WorldWideScience

Sample records for phascolarctos cinereus comparison

  1. Disseminated coccidoidomycosis in a koala (Phascolarctos cinereus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgdorf-Moisuk, Anne; Stalis, Ilse H; Pye, Geoffrey W

    2012-03-01

    A16-yr-old male koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) presented for nonspecific signs of illness and weight loss. Despite 2 mo of diagnostics and supportive care, the koala's health declined and euthanasia was elected. On histopathologic examination, lesions containing fungal organisms morphologically consistent with coccidioidomycosis were found in the lung, liver, spleen, kidney, lymph node, heart, eye, and bone marrow. Although disseminated infection was present, the koala was IgM and IgG seronegative for Coccidioides spp. 1 mo prior to euthanasia.

  2. Comparison of antigen detection and quantitative PCR in the detection of chlamydial infection in koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanger, Jon; Loader, Joanne; Wan, Charles; Beagley, Kenneth W; Timms, Peter; Polkinghorne, Adam

    2013-03-01

    The gold standard method for detecting chlamydial infection in domestic and wild animals is PCR, but the technique is not suited to testing animals in the field when a rapid diagnosis is frequently required. The objective of this study was to compare the results of a commercially available enzyme immunoassay test for Chlamydia against a quantitative Chlamydia pecorum-specific PCR performed on swabs collected from the conjunctival sac, nasal cavity and urogenital sinuses of naturally infected koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus). The level of agreement for positive results between the two assays was low (43.2%). The immunoassay detection cut-off was determined as approximately 400 C. pecorum copies, indicating that the test was sufficiently sensitive to be used for the rapid diagnosis of active chlamydial infections. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Fat-soluble vitamin and mineral comparisons between zoo-based and free-ranging koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Debra A; Pye, Geoffrey W; Hamlin-Andrus, Chris C; Ellis, William A; Bercovitch, Fred B; Ellersieck, Mark R; Chen, Tai C; Holick, Michael F

    2013-12-01

    As part of a health investigation on koalas at San Diego Zoo, serum samples were analyzed from 18 free-ranging and 22 zoo-based koalas, Phascolarctos cinereus. Serum concentrations of calcium, chloride, cobalt, copper, iron, magnesium, manganese, molybdenum, phosphorus, potassium, selenium, sodium, zinc, and vitamins A, E, and 25(OH)D3 were quantified. Calcium, chloride, molybdenum, selenium, and vitamin E concentrations were significantly higher in zoo-based koalas than in free-ranging koalas, whereas magnesium, manganese, phosphorus, and zinc concentrations were significantly higher in the free-ranging koalas. No significant differences were found between genders. The results from this study will help to establish a starting point for determining target circulating nutrient concentrations in koalas.

  4. Historically low mitochondrial DNA diversity in koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsangaras, Kyriakos; Avila Arcos, Maria del Carmen; Ishida, Yasuko

    2012-01-01

    The koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) is an arboreal marsupial that was historically widespread across eastern Australia until the end of the 19th century when it suffered a steep population decline. Hunting for the fur trade, habitat conversion, and disease contributed to a precipitous reduction...

  5. Detection of a novel gammaherpesvirus in koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz, P; Whiteley, P L; Wilks, C R; Duignan, P J; Ficorilli, N; Gilkerson, J R; Browning, G F; Devlin, J M

    2011-07-01

    A novel gammaherpesvirus was detected in wild koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) captured at different locations during 2010. Sequence analysis of the DNA polymerase gene revealed that the virus was genetically distinct from all known gammaherpesviruses. This is the first herpesvirus to be definitively identified in the Vombatiforme suborder (koalas and wombats).

  6. Electroretinography in the normal koala (Phascolarctos cinereus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddle, Vicki L

    2015-01-01

    To perform electroretinography on normal anesthetized koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus). Six hospitalized koalas. The koalas were anesthetized using alfaxalone intramuscularly and isoflurane via face mask, then maintained on isoflurane after endotracheal intubation. After 20 min of dark adaptation, electroretinograms were obtained using a handheld electroretinography (ERG) machine using a single flash protocol at three light intensities: 10 mcd s/m(2) , 3000 mcd s/m(2) , and 10,000 mcd s/m(2) . At 10 mcd s/m(2) , the mean b-wave amplitude and implicit time were 49.5 μV (SD ± 33.1 and 95% CI 29.9-69.0) and 87.4 ms (SD ± 6.5 and 95% CI 83.6-91.2). At 3000 mcd s/m(2) , the mean a-wave amplitude and implicit time were 70.5 μV (SD ± 30.7 and 95% CI 52.3-88.7) and 20.6 ms (SD ± 3.1 and 95% CI 18.7-22.4), and the mean b-wave amplitude and implicit time were 122.8 μV (SD ± 49.3 and 95% CI 93.7-151.9) and 63.1 ms (SD ± 13.2 and 95% CI 55.3-71.0). At 10,000 mcd sm(2) , the mean a-wave amplitude and implicit time were 90.8 μV (SD ± 37.2 and 95% CI 68.8-112.8) and 16.1 ms (SD ± 3.1 and 95% CI 14.3-18.0), and the mean b-wave amplitude and implicit time were 148.3 μV (SD ± 54.9 and 95% CI 115.9-180.8) and 67.4 ms (SD ± 8.4 and 95% CI 62.5-72.3). Electroretinography in koalas is practical using a portable ERG system and a DTL thread electrode and allows for rapid assessment of retinal function. © 2013 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  7. Historically low mitochondrial DNA diversity in koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus)

    OpenAIRE

    Tsangaras, Kyriakos; Ávila-Arcos, María C; Ishida, Yasuko; Helgen, Kristofer M; Roca, Alfred L; Greenwood, Alex D

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) is an arboreal marsupial that was historically widespread across eastern Australia until the end of the 19th century when it suffered a steep population decline. Hunting for the fur trade, habitat conversion, and disease contributed to a precipitous reduction in koala population size during the late 1800s and early 1900s. To examine the effects of these reductions in population size on koala genetic diversity, we sequenced part of the hyp...

  8. Nasal mass removal in the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bercier, Marjorie; Wynne, Janna; Klause, Stephen; Stadler, Cynthia K; Gorow, April; Pye, Geoffrey W

    2012-12-01

    Nasal masses in the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) are not uncommon and can be challenging to diagnose and treat. Differential diagnoses for nasal masses in the koala are cryptococcal granulomas, nasal polyps, nasal adenocarcinoma, and osteochondromatosis. This report describes successful surgical approaches for two adult koalas with nasal masses and includes photodocumentation and description of the anatomy of the koala nasal passages from the postmortem transverse sectioning of a normal koala head. Surgical removal of the nasal masses in these koalas resulted in a rapid resolution of clinical signs.

  9. Pneumonia due to Chlamydia pecorum in a Koala (Phascolarctos cinereus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackie, J T; Gillett, A K; Palmieri, C; Feng, T; Higgins, D P

    2016-11-01

    Chlamydiosis is a common infectious disease of koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus), but Chlamydia spp. have not yet been demonstrated to cause pneumonia in these animals. A juvenile male koala died following an episode of respiratory disease. At necropsy examination, the lung tissue was consolidated. Microscopical lesions in the lung included pyogranulomatous bronchopneumonia, proliferation of bronchiolar and alveolar epithelium and interstitial fibrosis. Hyperplastic bronchiolar epithelial cells contained aggregates of small basophilic punctate organisms, which were confirmed as chlamydiae by transmission electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry. Real-time polymerase chain reaction identified these as Chlamydia pecorum. This report provides the best evidence to date of chlamydial infection causing pneumonia in a koala, and the first evidence that C. pecorum is capable of infecting the bronchiolar epithelium of the koala. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Historically low mitochondrial DNA diversity in koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus

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    Tsangaras Kyriakos

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The koala (Phascolarctos cinereus is an arboreal marsupial that was historically widespread across eastern Australia until the end of the 19th century when it suffered a steep population decline. Hunting for the fur trade, habitat conversion, and disease contributed to a precipitous reduction in koala population size during the late 1800s and early 1900s. To examine the effects of these reductions in population size on koala genetic diversity, we sequenced part of the hypervariable region of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA in koala museum specimens collected in the 19th and 20th centuries, hypothesizing that the historical samples would exhibit greater genetic diversity. Results The mtDNA haplotypes present in historical museum samples were identical to haplotypes found in modern koala populations, and no novel haplotypes were detected. Rarefaction analyses suggested that the mtDNA genetic diversity present in the museum samples was similar to that of modern koalas. Conclusions Low mtDNA diversity may have been present in koala populations prior to recent population declines. When considering management strategies, low genetic diversity of the mtDNA hypervariable region may not indicate recent inbreeding or founder events but may reflect an older historical pattern for koalas.

  11. Historically low mitochondrial DNA diversity in koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsangaras, Kyriakos; Ávila-Arcos, María C; Ishida, Yasuko; Helgen, Kristofer M; Roca, Alfred L; Greenwood, Alex D

    2012-10-24

    The koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) is an arboreal marsupial that was historically widespread across eastern Australia until the end of the 19th century when it suffered a steep population decline. Hunting for the fur trade, habitat conversion, and disease contributed to a precipitous reduction in koala population size during the late 1800s and early 1900s. To examine the effects of these reductions in population size on koala genetic diversity, we sequenced part of the hypervariable region of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in koala museum specimens collected in the 19th and 20th centuries, hypothesizing that the historical samples would exhibit greater genetic diversity. The mtDNA haplotypes present in historical museum samples were identical to haplotypes found in modern koala populations, and no novel haplotypes were detected. Rarefaction analyses suggested that the mtDNA genetic diversity present in the museum samples was similar to that of modern koalas. Low mtDNA diversity may have been present in koala populations prior to recent population declines. When considering management strategies, low genetic diversity of the mtDNA hypervariable region may not indicate recent inbreeding or founder events but may reflect an older historical pattern for koalas.

  12. Chlamydia pecorum in Joint Tissue and Synovial Fluid of a Koala ( Phascolarctos cinereus) with Arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnard, Delaney; Gillett, Amber; Polkinghorne, Adam

    2018-03-02

    A small number of koalas ( Phascolarctos cinereus) presented to wildlife hospitals in Queensland, Australia, with signs of arthritis in one or more joints. Molecular analysis identified Chlamydia pecorum in the tarsal tissue and synovial fluid of an affected joint of a koala, suggesting that in addition to livestock, C. pecorum has the potential to cause arthritis in the koala.

  13. Detection of a second novel gammaherpesvirus in a free-ranging koala (Phascolarctos cinereus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz, Paola; Whiteley, Pam L; Wilks, Colin R; Browning, Glenn F; Gilkerson, James R; Ficorilli, Nino; Devlin, Joanne M

    2012-01-01

    A second novel gammaherpesvirus was detected in a free-ranging koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) shown previously to be infected with phascolarctid herpesvirus 1. Analysis of the DNA polymerase gene showed that the virus was genetically distinct from all known gammaherpesviruses. This is the first reported dual gammaherpesvirus infection in an Australian marsupial.

  14. Chlamydia pecorum Infection in Free-ranging Koalas ( Phascolarctos cinereus ) on French Island, Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legione, Alistair R; Amery-Gale, Jemima; Lynch, Michael; Haynes, Leesa; Gilkerson, James R; Sansom, Fiona M; Devlin, Joanne M

    2016-04-28

    We detected Chlamydia pecorum in two koalas ( Phascolarctos cinereus ) from a closed island population in Victoria, Australia, previously free of Chlamydia infection. The ompA and multilocus sequence type were most closely related to published isolates of livestock rather than koala origin, suggesting potential cross-species transmission of C. pecorum .

  15. Ultrasonographic assessment of the male koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) reproductive tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larkin, Rebecca; Palmieri, Chiara; Oishi, Motoharu; Hulse, Lyndal; Johnston, Stephen D

    2018-04-01

    Studies documenting the application of ultrasonography to depict normal and pathological changes in koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus), especially in the male, are scarce. Sixty-two wild koalas were used in this study to define ultrasonographic protocols and features for the assessment of the male koala reproductive tract. Testis, epididymis and spermatic cord were examined using a hockey stick transducer. The normal koala testis showed a homogeneous echogenicity and an obvious hyper-echoic band corresponding to the tunica albuginea. The cauda epididymis was characterised by hypo- and hyper-echoic regions and was most effectively imaged in sagittal section. The koala prostate was assessed using a micro-curved transducer positioned midline, caudal to the bladder. On transverse section, it showed distinct margins and a well-defined internal structure, although the prostatic urethra was not apparent on most scans. To image the bulbourethral glands (BGs), the hockey stick transducer was placed lateral to the cloaca. BGIII was located just below the skin, while BGII was located deeper than BGIII. BGI was too small and not sufficiently echogenic to be detected. The ultrasonographic appearance of the BGs was similar to that of the testes but with more obvious hypo-echoic stippling. This comprehensive review of the ultrasonographic appearance of normal male koala reproductive tract can be used by veterinarians and others, in zoos or those working with wild koalas, during assessment of the reproductive tract of male koalas in relation to seasonal changes in accessory gland function or for the pathological investigation of reproductive lesions and infertility problems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Supplemental feeding of captive neonatal koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Eri; Shindo, Izumi; Miyakawa, Etsuko; Kido, Nobuhide

    2017-01-01

    Koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) are cautious animals, making supplemental feeding of neonates challenging because of disturbances to the normal routine. However, supplemental feeding is beneficial in improving juvenile nutrition using less formula than required for hand-rearing, and allowing maternal bonding to continue through suckling. In this study, two neonatal koalas, delivered by the same mother in 2 years, exhibited insufficient growth post-emergence from the pouch; supplemental feeding was therefore initiated. The amount of formula fed was determined according to the product instructions, and offspring weight was monitored. Slower than normal growth was not initially noticed in the first offspring. This caused delayed commencement of supplemental feeding. An attempt was made to counteract this by providing more formula for a longer period; however, this meant No. 1 was unable to eat enough eucalyptus when weaning. Supplemental feeding was started earlier for the second offspring than for the first, and was terminated at weaning; this juvenile showed a healthy body weight increase. Furthermore, it was able to eat eucalyptus leaves at an earlier stage than No. 1. Although No. 1 showed delayed growth, both koalas matured and are still living. This study showed that supplemental feeding is useful for koalas, if the mother will accept human intervention. The key factors for successful supplemental feeding of koalas identified by comparing the two feeding systems observed in this study are that: (1) it should be initiated as soon as insufficient growth is identified; and (2) it should be terminated before weaning age. Zoo Biol. 36:62-65, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Conjunctivitis associated with Chlamydia pecorum in three koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) in the Mount Lofty Ranges, South Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funnell, Oliver; Johnson, Lynley; Woolford, Lucy; Boardman, Wayne; Polkinghorne, Adam; McLelland, David

    2013-10-01

    Chlamydiosis is a significant factor contributing to the decline of koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) populations in Australia but has not previously been reported in South Australia. We describe conjunctivitis in three wild koalas from South Australia, with Chlamydia pecorum identified by quantitative PCR.

  18. Preshipment testing success: resolution of a nasal sinus granuloma in a captive koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) caused by Cryptococcus gattii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynne, Janna; Klause, Stephen; Stadler, Cynthia K; Pye, Geoffrey W; Meyer, Wieland; Sykes, Jane E

    2012-12-01

    A 3-yr-old female koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) was diagnosed with a nasal sinus granuloma caused by Cryptococcus gattii after a pre-shipment examination revealed a latex cryptococcal agglutination titer of 1:512. Successful medical and surgical treatment of the granuloma was monitored using serial latex cryptococcal agglutination titers, serum levels of antifungal drugs, and advanced imaging.

  19. Prevalence of Chlamydia pecorum in Juvenile Koalas ( Phascolarctos cinereus) and Evidence for Protection from Infection via Maternal Immunization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Isabelle; Timms, Peter; Hanger, Jon; Loader, Jo; Gillett, Amber; Waugh, Courtney

    2018-05-07

    Chlamydia pecorum in koalas ( Phascolarctos cinereus) is considered a sexually transmitted infection. Analysis of samples from koala joeys (<1 yr) suggested that mother-to-young direct transmission was also occurring. Further, evidence suggested that joeys from vaccinated mothers were less likely to contract infections than joeys with unvaccinated mothers.

  20. Multiple intra-abdominal serosal myxosarcomas in two koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astudillo, V González; Schaffer-White, A; Allavena, R; Palmieri, C

    2015-01-01

    Two adult koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) were presented for necropsy examination without any clinical history. A diffuse, severe gelatinous effusion was found in the abdominal cavity, while numerous 1-3 mm diameter, round, well-demarcated, multifocal to coalescing, raised, firm nodules containing a clear gelatinous fluid were scattered on the surface of the parietal peritoneum, diaphragm, liver, gastrointestinal tract and mesentery. Microscopically, the nodular lesions consisted of spindle-shaped to stellate neoplastic cells, with scant eosinophilic cytoplasm and moderate anisocytosis and anisokaryosis. The neoplastic cells were admixed with and surrounded by abundant acellular pale eosinophilic material that was stained by Alcian blue and only weakly by the periodic acid-Schiff reaction. Serosal proliferations are described rarely in koalas and to the authors' knowledge this is the first reported case of serosal myxosarcoma. The significance and pathogenesis of this condition in the koala population is unknown. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. THE PARADOX OF EUTHANIZING KOALAS (PHASCOLARCTOS CINEREUS) TO SAVE POPULATIONS FROM ELIMINATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, David P; Craig, Andrew P; Hanger, Jon; Timms, Peter

    2015-10-01

    Koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) populations in the wild are in sharp decline in Australia due to deforestation, road accidents, dog attacks, and disease from infection with sexually transmitted Chlamydia spp. Severely diseased koalas that are captured are euthanized for humane reasons because antibiotics are not effective. Paradoxically, we propose that euthanizing more koalas could help to increase koala population numbers. We investigated the potential impact of systematically euthanizing diseased koalas. Using data from a well-studied koala population, and an individual-based computer simulation model, we predict that such a program would result in a larger population of koalas after 7 yr than would exist without the program. If terminally diseased and sterile koalas are euthanized and other infected captured koalas are given antibiotics, chlamydial infection could be eliminated and population growth observed after 4 yr. The practical implementation of such a program would be facilitated with further development of tools to diagnose infection and internal disease in the field.

  2. Perceived efficacy of analgesic drug regimens used for koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Kauwe, Tyron; Kimble, Benjamin; Govendir, Merran

    2014-06-01

    Recent publications report that some therapeutic drugs used in koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) have poor oral absorption and are rapidly eliminated. Therefore, information on both the analgesic drug dosage regimens used to treat koalas in Australia and koala caretakers' perceptions of the efficacy of these drugs to control pain was collected for the purpose of identifying the most popular analgesics to prioritize future analgesic pharmacokinetic studies for this species. A one-page, double-sided questionnaire was distributed both electronically and by mail to Australian koala care facilities such as zoos and wildlife hospitals. Information was received from 13 respondents. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) were the most frequently used analgesics, followed by full micro- and partial opioid receptor agonists and acetaminophen with or without codeine. The full micro-opioid receptor agonists and acetaminophen with or without codeine were most consistently considered efficacious, with wider variation in perceived efficacy of the NSAIDs. Analgesic drug combinations were generally thought efficacious.

  3. Development of 14 microsatellite markers in the Queensland koala (Phascolarctos cinereus adustus) using next generation sequencing technology

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz-Rodriguez, Christina T.; Ishida, Yasuko; Greenwood, Alex D.; Roca, Alfred L.

    2014-01-01

    We report the development of 14 new microsatellite markers in the Queensland koala (Phascolarctos cinereus adustus). Ten unrelated Queensland koala individuals from the San Diego Zoo, USA, were genotyped. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 2 to 7, with an average of 5.14 alleles per locus. Across all loci, the average observed and expected heterozygosity values were both 0.69. These polymorphic microsatellite loci will be useful for genetic studies relevant to the conservation of the...

  4. Fecal glucocorticoid metabolite response of captive koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) to visitor encounters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Koa; Narayan, Edward; de Vos, Nicholas

    2017-04-01

    Physiological responses of wildlife species to zoo visitors should be studied to better understand how wildlife perceive human encounters. We conducted an experimental test of the effect of changes in zoo visitor encounter experiences on the glucocorticoid (GC) response of koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) in a Sydney zoo. Koalas were housed in a multiple-bay enclosure (two to three koalas per bay) for photography sessions with zoo visitors (no touching of koalas permitted by visitors). Following a one-week no-photography baseline period, photography sessions were rotated between three enclosure bays for four weeks (Intensive photography), then between five enclosure bays for an additional four weeks (Standard photography). A sixth enclosure bay was never included in the photography sessions (control bay); koalas in this bay showed no significant change in fecal cortisol metabolites (FCMs) during the course of the study. In the five experimental bays differences were seen between male and female koalas. Males had higher mean FCMs than females, and individual FCM traces showed that two male koalas that were related and of similar age responded strongly to the experimental manipulation. These two males showed a peak in FCMs at the beginning of the Intensive photography period, then a decline when photography sessions returned to the Standard protocol. No systematic pattern in response to photography sessions was observed in females. Our results demonstrate successful application of a non-invasive endocrinology tool for assessing the stress biology and welfare of captive zoo wildlife. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The koala (Phascolarctos cinereus): a case study in the development of reproductive technology in a marsupial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Stephen D; Holt, William V

    2014-01-01

    The successful development and application of an assisted breeding program in any animal relies primarily on a thorough understanding of the fundamental reproductive biology (anatomy, physiology and behaviour) of the species in question. Surely, the ultimate goal and greatest hallmark of such a program is the efficacious establishment of a series of reliable techniques that facilitate the reproductive and genetic management of fragmented populations, both in captivity and in the wild. Such an achievement is all the more challenging when the reproductive biology of that species is essentially rudimentary and without adequate reproductive models to compare to. Using the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) as a case study, this chapter provides some personal insights into the evolution of a concept that began as a small undergraduate student project but that subsequently evolved into the first-ever successful artificial insemination of a marsupial. Apart from this historical perspective, we also provide a brief review of the current reproductive biology of the koala, discuss technical elements of current assisted breeding technology of this species, its potential application to the wombat, and the future role it might play in helping to conserve wild koala populations. There is little doubt that the unique reproductive biology and tractability of the koala has in this case been a benefit rather than a hindrance to the success of artificial breeding in this species.

  6. Lymphoma, Koala Retrovirus Infection and Reproductive Chlamydiosis in a Koala (Phascolarctos cinereus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabijan, J; Woolford, L; Lathe, S; Simmons, G; Hemmatzadeh, F; Trott, D J; Speight, N

    Koala retrovirus (KoRV) infection, thought to be associated with lymphoid neoplasia, and Chlamydia pecorum-related ocular and urogenital disease are both highly prevalent in eastern Australian koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) populations. However, in South Australian koalas, little is known about KoRV infection and C. pecorum-associated disease. We report the first South Australian case of lymphoma in a KoRV-A-positive female koala also affected by severe reproductive chlamydiosis. The koala was from the Mount Lofty Ranges population and was presented with hindlimb lameness. Clinical examination identified right stifle crepitus, enlarged superficial lymph nodes and paraovarian cysts. Necropsy examination revealed extensive cartilage degeneration and loss over the medial femoral condyle, solid femoral bone marrow, mesenteric and ovarian tumours, paraovarian cysts and purulent metritis. Histopathology confirmed lymphoma in the bone marrow, mesenteric lymph nodes and ovary, with infiltration and parenchymal effacement in the pancreas, adrenal glands and other tissues. Lymphoma, KoRV and chlamydiosis are being investigated further in this population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Serum vitamin D levels in free-ranging koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pye, Geoffrey W; Ellis, William; FitzGibbon, Sean; Opitz, Brian; Keener, Laura; Hollis, Bruce W

    2013-06-01

    Due to climatic conditions in Northern America and Europe, koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) are often housed indoors. Koala joeys raised in these environments are susceptible to the development of metabolic bone disease due to a lack of exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation to themselves and their dam. As an initial step toward describing vitamin D sufficiency and adequately measuring responses to supplementation, vitamin D values were calculated by using serum collected from 20 free-ranging koalas on St. Bees Island, Queensland, Australia. Vitamin D values ranged from 8.1 to 30.4 pg/ml (18.4 +/- 5.5 pg/ml) for 1, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, and from 1 to 14 nM/L (7.4 +/- 3.0 nM/L) for 25-hydroxyvitamin D. These koala serum vitamin D values are unusually low when compared with eutherian mammals. Although this study was limited in numbers and in the geographically range of the koalas sampled, it does suggest that the koala's requirement for vitamin D is low. Therefore, supplementation to prevent disease may be relatively easy to achieve because low doses will likely meet requirements. Caution should be taken to avoid intoxication if supplementing vitamin D in koalas.

  8. Investigation of the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) hindgut microbiome via 16S pyrosequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Christopher J; Gillett, Amber; Polkinghorne, Adam; Timms, Peter

    2013-12-27

    As a dietary source, the foliage of Eucalyptus spp. is low in available protein and carbohydrate while containing polyphenolic compounds that interfere with enzymatic digestion. To overcome this, the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) has evolved a range of anatomical and physiological adaptations to assist with digestion and absorption of nutrients from this food source. Microbial fermentation of partially digested eucalyptus leaves is thought to be critical in this process, however, little is known about the composition and diversity of microorganisms that are associated with digestive health in this native species. In this study, we performed 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing of caecum, colon and faecal pellet samples from two wild, free ranging, Queensland koalas. Our results reveal a highly complex and diverse ecosystem with considerable intra-individual variation. Although samples were dominated by sequences from the Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes phyla there was considerable variation at the genus level. This study is the first non-culture based microbiota analysis, using 454-amplicon pyrosequencing, and provides preliminary data to expand our understanding of the koala hindgut. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. MHC class II diversity of koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) populations across their range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Q; Jaratlerdsiri, W; Griffith, J E; Gongora, J; Higgins, D P

    2014-10-01

    Major histocompatibility complex class II (MHCII) genes code for proteins that bind and present antigenic peptides and trigger the adaptive immune response. We present a broad geographical study of MHCII DA β1 (DAB) and DB β1 (DBB) variants of the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus; n=191) from 12 populations across eastern Australia, with a total of 13 DAB and 7 DBB variants found. We identified greater MHCII variation and, possibly, additional gene copies in koala populations in the north (Queensland and New South Wales) relative to the south (Victoria), confirmed by STRUCTURE analyses and genetic differentiation using analysis of molecular variance. The higher MHCII diversity in the north relative to south could potentially be attributed to (i) significant founder effect in Victorian populations linked to historical translocation of bottlenecked koala populations and (ii) increased pathogen-driven balancing selection and/or local genetic drift in the north. Low MHCII genetic diversity in koalas from the south could reduce their potential response to disease, although the three DAB variants found in the south had substantial sequence divergence between variants. This study assessing MHCII diversity in the koala with historical translocations in some populations contributes to understanding the effects of population translocations on functional genetic diversity.

  10. Cryptococcosis in the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus): pathogenesis and treatment in the context of two atypical cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmertmann, Laura J; Stalder, Kathryn; Hudson, Donald; Martin, Patricia; Makara, Mariano; Meyer, Wieland; Malik, Richard; Krockenberger, Mark B

    2018-02-24

    Disseminated cryptococcosis caused by Cryptococcus gattii (molecular type VGI) was diagnosed in an adult free-ranging female koala (Phascolarctos cinereus). Subclinical cryptococcosis was later diagnosed in this koala's joey. In the adult koala, a pathological fracture of the tibia was associated with the bone lysis of marked focal cryptococcal osteomyelitis. Limb-sparing orthopedic intervention, in the setting of disseminated cryptococcosis, was judged to have a poor prognosis, and the adult koala was euthanized. The joey was removed and hand-reared. Serological testing revealed persistent and increasing cryptococcal capsular antigenemia in the absence of clinical signs of disease and it was subsequently treated with oral fluconazole for approximately 16 months, rehabilitated and released into the wild. It was sighted 3 months post-release in a good state of health and again at 18 months post-release but was not recaptured on either occasion. This is the first published report of cryptococcal appendicular osteomyelitis in a koala. It is also the first report of concurrent disease in a dependent juvenile and the successful treatment of subclinical cryptococcosis to full resolution of the cryptococcal antigenemia in a free-ranging koala. This paper provides a discussion of cryptococcal osteomyelitis in animals, host-pathogen-environment interactions and treatment and monitoring protocols for cryptococcosis in koalas. Published reports describing the treatment of cryptococcosis in koalas are also collated and summarised.

