.V.; Okatova, G.P.; Jakimovich, A.V.

    2001-01-01

    The structural and phase changes and the electrical properties of copper - fullerene (Cu-C 60 ) films by the ion implantation(B + , E=80 keV, D 5·10 21 m -2 ) and the thermal annealing are described. We found the copper-fullerene solid supersaturated solution formed in process of the two-component films obtaining. The result of the thermal annealing is the phase segregation of fullerene. It has been established the ion implantation adduces to the partial fragmentation of fullerene, to the destruction of the C 60 molecules and to the formation of the CuB 24 , B 25 C and B 4 C phases

  3. Design rules for phase-change materials in data storage applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lencer, Dominic; Salinga, Martin [I. Physikalisches Institut IA, RWTH Aachen University, 52056 Aachen (Germany); Wuttig, Matthias [I. Physikalisches Institut IA, RWTH Aachen University, 52056 Aachen (Germany); Juelich-Aachen Research Alliance, Section Fundamentals of Future Information Technology (JARA-FIT), 52056 Aachen (Germany)

    2011-05-10

    Phase-change materials can rapidly and reversibly be switched between an amorphous and a crystalline phase. Since both phases are characterized by very different optical and electrical properties, these materials can be employed for rewritable optical and electrical data storage. Hence, there are considerable efforts to identify suitable materials, and to optimize them with respect to specific applications. Design rules that can explain why the materials identified so far enable phase-change based devices would hence be very beneficial. This article describes materials that have been successfully employed and discusses common features regarding both typical structures and bonding mechanisms. It is shown that typical structural motifs and electronic properties can be found in the crystalline state that are indicative for resonant bonding, from which the employed contrast originates. The occurence of resonance is linked to the composition, thus providing a design rule for phase-change materials. This understanding helps to unravel characteristic properties such as electrical and thermal conductivity which are discussed in the subsequent section. Then, turning to the transition kinetics between the phases, the current understanding and modeling of the processes of amorphization and crystallization are discussed. Finally, present approaches for improved high-capacity optical discs and fast non-volatile electrical memories, that hold the potential to succeed present-day's Flash memory, are presented. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  4. Design rules for phase-change materials in data storage applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lencer, Dominic; Salinga, Martin; Wuttig, Matthias

    2011-05-10

    Phase-change materials can rapidly and reversibly be switched between an amorphous and a crystalline phase. Since both phases are characterized by very different optical and electrical properties, these materials can be employed for rewritable optical and electrical data storage. Hence, there are considerable efforts to identify suitable materials, and to optimize them with respect to specific applications. Design rules that can explain why the materials identified so far enable phase-change based devices would hence be very beneficial. This article describes materials that have been successfully employed and dicusses common features regarding both typical structures and bonding mechanisms. It is shown that typical structural motifs and electronic properties can be found in the crystalline state that are indicative for resonant bonding, from which the employed contrast originates. The occurence of resonance is linked to the composition, thus providing a design rule for phase-change materials. This understanding helps to unravel characteristic properties such as electrical and thermal conductivity which are discussed in the subsequent section. Then, turning to the transition kinetics between the phases, the current understanding and modeling of the processes of amorphization and crystallization are discussed. Finally, present approaches for improved high-capacity optical discs and fast non-volatile electrical memories, that hold the potential to succeed present-day's Flash memory, are presented. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Novel Formulations of Phase Change Materials-Epoxy Composites for Thermal Energy Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arce, Maria Elena; Alvarez Feijoo, Miguel Angel; Suarez Garcia, Andres; Luhrs, Claudia C

    2018-01-26

    This research aimed to evaluate the thermal properties of new formulations of phase change materials (PCMs)-epoxy composites, containing a thickening agent and a thermally conductive phase. The composite specimens produced consisted of composites fabricated using (a) inorganic PCMs (hydrated salts), epoxy resins and aluminum particulates or (b) organic PCM (paraffin), epoxy resins, and copper particles. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) was used to analyze the thermal behavior of the samples, while hardness measurements were used to determine changes in mechanical properties at diverse PCM and conductive phase loading values. The results indicate that the epoxy matrix can act as a container for the PCM phase without hindering the heat-absorbing behavior of the PCMs employed. Organic PCMs presented reversible phase transformations over multiple cycles, an advantage that was lacking in their inorganic counterparts. The enthalpy of the organic PCM-epoxy specimens increased linearly with the PCM content in the matrix. The use of thickening agents prevented phase segregation issues and allowed the fabrication of specimens containing up to 40% PCM, a loading significantly higher than others reported. The conductive phase seemed to improve the heat transfer and the mechanical properties of the composites when present in low percentages (material at the temperatures employed.

  6. Morphological analysis of GeTe in inline phase change switches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, Matthew R., E-mail: matthew.king2@ngc.com [Northrop Grumman Electronic Systems, Advanced Concepts and Technologies Division, 1212 Winterson Rd., Linthicum, Maryland 21090 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 (United States); El-Hinnawy, Nabil [Northrop Grumman Electronic Systems, Advanced Concepts and Technologies Division, 1212 Winterson Rd., Linthicum, Maryland 21090 (United States); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 (United States); Salmon, Mike; Gu, Jitty [Evans Analytical Group, 628 Hutton St., Raleigh, North Carolina 27606 (United States); Wagner, Brian P.; Jones, Evan B.; Howell, Robert S.; Nichols, Doyle T.; Young, Robert M. [Northrop Grumman Electronic Systems, Advanced Concepts and Technologies Division, 1212 Winterson Rd., Linthicum, Maryland 21090 (United States); Borodulin, Pavel [Northrop Grumman Electronic Systems, Advanced Concepts and Technologies Division, 1212 Winterson Rd., Linthicum, Maryland 21090 (United States); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218 (United States)

    2015-09-07

    Crystallization and amorphization phenomena in indirectly heated phase change material-based devices were investigated. Scanning transmission electron microscopy was utilized to explore GeTe phase transition processes in the context of the unique inline phase change switch (IPCS) architecture. A monolithically integrated thin film heating element successfully converted GeTe to ON and OFF states. Device cycling prompted the formation of an active area which sustains the majority of structural changes during pulsing. A transition region on both sides of the active area consisting of polycrystalline GeTe and small nuclei (<15 nm) in an amorphous matrix was also observed. The switching mechanism, determined by variations in pulsing parameters, was shown to be predominantly growth-driven. A preliminary model for crystallization and amorphization in IPCS devices is presented.

  7. Transient analysis of a thermal storage unit involving a phase change material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griggs, E. I.; Pitts, D. R.; Humphries, W. R.

    1974-01-01

    The transient response of a single cell of a typical phase change material type thermal capacitor has been modeled using numerical conductive heat transfer techniques. The cell consists of a base plate, an insulated top, and two vertical walls (fins) forming a two-dimensional cavity filled with a phase change material. Both explicit and implicit numerical formulations are outlined. A mixed explicit-implicit scheme which treats the fin implicity while treating the phase change material explicitly is discussed. A band algorithmic scheme is used to reduce computer storage requirements for the implicit approach while retaining a relatively fine grid. All formulations are presented in dimensionless form thereby enabling application to geometrically similar problems. Typical parametric results are graphically presented for the case of melting with constant heat input to the base of the cell.

  8. Preparation and Properties of Paraffin/TiO2/Active-carbon Composite Phase Change Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HAO Yong-gan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A novel composite phase change materials (PCMs of paraffin/TiO2/active-carbon was prepared by a microemulsion method, where paraffin acted as a PCM and titanium dioxide (TiO2 as matrix material, and a small amount of active carbon was added to improve the thermal conductivity. The compositions, morphology and thermal properties of the paraffin/TiO2/active-carbon composite PCMs were characterized by XRD, SEM, TGA and DSC respectively. The shape stability during phase change process of this composite was also tested. The results show that paraffin is well encapsulated by TiO2 matrix, and thus exhibiting excellent shape-stabilized phase change feature. Besides, this composite PCM also presents superhydrophobic property. Therefore, these multifunctional features will endow PCMs with important application potential in energy efficient buildings.

  9. Change in Photosystem II Photochemistry During Algal Growth Phases of Chlorella vulgaris and Scenedesmus obliquus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oukarroum, Abdallah

    2016-06-01

    Sensitivity of photosynthetic processes towards environmental stress is used as a bioanalytical tool to evaluate the responses of aquatic plants to a changing environment. In this paper, change of biomass density, chlorophyll a fluorescence and photosynthetic parameters during growth phases of two microalgae Chlorella vulgaris and Scenedesmus obliquus were studied. The photosynthetic growth behaviour changed significantly with cell age and algae species. During the exponential phase of growth, the photosynthesis capacity reached its maximum and decreased in ageing algal culture during stationary phase. In conclusion, the chlorophyll a fluorescence OJIP method and the derived fluorescence parameters would be an accurate method for obtaining information on maximum photosynthetic capacities and monitoring algal cell growth. This will contribute to more understanding, for example, of toxic actions of pollutants in microalgae test.

  10. Logic computation in phase change materials by threshold and memory switching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassinerio, M; Ciocchini, N; Ielmini, D

    2013-11-06

    Memristors, namely hysteretic devices capable of changing their resistance in response to applied electrical stimuli, may provide new opportunities for future memory and computation, thanks to their scalable size, low switching energy and nonvolatile nature. We have developed a functionally complete set of logic functions including NOR, NAND and NOT gates, each utilizing a single phase-change memristor (PCM) where resistance switching is due to the phase transformation of an active chalcogenide material. The logic operations are enabled by the high functionality of nanoscale phase change, featuring voltage comparison, additive crystallization and pulse-induced amorphization. The nonvolatile nature of memristive states provides the basis for developing reconfigurable hybrid logic/memory circuits featuring low-power and high-speed switching. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. From rice husk to high performance shape stabilized phase change materials for thermal energy storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehrali, Mohammad; Latibari, Sara Tahan; Rosen, Marc A.

    2016-01-01

    A novel shape-stabilized phase change material (SSPCM) was fabricated by using a vacuum impregnation technique. The lightweight, ultra-high specific surface area and porous activated carbon was prepared from waste material (rice husk) through the combination of an activation temperature approach...... and a sodium hydroxide activation procedure. Palmitic acid as a phase change material was impregnated into the porous carbon by a vacuum impregnation technique. Graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs) were employed as an additive for thermal conductivity enhancement of the SSPCMs. The attained composites exhibited...... exceptional phase change behavior, having a desirable latent heat storage capacity of 175 kJ kg(-1). When exposed to high solar radiation intensities, the composites can absorb and store the thermal energy. An FTIR analysis of the SSPCMs indicated that there was no chemical interaction between the palmitic...

  12. Performance evaluation of a thermoelectric energy harvesting device using various phase change materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elefsiniotis, A; Becker, T; Kiziroglou, M E; Wright, S W; Toh, T T; Mitcheson, P D; Yeatman, E M; Schmid, U

    2013-01-01

    This paper compares the performance of a group of organic and inorganic phase change materials for a heat storage thermoelectric energy harvesting device. The device consists of thermoelectric generators and a closed container filled with a phase change material. One side of the generators is mounted on the aircraft fuselage and the other to the thermal mass. The group of inorganic and organic phase change materials was tested across two temperature ranges. These ranges are defined as ''positive'' and ''negative'', with the former being a sweep from +35°C to −5°C and the latter being a sweep from +5°C to −35°C. The performance in terms of electrical energy output and power produced is examined in detail for each group of materials

  13. Morphological analysis of GeTe in inline phase change switches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, Matthew R.; El-Hinnawy, Nabil; Salmon, Mike; Gu, Jitty; Wagner, Brian P.; Jones, Evan B.; Howell, Robert S.; Nichols, Doyle T.; Young, Robert M.; Borodulin, Pavel

    2015-01-01

    Crystallization and amorphization phenomena in indirectly heated phase change material-based devices were investigated. Scanning transmission electron microscopy was utilized to explore GeTe phase transition processes in the context of the unique inline phase change switch (IPCS) architecture. A monolithically integrated thin film heating element successfully converted GeTe to ON and OFF states. Device cycling prompted the formation of an active area which sustains the majority of structural changes during pulsing. A transition region on both sides of the active area consisting of polycrystalline GeTe and small nuclei (<15 nm) in an amorphous matrix was also observed. The switching mechanism, determined by variations in pulsing parameters, was shown to be predominantly growth-driven. A preliminary model for crystallization and amorphization in IPCS devices is presented

  14. Materials research for passive solar systems: Solid-state phase-change materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, D. K.; Webb, J. D.; Burrows, R. W.; McFadden, J. D. O.; Christensen, C.

    1985-03-01

    A set of solid-state phase-change materials is being evaluated for possible use in passive solar thermal energy storage systems. The most promising materials are organic solid solutions of pentaerythritol (C5H12O4), pentaglycerinve (C5H12O3), and neopentyl glycol (C5H12O2). Solid solution mixtures of these compounds can be tailored so that they exhibit solid-to-solid phase transformations at any desired temperature between 25 C and 188 C, and have latent heats of transformation etween 20 and 70 cal/g. Transformation temperatures, specific heats, and latent heats of transformation have been measured for a number of these materials. Limited cyclic experiments suggest that the solid solutions are stable. These phase-change materials exhibit large amounts of undercooling; however, the addition of certain nucleating agents as particulate dispersions in the solid phase-change material greatly reduces this effect. Computer simulations suggest that the use of an optimized solid-state phase-change material in a Trombe wall could provide better performance than a concrete Trombe wall four times thicker and nine times heavier.

  15. Heat transfer characteristics of coconut oil as phase change material to room cooling application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irsyad, M.; Harmen

    2017-03-01

    Thermal comfort in a room is one of human needs in the workplace and dwellings, so that the use of air conditioning system in tropical countries is inevitable. This equipment has an impact on the increase of energy consumption. One method of minimizing the energy use is by using the phase change material (PCM) as thermal energy storage. This material utilizes the temperature difference between day and night for the storage and release of thermal energy. PCM development on application as a material for air cooling inlet, partitioning and interior needs to be supported by the study of heat transfer characteristics when PCM absorbs heat from ambient temperature. This study was conducted to determine the heat transfer characteristics on coconut oil as a phase change material. There are three models of experiments performed in this research. Firstly, an experiment was conducted to analyze the time that was needed by material to phase change by varying the temperature. The second experiment analyzed the heat transfer characteristics of air to PCM naturally convection. The third experiment analyzed the forced convection heat transfer on the surface of the PCM container by varying the air velocity. The data of experimental showed that, increasing ambient air temperature resulted in shorter time for phase change. At temperatures of 30°C, the time for phase change of PCM with the thickness of 8 cm was 1700 min, and it was stable at temperatures of 27°C. Increasing air temperature accelerated the phase change in the material. While for the forced convection heat transfer, PCM could reduce the air temperature in the range of 30 to 35°C at about 1 to 2°C, with a velocity of 1-3 m/s.

  16. THERMAL CHARACTERISTICS OF PHASE CHANGE MATERIAL USED AS THERMAL STORAGE SYSTEM BY USING SOLAR ENERGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadhim F. Nasir

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the melting processes of phase change material in a shell and tube heat exchanger by using solar thermal energy have been investigated numerically and experimentally. All experimental were outdoor tested at AL-Mussaib city-Babylon-Iraq (Lat 32.5 º North, and long 44.3 º East with N-S collector direction at tilt angle of 32.5 º with the horizontal. The phase change material used in this work is black color Iraqi origin pure Paraffin with amount of 12 kg. In the experimental setup evacuted tube solar collector is employed for melting phase change material in shell regime. Different volume flow rates for the water flow inside the inner tube of heat exchanger namely (200, 300, and 500 LPH for Reynolds number namely (15000, 23000, 38000 respectively were used for each season from August 2016 to January 2017. The numerical investigation involves a three dimension numerical solution of model by a commercial package ANSYS FLUENT 15.0. The boundary conditions of the model that solved by the numerical solution have been taken from the experimental tests. The experimental results indicated that the inner tube inlet and ambient temperatures has a significant effects on the melting process compared with the volume flow rates. Studying phase change material temperature distribution, it is exposed that a melting temperature of the phase change material in summer season needed time of (3-4 hours only, while it needed more time; (14-16 hours in winter season. Increasing solar radiation and ambient temperature reduces the melting time of phase change material. Increasing water temperature difference of inner tube increased the heat gained for phase change material. The results obtained from numerical solution presented the static temperature contours and showed that the temperature distribution of phase change material give good validations with experimental results with percentage deviation of 2.7%. The present experimental results have been

  17. Programming voltage reduction in phase change memory cells with tungsten trioxide bottom heating layer/electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao Feng; Song Zhitang; Gong Yuefeng; Wu Liangcai; Feng Songlin; Chen, Bomy

    2008-01-01

    A phase change memory cell with tungsten trioxide bottom heating layer/electrode is investigated. The crystalline tungsten trioxide heating layer promotes the temperature rise in the Ge 2 Sb 2 Te 5 layer which causes the reduction in the reset voltage compared to a conventional phase change memory cell. Theoretical thermal simulation and calculation for the reset process are applied to understand the thermal effect of the tungsten trioxide heating layer/electrode. The improvement in thermal efficiency of the PCM cell mainly originates from the low thermal conductivity of the crystalline tungsten trioxide material.

  18. Near-field phase-change recording using a GaN laser diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishima, Koichiro; Ichimura, Isao; Yamamoto, Kenji; Osato, Kiyoshi; Kuroda, Yuji; Iida, Atsushi; Saito, Kimihiro

    2000-09-01

    We developed a 1.5-Numerical-Aperture optical setup using a GaN blue-violet laser diode. We used a 1.0 mm-diameter super-hemispherical solid immersion lens, and optimized a phase-change disk structure including the cover layer by the method of MTF simulation. The disk surface was polished by tape burnishing technique. An eye-pattern of (1-7)-coded data at the linear density of 80 nm/bit was demonstrated on the phase-change disk below a 50 nm gap height, which was realized through our air-gap servo mechanism.

  19. Review of Development Survey of Phase Change Material Models in Building Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein J. Akeiber

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of phase change materials (PCMs in green buildings has been increasing rapidly. PCM applications in green buildings include several development models. This paper briefly surveys the recent research and development activities of PCM technology in building applications. Firstly, a basic description of phase change and their principles is provided; the classification and applications of PCMs are also included. Secondly, PCM models in buildings are reviewed and discussed according to the wall, roof, floor, and cooling systems. Finally, conclusions are presented based on the collected data.

  20. Thermodynamic modeling of liquid–liquid phase change solvents for CO2 capture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waseem Arshad, Muhammad; von Solms, Nicolas; Thomsen, Kaj

    2016-01-01

    A thermodynamic model based on Extended UNIQUAC framework has been developed in this work for the de-mixing liquid–liquid phase change solvents, DEEA (2-(diethylamino)ethanol) and MAPA (3-(methylamino)propylamine). Parameter estimation was performed for two ternary systems, H2O-DEEA-CO2 and H2O......-MAPA-CO2, and a quaternary system, H2O-DEEA-MAPA-CO2 (phase change system), by using different types of experimental data (equilibrium and thermal) consisting of pure amine vapor pressure, vapor-liquid equilibrium, solid-liquid equilibrium, liquid–liquid equilibrium, excess enthalpy, and heat of absorption...

  1. Dynamic Control of Light Emission Faster than the Lifetime Limit Using VO2 Phase-Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-22

    2D colour plot of the calculated modulation amplitude of the MD contribution to Er3þ emission at 1.5mm upon the VO2 phase-change, as a function of TiO2...metallic state. Experimental spectra are shown in shaded red and blue colour , respectively, whereas theoretically predicted spectra are shown as black...model in Rakić et al.31. References 1. Loke, D. et al. Breaking the speed limits of phase-change memory . Science 336, 1566–1569 (2012). 2. Cavalleri

  2. Correlation between structural, optical and electrical properties anf the suitability of phase change alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woda, Michael; Steimer, Christoph; Wamwangi, Daniel; Wuttig, Matthias [I. Insitute of Physics (IA), RWTH Aachen University, 52056 Aachen (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    Phase change random access memory (PCRAM) is a very promising candidate to replace Flash memories employed in the non-volatile storage sector. In the active region of this emerging memory, a phase change material is found. This class of materials is already used in rewritable optical data storage. In both application areas the reversible switching between the amorphous and the crystalline state by short current or laser pulses, respectively is used to store data. A key question that has not yet been answered regards the optimum choice of materials for phase change recording. We present a material selection strategy which classifies carefully chosen alloys, being representative for a larger selection of phase change materials, regarding their suitability for non-volatile storage applications. XRD and XRR measurements reveal structural properties of the as-deposited, amorphous and the crystalline state, the corresponding local bond arrangements and the change of film density. Ellipsometry measurements determine the optical contrast of the samples while the temperature dependent resistivity is measured by four point probe experiments. Finally the electrical switching behaviour is tested in nanometer size test cells to validate the full functionality of the chosen materials.

  3. Investigation of phase-change coatings for variable thermal control of spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelliher, W. C.; Young, P. R.

    1972-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to determine the feasibility of producing a spacecraft coating system that could vary the ratio of its solar absorptance to thermal emittance to adjust automatically for changes in the thermal balance of a spacecraft. This study resulted in a new concept called the phase-change effect which uses the change that occurs in the optical properties of many materials during the phase transition from a crystalline solid to an amorphous material. A series of two-component model coatings was developed which, when placed on a highly reflecting substrate, exhibited a sharp decrease in solar absorptance within a narrow temperature range. A variable thermal control coating can have a significant amount of temperature regulation with the phase-change effect. Data are presented on several crystallite-polymer formulations, their physical and optical properties, and associated phase-change temperatures. Aspects pertaining to their use in a space environment and an example of the degree of thermal regulation attainable with these coatings is also given.

  4. Graphene-enhanced hybrid phase change materials for thermal management of Li-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goli, Pradyumna; Legedza, Stanislav; Dhar, Aditya; Salgado, Ruben; Renteria, Jacqueline; Balandin, Alexander A.

    2014-02-01

    Li-ion batteries are crucial components for progress in mobile communications and transport technologies. However, Li-ion batteries suffer from strong self-heating, which limits their life-time and creates reliability and environmental problems. Here we show that thermal management and the reliability of Li-ion batteries can be drastically improved using hybrid phase change material with graphene fillers. Conventional thermal management of batteries relies on the latent heat stored in the phase change material as its phase changes over a small temperature range, thereby reducing the temperature rise inside the battery. Incorporation of graphene to the hydrocarbon-based phase change material allows one to increase its thermal conductivity by more than two orders of magnitude while preserving its latent heat storage ability. A combination of the sensible and latent heat storage together with the improved heat conduction outside of the battery pack leads to a significant decrease in the temperature rise inside a typical Li-ion battery pack. The described combined heat storage-heat conduction approach can lead to a transformative change in thermal management of Li-ion and other types of batteries.

  5. Radioautographic analysis of changes in different phases of cell kinetics in murine oral mucosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Chang Suck; You, Dong Soo

    1983-01-01

    The age related changes in the life cycle of the progenitor cell population of murine oral epithelia was studied. Using radioautographic methods which have been adopted in previous cell cycle studies, the age-related changes of different phases in renewing cells of the palatal, buccal and lingual mucosae were determined. The results confirm published findings on cell cycle changes of epithelia with aging and illustrated further that mitotic phases which has hither to been considered stationary, also changes with aging. The major parts revealed by this study are as follows: 1. The basal progenitor cells in different regions of oral mucosa have different generation times. 2. The basal cell cycle time increases as a function of aging and the region most affected by aging appears to be the epithelium of the cheek. 3. The phases of the cell cycle affected by the process of aging are in increasing order of magnitude: M-, S- and G1-phase. 4. The age related change in the number of DNA synthesizing basal progenitor cells occurs at two age periods. Between 1 and 12 months of life it decreases, while from 12 to 20 months it increases.

  6. Study on paraffin/expanded graphite composite phase change thermal energy storage material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhengguo; Fang Xiaoming

    2006-01-01

    A paraffin/expanded graphite composite phase change thermal energy storage material was prepared by absorbing the paraffin into an expanded graphite that has an excellent absorbability. In such a composite, the paraffin serves as a latent heat storage material and the expanded graphite acts as the supporting material, which prevents leakage of the melted paraffin from its porous structure due to the capillary and surface tension forces. The inherent structure of the expanded graphite did not change in the composite material. The solid-liquid phase change temperature of the composite PCM was the same as that of the paraffin, and the latent heat of the paraffin/expanded graphite composite material was equivalent to the calculated value based on the mass ratio of the paraffin in the composite. The heat transfer rate of the paraffin/expanded graphite composite was obviously higher than that of the paraffin due to the combination with the expanded graphite that had a high thermal conductivity. The prepared paraffin/expanded graphite composite phase change material had a large thermal storage capacity and improved thermal conductivity and did not experience liquid leakage during its solid-liquid phase change

  7. Relationship between phase development and swelling of AISI 316 during temperature changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, W.J.S.; Garner, F.A.

    1982-04-01

    The effect of temperature changes on radiation-induced swelling and phase development of AISI 316 has been examined for specimens irradiated in two different experiments. The formation of radiation-stable phases at low temperature appears to precede swelling but these phases tend to dissolve when subsequently subjected to higher temperature. Phases which develop at high temperature persist when the temperature is subsequently lowered. Once nucleated at low temperatures, voids tend to persist without reduction in density at higher temperatures. However, a new round of void nucleation occurs when the temperature is decreased during irradiation. If the swelling has entered the steady-state swelling regime prior to the temperature change, there is no effect on the subsequent swelling rate. For temperature changes that occur before the end of the transient swelling regime, substantial changes can occur in the swelling behavior, particularly if the changes occur in the range around 500 0 . The isothermal swelling behavior of AISI 316 is much less sensitive to irradiation temperature than previously envisioned

  8. Atomic mobility in the overheated amorphous GeTe compound for phase change memories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sosso, G.C.; Behler, J.; Bernasconi, M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstractauthoren Phase change memories rest on the ability of some chalcogenide alloys to undergo a fast and reversible transition between the crystalline and amorphous phases upon Joule heating. The fast crystallization is due to a high nucleation rate and a large crystal growth velocity which are actually possible thanks to the fragility of the supercooled liquid that allows for the persistence of a high atomic mobility at high supercooling where the thermodynamical driving force for crystallization is also high. Since crystallization in the devices occurs by rapidly heating the amorphous phase, hysteretic effects might arise with a different diffusion coefficient and viscosity on heating than on cooling. In this work, we have quantified these hysteretic effects in the phase change compound GeTe by means of molecular dynamics simulations. The atomic mobility in the overheated amorphous phase is lower than in supercooled liquid at the same temperature and the viscosity is consequently higher. Still, the simulations of the overheated amorphous phase reveal a breakdown of the Stokes-Einstein relation between the diffusion coefficient and the viscosity, similarly to what we found previously in the supercooled liquid. Evidences are provided that the breakdown is due to the emergence of dynamical heterogeneities at high supercooling. (copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  9. Strongly nonlinear optical glass fibers from noncentrosymmetric phase-change chalcogenide materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, In; Jang, Joon I; Malliakas, Christos D; Ketterson, John B; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G

    2010-01-13

    We report that the one-dimensional polar selenophosphate compounds APSe(6) (A = K, Rb), which show crystal-glass phase-change behavior, exhibit strong second harmonic generation (SHG) response in both crystal and glassy forms. The crystalline materials are type-I phase-matchable with SHG coefficients chi((2)) of 151.3 and 149.4 pm V(-1) for K(+) and Rb(+) salts, respectively, which is the highest among phase-matchable nonlinear optical (NLO) materials with band gaps over 1.0 eV. The glass of APSe(6) exhibits comparable SHG intensities to the top infrared NLO material AgGaSe(2) without any poling treatments. APSe(6) exhibit excellent mid-IR transparency. We demonstrate that starting from noncentrosymmetric phase-change materials such as APSe(6) (A = K, Rb), we can obtain optical glass fibers with strong, intrinsic, and temporally stable second-order nonlinear optical (NLO) response. The as-prepared glass fibers exhibit SHG and difference frequency generation (DFG) responses over a wide range of wavelengths. Raman spectroscopy and pair distribution function (PDF) analyses provide further understanding of the local structure in amorphous state of KPSe(6) bulk glass and glass fiber. We propose that this approach can be widely applied to prepare permanent NLO glass from materials that undergo a phase-change process.

  10. Melting temperature and enthalpy variations of phase change materials (PCMs): a differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaoqin; Lee, Kyoung Ok; Medina, Mario A.; Chu, Youhong; Li, Chuanchang

    2018-06-01

    Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis is a standard thermal analysis technique used to determine the phase transition temperature, enthalpy, heat of fusion, specific heat and activation energy of phase change materials (PCMs). To determine the appropriate heating rate and sample mass, various DSC measurements were carried out using two kinds of PCMs, namely N-octadecane paraffin and calcium chloride hexahydrate. The variations in phase transition temperature, enthalpy, heat of fusion, specific heat and activation energy were observed within applicable heating rates and sample masses. It was found that the phase transition temperature range increased with increasing heating rate and sample mass; while the heat of fusion varied without any established pattern. The specific heat decreased with the increase of heating rate and sample mass. For accuracy purpose, it is recommended that for PCMs with high thermal conductivity (e.g. hydrated salt) the focus will be on heating rate rather than sample mass.

  11. Cholinergic neuromodulation changes phase response curve shape and type in cortical pyramidal neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus M Stiefel

    Full Text Available Spike generation in cortical neurons depends on the interplay between diverse intrinsic conductances. The phase response curve (PRC is a measure of the spike time shift caused by perturbations of the membrane potential as a function of the phase of the spike cycle of a neuron. Near the rheobase, purely positive (type I phase-response curves are associated with an onset of repetitive firing through a saddle-node bifurcation, whereas biphasic (type II phase-response curves point towards a transition based on a Hopf-Andronov bifurcation. In recordings from layer 2/3 pyramidal neurons in cortical slices, cholinergic action, consistent with down-regulation of slow voltage-dependent potassium currents such as the M-current, switched the PRC from type II to type I. This is the first report showing that cholinergic neuromodulation may cause a qualitative switch in the PRCs type implying a change in the fundamental dynamical mechanism of spike generation.

  12. Metasurfaces Based on Phase-Change Material as a Reconfigurable Platform for Multifunctional Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raeis-Hosseini, Niloufar; Rho, Junsuk

    2017-01-01

    Integration of phase-change materials (PCMs) into electrical/optical circuits has initiated extensive innovation for applications of metamaterials (MMs) including rewritable optical data storage, metasurfaces, and optoelectronic devices. PCMs have been studied deeply due to their reversible phase transition, high endurance, switching speed, and data retention. Germanium-antimony-tellurium (GST) is a PCM that has amorphous and crystalline phases with distinct properties, is bistable and nonvolatile, and undergoes a reliable and reproducible phase transition in response to an optical or electrical stimulus; GST may therefore have applications in tunable photonic devices and optoelectronic circuits. In this progress article, we outline recent studies of GST and discuss its advantages and possible applications in reconfigurable metadevices. We also discuss outlooks for integration of GST in active nanophotonic metadevices. PMID:28878196

  13. Density functional simulations of Sb-rich GeSbTe phase change alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabardi, S; Bernasconi, M; Caravati, S; Parrinello, M

    2012-01-01

    We generated models of the amorphous phase of Sb-rich GeSbTe phase change alloys by quenching from the melt within density functional molecular dynamics. We considered the two compositions Ge 1 Sb 1 Te 1 and Ge 2 Sb 4 Te 5 . Comparison with previous results on the most studied Ge 2 Sb 2 Te 5 allowed us to draw some conclusions on the dependence of the structural properties of the amorphous phase on the alloy composition. Vibrational and electronic properties were also scrutinized. Phonons at high frequencies above 200 cm -1 are localized in tetrahedra around Ge atoms in Sb-rich compounds as well as in Ge 2 Sb 2 Te 5 . All compounds are semiconducting in the amorphous phase, with a band gap in the range 0.7-1.0 eV.

  14. Density functional simulations of Sb-rich GeSbTe phase change alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabardi, S.; Caravati, S.; Bernasconi, M.; Parrinello, M.

    2012-09-01

    We generated models of the amorphous phase of Sb-rich GeSbTe phase change alloys by quenching from the melt within density functional molecular dynamics. We considered the two compositions Ge1Sb1Te1 and Ge2Sb4Te5. Comparison with previous results on the most studied Ge2Sb2Te5 allowed us to draw some conclusions on the dependence of the structural properties of the amorphous phase on the alloy composition. Vibrational and electronic properties were also scrutinized. Phonons at high frequencies above 200 cm-1 are localized in tetrahedra around Ge atoms in Sb-rich compounds as well as in Ge2Sb2Te5. All compounds are semiconducting in the amorphous phase, with a band gap in the range 0.7-1.0 eV.

  15. Thermal characteristics of shape-stabilized phase change material wallboard with periodical outside temperature waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Guobing; Yang, Yongping; Wang, Xin; Cheng, Jinming

    2010-01-01

    Thermal characteristics of shape-stabilized phase change material (SSPCM) wallboard with sinusoidal temperature wave on the outer surface were investigated numerically and compared with traditional building materials such as brick, foam concrete and expanded polystyrene (EPS). One-dimensional enthalpy equation under convective boundary conditions was solved using fully implicit finite-difference scheme. The simulation results showed that the SSPCM wallboard presents distinct characteristics from other ordinary building materials. Phase transition keeping time of inner surface and decrement factor were applied to analyze the effects of PCM thermophysical properties (melting temperature, heat of fusion, phase transition zone and thermal conductivity), inner surface convective heat transfer coefficient and thickness of SSPCM wallboard. It was found that melting temperature is one important factor which influences both the phase transition keeping time and the decrement factor; for a certain outside temperature wave, there exist critical values of latent heat of fusion and thickness of SSPCM above which the phase transition keeping time or the decrement factor are scarcely influenced; thermal conductivity of PCM and inner surface convective coefficient have little effect on the phase transition keeping time but significantly influence the decrement factor; and the phase transition zone leads to small fluctuations of the original flat segment of inner surface temperature line. The results aim to be useful for the selection of SSPCMs and their applications in passive solar buildings.

  16. Thermally tunable broadband omnidirectional and polarization-independent super absorber using phase change material VO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhejun Liu

    Full Text Available In this letter, we numerically demonstrate a thermally tunable super absorber by using phase change material VO2 as absorbing layer in metal-insulator-metal structure. An omnidirectional super absorption at λ=2.56μm can be realized by heating the patterned grating VO2 film due to magnetic resonance mechanism. Furthermore, a broadband super absorption higher than 0.8 in the entire 1.6μm–4μm region is achieved when VO2 film is patterned chessboard structure and transformed to metal phase beyond transition temperature. This broadband super absorption can be fulfilled in a wide range of incident angle (0°–70° and under all polarization conditions. Keywords: Phase change material, Metal-insulator-metal, Super absorption, Magnetic resonance

  17. The tropicalization of temperate marine ecosystems: climate-mediated changes in herbivory and community phase shifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergés, Adriana; Steinberg, Peter D.; Hay, Mark E.; Poore, Alistair G. B.; Campbell, Alexandra H.; Ballesteros, Enric; Heck, Kenneth L.; Booth, David J.; Coleman, Melinda A.; Feary, David A.; Figueira, Will; Langlois, Tim; Marzinelli, Ezequiel M.; Mizerek, Toni; Mumby, Peter J.; Nakamura, Yohei; Roughan, Moninya; van Sebille, Erik; Gupta, Alex Sen; Smale, Dan A.; Tomas, Fiona; Wernberg, Thomas; Wilson, Shaun K.

    2014-01-01

    Climate-driven changes in biotic interactions can profoundly alter ecological communities, particularly when they impact foundation species. In marine systems, changes in herbivory and the consequent loss of dominant habitat forming species can result in dramatic community phase shifts, such as from coral to macroalgal dominance when tropical fish herbivory decreases, and from algal forests to ‘barrens’ when temperate urchin grazing increases. Here, we propose a novel phase-shift away from macroalgal dominance caused by tropical herbivores extending their range into temperate regions. We argue that this phase shift is facilitated by poleward-flowing boundary currents that are creating ocean warming hotspots around the globe, enabling the range expansion of tropical species and increasing their grazing rates in temperate areas. Overgrazing of temperate macroalgae by tropical herbivorous fishes has already occurred in Japan and the Mediterranean. Emerging evidence suggests similar phenomena are occurring in other temperate regions, with increasing occurrence of tropical fishes on temperate reefs. PMID:25009065

  18. Molecular simulation of excess isotherm and excess enthalpy change in gas-phase adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, D D; Do, H D; Nicholson, D

    2009-01-29

    We present a new approach to calculating excess isotherm and differential enthalpy of adsorption on surfaces or in confined spaces by the Monte Carlo molecular simulation method. The approach is very general and, most importantly, is unambiguous in its application to any configuration of solid structure (crystalline, graphite layer or disordered porous glass), to any type of fluid (simple or complex molecule), and to any operating conditions (subcritical or supercritical). The behavior of the adsorbed phase is studied using the partial molar energy of the simulation box. However, to characterize adsorption for comparison with experimental data, the isotherm is best described by the excess amount, and the enthalpy of adsorption is defined as the change in the total enthalpy of the simulation box with the change in the excess amount, keeping the total number (gas + adsorbed phases) constant. The excess quantities (capacity and energy) require a choice of a reference gaseous phase, which is defined as the adsorptive gas phase occupying the accessible volume and having a density equal to the bulk gas density. The accessible volume is defined as the mean volume space accessible to the center of mass of the adsorbate under consideration. With this choice, the excess isotherm passes through a maximum but always remains positive. This is in stark contrast to the literature where helium void volume is used (which is always greater than the accessible volume) and the resulting excess can be negative. Our definition of enthalpy change is equivalent to the difference between the partial molar enthalpy of the gas phase and the partial molar enthalpy of the adsorbed phase. There is no need to assume ideal gas or negligible molar volume of the adsorbed phase as is traditionally done in the literature. We illustrate this new approach with adsorption of argon, nitrogen, and carbon dioxide under subcritical and supercritical conditions.

  19. Phase transformation and microstructural changes during ageing process of an Ag-Pd-Cu-Au alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Chin-Ho; Park, Mi-Gyoung; Kwon, Yong Hoon; Seol, Hyo-Joung [Department of Dental Materials, School of Dentistry and Medical Research Institute, Pusan National University, 1-10 Ami-dong, Seo-gu, Pusan 602-739 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyung-Il [Department of Dental Materials, School of Dentistry and Medical Research Institute, Pusan National University, 1-10 Ami-dong, Seo-gu, Pusan 602-739 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: hilkim@pusan.ac.kr

    2008-07-28

    Age-hardening behaviour and the related phase transformation and microstructural changes during isothermal ageing process were studied to elucidate the age-hardening mechanism of an Ag-based dental casting alloy composed of Ag-Pd-Cu-Au-Zn, Ir and In by means of hardness test, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopic (SEM) observations and energy dispersive spectroscopic microanalysis (EDS). In the hardness test at 350 and 400 deg. C, the hardness of the solution-treated specimen began to increase and reached a maximum value with increasing ageing time, and subsequently the hardness decreased gradually. By considering XRD results and SEM observations together, the solution-treated specimen consisted of three phases, the Ag-rich {alpha}{sub 1} phase as a matrix, the Cu-Pd {alpha}{sub 2} phase and the CuPd {beta} phase with a CsCl-type as particle-like structures. By ageing the solution-treated specimen, the Ag-rich {alpha}{sub 1} and Cu-Pd {alpha}{sub 2} phases were transformed into the Ag-rich {alpha}{sup '}{sub 1} and Cu{sub 3}Pd {alpha}{sup '}{sub 2} phases, respectively. The CuPd {beta} phase with a CsCl-type was not changed apparently during the ageing process. From the results of the hardness test, XRD study, SEM observations and EDS analysis, it could be derived that the hardness increased by the diffusion and precipitation of the Cu-rich phase from the Ag-rich matrix during the early stage of phase transformation of {alpha}{sub 1} into {alpha}{sup '}{sub 1} and that the progress of coarsening of the Cu-rich precipitates with an entanglement structure caused the hardness decrease during the later stage of phase transformation of {alpha}{sub 1} into {alpha}{sup '}{sub 1}. The particle-like structures composed of the Cu-Pd {alpha}{sub 2} and the CuPd {beta} phase with a CsCl-type contributed little to the hardness increase which occurred in the early stage of aging process.

  20. Interface Characterization of Metals and Metal-nitrides to Phase Change Materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roy, Deepu; Gravesteijn, Dirk J; Wolters, Robertus A.M.

    2011-01-01

    We have investigated the interfacial contact properties of the CMOS compatible electrode materials W, TiW, Ta, TaN and TiN to doped-Sb2Te phase change material (PCM). This interface is characterized both in the amorphous and in the crystalline state of the doped-Sb2Te. The electrical nature of the

  1. Schottky barrier formation at amorphous-crystalline interfaces of GeSb phase change materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroezen, H. J.; Eising, G.; ten Brink, Gert; Palasantzas, G.; Kooi, B. J.; Pauza, A.

    2012-01-01

    The electrical properties of amorphous-crystalline interfaces in phase change materials, which are important for rewritable optical data storage and for random access memory devices, have been investigated by surface scanning potential microscopy. Analysis of GeSb systems indicates that the surface

  2. Analysis of thermal energy storage material with change-of-phase volumetric effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerslake, Thomas W.; Ibrahim, Mounir B.

    1990-01-01

    NASA's Space Station Freedom proposed hybrid power system includes photovoltaic arrays with nickel hydrogen batteries for energy storage and solar dynamic collectors driving Brayton heat engines with change-of-phase Thermal Energy Storage (TES) devices. A TES device is comprised of multiple metallic, annular canisters which contain a eutectic composition LiF-CaF2 Phase Change Material (PCM) that melts at 1040 K. A moderately sophisticated LiF-CaF2 PCM computer model is being developed in three stages considering 1-D, 2-D, and 3-D canister geometries, respectively. The 1-D model results indicate that the void has a marked effect on the phase change process due to PCM displacement and dynamic void heat transfer resistance. Equally influential are the effects of different boundary conditions and liquid PCM natural convection. For the second stage, successful numerical techniques used in the 1-D phase change model are extended to a 2-D (r,z) PCM containment canister model. A prototypical PCM containment canister is analyzed and the results are discussed.

  3. Replacement of Ablators with Phase-Change Material for Thermal Protection of STS Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaul, Raj K.; Stuckey, Irvin; Munafo, Paul M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    As part of the research and development program to develop new Thermal Protection System (TPS) materials for aerospace applications at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), an experimental study was conducted on a new concept for a non-ablative TPS material. Potential loss of TPS material and ablation by-products from the External Tank (ET) or Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) during Shuttle flight with the related Orbiter tile damage necessitates development of a non-ablative thermal protection system. The new Thermal Management Coating (TMC) consists of phase-change material encapsulated in micro spheres and a two-part resin system to adhere the coating to the structure material. The TMC uses a phase-change material to dissipate the heat produced during supersonic flight rather than an ablative material. This new material absorbs energy as it goes through a phase change during the heating portion of the flight profile and then the energy is slowly released as the phase-change material cools and returns to its solid state inside the micro spheres. The coating was subjected to different test conditions simulating design flight environments at the NASA/MSFC Improved Hot Gas Facility (IHGF) to study its performance.

  4. Non-Toxic, Non-Flammable, -80 C Phase Change Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutbirth, J. Michael

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this effort was to develop a non-toxic, non-flammable, -80 C phase change material (PCM) to be used in NASA's ICEPAC capsules for biological sample preservation in flight to and from Earth orbit. A temperature of about -68 C or lower is a critical temperature for maintaining stable cell, tissue, and cell fragment storage.

  5. Evidence for resonant bonding in phase-change materials studied by IR spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Shportko

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Phase-change materials (PCM attract attention due to their unique properties. This remarkable portfolio also makes them promising for applications in novel data storage devices. In this study, we discuss differences in the optical properties of PCM and non-PCM in the IR caused by presence or absence of resonant bonding.

  6. Changing electronic density in sites of crystalline lattice under superconducting of phase transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turaev, N.Yu.; Turaev, E.Yu.; Khuzhakulov, E.S.; Seregin, P.P.