  11. Two distinct forms of Chlamydia psittaci associated with disease and infertility in Phascolarctos cinereus (koala).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girjes, A A; Hugall, A F; Timms, P; Lavin, M F

    1988-01-01

    While several diseases associated with Chlamydia psittaci infection have been reported in Phascolarctos cinereus (koala), it is still unclear whether one or more chlamydial strains are responsible. In this study, we provide evidence, obtained by restriction enzyme and gene probe analysis, that two quite distinct strains of C. psittaci infect koalas; one strain was isolated from the conjunctivae, and the other was isolated from the urogenital tract and the rectum. A gene probe, pFEN207, containing the coding sequence for an enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of the chlamydial genus-specific lipopolysaccharide antigen, and a separate probe, pCPML-4N, prepared from a DNA fragment of a koala-infecting strain of C. psittaci, were used to determine the patterns of hybridization in the koala-infecting strains; these patterns were found to be quite distinct from those observed with C. psittaci isolates from other animals. We also demonstrated by hybridization analysis with an avian strain plasmid that all three koala urogenital isolates contain a plasmid and that there is no evidence for the presence of a homologous plasmid in any of the ocular isolates. Images PMID:3397180

  12. Serum protein electrophoresis values for free-ranging and zoo-based koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pye, Geoffrey W; Ellis, William; Fitzgibbon, Sean; Opitz, Brian; Keener, Laura; Arheart, Kristopher L; Cray, Carolyn

    2012-03-01

    In a clinical setting, especially with species of special interest, it is important to use all clinical pathology testing options for general health monitoring and diagnosis. Protein electrophoresis (EPH) has previously been shown to be an important adjunct tool in veterinary medicine. Serum samples from 18 free-ranging and 12 zoo-based koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) were subject to EPH analysis. Significant differences were found between the two groups for the following values: total protein, albumin, beta globulins, and albumin-globulin ratio (P < 0.05). By using the combined data, the minimum-maximum values for the EPH fractions were as follows: total protein 5.0-7.8 g/dl, albumin 2.8-4.7 g/dl, alpha-1 globulins 0.5-1.1 g/dl, alpha-2 globulins 0.3-0.7 g/dl, beta globulins 0.4-1.0 g/dl, gamma globulins 0.2-1.0 g/dl, and albumin-globulin ratio 1.0-2.1.

  13. PREVALENCE AND PATHOLOGIC FEATURES OF CHLAMYDIA PECORUM INFECTIONS IN SOUTH AUSTRALIAN KOALAS (PHASCOLARCTOS CINEREUS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speight, K Natasha; Polkinghorne, Adam; Penn, Rachel; Boardman, Wayne; Timms, Peter; Fraser, Tamieka; Johnson, Kathryn; Faull, Rachel; Bate, Sarah; Woolford, Lucy

    2016-04-28

    Chlamydia pecorum infection is highly prevalent in many koala ( Phascolarctos cinereus ) populations in the eastern states of Australia, causing ocular and urogenital tract disease. In contrast, the current prevalence of chlamydiosis in South Australian (SA) koalas is largely unknown, with few reports of clinical cases. We examined 65 SA rescued wild koalas at necropsy and collected ocular and urogenital swabs for the detection of C. pecorum by PCR. We detected C. pecorum in ocular or urogenital swabs from 57 koalas (88%), and 34 koalas were positive at both ocular and urogenital sites. Clinically overt chlamydial disease was present in only 12 (21%) positive koalas. Gross lesions were often externally inapparent as they affected the urogenital tract (n=5), and 24 infected koalas had microscopically evident lesions only. Lesions were predominantly mild and included conjunctivitis, cystitis, and urethritis. Reproductive tract disease was infrequently observed. We detected C. pecorum in 16 (28%) koalas with no evidence of chlamydial disease, suggesting the presence of subclinical carriers in this population. Based on these findings, chlamydiosis has a higher occurrence in SA koala populations than previously thought, but is most often mild and does not always result in overt clinical disease; inapparent and subclinical infections appear common. Further studies of the prevalence in wild-caught SA koalas are needed along with research into the host and bacterial factors that may influence disease outcome in these animals.

  14. Treatment of Chlamydia-associated ocular disease via a recombinant protein based vaccine in the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waugh, Courtney; Austin, Ray; Polkinghorne, Adam; Timms, Peter

    2016-11-01

    Koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) are affected by debilitating chlamydial disease that can lead to blindness, infertility, and death. The causative agent is the intracellular bacterium Chlamydia pecorum. While antibiotics can be used to treat koala chlamydial infection, they are often ineffective or cause severe dysbiosis to the animal's unique gut flora. Recent work has progressed on the development of a protective vaccine for Chlamydia in the koala. This study demonstrates that the use of a vaccine can have a positive effect in koalas already with clinical signs of ocular disease, suggesting a possible therapeutic effect and an alternative to antibiotic therapy. Copyright © 2016 International Alliance for Biological Standardization. All rights reserved.

  15. ATYPICAL PRESENTATION OF CRYPTOCOCCUS NEOFORMANS IN A KOALA (PHASCOLARCTOS CINEREUS): A MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING AND COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY STUDY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Nevado, Eva; Alonso-Alegre, Elisa González; Martínez, M Ángeles Jiménez; Rodríguez-Álvaro, Alfonso; de Merlo, Elena Martínez; García, Juncal García; Real, Isabel García

    2017-03-01

    Cryptococcosis is a worldwide and potentially fatal mycosis documented in wild and captive koalas ( Phascolarctos cinereus ) caused by Cryptococcus neoformans . Though mainly a subclinical disease, when the nasal cavity is affected, epistaxis, mucopurulent nasal discharge, dyspnea, and facial distortion may occur. This report describes a case of cryptococcosis in a koala where unilateral exophthalmos was the only evident clinical sign and magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography findings are described. Both advanced imaging techniques should be considered as standard and complementary techniques for nasal cavity evaluation in koalas.

  16. Perivertebral B-cell lymphoma in a Queensland koala (Phascolarctos cinereus adustus) with paralytic symptoms in the hind limbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kido, Nobuhide; Edamura, Kazuya; Inoue, Naomi; Shibuya, Hisashi; Sato, Tsuneo; Kondo, Masako; Shindo, Izumi

    2012-08-01

    A male Queensland koala (Phascolarctos cinereus adustus) at Kanazawa Zoological Gardens (Kanagawa, Japan) exhibited paralytic symptoms in the hind limbs. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a mass on the left ventral side of the 11th to 13th thoracic vertebrae, and the presence of myelitis or edema in the spinal cord. The koala was under anesthesia during the examination and suddenly developed ventricular fibrillation and died. Necropsy revealed a firm flat ovoid hemorrhagic mass on the vertebrae. Following a microscopic examination including immunohistochemistry, the perivertebral mass was diagnosed as B cell lymphoma. Therefore, neoplastic cell infiltration into the spinal cord may cause paralytic symptoms in the hind limbs.

  17. Development of 14 microsatellite markers in the Queensland koala (Phascolarctos cinereus adustus) using next generation sequencing technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Rodriguez, Christina T; Ishida, Yasuko; Greenwood, Alex D; Roca, Alfred L

    2014-06-01

    We report the development of 14 new microsatellite markers in the Queensland koala ( Phascolarctos cinereus adustus ). Ten unrelated Queensland koala individuals from the San Diego Zoo, USA, were genotyped. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 2 to 7, with an average of 5.14 alleles per locus. Across all loci, the average observed and expected heterozygosity values were both 0.69. These polymorphic microsatellite loci will be useful for genetic studies relevant to the conservation of the koala, a species listed as vulnerable.

  18. Serum Antibody Response to Koala Retrovirus Antigens Varies in Free-Ranging Koalas ( Phascolarctos cinereus ) in Australia: Implications for Vaccine Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waugh, Courtney; Gillett, Amber; Polkinghorne, Adam; Timms, Peter

    2016-04-28

    Little is known about the immune response in the koala ( Phascolarctos cinereus ) to its retroviruses. Koala retroviruses (KoRVs) have been linked to neoplasia in wild and captive koalas, but there is no treatment available. We tested the KoRV-specific serum immunoglobulin G antibody response in nonimmunized and immunized koalas.

  19. Phylogeography of the Koala, (Phascolarctos cinereus), and Harmonising Data to Inform Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neaves, Linda E.; Frankham, Greta J.; Dennison, Siobhan; FitzGibbon, Sean; Flannagan, Cheyne; Gillett, Amber; Hynes, Emily; Handasyde, Kathrine; Helgen, Kristofer M.; Tsangaras, Kyriakos; Greenwood, Alex D.; Eldridge, Mark D. B.; Johnson, Rebecca N.

    2016-01-01

    The Australian continent exhibits complex biogeographic patterns but studies of the impacts of Pleistocene climatic oscillation on the mesic environments of the Southern Hemisphere are limited. The koala (Phascolarctos cinereus), one of Australia’s most iconic species, was historically widely distributed throughout much of eastern Australia but currently represents a complex conservation challenge. To better understand the challenges to koala genetic health, we assessed the phylogeographic history of the koala. Variation in the maternally inherited mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) Control Region (CR) was examined in 662 koalas sampled throughout their distribution. In addition, koala CR haplotypes accessioned to Genbank were evaluated and consolidated. A total of 53 unique CR haplotypes have been isolated from koalas to date (including 15 haplotypes novel to this study). The relationships among koala CR haplotypes were indicative of a single Evolutionary Significant Unit and do not support the recognition of subspecies, but were separated into four weakly differentiated lineages which correspond to three geographic clusters: a central lineage, a southern lineage and two northern lineages co-occurring north of Brisbane. The three geographic clusters were separated by known Pleistocene biogeographic barriers: the Brisbane River Valley and Clarence River Valley, although there was evidence of mixing amongst clusters. While there is evidence for historical connectivity, current koala populations exhibit greater structure, suggesting habitat fragmentation may have restricted female-mediated gene flow. Since mtDNA data informs conservation planning, we provide a summary of existing CR haplotypes, standardise nomenclature and make recommendations for future studies to harmonise existing datasets. This holistic approach is critical to ensuring management is effective and small scale local population studies can be integrated into a wider species context. PMID:27588685

  20. Characterization of shifts of koala (Phascolarctos cinereus intestinal microbial communities associated with antibiotic treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine E. Dahlhausen

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus are arboreal marsupials native to Australia that eat a specialized diet of almost exclusively eucalyptus leaves. Microbes in koala intestines are known to break down otherwise toxic compounds, such as tannins, in eucalyptus leaves. Infections by Chlamydia, obligate intracellular bacterial pathogens, are highly prevalent in koala populations. If animals with Chlamydia infections are received by wildlife hospitals, a range of antibiotics can be used to treat them. However, previous studies suggested that koalas can suffer adverse side effects during antibiotic treatment. This study aimed to use 16S rRNA gene sequences derived from koala feces to characterize the intestinal microbiome of koalas throughout antibiotic treatment and identify specific taxa associated with koala health after treatment. Although differences in the alpha diversity were observed in the intestinal flora between treated and untreated koalas and between koalas treated with different antibiotics, these differences were not statistically significant. The alpha diversity of microbial communities from koalas that lived through antibiotic treatment versus those who did not was significantly greater, however. Beta diversity analysis largely confirmed the latter observation, revealing that the overall communities were different between koalas on antibiotics that died versus those that survived or never received antibiotics. Using both machine learning and OTU (operational taxonomic unit co-occurrence network analyses, we found that OTUs that are very closely related to Lonepinella koalarum, a known tannin degrader found by culture-based methods to be present in koala intestines, was correlated with a koala’s health status. This is the first study to characterize the time course of effects of antibiotics on koala intestinal microbiomes. Our results suggest it may be useful to pursue alternative treatments for Chlamydia infections without the use of

  1. Epidemiology of chlamydial infection and disease in a free-ranging koala (Phascolarctos cinereus population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Nyari

    Full Text Available Chlamydial disease continues to be one of the main factors threatening the long-term survival of the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus. Despite this, large epidemiological studies of chlamydial infection and disease in wild koala populations are lacking. A better understanding of the prevalence, transmission and pathogenesis is needed to improve control measures, such as the development of vaccines. We investigated the prevalence of Chlamydia pecorum infection and disease in 160 koalas in a peri-urban wild population in Queensland, Australia and found that 31% of koalas were Chlamydia PCR positive and 28% had clinically detectable chlamydial disease. Most infections were at the urogenital site (27%; both males and females with only 14% at the ocular site. Interestingly, we found that 27% (4/15 of koalas considered to be sexually immature (9-13 months were already infected with C. pecorum, suggesting that a significant percentage of animals are infected directly from their mother. Ocular infection levels were less prevalent with increasing age (8% in koalas older than 4 years, whereas the prevalence of urogenital tract infections remained high into older age (26% in koalas older than 4 years, suggesting that, after mother-to-young transmission, C. pecorum is predominantly a sexually transmitted infection. While 28% of koalas in this population had clinically detectable chlamydial disease (primarily urogenital tract disease, many PCR positive koalas had no detectable disease and importantly, not all diseased animals were PCR positive. We also observed higher chlamydial loads in koalas who were C. pecorum infected without clinical disease than in koalas who were C. pecorum infected with clinical disease. These results shed light on the potential mechanisms of transmission of C. pecorum in koalas and also guide future control measures, such as vaccination.

  2. Epidemiology of chlamydial infection and disease in a free-ranging koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyari, Sharon; Waugh, Courtney A; Dong, Jianbao; Quigley, Bonnie L; Hanger, Jonathan; Loader, Joanne; Polkinghorne, Adam; Timms, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Chlamydial disease continues to be one of the main factors threatening the long-term survival of the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus). Despite this, large epidemiological studies of chlamydial infection and disease in wild koala populations are lacking. A better understanding of the prevalence, transmission and pathogenesis is needed to improve control measures, such as the development of vaccines. We investigated the prevalence of Chlamydia pecorum infection and disease in 160 koalas in a peri-urban wild population in Queensland, Australia and found that 31% of koalas were Chlamydia PCR positive and 28% had clinically detectable chlamydial disease. Most infections were at the urogenital site (27%; both males and females) with only 14% at the ocular site. Interestingly, we found that 27% (4/15) of koalas considered to be sexually immature (9-13 months) were already infected with C. pecorum, suggesting that a significant percentage of animals are infected directly from their mother. Ocular infection levels were less prevalent with increasing age (8% in koalas older than 4 years), whereas the prevalence of urogenital tract infections remained high into older age (26% in koalas older than 4 years), suggesting that, after mother-to-young transmission, C. pecorum is predominantly a sexually transmitted infection. While 28% of koalas in this population had clinically detectable chlamydial disease (primarily urogenital tract disease), many PCR positive koalas had no detectable disease and importantly, not all diseased animals were PCR positive. We also observed higher chlamydial loads in koalas who were C. pecorum infected without clinical disease than in koalas who were C. pecorum infected with clinical disease. These results shed light on the potential mechanisms of transmission of C. pecorum in koalas and also guide future control measures, such as vaccination.

  3. Koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) From Queensland Are Genetically Distinct From 2 Populations in Victoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Rodriguez, Christina T; Ishida, Yasuko; Murray, Neil D; O'Brien, Stephen J; Graves, Jennifer A M; Greenwood, Alex D; Roca, Alfred L

    2016-01-01

    The koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) suffered population declines and local extirpation due to hunting in the early 20th century, especially in southern Australia. Koalas were subsequently reintroduced to the Brisbane Ranges (BR) and Stony Rises (SR) by translocating individuals from a population on French Island descended from a small number of founders. To examine genetic diversity and north-south differentiation, we genotyped 13 microsatellite markers in 46 wild koalas from the BR and SR, and 27 Queensland koalas kept at the US zoos. The Queensland koalas displayed much higher heterozygosity (H O = 0.73) than the 2 southern Australian koala populations examined: H O = 0.49 in the BR, whereas H O = 0.41 in the SR. This is consistent with the historical accounts of bottlenecks and founder events affecting the southern populations and contrasts with reports of high genetic diversity in some southern populations. The 2 southern Australian koala populations were genetically similar (F ST = 0.018, P = 0.052). By contrast, northern and southern Australian koalas were highly differentiated (F ST = 0.27, P < 0.001), thereby suggesting that geographic structuring should be considered in the conservation management of koalas. Sequencing of 648bp of the mtDNA control region in Queensland koalas found 8 distinct haplotypes, one of which had not been previously detected among koalas. Queensland koalas displayed high mitochondrial haplotype diversity (H = 0.753) and nucleotide diversity (π = 0.0072), indicating along with the microsatellite data that North American zoos have maintained high levels of genetic diversity among their Queensland koalas. © The American Genetic Association 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Characterization of shifts of koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) intestinal microbial communities associated with antibiotic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlhausen, Katherine E; Doroud, Ladan; Firl, Alana J; Polkinghorne, Adam; Eisen, Jonathan A

    2018-01-01

    Koalas ( Phascolarctos cinereus ) are arboreal marsupials native to Australia that eat a specialized diet of almost exclusively eucalyptus leaves. Microbes in koala intestines are known to break down otherwise toxic compounds, such as tannins, in eucalyptus leaves. Infections by Chlamydia , obligate intracellular bacterial pathogens, are highly prevalent in koala populations. If animals with Chlamydia infections are received by wildlife hospitals, a range of antibiotics can be used to treat them. However, previous studies suggested that koalas can suffer adverse side effects during antibiotic treatment. This study aimed to use 16S rRNA gene sequences derived from koala feces to characterize the intestinal microbiome of koalas throughout antibiotic treatment and identify specific taxa associated with koala health after treatment. Although differences in the alpha diversity were observed in the intestinal flora between treated and untreated koalas and between koalas treated with different antibiotics, these differences were not statistically significant. The alpha diversity of microbial communities from koalas that lived through antibiotic treatment versus those who did not was significantly greater, however. Beta diversity analysis largely confirmed the latter observation, revealing that the overall communities were different between koalas on antibiotics that died versus those that survived or never received antibiotics. Using both machine learning and OTU (operational taxonomic unit) co-occurrence network analyses, we found that OTUs that are very closely related to Lonepinella koalarum , a known tannin degrader found by culture-based methods to be present in koala intestines, was correlated with a koala's health status. This is the first study to characterize the time course of effects of antibiotics on koala intestinal microbiomes. Our results suggest it may be useful to pursue alternative treatments for Chlamydia infections without the use of antibiotics or the

  5. Potential 'ecological traps' of restored landscapes: koalas Phascolarctos cinereus re-occupy a rehabilitated mine site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristescu, Romane H; Banks, Peter B; Carrick, Frank N; Frère, Céline

    2013-01-01

    With progressively increasing anthropogenic habitat disturbances, restoration of impacted landscapes is becoming a critical element of biodiversity conservation. Evaluation of success in restoration ecology rarely includes faunal components, usually only encompassing abiotic and floral components of the ecosystems. Even when fauna is explicitly included, it is usually only species presence/absence criteria that are considered. If restoration is to have a positive outcome, however, populations in restored habitats should exhibit comparable survival and reproductive rates to populations found in undisturbed surroundings. If a species recolonises restored areas but later experiences decreased fitness, restored areas could become ecological sinks or traps. We investigated this possibility in a case study of koalas Phascolarctos cinereus occupying rehabilitated mining areas on North Stradbroke Island, Australia. Our holistic approach compared rehabilitated and undisturbed areas on the basis of their vegetation characteristics, of koalas' body condition, roosting trees, diet, as well as predator index. Koalas using rehabilitated areas appeared to be able to access an adequate supply of roosting and fodder trees, were in good condition and had high reproductive output. We did not find any significant differences in predator density between rehabilitated areas and undisturbed surroundings. The results presented in this study showed there was no evidence that the post-mining rehabilitated areas constitute ecological sinks or traps. However, to reach a definitive conclusion as to whether areas rehabilitated post-mining provide at least equivalent habitat to undisturbed locations, additional research could be undertaken to assess foliar nutrient/water/toxin differences and predation risk in rehabilitated areas compared with undisturbed areas. More generally, the evaluation of whether restoration successfully produces a functional ecological community should include criteria

  6. Gastrointestinal torsions and intussusception in northern koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) at San Diego Zoo (1976-2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce-Zuniga, Nicole M; Roesler, Jennifer; Andrus, Chris Hamlin; Sutherland-Smith, Meg; Rideout, Bruce A; Pye, Geoffrey W

    2014-03-01

    The recent classification as threatened status of the northern koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) by the Australian Government highlights the importance of the conservation and health management of this iconic Australian marsupial. This case series describes gastrointestinal torsion and intussusception in six northern koalas (three males, three females, 2-11 yr old) at the San Diego Zoo from 1976 to 2012. Two koalas died shortly after presentation. Diagnoses of ileocecal intussusception, resulting from enteritis in one case and cecal torsion in the other, were made at postmortem examination. One koala died 4 days after an exploratory laparotomy, with negative findings, and an acute double colonic intussusception was diagnosed at postmortem examination. Two small intestinal mesenteric torsion and one proximal colon mesenteric torsion cases were successfully corrected surgically. In the case of colonic mesenteric torsion, the koala had recurrent clinical signs 2 wk later, and a second surgery requiring resection and anastomosis of ischemic jejunum was performed, with the koala dying shortly afterward. One koala with small intestinal torsion had a recurrence of torsion 22 mo later and subsequently died. The koala with the second case of small intestinal torsion remains alive 14 mo postsurgical correction. All six koalas presented with signs of colic that included anorexia, lethargy, depression, acute abdominal distension, abdominal stretching, decreased fecal output, open-mouth gasping, or a combination of symptoms. Abdominal radiographs may show stacked gastrointestinal linear gas patterns and contrast stasis. Prevalence of torsion and intussusception is low at this institution (2%), although recurrence in individuals is common (50%) and overall survival is poor (83%), which emphasizes the importance of timely recognition, surgical correction, and postoperative management. While inciting etiologies were unable to be determined in these cases, monitoring generalized

  7. Phylogeography of the Koala, (Phascolarctos cinereus, and Harmonising Data to Inform Conservation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda E Neaves

    Full Text Available The Australian continent exhibits complex biogeographic patterns but studies of the impacts of Pleistocene climatic oscillation on the mesic environments of the Southern Hemisphere are limited. The koala (Phascolarctos cinereus, one of Australia's most iconic species, was historically widely distributed throughout much of eastern Australia but currently represents a complex conservation challenge. To better understand the challenges to koala genetic health, we assessed the phylogeographic history of the koala. Variation in the maternally inherited mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA Control Region (CR was examined in 662 koalas sampled throughout their distribution. In addition, koala CR haplotypes accessioned to Genbank were evaluated and consolidated. A total of 53 unique CR haplotypes have been isolated from koalas to date (including 15 haplotypes novel to this study. The relationships among koala CR haplotypes were indicative of a single Evolutionary Significant Unit and do not support the recognition of subspecies, but were separated into four weakly differentiated lineages which correspond to three geographic clusters: a central lineage, a southern lineage and two northern lineages co-occurring north of Brisbane. The three geographic clusters were separated by known Pleistocene biogeographic barriers: the Brisbane River Valley and Clarence River Valley, although there was evidence of mixing amongst clusters. While there is evidence for historical connectivity, current koala populations exhibit greater structure, suggesting habitat fragmentation may have restricted female-mediated gene flow. Since mtDNA data informs conservation planning, we provide a summary of existing CR haplotypes, standardise nomenclature and make recommendations for future studies to harmonise existing datasets. This holistic approach is critical to ensuring management is effective and small scale local population studies can be integrated into a wider species context.

  8. Phylogeography of the Koala, (Phascolarctos cinereus), and Harmonising Data to Inform Conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neaves, Linda E; Frankham, Greta J; Dennison, Siobhan; FitzGibbon, Sean; Flannagan, Cheyne; Gillett, Amber; Hynes, Emily; Handasyde, Kathrine; Helgen, Kristofer M; Tsangaras, Kyriakos; Greenwood, Alex D; Eldridge, Mark D B; Johnson, Rebecca N

    2016-01-01

    The Australian continent exhibits complex biogeographic patterns but studies of the impacts of Pleistocene climatic oscillation on the mesic environments of the Southern Hemisphere are limited. The koala (Phascolarctos cinereus), one of Australia's most iconic species, was historically widely distributed throughout much of eastern Australia but currently represents a complex conservation challenge. To better understand the challenges to koala genetic health, we assessed the phylogeographic history of the koala. Variation in the maternally inherited mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) Control Region (CR) was examined in 662 koalas sampled throughout their distribution. In addition, koala CR haplotypes accessioned to Genbank were evaluated and consolidated. A total of 53 unique CR haplotypes have been isolated from koalas to date (including 15 haplotypes novel to this study). The relationships among koala CR haplotypes were indicative of a single Evolutionary Significant Unit and do not support the recognition of subspecies, but were separated into four weakly differentiated lineages which correspond to three geographic clusters: a central lineage, a southern lineage and two northern lineages co-occurring north of Brisbane. The three geographic clusters were separated by known Pleistocene biogeographic barriers: the Brisbane River Valley and Clarence River Valley, although there was evidence of mixing amongst clusters. While there is evidence for historical connectivity, current koala populations exhibit greater structure, suggesting habitat fragmentation may have restricted female-mediated gene flow. Since mtDNA data informs conservation planning, we provide a summary of existing CR haplotypes, standardise nomenclature and make recommendations for future studies to harmonise existing datasets. This holistic approach is critical to ensuring management is effective and small scale local population studies can be integrated into a wider species context.

  9. Potential 'ecological traps' of restored landscapes: koalas Phascolarctos cinereus re-occupy a rehabilitated mine site.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romane H Cristescu

    Full Text Available With progressively increasing anthropogenic habitat disturbances, restoration of impacted landscapes is becoming a critical element of biodiversity conservation. Evaluation of success in restoration ecology rarely includes faunal components, usually only encompassing abiotic and floral components of the ecosystems. Even when fauna is explicitly included, it is usually only species presence/absence criteria that are considered. If restoration is to have a positive outcome, however, populations in restored habitats should exhibit comparable survival and reproductive rates to populations found in undisturbed surroundings. If a species recolonises restored areas but later experiences decreased fitness, restored areas could become ecological sinks or traps. We investigated this possibility in a case study of koalas Phascolarctos cinereus occupying rehabilitated mining areas on North Stradbroke Island, Australia. Our holistic approach compared rehabilitated and undisturbed areas on the basis of their vegetation characteristics, of koalas' body condition, roosting trees, diet, as well as predator index. Koalas using rehabilitated areas appeared to be able to access an adequate supply of roosting and fodder trees, were in good condition and had high reproductive output. We did not find any significant differences in predator density between rehabilitated areas and undisturbed surroundings. The results presented in this study showed there was no evidence that the post-mining rehabilitated areas constitute ecological sinks or traps. However, to reach a definitive conclusion as to whether areas rehabilitated post-mining provide at least equivalent habitat to undisturbed locations, additional research could be undertaken to assess foliar nutrient/water/toxin differences and predation risk in rehabilitated areas compared with undisturbed areas. More generally, the evaluation of whether restoration successfully produces a functional ecological community

  10. A transcriptome resource for the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus): insights into koala retrovirus transcription and sequence diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, Matthew; Pavasovic, Ana; King, Andrew G; Prentis, Peter J; Eldridge, Mark D B; Chen, Zhiliang; Colgan, Donald J; Polkinghorne, Adam; Wilkins, Marc R; Flanagan, Cheyne; Gillett, Amber; Hanger, Jon; Johnson, Rebecca N; Timms, Peter

    2014-09-11

    The koala, Phascolarctos cinereus, is a biologically unique and evolutionarily distinct Australian arboreal marsupial. The goal of this study was to sequence the transcriptome from several tissues of two geographically separate koalas, and to create the first comprehensive catalog of annotated transcripts for this species, enabling detailed analysis of the unique attributes of this threatened native marsupial, including infection by the koala retrovirus. RNA-Seq data was generated from a range of tissues from one male and one female koala and assembled de novo into transcripts using Velvet-Oases. Transcript abundance in each tissue was estimated. Transcripts were searched for likely protein-coding regions and a non-redundant set of 117,563 putative protein sequences was produced. In similarity searches there were 84,907 (72%) sequences that aligned to at least one sequence in the NCBI nr protein database. The best alignments were to sequences from other marsupials. After applying a reciprocal best hit requirement of koala sequences to those from tammar wallaby, Tasmanian devil and the gray short-tailed opossum, we estimate that our transcriptome dataset represents approximately 15,000 koala genes. The marsupial alignment information was used to look for potential gene duplications and we report evidence for copy number expansion of the alpha amylase gene, and of an aldehyde reductase gene.Koala retrovirus (KoRV) transcripts were detected in the transcriptomes. These were analysed in detail and the structure of the spliced envelope gene transcript was determined. There was appreciable sequence diversity within KoRV, with 233 sites in the KoRV genome showing small insertions/deletions or single nucleotide polymorphisms. Both koalas had sequences from the KoRV-A subtype, but the male koala transcriptome has, in addition, sequences more closely related to the KoRV-B subtype. This is the first report of a KoRV-B-like sequence in a wild population. This transcriptomic

  11. Non-invasive evaluation of physiological stress in an iconic Australian marsupial: the Koala (Phascolarctos cinereus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Edward J; Webster, Koa; Nicolson, Vere; Mucci, Al; Hero, Jean-Marc

    2013-06-15

    Koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) are the only extant representatives of Australia's unique marsupial family Phascolarctidae and were listed as nationally Vulnerable in 2012. Causes of mortality are diverse, although the disease chlamydiosis, dog attacks, collisions with cars, and loss of habitat represent the principal reasons for the continued species decline. Koala breeding facilities in Queensland and New South Wales, Australia have been established for conservation and tourism. Non-invasive monitoring of physiological stress is important for determining the sub-lethal effects of environmental stressors on the well-being, reproduction and survival of Koalas in Zoos and also in the wild. In this study, we developed a faecal cortisol metabolite (FCM) enzyme-immunoassay (EIA) for monitoring physiological stress in Koalas from two established Zoos in Australia and also within a free-living sub-population from Queensland. Biological validation of the FCM EIA was done using an adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) challenge. We discovered excretory lag-times of FCM of 24 h in females (n=2) and 48 h in male (n=2) Koalas in response to the ACTH challenge. FCM levels showed an episodic and delayed peak response lasting up to 9 days post ACTH challenge. This finding should be taken into consideration when designing future experiments to study the impacts of short-term (acute) and chronic stressors on the Koalas. Laboratory validations were done using parallelism and recovery checks (extraction efficiency) of the cortisol standard against pooled Koala faecal extracts. Greater than 99% recovery of the cortisol standard was obtained as well as a parallel displacement curve against Koala faecal extracts. FCM levels of the captive Koalas (n=10 males and 13 females) significantly differed by sex, reproductive condition (lactating versus non-lactating Koalas) and the handling groups. Handled male Koalas had 200% higher FCM levels than their non-handled counterparts, while females

  12. Antibody and Cytokine Responses of Koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) Vaccinated with Recombinant Chlamydial Major Outer Membrane Protein (MOMP) with Two Different Adjuvants

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Shahneaz Ali; Desclozeaux, Marion; Waugh, Courtney; Hanger, Jon; Loader, Jo; Gerdts, Volker; Potter, Andrew; Polkinghorne, Adam; Beagley, Kenneth; Timms, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Developing a vaccine against Chlamydia is key to combating widespread mortalities and morbidities associated with this infection in koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus). In previous studies, we have shown that two or three doses of a Recombinant Major Outer Membrane Protein (rMOMP) antigen-based vaccine, combined with immune stimulating complex (ISC) adjuvant, results in strong cellular and humoral immune responses in koalas. We have also separately evaluated a single dose vaccine, utilising a tri...