    2006-01-01

    Results of electron density change calculations for sites of the one-dimensional Kronig-Penny lattice at the superconducting phase transition have been presented. The transition from normal state to super conducting one is accompanied by the rise of the electron density at the unit cell centre. It is agreement with Moessbauer spectroscopy data. (author)

  7. Does nanoparticles dispersed in a phase change material improve melting characteristics?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farsani, Rouhollah Yadollahi; Raisi, Afrasiab; Nadooshan, Afshin Ahmadi; Vanapalli, Srinivas

    2017-01-01

    Nanoparticles dispersed in a phase change material alter the thermo-physical properties of the base material, such as thermal conductivity, viscosity, and specific heat capacity. These properties combined with the configuration of the cavity, and the location of the heat source, influence the

  8. The behavior of self-compacting concrete containing micro-encapsulated phase change materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hunger, Martin; Entrop, Alexis Gerardus; Mandilaras, I.; Brouwers, Jos; Founti, M.

    2009-01-01

    In order to come to a sustainable built environment the construction industry requires new energy saving concepts. One concept is to use Phase Change Materials (PCM), which have the ability to absorb and to release thermal energy at a specific temperature. This paper presents a set of experiments

  9. Improved thermal lattice Boltzmann model for simulation of liquid-vapor phase change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qing; Zhou, P.; Yan, H. J.

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, an improved thermal lattice Boltzmann (LB) model is proposed for simulating liquid-vapor phase change, which is aimed at improving an existing thermal LB model for liquid-vapor phase change [S. Gong and P. Cheng, Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 55, 4923 (2012), 10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2012.04.037]. First, we emphasize that the replacement of ∇ .(λ ∇ T ) /∇.(λ ∇ T ) ρ cV ρ cV with ∇ .(χ ∇ T ) is an inappropriate treatment for diffuse interface modeling of liquid-vapor phase change. Furthermore, the error terms ∂t 0(T v ) +∇ .(T vv ) , which exist in the macroscopic temperature equation recovered from the previous model, are eliminated in the present model through a way that is consistent with the philosophy of the LB method. Moreover, the discrete effect of the source term is also eliminated in the present model. Numerical simulations are performed for droplet evaporation and bubble nucleation to validate the capability of the model for simulating liquid-vapor phase change. It is shown that the numerical results of the improved model agree well with those of a finite-difference scheme. Meanwhile, it is found that the replacement of ∇ .(λ ∇ T ) /∇ .(λ ∇ T ) ρ cV ρ cV with ∇ .(χ ∇ T ) leads to significant numerical errors and the error terms in the recovered macroscopic temperature equation also result in considerable errors.

  10. Defining climate change scenario characteristics with a phase space of cumulative primary energy and carbon intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, Justin; Dowlatabadi, Hadi

    2018-02-01

    Climate change modeling relies on projections of future greenhouse gas emissions and other phenomena leading to changes in planetary radiative forcing. Scenarios of socio-technical development consistent with end-of-century forcing levels are commonly produced by integrated assessment models. However, outlooks for forcing from fossil energy combustion can also be presented and defined in terms of two essential components: total energy use this century and the carbon intensity of that energy. This formulation allows a phase space diagram to succinctly describe a broad range of possible outcomes for carbon emissions from the future energy system. In the following paper, we demonstrate this phase space method with the Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) as used in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fifth Assessment Report (AR5). The resulting RCP phase space is applied to map IPCC Working Group III (WGIII) reference case ‘no policy’ scenarios. Once these scenarios are described as coordinates in the phase space, data mining techniques can readily distill their core features. Accordingly, we conduct a k-means cluster analysis to distinguish the shared outlooks of these scenarios for oil, gas and coal resource use. As a whole, the AR5 database depicts a transition toward re-carbonization, where a world without climate policy inevitably leads to an energy supply with increasing carbon intensity. This orientation runs counter to the experienced ‘dynamics as usual’ of gradual decarbonization, suggesting climate change targets outlined in the Paris Accord are more readily achievable than projected to date.

  11. Resolving Crystallization Kinetics of GeTe Phase-Change Nanoparticles by Ultrafast Calorimetry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Bin; de Wal, Dennis; ten Brink, Gert H.; Palasantzas, George; Kooi, Bart J.

    Chalcogenitle-based phase change materials (PCMs) are promising candidates for the active element in novel electrical nonvolatile memories and have been applied successfully its rewritable optical disks. Nanostructured PCMs are considered as the next generation building blocks for their low power

  12. Ge-Sb-Te based phase-change nanoparticles : Synthesis, structure characterization and crystallization kinetics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Bin

    2017-01-01

    Nanogestructureerde phase-change materialen (PCMs) zijn veelbelovend als actief element in volgende generatie geheugentechnologieën. Ondanks de essentiële rol die de kristallisatie-kinetiek speelt in het schakelen van PCM geheugens, is deze kinetiek nauwelijks bestudeerd, omdat dit onderzoek

  13. Phase-change thin films : resistance switching and isothermal crystallization studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pandian, Ramanathaswamy

    2008-01-01

    Phase-change materials are identified as promising candidates for the future non-volatile memory applications. It is crucial to develop potential methods and technologies for the materials to meet the future data storage requirements such as high data storage density and high data transfer rate. A

  14. Polarity-dependent reversible resistance switching in Ge-Sb-Te phase-change thin films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pandian, Ramanathaswamy; Kooi, Bart J.; Palasantzas, George; De Hosson, Jeff T. M.; Pauza, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate reversible resistance switching in a capacitorlike cell using a Ge-Sb-Te film that does not rely on amorphous-crystalline phase change. The polarity of the applied electric field switches the cell resistance between lower- and higher-resistance states, as was observed

  15. Latent heat storage by silica-coated polymer beads containing organic phase change materials

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Feczkó, T.; Trif, L.; Horák, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 132, July (2016), s. 405-414 ISSN 0038-092X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LH14318 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : latent heat storage * phase change materials * porous beads by suspension polymerization Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 4.018, year: 2016

  16. Threshold switching uniformity in In2Se3 nanowire-based phase change memory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Jian; Du Gang; Liu Xiao-Yan

    2015-01-01

    The uniformity of threshold voltage and threshold current in the In 2 Se 3 nanowire-based phase change memory (PCM) devices is investigated. Based on the trap-limited transport model, amorphous layer thickness, trap density, and trap depth are considered to clarify their influences upon the threshold voltage and threshold current through simulations. (paper)

  17. Experimental data showing the thermal behavior of a flat roof with phase change material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokuç, Ayça; Başaran, Tahsin; Yesügey, S Cengiz

    2015-12-01

    The selection and configuration of building materials for optimal energy efficiency in a building require some assumptions and models for the thermal behavior of the utilized materials. Although the models for many materials can be considered acceptable for simulation and calculation purposes, the work for modeling the real time behavior of phase change materials is still under development. The data given in this article shows the thermal behavior of a flat roof element with a phase change material (PCM) layer. The temperature and energy given to and taken from the building element are reported. In addition the solid-liquid behavior of the PCM is tracked through images. The resulting thermal behavior of the phase change material is discussed and simulated in [1] A. Tokuç, T. Başaran, S.C. Yesügey, An experimental and numerical investigation on the use of phase change materials in building elements: the case of a flat roof in Istanbul, Build. Energy, vol. 102, 2015, pp. 91-104.

  18. Research framework for an experimental study on phase change materials in scaled models of dutch dwellings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muthing, F.; Entrop, A.G.; Brouwers, H.J.H.

    2009-01-01

    In modern Dutch dwellings, about 10% of the annual use of primary energy is used for cooling, whereas about 50% of the primary energy is used for heating. With the technology of Phase Change Materials (PCMs) energy savings can be made in both areas. PCMs are materials with a high latent heat

  19. Thermal properties of lauric acid filled in carbon nanotubes as shape-stabilized phase change materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yanhui; Wei, Runzhi; Huang, Zhi; Zhang, Xinxin; Wang, Ge

    2018-03-14

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) filled with lauric acid (LA) as a kind of shape-stabilized phase change material were prepared and their structures and phase change properties were characterized. The results showed that the melting point and latent heat of LA confined in carbon nanotubes were lower than those of the bulk material, and both decrease as the diameters of CNTs and the filling ratios of LA decrease. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations indicated that LA molecules form a liquid layer near pore walls and crystallize at the pore center. When the LA filling ratio was reduced to a certain value, all LA molecules were attached to the inner walls of CNTs, hindering their crystallization. A linear relationship between the melting temperature shift and structural properties was obtained based on the modified Gibbs-Thomson equation, which gives a reliable interpretation of the size effect of nanochannels in phase change materials. We also found that the thermal conductivity of the composite CNTs/LA was four times larger than that of pure LA. This study will provide insights into the design of novel composite phase change materials with better thermal properties by the selection of suitable porous materials and tailoring their pore structures.

  20. Molecular dynamics simulations of melting behavior of alkane as phase change materials slurry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao Zhonghao; Wang Shuangfeng; Wu Maochun; Zhang Yanlai; Li Fuhuo

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The melting behavior of phase change materials slurry was investigated by molecular dynamics simulation method. ► Four different PCM slurry systems including pure water and water/n-nonadecane composite were constructed. ► Amorphous structure and periodic boundary conditions were used in the molecular dynamics simulations. ► The simulated melting temperatures are very close to the published experimental values. - Abstract: The alkane based phase change materials slurry, with high latent heat storage capacity, is effective to enhance the heat transfer rate of traditional fluid. In this paper, the melting behavior of composite phase change materials slurry which consists of n-nonadecane and water was investigated by using molecular dynamics simulation. Four different systems including pure water and water/n-nonadecane composite were constructed with amorphous structure and periodic boundary conditions. The results showed that the simulated density and melting temperature were very close to the published experimental values. Mixing the n-nonadecane into water decreased the mobility but increased the energy storage capacity of composite systems. To describe the melting behavior of alkane based phase change materials slurry on molecular or atomic scale, molecular dynamics simulation is an effective method.

  1. Research framework for an experimental study on phase change materials in scaled models of Dutch dwellings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Müthing, F.; Entrop, Alexis Gerardus; Brouwers, Jos; Durmisevic, Elma

    2009-01-01

    In modern Dutch dwellings, about 10% of the annual use of primary energy is used for cooling, whereas about 50% of the primary energy is used for heating. With the technology of Phase Change Materials (PCMs) energy savings can be made in both areas. PCMs are materials with a high latent heat

  2. Aqueous preparation of polyethylene glycol/sulfonated graphene phase change composite with enhanced thermal performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Hairong; Jiang, Ming; Li, Qi; Li, Denian; Chen, Zongyi; Hu, Waping; Huang, Jing; Xu, Xizhe; Dong, Lijie; Xie, Haian; Xiong, Chuanxi

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • We report an aqueous preparation technique of PEG/graphene phase change composite. • Hydrophilic sulfonated graphene (SG) nanosheets were synthesized. • Large increase in thermal conductivity is attained at low SG loading. • High latent heat is retained due to the low filler loading. • Affinity between SG and PEG contributes to the enhanced thermal performance. - Abstract: A polyethylene glycol (PEG)/sulfonated graphene (SG) phase change composite with enhanced thermal performance was prepared by solution processing in aqueous medium. It is remarkable that the addition of only 4 wt.% of SG to PEG could lead to a four times higher increase in thermal conductivity and a slight decrease in the phase change enthalpy, which is attributed to the formation of efficient thermal conductive network within the PEG matrix relevant to the excellent thermal property and unique 2-dimensional morphology of graphene as well as strong interface affinity between PEG matrix and SG nanosheets. The aqueous preparation technique is expected to pioneer a new way to prepare environment friendly organic phase change materials, and the production of PEG/SG composites is potentially scalable due to the facile fabricating process

  3. Optical switching at 1.55um in silicon racetrack resonators using phase change materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rudé, M.; Pello, J.; Simpson, R.E.; Osmond, J.; Roelkens, G.C.; Tol, van der J.J.G.M.; Pruneri, V.

    2013-01-01

    An optical switch operating at a wavelength of 1.55¿µm and showing a 12 dB modulation depth is introduced. The device is implemented in a silicon racetrack resonator using an overcladding layer of the phase change data storage material Ge2Sb2Te5, which exhibits high contrast in its optical

  4. Externally finned circular tube immerse in a phase-change material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, C.L.F.; Ismail, K.A.R.

    1985-01-01

    In an attempt to increase the heat transfer rate and reduce the convective currents during the freezing of phase change materials (PCM) in storage tanks, externally finned circular tubes are studied experimentally. The parameters analysed in this work include number of fins, fin length, initial degree of superheat and freezing time

  5. Preparation of CMC-modified melamine resin spherical nano-phase change energy storage materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaofeng; Huang, Zhanhua; Zhang, Yanhua

    2014-01-30

    A novel carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC)-modified melamine-formaldehyde (MF) phase change capsule with excellent encapsulation was prepared by in situ polymerization. Effects of CMC on the properties of the capsules were studied by Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffractometry (XRD), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The results showed that the CMC-modified capsules had an average diameter of about 50nm and good uniformity. The phase change enthalpy of the capsules was increased and the cracking ratio decreased by incorporating a suitable amount of CMC. The optimum phase change enthalpy of the nanocapsules was 83.46J/g, and their paraffin content was 63.1%. The heat resistance of the capsule shells decreased after CMC modification. In addition, the nanocapsule cracking ratio of the nanocapsules was 11.0%, which is highly attractive for their application as nano phase change materials. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The behavior of self-compacting concrete containing micro-encapsulated Phase Change Materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hunger, M.; Entrop, A.G.; Mandilaras, I.; Brouwers, H.J.H.; Founti, M.

    2009-01-01

    In order to come to a sustainable built environment the construction industry requires new energy saving concepts. One concept is to use Phase Change Materials (PCM), which have the ability to absorb and to release thermal energy at a specific temperature. This paper presents a set of experiments

  7. Origin, secret, and application of the ideal phase-change material GeSbTe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, Noboru [Advanced Technology Research Laboratories, Panasonic Corporation, 3-4 Hikaridai, Seika-cho, Soraku-gun, 619-0237 Kyoto (Japan); Nanoelectronics Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Central 4, 1-1-1, Higashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8562 (Japan)

    2012-10-15

    Discovery of the GeSbTe phase-change alloy in particular along the GeTe-Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3} tie-line took place in the mid-1980s. The amorphous alloys showed ideal properties, for example, high thermal stability at r.t. and laser-induced rapid crystallization with large optical changes. Thereafter, GeSbTe was successively applied to various optical disks such as DVDs and BDs. Through DSC and XRD analyses, the appearance of the metastable phase having a NaCl-type structure was observed over a wide compositional region. This was the ''key'' to realizing the ideal phase-change properties. During this year, the role of the constituent elements of Ge and Sb became clear by RMC modeling using AXS data at SPring-8, where the ''nucleation dominant crystallization process'' was well explained. The aspect of the latest Blu-ray Disc (BD) product of Panasonic: GeSbTe phase-change films are utilized in every recording layer. It is seen that the front-side recording layers, L1 and L2, are highly transparent. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  8. Nanostructure-property relations for phase-change random access memory (PCRAM) line cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooi, B. J.; Oosthoek, J. L. M.; Verheijen, M. A.; Kaiser, M.; Jedema, F. J.; Gravesteijn, D. J.

    2012-01-01

    Phase-change random access memory (PCRAM) cells have been studied extensively using electrical characterization and rather limited by detailed structure characterization. The combination of these two characterization techniques has hardly been exploited and it is the focus of the present work.

  9. Experimental data showing the thermal behavior of a flat roof with phase change material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayça Tokuç

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The selection and configuration of building materials for optimal energy efficiency in a building require some assumptions and models for the thermal behavior of the utilized materials. Although the models for many materials can be considered acceptable for simulation and calculation purposes, the work for modeling the real time behavior of phase change materials is still under development. The data given in this article shows the thermal behavior of a flat roof element with a phase change material (PCM layer. The temperature and energy given to and taken from the building element are reported. In addition the solid–liquid behavior of the PCM is tracked through images. The resulting thermal behavior of the phase change material is discussed and simulated in [1] A. Tokuç, T. Başaran, S.C. Yesügey, An experimental and numerical investigation on the use of phase change materials in building elements: the case of a flat roof in Istanbul, Build. Energy, vol. 102, 2015, pp. 91–104.

  10. Polyethylene Glycol Based Graphene Aerogel Confined Phase Change Materials with High Thermal Stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yang; Xiong, Weilai; Wang, Jianying; Li, Jinghua; Mei, Tao; Wang, Xianbao

    2018-05-01

    Polyethylene glycol (PEG) based graphene aerogel (GA) confined shaped-stabilized phase change materials (PCMs) are simply prepared by a one-step hydrothermal method. Three-dimensional GA inserted by PEG molecule chains, as a supporting material, obtained by reducing graphene oxide sheets, is used to keep their stabilized shape during a phase change process. The volume of GA is obviously expended after adding PEG, and only 9.8 wt% of GA make the composite achieve high energy efficiency without leakage during their phase change because of hydrogen bonding widely existing in the GA/PEG composites (GA-PCMs). The heat storage energy of GA-PCMs is 164.9 J/g, which is 90.2% of the phase change enthalpy of pure PEG. In addition, this composite inherits the natural thermal properties of graphene and thus shows enhanced thermal conductivity compared with pure PEG. This novel study provides an efficient way to fabricate shape-stabilized PCMs with a high content of PEG for thermal energy storage.

  11. Integration of phase change materials in compressed hydrogen gas systems: Modelling and parametric analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mazzucco, Andrea; Rothuizen, Erasmus; Jørgensen, Jens-Erik

    2016-01-01

    to the phase change material, mainly occurs after the fueling is completed, resulting in a hydrogen peak temperature higher than 85 C and a lower fueled mass than a gas-cooled system. Such a mass reduction accounts for 12% with respect to the case of a standard tank system fueled at 40 C. A parametric analysis...

  12. Protection and thermal management of thermoelectric generator system using phase change materials: An experimental investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmadi Atouei, Saeed; Rezaniakolaei, Alireza; Ranjbar, A.A.

    2018-01-01

    In most thermoelectric systems the thermal boundary conditions are transient, and thermal manage-ment of the system is critical to improve electrical performance of the system. In this study, effect of using phase change materials (PCM) to control the hot and cold side temperatures...

  13. Smart Crack Control in Concrete through Use of Phase Change Materials (PCMs) : A Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Šavija, B.

    2018-01-01

    Cracks in concrete structures present a threat to their durability. Therefore, numerous research studies have been devoted to reducing concrete cracking. In recent years, a new approach has been proposed for controlling temperature related cracking—utilization of phase change materials (PCMs) in

  14. Picosecond laser pulse-driven crystallization behavior of SiSb phase change memory thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Huan; Li Simian; Zhai Fengxiao; Wang Yang; Lai Tianshu; Wu Yiqun; Gan Fuxi

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → We reported crystallization dynamics of a novel SiSb phase change material. → We measured optical constants of as-deposited and irradiated SiSb areas. → Optical properties of as-deposited and irradiated SiSb thin film were compared. → Crystallization of irradiated SiSb was confirmed by using AFM and micro-Raman spectra. → The heat conduction effect of lower metal layer of multi-layer films was studied. - Abstract: Transient phase change crystallization process of SiSb phase change thin films under the irradiation of picosecond (ps) laser pulse was studied using time-resolved reflectivity measurements. The ps laser pulse-crystallized domains were characterized by atomic force microscope, Raman spectra and ellipsometrical spectra measurements. A reflectivity contrast of about 15% can be achieved by ps laser pulse-induced crystallization. A minimum crystallization time of 11 ns was achieved by a low-fluence single ps laser pulse after pre-irradiation. SiSb was shown to be very promising for fast phase change memory applications.

  15. Second law analysis of coupled conduction-radiation heat transfer with phase change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makhanlall, D.; Liu, L.H.

    2010-01-01

    This work considers an exergy-based analysis of two-dimensional solid-liquid phase change processes in a square cavity enclosure. The phase change material (PCM) concerns a semi-transparent absorbing, emitting and anisotropically scattering medium with constant thermodynamic properties. The enthalpy-based energy equation is solved numerically using computational fluid dynamics. Once the energy equation is solved, local exergy loss due to heat conduction and radiative heat transfer during the phase change process is calculated by post processing procedures. In this work, the radiation exergy loss in the medium and at the enclosure boundary is taken into consideration. It is found that radiation exergy loss is significant in the high-temperature phase change process. Parametric investigation is also carried out to study the effects of Stefan number, Biot number, Planck number, single scattering albedo and wall emissivity on exergy loss. The results show that the total exergy loss increases with Biot number, single scattering albedo and wall emissivity. The second law effects of the conduction-radiation coupling in the energy equation are also shown in this work. (authors)

  16. Development of phase change materials based microencapsulated technology for buildings: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyagi, V.V.; Kaushik, S.C. [Centre for Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, Hauz Khas, New Delhi 110016 (India); Tyagi, S.K. [School of Infrastructure Technology and Resource Management, Shri Mata Vaishno Devi University, Katra 182320, J and K (India); Akiyama, T. [Center for Advanced Research of Energy Conversion Materials, Hokkaido University, Kita 13, Nishi 8, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-86283 (Japan)

    2011-02-15

    Thermal energy storage (TES) systems using phase change material (PCM) have been recognized as one of the most advanced energy technologies in enhancing the energy efficiency and sustainability of buildings. Now the research is focus on suitable method to incorporate PCMs with building. There are several methods to use phase change materials (PCMs) in thermal energy storage (TES) for different applications. Microencapsulation is one of the well known and advanced technologies for better utilization of PCMs with building parts, such as, wall, roof and floor besides, within the building materials. Phase change materials based microencapsulation for latent heat thermal storage (LHTS) systems for building application offers a challenging option to be employed as effective thermal energy storage and a retrieval device. Since the particular interest in using microencapsulation PCMs for concrete and wall/wallboards, the specific research efforts on both subjects are reviewed separately. This paper presents an overview of the previous research work on microencapsulation technology for thermal energy storage incorporating the phase change materials (PCMs) in the building applications, along with few useful conclusive remarks concluded from the available literature. (author)

  17. Supercooling suppression of microencapsulated phase change materials by optimizing shell composition and structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Fangyu; Yang, Bao

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A new method for supercooling suppression of microPCMs by optimizing the structure of the microcapsule shell. • Large effective latent heat (up to 213 J/g) of the microPCMs, much higher than those using additive as nucleating agents. • Change of shell composition and structure significantly affects the phase transition processes of the encapsulated PCMs. • The latent heat of the shell-induced phase transition is maximized, reaching 83.7% of the latent heat of bulk octadecane. • Hollow spheres with porous rather than solid resin shell are also formed when the SDS concentration is very high. - Abstract: A new method for supercooling suppression of microencapsulated phase change materials (PCMs) has been developed by optimizing the composition and structure of the microcapsule resin shell. The microcapsules comprising paraffin octadecane encapsulated in melamine–formaldehyde resin shell were synthesized with the use the oil-in-water emulsion technique. These PCM microcapsules are 5–15 μm in diameter. The supercooling of these octadecane microcapsules can be as large as 13.6 °C, when the homogeneous nucleation is dominant during the melt crystallization into the thermodynamically stable triclinic phase. It is discovered that the homogeneous nucleation can be mediated by shell-induced nucleation of the triclinic phase and the metastable rotator phase when the shell composition and structure are optimized, without need of any nucleating additives. The effects of synthesis parameters, such as ratio of melamine to formaldehyde, pH of pre-polymer, and pH of emulsion, on the phase transition properties of the octadecane microcapsules have been investigated systemically. The optimum synthesis conditions have been identified in terms of minimizing the supercooling while maintaining heat capacity. Potential applications of this type of phase changeable microcapsules include high heat capacity thermal fluids, thermal management in smart buildings

  18. Effect of Se substitution on the phase change properties of Ge2Sb2Te5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekhawat, Roopali; Rangappa, Ramanna; Gopal, E. S. R.; Ramesh, K.

    2018-05-01

    Ge2Sb2Te5 popularly known as GST is being explored for non-volatile phase change random access memory(PCRAM) applications. Under high electric field, thin films of amorphous GST undergo a phase change from amorphous to crystalline with a high contrast in electrical resistivity (about 103). The phase change is between amorphous and metastable NaCl structure occurs at about 150°C and not to the stable hexagonal phase which occurs at a high temperature (> 250 °C). In GST, about 50 % of Te substituted by Se (Ge2Sb2Te2.5Se2.5) is found to increase the contrast in electrical resistivity by 7 orders of magnitude (about 4 orders of magnitude higher than GST). The phase transition in Se added GST also found to be between amorphous and the stable hexagonal structure. The threshold voltage at which the Ge2Sb2Te2.5Se2.5 switches to the high conducting state increases to 9V as compared to 2V in GST. Interestingly, the threshold current decrease to 1mA as compared to 1.8mA in GST indicating the Se substitution reduces the power needed for switching between the low and high conducting states. The reduction in power needed for phase change, high contrast in electrical resistivity with high thermal stability makes Ge2Sb2Te2.5Se2.5 as a better candidate for PCRAM.

  19. Characterization of thermal and hydrodynamic properties for microencapsulated phase change slurry (MPCS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Lin; Wang, Ting; Zhao, Yan; Zhang, Xin-Rong

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Microencapsulated phase change slurry (MPCS) is reviewed and characterized for heat transfer and storage systems. • Basic formation, materials, properties are categorized and systematically analyzed. • Generalization and modelization of complex MPCS properties are made. • MPCS is identified to be one promising substitute in future energy systems. • Future research topics and applications are also specified. - Abstract: Microencapsulated phase change slurry (MPCS) is a new kind of multi-phase fluid that are proposed and utilized in heat transfer and heat storage systems. Different from traditional organic (paraffin or non-parafin) or inorganic phase change slurries, MPCS is able to maintain both high latent heat capacity and heat transfer rate under controlled volume changes and safe operation conditions. Consequently, in recent decade, MPCS has been widely proposed and tested in textile, building, cooling and heating, solar and thermal storage systems, etc. Based on those recent findings and application developments, characterizations of thermal and hydrodynamic properties for MPCS are made in this study. The basic objective of this paper is to summarize the features of MPCS properties and the establishment of models for MPCS properties and morphologies. The review and analysis are based on recent representative experimental studies, which are categorized into: properties, heat transfer characteristics, stability and applications. Due to the various materials and methods and carry fluids properties, no single model can cover the properties for all MPCS. In this study, each property is reviewed with its specific model and application regions. Basic trends are compared with other kinds of phase change materials. Finally, by investigating those results the future trends of MPCS are presented

  20. Annual energy analysis of concrete containing phase change materials for building envelopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiele, Alexander M.; Jamet, Astrid; Sant, Gaurav; Pilon, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Adding PCM to concrete walls can significantly reduce the cooling needs of buildings. • Climate, season, and wall orientation strongly affect energy and cost savings. • The PCM melting temperature should be near the desired indoor temperature. • Benefits are maximum for outdoor temperature oscillating around set indoor temperature. • Adding PCM had little effect on heating energy needs and associated cost savings. - Abstract: This paper examines the annual energy and cost savings potential of adding microencapsulated phase change material to the exterior concrete walls of an average-sized single family home in California climate zones 3 (San Francisco, CA) and 9 (Los Angeles, CA). The annual energy and cost savings were larger for South- and West-facing walls than for other walls. They were also the largest when the phase change temperature was near the desired indoor temperature. The addition of microencapsulated phase change material to the building walls reduced the cooling load in summer substantially more than the heating load in winter. This was attributed to the cold winter temperatures resulting in nearly unidirectional heat flux on many days. The annual cooling load reduction in an average-sized single family home in San Francisco and in Los Angeles ranged from 85% to 100% and from 53% to 82%, respectively, for phase change material volume fraction ranging from 0.1 to 0.3. The corresponding annual electricity cost savings ranged from $36 to $42 in San Francisco and from $94 to $143 in Los Angeles. From an energy standpoint, the best climate for using building materials containing uniformly distributed microencapsulated phase change material would have outdoor temperature oscillations centered around the desired indoor temperature for the entire year

  1. Exergo-economic analysis of finned tube for waste heat recovery including phase change heat transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Shuang Ying; Jiu, Jing Rui; Xiao, Lan; Li, You Rong; Liu, Chao; Xu, Jin Liang

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, an exergo-economic criterion, i.e. the net profit per unit transferred heat load, is established from the perspective of exergy recovery to evaluate the performance of finned tube used in waste heat recovery. Also, the dimensionless exergy change number is introduced to investigate the effect of the flow (mechanical) exergy loss rate on the recovered thermal exergy. Selecting R245fa as a working fluid and exhaust flue gas as a heat source, the effects of the internal Reynolds number Re_i, the external Reynolds number Re_o , the unit cost of thermal exergy ε_q , the geometric parameter of finned tube η_oβ and the phase change temperature T_v etc. on the performance of finned tube are discussed in detail. The results show that the higher T_v and η_oβ, and lower Re_i may lead to the negligible flow(mechanical) exergy loss rate. There exists an optimal value of Re_i where the net profit per unit transferred heat load peaks, while the variations of Re_o, ε_q and T_v cause monotonic change of the net profit per unit transferred heat load. The phase change temperature exerts relatively greater influence on the exergo-economic performance of finned tube in comparison with other parameters. And there exists a critical phase change temperature, where the net profit per unit transferred heat load is equal to zero.

  2. Controllable SET process in O-Ti-Sb-Te based phase change memory for synaptic application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Kun; Li, Ruiheng; Chen, Xin; Wang, Yong; Shen, Jiabin; Xia, Mengjiao; Lv, Shilong; Ji, Zhenguo; Song, Zhitang

    2018-02-01

    The nonlinear resistance change and small bit resolution of phase change memory (PCM) under identical operation pulses will limit its performance as a synaptic device. The octahedral Ti-Te units in Ti-Sb-Te, regarded as nucleation seeds, are degenerated when Ti is bonded with O, causing a slower crystallization and a controllable SET process in PCM cells. A linear resistance change under identical pulses, a resolution of ˜8 bits, and an ON/OFF ratio of ˜102 has been achieved in O-Ti-Sb-Te based PCM, showing its potential application as a synaptic device to improve recognition performance of the neural network.

  3. Ga-doped indium oxide nanowire phase change random access memory cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Bo; Lee, Jeong-Soo; Lim, Taekyung; Ju, Sanghyun; Latypov, Marat I; Kim, Hyoung Seop; Meyyappan, M

    2014-01-01

    Phase change random access memory (PCRAM) devices are usually constructed using tellurium based compounds, but efforts to seek other materials providing desirable memory characteristics have continued. We have fabricated PCRAM devices using Ga-doped In 2 O 3 nanowires with three different Ga compositions (Ga/(In+Ga) atomic ratio: 2.1%, 11.5% and 13.0%), and investigated their phase switching properties. The nanowires (∼40 nm in diameter) can be repeatedly switched between crystalline and amorphous phases, and Ga concentration-dependent memory switching behavior in the nanowires was observed with ultra-fast set/reset rates of 80 ns/20 ns, which are faster than for other competitive phase change materials. The observations of fast set/reset rates and two distinct states with a difference in resistance of two to three orders of magnitude appear promising for nonvolatile information storage. Moreover, we found that increasing the Ga concentration can reduce the power consumption and resistance drift; however, too high a level of Ga doping may cause difficulty in achieving the phase transition. (paper)

  4. Size-dependent and tunable crystallization of GeSbTe phase-change nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bin; Ten Brink, Gert H.; Palasantzas, George; Kooi, Bart J.

    2016-12-01

    Chalcogenide-based nanostructured phase-change materials (PCMs) are considered promising building blocks for non-volatile memory due to their high write and read speeds, high data-storage density, and low power consumption. Top-down fabrication of PCM nanoparticles (NPs), however, often results in damage and deterioration of their useful properties. Gas-phase condensation based on magnetron sputtering offers an attractive and straightforward solution to continuously down-scale the PCMs into sub-lithographic sizes. Here we unprecedentedly present the size dependence of crystallization for Ge2Sb2Te5 (GST) NPs, whose production is currently highly challenging for chemical synthesis or top-down fabrication. Both amorphous and crystalline NPs have been produced with excellent size and composition control with average diameters varying between 8 and 17 nm. The size-dependent crystallization of these NPs was carefully analyzed through in-situ heating in a transmission electron microscope, where the crystallization temperatures (Tc) decrease when the NPs become smaller. Moreover, methane incorporation has been observed as an effective method to enhance the amorphous phase stability of the NPs. This work therefore elucidates that GST NPs synthesized by gas-phase condensation with tailored properties are promising alternatives in designing phase-change memories constrained by optical lithography limitations.

  5. Influence of the local structure in phase-change materials on their dielectric permittivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shportko, Kostiantyn V; Venger, Eugen F

    2015-01-01

    Ge-Sb-Te alloys, which belong to the phase-change materials, are promising materials for data storage and display and data visualization applications due to their unique properties. This includes a remarkable difference of their electrical and optical properties in the amorphous and crystalline state. Pronounced change of optical properties for Ge-Sb-Te alloys is linked to the different bonding types and different atomic arrangements in amorphous and crystalline states. The dielectric function of phase-change materials has been investigated in the far infrared (FIR) range. Phonons have been detected by FTIR spectroscopy. Difference of the dispersion of the dielectric permittivity of amorphous and crystalline samples is caused by different structures in different states which contribute to the dielectric permittivity.

  6. Ab Initio Molecular-Dynamics Simulation of Neuromorphic Computing in Phase-Change Memory Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skelton, Jonathan M; Loke, Desmond; Lee, Taehoon; Elliott, Stephen R

    2015-07-08

    We present an in silico study of the neuromorphic-computing behavior of the prototypical phase-change material, Ge2Sb2Te5, using ab initio molecular-dynamics simulations. Stepwise changes in structural order in response to temperature pulses of varying length and duration are observed, and a good reproduction of the spike-timing-dependent plasticity observed in nanoelectronic synapses is demonstrated. Short above-melting pulses lead to instantaneous loss of structural and chemical order, followed by delayed partial recovery upon structural relaxation. We also investigate the link between structural order and electrical and optical properties. These results pave the way toward a first-principles understanding of phase-change physics beyond binary switching.

  7. Using low-loss phase-change materials for mid-infrared antenna resonance tuning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Ann-Katrin U; Chigrin, Dmitry N; Maß, Tobias W W; Schönauer, Kathrin; Salinga, Martin; Wuttig, Matthias; Taubner, Thomas

    2013-08-14

    We show tuning of the resonance frequency of aluminum nanoantennas via variation of the refractive index n of a layer of phase-change material. Three configurations have been considered, namely, with the antennas on top of, inside, and below the layer. Phase-change materials offer a huge index change upon the structural transition from the amorphous to the crystalline state, both stable at room temperature. Since the imaginary part of their permittivity is negligibly small in the mid-infrared spectral range, resonance damping is avoided. We present resonance shifting to lower as well as to higher wavenumbers with a maximum shift of 19.3% and a tuning figure of merit, defined as the resonance shift divided by the full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) of the resonance peak, of 1.03.

  8. Experimental study of the thermal characteristics of phase change slurries for active cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, W.; Tassou, S.A.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Tween 60 and hexadecanol can be employed to produce paraffin-in-water emulsions. ► Paraffin with longer carbon chain than the paraffin in the emulsion can act as nucleate agent to reduce supercooling. ► Increasing the quantity of paraffin increases the viscosity of the emulsion. ► Antifreeze and traces of thickener can cause a significant increase to the viscosity of the emulsion. ► Well prepared emulsions are stable with storage and thermal cycles. -- Abstract: Phase change materials (PCMs) are increasingly being used for thermal energy storage in buildings and industry to produce energy savings and reduce carbon dioxide emissions. PCM slurries are also being investigated for active thermal energy storage or as alternatives to conventional single phase fluids because they are pumpable and have advanced heat transport performance with phase change. The present study investigates several types of phase change materials for the preparation of PCM slurries which have potential for cooling applications. The thermophysical properties of paraffin in water emulsions, such as latent heat of fusion, melting and freezing temperature ranges, viscosity and the effect of surfactants, have been tested using appropriate experimental techniques. It has been identified that the use of small quantities of higher melting temperature paraffin and surfactants in the emulsion can reduce the effect of supercooling and increase the useful heat of fusion. However there are negative impacts on viscosity which should be considered in heat transport applications.

  9. Nano-pulsed laser irradiation scanning system for phase-change materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sookyung; Li Xuezhe; Lee, Sangbin; Kim, Kyung-Ho; Lee, Seung-Yop

    2008-01-01

    Recently, the demand of a laser irradiation tester is increasing for phase change random access memory (PRAM) as well as conventional optical storage media. In this study, a nano-pulsed laser irradiation system is developed to characterize the optical property and writing performance of phase-change materials, based on a commercially available digital versatile disk (DVD) optical pick-up. The precisely controlled focusing and scanning on the material's surface are implemented using the auto-focusing mechanism and a voice coil motor (VCM) of the commercial DVD pick-up. The laser irradiation system provides various writing and reading functions such as adjustable laser power, pulse duration, recording pattern (spot, line and area), and writing/reading repetition, phase transition, and in situ reflectivity measurement before/after irradiation. Measurements of power time effect (PTE) diagram and reflectivity map of Ge 2 Sb 2 Te 5 samples show that the proposed laser irradiation system provides the powerful scanning tool to quantify the optical characteristics of phase-change materials

  10. Relation between bandgap and resistance drift in amorphous phase change materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rütten, Martin; Kaes, Matthias; Albert, Andreas; Wuttig, Matthias; Salinga, Martin

    2015-12-01

    Memory based on phase change materials is currently the most promising candidate for bridging the gap in access time between memory and storage in traditional memory hierarchy. However, multilevel storage is still hindered by the so-called resistance drift commonly related to structural relaxation of the amorphous phase. Here, we present the temporal evolution of infrared spectra measured on amorphous thin films of the three phase change materials Ag4In3Sb67Te26, GeTe and the most popular Ge2Sb2Te5. A widening of the bandgap upon annealing accompanied by a decrease of the optical dielectric constant ε∞ is observed for all three materials. Quantitative comparison with experimental data for the apparent activation energy of conduction reveals that the temporal evolution of bandgap and activation energy can be decoupled. The case of Ag4In3Sb67Te26, where the increase of activation energy is significantly smaller than the bandgap widening, demonstrates the possibility to identify new phase change materials with reduced resistance drift.

  11. Late Holocene anti-phase change in the East Asian summer and winter monsoons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Shugang; Wang, Xulong; Roberts, Helen M.; Duller, Geoff A. T.; Cheng, Peng; Lu, Yanchou; An, Zhisheng

    2018-05-01

    Changes in East Asian summer and winter monsoon intensity have played a pivotal role in the prosperity and decline of society in the past, and will be important for future climate scenarios. However, the phasing of changes in the intensity of East Asian summer and winter monsoons on millennial and centennial timescales during the Holocene is unclear, limiting our ability to understand the factors driving past and future changes in the monsoon system. Here, we present a high resolution (up to multidecadal) loess record for the last 3.3 ka from the southern Chinese Loess Plateau that clearly demonstrates the relationship between changes in the intensity of the East Asian summer and winter monsoons, particularly at multicentennial scales. At multimillennial scales, the East Asian summer monsoon shows a steady weakening, while the East Asian winter monsoon intensifies continuously. At multicentennial scales, a prominent ∼700-800 yr cycle in the East Asian summer and winter monsoon intensity is observed, and here too the two monsoons are anti-phase. We conclude that multimillennial changes are driven by Northern Hemisphere summer insolation, while multicentennial changes can be correlated with solar activity and changing strength of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation.

  12. High flux diode packaging using passive microscale liquid-vapor phase change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandhauer, Todd; Deri, Robert J.; Elmer, John W.; Kotovsky, Jack; Patra, Susant

    2017-09-19

    A laser diode package includes a heat pipe having a fluid chamber enclosed in part by a heat exchange wall for containing a fluid. Wicking channels in the fluid chamber is adapted to wick a liquid phase of the fluid from a condensing section of the heat pipe to an evaporating section of the heat exchanger, and a laser diode is connected to the heat exchange wall at the evaporating section of the heat exchanger so that heat produced by the laser diode is removed isothermally from the evaporating section to the condensing section by a liquid-to-vapor phase change of the fluid.

  13. Photo-induced optical activity in phase-change memory materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisenko, Konstantin B; Shanmugam, Janaki; Williams, Benjamin A O; Ewart, Paul; Gholipour, Behrad; Hewak, Daniel W; Hussain, Rohanah; Jávorfi, Tamás; Siligardi, Giuliano; Kirkland, Angus I

    2015-03-05

    We demonstrate that optical activity in amorphous isotropic thin films of pure Ge2Sb2Te5 and N-doped Ge2Sb2Te5N phase-change memory materials can be induced using rapid photo crystallisation with circularly polarised laser light. The new anisotropic phase transition has been confirmed by circular dichroism measurements. This opens up the possibility of controlled induction of optical activity at the nanosecond time scale for exploitation in a new generation of high-density optical memory, fast chiroptical switches and chiral metamaterials.

  14. Intercomparative tests on phase change materials characterisation with differential scanning calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazaro, Ana; Peñalosa, Conchita; Solé, Aran; Diarce, Gonzalo; Haussmann, Thomas; Fois, Magali; Zalba, Belén; Gshwander, Stefan; Cabeza, Luisa F.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Advances in intercomparative tests of enthalpy of phase change material (PCM). ► Enthalpy of PCM determined by DSC is influenced by certain factors. ► The influence factors were identified. ► A methodology to avoid these influences for heating measurements is proposed. ► Forthcoming steps are focused on calibration and cooling measurements. - Abstract: For the correct design of thermal storage systems using phase change materials (PCMs) in any application, as well as for their simulation, it is essential to characterise the materials from thermophysical and rheological standpoints (phase change enthalpy, thermal conductivity in solid and liquid phases, viscosity and density in function of temperature). Taking advantage of the different research groups facilities available in two international networks: within the IEA (International Energy Agency), the ECES Implementing Agreement (Energy Conservation through Energy Storage IA) and SHC Programme (Solar Heating and Cooling) Task 42/Annex 24 “Compact Thermal Energy Storage – Material Development for System Integration”, and the COST Action TU0802 “Next generation cost effective phase change materials for increased energy efficiency in renewable energy systems in buildings (NeCoE-PCM)” a set of Round Robin Tests (RRTs) was proposed. The objective was to come to comparable results for PCMs using Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) to determine their melting enthalpy as well as their melting and solidification behaviour. The first RRT was without defining the procedure, the second one with a predefined procedure for the measurements, but not for calibration and the third one with a predefined procedure for calibration, for the measurements and also for the data evaluation. This paper presents the conclusions after the three RRT. The main conclusion of the paper is that enthalpy in function of temperature determined using a dynamic method for DSC can be influenced by certain reasons

  15. Fabrication and characterization of nanofiber-nanoparticle-composites with phase change materials by electrospinning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babapoor, Aziz; Karimi, Gholamreza; Khorram, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Form-stable nanofibers with phase change material are produced by electrospinning. • PA6 and PEG are used as the supporting matrix and phase change material. • Various nanoparticles are used to enhance thermal properties of the fibers. • The nanofiber-nanoparticle composites exhibited desirable thermal stability. • Al 2 O 3 nanoparticles improved thermal conductivity of the composites considerably. - Graphical Abstract: Display Omitted - Abstract: Thermal energy storage has been recognized as one of the most important technologies for the utilization of renewable energy sources and conserving energy. In this investigation, through combination of polyethylene glycol (PEG) as a phase change material (PCM), polyamid6 (PA6) and various nanoparticles (SiO 2 , Al 2 O 3 , Fe 2 O 3 and ZnO) as supporting materials, novel form-stable PCMs-based composites were fabricated by single nozzle electrospinning. The structure, morphology and thermal properties of the prepared nanofiber-nanocomposite-enhanced phase change materials (NEPCMs) were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and differential scanning calorimeter, respectively. Based on the results, nanocomposites-nanofibers were successfully fabricated with high thermal stability and reliability. It is observed that in all composites, the fiber diameter is decreased by increasing the nanoparticles loading. The lowest average diameter obtained was for Fe 2 O 3 composite. Al 2 O 3 composite showed the maximum thermal conductivity enhancement. This study suggests that the fabricated nanocomposite-PCMs offer proper phase transition temperature range and high heat enthalpy values and hence, have potential for thermal energy storage applications.