  13. Histological and immunohistological investigation of alimentary tract lymphoid tissue in the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus), brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula) and ringtail possum (Pseudocheirus peregrinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemsley, S W; Canfield, P J; Husband, A J

    1996-01-01

    The histological appearance and distribution of T cells, B cells and plasma cells were investigated for oropharyngeal tonsils, small intestinal lymphoid aggregations (Peyer's patches), caecocolic lymphoid patches and mesenteric lymph nodes of koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus), common brushtail possums (Trichosurus vulpecula) and common ringtail possums (Pseudocheirus peregrinus). The histological organisation and distribution of lymphoid cell subpopulations of these tissues were similar to those described in eutherian mammals, although some differences were found in comparison with previous descriptions of American opossum tissues. The main variation among the 3 species was in the structural organisations of the oropharyngeal tonsil and the caecocolic lymphoid patch which were more complex in the koala than in possums. In the koala the extensive crypts of the oropharyngeal tonsils and folding of the mucosa of the caecocolic lymphoid patch increased their surface area and, in addition, both structures had areas of epithelium heavily infiltrated with T and B cells. These features could indicate that these structures are important in immunological surveillance of orally presented antigens in koalas. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 PMID:8621326

  14. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance for the advanced imaging of the normal nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses of the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bercier, Marjorie; Alexander, Kate; Gorow, April; Pye, Geoffrey W

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this study is to describe computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) for the cross-sectional imaging of the normal anatomy of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses of the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus), to provide reference figures for gross anatomy with corresponding CT and MR images and to compare the features of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses of the normal koala with that reported in other domestic species. Advanced imaging can be used to aid in diagnosis, to plan surgical intervention, and to monitor therapeutic responses to diseases of the nasal passages in koalas. One clinically normal koala was anesthetized twice for the separate acquisition of dorsal CT scan images and transverse, dorsal, and sagittal MR images of its nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses. Sagittal and transverse CT planes were reformatted. Three fresh koala skulls were also transected in one of each transverse, sagittal, and dorsal planes and photographed. The CT and MR images obtained were matched with corresponding gross anatomic images and the normal bone, tissues and airway passages were identified. All anatomic structures were readily identifiable on CT, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and gross images. CT and MRI are both valuable diagnostic tools for imaging the nasal cavities and paranasal sinuses of koalas. Images obtained from this project can be used as baseline references for future comparison with diseased koalas to help with diagnosis, surgical intervention, and response to therapy.

  15. Is the modern koala ( Phascolarctos cinereus) a derived dwarf of a Pleistocene giant? Implications for testing megafauna extinction hypotheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Gilbert J.

    2008-12-01

    The modern Australian koala ( Phascolarctos cinereus) is commonly regarded as a dwarf descendent of a Late Pleistocene giant koala ( Ph. stirtoni). The implication of that hypothesis is that the giant koala survived the Late Pleistocene megafaunal extinction "event", albeit as a smaller body-sized form. It is important to be able to constrain rates of Late Pleistocene faunal turnover, an aspect reliant on having accurate taxonomic information of extinct species. The koala dwarfing hypothesis is tested here by using a temporally-constrained biogeographical record of fossil koalas, and a morphological character analysis. The contemporary occurrence of both taxa in pre-Late Pleistocene deposits and significant differences in dental morphologies between those forms suggests that the modern koala is not a derived dwarf of the Pleistocene giant koala. Thus, the giant-form was among a number of other giant mammals, lizards and birds that suffered extinction sometime during the Late Pleistocene. The potential phenomenon of dwarfing of other Late Pleistocene and Recent faunas, such as grey kangaroos, is commonly used as a test for or against various megafaunal extinction hypotheses. However, the results of this study also demonstrate that the dwarfing hypothesis has not been adequately tested for a suite of other taxa. Thus, until the dwarfing hypothesis can be more fully tested, a clear understanding of the fate of Late Pleistocene faunas that apparently survived the extinction "event", and the origins of many extant forms will remain elusive.

  16. Dental onlay bridge-like prosthesis in three koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus): the use of Premise trimodal composite to prevent interproximal Eucalyptus spp. retention and infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Sean M; Pye, Geoffrey W; Fagan, David A

    2014-06-01

    Three koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) presented with moderate to severe interproximal space accumulation with Eucalyptus spp. at the San Diego Zoo. Premise trimodal composite was used to create dental onlay bridge-like prostheses to eliminate open, enlarged interproximal spaces. The prostheses prevented further leaf material accumulation within the interproximal spaces and consequently reduced periodontal disease. Aesthetically, the prosthesis replicates normal tooth coloration and appearance and wears at a similar rate to surrounding teeth. Prosthetic repair or replacement may be required, so periodic examination every 3-6 mo is recommended.

  17. Interleukin 17A is an immune marker for chlamydial disease severity and pathogenesis in the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Marina; Waugh, Courtney; Beagley, Kenneth W; Timms, Peter; Polkinghorne, Adam

    2014-10-01

    The koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) is an iconic Australian marsupial species that is facing many threats to its survival. Chlamydia pecorum infections are a significant contributor to this ongoing decline. A major limiting factor in our ability to manage and control chlamydial disease in koalas is a limited understanding of the koala's cell-mediated immune response to infections by this bacterial pathogen. To identify immunological markers associated with chlamydial infection and disease in koalas, we used koala-specific Quantitative Real Time PCR (qrtPCR) assays to profile the cytokine responses of Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells (PBMCs) collected from 41 koalas with different stages of chlamydial disease. Target cytokines included the principal Th1 (Interferon gamma; IFNγ), Th2 (Interleukin 10; IL10), and pro-inflammatory cytokines (Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha; TNFα). A novel koala-specific IL17A qrtPCR assay was also developed as part of this study to quantitate the gene expression of this Th17 cytokine in koalas. A statistically significant higher IL17A gene expression was observed in animals with current chlamydial disease compared to animals with asymptomatic chlamydial infection. A modest up-regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as TNFα and IFNγ, was also observed in these animals with signs of current chlamydial disease. IL10 gene expression was not evident in the majority of animals from both groups. Future longitudinal studies are now required to confirm the role played by cytokines in pathology and/or protection against C. pecorum infection in the koala. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Preliminary characterisation of tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin-10 responses to Chlamydia pecorum infection in the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Mathew

    Full Text Available Debilitating infectious diseases caused by Chlamydia are major contributors to the decline of Australia's iconic native marsupial species, the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus. An understanding of koala chlamydial disease pathogenesis and the development of effective strategies to control infections continue to be hindered by an almost complete lack of species-specific immunological reagents. The cell-mediated immune response has been shown to play an influential role in the response to chlamydial infection in other hosts. The objective of this study, hence, was to provide preliminary data on the role of two key cytokines, pro-inflammatory tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFα and anti-inflammatory interleukin 10 (IL10, in the koala Chlamydia pecorum response. Utilising sequence homology between the cytokine sequences obtained from several recently sequenced marsupial genomes, this report describes the first mRNA sequences of any koala cytokine and the development of koala specific TNFα and IL10 real-time PCR assays to measure the expression of these genes from koala samples. In preliminary studies comparing wild koalas with overt chlamydial disease, previous evidence of C. pecorum infection or no signs of C. pecorum infection, we revealed strong but variable expression of TNFα and IL10 in wild koalas with current signs of chlamydiosis. The description of these assays and the preliminary data on the cell-mediated immune response of koalas to chlamydial infection paves the way for future studies characterising the koala immune response to a range of its pathogens while providing reagents to assist with measuring the efficacy of ongoing attempts to develop a koala chlamydial vaccine.

  19. Potential ‘Ecological Traps’ of Restored Landscapes: Koalas Phascolarctos cinereus Re-Occupy a Rehabilitated Mine Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristescu, Romane H.; Banks, Peter B.; Carrick, Frank N.; Frère, Céline

    2013-01-01

    With progressively increasing anthropogenic habitat disturbances, restoration of impacted landscapes is becoming a critical element of biodiversity conservation. Evaluation of success in restoration ecology rarely includes faunal components, usually only encompassing abiotic and floral components of the ecosystems. Even when fauna is explicitly included, it is usually only species presence/absence criteria that are considered. If restoration is to have a positive outcome, however, populations in restored habitats should exhibit comparable survival and reproductive rates to populations found in undisturbed surroundings. If a species recolonises restored areas but later experiences decreased fitness, restored areas could become ecological sinks or traps. We investigated this possibility in a case study of koalas Phascolarctos cinereus occupying rehabilitated mining areas on North Stradbroke Island, Australia. Our holistic approach compared rehabilitated and undisturbed areas on the basis of their vegetation characteristics, of koalas' body condition, roosting trees, diet, as well as predator index. Koalas using rehabilitated areas appeared to be able to access an adequate supply of roosting and fodder trees, were in good condition and had high reproductive output. We did not find any significant differences in predator density between rehabilitated areas and undisturbed surroundings. The results presented in this study showed there was no evidence that the post-mining rehabilitated areas constitute ecological sinks or traps. However, to reach a definitive conclusion as to whether areas rehabilitated post-mining provide at least equivalent habitat to undisturbed locations, additional research could be undertaken to assess foliar nutrient/water/toxin differences and predation risk in rehabilitated areas compared with undisturbed areas. More generally, the evaluation of whether restoration successfully produces a functional ecological community should include criteria

  20. The prevalence and clinical significance of Chlamydia infection in island and mainland populations of Victorian koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Jade L S; Lynch, Michael; Anderson, Garry A; Noormohammadi, Amir H; Legione, Alistair; Gilkerson, James R; Devlin, Joanne M

    2015-04-01

    Chlamydia infection is known to impact the health of koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) in New South Wales (NSW) and Queensland, but the clinical significance of Chlamydia infections in Victorian koalas is not well described. We examined the prevalence of Chlamydia infection and assessed associated health parameters in two Victorian koala populations known to be Chlamydia positive. The same testing regimen was applied to a third Victorian population in which Chlamydia had not been detected. We examined 288 koalas and collected samples from the urogenital sinus and conjunctival sacs. Detection and differentiation of Chlamydia species utilized real-time PCR and high-resolution melting curve analysis. Chlamydia pecorum was detected in two populations (prevalences: 25% and 41%, respectively) but only from urogenital sinus swabs. Chlamydia was not detected in the third population. Chlamydia pneumoniae was not detected. Chlamydia pecorum infection was positively associated with wet bottom (indicating chronic urinary tract disease) in one Chlamydia-positive population and with abnormal urogenital ultrasound findings in the other Chlamydia-positive population. The prevalence of wet bottom was similar in all populations (including the Chlamydia-free population), suggesting there is another significant cause (or causes) of wet bottom in Victorian koalas. Ocular disease was not observed. This is the largest study of Chlamydia infection in Victorian koalas, and the results suggest the potential for epidemiologic differences related to Chlamydia infections between Victorian koalas and koalas in Queensland and NSW and also between geographically distinct Victorian populations. Further studies to investigate the genotypes of C. pecorum present in Victorian koalas and to identify additional causes of wet bottom in koalas are indicated.

  1. Identification of unusual Chlamydia pecorum genotypes in Victorian koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) and clinical variables associated with infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legione, Alistair R; Patterson, Jade L S; Whiteley, Pam L; Amery-Gale, Jemima; Lynch, Michael; Haynes, Leesa; Gilkerson, James R; Polkinghorne, Adam; Devlin, Joanne M; Sansom, Fiona M

    2016-05-01

    Chlamydia pecorum infection is a threat to the health of free-ranging koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) in Australia. Utilizing an extensive sample archive we determined the prevalence of C. pecorum in koalas within six regions of Victoria, Australia. The ompA genotypes of the detected C. pecorum were characterized to better understand the epidemiology of this pathogen in Victorian koalas. Despite many studies in northern Australia (i.e. Queensland and New South Wales), prior Chlamydia studies in Victorian koalas are limited. We detected C. pecorum in 125/820 (15 %) urogenital swabs, but in only one ocular swab. Nucleotide sequencing of the molecular marker C. pecorum ompA revealed that the majority (90/114) of C. pecorum samples typed were genotype B. This genotype has not been reported in northern koalas. In general, Chlamydia infection in Victorian koalas is associated with milder clinical signs compared with infection in koalas in northern populations. Although disease pathogenesis is likely to be multifactorial, the high prevalence of genotype B in Victoria may suggest it is less pathogenic. All but three koalas had C. pecorum genotypes unique to southern koala populations (i.e. Victoria and South Australia). These included a novel C. pecorum ompA genotype and two genotypes associated with livestock. Regression analysis determined that significant factors for the presence of C. pecorum infection were sex and geographical location. The presence of 'wet bottom' in males and the presence of reproductive tract pathology in females were significantly associated with C. pecorum infection, suggesting variation in clinical disease manifestations between sexes.

  2. Development and field validation of a regional, management-scale habitat model: A koala Phascolarctos cinereus case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Bradley; Caccamo, Gabriele; Roe, Paul; Truskinger, Anthony; Brassil, Traecey; Gonsalves, Leroy; McConville, Anna; Stanton, Matthew

    2017-09-01

    Species distribution models have great potential to efficiently guide management for threatened species, especially for those that are rare or cryptic. We used MaxEnt to develop a regional-scale model for the koala Phascolarctos cinereus at a resolution (250 m) that could be used to guide management. To ensure the model was fit for purpose, we placed emphasis on validating the model using independently-collected field data. We reduced substantial spatial clustering of records in coastal urban areas using a 2-km spatial filter and by modeling separately two subregions separated by the 500-m elevational contour. A bias file was prepared that accounted for variable survey effort. Frequency of wildfire, soil type, floristics and elevation had the highest relative contribution to the model, while a number of other variables made minor contributions. The model was effective in discriminating different habitat suitability classes when compared with koala records not used in modeling. We validated the MaxEnt model at 65 ground-truth sites using independent data on koala occupancy (acoustic sampling) and habitat quality (browse tree availability). Koala bellows ( n  = 276) were analyzed in an occupancy modeling framework, while site habitat quality was indexed based on browse trees. Field validation demonstrated a linear increase in koala occupancy with higher modeled habitat suitability at ground-truth sites. Similarly, a site habitat quality index at ground-truth sites was correlated positively with modeled habitat suitability. The MaxEnt model provided a better fit to estimated koala occupancy than the site-based habitat quality index, probably because many variables were considered simultaneously by the model rather than just browse species. The positive relationship of the model with both site occupancy and habitat quality indicates that the model is fit for application at relevant management scales. Field-validated models of similar resolution would assist in

  3. Preliminary characterisation of tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin-10 responses to Chlamydia pecorum infection in the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Marina; Beagley, Kenneth W; Timms, Peter; Polkinghorne, Adam

    2013-01-01

    Debilitating infectious diseases caused by Chlamydia are major contributors to the decline of Australia's iconic native marsupial species, the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus). An understanding of koala chlamydial disease pathogenesis and the development of effective strategies to control infections continue to be hindered by an almost complete lack of species-specific immunological reagents. The cell-mediated immune response has been shown to play an influential role in the response to chlamydial infection in other hosts. The objective of this study, hence, was to provide preliminary data on the role of two key cytokines, pro-inflammatory tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) and anti-inflammatory interleukin 10 (IL10), in the koala Chlamydia pecorum response. Utilising sequence homology between the cytokine sequences obtained from several recently sequenced marsupial genomes, this report describes the first mRNA sequences of any koala cytokine and the development of koala specific TNFα and IL10 real-time PCR assays to measure the expression of these genes from koala samples. In preliminary studies comparing wild koalas with overt chlamydial disease, previous evidence of C. pecorum infection or no signs of C. pecorum infection, we revealed strong but variable expression of TNFα and IL10 in wild koalas with current signs of chlamydiosis. The description of these assays and the preliminary data on the cell-mediated immune response of koalas to chlamydial infection paves the way for future studies characterising the koala immune response to a range of its pathogens while providing reagents to assist with measuring the efficacy of ongoing attempts to develop a koala chlamydial vaccine.

  4. The seminiferous epithelial cycle and microanatomy of the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) and southern hairy-nosed wombat (Lasiorhinus latifrons) testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oishi, Motoharu; Takahashi, Mei; Amasaki, Hajime; Janssen, Tina; Johnston, Stephen D

    2013-03-01

    The koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) and southern hairy-nosed wombat (Lasiorhinus latifrons) are iconic Australian fauna that share a close phylogenetic relationship but there are currently no comparative studies of the seminiferous epithelial cell or testicular microanatomy of either species. Koala and wombat spermatozoa are unusual for marsupials as they possess a curved stream-lined head and lateral neck insertion that superficially is similar to murid spermatozoa; the koala also contains Sertoli cells with crystalloid inclusions that closely resemble the Charcot-Bottcher crystalloids described in human Sertoli cells. Eighteen sexually mature koalas and four sexually mature southern hairy-nosed (SHN) wombats were examined to establish base-line data on quantitative testicular histology. Dynamics of the seminiferous epithelial cycle in the both species consisted of eight stages of cellular association similar to that described in other marsupials. Both species possessed a high proportion of the pre-meiotic (stages VIII, I - III; koala - 62.2 ± 1.7% and SHN wombat - 66.6 ± 2.4%) when compared with post-meiotic stages of the seminiferous cycle. The mean diameters of the seminiferous tubules found in the koalas and the SHN wombats were 227.8 ± 6.1 and 243.5 ± 3.9 μm, respectively. There were differences in testicular histology between the species including the koala possessing (i) a greater proportion of Leydig cells, (ii) larger Sertoli cell nuclei, (iii) crystalloids in the Sertoli cell cytoplasm, (iv) a distinctive acrosomal granule during spermiogenesis and (v) a highly eosinophilic acrosome. An understanding of the seminiferous epithelial cycle and microanatomy of testis is fundamental for documenting normal spermatogenesis and testicular architecture; recent evidence of orchitis and epididymitis associated with natural chlamydial infection in the koala suggest that this species might be useful as an experimental model for understanding Chlamydia

  5. Characterisation of CD4 T cells in healthy and diseased koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) using cell-type-specific monoclonal antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangar, Chandan; Armitage, Charles W; Timms, Peter; Corcoran, Lynn M; Beagley, Kenneth W

    2016-07-01

    The koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) is an arboreal herbivorous marsupial that is an Australian icon. Koalas in many parts of Australia are under multiple threats including habitat destruction, dog attacks, vehicular accidents, and infectious diseases such as Chlamydia spp. and the koala retrovirus (KoRV), which may contribute to the incidence of lymphoma and leukaemia in this species. Due to a lack of koala-specific immune reagents and assays there is currently no way to adequately analyse the immune response in healthy, diseased or vaccinated animals. This paper reports the production and characterisation of the first anti-koala CD4 monoclonal antibody (mAb). The koala CD4 gene was identified and used to develop recombinant proteins for mAb production. Fluorochrome-conjugated anti-CD4 mAb was used to measure the levels of CD4(+) lymphocytes collected from koala spleens (41.1%, range 20-45.1%) lymph nodes (36.3%, range 19-55.9%) and peripheral blood (23.8%, range 17.3-35%) by flow cytometry. Biotin-conjugated anti-CD4 mAb was used for western blot to determine an approximate size of 52 kDa for the koala CD4 molecule and used in immunohistochemistry to identify CD4(+) cells in the paracortical region and germinal centres of spleen and lymph nodes. Using the anti-CD4 mab we showed that CD4 cells from vaccinated, but not control, koalas proliferated following in vitro stimulation with UV-inactivated Chlamydia pecorum and recombinant chlamydial antigens. Since CD4(+) T cells have been shown to play a pivotal role in clearing chlamydial infection in both human and mouse infections, using this novel antibody will help determine the role CD4(+) T cells play in protection against chlamydial infection in koalas and also enhance our knowledge of how KoRV affects the koala immune system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Identification, characterisation and expression analysis of natural killer receptor genes in Chlamydia pecorum infected koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Katrina M; Mathew, Marina; Waugh, Courtney; Ujvari, Beata; Timms, Peter; Polkinghorne, Adam; Belov, Katherine

    2015-10-15

    Koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus), an iconic Australian marsupial, are being heavily impacted by the spread of Chlamydia pecorum, an obligate intracellular bacterial pathogen. Koalas vary in their response to this pathogen, with some showing no symptoms, while others suffer severe symptoms leading to infertility, blindness or death. Little is known about the pathology of this disease and the immune response against it in this host. Studies have demonstrated that natural killer (NK) cells, key components of the innate immune system, are involved in the immune response to chlamydial infections in humans. These cells can directly lyse cells infected by intracellular pathogens and their ability to recognise these infected cells is mediated through NK receptors on their surface. These are encoded in two regions of the genome, the leukocyte receptor complex (LRC) and the natural killer complex (NKC). These two families evolve rapidly and different repertoires of genes, which have evolved by gene duplication, are seen in different species. In this study we aimed to characterise genes belonging to the NK receptor clusters in the koala by searching available koala transcriptomes using a combination of search methods. We developed a qPCR assay to quantify relative expression of four genes, two encoded within the NK receptor cluster (CLEC1B, CLEC4E) and two known to play a role in NK response to Chalmydia in humans (NCR3, PRF1). We found that the NK receptor repertoire of the koala closely resembles that of the Tasmanian devil, with minimal genes in the NKC, but with lineage specific expansions in the LRC. Additional genes important for NK cell activity, NCR3 and PRF1, were also identified and characterised. In a preliminary study to investigate whether these genes are involved in the koala immune response to infection by its chlamydial pathogen, C. pecorum, we investigated the expression of four genes in koalas with active chlamydia infection, those with past infection and

  7. Characterization of the antimicrobial peptide family defensins in the Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii), koala (Phascolarctos cinereus), and tammar wallaby (Macropus eugenii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Elizabeth A; Cheng, Yuanyuan; O'Meally, Denis; Belov, Katherine

    2017-03-01

    Defensins comprise a family of cysteine-rich antimicrobial peptides with important roles in innate and adaptive immune defense in vertebrates. We characterized alpha and beta defensin genes in three Australian marsupials: the Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii), koala (Phascolarctos cinereus), and tammar wallaby (Macropus eugenii) and identified 48, 34, and 39 defensins, respectively. One hundred and twelve have the classical antimicrobial peptides characteristics required for pathogen membrane targeting, including cationic charge (between 1+ and 15+) and a high proportion of hydrophobic residues (>30%). Phylogenetic analysis shows that gene duplication has driven unique and species-specific expansions of devil, koala, and tammar wallaby beta defensins and devil alpha defensins. Defensin genes are arranged in three genomic clusters in marsupials, whereas further duplications and translocations have occurred in eutherians resulting in four and five gene clusters in mice and humans, respectively. Marsupial defensins are generally under purifying selection, particularly residues essential for defensin structural stability. Certain hydrophobic or positively charged sites, predominantly found in the defensin loop, are positively selected, which may have functional significance in defensin-target interaction and membrane insertion.

  8. Antibody and Cytokine Responses of Koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) Vaccinated with Recombinant Chlamydial Major Outer Membrane Protein (MOMP) with Two Different Adjuvants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Shahneaz Ali; Desclozeaux, Marion; Waugh, Courtney; Hanger, Jon; Loader, Jo; Gerdts, Volker; Potter, Andrew; Polkinghorne, Adam; Beagley, Kenneth; Timms, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Developing a vaccine against Chlamydia is key to combating widespread mortalities and morbidities associated with this infection in koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus). In previous studies, we have shown that two or three doses of a Recombinant Major Outer Membrane Protein (rMOMP) antigen-based vaccine, combined with immune stimulating complex (ISC) adjuvant, results in strong cellular and humoral immune responses in koalas. We have also separately evaluated a single dose vaccine, utilising a tri-adjuvant formula that comprises polyphosphazine based poly I: C and host defense peptides, with the same antigen. This formulation also produced strong cellular and humoral immune responses in captive koalas. In this current study, we directly compared the host immune responses of two sub-groups of wild Chlamydia negative koalas in one population vaccinated with the rMOMP protein antigen and adjuvanted with either the ISC or tri-adjuvant formula. Overall, both adjuvants produced strong Chlamydia-specific cellular (IFN-γ and IL-17A) responses in circulating PBMCs as well as MOMP-specific and functional, in vitro neutralising antibodies. While the immune responses were similar, there were adjuvant-specific immune differences between the two adjuvants, particularly in relation to the specificity of the MOMP epitope antibody responses.

  9. Antibody and Cytokine Responses of Koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus Vaccinated with Recombinant Chlamydial Major Outer Membrane Protein (MOMP with Two Different Adjuvants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahneaz Ali Khan

    Full Text Available Developing a vaccine against Chlamydia is key to combating widespread mortalities and morbidities associated with this infection in koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus. In previous studies, we have shown that two or three doses of a Recombinant Major Outer Membrane Protein (rMOMP antigen-based vaccine, combined with immune stimulating complex (ISC adjuvant, results in strong cellular and humoral immune responses in koalas. We have also separately evaluated a single dose vaccine, utilising a tri-adjuvant formula that comprises polyphosphazine based poly I: C and host defense peptides, with the same antigen. This formulation also produced strong cellular and humoral immune responses in captive koalas. In this current study, we directly compared the host immune responses of two sub-groups of wild Chlamydia negative koalas in one population vaccinated with the rMOMP protein antigen and adjuvanted with either the ISC or tri-adjuvant formula. Overall, both adjuvants produced strong Chlamydia-specific cellular (IFN-γ and IL-17A responses in circulating PBMCs as well as MOMP-specific and functional, in vitro neutralising antibodies. While the immune responses were similar, there were adjuvant-specific immune differences between the two adjuvants, particularly in relation to the specificity of the MOMP epitope antibody responses.

  10. Variation in the microbiome of the urogenital tract of Chlamydia-free female koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) with and without 'wet bottom'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legione, Alistair R; Amery-Gale, Jemima; Lynch, Michael; Haynes, Leesa; Gilkerson, James R; Sansom, Fiona M; Devlin, Joanne M

    2018-01-01

    Koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) are iconic Australian marsupials currently threatened by several processes, including infectious diseases and ecological disruption. Infection with Chlamydia pecorum, is considered a key driver of population decline. The clinical sign of 'wet bottom', a staining of the rump associated with urinary incontinence, is often caused by chlamydial urinary tract infections. However, wet bottom has been recorded in koalas free of C. pecorum, suggesting other causative agents in those individuals. We used 16S rRNA diversity profiling to investigate the microbiome of the urogenital tract of ten female koalas in order to identify potential causative agents of wet bottom, other than C. pecorum. Five urogenital samples were processed from koalas presenting with wet bottom and five were clinically normal. All koalas were negative for C. pecorum infection. We detected thirteen phyla across the ten samples, with Firmicutes occurring at the highest relative abundance (77.6%). The order Lactobacillales, within the Firmicutes, comprised 70.3% of the reads from all samples. After normalising reads using DESeq2 and testing for significant differences (P < 0.05), there were 25 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) more commonly found in one group over the other. The families Aerococcaceae and Tissierellaceae both had four significantly differentially abundant OTUs. These four Tissierellaceae OTUs were all significantly more abundant in koalas with wet bottom. This study provides the foundation for future investigations of causes of koala wet bottom, other than C. pecorum infection. This is of clinical relevance as wet bottom is often assumed to be caused by C. pecorum and treated accordingly. Our research highlights that other organisms may be causing wet bottom, and these potential aetiological agents need to be further investigated to fully address the problems this species faces.

  11. The distribution of organised lymphoid tissue in the alimentary tracts of koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) and possums (Trichosurus vulpecula and Pseudocheirus peregrinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemsley, S W; Canfield, P J; Husband, A J

    1996-01-01

    The anatomical arrangement of organised lymphoid tissues of the alimentary tract for 3 Australian marsupials, the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus), the common brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula and the common ringtail possum (Pseudocheirus peregrinus), was determined by gross dissection and acetic acid treatment. Oropharyngeal tonsils were consistently found in the dorsolateral wall of the caudal oropharynx in all 3 species and additionally in the ventral soft palate of the koala. Aggregated lymphoid nodules (Peyer's patches) were present in the small intestine of koalas, ringtail possums and brushtail possums and were of similar appearance for all 3 species. Bilateral large intestinal lymphoid patches were detected in the caecocolic lateral wall adjacent to the termination of the ileum for all 3 species. Caecocolic patches were more complex in koalas and had mucosal folds and a central recess. In addition, solitary and grouped large intestinal lymphoid nodules were variably present in the proximal colon and caecum of the koala. In contrast, possums had solitary and grouped large intestinal lymphoid nodules present in the proximal colon and rectum but not the caecum. Aggregated lymphoid tissue was not detected in the tongue, oesophagus or stomach for all 3 species. In contrast to a previous report, this study did not find a paucity of lymphoid tissue associated with the gut of the koala. The appearance and distribution of gut-associated lymphoid tissue in koalas and possums was found to be similar to that described in other marsupials and eutherian mammals, although some variations in appearance and anatomical location were observed. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:8621325

  12. Variation in the microbiome of the urogenital tract of Chlamydia-free female koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) with and without ‘wet bottom’

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amery-Gale, Jemima; Lynch, Michael; Haynes, Leesa; Gilkerson, James R.; Sansom, Fiona M.; Devlin, Joanne M.

    2018-01-01

    Koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) are iconic Australian marsupials currently threatened by several processes, including infectious diseases and ecological disruption. Infection with Chlamydia pecorum, is considered a key driver of population decline. The clinical sign of ‘wet bottom’, a staining of the rump associated with urinary incontinence, is often caused by chlamydial urinary tract infections. However, wet bottom has been recorded in koalas free of C. pecorum, suggesting other causative agents in those individuals. We used 16S rRNA diversity profiling to investigate the microbiome of the urogenital tract of ten female koalas in order to identify potential causative agents of wet bottom, other than C. pecorum. Five urogenital samples were processed from koalas presenting with wet bottom and five were clinically normal. All koalas were negative for C. pecorum infection. We detected thirteen phyla across the ten samples, with Firmicutes occurring at the highest relative abundance (77.6%). The order Lactobacillales, within the Firmicutes, comprised 70.3% of the reads from all samples. After normalising reads using DESeq2 and testing for significant differences (P < 0.05), there were 25 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) more commonly found in one group over the other. The families Aerococcaceae and Tissierellaceae both had four significantly differentially abundant OTUs. These four Tissierellaceae OTUs were all significantly more abundant in koalas with wet bottom. This study provides the foundation for future investigations of causes of koala wet bottom, other than C. pecorum infection. This is of clinical relevance as wet bottom is often assumed to be caused by C. pecorum and treated accordingly. Our research highlights that other organisms may be causing wet bottom, and these potential aetiological agents need to be further investigated to fully address the problems this species faces. PMID:29579080

  13. Cytochrome P450 CYP3A in marsupials: cloning and characterisation of the second identified CYP3A subfamily member, isoform 3A78 from koala (Phascolarctos cinereus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Merhibi, Adaweyah; Ngo, Suong N T; Crittenden, Tamara A; Marchant, Ceilidh L; Stupans, Ieva; McKinnon, Ross A

    2011-11-01

    Cytochromes P450 (CYPs) are critically important in the oxidative metabolism of a diverse array of xenobiotics and endogenous substrates. Previously, we cloned and characterised the CYP2C, CYP4A, and CYP4B gene subfamilies from marsupials and demonstrated important species-differences in both activity and tissue expression of these CYP enzymes. Recently, we isolated the Eastern grey kangaroo CYP3A70. Here we have cloned and characterised the second identified member of marsupial CYP3A gene subfamily, CYP3A78 from the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus). In addition, we have examined the gender-differences in microsomal erythromycin N-demethylation activity (a CYP3A marker) and CYP3A protein expression across test marsupial species. Significant differences in hepatic erythromycin N-demethylation activity were observed between male and female koalas, with the activity detected in female koalas being 2.5-fold higher compared to that in male koalas (p<0.01). No gender-differences were observed in tammar wallaby or Eastern grey kangaroo. Immunoblot analysis utilising anti-human CYP3A4 antibody detected immunoreactive proteins in liver microsomes from all test male and female marsupials including the koala, tammar wallaby, and Eastern grey kangaroo, with no gender-differences detected across test marsupials. A 1610 bp koala hepatic CYP3A complete cDNA, designated CYP3A78, was cloned by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction approaches. It displays 64% nucleotide and 57% amino acid sequence identity to the Eastern grey kangaroo CYP3A70. The CYP3A78 cDNA encodes a protein of 515 amino acids, shares approximately 68% nucleotide and 56% amino acid sequence identity to human CYP3A4, and displays high sequence similarity to other published mammalian CYP3As from human, monkey, cow, pig, dog, rat, rabbit, mouse, hamster, and guinea pig. Collectively, this study provides primary molecular data regarding koala hepatic CYP3A78 gene and enables further functional analyses of CYP

  14. Increased genetic diversity and prevalence of co-infection with Trypanosoma spp. in koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus and their ticks identified using next-generation sequencing (NGS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda D Barbosa

    Full Text Available Infections with Trypanosoma spp. have been associated with poor health and decreased survival of koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus, particularly in the presence of concurrent pathogens such as Chlamydia and koala retrovirus. The present study describes the application of a next-generation sequencing (NGS-based assay to characterise the prevalence and genetic diversity of trypanosome communities in koalas and two native species of ticks (Ixodes holocyclus and I. tasmani removed from koala hosts. Among 168 koalas tested, 32.2% (95% CI: 25.2-39.8% were positive for at least one Trypanosoma sp. Previously described Trypanosoma spp. from koalas were identified, including T. irwini (32.1%, 95% CI: 25.2-39.8%, T. gilletti (25%, 95% CI: 18.7-32.3%, T. copemani (27.4%, 95% CI: 20.8-34.8% and T. vegrandis (10.1%, 95% CI: 6.0-15.7%. Trypanosoma noyesi was detected for the first time in koalas, although at a low prevalence (0.6% 95% CI: 0-3.3%, and a novel species (Trypanosoma sp. AB-2017 was identified at a prevalence of 4.8% (95% CI: 2.1-9.2%. Mixed infections with up to five species were present in 27.4% (95% CI: 21-35% of the koalas, which was significantly higher than the prevalence of single infections 4.8% (95% CI: 2-9%. Overall, a considerably higher proportion (79.7% of the Trypanosoma sequences isolated from koala blood samples were identified as T. irwini, suggesting this is the dominant species. Co-infections involving T. gilletti, T. irwini, T. copemani, T. vegrandis and Trypanosoma sp. AB-2017 were also detected in ticks, with T. gilletti and T. copemani being the dominant species within the invertebrate hosts. Direct Sanger sequencing of Trypanosoma 18S rRNA gene amplicons was also performed and results revealed that this method was only able to identify the genotypes with greater amount of reads (according to NGS within koala samples, which highlights the advantages of NGS in detecting mixed infections. The present study provides new insights

  15. Increased genetic diversity and prevalence of co-infection with Trypanosoma spp. in koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) and their ticks identified using next-generation sequencing (NGS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Amanda D; Gofton, Alexander W; Paparini, Andrea; Codello, Annachiara; Greay, Telleasha; Gillett, Amber; Warren, Kristin; Irwin, Peter; Ryan, Una

    2017-01-01

    Infections with Trypanosoma spp. have been associated with poor health and decreased survival of koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus), particularly in the presence of concurrent pathogens such as Chlamydia and koala retrovirus. The present study describes the application of a next-generation sequencing (NGS)-based assay to characterise the prevalence and genetic diversity of trypanosome communities in koalas and two native species of ticks (Ixodes holocyclus and I. tasmani) removed from koala hosts. Among 168 koalas tested, 32.2% (95% CI: 25.2-39.8%) were positive for at least one Trypanosoma sp. Previously described Trypanosoma spp. from koalas were identified, including T. irwini (32.1%, 95% CI: 25.2-39.8%), T. gilletti (25%, 95% CI: 18.7-32.3%), T. copemani (27.4%, 95% CI: 20.8-34.8%) and T. vegrandis (10.1%, 95% CI: 6.0-15.7%). Trypanosoma noyesi was detected for the first time in koalas, although at a low prevalence (0.6% 95% CI: 0-3.3%), and a novel species (Trypanosoma sp. AB-2017) was identified at a prevalence of 4.8% (95% CI: 2.1-9.2%). Mixed infections with up to five species were present in 27.4% (95% CI: 21-35%) of the koalas, which was significantly higher than the prevalence of single infections 4.8% (95% CI: 2-9%). Overall, a considerably higher proportion (79.7%) of the Trypanosoma sequences isolated from koala blood samples were identified as T. irwini, suggesting this is the dominant species. Co-infections involving T. gilletti, T. irwini, T. copemani, T. vegrandis and Trypanosoma sp. AB-2017 were also detected in ticks, with T. gilletti and T. copemani being the dominant species within the invertebrate hosts. Direct Sanger sequencing of Trypanosoma 18S rRNA gene amplicons was also performed and results revealed that this method was only able to identify the genotypes with greater amount of reads (according to NGS) within koala samples, which highlights the advantages of NGS in detecting mixed infections. The present study provides new insights on the

  16. Expression profiles of the immune genes CD4, CD8β, IFNγ, IL-4, IL-6 and IL-10 in mitogen-stimulated koala lymphocytes (Phascolarctos cinereus by qRT-PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iona E. Maher

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Investigation of the immune response of the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus is needed urgently, but has been limited by scarcity of species-specific reagents and methods for this unique and divergent marsupial. Infectious disease is an important threat to wild populations of koalas; the most widespread and important of these is Chlamydial disease, caused by Chlamydia pecorum and Chlamydia pneumoniae. In addition, koala retrovirus (KoRV, which is of 100% prevalence in northern Australia, has been proposed as an important agent of immune suppression that could explain the koala’s susceptibility to disease. The correct balance of T regulatory, T helper 1 (Th1 and Th2 lymphocyte responses are important to an individual’s susceptibility or resistance to chlamydial infection. The ability to study chlamydial or KoRV pathogenesis, effects of environmental stressors on immunity, and the response of koalas to vaccines under development, by examining the koala’s adaptive response to natural infection or in-vitro stimulation, has been limited to date by a paucity of species- specific reagents. In this study we have used cytokine sequences from four marsupial genomes to identify mRNA sequences for key T regulatory, Th1 and Th2 cytokines interleukin 4 (IL-4, interleukin 6 (IL-6, interleukin 10 (IL-10 and interferon gamma (IFNγ along with CD4 and CD8β. The koala sequences used for primer design showed >58% homology with grey short-tailed opossum, >71% with tammar wallaby and 78% with Tasmanian devil amino acid sequences. We report the development of real-time RT-PCR assays to measure the expression of these genes in unstimulated cells and after three common mitogen stimulation protocols (phorbol myristate acetate/ionomycin, phorbol myristate acetate/phytohemagglutinin and concanavalin A. Phorbol myristate acetate/ionomycin was found to be the most effective mitogen to up-regulate the production of IL-4, IL-10 and IFNγ. IL-6 production was not

  17. Expression profiles of the immune genes CD4, CD8β, IFNγ, IL-4, IL-6 and IL-10 in mitogen-stimulated koala lymphocytes (Phascolarctos cinereus) by qRT-PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, Iona E; Griffith, Joanna E; Lau, Quintin; Reeves, Thomas; Higgins, Damien P

    2014-01-01

    Investigation of the immune response of the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) is needed urgently, but has been limited by scarcity of species-specific reagents and methods for this unique and divergent marsupial. Infectious disease is an important threat to wild populations of koalas; the most widespread and important of these is Chlamydial disease, caused by Chlamydia pecorum and Chlamydia pneumoniae. In addition, koala retrovirus (KoRV), which is of 100% prevalence in northern Australia, has been proposed as an important agent of immune suppression that could explain the koala's susceptibility to disease. The correct balance of T regulatory, T helper 1 (Th1) and Th2 lymphocyte responses are important to an individual's susceptibility or resistance to chlamydial infection. The ability to study chlamydial or KoRV pathogenesis, effects of environmental stressors on immunity, and the response of koalas to vaccines under development, by examining the koala's adaptive response to natural infection or in-vitro stimulation, has been limited to date by a paucity of species- specific reagents. In this study we have used cytokine sequences from four marsupial genomes to identify mRNA sequences for key T regulatory, Th1 and Th2 cytokines interleukin 4 (IL-4), interleukin 6 (IL-6), interleukin 10 (IL-10) and interferon gamma (IFNγ) along with CD4 and CD8β. The koala sequences used for primer design showed >58% homology with grey short-tailed opossum, >71% with tammar wallaby and 78% with Tasmanian devil amino acid sequences. We report the development of real-time RT-PCR assays to measure the expression of these genes in unstimulated cells and after three common mitogen stimulation protocols (phorbol myristate acetate/ionomycin, phorbol myristate acetate/phytohemagglutinin and concanavalin A). Phorbol myristate acetate/ionomycin was found to be the most effective mitogen to up-regulate the production of IL-4, IL-10 and IFNγ. IL-6 production was not consistently up-regulated by

  18. A Prototype Recombinant-Protein Based Chlamydia pecorum Vaccine Results in Reduced Chlamydial Burden and Less Clinical Disease in Free-Ranging Koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Courtney Waugh

    Full Text Available Diseases associated with Chlamydia pecorum infection are a major cause of decline in koala populations in Australia. While koalas in care can generally be treated, a vaccine is considered the only option to effectively reduce the threat of infection and disease at the population level. In the current study, we vaccinated 30 free-ranging koalas with a prototype Chlamydia pecorum vaccine consisting of a recombinant chlamydial MOMP adjuvanted with an immune stimulating complex. An additional cohort of 30 animals did not receive any vaccine and acted as comparison controls. Animals accepted into this study were either uninfected (Chlamydia PCR negative at time of initial vaccination, or infected (C. pecorum positive at either urogenital (UGT and/or ocular sites (Oc, but with no clinical signs of chlamydial disease. All koalas were vaccinated/sampled and then re-released into their natural habitat before re-capturing and re-sampling at 6 and 12 months. All vaccinated koalas produced a strong immune response to the vaccine, as indicated by high titres of specific plasma antibodies. The incidence of new infections in vaccinated koalas over the 12-month period post-vaccination was slightly less than koalas in the control group, however, this was not statistically significant. Importantly though, the vaccine was able to significantly reduce the infectious load in animals that were Chlamydia positive at the time of vaccination. This effect was evident at both the Oc and UGT sites and was stronger at 6 months than at 12 months post-vaccination. Finally, the vaccine was also able to reduce the number of animals that progressed to disease during the 12-month period. While the sample sizes were small (statistically speaking, results were nonetheless striking. This study highlights the potential for successful development of a Chlamydia vaccine for koalas in a wild setting.

  19. A Prototype Recombinant-Protein Based Chlamydia pecorum Vaccine Results in Reduced Chlamydial Burden and Less Clinical Disease in Free-Ranging Koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waugh, Courtney; Khan, Shahneaz Ali; Carver, Scott; Hanger, Jonathan; Loader, Joanne; Polkinghorne, Adam; Beagley, Kenneth; Timms, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Diseases associated with Chlamydia pecorum infection are a major cause of decline in koala populations in Australia. While koalas in care can generally be treated, a vaccine is considered the only option to effectively reduce the threat of infection and disease at the population level. In the current study, we vaccinated 30 free-ranging koalas with a prototype Chlamydia pecorum vaccine consisting of a recombinant chlamydial MOMP adjuvanted with an immune stimulating complex. An additional cohort of 30 animals did not receive any vaccine and acted as comparison controls. Animals accepted into this study were either uninfected (Chlamydia PCR negative) at time of initial vaccination, or infected (C. pecorum positive) at either urogenital (UGT) and/or ocular sites (Oc), but with no clinical signs of chlamydial disease. All koalas were vaccinated/sampled and then re-released into their natural habitat before re-capturing and re-sampling at 6 and 12 months. All vaccinated koalas produced a strong immune response to the vaccine, as indicated by high titres of specific plasma antibodies. The incidence of new infections in vaccinated koalas over the 12-month period post-vaccination was slightly less than koalas in the control group, however, this was not statistically significant. Importantly though, the vaccine was able to significantly reduce the infectious load in animals that were Chlamydia positive at the time of vaccination. This effect was evident at both the Oc and UGT sites and was stronger at 6 months than at 12 months post-vaccination. Finally, the vaccine was also able to reduce the number of animals that progressed to disease during the 12-month period. While the sample sizes were small (statistically speaking), results were nonetheless striking. This study highlights the potential for successful development of a Chlamydia vaccine for koalas in a wild setting.

  20. Immunomics of the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abts, Kendra C; Ivy, Jamie A; DeWoody, J Andrew

    2015-06-01

    The study of the koala transcriptome has the potential to advance our understanding of its immunome--immunological reaction of a given host to foreign antigens--and to help combat infectious diseases (e.g., chlamydiosis) that impede ongoing conservation efforts. We used Illumina sequencing of cDNA to characterize genes expressed in two different koala tissues of immunological importance, blood and spleen. We generated nearly 600 million raw sequence reads, and about 285 million of these were subsequently assembled and condensed into ~70,000 subcomponents that represent putative transcripts. We annotated ~16% of these subcomponents and identified those related to infection and the immune response, including Toll-like receptors (TLRs), RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs), major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes, and koala retrovirus (KoRV). Using phylogenetic analyses, we identified 29 koala genes in these target categories and report their concordance with currently accepted gene groups. By mapping multiple sequencing reads to transcripts, we identified 56 putative SNPs in genes of interest. The distribution of these SNPs indicates that MHC genes (34 SNPs) are more diverse than KoRV (12 SNPs), TLRs (8 SNPs), or RLRs (2 SNPs). Our sequence data also indicate that KoRV sequences are highly expressed in the transcriptome. Our efforts have produced full-length sequences for potentially important immune genes in koala, which should serve as targets for future investigations that aim to conserve koala populations.

  1. Comparison of subcutaneous versus intranasal immunization of male koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) for induction of mucosal and systemic immunity against Chlamydia pecorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waugh, Courtney A; Timms, Peter; Andrew, Dean; Rawlinson, Galit; Brumm, Jacqui; Nilsson, Karen; Beagley, Kenneth W

    2015-02-11

    Chlamydia pecorum infections are debilitating in the koala, contributing significantly to morbidity and mortality, with current antibiotic treatments having minimal success and adversely affecting gut microflora. This, combined with the sometimes-asymptomatic nature of the infection, suggests that an efficacious anti-chlamydial vaccine is required to control chlamydial infections in the koala. To date vaccination studies have focused primarily on female koalas, however, given the physiological differences between male and female reproductive tracts, we tested the efficacy of a vaccine in 12 captive male koalas. We evaluated the potential of both subcutaneous and intranasal vaccine delivery to elicit mucosal immunity in male koalas. Our results showed that both intranasal and subcutaneous delivery of a vaccine consisting of C. pecorum major outer membrane protein (MOMP) and the adjuvant immunostimulating complex (ISC) induced significant immune responses in male koalas. Subcutaneous immunization elicited stronger cell-mediated responses in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL), and greater plasma antibody levels whereas the intranasal immunization elicited stronger humoral responses in urogenital tract (UGT) secretions. This is the first time a Chlamydia vaccine has been tested in the male koala and the first assessment of a mucosal vaccination route in this species. Our results suggest that vaccination of male koalas can elicit mucosal immunity and could contribute to the long-term survivability of wild populations of the koala. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. First report of Trypanosoma vegrandis in koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Amanda; Austen, Jill; Gillett, Amber; Warren, Kristin; Paparini, Andrea; Irwin, Peter; Ryan, Una

    2016-08-01

    The present study describes the first report of Trypanosoma vegrandis in koalas using morphology and sequence analysis of the 18S rRNA gene. The prevalence of T. vegrandis in koalas was 13.6% (6/44). It is likely that the small size of T. vegrandis (<10μm in length), coupled with the difficulties in amplifying DNA of this parasite in mixed infections using trypanosome generic primers, are the reason why this organism has not been identified in koalas until now. This study highlights the importance of further research comprising a larger sample size to determine the prevalence of T. vegrandis in koalas as well as its potential impacts upon this marsupial species' health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Chemical characterization of milk oligosaccharides of the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urashima, Tadasu; Taufik, Epi; Fukuda, Rino; Nakamura, Tadashi; Fukuda, Kenji; Saito, Tadao; Messer, Michael

    2013-11-01

    Previous structural characterizations of marsupial milk oligosaccharides had been performed in only two macropod species, the tammar wallaby and the red kangaroo. To clarify the homology and heterogeneity of milk oligosaccharides among marsupial species, which could provide information on their evolution, the oligosaccharides of the koala milk carbohydrate fraction were characterized in this study. Neutral and acidic oligosaccharides were separated from the carbohydrate fraction of milk of the koala, a non-macropod marsupial, and characterized by (1)H-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The structures of the neutral saccharides were found to be Gal(β1-4)Glc (lactose), Gal(β1-3)Gal(β1-4)Glc (3'-galactosyllactose), Gal(β1-3)Gal(β1-3)Gal(β1-4)Glc (3',3″-digalactosyllactose), Gal(β1-3)[Gal(β1-4)GlcNAc(β1-6)]Gal(β1-4)Glc (lacto-N-novopentaose I) and Gal(β1-3){Gal(β1-4)[Fuc(α1-3)]GlcNAc(β1-6)}Gal(β1-4)Glc (fucosyl lacto-N-novopentaose I), while those of the acidic saccharides were Neu5Ac(α2-3)Gal(β1-4)Glc (3'-SL), Neu5Ac(α2-3)Gal(β1-3)Gal(β1-4)Gal (sialyl 3'-galactosyllactose), Neu5Ac(α2-3)Gal(β1-3)[Gal(β1-4)GlcNAc(β1-6)]Gal(β1-4)Glc (sialyl lacto-N-novopentaose a), Gal(β1-3)[Neu5Ac(α2-6)Gal(β1-4)GlcNAc(β1-6)]Gal(β1-4)Glc (sialyl lacto-N-novopentaose b), Gal(β1-3)[Neu5Ac(α2-3)Gal(β1-4)GlcNAc(β1-6)]Gal(β1-4)Glc (sialyl lacto-N-novopentaose c), and Neu5Ac(α2-3)Gal(β1-3){Gal(β1-4)[Fuc(α1-3)]GlcNAc(β1-6)}Gal(β1-4)Glc (fucosyl sialyl lacto-N-novopentaose a). The neutral oligosaccharides, other than fucosyl lacto-N-novopentaose I, a novel hexasaccharide, had been found in milk of the tammar wallaby, a macropod marsupial, while the acidic oligosaccharides, other than fucosyl sialyl lacto-N-novopentaose a had been identified in milk carbohydrate of the red kangaroo. The presence of fucosyl oligosaccharides is a significant feature of koala milk, in which it differs from milk of the tammar wallaby and the red kangaroo.

  4. In vitro activity of chloramphenicol, florfenicol and enrofloxacin against Chlamydia pecorum isolated from koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, L A; Higgins, D P; Govendir, M

    2015-11-01

    To determine the in vitro susceptibilities of koala isolates of Chlamydia pecorum to enrofloxacin and chloramphenicol, which are frequently used to treat koalas with chlamydiosis, and florfenicol, a derivative of chloramphenicol. The in vitro susceptibilities were determined by culturing three stored isolates and seven clinical swabs of C. pecorum. Susceptibility testing was undertaken using cycloheximide-treated buffalo green monkey kidney cells in 96 well microtitre plates. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) for all isolates were 0.25-0.50 µg/mL (enrofloxacin), 1-2 µg/mL (chloramphenicol), and 1-2 µg/mL (florfenicol). Minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) values for five isolates were also determined and were within one two-fold dilution of MICs. The MICs and MBCs of these antimicrobials were within ranges previously reported for other chlamydial species. When combined with previously published pharmacokinetic data, the in vitro susceptibility results support chloramphenicol as a more appropriate treatment option than enrofloxacin for koalas with chlamydiosis. The susceptibility results also indicate florfenicol may be an appropriate treatment option for koalas with chlamydiosis, warranting further investigation. © 2015 Australian Veterinary Association.

  5. Evaluation of enrofloxacin use in koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) via population pharmacokinetics and Monte Carlo simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, L A; Landersdorfer, C B; Bulitta, J B; Griffith, J E; Govendir, M

    2014-06-01

    Clinically normal koalas (n = 6) received a single dose of intravenous enrofloxacin (10 mg/kg). Serial plasma samples were collected over 24 h, and enrofloxacin concentrations were determined via high-performance liquid chromatography. Population pharmacokinetic modeling was performed in S-ADAPT. The probability of target attainment (PTA) was predicted via Monte Carlo simulations (MCS) using relevant target values (30-300) based on the unbound area under the curve over 24 h divided by the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) (fAUC0-24 /MIC), and published subcutaneous data were incorporated (Griffith et al., 2010). A two-compartment disposition model with allometrically scaled clearances (exponent: 0.75) and volumes of distribution (exponent: 1.0) adequately described the disposition of enrofloxacin. For 5.4 kg koalas (average weight), point estimates for total clearance (SE%) were 2.58 L/h (15%), central volume of distribution 0.249 L (14%), and peripheral volume 2.77 L (20%). MCS using a target fAUC0-24 /MIC of 40 predicted highest treatable MICs of 0.0625 mg/L for intravenous dosing and 0.0313 mg/L for subcutaneous dosing of 10 mg/kg enrofloxacin every 24 h. Thus, the frequently used dosage of 10 mg/kg enrofloxacin every 24 h subcutaneously may be appropriate against gram-positive bacteria with MICs ≤ 0.03 mg/L (PTA > 90%), but appears inadequate against gram-negative bacteria and Chlamydiae in koalas. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. The Rescue and Rehabilitation of Koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus in Southeast Queensland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Burton

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Koala populations in southeast Queensland are under threat from many factors, particularly habitat loss, dog attack, vehicle trauma and disease. Animals not killed from these impacts are often rescued and taken into care for rehabilitation, and eventual release back to the wild if deemed to be healthy. This study investigated current rescue, rehabilitation and release data for koalas admitted to the four major wildlife hospitals in southeast Queensland (Australia Zoo Wildlife Hospital (AZWH, Currumbin Wildlife Sanctuary Hospital (CWH, Moggill Koala Hospital (MKH and the Royal Society for the Prevention Against Cruelty to Animals Wildlife Hospital at Wacol (RSPCA, and suggests aspects of the practice that may be changed to improve its contribution to the preservation of the species. It concluded that: (a the main threats to koalas across southeast Queensland were related to urbanization (vehicle collisions, domestic animal attacks and the disease chlamydiosis; (b case outcomes varied amongst hospitals, including time spent in care, euthanasia and release rates; and (c the majority (66.5% of rescued koalas were either euthanized or died in care with only 27% released back to the wild. The results from this study have important implications for further research into koala rescue and rehabilitation to gain a better understanding of its effectiveness as a conservation strategy.

  7. Identification of MHCII variants associated with chlamydial disease in the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quintin Lau

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydiosis, the most common infectious disease in koalas, can cause chronic urogenital tract fibrosis and infertility. High titres of serum immunoglobulin G against 10 kDa and 60 kDa chlamydial heat-shock proteins (c-hsp10 and c-hsp60 are associated with fibrous occlusion of the koala uterus and uterine tube. Murine and human studies have identified associations between specific major histocompatibility complex class II (MHCII alleles or genotypes, and higher c-hsp 60 antibody levels or chlamydia-associated disease and infertility. In this study, we characterised partial MHCII DAB and DBB genes in female koalas (n = 94 from a single geographic population, and investigated associations among antibody responses to c-hsp60 quantified by ELISA, susceptibility to chlamydial infection, or age. The identification of three candidate MHCII variants provides additional support for the functional role of MHCII in the koala, and will inform more focused future studies. This is the first study to investigate an association between MHC genes with chlamydial pathogenesis in a non-model, free-ranging species.

  8. Establishment and characterization of a new epithelial cell line, KC-1, from koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) conjunctiva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girjes, Adeeb A; Lee, Kristen E; Carrick, Frank N

    2003-01-01

    A novel, untransformed koala cell line (KC-1) was established by culturing koala conjunctival tissue in growth medium, which has permitted the study of the cell biology of this unique system. After the establishment of the KC-1 cell line, the cells were characterized by light microscopy, doubling time, and Western blot analysis. Light microscopy revealed that the cells have an epithelial morphology. Doubling times were significantly different (P koala cell line was adapted to grow continuously in Dulbecco modified Eagle medium containing 10% FCS for at least 30 passages. This unique cell line is an ideal tool for further investigation on koala cell biology and cytogenetics and for exploration of the pathophysiological mechanism of eye infections caused by different pathogens in koalas.