  16. Numerical investigation on critical heat flux and coolant volume required for transpiration cooling with phase change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Fei; Wang, Jianhua

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Five states during the transpiration cooling are discussed. • A suit of applicable program is developed. • The variations of the thickness of two-phase region and the pressure are analyzed. • The relationship between heat flux and coolant mass flow rate is presented. • An approach is given to define the desired case of transpiration cooling. - Abstract: The mechanism of transpiration cooling with liquid phase change is numerically investigated to protect the thermal structure exposed to extremely high heat flux. According to the results of theoretical analysis, there is a lower critical and an upper critical external heat flux corresponding a certain coolant mass flow rate, between the two critical values, the phase change of liquid coolant occurs within porous structure. A strongly applicable self-edit program is developed to solve the states of fluid flow and heat transfer probably occurring during the phase change procedure. The distributions of temperature and saturation in these states are presented. The variations of the thickness of two-phase region and the pressure including capillary are analyzed, and capillary pressure is found to be the main factor causing pressure change. From the relationships between the external heat flux and coolant mass flow rate obtained at different cooling cases, an approach is given to estimate the maximal heat flux afforded and the minimal coolant consumption required by the desired case of transpiration cooling. Thus the pressure and coolant consumption required in a certain thermal circumstance can be determined, which are important in the practical application of transpiration cooling

  17. Stacking faults and phase changes in Mg-doped InGaN grown on Si

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liliental-Weber, Zuzanna; Yu, Kin M.; Reichertz, Lothar A.; Ager, Joel W.; Walukiewicz, Wladek; Schaff, William J.; Hawkridge, Michael E.

    2009-01-01

    We report evidence for the role of Mg in the formation of basal stacking faults and a phase transition in In x Ga 1-x N layers doped with Mg grown by molecular beam epitaxy on Si(111) substrates with AlN buffer layers. Several samples with varying In content between x∝0.1 and x∝0.3 are examined by transmission electron microscopy and other techniques. High densities of basal stacking faults are observed in the central region of the InGaN layer away from the substrate or layer surface, but at varying depths within this region. Selected area diffraction patterns show that while the InGaN layer is initially in the wurtzite phase (and of good quality) AlN buffer layer, there is a change to the zinc blende phase in the upper part of the InGaN layer. SIMS measurements show that the Mg concentration drops from a maximum to a steady concentration coinciding with the presence of the basal stacking faults. There is little change in In or Ga concentrations in the same area. High-resolution electron microscopy from the area of the stacking faults confirms that the change to the cubic phase is abrupt across one such fault. These results indicate that Mg plays a role in the formation of stacking faults and the phase change observed in In x Ga 1-x N alloys. We also consider the role of In in the formation of these defects. (copyright 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  18. Encapsulation of Phase Change Materials Using Layer-by-Layer Assembled Polyelectrolytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiangying Yi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Phase change materials absorb the thermal energy when changing their phases (e.g., solid-to-liquid at constant temperatures to achieve the latent heat storage. The major drawbacks such as limited thermal conductivity and leakage prevent the PCMs from wide application in desired areas. In this work, an environmentally friendly and low cost approach, layer-by-layer (LbL assembly technique, was applied to build up ultrathin shells to encapsulate the PCMs and therefore to regulate their changes in volume when the phase change occurs. Generally, the oppositely charged strong polyelectrolytes Poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride (PDADMAC and Poly(4-styrenesulfonic acid sodium salt (PSS were employed to fabricate multilayer shells on emulsified octadecane droplets using either bovine serum albumin (BSA or sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS as surfactant. Specifically, using BSA as the surfactant, polyelectrolyte encapsulated octadecane spheres in size of ∼500 nm were obtained, with good shell integrity, high octadecane content (91.3% by mass, and good thermal stability after cycles of thermal treatments.

  19. Thermal performance study of form-stable composite phase change material with polyacrylic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kee, Shin Yiing; Munusamy, Yamuna; Ong, Kok Seng; Chee, Swee Yong; Sanmuggam, Shimalaa

    2017-04-01

    Phase change material (PCM) is one of the most popular and widely used as thermal energy storage material because it is able to absorb and release a large amount of latent heat during a phase change process over a narrow temperature range. In this work, the form-stable composite PCM was prepared by blending of PMMA and myristic acid in different weight percentage. PMMA was used as a supporting material while myristic acid was used as PCM. Theoretically, PCM can be encapsulated in the support material after blending. However, a small amount of liquid PCMs can leak out from supporting material due to the volume change in phase change process. Therefore, a form-stable composite PCM with polyacrylic coating was studied. Leakage test was carried out to determine the leakage percentage of the form-stable composite PCM. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to characterize the chemical compatibility of the form-stable PCM composite while differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used to study the melting, freezing point and the latent heat of melting and freezing for the form-stable composite PCM.

  20. Influence of Microencapsulated Phase Change Material (PCM) Addition on (Micro) Mechanical Properties of Cement Paste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlangen, Erik

    2017-01-01

    Excessive cracking can be a serious durability problem for reinforced concrete structures. In recent years, addition of microencapsulated phase change materials (PCMs) to concrete has been proposed as a possible solution to crack formation related to temperature gradients. However, the addition of PCM microcapsules to cementitious materials can have some drawbacks, mainly related to strength reduction. In this work, a range of experimental techniques has been used to characterize the microcapsules and their effect on properties of composite cement pastes. On the capsule level, it was shown that they are spherical, enabling good distribution in the material during the mixing process. Force needed to break the microcapsules was shown to depend on the capsule diameter and the temperature, i.e., whether it is below or above the phase change temperature. On the cement paste level, a marked drop of compressive strength with increasing PCM inclusion level was observed. The indentation modulus has also shown to decrease, probably due to the capsules themselves, and to a lesser extent due to changes in porosity caused by their inclusion. Finally, a novel micro-cube splitting technique was used to characterize the tensile strength of the material on the micro-meter length scale. It was shown that the strength decreases with increasing PCM inclusion percentage, but this is accompanied by a decrease in measurement variability. This study will contribute to future developments of cementitious composites incorporating phase change materials for a variety of applications. PMID:28773225

  1. Ultrafast terahertz-induced response of GeSbTe phase-change materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shu, Michael J. [Department of Applied Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Stanford Institute for Materials and Energy Sciences, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Zalden, Peter [Stanford Institute for Materials and Energy Sciences, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); PULSE Institute, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Chen, Frank [Stanford Institute for Materials and Energy Sciences, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Weems, Ben [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Chatzakis, Ioannis [Stanford Institute for Materials and Energy Sciences, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Xiong, Feng; Jeyasingh, Rakesh; Pop, Eric; Philip Wong, H.-S. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Hoffmann, Matthias C. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Wuttig, Matthias [I. Physikalisches Institut, RWTH Aachen University, 52056 Aachen (Germany); JARA–Fundamentals of Information Technology, RWTH Aachen University, 52056 Aachen (Germany); Lindenberg, Aaron M., E-mail: aaronl@stanford.edu [Stanford Institute for Materials and Energy Sciences, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); PULSE Institute, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)

    2014-06-23

    The time-resolved ultrafast electric field-driven response of crystalline and amorphous GeSbTe films has been measured all-optically, pumping with single-cycle terahertz pulses as a means of biasing phase-change materials on a sub-picosecond time-scale. Utilizing the near-band-gap transmission as a probe of the electronic and structural response below the switching threshold, we observe a field-induced heating of the carrier system and resolve the picosecond-time-scale energy relaxation processes and their dependence on the sample annealing condition in the crystalline phase. In the amorphous phase, an instantaneous electroabsorption response is observed, quadratic in the terahertz field, followed by field-driven lattice heating, with Ohmic behavior up to 200 kV/cm.

  2. Capillary hydrodynamics and transport processes during phase change in microscale systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsov, V. V.

    2017-09-01

    The characteristics of two-phase gas-liquid flow and heat transfer during flow boiling and condensing in micro-scale heat exchangers are discussed in this paper. The results of numerical simulation of the evaporating liquid film flowing downward in rectangular minichannel of the two-phase compact heat exchanger are presented and the peculiarities of microscale heat transport in annular flow with phase changes are discussed. Presented model accounts the capillarity induced transverse flow of liquid and predicts the microscale heat transport processes when the nucleate boiling becomes suppressed. The simultaneous influence of the forced convection, nucleate boiling and liquid film evaporation during flow boiling in plate-fin heat exchangers is considered. The equation for prediction of the flow boiling heat transfer at low flux conditions is presented and verified using experimental data.

  3. A Super Cooled, Non-toxic, Non-flammable Phase Change Material Thermal Pack for Portable Life Support Systems, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The concept development and test of a water-based, advanced Phase Change Material (PCM) heat sink is proposed. Utilizing a novel material choice for both an...

  4. Heat transfer characteristics of liquid-gas Taylor flows incorporating microencapsulated phase change materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, J A; Walsh, P A

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an investigation on the heat transfer characteristics associated with liquid-gas Taylor flows in mini channels incorporating microencapsulated phase change materials (MPCM). Taylor flows have been shown to result in heat transfer enhancements due to the fluid recirculation experienced within liquid slugs which is attributable to the alternating liquid slug and gas bubble flow structure. Microencapsulated phase change materials (MPCM) also offer significant potential with increased thermal capacity due to the latent heat required to cause phase change. The primary aim of this work was to examine the overall heat transfer potential associated with combining these two novel liquid cooling technologies. By investigating the local heat transfer characteristics, the augmentation/degradation over single phase liquid cooling was quantified while examining the effects of dimensionless variables, including Reynolds number, liquid slug length and gas void fraction. An experimental test facility was developed which had a heated test section and allowed MPCM-air Taylor flows to be subjected to a constant heat flux boundary condition. Infrared thermography was used to record high resolution experimental wall temperature measurements and determine local heat transfer coefficients from the thermal entrance point. 30.2% mass particle concentration of the MPCM suspension fluid was examined as it provided the maximum latent heat for absorption. Results demonstrate a significant reduction in experimental wall temperatures associated with MPCM-air Taylor flows when compared with the Graetz solution for conventional single phase coolants. Total enhancement in the thermally developed region is observed to be a combination of the individual contributions due to recirculation within the liquid slugs and also absorption of latent heat. Overall, the study highlights the potential heat transfer enhancements that are attainable within heat exchange devices employing MPCM

  5. Challenges of the Usual Graphical Methods Used to Characterize Phase Change Materials by Differential Scanning Calorimetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane Gibout

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Modeling the thermal behavior of a plant or devices using Phase Change Materials (PCM requires to know their thermophysical properties. The Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC is a technic largely used to investigate them. However, under the pretext to experiment with small samples, some authors consider the DSC curves as directly representing the properties of the materials without realizing that this interpretation is very often incompatible with the thermodynamics laws: as an example, although a pure substance melts at a fixed temperature T F , it is proposed a melting through a temperature range higher than T F and depending on the experiments (heating rates, sample masses..., for solutions the suggested characteristic temperatures are incompatible with the phase diagram, and also a hysteresis phenomenon is invented... In this paper, we demonstrate by a model coupling thermodynamics and conduction heat transfers, that the DSC curves are exactly compatible with the thermodynamics of phase changes (melting at fixed temperature for pure substances, in conformity with phase diagrams for solutions.... The cases of pure substances, saline solutions, substances with impurities or solid solutions are detailed. We indicate which information can, however, be given by the curves. We also propose a more sophisticated method by inverse calculations to determine the specific enthalpy whose all the thermodynamical properties can be deduced. Finally, we give some indications to understand and use the results indicating supercooling.

  6. Energy and economic analysis of a building enclosure outfitted with a phase change material board (PCMB)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Xiaoqin; Zhang, Quan; Medina, Mario A.; Lee, Kyoung Ok

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Phase change material boards (PCMBs) were simulated in building enclosures. • Energy and economic savings for these buildings were estimated. • The buildings were located in five cities with different climatic conditions. • The energy savings ratio was 100% when a cold energy source was used. • A mean electricity savings ratio of 13.1% was obtained. - Abstract: This paper presents energy and economic analyses related to the application of phase change materials boards (PCMBs) in building enclosures during the cooling season. A heat transfer model was developed, which was implemented via a computer program. Simulations were carried out using weather data files from five cities located in five different climate regions in China. Energy savings from using a natural cold source (e.g., outdoor air) and electricity savings from a reduction in electricity by air conditioning systems were evaluated. The energy savings ratio (ESR) and simple payback period (SPP) were used to assess the application of PCMBs in building enclosures. The selection of optimum phase transition temperatures for the PCMs for the various climates was made using indoor and outdoor air temperatures, as well as SPP. For space cooling purposes, it was suggested that phase transition temperatures should be at least 3 °C higher than the mean outdoor air temperature. Simple payback period suggested the possibility of the cost effective use of PCMBs in occupied buildings for moderate temperature climates

  7. Microstructure and electrical properties of Sb2Te phase-change material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guangyu; Wu, Liangcai; Li, Tao; Rao, Feng; Song, Sannian; Liu, Bo; Song, Zhitang

    2016-10-01

    Phase Change Memory (PCM) has great potential for commercial applications of next generation non-volatile memory (NVM) due to its high operation speed, high endurance and low power consumption. Sb2Te (ST) is a common phase-change material and has fast crystallization speed, while thermal stability is relatively poor and its crystallization temperature is about 142°C. According to the Arrhenius law, the extrapolated failure temperature is about 55°C for ten years. When heated above the crystallization temperature while below the melting point, its structure can be transformed from amorphous phase to hexagonal phase. Due to the growth-dominated crystallization mechanism, the grain size of ST film is large and the diameter of about 300 nm is too large compared with Ge2Sb2Te5 (GST), which may deteriorate the device performance. High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and selected area electron diffraction (SAED) were employed to study the microstructures and the results indicate that the crystal plane is {110}. In addition, device cells were manufactured and their current-voltage (I-V) and resistance-voltage characteristics were tested, and the results reveal that the threshold voltage (Vth) of ST film is 0.87 V. By researching the basic properties of ST, we can understand its disadvantages and manage to improve its performance by doping or other proper methods. Finally, the improved ST can be a candidate for optical discs and PCM.

  8. Study on polyethylene glycol/epoxy resin composite as a form-stable phase change material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Yutang; Kang Huiying; Wang Weilong; Liu Hong; Gao Xuenong

    2010-01-01

    Form-stable polyethylene glycol (PEG)/epoxy resin (EP) composite as a novel phase change material (PCM) was prepared using casting molding method. In this new material, PEG acts as the latent heat storage material and EP polymer serves as the supporting material, which provides structural strength and prevents the leakage of the melted PEG. The structure and morphology of the novel composite were observed using Fourier transformation infrared spectroscope (FTIR) and scanning electronic microscope (SEM). The thermo-mechanical property and transition behavior were characterized by polarizing optical microscope (POM), static thermo-mechanical analysis (TMA) and differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). The experimental results show that, as a result of the physical tangled function of the epoxy resin carrier to the PEG segment, the composite macroscopically presents the solid-solid phase change characteristic.

  9. Distortion of Local Atomic Structures in Amorphous Ge-Sb-Te Phase Change Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, A.; Ichitsubo, T.; Guan, P. F.; Fujita, T.; Chen, M. W.

    2018-05-01

    The local atomic structures of amorphous Ge-Sb-Te phase-change materials have yet to be clarified and the rapid crystal-amorphous phase change resulting in distinct optical contrast is not well understood. We report the direct observation of local atomic structures in amorphous Ge2Sb2Te5 using "local" reverse Monte Carlo modeling dedicated to an angstrom-beam electron diffraction analysis. The results corroborated the existence of local structures with rocksalt crystal-like topology that were greatly distorted compared to the crystal symmetry. This distortion resulted in the breaking of ideal octahedral atomic environments, thereby forming local disordered structures that basically satisfied the overall amorphous structure factor. The crystal-like distorted octahedral structures could be the main building blocks in the formation of the overall amorphous structure of Ge-Sb-Te.

  10. Novel Magnetic-to-Thermal Conversion and Thermal Energy Management Composite Phase Change Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqiao Fan

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Superparamagnetic materials have elicited increasing interest due to their high-efficiency magnetothermal conversion. However, it is difficult to effectively manage the magnetothermal energy due to the continuous magnetothermal effect at present. In this study, we designed and synthesized a novel Fe3O4/PEG/SiO2 composite phase change material (PCM that can simultaneously realize magnetic-to-thermal conversion and thermal energy management because of outstanding thermal energy storage ability of PCM. The composite was fabricated by in situ doping of superparamagnetic Fe3O4 nanoclusters through a simple sol–gel method. The synthesized Fe3O4/PEG/SiO2 PCM exhibited good thermal stability, high phase change enthalpy, and excellent shape-stabilized property. This study provides an additional promising route for application of the magnetothermal effect.

  11. Thermal performance analysis of a phase change thermal storage unit for space heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halawa, E.; Saman, W. [Institute for Sustainable Systems and Technologies School of Advanced Manufacturing and Mechanical Engineering, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes SA 5095 (Australia)

    2011-01-15

    This paper presents the results of a comprehensive numerical study on the thermal performance of an air based phase change thermal storage unit (TSU) for space heating. The unit is designed for integration into space heating and cooling systems. The unit consists of a number of one dimensional phase change material (PCM) slabs contained in a rectangular duct where air passes between the slabs. The numerical analysis was based on an experimentally validated model. A parametric study has been carried out including the study on the effects of charge and discharge temperature differences, air mass flow rate, slab thicknesses, air gaps and slab dimensions on the air outlet temperatures and heat transfer rates of the thermal storage unit. The paper introduces and discusses quantities called charge and discharge temperature differences which play an important role in the melting and freezing processes. (author)

  12. Characterization of a lime-pozzolan plaster containing phase change material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlíková, Milena; Pavlík, Zbyšek; Trník, Anton; Pokorný, Jaroslav; Černý, Robert

    2015-01-01

    A PCM (Phase Change Material) modified lime-pozzolan plaster for improvement of thermal energy storage of building envelopes is studied in the paper. The investigated plaster is composed of lime hydrate, pozzolan admixture based on metakaolin and mudstone, silica sand, water and paraffin wax encapsulated in polymer capsule. The reference plaster without PCM application is studied as well. The analyzed materials are characterized by bulk density, matrix density, total open porosity, compressive strength and pore size distribution. The temperature of phase change, heat of fusion and crystallization are studied using DSC (Difference Scanning Calorimetry) analysis performed in air atmosphere. In order to get information on materials hygrothermal performance, determination of thermal and hygric properties is done in laboratory conditions. Experimental data reveal a substantial improvement of heat storage capacity of PCM-modified plaster as compared to the reference material without PCM

  13. Thermophysical properties estimation of paraffin/graphite composite phase change material using an inverse method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lachheb, Mohamed; Karkri, Mustapha; Albouchi, Fethi; Mzali, Foued; Nasrallah, Sassi Ben

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Preparation of paraffin/graphite composites by uni-axial compression technique. • Measurement of thermophysical properties of paraffin/graphite using the periodic method. • Measurement of the experimental densities of paraffin/graphite composites. • Prediction of the effective thermal conductivity using analytical models. - Abstract: In this paper, two types of graphite were combined with paraffin in an attempt to improve thermal conductivity of paraffin phase change material (PCM): Synthetic graphite (Timrex SFG75) and graphite waste obtained from damaged Tubular graphite Heat Exchangers. These paraffin/graphite phase change material (PCM) composites are prepared by the cold uniaxial compression technique and the thermophysical properties were estimated using a periodic temperature method and an inverse technique. Results showed that the thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity are greatly influenced by the graphite addition

  14. Single phase-change analysis of two different PCMs filled in a heat transfer module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dong Gyu; Kang, Chae Dong [Chonbuk National University, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyung Kuk [Hyundai Heavy Industries Co., Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-15

    Phase change material(PCM) is tried to secondary heat source in solar heat pump system. A numerical study of the phase change dominant heat transfer is done with a heat transfer module, which consists of a water path(BRINE), heat transfer plates(HTP), and PCM layers of high-temperature one(HPCM, 78-79 .deg. C) and low-temperature one(LPCM, 28-29 .deg. C). There are five arrangements consisting of BRINE, HTP, HPCM, and LPCM layers in the heat transfer module. The time and heat transfer rate for PCM melting/solidification are compared between arrangements. And the numerical time without convection is compared to the experimental one for melting/solidification. From the numerical analysis, the time for melting/solidification is different to 10 hours, depending on the arrangement.

  15. Data supporting the prediction of the properties of eutectic organic phase change materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samer Kahwaji

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The data presented in this article include the molar masses, melting temperatures, latent heats of fusion and temperature-dependent heat capacities of fifteen fatty acid phase change materials (PCMs. The data are used in conjunction with the thermodynamic models discussed in Kahwaji and White (2018 [1] to develop a computational tool that calculates the eutectic compositions and thermal properties of eutectic mixtures of PCMs. The computational tool is part of this article and consists of a Microsoft Excel® file available in Mendeley Data repository [2]. A description of the computational tool along with the properties of nearly 100 binary mixtures of fatty acid PCMs calculated using this tool are also included in the present article. The Excel® file is designed such that it can be easily modified or expanded by users to calculate the properties of eutectic mixtures of other classes of PCMs. Keywords: Phase change materials, PCM, Eutectic, Thermal properties, Thermal energy storage

  16. Using multi-shell phase change materials layers for cooling a lithium-ion battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasehi Ramin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the cooling methods in engineering systems is usage of phase change materials. Phase change materials or PCMs, which have high latent heats, are usually used where high energy absorption in a constant temperature is required. This work presents a numerical analysis of PCMs effects on cooling Li-ion batteries and their decrease in temperature levels during intense discharge. In this study, three PCM shells with different thermo-physical specifications located around a battery pack is examined. The results of each possible arrangement are compared together and the best arrangement leading to the lowest battery temperature during discharge is identified. In addition, the recovery time for the system which is the time required for the PCMs to refreeze is investigated.

  17. Linear stability of liquid films with phase change at the interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spindler, Bertrand

    1980-01-01

    The objective of this research thesis is to study the linear stability of the flow of a liquid film on an inclined plane with a heat flow on the wall and an interfacial phase change, and to highlight the influence of the phase change on the flow stability. In order to do so, the author first proposed a rational simplification of equations by studying the order of magnitude of different terms, and based on some simple hypotheses regarding flow physics. Two stability studies are then addressed, one regarding a flow with a pre-existing film, and the other regarding the flow of a condensation film. In both cases, it is assumed that there is no imposed heat flow, but that the driving effect of vapour by the liquid film is taken into account [fr

  18. Thermal Peak Management Using Organic Phase Change Materials for Latent Heat Storage in Electronic Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxa, Jacob; Novikov, Andrej; Nowottnick, Mathias

    2017-01-01

    Modern high power electronics devices consists of a large amount of integrated circuits for switching and supply applications. Beside the benefits, the technology exhibits the problem of an ever increasing power density. Nowadays, heat sinks that are directly mounted on a device, are used to reduce the on-chip temperature and dissipate the thermal energy to the environment. This paper presents a concept of a composite coating for electronic components on printed circuit boards or electronic assemblies that is able to buffer a certain amount of thermal energy, dissipated from a device. The idea is to suppress temperature peaks in electronic components during load peaks or electronic shorts, which otherwise could damage or destroy the device, by using a phase change material to buffer the thermal energy. The phase change material coating could be directly applied on the chip package or the PCB using different mechanical retaining jigs.

  19. Rheological and thermal properties of suspensions of microcapsules containing phase change materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Vinh Duy; Salas-Bringas, Carlos; Schüller, Reidar Barfod; Szczotok, Anna M; Hiorth, Marianne; Carmona, Manuel; Rodriguez, Juan F; Kjøniksen, Anna-Lena

    2018-01-01

    The thermal and rheological properties of suspensions of microencapsulated phase change materials (MPCM) in glycerol were investigated. When the microcapsule concentration is raised, the heat storage capacity of the suspensions becomes higher and a slight decline in the thermal conductivity of the suspensions is observed. The temperature-dependent shear-thinning behaviour of the suspensions was found to be strongly affected by non-encapsulated phase change materials (PCM). Accordingly, the rheological properties of the MPCM suspensions could be described by the Cross model below the PCM melting point while a power law model best described the data above the PCM melting point. The MPCM suspensions are interesting for energy storage and heat transfer applications. However, the non-encapsulated PCM contributes to the agglomeration of the microcapsules, which can lead to higher pumping consumption and clogging of piping systems.

  20. Reactive Ion Etching as Cleaning Method Post Chemical Mechanical Polishing for Phase Change Memory Device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, Zhong; Zhi-Tang, Song; Bo, Liu; Song-Lin, Feng; Bomy, Chen

    2008-01-01

    In order to improve nano-scale phase change memory performance, a super-clean interface should be obtained after chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) of Ge 2 Sb 2 Te 5 phase change films. We use reactive ion etching (RIE) as the cleaning method. The cleaning effect is analysed by scanning electron microscopy and an energy dispersive spectrometer. The results show that particle residue on the surface has been removed. Meanwhile, Ge 2 Sb 2 Te 5 material stoichiometric content ratios are unchanged. After the top electrode is deposited, current-voltage characteristics test demonstrates that the set threshold voltage is reduced from 13 V to 2.7V and the threshold current from 0.1mA to 0.025mA. Furthermore, we analyse the RIE cleaning principle and compare it with the ultrasonic method

  1. Thermal Response Of An Aerated Concrete Wall With Micro-Encapsulated Phase Change Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halúzová, Dušana

    2015-06-01

    For many years Phase Change Materials (PCM) have attracted attention due to their ability to store large amounts of thermal energy. This property makes them a candidate for the use of passive heat storage. In many applications, they are used to avoid the overheating of the temperature of an indoor environment. This paper describes the behavior of phase change materials that are inbuilt in aerated concrete blocks. Two building samples of an aerated concrete wall were measured in laboratory equipment called "twin-boxes". The first box consists of a traditional aerated concrete wall; the second one has additional PCM micro-encapsulated in the wall. The heat flux through the wall was measured and compared to simulation results modeled in the ESP-r program. This experimental measurement provides a foundation for a model that can be used to analyze further building constructions.

  2. Review of Phase Change Materials Based on Energy Storage System with Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thamaraikannn, R.; Kanimozhi, B.; Anish, M.; Jayaprabakar, J.; Saravanan, P.; Rohan Nicholas, A.

    2017-05-01

    The use of Different types of storage system using phase change materials (PCMs) is an effective way of storing energy and also to make advantages of heating and cooling systems are installed to maintain temperatures within the well-being zone. PCMs have been extensively used in various storage systems for heat pumps, solar engineering, and thermal control applications. The use of PCM’s for heating and cooling applications have been investigated during the past decade. There are large numbers of PCM’s, which melt and solidify at a wide range of temperatures, making them attractive in a number of applications. This paper also outline the investigation and analysis of Phase Change materials used in Different Types of storage systems with different applications.

  3. Thermal Peak Management Using Organic Phase Change Materials for Latent Heat Storage in Electronic Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Maxa

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Modern high power electronics devices consists of a large amount of integrated circuits for switching and supply applications. Beside the benefits, the technology exhibits the problem of an ever increasing power density. Nowadays, heat sinks that are directly mounted on a device, are used to reduce the on-chip temperature and dissipate the thermal energy to the environment. This paper presents a concept of a composite coating for electronic components on printed circuit boards or electronic assemblies that is able to buffer a certain amount of thermal energy, dissipated from a device. The idea is to suppress temperature peaks in electronic components during load peaks or electronic shorts, which otherwise could damage or destroy the device, by using a phase change material to buffer the thermal energy. The phase change material coating could be directly applied on the chip package or the PCB using different mechanical retaining jigs.

  4. Small airway function changes and its clinical significance of asthma patients in different clinical phases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Hui Zhou

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To observe the small airways function changes of asthmatic patients in different clinical phases and to discuss its clinical significance. Methods: A total of 127 patients diagnosed as asthma were selected randomly and pulmonary function (PF of them was determined by conventional method. Then they were divided into A, B and C group based on PF results. All 34 patients in A group suffered from acute asthma attack for the first time. All 93 patients in B group had been diagnosed as asthma but in remission phase. C Group was regarded as Control group with 20 healthy volunteers. Then FEV1, FEF50%, FEF75% levels of patients in each group were analyzed, and ΔFEV1, ΔFEF75% and ΔFEF50% levels of patients in each group were compared after bronchial dilation test. Results: It was found that most patients in group A and B had abnormal small airways function, and their small airways function was significantly different compared with that of group C (P<0.01. In addition, except for group C, ΔFEF75%,ΔFEF50% levels in A and B group were improved more significantly than ΔFEV1 levels (P<0.01. Conclusions: Asthma patients in acute phase all have abnormal small airways function. Most asthma patients in remission phase also have abnormal small airways function. After bronchial dilation test, whether patients in acute phase or in remission phase, major and small airways function of them are improved, but improvement of small airways function is weaker than that of major airways. This indicates that asthma respiratory tract symptoms in different phases exists all the time and so therapeutic process is needed to perform step by step.

  5. Experimental study on heat storage system using phase-change material in a diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sangki; Woo, Seungchul; Shon, Jungwook; Lee, Kihyung

    2017-01-01

    Engines usually use only about 25% of the total fuel energy for power, and the rest is discarded to the cooling water and exhaust gas. Therefore, a technique for utilizing external waste heat is required to improve fuel efficiency in terms of total energy consumption. In this study, a heat storage system was built using a phase-change material in order to recover about 30% of the thermal energy wasted through engine cooling. The components of the heat storage system were divided into phase-change material, a heat exchanger, and a heat-insulating container. For each component, a phase-change material that is suitable for use in vehicles was selected based on the safety, thermal properties, and durability. As a result, a stearic acid of a fatty acid series with natural extracts was determined to be appropriate. In order to measure the reduction in engine fuel consumption, a thermal storage system designed for the actual engine was applied to realize a quick warm-up by releasing stored heat energy directly on the coolant during a cold start. This technique added about 95 calories of heat storage device warm-up time compared to the non-added state, which was reduced by about 18.1% to about 27.1%. - Highlights: • The diesel engine used phase-change material with heat storage system. • The thermal storage system designed for the actual engine. • A stearic acid of a fatty acid series was determined to be appropriate. • Applied heat storage system was reduced by about 18.1%–27.1%.

  6. The Influence of Phase Change Materials on the Properties of Self-Compacting Concrete

    OpenAIRE

    Miguel Ángel Álvarez; Jaime Lorenzo; Itziar Goicoechea; María Fenollera; José Luis Míguez

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to research new thermally-efficient concrete walls, analyzing the mechanical behavior of a self-compacting concrete to manufacture an uncoated solid structural panel, with the incorporation of a micro-encapsulated phase change material as additive. Different dosages are tested and mechanical properties of the product obtained from the molding of concrete specimens are evaluated, testing mechanical compressive strength, slump flow, and density. The results reveal the o...

  7. Comments on Thermal Physical Properties Testing Methods of Phase Change Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingchao Xie

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There is no standard testing method of the thermal physical properties of phase change materials (PCM. This paper has shown advancements in this field. Developments and achievements in thermal physical properties testing methods of PCM were commented, including differential scanning calorimetry, T-history measurement, the water bath method, and differential thermal analysis. Testing principles, advantages and disadvantages, and important points for attention of each method were discussed. A foundation for standardized testing methods for PCM was made.

  8. Preparation and characterization of macrocapsules containing microencapsulated PCMs (phase change materials) for thermal energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Pengju; Lu, Lixin; Qiu, Xiaolin; Tang, Yali; Wang, Jun

    2015-01-01

    This paper was aimed to prepare, characterize and determine the comprehensive evaluation of promising composite macrocapsules containing microencapsulated PCMs (phase change materials) with calcium alginate gels as the matrix material. Macrocapsules containing microcapsules were fabricated by piercing-solidifying incuber method. Two kinds of microcapsules with n-tetradecane as core material, UF (urea-formaldehyde) and PMMA (poly(methyl methacrylate)) respectively as shell materials were prepared initially. For application concerns, thermal durability and mechanical property of macrocapsules were investigated by TGA (thermal gravimetric analysis) and Texture Analyser for the first time, respectively. The results showed excellent thermal stability and the compressive resistance of macrocapsules was sufficient for common application. The morphology and chemical structure of the prepared microcapsules and macrocapsules were characterized by SEM (scanning electron microscopy) and FT-IR (fourier transform infrared) spectroscopy method. Phase change behaviors and thermal durability of microcapsules and macrocapsules were investigated by DSC (differential scanning calorimetry). In order to improve latent heat of composite microcapsules, the core-shell weight ratio of tetradecane/UF shell microcapsules was chosen as 5.5:1 which obtained the phase change enthalpy of 194.1 J g −1 determined by DSC. In conclusion, these properties make it a feasible composite in applications of textile, building and cold-chain transportation. - Highlights: • We improved the phase change enthalpy with a higher core-shell ratio. • Urea-formaldehyde was firstly used as a shell material in the composite. • Mechanical and thermal durability property of the macrocapsules was firstly investigated in our work.

  9. Preparation and thermal properties of short carbon fibers/erythritol phase change materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Qiang; Luo, Zhiling; Guo, Qilin; Wu, Gaohui

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Short carbon fiber (SCF)/erythritol phase change composites (PCCs) are prepared and tested. • The PCCs possess large heat capacity and high thermal conductivity. • The size of SCFs can affect thermal conductivities of SCF/erythritol PCCs. • The size of SCFs has negligible effects on melting points and enthalpies. • The SCF/erythritol PCCs show good temperature-regulated property. - Abstract: The thermal properties of the short carbon fibers (SCFs) filled erythritol phase change composites (PCCs) were investigated experimentally. The samples were prepared with different mass loadings of two kinds of SCFs, 1%, 2%, 4%, 7% and 10%. The melting points and phase change enthalpies were measured by differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). The effects of SCFs on the melting points are relatively small but the enthalpies were reduced with the loadings of SCFs. The greatest loss of enthalpies is 11.3% for composites filled with 10% SCFs. The thermal conductivities increased with the loadings of SCFs but not linearly. The highest thermal conductivity is 3.92 W/(m⋅K) for the composites with 10% longer SCFs, which was enhanced by 407.8% compared to pure erythritol (0.77 W/(m⋅K)). Composites filled with longer SCFs possess higher thermal conductivity and the mechanisms were discussed. A simple setup was made to test the temperature-regulated property of these materials. These include pure erythritol and phase change composites with different loading of SCFs. The PCCs have shown good application potential and the longer SCFs can lead to the better performance of PCCs.

  10. Fast nanoscale heat-flux modulation with phase-change materials

    OpenAIRE

    Van Zwol , Pieter; Joulain , Karl; Ben-Abdallah , Philippe; Greffet , Jean-Jacques; Chevrier , Joël

    2011-01-01

    International audience; We introduce a new concept for electrically controlled heat flux modulation. A flux contrast larger than 10 dB is expected with switching time on the order of tens of nanoseconds. Heat flux modulation is based on the interplay between radiative heat transfer at the nanoscale and phase change materials. Such large contrasts are not obtainable in solids, or in far field. As such this opens up new horizons for temperature modulation and actuation at the nanoscale.

  11. Experimental evaluation of ability of Relap5 and DRAKO to calculate water hammer with phase changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcinkiewicz, Jerzy; Adamkowski, Adam; Lewandowski, Mariusz

    2007-01-01

    Mechanical loadings on pipe systems caused by water hammer with phase changes make calculation of final forces difficult in nuclear power plants. The common procedure in Sweden is to calculate the water hammer loadings, according to the classical one-dimensional theory of liquid transient flow in pipeline, and then transfer the results to strength analyses of pipeline structure. This procedure assumes that there is quasi-steady response of the pipeline structure to pressure surges - no dynamic interaction between the fluid and the pipeline construction. The hydraulic loadings are calculated with 1-D so-called 'network' programs. Commonly used in Sweden are Relap5 (Mod3.2.2 and higher) and Drako. As a third party accredited inspection body INSPECTA NUCLEAR AB reviews calculations of water hammer loadings. An important question for the reviewer (and also for the users) is knowledge about their ability to calculate the dynamic loadings. While the ability of Relap5 and DRAKO to calculate water hammer without phase changes is relatively well investigated the skills of the programs when phase changes are present need some more attention. The presented work shall be seen as an attempt to illustrate ability of Relap5, and Drako programs to calculate the water hammer loadings with phase changes. A special attention was paid to using of Relap5 for calculation of water hammer pressure surges (including some aspects of influence of discretisation of space on the calculation results). The calculations are compared with experimental results. The experiments have been conducted at a test rig designed and constructed at the Szewalski Institute of Fluid-Flow Machinery of the Polish Academy of Sciences (IMP PAN) in Gdansk, Poland. The comparison of calculated and measured pressures shows some differences, only the first pressure peak, occurring before evaporation is calculated quite exactly. All next coming pressure peaks differ slightly from the measured with respect to amplitude

  12. Development of Membrane Contactors Using Phase Change Solvents for CO2 Capture: Material Compatibility Study

    OpenAIRE

    Ansaloni, Luca; Asad, Arif; Çiftja, Arlinda; Knuutila, Hanna K; Deng, Liyuan

    2016-01-01

    Phase change solvents represent a new class of CO2 absorbents with a promising potential to reduce the energy penalty associated with CO2 capture. However, their high volatility is a major concern for their use at the industrial scale. It is believed that membrane absorption offers a solution to overcome this issue, particularly if the membrane can prevent amine evaporation. In the present work a compatibility study is carried out in order to identify suitable membranes in a membrane contacto...

  13. Microscopic Mechanism of Doping-Induced Kinetically Constrained Crystallization in Phase-Change Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tae Hoon; Loke, Desmond; Elliott, Stephen R

    2015-10-07

    A comprehensive microscopic mechanism of doping-induced kinetically constrained crystallization in phase-change materials is provided by investigating structural and dynamical dopant characteristics via ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. The information gained from this study may provide a basis for a fast screening of dopant species for electronic memory devices, or for understanding the general physics involved in the crystallization of doped glasses. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. On-chip photonic memory elements employing phase-change materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios, Carlos; Hosseini, Peiman; Wright, C David; Bhaskaran, Harish; Pernice, Wolfram H P

    2014-03-05

    Phase-change materials integrated into nanophotonic circuits provide a flexible way to realize tunable optical components. Relying on the enormous refractive-index contrast between the amorphous and crystalline states, such materials are promising candidates for on-chip photonic memories. Nonvolatile memory operation employing arrays of microring resonators is demonstrated as a route toward all-photonic chipscale information processing. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Investigation of Effect Additive Phase Change Materials on the Thermal Conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakielska, Magdalena; Chalamoński, Mariusz; Pawłowski, Krzysztof

    2017-10-01

    The aim of worldwide policy is to reduce the amount of consumed energy and conventional fuels. An important branch of the economy that affects the energy balance of the country is construction industry. In Poland, since January 1st, 2017 new limit values have been valid regarding energy saving and thermal insulation of buildings. To meet the requirements of more and more stringent technical and environmental standards, new technological solutions are currently being looked for. When it comes to the use of new materials, phase-change materials are being widely introduced into construction industry. Thanks to phase-change materials, we can increase the amount of heat storage. Great thermal inertia of the building provides more stable conditions inside the rooms and allows the use of unconventional sources of energy such as solar energy. A way to reduce the energy consumption of the object is the use of modern solutions for ventilation systems. An example is the solar chimney, which supports natural ventilation in order to improve internal comfort of the rooms. Numerous studies are being carried out in order to determine the optimal construction of solar chimneys in terms of materials and construction parameters. One of the elements of solar chimneys is an absorption plate, which affects the amount of accumulated heat in the construction. In order to carry out the research on the thermal capacity of the absorption plate, the first research work has been already planned. The work presents the research results of a heat-transfer coefficient of the absorption plates samples made of cement, aggregate, water, and phase-change material in different volume percentage. The work also presents methodology and the research process of phase-change material samples.

  16. Analysis of implementing phase change materials in open-air swimming pools

    OpenAIRE

    Zsembinszki, Gabriel; Farid, Mohammed M.; Cabeza, Luisa F.

    2012-01-01

    Open-air swimming pools in Mediterranean climate regions are heated by direct solar radiation with no auxiliary heating systems. In order to extend the swimming season or improve comfort conditions, solar collectors or pool coverings may be used. In this paper, another approach was followed through the use of phase change materials (PCM). Two methods of introducing the PCM were considered: (1) encapsulated in the sidewalls and bottom of the pool, and (2) use the PCM in an external he...

  17. Computer simulation with TRNSYS for a mobile refrigeration system incorporating a phase change thermal storage unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Ming; Saman, Wasim; Bruno, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A mobile refrigeration system incorporating phase change thermal storage was simulated using TRNSYS. • A TRNSYS component of a phase change thermal storage unit was created and linked to other components from TRNSYS library. • The temperature in the refrigerated space can be predicted using this TRNSYS model under various conditions. • A mobile refrigeration system incorporating PCM and an off-peak electric driven refrigeration unit is feasible. • The phase change material with the lowest melting temperature should be selected. - Abstract: This paper presents a new TRNSYS model of a refrigeration system incorporating phase change material (PCM) for mobile transport. The PCTSU is charged by an off-vehicle refrigeration unit and the PCM provides cooling when discharging and the cooling released is utilized to cool down the refrigerated space. The advantage of this refrigeration system compared to a conventional system is that it consumes less energy and produces significantly lower greenhouse gas emissions. A refrigeration system for a typical refrigerated van is modelled and simulations are performed with climatic data from four different locations. The main components of the TRNSYS model are Type 88 (cooling load estimation) and Type 300 (new PCTSU component), accompanied by other additional components. The results show that in order to maintain the temperature of the products at −18 °C for 10 h, a total of 250 kg and 390 kg of PCM are required for no door opening and 20 door openings during the transportation, respectively. In addition, a parametric study is carried out to evaluate the effects of location, size of the refrigerated space, number of door openings and melting temperature of the PCM on the thermal performance

  18. Application of Phase Change Materials (PCM's) to Preserve the Freshness of Seafood Products

    OpenAIRE

    Pudjiastuti, Wiwik; Listyarini, Arie; Riyanto, Arief

    2015-01-01

    The application of Phase Change Materials (PCMs) as one of latent heat energy storage materials in smart cold system has been investigated for preserving a freshness of seafood products. In this investigation, PCMs was installed on Expanded Polystyrene (EPS) box system as insulated container. The freshness of the seafood product was shown by the time of keeping temperature during storage or distribution. Keeping temperature time of smart cold system using PCMs was compared to conventional col...

  19. Penelitian Menggunakan Cold Roll Box (CRB) Dengan Phase Change Materials (PCMs) Untuk Mempertahankan Kesegaran Produk Pertanian

    OpenAIRE

    Pudjiastuti, Wiwik; Hendartini, Hendartini; Supeni, Guntarti; Listyarini, Arie

    2011-01-01

    Penelitian tentang sistem distribusi menggunakan Cold Roll Box (CRB) dengan Phase Change Materials (PCMs) untuk mempertahankan kesegaran produk pertanian telah dilakukan dengan kerjasama antara Balai Besar Kimia dan Kemasan (BBKK) dengan KITECH, Korea. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mendapatkan satu sistem yang paling efektif untuk distribusi produk-produk pertanian yang memerlukan pendingin dalam rangka mempertahankan kualitas dan kesegarannya. Sebagai media pendingin pada sistem in...

  20. Sleep Comfort Evaluation in Bedding that Utilized Phase Change Materials (PCM)

    OpenAIRE

    橋本, 一馬; 青井, 政貴; 吉田, 宏昭; 上條, 正義

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to reveal the bedding influence degree to quality of sleep. This bedding utilized Phase Change Materials (PCM). We carried out two experiments. Firstly, we experimentally confirmed thermal properties of the PCM. Secondly, we carried out overnight sleep experiment in hot and cold environment. We prepared the PCM bedding and normal bedding that is commercially-supplied. Consequently, the PCM had been the property of cold tactile sensation rather than the normal bedd...

  1. Changes of Pituitary Hormones after Injection of Naloxone in the Hypotensive Phase of Korean Hemorrhagic Fever

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Sang Moo; Cho, Bo Youn; Lee, Hong Gyu; Lee, Jung Sang; Koh, Chang Soon [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Byung Tae [Hallym Medical College, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1986-09-15

    The opiate antagonist, naloxone, was injected for the reversal of hypotension due to Korean hemorrhagic fever, and the authors observed changes in pituitary hormones. In the hypotensive phase of the Korean hemorrhagic fever, the beta-endorphin was high, and normalized gradually in the diuretic and convalescent period. The naloxone raised the pulse rate and the blood pressure within 30 minutes without change in the central venous pressure. Around 30 minuted after the injection of the naloxone, the beta-endorphin, ACTH and cortisol rose. The prolactin fell down 60 minutes after the naloxone injection.