  9. Perception of male caller identity in Koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus): acoustic analysis and playback experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton, Benjamin D; Ellis, William A H; McKinnon, Allan J; Brumm, Jacqui; Nilsson, Karen; Fitch, W Tecumseh

    2011-01-01

    The ability to signal individual identity using vocal signals and distinguish between conspecifics based on vocal cues is important in several mammal species. Furthermore, it can be important for receivers to differentiate between callers in reproductive contexts. In this study, we used acoustic analyses to determine whether male koala bellows are individually distinctive and to investigate the relative importance of different acoustic features for coding individuality. We then used a habituation-discrimination paradigm to investigate whether koalas discriminate between the bellow vocalisations of different male callers. Our results show that male koala bellows are highly individualized, and indicate that cues related to vocal tract filtering contribute the most to vocal identity. In addition, we found that male and female koalas habituated to the bellows of a specific male showed a significant dishabituation when they were presented with bellows from a novel male. The significant reduction in behavioural response to a final rehabituation playback shows this was not a chance rebound in response levels. Our findings indicate that male koala bellows are highly individually distinctive and that the identity of male callers is functionally relevant to male and female koalas during the breeding season. We go on to discuss the biological relevance of signalling identity in this species' sexual communication and the potential practical implications of our findings for acoustic monitoring of male population levels.

  10. Pharmacokinetics of posaconazole in koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) after intravenous and oral administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharibi, S; Kimble, B; Vogelnest, L; Barnes, J; Stadler, C K; Govendir, M

    2017-12-01

    The pharmacokinetic profile of posaconazole in clinically normal koalas (n = 8) was investigated. Single doses of posaconazole were administered intravenously (i.v.; 3 mg/kg; n = 2) or orally (p.o.; 6 mg/kg; n = 6) with serial plasma samples collected over 24 and 36 hr, respectively. Plasma concentrations of posaconazole were quantified by validated high-performance liquid chromatography. A noncompartmental pharmacokinetic analysis of data was performed. Following i.v. administration, estimates of the median (range) of plasma clearance (CL) and steady-state volume of distribution (V ss ) were 0.15 (0.13-0.18) L hr -1  kg -1 and 1.23 (0.93-1.53) L/kg, respectively. The median (range) elimination half-life (t 1/2 ) after i.v. and p.o. administration was 7.90 (7.62-8.18) and 12.79 (11.22-16.24) hr, respectively. Oral bioavailability varied from 0.43 to 0.99 (median: 0.66). Following oral administration, maximum plasma concentration (C max ; median: 0.72, range: 0.55-0.93 μg/ml) was achieved in 8 (range 6-12) hr. The in vitro plasma protein binding of posaconazole incubated at 37°C was 99.25 ± 0.29%. Consideration of posaconazole pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) targets for some yeasts such as disseminated candidiasis suggests that posaconazole could be an efficacious treatment for cryptococcosis in koalas. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Plasma biochemistry and urinalysis variables of koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) with and without oxalate nephrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speight, K Natasha; Haynes, Julie I; Boardman, Wayne; Breed, William G; Taggart, David A; Rich, Brian; Woolford, Lucy

    2014-06-01

    Oxalate nephrosis is a highly prevalent disease in the Mount Lofty Ranges koala population in South Australia, but associated clinicopathologic findings remain undescribed. The aims of this study were to determine plasma biochemical and urinalysis variables, particularly for renal function and urinary crystal morphology and composition, in koalas with oxalate nephrosis. Blood and urine samples from Mount Lofty Ranges koalas with oxalate nephrosis were compared with those unaffected by renal oxalate crystal deposition from Mount Lofty and Kangaroo Island, South Australia and Moggill, Queensland. Plasma and urine biochemistry variables were analyzed using a Cobas Bio analyzer, and urinary oxalate by high-performance liquid chromatography. Urinary crystal composition was determined by infrared spectroscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analysis. Azotemia (urea > 6.6 mmol/L, creatinine > 150 μmol/L) was found in 93% of koalas with oxalate nephrosis (n = 15). All azotemic animals had renal insufficiency (urine specific gravity [USG] < 1.035), and in 83%, USG was < 1.030. Koalas with oxalate nephrosis were hyperoxaluric compared with Queensland koalas (P < .01). Urinary crystals from koalas with oxalate nephrosis had atypical morphology and were composed of calcium oxalate. Mount Lofty Ranges koalas unaffected by renal oxalate crystal deposition had renal insufficiency (43%), although only 14% had USG < 1.030 (n = 7). Unaffected Mount Lofty Ranges and Kangaroo Island koalas were hyperoxaluric compared with Queensland koalas (P < .01). Koalas with oxalate nephrosis from the Mount Lofty Ranges had renal insufficiency, hyperoxaluria, and pathognomonic urinary crystals. The findings of this study will aid veterinary diagnosis of this disease. © 2014 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology and European Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  12. Activity patterns of free-ranging koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus revealed by accelerometry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle A Ryan

    Full Text Available An understanding of koala activity patterns is important for measuring the behavioral response of this species to environmental change, but to date has been limited by the logistical challenges of traditional field methodologies. We addressed this knowledge gap by using tri-axial accelerometer data loggers attached to VHF radio collars to examine activity patterns of adult male and female koalas in a high-density population at Cape Otway, Victoria, Australia. Data were obtained from 27 adult koalas over two 7-d periods during the breeding season: 12 in the early-breeding season in November 2010, and 15 in the late-breeding season in January 2011. Multiple 15 minute observation blocks on each animal were used for validation of activity patterns determined from the accelerometer data loggers. Accelerometry was effective in distinguishing between inactive (sleeping, resting and active (grooming, feeding and moving behaviors. Koalas were more active during the early-breeding season with a higher index of movement (overall dynamic body acceleration [ODBA] for both males and females. Koalas showed a distinct temporal pattern of behavior, with most activity occurring from mid-afternoon to early morning. Accelerometry has potential for examining fine-scale behavior of a wide range of arboreal and terrestrial species.

  13. Can Citizen Science Assist in Determining Koala (Phascolarctos cinereus Presence in a Declining Population?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Flower

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The acceptance and application of citizen science has risen over the last 10 years, with this rise likely attributed to an increase in public awareness surrounding anthropogenic impacts affecting urban ecosystems. Citizen science projects have the potential to expand upon data collected by specialist researchers as they are able to gain access to previously unattainable information, consequently increasing the likelihood of an effective management program. The primary objective of this research was to develop guidelines for a successful regional-scale citizen science project following a critical analysis of 12 existing citizen science case studies. Secondly, the effectiveness of these guidelines was measured through the implementation of a citizen science project, Koala Quest, for the purpose of estimating the presence of koalas in a fragmented landscape. Consequently, this research aimed to determine whether citizen-collected data can augment traditional science research methods, by comparing and contrasting the abundance of koala sightings gathered by citizen scientists and professional researchers. Based upon the guidelines developed, Koala Quest methodologies were designed, the study conducted, and the efficacy of the project assessed. To combat the high variability of estimated koala populations due to differences in counting techniques, a national monitoring and evaluation program is required, in addition to a standardised method for conducting koala population estimates. Citizen science is a useful method for monitoring animals such as the koala, which are sparsely distributed throughout a vast geographical area, as the large numbers of volunteers recruited by a citizen science project are capable of monitoring a similarly broad spatial range.

  14. Some pharmacokinetic indices of oral fluconazole administration to koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) infected with cryptococcosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govendir, M; Black, L A; Jobbins, S E; Kimble, B; Malik, R; Krockenberger, M B

    2016-08-01

    Three asymptomatic koalas serologically positive for cryptococcosis and two symptomatic koalas were treated with 10 mg/kg fluconazole orally, twice daily for at least 2 weeks. The median plasma Cmax and AUC0-8 h for asymptomatic animals were 0.9 μg/mL and 4.9 μg/mL·h, respectively; and for symptomatic animals 3.2 μg/mL and 17.3 μg/mL·h, respectively. An additional symptomatic koala was treated with fluconazole (10 mg/kg twice daily) and a subcutaneous amphotericin B infusion twice weekly. After 2 weeks the fluconazole Cmax was 3.7 μg/mL and the AUC0-8 h was 25.8 μg/mL*h. An additional three koalas were treated with fluconazole 15 mg/kg twice daily for at least 2 weeks, with the same subcutaneous amphotericin protocol co-administered to two of these koalas (Cmax : 5.0 μg/mL; mean AUC0-8 h : 18.1 μg/mL*h). For all koalas, the fluconazole plasma Cmax failed to reach the MIC90 (16 μg/mL) to inhibit C. gattii. Fluconazole administered orally at either 10 or 15 mg/kg twice daily in conjunction with amphotericin is unlikely to attain therapeutic plasma concentrations. Suggestions to improve treatment of systemic cryptococcosis include testing pathogen susceptibility to fluconazole, monitoring plasma fluconazole concentrations, and administration of 20-25 mg/kg fluconazole orally, twice daily, with an amphotericin subcutaneous infusion twice weekly. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Perception of male caller identity in Koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus: acoustic analysis and playback experiments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin D Charlton

    Full Text Available The ability to signal individual identity using vocal signals and distinguish between conspecifics based on vocal cues is important in several mammal species. Furthermore, it can be important for receivers to differentiate between callers in reproductive contexts. In this study, we used acoustic analyses to determine whether male koala bellows are individually distinctive and to investigate the relative importance of different acoustic features for coding individuality. We then used a habituation-discrimination paradigm to investigate whether koalas discriminate between the bellow vocalisations of different male callers. Our results show that male koala bellows are highly individualized, and indicate that cues related to vocal tract filtering contribute the most to vocal identity. In addition, we found that male and female koalas habituated to the bellows of a specific male showed a significant dishabituation when they were presented with bellows from a novel male. The significant reduction in behavioural response to a final rehabituation playback shows this was not a chance rebound in response levels. Our findings indicate that male koala bellows are highly individually distinctive and that the identity of male callers is functionally relevant to male and female koalas during the breeding season. We go on to discuss the biological relevance of signalling identity in this species' sexual communication and the potential practical implications of our findings for acoustic monitoring of male population levels.

  16. Multifarious activities of cellulose degrading bacteria from Koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) faeces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Surender; Thavamani, Palanisami; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Naidu, Ravi

    2015-01-01

    Cellulose degrading bacteria from koala faeces were isolated using caboxymethylcellulose-Congo red agar, screened in vitro for different hydrolytic enzyme activities and phylogenetically characterized using molecular tools. Bacillus sp. and Pseudomonas sp. were the most prominent bacteria from koala faeces. The isolates demonstrated good xylanase, amylase, lipase, protease, tannase and lignin peroxidase activities apart from endoglucanase activity. Furthermore many isolates grew in the presence of phenanthrene, indicating their probable application for bioremediation. Potential isolates can be exploited further for industrial enzyme production or in bioremediation of contaminated sites.

  17. Antigenic specificity of a monovalent versus polyvalent MOMP based Chlamydia pecorum vaccine in koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollipara, Avinash; Wan, Charles; Rawlinson, Galit; Brumm, Jacqui; Nilsson, Karen; Polkinghorne, Adam; Beagley, Kenneth; Timms, Peter

    2013-02-06

    Chlamydia continues to be a major pathogen of koalas. The bacterium is associated with ocular, respiratory and urogenital tract infections and a vaccine is considered the best option to limit the decline of mainland koala populations. Over the last 20 years, efforts to develop a chlamydial vaccine in humans have focussed on the use of the chlamydial major outer membrane protein (MOMP). Potential problems with the use of MOMP-based vaccines relate to the wide range of genetic diversity in its four variable domains. In the present study, we evaluated the immune response of koalas vaccinated with a MOMP-based C. pecorum vaccine formulated with genetically and serologically diverse MOMPs. Animals immunised with individual MOMPs developed strong antibody and lymphocyte proliferation responses to both homologous as well as heterologous MOMP proteins. Importantly, we also showed that vaccine induced antibodies which effectively neutralised various heterologous strains of koala C. pecorum in an in vitro assay. Finally, we also demonstrated that the immune responses in monovalent as well as polyvalent MOMP vaccine groups were able to recognise whole chlamydial elementary bodies, illustrating the feasibility of developing an effective MOMP based C. pecorum vaccine that could protect against a range of strains. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Characterisation of four major histocompatibility complex class II genes of the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Quintin; Jobbins, Sarah E; Belov, Katherine; Higgins, Damien P

    2013-01-01

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules have an integral role in the adaptive immune response, as they bind and present antigenic peptides to T helper lymphocytes. In this study of koalas, species-specific primers were designed to amplify exon 2 of the MHC class II DA and DB genes, which contain much of the peptide-binding regions of the α and β chains. A total of two DA α1 domain variants and eight DA β1 (DAB), three DB α1 and five DB β1 variants were amplified from 20 koalas from two free-living populations from South East Queensland and the Port Macquarie region in northern New South Wales. We detected greater variation in the β1 than in the α1 domains as well as evidence of positive selection in DAB. The present study provides a springboard to future investigation of the role of MHC in disease susceptibility in koalas.

  19. Activity patterns of free-ranging koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) revealed by accelerometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Michelle A; Whisson, Desley A; Holland, Greg J; Arnould, John P Y

    2013-01-01

    An understanding of koala activity patterns is important for measuring the behavioral response of this species to environmental change, but to date has been limited by the logistical challenges of traditional field methodologies. We addressed this knowledge gap by using tri-axial accelerometer data loggers attached to VHF radio collars to examine activity patterns of adult male and female koalas in a high-density population at Cape Otway, Victoria, Australia. Data were obtained from 27 adult koalas over two 7-d periods during the breeding season: 12 in the early-breeding season in November 2010, and 15 in the late-breeding season in January 2011. Multiple 15 minute observation blocks on each animal were used for validation of activity patterns determined from the accelerometer data loggers. Accelerometry was effective in distinguishing between inactive (sleeping, resting) and active (grooming, feeding and moving) behaviors. Koalas were more active during the early-breeding season with a higher index of movement (overall dynamic body acceleration [ODBA]) for both males and females. Koalas showed a distinct temporal pattern of behavior, with most activity occurring from mid-afternoon to early morning. Accelerometry has potential for examining fine-scale behavior of a wide range of arboreal and terrestrial species.

  20. Pharmacokinetics of fluconazole following intravenous and oral administration to koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, L A; Krockenberger, M B; Kimble, B; Govendir, M

    2014-02-01

    Clinically normal koalas (n = 12) received a single dose of 10 mg/kg fluconazole orally (p.o.; n = 6) or intravenously (i.v.; n = 6). Serial plasma samples were collected over 24 h, and fluconazole concentrations were determined using a validated HPLC assay. A noncompartmental pharmacokinetic analysis was performed. Following i.v. administration, median (range) plasma clearance (CL) and steady-state volume of distribution (Vss ) were 0.31 (0.11-0.55) L/h/kg and 0.92 (0.38-1.40) L/kg, respectively. The elimination half-life (t1/2 ) was much shorter than in many species (i.v.: median 2.25, range 0.98-6.51 h; p.o.: 4.69, range 2.47-8.01 h), and oral bioavailability was low and variable (median 0.53, range 0.20-0.97). Absorption rate-limited disposition was evident. Plasma protein binding was 39.5 ± 3.5%. Although fluconazole volume of distribution (Varea ) displayed an allometric relationship with other mammals, CL and t1/2 did not. Allometrically scaled values were approximately sevenfold lower (CL) and sixfold higher (t1/2 ) than observed values, highlighting flaws associated with this technique in physiologically distinct species. On the basis of fAUC/MIC pharmacodynamic targets, fluconazole is predicted to be ineffective against Cryptococcus gattii in the koala as a sole therapeutic agent administered at 10 mg/kg p.o. every 12 h. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Reliable genotyping of the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) using DNA isolated from a single faecal pellet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedrowicz, Faye; Karsa, Mawar; Mosse, Jennifer; Hogan, Fiona E

    2013-07-01

    The koala, an Australian icon, has been added to the threatened species list. Rationale for the listing includes proposed declines in population size, threats to populations (e.g. disease) and loss and fragmentation of habitat. There is now an urgent need to obtain accurate data to assess the status of koala populations in Australia, to ensure the long-term viability of this species. Advances in genetic techniques have enabled DNA analysis to study and inform the management of wild populations; however, sampling of individual koalas is difficult in tall, often remote, eucalypt forest. The collection of faecal pellets (scats) from the forest floor presents an opportunistic sampling strategy, where DNA can be collected without capturing or even sighting an individual. Obtaining DNA via noninvasive sampling can be used to rapidly sample a large proportion of a population; however, DNA from noninvasively collected samples is often degraded. Factors influencing DNA quality and quantity include environmental exposure, diet and methods of sample collection, storage and DNA isolation. Reduced DNA quality and quantity can introduce genotyping errors and provide inaccurate DNA profiles, reducing confidence in the ability of such data to inform management/conservation strategies. Here, we present a protocol that produces a reliable individual koala genotype from a single faecal pellet and highlight the importance of optimizing DNA isolation and analysis for the species of interest. This method could readily be adapted for genetic studies of mammals other than koalas, particularly those whose diet contains high proportions of volatile materials that are likely to induce DNA damage. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Pathological features of oxalate nephrosis in a population of koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) in South Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speight, K N; Boardman, W; Breed, W G; Taggart, D A; Woolford, L; Haynes, J I

    2013-03-01

    The wild and captive koala population of the Mt Lofty Ranges in South Australia has a high level of renal dysfunction in which crystals consistent with calcium oxalate have been observed in the kidneys. This study aimed to describe the pathological features of the renal disease in this population, confirm the composition of renal crystals as calcium oxalate, and determine whether any age or sex predispositions exist for this disease. A total of 51 koalas (28 wild rescues, 23 captive) were examined at necropsy, of which 28 (55%) were found to have gross and/or histological evidence of oxalate nephrosis. Histopathological features included intratubular and interstitial inflammation, tubule dilation, glomerular atrophy, tubule loss, and cortical fibrosis. Calcium oxalate crystals were demonstrated using a combination of polarization microscopy, alizarin red S staining, infrared spectroscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis with scanning electron microscopy. Uric acid and phosphate deposits were also shown to be present but were associated with minimal histopathological changes. No significant differences were found between the numbers of affected captive and wild rescued koalas; also, there were no sex or age predispositions identified, but it was found that oxalate nephrosis may affect koalas <2 years of age. The findings of this study suggest that oxalate nephrosis is a leading disease in this koala population. Possible causes of this disease are currently under investigation.

  3. Novel molecular markers of Chlamydia pecorum genetic diversity in the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Chlamydia pecorum is an obligate intracellular bacterium and the causative agent of reproductive and ocular disease in several animal hosts including koalas, sheep, cattle and goats. C. pecorum strains detected in koalas are genetically diverse, raising interesting questions about the origin and transmission of this species within koala hosts. While the ompA gene remains the most widely-used target in C. pecorum typing studies, it is generally recognised that surface protein encoding genes are not suited for phylogenetic analysis and it is becoming increasingly apparent that the ompA gene locus is not congruent with the phylogeny of the C. pecorum genome. Using the recently sequenced C. pecorum genome sequence (E58), we analysed 10 genes, including ompA, to evaluate the use of ompA as a molecular marker in the study of koala C. pecorum genetic diversity. Results Three genes (incA, ORF663, tarP) were found to contain sufficient nucleotide diversity and discriminatory power for detailed analysis and were used, with ompA, to genotype 24 C. pecorum PCR-positive koala samples from four populations. The most robust representation of the phylogeny of these samples was achieved through concatenation of all four gene sequences, enabling the recreation of a "true" phylogenetic signal. OmpA and incA were of limited value as fine-detailed genetic markers as they were unable to confer accurate phylogenetic distinctions between samples. On the other hand, the tarP and ORF663 genes were identified as useful "neutral" and "contingency" markers respectively, to represent the broad evolutionary history and intra-species genetic diversity of koala C. pecorum. Furthermore, the concatenation of ompA, incA and ORF663 sequences highlighted the monophyletic nature of koala C. pecorum infections by demonstrating a single evolutionary trajectory for koala hosts that is distinct from that seen in non-koala hosts. Conclusions While the continued use of ompA as a fine-detailed molecular marker for epidemiological analysis appears justified, the tarP and ORF663 genes also appear to be valuable markers of phylogenetic or biogeographic divisions at the C. pecorum intra-species level. This research has significant implications for future typing studies to understand the phylogeny, genetic diversity, and epidemiology of C. pecorum infections in the koala and other animal species. PMID:21496349

  4. Identification of MHCII variants associated with chlamydial disease in the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus)

    OpenAIRE

    Lau, Quintin; Griffith, Joanna E.; Higgins, Damien P.

    2014-01-01

    Chlamydiosis, the most common infectious disease in koalas, can cause chronic urogenital tract fibrosis and infertility. High titres of serum immunoglobulin G against 10 kDa and 60 kDa chlamydial heat-shock proteins (c-hsp10 and c-hsp60) are associated with fibrous occlusion of the koala uterus and uterine tube. Murine and human studies have identified associations between specific major histocompatibility complex class II (MHCII) alleles or genotypes, and higher c-hsp 60 antibody levels or c...

  5. Assessment of florfenicol as a possible treatment for chlamydiosis in koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budd, C; Flanagan, C; Gillett, A; Hanger, J; Loader, J J; Govendir, M

    2017-09-01

    Because of limited availability of chloramphenicol to veterinary suppliers, a preliminary study was performed to predict whether an analogue, florfenicol, is an efficacious treatment for chlamydiosis in koalas. Florfenicol was administered to koalas with naturally occurring chlamydiosis at 20 mg/kg SC (n = 3) and at 5 mg/kg (n = 3) and 10 mg/kg (n = 3) IV. The estimated areas under the plasma concentration versus time curves (AUC) were compared with the minimum inhibitory concentration to inhibit Chlamydia pecorum. Clinical data were also examined from field trials conducted on koalas (n = 19) with naturally occurring chlamydiosis and treated with florfenicol at a range of dosages (5-20 mg/kg SC and 6-15 mg/kg IV). Florfenicol binding to proteins in plasma was also determined. Florfenicol was not detectable in plasma 24 h post-administration at 20 mg/kg SC. The estimated AUC 0-24 h following administration at 10 mg/kg IV suggests florfenicol might be effective against Chlamydia spp. via this route. Florfenicol binding to plasma proteins was 13.0% (± 0.30 SEM). After treatment with florfenicol in field trials, 5 of 19 koalas (26%) were released without further treatment, 4 with no long-term follow-up; 6 (32%) required additional treatment with chloramphenicol to resolve chlamydiosis; 7 (36%) failed to clinically improve, of which 3 had clinical signs and/or necropsy findings suggestive of antibiotic-related gastrointestinal dysbiosis; another koala died within minutes of florfenicol administered IV at 7 mg/kg. When administered at dosages tolerable in the field, florfenicol is a problematic treatment for chlamydiosis based on equivocal outcomes and plasma concentrations below those that inhibit the pathogen. © 2017 Australian Veterinary Association.

  6. Pharmacokinetics of meloxicam in koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) after intravenous, subcutaneous and oral administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimble, B; Black, L A; Li, K M; Valtchev, P; Gilchrist, S; Gillett, A; Higgins, D P; Krockenberger, M B; Govendir, M

    2013-10-01

    The pharmacokinetic profile of meloxicam in clinically healthy koalas (n = 15) was investigated. Single doses of meloxicam were administered intravenously (i.v.) (0.4 mg/kg; n = 5), subcutaneously (s.c.) (0.2 mg/kg; n = 1) or orally (0.2 mg/kg; n = 3), and multiple doses were administered to two groups of koalas via the oral or s.c. routes (n = 3 for both routes) with a loading dose of 0.2 mg/kg for day 1 followed by 0.1 mg/kg s.i.d for a further 3 days. Plasma meloxicam concentrations were quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography. Following i.v. administration, meloxicam exhibited a rapid clearance (CL) of 0.44 ± 0.20 (SD) L/h/kg, a volume of distribution at terminal phase (Vz ) of 0.72 ± 0.22 L/kg and a volume of distribution at steady state (Vss ) of 0.22 ± 0.12 L/kg. Median plasma terminal half-life (t(1/2)) was 1.19 h (range 0.71-1.62 h). Following oral administration either from single or repeated doses, only maximum peak plasma concentration (C(max) 0.013 ± 0.001 and 0.014 ± 0.001 μg/mL, respectively) was measurable [limit of quantitation (LOQ) >0.01 μg/mL] between 4-8 h. Oral bioavailability was negligible in koalas. Plasma protein binding of meloxicam was ~98%. Three meloxicam metabolites were detected in plasma with one identified as the 5-hydroxy methyl derivative. This study demonstrated that koalas exhibited rapid CL and extremely poor oral bioavailability compared with other eutherian species. Accordingly, the currently recommended dose regimen of meloxicam for this species appears inadequate. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Orchitis and Epididymitis in Koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) Infected With Chlamydia pecorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, S D; Deif, H H; McKinnon, A; Theilemann, P; Griffith, J E; Higgins, D P

    2015-11-01

    Although Chlamydia causes disease of the urethra and prostate of male koalas, its impact on the testis and epididymis has not been examined. This study describes chronic-active and granulomatous orchitis and epididymitis with interstitial fibrosis associated with infection by Chlamydia pecorum in 2 of 18 adult male koalas being euthanized at a koala hospital, 8 of which also had chlamydial prostatitis. By immunohistochemistry and transmission electron microscopy, chlamydial inclusions were demonstrated within Sertoli cells directly associated with mild inflammation surrounding intact seminiferous and epididymal tubules, marked pyogranulomatous inflammation around disrupted tubules, replacement of tubules by interstitial fibrosis, and aspermia. The presence of C. pecorum but not Chlamydia pneumoniae was detected by quantitative polymerase chain reaction of formalin-fixed tissues of the left and right testes and right epididymis in 1 animal. This is the first report of orchitis and epididymitis in a koala infected with C. pecorum. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. Validation of ultrasonography in detecting structural disease of the urogenital tract of the koala, Phascolarctos cinereus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marschner, C; Flanagan, C; Higgins, D P; Krockenberger, M B

    2014-05-01

    A retrospective review of case records of ultrasonography and necropsy outcomes of 62 koalas was used to investigate the accuracy of ultrasonography in assessing koala urogenital tract structural disease at the Port Macquarie Koala Hospital. The results showed high concordance, supporting ultrasonography as an effective tool for evaluating structural disease of the koala urogenital tract, most commonly seen with chlamydiosis. The study also illustrates the advances benefiting animal welfare that can be made by wildlife carer groups through using a scientific, evidence-based approach. © 2014 Australian Veterinary Association.

  9. A Survey of Pesticide Accumulation in a Specialist Feeder, the Koala (Phascolarctos cinereus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marschner, Caroline; Higgins, Damien P; Krockenberger, Mark B

    2017-09-01

    To maintain profitability in Australia's agricultural and urban landscapes pesticides are used throughout the range of koala habitats. The koala is a specialist feeder, reliant on metabolic enzyme capacities to utilise a toxic diet of eucalypt leaves and is potentially prone to adverse effects when xenobiotic interactions between dietary and anthropogenic xenobiotics occur. The aim of this study was to investigate accumulation of frequently used pesticides in wild koalas in 4 areas of New South Wales and Queensland. Liver samples of 57 deceased koalas were collected from care facilities and analysed using a modified QuEChERS extraction method followed by GCMSMS, HRLCMS and LCMSMS. No accumulation of any of the 166 investigated pesticides was found. Data indicate hepatic accumulation of pesticides in this species is uncommon even with close interactions with intensive land use. Despite the lack of hepatic bioaccumulation, this study cannot exclude a direct effect on hepatocellular metabolic pathways.

  10. The Rescue and Rehabilitation of Koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) in Southeast Queensland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Emily; Tribe, Andrew

    2016-09-15

    Koala populations in southeast Queensland are under threat from many factors, particularly habitat loss, dog attack, vehicle trauma and disease. Animals not killed from these impacts are often rescued and taken into care for rehabilitation, and eventual release back to the wild if deemed to be healthy. This study investigated current rescue, rehabilitation and release data for koalas admitted to the four major wildlife hospitals in southeast Queensland (Australia Zoo Wildlife Hospital (AZWH), Currumbin Wildlife Sanctuary Hospital (CWH), Moggill Koala Hospital (MKH) and the Royal Society for the Prevention Against Cruelty to Animals Wildlife Hospital at Wacol (RSPCA)), and suggests aspects of the practice that may be changed to improve its contribution to the preservation of the species. It concluded that: (a) the main threats to koalas across southeast Queensland were related to urbanization (vehicle collisions, domestic animal attacks and the disease chlamydiosis); (b) case outcomes varied amongst hospitals, including time spent in care, euthanasia and release rates; and (c) the majority (66.5%) of rescued koalas were either euthanized or died in care with only 27% released back to the wild. The results from this study have important implications for further research into koala rescue and rehabilitation to gain a better understanding of its effectiveness as a conservation strategy.

  11. Potential ?Ecological Traps? of Restored Landscapes: Koalas Phascolarctos cinereus Re-Occupy a Rehabilitated Mine Site

    OpenAIRE

    Cristescu, Romane H.; Banks, Peter B.; Carrick, Frank N.; Fr?re, C?line

    2013-01-01

    With progressively increasing anthropogenic habitat disturbances, restoration of impacted landscapes is becoming a critical element of biodiversity conservation. Evaluation of success in restoration ecology rarely includes faunal components, usually only encompassing abiotic and floral components of the ecosystems. Even when fauna is explicitly included, it is usually only species presence/absence criteria that are considered. If restoration is to have a positive outcome, however, populations...

  12. Novel molecular markers of Chlamydia pecorum genetic diversity in the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timms Peter

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chlamydia pecorum is an obligate intracellular bacterium and the causative agent of reproductive and ocular disease in several animal hosts including koalas, sheep, cattle and goats. C. pecorum strains detected in koalas are genetically diverse, raising interesting questions about the origin and transmission of this species within koala hosts. While the ompA gene remains the most widely-used target in C. pecorum typing studies, it is generally recognised that surface protein encoding genes are not suited for phylogenetic analysis and it is becoming increasingly apparent that the ompA gene locus is not congruent with the phylogeny of the C. pecorum genome. Using the recently sequenced C. pecorum genome sequence (E58, we analysed 10 genes, including ompA, to evaluate the use of ompA as a molecular marker in the study of koala C. pecorum genetic diversity. Results Three genes (incA, ORF663, tarP were found to contain sufficient nucleotide diversity and discriminatory power for detailed analysis and were used, with ompA, to genotype 24 C. pecorum PCR-positive koala samples from four populations. The most robust representation of the phylogeny of these samples was achieved through concatenation of all four gene sequences, enabling the recreation of a "true" phylogenetic signal. OmpA and incA were of limited value as fine-detailed genetic markers as they were unable to confer accurate phylogenetic distinctions between samples. On the other hand, the tarP and ORF663 genes were identified as useful "neutral" and "contingency" markers respectively, to represent the broad evolutionary history and intra-species genetic diversity of koala C. pecorum. Furthermore, the concatenation of ompA, incA and ORF663 sequences highlighted the monophyletic nature of koala C. pecorum infections by demonstrating a single evolutionary trajectory for koala hosts that is distinct from that seen in non-koala hosts. Conclusions While the continued use of ompA as a fine-detailed molecular marker for epidemiological analysis appears justified, the tarP and ORF663 genes also appear to be valuable markers of phylogenetic or biogeographic divisions at the C. pecorum intra-species level. This research has significant implications for future typing studies to understand the phylogeny, genetic diversity, and epidemiology of C. pecorum infections in the koala and other animal species.

  13. Identification of MHCII variants associated with chlamydial disease in the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Quintin; Griffith, Joanna E; Higgins, Damien P

    2014-01-01

    Chlamydiosis, the most common infectious disease in koalas, can cause chronic urogenital tract fibrosis and infertility. High titres of serum immunoglobulin G against 10 kDa and 60 kDa chlamydial heat-shock proteins (c-hsp10 and c-hsp60) are associated with fibrous occlusion of the koala uterus and uterine tube. Murine and human studies have identified associations between specific major histocompatibility complex class II (MHCII) alleles or genotypes, and higher c-hsp 60 antibody levels or chlamydia-associated disease and infertility. In this study, we characterised partial MHCII DAB and DBB genes in female koalas (n = 94) from a single geographic population, and investigated associations among antibody responses to c-hsp60 quantified by ELISA, susceptibility to chlamydial infection, or age. The identification of three candidate MHCII variants provides additional support for the functional role of MHCII in the koala, and will inform more focused future studies. This is the first study to investigate an association between MHC genes with chlamydial pathogenesis in a non-model, free-ranging species.

  14. Can Citizen Science Assist in Determining Koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) Presence in a Declining Population?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flower, Emily; Jones, Darryl; Bernede, Lilia

    2016-07-14

    The acceptance and application of citizen science has risen over the last 10 years, with this rise likely attributed to an increase in public awareness surrounding anthropogenic impacts affecting urban ecosystems. Citizen science projects have the potential to expand upon data collected by specialist researchers as they are able to gain access to previously unattainable information, consequently increasing the likelihood of an effective management program. The primary objective of this research was to develop guidelines for a successful regional-scale citizen science project following a critical analysis of 12 existing citizen science case studies. Secondly, the effectiveness of these guidelines was measured through the implementation of a citizen science project, Koala Quest, for the purpose of estimating the presence of koalas in a fragmented landscape. Consequently, this research aimed to determine whether citizen-collected data can augment traditional science research methods, by comparing and contrasting the abundance of koala sightings gathered by citizen scientists and professional researchers. Based upon the guidelines developed, Koala Quest methodologies were designed, the study conducted, and the efficacy of the project assessed. To combat the high variability of estimated koala populations due to differences in counting techniques, a national monitoring and evaluation program is required, in addition to a standardised method for conducting koala population estimates. Citizen science is a useful method for monitoring animals such as the koala, which are sparsely distributed throughout a vast geographical area, as the large numbers of volunteers recruited by a citizen science project are capable of monitoring a similarly broad spatial range.

  15. Comparison of nine antigen detection kits for diagnosis of urogenital infections due to Chlamydia psittaci in koalas.

    OpenAIRE

    Wood, M M; Timms, P

    1992-01-01

    Chlamydia psittaci is the major cause of infectious disease in the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus). It causes four disease syndromes in the koala, namely, conjunctivitis, rhinitis, cystitis, and infertility (females only). Diagnosis of chlamydial infections in koalas relies primarily on isolation of the organism in cell culture. Serology has generally not been useful, and little use has previously been made of the commercially available antigen detection kits. We examined the sensitivity, spec...

  16. Maxillary sinusitis from Microascus cinereus and Aspergillus repens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aznar, C; de Bievre, C; Guiguen, C

    1989-02-01

    Microascus was associated with Aspergillus repens in a left maxillary sinus. Tissue contained septale filaments of two types, conidia, ostiolate perithecia containing ascospores corresponding to Microascus cinereus which was identified by culture. The abundance of sexual fructifications in the tissue indicates that pathogenicity is due to Microascus cinereus.

  17. The Distribution and Abundance of an Island Population of Koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) in the Far North of Their Geographic Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, Denise C.; Kerr, Sarah E.; Krockenberger, Andrew K.

    2013-01-01

    Koalas are an iconic species of charismatic megafauna, of substantial social and conservation significance. They are widely distributed, often at low densities, and individuals can be difficult to detect, making population surveys challenging and costly. Consequently, koala population estimates have been limited and the results inconsistent. The aims of this study were to estimate the distribution, relative abundance and population size of the koalas on Magnetic Island, far north Queensland. Population densities were estimated in 18 different vegetation types present on the island using a Fecal Standing Crop Method. Koala density ranged from 0.404 ha−1, recorded in forest red gum and bloodwood woodland, to absence from eight of the vegetation types surveyed. The second highest density of 0.297 koalas ha−1 was recorded in mixed eucalypt woodland, which covers 45% of the island. The total abundance of koalas on Magnetic Island, not including those present in urban areas, was estimated at 825±175 (SEM). The large variation in koala density across vegetation types reinforces the need for sampling stratification when calculating abundance over large areas, as uniformity of habitat quality cannot be assumed. In this context, koala populations also occur in low densities in areas generally regarded as poor quality koala habitat. These results highlight the importance of protecting vegetation communities not traditionally considered to have high conservation value to koalas, as these habitats may be essential for maintaining viable, widespread, low-density populations. The results from this study provide a baseline to assess future trends in koala distribution, density and abundance on Magnetic Island. PMID:23527258

  18. Cryptococcus neoformans in the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus): colonization by C n. var. gattii and investigation of environmental sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krockenberger, M B; Canfield, P J; Malik, R

    2002-06-01

    This study is the one in a series looking at the relationship among Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii, koalas and the environment. The koala was used as a natural biological sampler in an attempt to understand the dynamics of C. neoformans var. gattii in Australian environments. Evidence of asymptomatic nasal and skin colonization for extended periods by large numbers of C. n. var. gattii was obtained and geographical factors assessed. The key finding was the ability of koalas to amplify numbers of C. n. var. gattii in certain environments. Koalas were not found to be obligatory for the survival of the organism in all environments. Geographical factors alone could not explain differing rates of nasal and skin colonization in koalas in different environments. A strong association between healthy koalas and C. n. var. gattii was confirmed and C n. var. gattii was isolated from novel sources, including the turpentine gum tree (Syncarpia glomulifera), tallowwood (Eucalyptus microcorys) and flooded gum (E. grandis). It seems likely that as yet undiscovered environmental sources of C. n. var. gattii exist in eastern Australia. Further investigation of host, environmental and organism factors integral to the hostpathogen relationship will assist an understanding of the progression from colonization to tissue invasion and cryptococcosis in all species.

  19. Cues to body size in the formant spacing of male koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) bellows: honesty in an exaggerated trait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton, Benjamin D; Ellis, William A H; McKinnon, Allan J; Cowin, Gary J; Brumm, Jacqui; Nilsson, Karen; Fitch, W Tecumseh

    2011-10-15

    Determining the information content of vocal signals and understanding morphological modifications of vocal anatomy are key steps towards revealing the selection pressures acting on a given species' vocal communication system. Here, we used a combination of acoustic and anatomical data to investigate whether male koala bellows provide reliable information on the caller's body size, and to confirm whether male koalas have a permanently descended larynx. Our results indicate that the spectral prominences of male koala bellows are formants (vocal tract resonances), and show that larger males have lower formant spacing. In contrast, no relationship between body size and the fundamental frequency was found. Anatomical investigations revealed that male koalas have a permanently descended larynx: the first example of this in a marsupial. Furthermore, we found a deeply anchored sternothyroid muscle that could allow male koalas to retract their larynx into the thorax. While this would explain the low formant spacing of the exhalation and initial inhalation phases of male bellows, further research will be required to reveal the anatomical basis for the formant spacing of the later inhalation phases, which is predictive of vocal tract lengths of around 50 cm (nearly the length of an adult koala's body). Taken together, these findings show that the formant spacing of male koala bellows has the potential to provide receivers with reliable information on the caller's body size, and reveal that vocal adaptations allowing callers to exaggerate (or maximise) the acoustic impression of their size have evolved independently in marsupials and placental mammals.

  20. The first case of onychomycosis in a koala (Phascolarctos cinereus due to atypical isolates of Microsporum gypseum, a diagnostic challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Mirhendi

    2016-06-01

    Conclusion: To the best of our knowledge, the present report is the first confirmed case of dermatophytosis in a koala. The genetics underlying a variety of phenotypic traits in most classical dermatophyte species are unknown, and further studies are needed to understand this phenomenon. 

  1. Review of some pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of anti-infective medicines administered to the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govendir, M

    2018-02-01

    Although koalas are iconic Australian animals, no pharmacokinetic studies of any first-line medicines used to treat diseased or injured koalas had been published prior to 2010. Traditionally, medicine dosages suggested for this species underwent linear extrapolation from those recommended for domesticated species. The koala, a specialist folivore whose natural diet consists of almost exclusively Eucalyptus spp. foliage has anatomical and physiological adaptations for detoxifying their diet which also affect medicine pharmacokinetic profiles. This review addresses aspects of medicine absorption, clearance, and other indices (such as medicine binding to plasma proteins) of enrofloxacin/marbofloxacin and chloramphenicol used for the systemic treatment of chlamydiosis, and fluconazole ± amphotericin, and posaconazole for the treatment of cryptococcosis. Based on observations from published studies, this review includes suggestions to improve therapeutic outcomes when administering medicines to diseased koalas. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. The distribution and abundance of an island population of Koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus in the far north of their geographic range.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise C McGregor

    Full Text Available Koalas are an iconic species of charismatic megafauna, of substantial social and conservation significance. They are widely distributed, often at low densities, and individuals can be difficult to detect, making population surveys challenging and costly. Consequently, koala population estimates have been limited and the results inconsistent. The aims of this study were to estimate the distribution, relative abundance and population size of the koalas on Magnetic Island, far north Queensland. Population densities were estimated in 18 different vegetation types present on the island using a Fecal Standing Crop Method. Koala density ranged from 0.404 ha(-1, recorded in forest red gum and bloodwood woodland, to absence from eight of the vegetation types surveyed. The second highest density of 0.297 koalas ha(-1 was recorded in mixed eucalypt woodland, which covers 45% of the island. The total abundance of koalas on Magnetic Island, not including those present in urban areas, was estimated at 825±175 (SEM. The large variation in koala density across vegetation types reinforces the need for sampling stratification when calculating abundance over large areas, as uniformity of habitat quality cannot be assumed. In this context, koala populations also occur in low densities in areas generally regarded as poor quality koala habitat. These results highlight the importance of protecting vegetation communities not traditionally considered to have high conservation value to koalas, as these habitats may be essential for maintaining viable, widespread, low-density populations. The results from this study provide a baseline to assess future trends in koala distribution, density and abundance on Magnetic Island.

  3. Plasma prolactin concentrations during lactation, pouch young development and the return to behavioural oestrus in captive koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballantyne, K; Anderson, S T; Mucci, A; Nicolson, V; Johnston, S D

    2015-05-29

    Plasma prolactin (PRL) concentrations in captive koalas during lactation were determined by serial blood sampling. PRL concentrations were low (1.3 ± 0.1 ng mL-1; n = 5) during early lactation until pouch young (PY) began to emerge from the pouch (around Day 130) before significantly (P < 0.05) increasing between Day 161 and Day 175 (5.3 ± 1.0 ng mL-1). A significant (P < 0.001) peak in PRL (7.7 ± 0.6 ng mL-1) coincided with maturing young between Day 189 and Day 231. All females failed to exhibit any signs of oestrous behaviour until Day 268.8 ± 8.5 (n = 4), some 102 ± 19 days before PY were weaned following achieving target weights of 2.5-2.7 kg. Throughout lactation, plasma LH concentrations were relatively high (range 4.9-8.7 ng mL-1) and LH responses to exogenous gonadotrophin-releasing hormone were observed in all koalas at all times during lactation.

  4. Molecular characterisation and expression analysis of interferon gamma in response to natural Chlamydia infection in the koala, Phascolarctos cinereus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Marina; Pavasovic, Ana; Prentis, Peter J; Beagley, Kenneth W; Timms, Peter; Polkinghorne, Adam

    2013-09-25

    Interferon gamma (IFNγ) is a key Th1 cytokine, with a principal role in the immune response against intracellular organisms such as Chlamydia. Along with being responsible for significant morbidity in human populations, Chlamydia is also responsible for wide spread infection and disease in many animal hosts, with reports that many Australian koala subpopulations are endemically infected. An understanding of the role played by IFNγ in koala chlamydial diseases is important for the establishment of better prophylactic and therapeutic approaches against chlamydial infection in this host. A limited number of IFNγ sequences have been published from marsupials and no immune reagents to measure expression have been developed. Through preliminary analysis of the koala transcriptome, we have identified the full coding sequence of the koala IFNγ gene. Transcripts were identified in spleen and lymph node tissue samples. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that koala IFNγ is closely related to other marsupial IFNγ sequences and more distantly related to eutherian mammals. To begin to characterise the role of this important cytokine in the koala's response to chlamydial infection, we developed a quantitative real time PCR assay and applied it to a small cohort of koalas with and without active chlamydial disease, revealing significant differences in expression patterns between the groups. Description of the IFNγ sequence from the koala will not only assist in understanding this species' response to its most important pathogen but will also provide further insight into the evolution of the marsupial immune system. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Surgical implantation of temperature-sensitive transmitters and data-loggers to record body temperature in koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, D; Johnston, S D; Beard, L; Nicholson, V; Lisle, A; Gaughan, J; Larkin, R; Theilemann, P; Mckinnon, A; Ellis, W

    2016-01-01

    Under predicted climate change scenarios, koala distribution in Australia is expected to be adversely affected. Recent studies have attempted to identify suitable habitat, based on models of bioclimatic regions, but to more accurately reflect the thermal tolerance and behavioural adaptations of the various regional populations, the koala's response to periods of heat stress will need to be investigated at the individual animal level. To explore the safety and suitability of temperature-sensitive intra-abdominal implants for monitoring core body temperature in the koala. A temperature-sensitive radio transmitter and thermal iButton data-logger, waxed together as a package, were surgically implanted into the abdominal cavity of four captive koalas. In one animal the implant was tethered and in the other three, it was left free-floating. After 3 months, the implants were removed and all four koalas recovered without complications. The tethering of the package in the one koala resulted in minor inflammation and adhesion, so this practice was subsequently abandoned. The free-floating deployments were complication-free and revealed a diurnal body temperature rhythm, with daily ranges of 0.4-2.8°C. The minimum recorded body temperature was 34.2°C and the maximum was 37.7°C. The difference in the readings obtained from the transmitters and iButtons never exceeded 0.3°C. The suitability of the surgical approach was confirmed, from both the animal welfare and data collection points of view. © 2016 Australian Veterinary Association.

  6. Microbiota composition of the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) ocular and urogenital sites, and their association with Chlamydia infection and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidgen, Miranda E; Hanger, Jonathan; Timms, Peter

    2017-07-12

    Disease caused by Chlamydia pecorum is characterised by ocular and urogenital infections that can lead to blindness and infertility in koalas. However, koalas that are infected with C. pecorum do not always progress to disease. In other host systems, the influence of the microbiota has been implicated in either accelerating or preventing infections progressing to disease. This study investigates the contribution of koala urogenital and ocular microbiota to Chlamydia infection and disease in a free ranging koala population. Using univariate and multivariate analysis, it was found that reproductive status in females and sexual maturation in males, were defining features in the koala urogenital microbiota. Changes in the urogenital microbiota of koalas is correlated with infection by the common pathogen, C. pecorum. The correlation of microbiota composition and C. pecorum infection is suggestive of members of the microbiota being involved in the acceleration or prevention of infections progressing to disease. The analysis also suggests that multiple microbes are likely to be associated with this process of disease progression, rather than a single organism. While other Chlamydia-like organisms were also detected, they are unlikely to contribute to chlamydial disease as they are rare members of the urogenital and ocular microbiota communities.

  7. Use of the gonadotrophin-releasing hormone antagonist azaline B to control the oestrous cycle in the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballantyne, K; Anderson, S T; Pyne, M; Nicolson, V; Mucci, A; Lisle, A; Johnston, S D

    2015-05-01

    The present study examined the effectiveness of the gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist azaline B to suppress plasma LH and 17β-oestradiol concentrations in koalas and its potential application for oestrous synchronisation. In Experiment 1, single subcutaneous injections of azaline B successfully blocked the LH response to exogenous mammalian (m) GnRH in a dose-dependent manner; specifically, 0 mg (n = 4) did not suppress the LH response, 1 mg azaline B (n = 6) suppressed the LH response for 24 h (P < 0.05), 3.3 mg azaline B (n = 8) suppressed the LH response significantly in all animals only for 3 h (P < 0.05), although in half the animals LH remained suppressed for up to 3 days, and 10 mg azaline B (n = 4) suppressed the LH response for 7 days (P < 0.05). In Experiment 2, daily 1 mg, s.c., injections of azaline B over a 10-day period during seasonal anoestrus (June-July; n = 6) suppressed (P < 0.01) the LH response to mGnRH consecutively over the 10-day treatment period and, 4 days after cessation of treatment, the LH response had not recovered. Experiment 3 was designed to test the efficacy of daily 1 mg, s.c., azaline B over 10 days to suppress plasma LH and 17β-oestradiol concentrations and ultimately synchronise timed return to oestrus during the breeding season. Although azaline B treatment did not suppress basal LH or 17β-oestradiol, oestrus was delayed in all treated females by 24.2 days, but with high variability (range 9-39 days). Overall, the present study demonstrates that the GnRH antagonist azaline B is able to inhibit the LH response in koalas to exogenous mGnRH and successfully delay the return to oestrus. However, although azaline B clearly disrupts folliculogenesis, it has not been able to effectively synchronise return to oestrus in the koala.

  8. Pharmacokinetics of chloramphenicol following administration of intravenous and subcutaneous chloramphenicol sodium succinate, and subcutaneous chloramphenicol, to koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, L A; McLachlan, A J; Griffith, J E; Higgins, D P; Gillett, A; Krockenberger, M B; Govendir, M

    2013-10-01

    Clinically normal koalas (n = 19) received a single dose of intravenous (i.v.) chloramphenicol sodium succinate (SS) (25 mg/kg; n = 6), subcutaneous (s.c.) chloramphenicol SS (60 mg/kg; n = 7) or s.c. chloramphenicol base (60 mg/kg; n = 6). Serial plasma samples were collected over 24-48 h, and chloramphenicol concentrations were determined using a validated high-performance liquid chromatography assay. The median (range) apparent clearance (CL/F) and elimination half-life (t(1/2)) of chloramphenicol after i.v. chloramphenicol SS administration were 0.52 (0.35-0.99) L/h/kg and 1.13 (0.76-1.40) h, respectively. Although the area under the concentration-time curve was comparable for the two s.c. formulations, the absorption rate-limited disposition of chloramphenicol base resulted in a lower median C(max) (2.52; range 0.75-6.80 μg/mL) and longer median tmax (8.00; range 4.00-12.00 h) than chloramphenicol SS (C(max) 20.37, range 13.88-25.15 μg/mL; t(max) 1.25, range 1.00-2.00 h). When these results were compared with susceptibility data for human Chlamydia isolates, the expected efficacy of the current chloramphenicol dosing regimen used in koalas to treat chlamydiosis remains uncertain and at odds with clinical observations. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. The first case of onychomycosis in a koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) due to atypical isolates of Microsporum gypseum, a diagnostic challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirhendi, H; Nishiyama, Y; Rezaei-Matehkolaei, A; Satoh, K; Makimura, K

    2016-06-01

    Superficial mycotic infections have been only poorly described in koalas and there are no reliable mycologically confirmed data regarding clinical isolation of dermatophytes in this animal. We report an 11-year-old female koala, kept in a zoo in Tokyo, Japan, and presenting with hyperkeratotic lesions and scaly plaques on forepaw claws and pads reminiscent of fungal infection. Direct microscopy of the scrapings was indicative of a dermatophyte infection. By culture and subsequent repeated subculturing of clinical specimens on Sabouraud dextrose agar, Mycobiotic agar, and potato dextrose agar, two distinct strains with different colony morphotypes (designed as types I and II) were identified. Macroscopic and microscopic characteristics of the strains were suggestive of three different species, i.e. Microsporum canis , M. gypseum , and M. fulvum . However, partial sequencing of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of rDNA, translation elongation factor-1α ( Tef-1α ), and beta-tubulin ( BT2 ) genes confirmed the identity of both isolates as M. gypseum. The animal was treated with a continuous terbinafine regimen (250 mg/kg) once daily for 12 weeks. To the best of our knowledge, the present report is the first confirmed case of dermatophytosis in a koala. The genetics underlying a variety of phenotypic traits in most classical dermatophyte species are unknown, and further studies are needed to understand this phenomenon.

  10. Chlamydiaceae and Chlamydia-like organisms in the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus)--organ distribution and histopathological findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burach, Fabienne; Pospischil, Andreas; Hanger, Jon; Loader, Jo; Pillonel, Trestan; Greub, Gilbert; Borel, Nicole

    2014-08-06

    Chlamydial infections in koalas can cause life-threatening diseases leading to blindness and sterility. However, little is known about the systemic spread of chlamydiae in the inner organs of the koala, and data concerning related pathological organ lesions are limited. The aim of this study was to perform a thorough investigation of organs from 23 koalas and to correlate their histopathological lesions to molecular chlamydial detection. To reach this goal, 246 formalin-fixed and paraffin embedded organ samples from 23 koalas were investigated by histopathology, Chlamydiaceae real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry, ArrayTube Microarray for Chlamydiaceae species identification as well as Chlamydiales real-time PCR and sequencing. By PCR, two koalas were positive for Chlamydia pecorum whereas immunohistochemical labelling for Chlamydiaceae was detected in 10 tissues out of nine koalas. The majority of these (n=6) had positive labelling in the urogenital tract related to histopathological lesions such as cystitis, endometritis, pyelonephritis and prostatitis. Somehow unexpected was the positive labelling in the gastrointestinal tract including the cloaca as well as in lung and spleen indicating systemic spread of infection. Uncultured Chlamydiales were detected in several organs of seven koalas by PCR, and four of these suffered from plasmacytic enteritis of unknown aetiology. Whether the finding of Chlamydia-like organisms in the gastrointestinal tract is linked to plasmacytic enteritis is unclear and remains speculative. However, as recently shown in a mouse model, the gastrointestinal tract might play a role being the site for persistent chlamydial infections and being a source for reinfection of the genital tract. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The remarkable vocal anatomy of the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus): insights into low-frequency sound production in a marsupial species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Roland; Reby, David; Fritsch, Guido; Charlton, Benjamin D

    2018-04-01

    Koalas are characterised by a highly unusual vocal anatomy, with a descended larynx and velar vocal folds, allowing them to produce calls at disproportionately low frequencies. Here we use advanced imaging techniques, histological data, classical macroscopic dissection and behavioural observations to provide the first detailed description and interpretation of male and female koala vocal anatomy. We show that both males and females have an elongated pharynx and soft palate, resulting in a permanently descended larynx. In addition, the hyoid apparatus has a human-like configuration in which paired dorsal, resilient ligaments suspend the hyoid apparatus from the skull, while the ventral parts tightly connect to the descended larynx. We also show that koalas can retract the larynx down into the thoracic inlet, facilitated by a dramatic evolutionary transformation of the ventral neck muscles. First, the usual retractors of the larynx and the hyoid have their origins deep in the thorax. Secondly, three hyoid muscles have lost their connection to the hyoid skeleton. Thirdly, the genioglossus and geniohyoid muscles are greatly increased in length. Finally, the digastric, omohyoid and sternohyoid muscles, connected by a common tendinous intersection, form a guiding channel for the dynamic down-and-up movements of the ventral hyoid parts and the larynx. We suggest that these features evolved to accommodate the low resting position of the larynx and assist in its retraction during call production. We also confirm that the edges of the intra-pharyngeal ostium have specialised to form the novel, extra-laryngeal velar vocal folds, which are much larger than the true intra-laryngeal vocal folds in both sexes, but more developed and specialised for low frequency sound production in males than in females. Our findings illustrate that strong selection pressures on acoustic signalling not only lead to the specialisation of existing vocal organs but can also result in the evolution of novel vocal structures in both sexes. © 2018 Anatomical Society.

  12. Season- and age-related reproductive changes based on fecal androgen concentrations in male koalas, Phascolarctos cinereus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusuda, Satoshi; Hashikawa, Hisashi; Takeda, Masato; Ito, Hideki; Goto, Atsushi; Oguchi, Jun; Doi, Osamu

    2013-01-01

    The purposes of the present study were to clarify age- and season- related androgen patterns, and to compare the reproductive physiology between Japanese captive koala populations and Australian populations. To measure fecal androgens, feces were collected from male koalas (4.2 to 13.8 years of age) kept in Japanese zoos. Fecal androgens were extracted with methanol from the lyophilized samples and determined by enzyme immunoassay using 4-androstene-3,17-dione antibody. Fecal androgen concentration in male koalas increased after sexual maturation and remained relatively high until old age. In the survey with the Japanese zoo studbook of koalas, copulation (conception) month showed a pyramid shape with a peak in March to June (60.7%) in koalas born and reared in Japanese zoos and from July to April with the highest concentration in September to January (69.7%) in Australian institutes. Japanese zoo koala populations have a characteristic physiological cycle adapted to Japan's seasonal changes. The suitable month of year for copulation or conception in Japan is diametrically opposed to that in Australia. Mean fecal androgen concentrations by month in the males born and reared in Japan indicated annual changes with the highest concentration in May and the lowest value in November. Fecal androgen analysis may be a noninvasive alternative tool to monitor circulating testosterone and may be helpful in understanding reproductive activity and physiology in male koalas.

  13. First report of a spermatic granuloma and varicocele in a marsupial: A Koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, B K; Palmieri, C; Nicolson, V; Larkin, R; Keeley, T; McGowan, M; Johnston, S D

    2016-08-01

    This study reports the first documented clinical case of a spermatic granuloma and varicocele in a marsupial. Initial clinical presentation included gross morphological changes in the left scrotal cord, epididymis and testis. Ultrasonography of the scrotum and spermatic cord, and gross and histopathological examination after hemicastration, confirmed the condition as a spermatic granuloma affecting the left caput epididymis, with a varicocele in the left proximal spermatic cord, which was causing azoospermia and infertility. Semen quality and serum testosterone secretion following a GnRH challenge was assessed prior to, and following surgery. After hemi-castration, an increase in androgen secretion to within normal reference ranges for the koala was observed with a subsequent increase in semen production and sperm quality resulting in the sire of a pouch young, 12months later. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Inconspicuous echolocation in hoary bats (Lasiurus cinereus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, Aaron J; Weller, Theodore J

    2018-05-16

    Echolocation allows bats to occupy diverse nocturnal niches. Bats almost always use echolocation, even when other sensory stimuli are available to guide navigation. Here, using arrays of calibrated infrared cameras and ultrasonic microphones, we demonstrate that hoary bats ( Lasiurus cinereus ) use previously unknown echolocation behaviours that challenge our current understanding of echolocation. We describe a novel call type ('micro' calls) that has three orders of magnitude less sound energy than other bat calls used in open habitats. We also document bats flying close to microphones (less than 3 m) without producing detectable echolocation calls. Acoustic modelling indicates that bats are not producing calls that exceed 70-75 dB at 0.1 m, a level that would have little or no known use for a bat flying in the open at speeds exceeding 7 m s -1 This indicates that hoary bats sometimes fly without echolocation. We speculate that bats reduce echolocation output to avoid eavesdropping by conspecifics during the mating season. These findings might partly explain why tens of thousands of hoary bats are killed by wind turbines each year. They also challenge the long-standing assumption that bats-model organisms for sensory specialization-are reliant on sonar for nocturnal navigation. © 2018 The Author(s).