  2. Phase Change Material Trade Study: A Comparison Between Wax and Water for Manned Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Gregory; Hodgson, Ed; Stephan, Ryan A,

    2011-01-01

    Phase change material heat sinks have been recognized as an important tool in optimizing thermal control systems for space exploration vehicles and habitats that must deal with widely varying thermal loads and environments. In order to better focus technology investment in this arena, NASA has supported a trade study with the objective of identifying where the best potential pay-off can be found among identified aqueous and paraffin wax phase change materials and phase change material heat sink design approaches. The study used a representative exploration mission with well understood parameters to support the trade. Additional sensitivity studies were performed to ensure the applicability of study results across varying systems and destinations. Results from the study indicate that replacing a wax PCM heat sink with a water ice PCM heat sink has the potential to decrease the equivalent system mass of the mission s vehicle through a combination of a smaller heat sink and a slight 5% increase in radiator size or the addition of a lightweight heat pump. An evaluation of existing and emerging PCM heat sink technologies indicates that further mass savings should be achievable through continued development of those technologies. The largest mass savings may be realized by eliminating the melting and freezing pressure of wax and water, respectively.

  3. Phase change material thermal storage for biofuel preheating in micro trigeneration application: A numerical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Dawei; Chen, Junlong; Roskilly, Anthony P.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Engine exhaust heat driven phase change material thermal storage. • Fuel preheating for direct use of straight plant oil on diesel engine. • CFD aided design of the phase change material thermal storage. • Melting and solidification model considering natural convection. - Abstract: A biofuel micro trigeneration prototype has been developed to utilise local energy crop oils as fuel in rural areas and developing countries. Straight plant oils (SPOs) only leave behind very little carbon footprint during its simply production process compared to commercial biodiesels in refineries, but the high viscosity of SPOs causes difficulties at engine cold starts, which further results in poor fuel atomisation, compromised engine performance and fast engine deterioration. In this study, a phase change material (PCM) thermal storage is designed to recover and store engine exhaust heat to preheat SPOs at cold starts. High temperature commercial paraffin is selected as the PCM to meet the optimal preheating temperature range of 70–90 °C, in terms of the SPO property study. A numerical model of the PCM thermal storage is developed and validated by references. The PCM melting and solidification processes with the consideration of natural convection in liquid zone are simulated in ANSYS-FLUENT to verify the feasibility of the PCM thermal storage as a part of the self-contained biofuel micro trigeneration prototype

  4. Preparation and thermal conductivity enhancement of composite phase change materials for electronic thermal management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Weixiong; Zhang, Guoqing; Ke, Xiufang; Yang, Xiaoqing; Wang, Ziyuan; Liu, Chenzhen

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A kind of composite phase change material board (PCMB) is prepared and tested. • PCMB presents a large thermal storage capacity and enhanced thermal conductivity. • PCMB displays much better cooling effect in comparison to natural air cooling. • PCMB presents different cooling characteristics in comparison to ribbed radiator. - Abstract: A kind of phase change material board (PCMB) was prepared for use in the thermal management of electronics, with paraffin and expanded graphite as the phase change material and matrix, respectively. The as-prepared PCMB presented a large thermal storage capacity of 141.74 J/g and enhanced thermal conductivity of 7.654 W/(m K). As a result, PCMB displayed much better cooling effect in comparison to natural air cooling, i.e., much lower heating rate and better uniformity of temperature distribution. On the other hand, compared with ribbed radiator technology, PCMB also presented different cooling characteristics, demonstrating that they were suitable for different practical application

  5. Thermal management of electronics using phase change material based pin fin heat sinks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baby, R; Balaji, C

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports the results of an experimental study carried out to explore the thermal characteristics of phase change material based heat sinks for electronic equipment cooling. The phase change material (PCM) used in this study is n – eicosane. All heat sinks used in the present study are made of aluminium with dimensions of 80 × 62 mm 2 base with a height of 25 mm. Pin fins acts as the thermal conductivity enhancer (TCE) to improve the distribution of heat more uniformly as the thermal conductivity of the PCM is very low. A total of three different pin fin heat sink geometries with 33, 72 and 120 pin fins filled with phase change materials giving rise to 4%, 9% and 15% volume fractions of the TCE respectively were experimentally investigated. Baseline comparisons are done with a heat sink filled with PCM, without any fin. Studies are conducted for heat sinks on which a uniform heat load is applied at the bottom for the finned and unfinned cases. The effect of pin fins of different volume fractions with power levels ranging from 4 to 8 W corresponding to a heat flux range of 1. 59 to 3.17 kW/m 2 , was explored in this paper. The volume fraction of the PCM (PCM volume / (Total volume – fin volume)) is also varied as 0. 3, 0.6 and 1 to determine the effect of PCM volume on the overall performance of the electronic equipment.

  6. Sub-nanometre resolution of atomic motion during electronic excitation in phase-change materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrofanov, Kirill V; Fons, Paul; Makino, Kotaro; Terashima, Ryo; Shimada, Toru; Kolobov, Alexander V; Tominaga, Junji; Bragaglia, Valeria; Giussani, Alessandro; Calarco, Raffaella; Riechert, Henning; Sato, Takahiro; Katayama, Tetsuo; Ogawa, Kanade; Togashi, Tadashi; Yabashi, Makina; Wall, Simon; Brewe, Dale; Hase, Muneaki

    2016-02-12

    Phase-change materials based on Ge-Sb-Te alloys are widely used in industrial applications such as nonvolatile memories, but reaction pathways for crystalline-to-amorphous phase-change on picosecond timescales remain unknown. Femtosecond laser excitation and an ultrashort x-ray probe is used to show the temporal separation of electronic and thermal effects in a long-lived (>100 ps) transient metastable state of Ge2Sb2Te5 with muted interatomic interaction induced by a weakening of resonant bonding. Due to a specific electronic state, the lattice undergoes a reversible nondestructive modification over a nanoscale region, remaining cold for 4 ps. An independent time-resolved x-ray absorption fine structure experiment confirms the existence of an intermediate state with disordered bonds. This newly unveiled effect allows the utilization of non-thermal ultra-fast pathways enabling artificial manipulation of the switching process, ultimately leading to a redefined speed limit, and improved energy efficiency and reliability of phase-change memory technologies.

  7. A review of phase change materials for vehicle component thermal buffering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jankowski, Nicholas R.; McCluskey, F. Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A review of latent heat thermal energy storage for vehicle thermal load leveling. • Examined vehicle applications with transient thermal profiles from 0 to 800 °C. • >700 materials from over a dozen material classes examined for the applications. • Recommendations made for future application of high power density materials. - Abstract: The use of latent heat thermal energy storage for thermally buffering vehicle systems is reviewed. Vehicle systems with transient thermal profiles are classified according to operating temperatures in the range of 0–800 °C. Thermal conditions of those applications are examined relative to their impact on thermal buffer requirements, and prior phase change thermal enhancement studies for these applications are discussed. In addition a comprehensive overview of phase change materials covering the relevant operating range is given, including selection criteria and a detailed list of over 700 candidate materials from a number of material classes. Promising material candidates are identified for each vehicle system based on system temperature, specific and volumetric latent heat, and thermal conductivity. Based on the results of previous thermal load leveling efforts, there is the potential for making significant improvements in both emissions reduction and overall energy efficiency by further exploration of PCM thermal buffering on vehicles. Recommendations are made for further material characterization, with focus on the need for improved data for metallic and solid-state phase change materials for high energy density applications

  8. Characteristics of phase-change materials containing oxide nano-additives for thermal storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Tun-Ping; Yu, Chao-Chieh

    2012-11-06

    In this study, the authors report the production of nanocomposite-enhanced phase-change materials (NEPCMs) using the direct-synthesis method by mixing paraffin with alumina (Al2O3), titania (TiO2), silica (SiO2), and zinc oxide (ZnO) as the experimental samples. Al2O3, TiO2, SiO2, and ZnO were dispersed into three concentrations of 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0 wt.%. Through heat conduction and differential scanning calorimeter experiments to evaluate the effects of varying concentrations of the nano-additives on the heat conduction performance and thermal storage characteristics of NEPCMs, their feasibility for use in thermal storage was determined. The experimental results demonstrate that TiO2 is more effective than the other additives in enhancing both the heat conduction and thermal storage performance of paraffin for most of the experimental parameters. Furthermore, TiO2 reduces the melting onset temperature and increases the solidification onset temperature of paraffin. This allows the phase-change heat to be applicable to a wider temperature range, and the highest decreased ratio of phase-change heat is only 0.46%, compared to that of paraffin. Therefore, this study demonstrates that TiO2, added to paraffin to form NEPCMs, has significant potential for enhancing the thermal storage characteristics of paraffin.

  9. Threshold-voltage modulated phase change heterojunction for application of high density memory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Baihan; Tong, Hao; Qian, Hang; Miao, Xiangshui

    2015-01-01

    Phase change random access memory is one of the most important candidates for the next generation non-volatile memory technology. However, the ability to reduce its memory size is compromised by the fundamental limitations inherent in the CMOS technology. While 0T1R configuration without any additional access transistor shows great advantages in improving the storage density, the leakage current and small operation window limit its application in large-scale arrays. In this work, phase change heterojunction based on GeTe and n-Si is fabricated to address those problems. The relationship between threshold voltage and doping concentration is investigated, and energy band diagrams and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements are provided to explain the results. The threshold voltage is modulated to provide a large operational window based on this relationship. The switching performance of the heterojunction is also tested, showing a good reverse characteristic, which could effectively decrease the leakage current. Furthermore, a reliable read-write-erase function is achieved during the tests. Phase change heterojunction is proposed for high-density memory, showing some notable advantages, such as modulated threshold voltage, large operational window, and low leakage current

  10. Threshold-voltage modulated phase change heterojunction for application of high density memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Baihan; Tong, Hao; Qian, Hang; Miao, Xiangshui

    2015-09-01

    Phase change random access memory is one of the most important candidates for the next generation non-volatile memory technology. However, the ability to reduce its memory size is compromised by the fundamental limitations inherent in the CMOS technology. While 0T1R configuration without any additional access transistor shows great advantages in improving the storage density, the leakage current and small operation window limit its application in large-scale arrays. In this work, phase change heterojunction based on GeTe and n-Si is fabricated to address those problems. The relationship between threshold voltage and doping concentration is investigated, and energy band diagrams and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements are provided to explain the results. The threshold voltage is modulated to provide a large operational window based on this relationship. The switching performance of the heterojunction is also tested, showing a good reverse characteristic, which could effectively decrease the leakage current. Furthermore, a reliable read-write-erase function is achieved during the tests. Phase change heterojunction is proposed for high-density memory, showing some notable advantages, such as modulated threshold voltage, large operational window, and low leakage current.

  11. Experimental and computational study on thermoelectric generators using thermosyphons with phase change as heat exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araiz, M.; Martínez, A.; Astrain, D.; Aranguren, P.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Thermosyphon with phase change heat exchanger computational model. • Construction and experimentation of a prototype. • ±9% of maximum deviation from experimental values of the main outputs. • Influence of the auxiliary equipment on the net power generation. - Abstract: An important issue in thermoelectric generators is the thermal design of the heat exchangers since it can improve their performance by increasing the heat absorbed or dissipated by the thermoelectric modules. Due to its several advantages, compared to conventional dissipation systems, a thermosyphon heat exchanger with phase change is proposed to be placed on the cold side of thermoelectric generators. Some of these advantages are: high heat-transfer rates; absence of moving parts and lack of auxiliary consumption (because fans or pumps are not required); and the fact that these systems are wickless. A computational model is developed to design and predict the behaviour of this heat exchangers. Furthermore, a prototype has been built and tested in order to demonstrate its performance and validate the computational model. The model predicts the thermal resistance of the heat exchanger with a relative error in the interval [−8.09; 7.83] in the 95% of the cases. Finally, the use of thermosyphons with phase change in thermoelectric generators has been studied in a waste-heat recovery application, stating that including them on the cold side of the generators improves the net thermoelectric production by 36% compared to that obtained with finned dissipators under forced convection.

  12. Design and Simulation of a Vapour Compression Refrigeration System Using Phase Change Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddharth Raju

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper details the design and simulation of a solar powered vapour compression refrigeration system. The effect of a phase change material, in this case ice, on a vapour compression refrigeration system powered by solar panels is discussed. The battery and solar panels were sized to allow the system to function as an autonomous unit for a minimum of 12 hours. It was concluded that the presence of a phase change material in the refrigeration system caused a considerable increase in both the on and off time of the compressor. The ratio by which the on time increased was greater than the ratio by which the off time was increased. There was a 219% increase in the on time, a 139% increase in the compressor off time and a 3.5% increase in compressor work accompanied by a 5.5% reduction in COP. Thus, under conditions where there is enough load in the system to cause the initial on and off times of the compressor to be comparable, the presence of a phase change material may result in a greater on period than an off period for the compressor.

  13. Thermal buffering performance of composite phase change materials applied in low-temperature protective garments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kai; Jiao, Mingli; Yu, Yuanyuan; Zhu, Xueying; Liu, Rangtong; Cao, Jian

    2017-07-01

    Phase change material (PCM) is increasingly being applied in the manufacturing of functional thermo-regulated textiles and garments. This paper investigated the thermal buffering performance of different composite PCMs which are suitable for the application in functional low-temperature protective garments. First, according to the criteria selecting PCM for functional textiles/garments, three kinds of pure PCM were selected as samples, which were n-hexadecane, n-octadecane and n-eicosane. To get the adjustable phase change temperature range and higher phase change enthalpy, three kinds of composite PCM were prepared using the above pure PCM. To evaluate the thermal buffering performance of different composite PCM samples, the simulated low-temperature experiments were performed in the climate chamber, and the skin temperature variation curves in three different low temperature conditions were obtained. Finally composite PCM samples’ thermal buffering time, thermal buffering capacity and thermal buffering efficiency were calculated. Results show that the comprehensive thermal buffering performance of n-octadecane and n-eicosane composite PCM is the best.

  14. Analyses of phase change materials’ efficiency in warm-summer humid continental climate conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnieks, J.; Gendelis, S.; Jakovics, A.; Bajare, D.

    2017-10-01

    The usage of phase change materials (PCMs) is a way to store excess energy produced during the hot time of the day and release it during the night thereby reducing the overheating problem. While, in Latvian climate conditions overheating is not a big issue in traditional buildings since it happens only a couple of weeks per year air conditioners must still be installed to maintain thermal comfort. The need for cooling in recently built office buildings with large window area can increase significantly. It is therefore of great interest if the thermal comfort conditions can be maintained by PCMs alone or with reduced maximum power of installed cooling systems. Our initial studies show that if the test building is well-insulated (necessary to reduce heat loss in winter), phase change material is not able to solidify fast enough during the relatively short night time. To further investigate the problem various experimental setups with two different phase change materials were installed in test buildings. Experimental results are compared with numerical modelling made in software COMSOL Multiphysics. The effectiveness of PCM using different situations is widely analysed.

  15. Theoretical predictions for latent heats and phase-change temperatures of polycrystalline PCMs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medved', Igor; Trník, Anton

    2017-07-01

    We had previously developed a microscopic approach from which it is possible to fit enthalpy jumps and heat capacity peaks of polycrystalline phase-change materials that consists of a large number of grains. It is also possible to determine the corresponding latent heat and phase-change temperature. These results are given in a form of sums over grain diameters that can be evaluated numerically. Therefore, their behavior and dependence on physical parameters are not susceptible to straightforward interpretations. Here we use the results to derive simple formulas for the maximum position (Tmax), height (H), and an asymmetry factor (α) of those heat capacity peaks that are very asymmetric. In addition, we express the phase-change temperature as a simple combination of Tmax, H, α, and the peak's area. We apply our formulas to Rhubitherm 27 as an example PCM for which the heat capacity peak is so asymmetric that it has about 80 % of its total area below its maximum position.

  16. Advanced phase change materials and systems for solar passive heating and cooling of residential buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salyer, I.O.; Sircar, A.K.; Dantiki, S.

    1988-01-01

    During the last three years under the sponsorship of the DOE Solar Passive Division, the University of Dayton Research Institute (UDRI) has investigated four phase change material (PCM) systems for utility in thermal energy storage for solar passive heating and cooling applications. From this research on the basis of cost, performance, containment, and environmental acceptability, we have selected as our current and most promising series of candidate phase change materials, C-15 to C-24 linear crystalline alkyl hydrocarbons. The major part of the research during this contract period was directed toward the following three objectives. Find, test, and develop low-cost effective phase change materials (PCM) that melt and freeze sharply in the comfort temperature range of 73--77{degree}F for use in solar passive heating and cooling of buildings. Define practical materials and processes for fire retarding plasterboard/PCM building products. Develop cost-effective methods for incorporating PCM into building construction materials (concrete, plasterboard, etc.) which will lead to the commercial manufacture and sale of PCM-containing products resulting in significant energy conservation.

  17. Numerical modelling of phase-change material used for PV panels cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellami, Assia; Elotmani, Rabie; Kandoussi, Khalid; Eljouad, Mohamed; Hajjaji, Abdelowahed; Boutaous, M'Hamed

    2017-12-01

    Passive cooling of a PV solar panel using phase-change material (PCM) may play an important role in increasing efficiency of PV cells. Because it does not need a maintenance and does not release greenhouses gases, PCM seems to be a good way to decrease the among of overheating of PV cell. The aims of this paper describes a detailed multiphysical issue in order to understand the effect of PCM (RT25) in keeping PV cell temperature close to ambient. The study is focused on modeling the heat and mass transfer in a PCM domain by modifying the buoyancy term in momentum equation. Due to a phase-change and free convection, transient incompressible flow is taken into account to explain the dynamic variations of the velocity profile and viscosity distribution. With standard condition of irradiation and heat flux on both sides of the PV panel, a melt front has been tracked by the energy equation, which gives a good argument for the temperature evolution during phase-change.

  18. Diurnal Thermal Behavior of Photovoltaic Panel with Phase Change Materials under Different Weather Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Han Lim

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The electric power generation efficiency of photovoltaic (PV panels depends on the solar irradiation flux and the operating temperature of the solar cell. To increase the power generation efficiency of a PV system, this study evaluated the feasibility of phase change materials (PCMs to reduce the temperature rise of solar cells operating under the climate in Seoul, Korea. For this purpose, two PCMs with different phase change characteristics were prepared and the phase change temperatures and thermal conductivities were compared. The diurnal thermal behavior of PV panels with PCMs under the Seoul climate was evaluated using a 2-D transient thermal analysis program. This paper discusses the heat flow characteristics though the PV cell with PCMs and the effects of the PCM types and macro-packed PCM (MPPCM methods on the operating temperatures under different weather conditions. Selection of the PCM type was more important than the MMPCM methods when PCMs were used to enhance the performance of PV panels and the mean operating temperature of PV cell and total heat flux from the surface could be reduced by increasing the heat transfer rate through the honeycomb grid steel container for PCMs. Considering the mean operating temperature reduction of 4 °C by PCM in this study, an efficiency improvement of approximately 2% can be estimated under the weather conditions of Seoul.

  19. Refractive index modulation of Sb70Te30 phase-change thin films by multiple femtosecond laser pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lei, Kai; Wang, Yang; Jiang, Minghui; Wu, Yiqun

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the controllable effective refractive index modulation of Sb 70 Te 30 phase-change thin films between amorphous and crystalline states was achieved experimentally by multiple femtosecond laser pulses. The modulation mechanism was analyzed comprehensively by a spectral ellipsometer measurement, surface morphology observation, and two-temperature model calculations. We numerically demonstrate the application of the optically modulated refractive index of the phase-change thin films in a precisely adjustable color display. These results may provide further insights into ultrafast phase-transition mechanics and are useful in the design of programmable photonic and opto-electrical devices based on phase-change memory materials.

  20. Experimental determination of the heat transfer and cold storage characteristics of a microencapsulated phase change material in a horizontal tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allouche, Yosr; Varga, Szabolcs; Bouden, Chiheb; Oliveira, Armando C.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Cold storage characteristics in latent and sensible heat storage mediums were studied. • Thermo-physical characterization of the phase change material was carried out. • A non-Newtonian shear thickening behavior of the phase change material was observed. • An energy storage enhancement (53%) was observed in the latent heat storage medium. - Abstract: In the present paper, the performance of a microencapsulated phase change material (in 45% w/w concentration) for low temperature thermal energy storage, suitable for air conditioning applications is studied. The results are compared to a sensible heat storage unit using water. Thermo-physical properties such as the specific heat, enthalpy variation, thermal conductivity and density are also experimentally determined. The non-Newtonian shear-thickening behavior of the phase change material slurry is quantified. Thermal energy performance is experimentally determined for a 100 l horizontal tank. The heat transfer between the heat transfer fluid and the phase change material was provided by a tube-bundle heat exchanger inside the tank. The results show that the amount of energy stored using the phase change material is 53% higher than for water after 10 h of charging, for the same storage tank volume. It was found that the heat transfer coefficient between the phase change material and the tube wall increases during the phase change temperature range, however it remains smaller than the values obtained for water

  1. Anomalous Phase Change in [(GeTe)2/(Sb2Te3)]20 Superlattice Observed by Coherent Phonon Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makino, K.; Saito, Y.; Mitrofanov, K.; Tominaga, J.; Kolobov, A. V.; Nakano, T.; Fons, P.; Hase, M.

    The temperature-dependent ultrafast coherent phonon dynamics of topological (GeTe)2/(Sb2Te3) super lattice phase change memory material was investigated. By comparing with Ge-Sb-Te alloy, a clear contrast suggesting the unique phase change behavior was found.

  2. Numerical Model and Analysis of Peak Temperature Reduction in LiFePO4 Battery Packs Using Phase Change Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coman, Paul Tiberiu; Veje, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Numerical model and analysis of peak temperature reduction in LiFePO4 battery packs using phase change materials......Numerical model and analysis of peak temperature reduction in LiFePO4 battery packs using phase change materials...

  3. Crystallization characteristic and scaling behavior of germanium antimony thin films for phase change memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Weihua; Zhao, Zihan; Shen, Bo; Zhai, Jiwei; Song, Sannian; Song, Zhitang

    2018-04-19

    Amorphous Ge8Sb92 thin films with various thicknesses were deposited by magnetron sputtering. The crystallization kinetics and optical properties of the Ge8Sb92 thin films and related scaling effects were investigated by an in situ thermally induced method and an optical technique. With a decrease in film thickness, the crystallization temperature, crystallization activation energy and data retention ability increased significantly. The changed crystallization behavior may be ascribed to the smaller grain size and larger surface-to-volume ratio as the film thickness decreased. Regardless of whether the state was amorphous or crystalline, the film resistance increased remarkably as the film thickness decreased to 3 nm. The optical band gap calculated from the reflection spectra increases distinctly with a reduction in film thickness. X-ray diffraction patterns confirm that the scaling of the Ge8Sb92 thin film can inhibit the crystallization process and reduce the grain size. The values of exponent indices that were obtained indicate that the crystallization mechanism experiences a series of changes with scaling of the film thickness. The crystallization time was estimated to determine the scaling effect on the phase change speed. The scaling effect on the electrical switching performance of a phase change memory cell was also determined. The current-voltage and resistance-voltage characteristics indicate that phase change memory cells based on a thinner Ge8Sb92 film will exhibit a higher threshold voltage, lower RESET operational voltage and greater pulse width, which implies higher thermal stability, lower power consumption and relatively lower switching velocity.

  4. Leukocyte changes across menstruation, ovulation, and mid-luteal phase and association with sex hormone variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Judyta; Borkowska, Barbara; Pawlowski, Boguslaw

    2016-09-10

    Total leukocyte count (white blood cells-WBC) and the count of each subpopulation vary across the menstrual cycle, but results of studies examining the time and direction of these changes are inconsistent and methodologically flawed. Besides, no previous study focused on leukocyte count on the day of ovulation. Blood samples were obtained from 37 healthy and regularly cycling women aged 19.8-36.1 years. Samples were taken three times: during menstruation (M), ovulation (O), and in the mid-luteal phase (ML). WBC, neutrophils, lymphocytes, mixed cells, progesterone (P,) and estradiol (E) were measured in each of the three target phases of the cycle. Compared to menstruation, WBC (P = 0.002) and neutrophils (P < 0.001) increased around ovulation and remained stable in the mid-luteal phase, whereas lymphocyte and mixed cell counts did not change throughout the menstrual cycle. There were some correlations of sex hormone variation with leukocyte changes between M and O (positive for E and WBC, negative for P and WBC and for P and neutrophil count; P < 0.05), but not between O and ML. Peripheral leukocyte changes taking place in the second half of the cycle are already observable on the day of ovulation and they are associated with sex hormone variation. We speculate that these changes may lead to increased immune protection against pathogens at a time when fertilization and implantation typically occur. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 28:721-728, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Multiphase flow and phase change in microgravity: Fundamental research and strategic research for exploration of space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Bhim S.

    2003-01-01

    NASA is preparing to undertake science-driven exploration missions. The NASA Exploration Team's vision is a cascade of stepping stones. The stepping-stone will build the technical capabilities needed for each step with multi-use technologies and capabilities. An Agency-wide technology investment and development program is necessary to implement the vision. The NASA Exploration Team has identified a number of areas where significant advances are needed to overcome all engineering and medical barriers to the expansion of human space exploration beyond low-Earth orbit. Closed-loop life support systems and advanced propulsion and power technologies are among the areas requiring significant advances from the current state-of-the-art. Studies conducted by the National Academy of Science's National Research Council and Workshops organized by NASA have shown that multiphase flow and phase change play a crucial role in many of these advanced technology concepts. Lack of understanding of multiphase flow, phase change, and interfacial phenomena in the microgravity environment has been a major hurdle. An understanding of multiphase flow and phase change in microgravity is, therefore, critical to advancing many technologies needed. Recognizing this, the Office of Biological and Physical Research (OBPR) has initiated a strategic research thrust to augment the ongoing fundamental research in fluid physics and transport phenomena discipline with research especially aimed at understanding key multiphase flow related issues in propulsion, power, thermal control, and closed-loop advanced life support systems. A plan for integrated theoretical and experimental research that has the highest probability of providing data, predictive tools, and models needed by the systems developers to incorporate highly promising multiphase-based technologies is currently in preparation. This plan is being developed with inputs from scientific community, NASA mission planners and industry personnel

  6. Cooling Li-ion batteries of racing solar car by using multiple phase change materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moraga, Nelson O.; Xamán, Jesús P.; Araya, Ricardo H.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Thermal efficiency of Li-ion batteries improved by use of phase change materials. • Multiple layers of PCM provides good cooling capabilities for solar car batteries. • Evolution of temperature of solar car batteries described by Finite Volume Method. • Thermal control in discharge mode of lithium battery for solar car achieved by PCM. - Abstract: A numerical study of the unsteady phase change convection-conduction heat transfer of an ion-lithium battery with volumetric heat generation used in solar vehicles is presented. The cooling process is investigated for a total of seven arrays of phase change material (PCM): capric acid (PCM 1), eicosane (PCM 2), decahydrated sodium carbonate (PCM 3) and octadecane (PCM 4) located in one or three layers around the battery. The results show that heat conduction predominates in the battery with a PCM and the liquid phase fraction of the PCM indicates that the melting initiates after 7 min, reaching totally liquid state after 14.25 min. From the different configurations of PCM around the battery, the configuration “B” (multiple PCM: PCM 1 (5 mm) + PCM 3 (2.9 mm) + PCM 2 (4.3 mm)) and the configuration with a single layer of PCM 3 (14.3 mm) respectively reduce the maximum temperature of the battery about 20.9 and 23.2 K compared with the temperature reached by the battery without PCM. This result occurs because of the Decahydrated Sodium Carbonate PCM, since it has the highest latent heat and has a low melting point.

  7. Changes of optical, dielectric, and structural properties of Si15Sb85 phase change memory thin films under different initializing laser power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Huan; Zhang Lei; Wang Yang; Han Xiaodong; Wu Yiqun; Zhang Ze; Gan Fuxi

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → We study the optical, dielectric, and structural characteristics of Si 15 Sb 85 phase change memory thin films under a moving continuous-wave laser initialization. → The optical and dielectric constants, absorption coefficient of Si 15 Sb 85 change regularly with the increasing laser power. → The optical band gaps of Si 15 Sb 85 irradiated upon different power lasers were calculated. → HRTEM images of the samples were observed and the changes of optical and dielectric constants are determined by crystalline structures changes of the films. - Abstract: The optical, dielectric, and structural characteristics of Si 15 Sb 85 phase change memory thin films under a moving continuous-wave laser initialization are studied by using spectroscopic ellipsometry and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The dependence of complex refractive index, dielectric functions, absorption coefficient, and optical band gap of the films on its crystallization extents formed by the different initialization laser power are analyzed in detail. The structural change from as-deposited amorphous phase to distorted rhombohedra-Sb-like crystalline structure with the increase of initialization laser power is clearly observed with sub-nanometer resolution. The optical and dielectric constants, the relationship between them, and the local atomic arrangements of this new phase change material can help explain the phase change mechanism and design the practical phase change memory devices.

  8. Determination of enthalpy–temperature–composition relations in incongruent-melting phase change materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desgrosseilliers, Louis; Allred, Paul; Groulx, Dominic; White, Mary Anne

    2013-01-01

    This paper demonstrates that liquidus line (T-x) data can be obtained from calorimetric determinations of phase transition enthalpy profiles (H-T) for incongruent-melting phase change materials (PCMs) more efficiently than using traditional cooling curves. An accurate and reliable equilibrium mixture enthalpy model bridges the H-T and T-x gap to provide a full suite of high density H-T-x data to assist latent heat energy storage researchers to evaluate composition-dependent two-phase equilibrium processes. The proposed method is validated for T-history method H-T determinations of 1:1 diluted sodium acetate trihydrate in water, and can also be used with other laboratory calorimetric techniques used to determine the phase transition enthalpy profiles of incongruent-melting compounds. -- Highlights: • H-T data can also be used to obtain valuable liquidus region T-x data. • Applies to all incongruent-melting compounds with known thermodynamic properties. • Reduces the effort and cost of assessing full suite H-T-x data for PCMs. • Uses existing T-x or H-T data of incongruent-melting PCMs to determine the other

  9. Vortex phase-induced changes of the statistical properties of a partially coherent radially polarized beam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Lina; Chen, Yahong; Liu, Xianlong; Liu, Lin; Cai, Yangjian

    2016-06-27

    Partially coherent radially polarized (PCRP) beam was introduced and generated in recent years. In this paper, we investigate the statistical properties of a PCRP beam embedded with a vortex phase (i.e., PCRP vortex beam). We derive the analytical formula for the cross-spectral density matrix of a PCRP vortex beam propagating through a paraxial ABCD optical system and analyze the statistical properties of a PCRP vortex beam focused by a thin lens. It is found that the statistical properties of a PCRP vortex beam on propagation are much different from those of a PCRP beam. The vortex phase induces not only the rotation of the beam spot, but also the changes of the beam shape, the degree of polarization and the state of polarization. We also find that the vortex phase plays a role of resisting the coherence-induced degradation of the intensity distribution and the coherence-induced depolarization. Furthermore, we report experimental generation of a PCRP vortex beam for the first time. Our results will be useful for trapping and rotating particles, free-space optical communications and detection of phase object.

  10. Chaotic behavior in Casimir oscillators: A case study for phase-change materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajik, Fatemeh; Sedighi, Mehdi; Khorrami, Mohammad; Masoudi, Amir Ali; Palasantzas, George

    2017-10-01

    Casimir forces between material surfaces at close proximity of less than 200 nm can lead to increased chaotic behavior of actuating devices depending on the strength of the Casimir interaction. We investigate these phenomena for phase-change materials in torsional oscillators, where the amorphous to crystalline phase transitions lead to transitions between high and low Casimir force and torque states, respectively, without material compositions. For a conservative system bifurcation curve and Poincare maps analysis show the absence of chaotic behavior but with the crystalline phase (high force-torque state) favoring more unstable behavior and stiction. However, for a nonconservative system chaotic behavior can take place introducing significant risk for stiction, which is again more pronounced for the crystalline phase. The latter illustrates the more general scenario that stronger Casimir forces and torques increase the possibility for chaotic behavior. The latter is making it impossible to predict whether stiction or stable actuation will occur on a long-term basis, and it is setting limitations in the design of micronano devices operating at short-range nanoscale separations.

  11. First-principles study of the amorphous In3SbTe2 phase change compound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Los, Jan H.; Kühne, Thomas D.; Gabardi, Silvia; Bernasconi, Marco

    2013-11-01

    Ab initio molecular dynamics simulations based on density functional theory were performed to generate amorphous models of the phase change compound In3SbTe2 by quenching from the melt. In-Sb and In-Te are the most abundant bonds with only a minor fraction of Sb-Te bonds. The bonding geometry in the amorphous phase is, however, strongly dependent on the density in the range 6.448-5.75 g/cm3 that we investigated. While at high density the bonding geometry of In atoms is mostly octahedral-like as in the cubic crystalline phase of the ternary compound In3SbTe2, at low density we observed a sizable fraction of tetrahedral-like geometries similar to those present in the crystalline phase of the two binary compounds InTe and InSb that the ternary system can be thought to be made of. We show that the different ratio between octahedral-like and tetrahedral-like bonding geometries has fingerprints in the optical and vibrational spectra.

  12. UV irradiation-initiated MMA polymerization to prepare microcapsules containing phase change paraffin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Sude; Song, Guolin; Li, Wei; Fan, Pengfei; Tang, Guoyi [Institute of Advanced Materials, Graduated School at Shenzhen, Tsinghua University, Shenzhen 518055 (China)

    2010-10-15

    Microencapsulated phase change material (MEPCM), paraffin, with polymethylmethacrylate shell was prepared by introducing UV irradiation to an O/W emulsion polymerization for approximately 30 min under constant stirring. The results of differential scanning calorimetry analyses indicate that the latent heat and the content of paraffin of microcapsules are 101 J g{sup -1} and 61.2 wt%, respectively. The phase transition temperature of MEPCM ranges from 24 to 33 C. The MEPCM was characterized using scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Thermal gravimetric analysis results show that the MEPCM is degraded into two distinguishable steps. Accelerated thermal cycling tests also indicate that the MEPCM displays a good thermal reliability. Gypsum boards composed of as-prepared MEPCM show a good temperature-regulated property. Based on all these results, it can be concluded that the microencapsulated paraffin as MEPCMs have good potential for thermal energy storage purposes such as phase change material slurries, solar space heating applications, textiles and building materials. (author)

  13. Tendances Carbone no. 79 'Free allocations under Phase 3 benchmarks: early evidence of what has changed'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sartor, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    Among the publications of CDC Climat Research, 'Tendances Carbone' bulletin specifically studies the developments of the European market for CO 2 allowances. This issue addresses the following points: One of the most controversial changes to the EU ETS in Phase 3 (2013-2020) has been the introduction of emissions-performance benchmarks for determining free allocations to non-electricity producers. Phases 1 and 2 used National Allocation Plans (NAPs). For practical reasons NAPs were drawn up by each Member State, but this led to problems, including over-generous allowance allocation, insufficiently harmonised allocations across countries and distorted incentives to reduce emissions. Benchmarking tries to fix things by allocating the equivalent of 100% of allowances needed if every installation used the best available technology. But this is not universally popular and industries say that they might lose international competitiveness. So a new study by CDC Climat and the Climate Economics Chair examined the data from the preliminary Phase 3 free allocations of 20 EU Member States and asked: how much are free allocations actually going to change with benchmarking?

  14. The numerical solution of thawing process in phase change slab using variable space grid technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serttikul, C.

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the numerical analysis of melting process in phase change material which considers the moving boundary as the main parameter. In this study, pure ice slab and saturated porous packed bed are considered as the phase change material. The formulation of partial differential equations is performed consisting heat conduction equations in each phase and moving boundary equation (Stefan equation. The variable space grid method is then applied to these equations. The transient heat conduction equations and the Stefan condition are solved by using the finite difference method. A one-dimensional melting model is then validated against the available analytical solution. The effect of constant temperature heat source on melting rate and location of melting front at various times is studied in detail.It is found that the nonlinearity of melting rate occurs for a short time. The successful comparison with numerical solution and analytical solution should give confidence in the proposed mathematical treatment, and encourage the acceptance of this method as useful tool for exploring practical problems such as forming materials process, ice melting process, food preservation process and tissue preservation process.

  15. Melting of a phase change material in a horizontal annulus with discrete heat sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirzaei Hooshyar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Phase change materials have found many industrial applications such as cooling of electronic devices and thermal energy storage. This paper investigates numerically the melting process of a phase change material in a two-dimensional horizontal annulus with different arrangements of two discrete heat sources. The sources are positioned on the inner cylinder of the annulus and assumed as constant-temperature boundary conditions. The remaining portion of the inner cylinder wall as well as the outer cylinder wall is considered to be insulated. The emphasis is mainly on the effects of the arrangement of the heat source pair on the fluid flow and heat transfer features. The governing equations are solved on a non-uniform O type mesh using a pressure-based finite volume method with an enthalpy porosity technique to trace the solid and liquid interface. The results are obtained at Ra=104 and presented in terms of streamlines, isotherms, melting phase front, liquid fraction and dimensionless heat flux. It is observed that, depending on the arrangement of heat sources, the liquid fraction increases both linearly and non-linearly with time but will slow down at the end of the melting process. It can also be concluded that proper arrangement of discrete heat sources has the great potential in improving the energy storage system. For instance, the arrangement C3 where the heat sources are located on the bottom part of the inner cylinder wall can expedite the melting process as compared to the other arrangements.

  16. A review on phase-change materials: Mathematical modeling and simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutil, Yvan; Rousse, Daniel R.; Salah, Nizar Ben; Lassue, Stephane; Zalewski, Laurent

    2011-01-01

    Energy storage components improve the energy efficiency of systems by reducing the mismatch between supply and demand. For this purpose, phase-change materials are particularly attractive since they provide a high-energy storage density at a constant temperature which corresponds to the phase transition temperature of the material. Nevertheless, the incorporation of phase-change materials (PCMs) in a particular application calls for an analysis that will enable the researcher to optimize performances of systems. Due to the non-linear nature of the problem, numerical analysis is generally required to obtain appropriate solutions for the thermal behavior of systems. Therefore, a large amount of research has been carried out on PCMs behavior predictions. The review will present models based on the first law and on the second law of thermodynamics. It shows selected results for several configurations, from numerous authors so as to enable one to start his/her research with an exhaustive overview of the subject. This overview stresses the need to match experimental investigations with recent numerical analyses since in recent years, models mostly rely on other models in their validation stages. (author)

  17. Multidimensional phase change problems by the dual-reciprocity boundary-element method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jo, J.C.; Shin, W.K.; Choi, C.Y.

    1999-01-01

    Transient heat transfer problems with phase changes (Stefan problems) occur in many engineering situations, including potential core melting and solidification during pressurized-water-reactor severe accidents, ablation of thermal shields, melting and solidification of alloys, and many others. This article addresses the numerical analysis of nonlinear transient heat transfer with melting or solidification. An effective and simple procedure is presented for the simulation of the motion of the boundary and the transient temperature field during the phase change process. To accomplish this purpose, an iterative implicit solution algorithm has been developed by employing the dual-reciprocity boundary-element method. The dual-reciprocity boundary-element approach provided in this article is much simpler than the usual boundary-element method in applying a reciprocity principle and an available technique for dealing with the domain integral of the boundary element formulation simultaneously. In this article, attention is focused on two-dimensional melting (ablation)/solidification problems for simplicity. The accuracy and effectiveness of the present analysis method have been illustrated through comparisons of the calculation results of some examples of one-phase ablation/solidification problems with their known semianalytical or numerical solutions where available

  18. Palmitic acid/polypyrrole composites as form-stable phase change materials for thermal energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silakhori, Mahyar; Metselaar, Hendrik Simon Cornelis; Mahlia, Teuku Meurah Indra; Fauzi, Hadi; Baradaran, Saeid; Naghavi, Mohammad Sajad

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel phase change composite of palmitic acid–polypyrrole(PA–PPy) was fabricated. • Thermal properties of PA–PPy are characterized in different mass ratios of PA–PPy. • Thermal cycling test showed that form stable PCM had a favorable thermal reliability. - Abstract: In this study a novel palmitic acid (PA)/polypyrrole (PPy) form-stable PCMs were readily prepared by in situ polymerization method. PA was used as thermal energy storage material and PPy was operated as supporting material. Form-stable PCMs were investigated by SEM (scanning electron microscopy) and FTIR (Fourier transform infrared spectrometer) analysis that illustrated PA Particles were wrapped by PPy particles. XRD (X-ray diffractometer) was used for crystalline phase of PA/PPy composites. Thermogravimetry analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were used for investigating Thermal stability and thermal energy storage properties of prepared form-stable PCMs. According to the obtained results the form stable PCMs exhibited favorable thermal stability in terms of their phase change temperature. The form-stable PCMs (79.9 wt% loading of PA) were considered as the highest loading PCM with desirable latent heat storage of 166.3 J/g and good thermal stability. Accelerated thermal cycling tests also showed that form stable PCM had an acceptable thermal reliability. As a consequence of acceptable thermal properties, thermal stability and chemical stability, we can consider the new kind of form stable PCMs for low temperature solar thermal energy storage applications

  19. All-optically tunable EIT-like dielectric metasurfaces hybridized with thin phase change material layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petronijevic, Emilija; Sibilia, Concita

    2017-05-01

    Electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT), a pump-induced narrow transparency window within the absorption region of a probe, had offered new perspectives in slow-light control in atomic physics. For applications in nanophotonics, the implementation on chip-scaled devices has later been obtained by mimicking this effect by metallic metamaterials. High losses in visible and near infrared range of metal-based metamaterialls have recently opened a new field of all-dielectric metamaterials; a proper configuration of high refractive index dielectric nanoresonators can mimick this effect without losses to get high Q, slow-light response. The next step would be the ability to tune their optical response, and in this work we investigate thin layers of phase change materials (PCM) for all-optical control of EIT-like all-dielectric metamaterials. PCM can be nonvolatively and reversibly switched between two stable phases that differ in optical properties by applying a visible laser pulse. The device is based on Si nanoresonators covered by a thin layer of PCM GeTe; optical and transient thermal simulations have been done to find and optimize the fabrication parameters and switching parameters such as the intensity and duration of the pulse. We have found that the EIT-like response can be switched on and off by applying the 532nm laser pulse to change the phase of the upper GeTe layer. We strongly believe that such approach could open new perspectives in all-optically controlled slow-light metamaterials.

  20. Phase change heat transfer and bubble behavior observed on twisted wire heater geometries in microgravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munro, Troy R.; Koeln, Justin P.; Fassmann, Andrew W.; Barnett, Robert J.; Ban, Heng

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Subcooled water boiled in microgravity on twists of thin wires. • Wire twisting creates heat transfer enhancements because of high local temperatures. • A preliminary version of a new bubble dynamics method is discussed. • A critical distance that fluid must be superheated for boiling onset is presented. - Abstract: Phase change is an effective method of transferring heat, yet its application in microgravity thermal management systems requires greater understanding of bubble behavior. To further this knowledge base, a microgravity boiling experiment was performed (floating) onboard an aircraft flying in a parabolic trajectory to study the effect of surface geometry and heat flux on phase change heat transfer in a pool of subcooled water. A special emphasis was the investigation of heat transfer enhancement caused by modifying the surface geometry through the use of a twist of three wires and a twist of four wires. A new method for bubble behavior analysis was developed to quantify bubble growth characteristics, which allows a quantitative comparison of bubble dynamics between different data sets. It was found that the surface geometry of the three-wire twist enhanced heat transfer by reducing the heat flux needed for bubble incipience and the average wire temperature in microgravity. Simulation results indicated that increased local superheating in wire crevices may be responsible for the change of bubble behavior seen as the wire geometry configuration was varied. The convective heat transfer rate, in comparison to ground experiments, was lower for microgravity at low heating rates, and higher at high heating rates. This study provides insights into the role of surface geometry on superheating behavior and presents an initial version of a new bubble behavior analysis method. Further research on these topics could lead to new designs of heater surface geometries using phase change heat transfer in microgravity applications