  15. Infection with koala retrovirus subgroup B (KoRV-B), but not KoRV-A, is associated with chlamydial disease in free-ranging koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus)

    OpenAIRE

    Waugh, Courtney A.; Hanger, Jonathan; Loader, Joanne; King, Andrew; Hobbs, Matthew; Johnson, Rebecca; Timms, Peter

    2017-01-01

    The virulence of chlamydial infection in wild koalas is highly variable between individuals. Some koalas can be infected (PCR positive) with Chlamydia for long periods but remain asymptomatic, whereas others develop clinical disease. Chlamydia in the koala has traditionally been studied without regard to coinfection with other pathogens, although koalas are usually subject to infection with koala retrovirus (KoRV). Retroviruses can be immunosuppressive, and there is evidence of an immunosuppr...

  16. Infection with koala retrovirus subgroup B (KoRV-B), but not KoRV-A, is associated with chlamydial disease in free-ranging koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waugh, Courtney A; Hanger, Jonathan; Loader, Joanne; King, Andrew; Hobbs, Matthew; Johnson, Rebecca; Timms, Peter

    2017-03-09

    The virulence of chlamydial infection in wild koalas is highly variable between individuals. Some koalas can be infected (PCR positive) with Chlamydia for long periods but remain asymptomatic, whereas others develop clinical disease. Chlamydia in the koala has traditionally been studied without regard to coinfection with other pathogens, although koalas are usually subject to infection with koala retrovirus (KoRV). Retroviruses can be immunosuppressive, and there is evidence of an immunosuppressive effect of KoRV in vitro. Originally thought to be a single endogenous strain, a new, potentially more virulent exogenous variant (KoRV-B) was recently reported. We hypothesized that KoRV-B might significantly alter chlamydial disease outcomes in koalas, presumably via immunosuppression. By studying sub-groups of Chlamydia and KoRV infected koalas in the wild, we found that neither total KoRV load (either viraemia or proviral copies per genome), nor chlamydial infection level or strain type, was significantly associated with chlamydial disease risk. However, PCR positivity with KoRV-B was significantly associated with chlamydial disease in koalas (p = 0.02961). This represents an example of a recently evolved virus variant that may be predisposing its host (the koala) to overt clinical disease when co-infected with an otherwise asymptomatic bacterial pathogen (Chlamydia).

  17. In vitro hepatic microsomal metabolism of meloxicam in koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus), brushtail possums (Trichosurus vulpecula), ringtail possums (Pseudocheirus peregrinus), rats (Rattus norvegicus) and dogs (Canis lupus familiaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimble, B; Li, K M; Valtchev, P; Higgins, D P; Krockenberger, M B; Govendir, M

    2014-04-01

    Quantitative and qualitative aspects of in vitro metabolism of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug meloxicam, mediated via hepatic microsomes of specialized foliage (Eucalyptus) eating marsupials (koalas and ringtail possums), a generalized foliage eating marsupial (brushtail possum), rats, and dogs, are described. Using a substrate depletion method, intrinsic hepatic clearance (in vitro Clint) was determined. Significantly, rates of oxidative transformation of meloxicam, likely mediated via cytochromes P450 (CYP), were higher in marsupials compared to rats or dogs. The rank order of apparent in vitro Clint was brushtail possums (n=3) (mean: 394μL/min/mg protein), >koalas (n=6) (50), >ringtail possums (n=2) (36) (with no significant difference between koalas and ringtail possums), >pooled rats (3.2)>pooled dogs (in which the rate of depletion, as calculated by the ratio of the substrate remaining was <20% and too slow to determine). During the depletion of meloxicam, at a first-order rate constant, 5-hydroxymethyl metabolite (M1) was identified in the brushtail possums and the rat as the major metabolite. However, multiple hydroxyl metabolites were observed in the koala (M1, M2, and M3) and the ringtail possum (M1 and M3) indicating that these specialized foliage-eating marsupials have diverse oxidation capacity to metabolize meloxicam. Using a well-stirred model, the apparent in vitro Clint of meloxicam for koalas and the rat was further scaled to compare with published in vivo Cl. The closest in vivo Cl prediction from in vitro data of koalas was demonstrated with scaled hepatic Cl(total) (average fold error=1.9) excluding unbound fractions in the blood and microsome values; whereas for rats, the in-vitro scaled hepatic Cl fu(blood, mic), corrected with unbound fractions in the blood and microsome values, provided the best prediction (fold error=1.86). This study indicates that eutherians such as rats or dogs serve as inadequate models for dosage extrapolation of this drug to marsupials due to differences in hepatic turnover rate. Furthermore, as in vivo Cl is one of the pharmacokinetic indexes for determining therapeutic drug dosages, this study demonstrates the utility of in vitro to in vivo scaling as an alternative prediction method of drug Cl in koalas. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Humoral immune responses in koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) either naturally infected with Chlamydia pecorum or following administration of a recombinant chlamydial major outer membrane protein vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Shahneaz Ali; Polkinghorne, Adam; Waugh, Courtney; Hanger, Jon; Loader, Jo; Beagley, Kenneth; Timms, Peter

    2016-02-03

    The development of a vaccine is a key strategy to combat the widespread and debilitating effects of chlamydial infection in koalas. One such vaccine in development uses recombinant chlamydial major outer membrane protein (rMOMP) as an antigen and has shown promising results in several koala trials. Previous chlamydial vaccine studies, primarily in the mouse model, suggest that both cell-mediated and antibody responses will be required for adequate protection. Recently, the important protective role of antibodies has been highlighted. In our current study, we conducted a detailed analysis of the antibody-mediated immune response in koalas that are either (a) naturally-infected, and/or (b) had received an rMOMP vaccine. Firstly, we observed that naturally-infected koalas had very low levels of Chlamydia pecorum-specific neutralising antibodies. A strong correlation between low IgG total titers/neutralising antibody levels, and higher C. pecorum infection load was also observed in these naturally-infected animals. In vaccinated koalas, we showed that the vaccine was able to boost the humoral immune response by inducing strong levels of C. pecorum-specific neutralising antibodies. A detailed characterisation of the MOMP epitope response was also performed in naturally-infected and vaccinated koalas using a PepScan epitope approach. This analysis identified unique sets of MOMP epitope antibodies between naturally-infected non-protected and diseased koalas, versus vaccinated koalas, with the latter group of animals producing a unique set of specific epitope-directed antibodies that we demonstrated were responsible for the in vitro neutralisation activity. Together, these results show the importance of antibodies in chlamydial infection and immunity following vaccination in the koala. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Radiation preservation of white pomfret (Stromateus cinereus) in tomato sauce

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doke, S.N.; Sherekar, S.V.; Ghadi, S.V.

    1991-01-01

    A method for the radiation preservation of white pomfret (Stromateus cinereus) in tomato sauce is described which enables the storage of fish at ambient temperature (28±3 deg C) for a period of six months. The product with low pH could be stabilized with a dose of 5 kGy. A batch of packed cans (consisting of cans of fish with tomato sauce and the control cans) were subjected to a dose in a Cobalt 60 Package Irradiator (Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd.) at a dose rate of 0.045 kGy min -1 . Biochemical and bacteriological evaluation confirmed the storage stability of the product. The process offers a safe and simple method to preserve white pomfret in a 'heat and serve' form. (author) 6 refs.; 5 tabs

  20. 78 FR 16292 - Endangered Species; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-14

    ... Lorisidae Rhinocerotidae Tapiridae Gruidae Threskiornithidae Genus: Tragopan Species: Koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) Applicant: Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, IL; PRT-698170 The applicant requests...

  1. Can the eastern red-backed salamander (Plethodon cinereus) persist in an acidified landscape?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondi, Cheryl A; Beier, Colin M.; Ducey, Peter K; Lawrence, Gregory B.; Bailey, Scott W.

    2016-01-01

    Hardwood forests of eastern North America have experienced decades of acidic deposition, leading to soil acidification where base cation supply was insufficient to neutralize acid inputs. Negative impacts of soil acidity on amphibians include disrupted embryonic development, lower growth rates, and habitat loss. However, some amphibians exhibit intraspecific variation in acid tolerance, suggesting the potential for local adaptation in areas where soils are naturally acidic. The eastern red-backed salamander (Plethodon cinereus) is a highly abundant top predator of the northern hardwood forest floor. Early research found that P. cinereus was sensitive to acidic soils, avoiding substrates with pH habitats. However, recent studies have documented P. cinereus populations in lower pH conditions than previously observed, suggesting some populations may persist in acidic conditions. Here, we evaluated relationships between organic horizon soil pH and P. cinereus abundance, adult health (body size and condition), and microhabitat selection, based on surveys of 34 hardwood forests in northeastern United States that encompass a regional soil pH gradient. We found no associations between soil pH and P. cinereus abundance or health, and observed that this salamander used substrates with pH similar to that available, suggesting that pH does not mediate their fine-scale distributions. The strongest negative predictor of P. cinereus abundance was the presence of dusky salamanders (Desmognathus spp.), which were most abundant in the western Adirondacks. Our results indicate that P. cinereus occupies a wider range of soil pH than has been previously thought, which has implications for their functional role in forest food webs and nutrient cycles in acid-impaired ecosystems. Tolerance of P. cinereus for more acidic habitats, including anthropogenically acidified forests, may be due to local adaptation in reproductively isolated populations and/or generalist

  2. Basin wildrye (Leymus cinereus) pooled tetraploid accessions for U.S. Intermountain rangeland reclamation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanford A. Young; Jason Vernon; Nancy Shaw

    2013-01-01

    Basin wildrye (Leymus cinereus [Scribn. & Merr.] A. Love) is an important perennial, hardy, long-lived, cool season C3 native grass of rangeland plant communities throughout much of western United States and Canada. All classes of livestock and wildlife, including large and small birds and mammals, utilise the grass year round for food and protection due to its 2-3...

  3. Phorcotabanus cinereus (Wiedemann, 1821 (Diptera, Tabanidae, an ornithophilic species of Tabanid in Central Amazon, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Limeira-de-Oliveira Francisco

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In Central Amazon, Brazil, the tabanid Phorcotabanus cinereus (Wiedemann was recorded attacking the native duck Cairina moschata (Linnaeus (Anseriformes, Anatidae. The flight and behavior of the tabanid during the attacks and the host's defenses were videotaped and analyzed in slow motion. The tabanid was recorded flying rapidly around the heads of the ducks before landing. Landing always took place on the beak, and then the tabanid walked to the fleshy caruncle on the basal part of the beak to bite and feed. Firstly the duck defends itself through lateral harsh head movements, and then, when it is being bitten, it defends itself by rubbing its head on the body, or dipping the head into water, when swimming. If disturbed, the fly resumed the same pattern of flight as before and would generally try to land again on the same host and bite in the same place. This feeding activity was observed predominantly between 9:30 am and 4:30 pm and always in open areas, near aquatic environments, from June 1996 to January 1997, the dry season in Central Amazon. To test the attractiveness of other animals to P. cinereus, mammals, caimans and domestic and wild birds were placed in suitable habitat and the response of P. cinereus observed. P. cinereus did not attack these animals, suggesting that this species has a preference for ducks, which are plentiful in the region.

  4. Habitat relationships of eastern red-backed salamanders (Plethodon cinereus) in Appalachian agroforestry and grazing systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breanna L. Riedel; Kevin R. Russell; W. Mark Ford; Katherine P. O' Neill; Harry W. Godwin

    2008-01-01

    Woodland salamander responses to either traditional grazing or silvopasture systems are virtually unknown. An information-theoretic modelling approach was used to evaluate responses of red-backed salamanders (Plethodon cinereus) to silvopasture and meadow conversions in southern West Virginia. Searches of area-constrained plots and artificial...

  5. Another account of interspecific aggression involving a Hoary Bat (Lasiurus cinereus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alyson F Brokaw; Jeff Clerc; Ted Weller

    2016-01-01

    We observed an incident of interspecific aggression between a male Hoary Bat (Lasiurus cinereus) and a male Silver-haired Bat (Lasionycteris noctivagans). The Silver-haired Bat suffered few external injuries, the most conspicuous of which were a missing lower right canine and small...

  6. Storage properties of irrdiated white pomfret (Stromatus cinereus) in tomato sauce

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doke, S.N.; Sherekar, S.V.; Ghadi, S.V.

    1990-01-01

    A process involving radiation and heat treatment combined with effective management of pH using tomato sauce was developed for preservation of white pomfret (Stromatus cinereus). This process enhanced the organoleptic acceptability of the product and also ensured its microbiological safety. The processed product was in good edible condition even after a storage of 6 months at ambient temperature. (M.G.B.). 3 tabs

  7. Differential resistance to stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis) in collections of basin wild rye (Leymus cinereus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank M. Dugan; Michael J. Cashman; Richard C. Johnson; Meinan Wang; Chen Xianming

    2014-01-01

    Differential resistance to stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis) in a planting of 111 wild collections of Basin wild rye (Leymus cinereus) was noted 2011-2013. In 2011, rust severity was rated on a scale of 1-9. Much lighter infection in 2012 and 2013 was rated as the number of symptomatic leaves per plant divided by plant circumference (to adjust for plant size). Effect...

  8. Physical condition, sex, and age-class of eastern red-backed salamanders (Plethodon cinereus) in forested and open habitats of West Virginia, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breanna L. Riedel; Kevin R. Russell; W. Mark Ford

    2012-01-01

    Nonforested habitats such as open fields and pastures have been considered unsuitable for desiccation-prone woodland salamanders such as the Eastern Red-backed Salamander (Plethodon cinereus). Recent research has suggested that Plethodon cinereus may not only disperse across but also reside within open habitats including fields,...

  9. Decolorization of the anthraquinone dye Cibacron Blue 3G-A with immobilized Coprinus cinereus in fluidized bed bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moutaouakkil, A; Blaghen, M

    2011-01-01

    Coprinus cinereus, which was able to decolorize the anthraquinone dye Cibacron Blue 3G-A (CB) enzymatically, was used as a biocatalyst for the decolorization of synthetic solutions containing this reactive dye. Coprinus cinereus was immobilized in both calcium alginate and polyacrylamide gels, and was used for the decolorization of CB from synthetic water by using a fluidized bed bioreactor. The highest specific decolorization rate was obtained when Coprinus cinereus was entrapped in calcium alginate beads, and was of about 3.84 mg g(-1) h(-1) with a 50% conversion time (t1/2) of about 2.60 h. Moreover, immobilized fungal biomass in calcium alginate continuously decolorized CB even after 7 repeated experiments without significant loss of activity, while polyacrylamide-immobilized fungal biomass retained only 67% of its original activity. The effects of some physicochemical parameters such as temperature, pH and dye concentration on decolorization performance of isolated fungal strain were also investigated.

  10. A climate for speciation: rapid spatial diversification within the Sorex cinereus complex of shrews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hope, Andrew G.; Speer, Kelly A.; Demboski, John R.; Talbot, Sandra L.; Cook, Joseph A.

    2012-01-01

    The cyclic climate regime of the late Quaternary caused dramatic environmental change at high latitudes. Although these events may have been brief in periodicity from an evolutionary standpoint, multiple episodes of allopatry and divergence have been implicated in rapid radiations of a number of organisms. Shrews of the Sorex cinereus complex have long challenged taxonomists due to similar morphology and parapatric geographic ranges. Here, multi-locus phylogenetic and demographic assessments using a coalescent framework were combined to investigate spatiotemporal evolution of 13 nominal species with a widespread distribution throughout North America and across Beringia into Siberia. For these species, we first test a hypothesis of recent differentiation in response to Pleistocene climate versus more ancient divergence that would coincide with pre-Pleistocene perturbations. We then investigate the processes driving diversification over multiple continents. Our genetic analyses highlight novel diversity within these morphologically conserved mammals and clarify relationships between geographic distribution and evolutionary history. Demography within and among species indicates both regional stability and rapid expansion. Ancestral ecological differentiation coincident with early cladogenesis within the complex enabled alternating and repeated episodes of allopatry and expansion where successive glacial and interglacial phases each promoted divergence. The Sorex cinereus complex constitutes a valuable model for future comparative assessments of evolution in response to cyclic environmental change.

  11. A survey of ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) from an over-abundant koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) population in south eastern Australia, with an overview of the ticks and mites of koalas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, M L; Reed, J

    2017-09-01

    Within Australia, koala over-abundance has become a serious problem in some areas resulting in significant damage to native forests through defoliation. An over-abundant Victorian koala population was surveyed for ticks in the autumn of 2016. During the survey 1036 ticks were collected from 158 koalas. All ticks collected were identified as Ixodes tasmani. Tick prevalence, infestation intensity and on-host sex ratios were calculated for the population. An overview of the ticks and mites associated with koalas in Australia is also presented.

  12. Vaccination of koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) with a recombinant chlamydial major outer membrane protein adjuvanted with poly I:C, a host defense peptide and polyphosphazine, elicits strong and long lasting cellular and humoral immune responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Shahneaz Ali; Waugh, Courtney; Rawlinson, Galit; Brumm, Jacqui; Nilsson, Karen; Gerdts, Volker; Potter, Andrew; Polkinghorne, Adam; Beagley, Kenneth; Timms, Peter

    2014-10-07

    Chlamydial infections are wide spread in koalas across their range and a solution to this debilitating disease has been sought for over a decade. Antibiotics are the currently accepted therapeutic measure, but are not an effective treatment due to the asymptomatic nature of some infections and a low efficacy rate. Thus, a vaccine would be an ideal way to address this infectious disease threat in the wild. Previous vaccine trials have used a three-dose regimen; however this is very difficult to apply in the field as it would require multiple capture events, which are stressful and invasive processes for the koala. In addition, it requires skilled koala handlers and a significant monetary investment. To overcome these challenges, in this study we utilized a polyphosphazine based poly I:C and a host defense peptide adjuvant combined with recombinant chlamydial major outer membrane protein (rMOMP) antigen to induce long lasting (54 weeks) cellular and humoral immunity in female koalas with a novel single immunizing dose. Immunized koalas produced a strong IgG response in plasma, as well as at mucosal sites. Moreover, they showed high levels of C. pecorum specific neutralizing antibodies in the plasma as well as vaginal and conjunctival secretions. Lastly, Chlamydia-specific lymphocyte proliferation responses were produced against both whole chlamydial elementary bodies and rMOMP protein, over the 12-month period. The results of this study suggest that a single dose rMOMP vaccine incorporating a poly I:C, host defense peptide and polyphosphazine adjuvant is able to stimulate both arms of the immune system in koalas, thereby providing an alternative to antibiotic treatment and/or a three-dose vaccine regime. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A New Subspecies Identification and Population Study of the Asian Small-Clawed Otter (Aonyx cinereus in Malay Peninsula and Southern Thailand Based on Fecal DNA Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. K. A. Rosli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Three species of otter can be found throughout Malay Peninsula: Aonyx cinereus, Lutra sumatrana, and Lutrogale perspicillata. In this study, we focused on the A. cinereus population that ranges from the southern and the east coast to the northern regions of Malay Peninsula up to southern Thailand to review the relationships between the populations based on the mitochondrial D-loop region. Forty-eight samples from six populations were recognized as Johor, Perak, Terengganu, Kelantan, Ranong, and Thale Noi. Among the 48 samples, 33 were identified as A. cinereus, seven as L. sumatrana, and eight as L. perspicillata. Phylogenetically, two subclades formed for A. cinereus. The first subclade grouped all Malay Peninsula samples except for samples from Kelantan, and the second subclade grouped Kelantan samples with Thai sample. Genetic distance analysis supported the close relationships between Thai and Kelantan samples compared to the samples from Terengganu and the other Malaysian states. A minimum-spanning network showed that Kelantan and Thailand formed a haplogroup distinct from the other populations. Our results show that Thai subspecies A. cinereus may have migrated to Kelantan from Thai mainland. We also suggest the classification of a new subspecies from Malay Peninsula, the small-clawed otter named A. cinereus kecilensis.

  14. A new subspecies identification and population study of the Asian small-clawed otter (Aonyx cinereus) in Malay Peninsula and southern Thailand based on fecal DNA method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosli, M K A; Syed-Shabthar, S M F; Abdul-Patah, P; Abdul-Samad, Z; Abdul, S N; Burhanuddin, M N; Zulkifli, N A; Shukor, M N; Budsabong, K; Changtragoon, S; Sekiguchi, T; Sasaki, H; Md-Zain, B M

    2014-01-01

    Three species of otter can be found throughout Malay Peninsula: Aonyx cinereus, Lutra sumatrana, and Lutrogale perspicillata. In this study, we focused on the A. cinereus population that ranges from the southern and the east coast to the northern regions of Malay Peninsula up to southern Thailand to review the relationships between the populations based on the mitochondrial D-loop region. Forty-eight samples from six populations were recognized as Johor, Perak, Terengganu, Kelantan, Ranong, and Thale Noi. Among the 48 samples, 33 were identified as A. cinereus, seven as L. sumatrana, and eight as L. perspicillata. Phylogenetically, two subclades formed for A. cinereus. The first subclade grouped all Malay Peninsula samples except for samples from Kelantan, and the second subclade grouped Kelantan samples with Thai sample. Genetic distance analysis supported the close relationships between Thai and Kelantan samples compared to the samples from Terengganu and the other Malaysian states. A minimum-spanning network showed that Kelantan and Thailand formed a haplogroup distinct from the other populations. Our results show that Thai subspecies A. cinereus may have migrated to Kelantan from Thai mainland. We also suggest the classification of a new subspecies from Malay Peninsula, the small-clawed otter named A. cinereus kecilensis.

  15. Mapping genes by meiotic and UV-induced mitotic recombination in Coprinus cinereus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amirkhanian, J.D.; Cowan, J.W.

    1985-01-01

    Three morphological mutants in Coprinus cinereus—one spontaneous (den-2) and two chemically induced (zigand sta)—were assigned to linkage groups and utilized in meiotic and mitotic mapping. Mutants den-2 and zig belong to linkage group III, den-2 being close to the centromere and about 20 map units (mu) from zig. The mutant sta in linkage group ‘G’ is at a distance of about 37 mu from ade-3. Mitotic mapping confirmed the gene order in linkage group III and provided evidence that trp-2 in linkage group ‘G’ was between the centromere and ade-3. These morphological mutants are compact in colony growth and therefore suited to high-density plating. The rarity of spontaneously occurring mitotic segregants suggests that diploids of Coprinus cinereus, heterozygous for morphoiogical markers in repuision, could serve as useful test systems for rapid screening of chemical mutagen/carcinogens via mitotic recombination studies

  16. Assessment of intra and interregional genetic variation in the Eastern Red-backed Salamander, Plethodon cinereus, via analysis of novel microsatellite markers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander C Cameron

    Full Text Available The red-backed salamander (Plethodon cinereus has long-served as a model system in ecology, evolution, and behavior, and studies surveying molecular variation in this species have become increasingly common over the past decade. However, difficulties are commonly encountered when extending microsatellite markers to populations that are unstudied from a genetic perspective due to high levels of genetic differentiation across this species' range. To ameliorate this issue, we used 454 pyrosequencing to identify hundreds of microsatellite loci. We then screened 40 of our top candidate loci in populations in Virginia, Pennsylvania, and Ohio-including an isolated island population ~ 4.5 km off the shore of Lake Erie (South Bass Island. We identified 25 loci that are polymorphic in a well-studied region of Virginia and 11 of these loci were polymorphic in populations located in the genetically unstudied regions of Ohio and Pennsylvania. Use of these loci to examine patterns of variation within populations revealed that South Bass Island has low diversity in comparison to other sites. However, neither South Bass Island nor isolated populations around Cleveland are inbred. Assessment of variation between populations revealed three well defined genetic clusters corresponding to Virginia, mainland Ohio/Pennsylvania, and South Bass Island. Comparisons of our results to those of others working in various parts of the range are consistent with the idea that differentiation is lower in regions that were once glaciated. However, these comparisons also suggest that well differentiated isolated populations in the formerly glaciated portion of the range are not uncommon. This work provides novel genetic resources that will facilitate population genetic studies in a part of the red-backed salamander's range that has not previously been studied in this manner. Moreover, this work refines our understanding of how neutral variation is distributed in this ecologically

  17. 78 FR 23286 - Endangered Species; Marine Mammals; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-18

    ...-horned oryx (Oryx dammah), from the captive herd maintained at their facility, for the purpose of...) African wild dog (Lycaon pictus) Rothschild's starling (Leucopsar rothschildi) Radiated tortoise...) Koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) African wild dog (Lycaon pictus) Andean condor (Vultur gryphus) Harpy...

  18. Magnetic resonance spectral characterization of the heme active site of Coprinus cinereus peroxidase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukat, G.S.; Rodgers, K.R.; Jabro, M.N.; Goff, H.M.

    1989-01-01

    Examination of the peroxidase isolated from the inkcap Basidiomycete Coprinus cinereus shows that the 42,000-dalton enzyme contains a protoheme IX prosthetic group. Reactivity assays and the electronic absorption spectra of native Coprinus peroxidase and several of its ligand complexes indicate that this enzyme has characteristics similar to those reported for horseradish peroxidase. In this paper, the authors characterize the H 2 O 2 -oxidized forms of Coprinus peroxidase compounds I, II, and III by electronic absorption and magnetic resonance spectroscopies. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) studies of this Coprinus peroxidase indicate the presence of high-spin Fe(III) in the native protein and a number of differences between the heme site of Coprinus peroxidase and horseradish peroxidase. Carbon-13 (of the ferrous CO adduct) and nitrogen-15 (of the cyanide complex) NMR studies together with proton NMR studies of the native and cyanide-complexed Caprinus peroxidase are consistent with coordination of a proximal histidine ligand. The EPR spectrum of the ferrous NO complex is also reported. Protein reconstitution with deuterated hemin has facilitated the assignment of the heme methyl resonances in the proton NMR spectrum

  19. Production and characterization of radiation-sensitive meiotic mutants of Coprinus cinereus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zolan, M.E.; Tremel, C.J.; Pukkila, P.J.

    1988-01-01

    We have isolated four gamma-sensitive mutants of the basidiomycete Coprinus cinereus. When homozygous, two of these (rad 3-1 and rad 9-1) produce fruiting bodies with very few viable basidiospores, the products of meiosis in this organism. A less radiation-sensitive allele of RAD 3, rad 3-2, causes no apparent meiotic defect in homozygous strains. Quantitative measurements of oidial survival of rad 3-1;rad 9-1 double mutants compared to the single mutants indicated that rad 3-1 and rad 9-1 mutants are defective in the same DNA repair pathway. In the pew viable basidiospores that are produced by these two strains, essentially normal levels of meiotic recombination can be detected. None of the mutants exhibits increased sensitivity to UV radiation. Cytological examination of meiotic chromosomes from mutant and wild-type fruiting bodies showed that rad 3-1 homozygous strains fail to condense and pair homologous chromosomes during prophase I. Although rad 9-1 strains are successful at chromosome pairing, meiosis is usually not completed in these mutants

  20. Food habits of the hoary bat (LASIURUS CINEREUS) during spring migration through new mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, E.W.; Cryan, P.M.

    2009-01-01

    Hoary bats (Lasiums cinernis) exhibit continental patterns of migration that are unique to bats, but details about their behaviors during migration are lacking. We captured 177 hoary bats in spring and early summer 2002 as individuals migrated through the Sandia Mountains of north-central New Mexico. Our results support earlier observations of asynchronous timing of migration between sexes of L. cinernis during spring, with females preceding males by ca. 1 month. We provide the first evidence that hoary bats may travel in dispersed groups, fly below the tree canopy along streams, and feed while migrating during spring. Analysis of guano revealed that diet of L. cinereus consisted mostly of moths, with more than one-half of samples identified as Noctuidae and Geometridae. We observed a late-spring decline in consumption of moths that might be related to seasonal changes in abundance of prey, differential selection of prey by bats, or sampling bias. We suspect that spring migration of L. cinernis through New Mexico temporally coincides with the seasonal abundance of moths.

  1. Foraging range movements of the endangered Hawaiian hoary bat, Lasiurus cinereus semotus (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonaccorso, Frank J.; Todd, Christopher M.; Miles, Adam C.; Gorresen, P. Marcos

    2015-01-01

    We documented nightly movements of Hawaiian hoary bats (Lasiurus cinereus semotus) on the island of Hawai’i. Based on data from 28 radiotagged individuals mean foraging range (FR) was 230.7±72.3 ha, core-use area (CUA) was 25.5±6.9 ha (or 11.1% of mean FR), and the mean long axis (LAX) across the FR was 3,390.8±754.3 m. There was almost no overlap in CUAs among 4 adult males having overlapping foraging areas and tracked simultaneously or within a 90-day window of each other. CUAs of subadults partially overlapped with multiple adult males or with one other subadult. High variance in FRs, cores use areas, and LAX across the FR perhaps reflect localized stochastic variables such as weather, habitat, and food resources. Hawaiian hoary bats use moderately large FRs among insectivorous bats studied with comparable methodologies; however, foraging activity indicated by documentation of acoustic feeding buzzes is concentrated within one or a few disjunct areas cumulatively forming the 50% fixed kernel of CUA. The concentration of feeding activity, low values of individual overlap, and agonistic chasing behavior within CUAs all demonstrate a structured use of individual space by Hawaiian hoary bats.

  2. Insect prey eaten by Hoary Bats (Lasiurus cinereus) prior to fatal collisions with wind turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, Ernest W.; Cryan, Paul M.

    2013-01-01

    Wind turbines are being deployed all across the world to meet the growing demand for energy, and in many areas, these turbines are causing the deaths of insectivorous migratory bats. One of the hypothesized causes of bat susceptibility is that bats are attracted to insects on or near the turbines. We examined insect remains in the stomachs and intestines of hoary bats (Lasiurus cinereus) found dead beneath wind turbines in New York and Texas to evaluate the hypothesis that bats die while feeding at turbines. Most of the bats we examined had full stomachs, indicating that they fed in the minutes to hours leading up to their deaths. However, we did not find prey in the mouths or throats of any bats that would indicate the bats died while capturing prey. Hoary bats fed mostly on moths, but we also detected the regular presence of beetles, true bugs, and crickets. Presence of terrestrial insects in stomachs indicates that bats may have gleaned them from the ground or the turbine surfaces, yet aerial capture of winged insect stages cannot be ruled out. Our findings confirm earlier studies that indicate hoary bats feed during migration and eat mostly moths. Future studies on bat behaviors and insect presence at wind turbines could help determine whether feeding at turbines is a major fatality risk for bats.

  3. Accumulation of Methylmercury in Invertebrates and Masked Shrews (Sorex cinereus) at an Upland Forest-Peatland Interface in Northern Minnesota, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavshunsky, Ilana; Eggert, Susan L; Mitchell, Carl P J

    2017-12-01

    Mercury (Hg) methylation is often elevated at the terrestrial-peatland interface, but methylmercury (MeHg) production at this "hot spot" has not been linked with in situ biotic accumulation. We examined total Hg and MeHg levels in peat, invertebrates and tissues of the insectivore Sorex cinereus (masked shrew), inhabiting a terrestrial-peatland ecotone in northern Minnesota, USA. Mean MeHg concentrations in S. cinereus (71 ng g -1 ) fell between concentrations measured in spiders (mean 70-140 ng g -1 ), and ground beetles and millipedes (mean 29-42 ng g -1 ). Methylmercury concentrations in S. cinereus increased with age and differed among tissues, with highest concentrations in kidneys and muscle, followed by liver and brain. Nearly all Hg in S. cinereus was in the methylated form. Overall, the high proportional accumulation of MeHg in peat at the site (3.5% total Hg as MeHg) did not lead to particularly elevated concentrations in invertebrates or shrews, which are below values considered a toxicological risk.

  4. Toxicological responses of red-backed salamanders (Plethodon cinereus) to subchronic soil exposures of 2,4-dinitrotoluene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Mark S.; Suski, Jamie; Bazar, Matthew A.

    2007-01-01

    Dinitrotoluenes are used as propellants and in explosives by the military and as such have been found at relatively high concentrations in the soil. To determine whether concentrations of 2,4-dinitrotoluene (2,4-DNT) in soil are toxic to amphibians, 100 red-backed salamanders (Plethodon cinereus) were exposed to either 1500, 800, 200, 75 or 0 mg 2,4-DNT/kg soil for 28 days and evaluated for indicators of toxicity. Concentrations of 2,4-DNT were less than targets and varied with time. Most salamanders exposed to concentrations exceeding 1050 mg/kg died or were moribund within the first week. Salamanders exposed to soil concentrations exceeding 345 mg/kg lost >6% of their body mass though no mortality occurred. Overt effects included a reduction in feed consumption and an increase in bucco-pharyngeal oscillations in salamanders. These results suggest that only high soil concentrations of 2,4-DNT have the potential to cause overtly toxic effects in terrestrial salamanders. - Exposures of 2,4-dinitrotoluene in soil exceeding 345 mg/kg causes toxicity to P. cinereus

  5. Tongue and taste organ development in the ontogeny of direct-developing salamander Plethodon cinereus (Lissamphibia: Plethodontidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budzik, Karolina A; Żuwała, Krystyna; Kerney, Ryan

    2016-07-01

    The latest research on direct developing caecilian and anuran species indicate presence of only one generation of taste organs during their ontogeny. This is distinct from indirect developing batrachians studied thus far, which possess taste buds in larvae and anatomically distinct taste discs in metamorphs. This study is a description of the tongue and taste organ morphology and development in direct developing salamander Plethodon cinereus (Plethodontidae) using histology and electron microscopy techniques. The results reveal two distinct stages tongue morphology (primary and secondary), similar to metamorphic urodeles, although only one stage of taste organ morphology. Taste disc sensory zones emerge on the surface of the oropharyngeal epithelium by the end of embryonic development, which coincides with maturation of the soft tongue. Taste organs occur in the epithelium of the tongue pad (where they are situated on the dermal papillae), the palate and the inner surface of the mandible and the maxilla. Plethodon cinereus embryos only possess taste disc type taste organs. Similar to the direct developing anuran Eleutherodactylus coqui (Eleutherodactylidae), these salamanders do not recapitulate larval taste bud morphology as an embryo. The lack of taste bud formation is probably a broadly distributed feature characteristic to direct developing batrachians. J. Morphol. 277:906-915, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Dim ultraviolet light as a means of deterring activity by the Hawaiian hoary bat Lasiurus cinereus semotus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorresen, P. Marcos; Cryan, Paul M.; Dalton, David C.; Wolf, Sandy; Johnson, Jessica A.; Todd, Christopher M.; Bonaccorso, Frank J.

    2015-01-01

    Widespread bat fatalities at industrial wind turbines are a conservation issue with the potential to inhibit efficient use of an abundant source of energy. Bat fatalities can be reduced by altering turbine operations, but such curtailment decreases turbine efficiency. If additional ways of reducing bat fatalities at wind turbines were available such tradeoffs might not be needed. Based on the facts that bats perceive distant objects primarily through vision and can see in very dim lighting conditions, and the possibility that bats might interact with turbines after approaching them as they would trees, we propose a novel method of reducing bat activity at wind turbines: illumination of the structure with dim light. As a first step toward assessing this approach, we illuminated trees with dim flickering ultraviolet (UV) light in areas frequented by Hawaiian hoary bats Lasiurus cinereus semotus, an endangered subspecies affected by wind turbines. We used a repeated-measures design to quantify bat activity near trees with acoustic detectors and thermal video cameras in the presence and absence of UV illumination, while concurrently monitoring insect numbers. Results indicate that dim UV reduces bat activity despite an increase in insect numbers. Experimental treatment did not completely inhibit bat activity near trees, nor did all measures of bat activity show statistically significant differences due to high variance in bat activity among sites. However, the observed decreases in bat activity with dim UV illumination justify further testing of this method as a means to reduce bat fatalities at wind turbines.

  7. Potential citric acid exposure and toxicity to Hawaiian hoary bats (Lasiurus cinereus semotus) associated with Eleutherodactylus frog control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitt, William C; Witmer, Gary W; Jojola, Susan M; Sin, Hans

    2014-04-01

    We examined potential exposure of Hawaiian hoary bats (Lasiurus cinereus semotus) to citric acid, a minimum risk pesticide registered for control of invasive Eleutherodactylus frog populations. Hoary bats are nocturnal insectivores that roost solitarily in foliage, federally listed as endangered, and are endemic to Hawaii. Oral ingestion during grooming of contaminated fur appears to be the principal route by which these bats might be exposed to citric acid. We made assessments of oral toxicity, citric acid consumption, retention of material on fur, and grooming using big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) as a surrogate species. We evaluated both ground application and aerial application of 16 % solutions of citric acid during frog control operations. Absorbent bat effigies exposed to ground and aerial operational spray applications retained means of 1.54 and 0.02 g, respectively, of dry citric acid, although retention by the effigies was much higher than bat carcasses drenched in citric acid solutions. A high dose delivered orally (2,811 mg/kg) was toxic to the big brown bats and emesis occurred in 1 bat dosed as low as the 759 mg/kg level. No effect was observed with the lower doses examined (≤ 542 mg/kg). Bats sprayed with 5 ml of 16 % (w/w) citric acid solution showed no evidence of intoxication. In field situations, it is unlikely that bats would be sprayed directly or ingest much citric acid retained by fur. Based on our observations, we believe Hawaiian hoary bats to be at very low risk from harmful exposure to a toxic dose of citric acid during frog control operations.

  8. Winter distribution and use of high elevation caves as foraging sites by the endangered Hawaiian hoary bat, Lasiurus cinereus semotus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonaccorso, Frank; Montoya-Aiona, Kristina; Pinzari, Corinna A.; Todd, Christopher M.

    2016-01-01

    We examine altitudinal movements involving unusual use of caves by Hawaiian hoary bats, Lasiurus cinereus semotus, during winter and spring in the Mauna Loa Forest Reserve (MLFR), Hawai‘i Island. Acoustic detection of hoary bat vocalizations, were recorded with regularity outside 13 lava tube cave entrances situated between 2,200 to 3,600 m asl from November 2012 to April 2013. Vocalizations were most numerous in November and December with the number of call events and echolocation pulses decreasing through the following months. Bat activity was positively correlated with air temperature and negatively correlated with wind speed. Visual searches found no evidence of hibernacula nor do Hawaiian hoary bats appear to shelter by day in these caves. Nevertheless, bats fly deep into caves as evidenced by numerous carcasses found in cave interiors. The occurrence of feeding buzzes around cave entrances and visual observations of bats flying in acrobatic fashion in cave interiors point to the use of these spaces as foraging sites. Peridroma moth species (Noctuidae), the only abundant nocturnal, flying insect sheltering in large numbers in rock rubble and on cave walls in the MLFR, apparently serve as the principal prey attracting hoary bats during winter to lava tube caves in the upper MLFR. Caves above 3,000 m on Mauna Loa harbor temperatures suitable for Pseudogymnoascus destructansfungi, the causative agent of White-nose Syndrome that is highly lethal to some species of North American cave-dwelling bats. We discuss the potential for White-nose Syndrome to establish and affect Hawaiian hoary bats.

  9. Linking Genetic Variation in Adaptive Plant Traits to Climate in Tetraploid and Octoploid Basin Wildrye [Leymus cinereus (Scribn. & Merr.) A. Love] in the Western U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, R C; Vance-Borland, Ken

    2016-01-01

    Few studies have assessed how ploidy type within a species affects genetic variation among populations in relation to source climates. Basin wildrye (Leymus cinereus (Scribn. & Merr.) A. Love) is a large bunchgrass common in the intermountain Western U.S. found in both octoploid and tetraploid types. In common gardens at two sites over two years differences in both ploidy type and genetic variation within ploidy were observed in phenology, morphology, and production traits on 57 octoploid and 52 tetraploid basin wildrye from the intermountain Western U.S. (Ptypes. Still, among populations octoploids often had greater genetic variation for traits and occupied more diverse climates than tetraploids. Genetic variation for both ploidy types was linked to source climates in canonical correlation analysis, with the first two variates explaining 70% of the variation. Regression of those canonical variates with seed source climate variables produced models that explained 64% and 38% of the variation, respectively, and were used to map 15 seed zones covering 673,258 km2. Utilization of these seed zones will help ensure restoration with adaptive seed sources for both ploidy types. The link between genetic traits and seed source climates suggests climate driven natural selection and adaptive evolution in basin wildrye. The more diverse climates occupied by octoploids and higher trait variation suggests a higher capacity for ecological differentiation than tetraploids in the intermountain Western U.S.

  10. Response of Red-Backed Salamanders (Plethodon Cinereus to Changes in Hemlock Forest Soil Driven by Invasive Hemlock Woolly Adelgid (Adelges Tsugae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Ochs

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hemlock forests of the northeastern United States are declining due to the invasive hemlock woolly adelgid (HWA (Adelges tsugae. Hardwood species replace these forests, which affects soil properties that may influence other communities, such as red-backed salamanders (red-backs (Plethodon cinereus. This study examined the effects of HWA invasion on soil properties and how this affects red-backs at the Hemlock Removal Experiment at Harvard Forest, which consists of eight 0.8 ha plots treated with girdling to simulate HWA invasion, logging to simulate common management practices, or hemlock- or hardwood-dominated controls. Coverboard surveys were used to determine the relative abundance of red-backs between plots during June and July 2014 and soil cores were collected from which the bulk density, moisture, pH, temperature, leaf litter, and carbon-nitrogen ratio were measured. Ordination provided a soil quality index based on temperature, pH, and carbon-to-nitrogen ratio, which was significantly different between plot treatments (p < 0.05 and showed a significant negative correlation with the red-back relative abundance (p < 0.05. The findings support the hypothesis that red-backs are affected by soil quality, which is affected by plot treatment and thus HWA invasion. Further studies should explore how salamanders react in the long term towards changing environments and consider the use of red-backs as indicator species.

  11. Linking Genetic Variation in Adaptive Plant Traits to Climate in Tetraploid and Octoploid Basin Wildrye [Leymus cinereus (Scribn. & Merr. A. Love] in the Western U.S.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R C Johnson

    Full Text Available Few studies have assessed how ploidy type within a species affects genetic variation among populations in relation to source climates. Basin wildrye (Leymus cinereus (Scribn. & Merr. A. Love is a large bunchgrass common in the intermountain Western U.S. found in both octoploid and tetraploid types. In common gardens at two sites over two years differences in both ploidy type and genetic variation within ploidy were observed in phenology, morphology, and production traits on 57 octoploid and 52 tetraploid basin wildrye from the intermountain Western U.S. (P<0.01. Octoploids had larger leaves, longer culms, and greater crown circumference than tetraploids but the numerical ranges of plant traits and their source climates overlapped between ploidy types. Still, among populations octoploids often had greater genetic variation for traits and occupied more diverse climates than tetraploids. Genetic variation for both ploidy types was linked to source climates in canonical correlation analysis, with the first two variates explaining 70% of the variation. Regression of those canonical variates with seed source climate variables produced models that explained 64% and 38% of the variation, respectively, and were used to map 15 seed zones covering 673,258 km2. Utilization of these seed zones will help ensure restoration with adaptive seed sources for both ploidy types. The link between genetic traits and seed source climates suggests climate driven natural selection and adaptive evolution in basin wildrye. The more diverse climates occupied by octoploids and higher trait variation suggests a higher capacity for ecological differentiation than tetraploids in the intermountain Western U.S.

  12. Development and characterization of 21 polymorphic microsatellite markers for the barren-ground shrew, Sorex ugyunak (Mammalia: Sorcidae), through next-generation sequencing, and cross-species amplification in the masked shrew, S. cinereus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonsthagen, Sarah A.; Sage, G. Kevin; Fowler, Megan C.; Hope, Andrew G.; Cook, J.A.; Talbot, Sandra L.

    2013-01-01

    We used next generation shotgun sequencing to develop 21 novel microsatellite markers for the barren-ground shrew (Sorex ugyunak), which were polymorphic among individuals from northern Alaska. The loci displayed moderate allelic diversity (averaging 6.81 alleles per locus) and heterozygosity (averaging 70 %). Two loci deviated from Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) due to heterozygote deficiency. While the population did not deviate from HWE overall, it showed significant linkage disequilibrium suggesting this population is not in mutation-drift equilibrium. Nineteen of 21 loci were polymorphic in masked shrews (S. cinereus) from interior Alaska and exhibited linkage equilibrium and HWE overall. All loci yielded sufficient variability for use in population studies.

  13. Surveys on the distribution and abundance of the Hawaiian hoary bat (Lasiurus cinereus semotus) in the vicinity of proposed geothermal project subzones in the District of Puna, Hawaii. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, M.; Ritchotte, G.; Dwyer, J.; Viggiano, A.; Nielsen, B.; Jacobi, J.D. [Fish and Wildlife Service, Hawaii National Park, HI (United States). Hawaii Research Station

    1994-08-01

    In 1993 the US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) entered into an interagency agreement with the Department of Energy (DOE) to conduct wildlife surveys relative to identifying potential impacts of geothermal resource development on the native biota of the east rift zone of Kilauea volcano in the Puna district on the island of Hawaii. This report presents data on the endangered Hawaiian hoary bat (Hawaiian bat), or opeapea (Lasiurus cinereus semotus), within the proposed Hawaii geothermal subzones. Potential effects of geothermal development on Hawaiian bat populations are also discussed. Surveys were conducted to determine the distribution and abundance of bats throughout the District of Puna. Baseline information was collected to evaluate the status of bats within the study area and to identify important foraging habitats. Little specific data exists in the published literature on the population status and potential limiting factors affecting the Hawaiian bat. A USFWS recovery plan does not exist for this endangered species.

  14. Behavior of the Hawaiian Hawaiian Hoary Bat (Lasiurus cinereus semotus) at wind turbines and its distribution across the North Ko'olau Mountains, O'ahu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorresen, P.M.; Cryan, Paul M.; Huso, Manuela M.P.; Hein, Cris D.; Schirmacher, Michael; Johnson, Jessica H.; Montoya-Aiona, Kristina; Brinck, Kevin W.; Bonaccorso, Frank

    2015-01-01

    We studied the landscape distribution of endemic Hawaiian hoary bats (Lasiurus cinereus semotus) on the north Ko‘olau Mountains of O‘ahu, Hawai‘i, from May 2013 to May 2014, while simultaneously studying their behavior at wind turbines within the broader landscape. This research aimed to assess the risk that wind turbines pose to bats on the island and integrated a variety of methods, including acoustic monitoring, thermal videography, and fatality searches.Our findings indicate that hoary bats were acoustically cryptic and occurred sparsely in the region. Overall site occupancy rate was 55% during the 1-year period of acoustic monitoring at 23 sites, and there was only an 8% chance of acoustically detecting a bat on a given night if it was present. We detected bats less frequently in windward northern parts of the study area and at windy, lower-elevation sites with rough terrain. Bats were detected more frequently in leeward southern parts of the study area and at wind-sheltered, higher-elevation sites with flat ridgetops. Acoustic detections were consistently low from October through February and increased at most sites to peak in April through August. However, meteorological conditions were not found to be associated with the acoustic prevalence of bats on a night-to-night basis. We observed more than three thousand events involving bats during six months of nightly video surveillance at four wind turbines. Video monitoring revealed several links to weather at the local scale, despite acoustic detections not clearly relating to weather in our broader landscape analysis. Video demonstrated bats occurring near turbines more often on nights with little rain, warmer temperatures, moderate wind speeds, low humidity, and the low but rising barometric pressures indicative of fair weather and improved foraging conditions. Video monitoring also demonstrated that the presence of bats near turbines strongly correlates with insect presence. We detected bats on video

  15. The Role of Bioacoustic Signals in Koala Sexual Selection: Insights from Seasonal Patterns of Associations Revealed with GPS-Proximity Units.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Ellis

    Full Text Available Despite being a charismatic and well-known species, the social system of the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus--the only extant member of the family Phascolarctidae is poorly known and much of the koala's sociality and mating behaviors remain un-quantified. We evaluated these using proximity logging-GPS enabled tracking collars on wild koalas and discuss their implications for the mating system of this species. The frequency and duration of male-female encounters increased during the breeding season, with male-male encounters quite uncommon, suggesting little direct mating competition. By comparison, female-female interactions were very common across both seasons. Body mass of males was not correlated with their interactions with females during the breeding season, although male size is associated with a variety of acoustic parameters indicating individuality. We hypothesise that vocal advertising reduces the likelihood of male-male encounters in the breeding season while increasing the rate of male-female encounters. We suggest that male mating-season bellows function to reduce physical confrontations with other males allowing them to space themselves apart, while, at the same time, attracting females. We conclude that indirect male-male competition, female mate choice, and possibly female competition, mediate sexual selection in koalas.

  16. Daylight saving time can decrease the frequency of wildlife–vehicle collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, William A.; FitzGibbon, Sean I.; Barth, Benjamin J.; Niehaus, Amanda C.; David, Gwendolyn K.; Taylor, Brendan D.; Matsushige, Helena; Melzer, Alistair; Bercovitch, Fred B.; Carrick, Frank; Jones, Darryl N.; Dexter, Cathryn; Gillett, Amber; Predavec, Martin; Lunney, Dan

    2016-01-01

    Daylight saving time (DST) could reduce collisions with wildlife by changing the timing of commuter traffic relative to the behaviour of nocturnal animals. To test this idea, we tracked wild koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) in southeast Queensland, where koalas have declined by 80% in the last 20 years, and compared their movements with traffic patterns along roads where they are often killed. Using a simple model, we found that DST could decrease collisions with koalas by 8% on weekdays and 11% at weekends, simply by shifting the timing of traffic relative to darkness. Wildlife conservation and road safety should become part of the debate on DST. PMID:27881767

  17. Cost comparisons

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    How much does the LHC cost? And how much does this represent in other currencies? Below we present a table showing some comparisons with the cost of other projects. Looking at the figures, you will see that the cost of the LHC can be likened to that of three skyscrapers, or two seasons of Formula 1 racing! One year's budget of a single large F1 team is comparable to the entire materials cost of the ATLAS or CMS experiments.   Please note that all the figures are rounded for ease of reading.    CHF € $   LHC 4.6 billions 3 billions  4 billions   Space Shuttle Endeavour (NASA) 1.9 billion 1.3 billion 1.7 billion   Hubble Space Telescope (cost at launch – NASA/...

  18. Prevalence and Clinical Significance of Herpesvirus Infection in Populations of Australian Marsupials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn Stalder

    Full Text Available Herpesviruses have been reported in several marsupial species, but molecular classification has been limited to four herpesviruses in macropodids, a gammaherpesvirus in two antechinus species (Antechinus flavipes and Antechinus agilis, a gammaherpesvirus in a potoroid, the eastern bettong (Bettongia gaimardi and two gammaherpesviruses in koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus. In this study we examined a range of Australian marsupials for the presence of herpesviruses using molecular and serological techniques, and also assessed risk factors associated with herpesvirus infection. Our study population included 99 koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus, 96 eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus, 50 Tasmanian devils (Sarcophilus harrisii and 33 common wombats (Vombatus ursinius. In total, six novel herpesviruses (one alphaherpesvirus and five gammaherpesviruses were identified in various host species. The overall prevalence of detection of herpesvirus DNA in our study population was 27.2% (95% confidence interval (CI of 22.6-32.2%, but this varied between species and reached as high as 45.4% (95% CI 28.1-63.7% in common wombats. Serum antibodies to two closely related macropodid herpesviruses (macropodid herpesvirus 1 and 2 were detected in 44.3% (95% CI 33.1-55.9% of animals tested. This also varied between species and was as high as 92% (95% CI 74.0-99.0% in eastern grey kangaroos. A number of epidemiological variables were identified as positive predictors for the presence of herpesvirus DNA in the marsupial samples evaluated. The most striking association was observed in koalas, where the presence of Chlamydia pecorum DNA was strongly associated with the presence of herpesvirus DNA (Odds Ratio = 60, 95% CI 12.1-297.8. Our results demonstrate the common presence of herpesviruses in Australian marsupials and provide directions for future research.

  19. Prevalence and Clinical Significance of Herpesvirus Infection in Populations of Australian Marsupials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stalder, Kathryn; Vaz, Paola K; Gilkerson, James R; Baker, Rupert; Whiteley, Pam; Ficorilli, Nino; Tatarczuch, Liliana; Portas, Timothy; Skogvold, Kim; Anderson, Garry A; Devlin, Joanne M

    2015-01-01

    Herpesviruses have been reported in several marsupial species, but molecular classification has been limited to four herpesviruses in macropodids, a gammaherpesvirus in two antechinus species (Antechinus flavipes and Antechinus agilis), a gammaherpesvirus in a potoroid, the eastern bettong (Bettongia gaimardi) and two gammaherpesviruses in koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus). In this study we examined a range of Australian marsupials for the presence of herpesviruses using molecular and serological techniques, and also assessed risk factors associated with herpesvirus infection. Our study population included 99 koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus), 96 eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus), 50 Tasmanian devils (Sarcophilus harrisii) and 33 common wombats (Vombatus ursinius). In total, six novel herpesviruses (one alphaherpesvirus and five gammaherpesviruses) were identified in various host species. The overall prevalence of detection of herpesvirus DNA in our study population was 27.2% (95% confidence interval (CI) of 22.6-32.2%), but this varied between species and reached as high as 45.4% (95% CI 28.1-63.7%) in common wombats. Serum antibodies to two closely related macropodid herpesviruses (macropodid herpesvirus 1 and 2) were detected in 44.3% (95% CI 33.1-55.9%) of animals tested. This also varied between species and was as high as 92% (95% CI 74.0-99.0%) in eastern grey kangaroos. A number of epidemiological variables were identified as positive predictors for the presence of herpesvirus DNA in the marsupial samples evaluated. The most striking association was observed in koalas, where the presence of Chlamydia pecorum DNA was strongly associated with the presence of herpesvirus DNA (Odds Ratio = 60, 95% CI 12.1-297.8). Our results demonstrate the common presence of herpesviruses in Australian marsupials and provide directions for future research.

  20. Prevalence and Clinical Significance of Herpesvirus Infection in Populations of Australian Marsupials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stalder, Kathryn; Vaz, Paola K.; Gilkerson, James R.; Baker, Rupert; Whiteley, Pam; Ficorilli, Nino; Tatarczuch, Liliana; Portas, Timothy; Skogvold, Kim; Anderson, Garry A.; Devlin, Joanne M.

    2015-01-01

    Herpesviruses have been reported in several marsupial species, but molecular classification has been limited to four herpesviruses in macropodids, a gammaherpesvirus in two antechinus species (Antechinus flavipes and Antechinus agilis), a gammaherpesvirus in a potoroid, the eastern bettong (Bettongia gaimardi) and two gammaherpesviruses in koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus). In this study we examined a range of Australian marsupials for the presence of herpesviruses using molecular and serological techniques, and also assessed risk factors associated with herpesvirus infection. Our study population included 99 koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus), 96 eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus), 50 Tasmanian devils (Sarcophilus harrisii) and 33 common wombats (Vombatus ursinius). In total, six novel herpesviruses (one alphaherpesvirus and five gammaherpesviruses) were identified in various host species. The overall prevalence of detection of herpesvirus DNA in our study population was 27.2% (95% confidence interval (CI) of 22.6–32.2%), but this varied between species and reached as high as 45.4% (95% CI 28.1–63.7%) in common wombats. Serum antibodies to two closely related macropodid herpesviruses (macropodid herpesvirus 1 and 2) were detected in 44.3% (95% CI 33.1–55.9%) of animals tested. This also varied between species and was as high as 92% (95% CI 74.0–99.0%) in eastern grey kangaroos. A number of epidemiological variables were identified as positive predictors for the presence of herpesvirus DNA in the marsupial samples evaluated. The most striking association was observed in koalas, where the presence of Chlamydia pecorum DNA was strongly associated with the presence of herpesvirus DNA (Odds Ratio = 60, 95% CI 12.1–297.8). Our results demonstrate the common presence of herpesviruses in Australian marsupials and provide directions for future research. PMID:26222660

  1. Comparison is key.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Mark H; Stenner, A Jackson

    2014-01-01

    Several concepts from Georg Rasch's last papers are discussed. The key one is comparison because Rasch considered the method of comparison fundamental to science. From the role of comparison stems scientific inference made operational by a properly developed frame of reference producing specific objectivity. The exact specifications Rasch outlined for making comparisons are explicated from quotes, and the role of causality derived from making comparisons is also examined. Understanding causality has implications for what can and cannot be produced via Rasch measurement. His simple examples were instructive, but the implications are far reaching upon first establishing the key role of comparison.

  2. Dimensional comparison theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller, Jens; Marsh, Herb W

    2013-07-01

    Although social comparison (Festinger, 1954) and temporal comparison (Albert, 1977) theories are well established, dimensional comparison is a largely neglected yet influential process in self-evaluation. Dimensional comparison entails a single individual comparing his or her ability in a (target) domain with his or her ability in a standard domain (e.g., "How good am I in math compared with English?"). This article reviews empirical findings from introspective, path-analytic, and experimental studies on dimensional comparisons, categorized into 3 groups according to whether they address the "why," "with what," or "with what effect" question. As the corresponding research shows, dimensional comparisons are made in everyday life situations. They impact on domain-specific self-evaluations of abilities in both domains: Dimensional comparisons reduce self-concept in the worse off domain and increase self-concept in the better off domain. The motivational basis for dimensional comparisons, their integration with recent social cognitive approaches, and the interdependence of dimensional, temporal, and social comparisons are discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  3. Satisfaction and 'comparison sharing'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amilon, Anna

    2009-01-01

    the probability of satisfaction. Results show that comparison sharing impacts satisfaction for women, and that those women who share more equally than their peers are more likely to be satisfied, whereas comparison sharing has no influence on satisfaction for men. Also, parents are less likely to be satisfied...

  4. Matrix comparison, Part 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Jesper Wiborg; Borlund, Pia

    2007-01-01

    The present two-part article introduces matrix comparison as a formal means for evaluation purposes in informetric studies such as cocitation analysis. In the first part, the motivation behind introducing matrix comparison to informetric studies, as well as two important issues influencing such c...

  5. Comparison of trace element content in marine organisms collected from the La Maddalena archipelago and other Mediterranean and Pacific ocean sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boniforti, R.; Moauro, A.

    1982-01-01

    As, Sb, Zn, Hg, Fe, Co and Cs were analysed by instrumental neutron activation analysis in four fish species (Mullus surmuletus, Scorpaena porcus, Crenilabus cinereus, and Serranus scriba) and one gesteropod (Sepia officinalis). The results were compared with those obtained by other authors for fish collected both in the Mediterranean and the Pacific. The difficulty of comparing results obtained by different authors was stressed and some suggestions to overcome this difficulty were given

  6. Comparison versus reminding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tullis, Jonathan G; Goldstone, Robert L

    2016-01-01

    Comparison and reminding have both been shown to support learning and transfer. Comparison is thought to support transfer because it allows learners to disregard non-matching features of superficially different episodes in order to abstract the essential structure of concepts. Remindings promote memory for the individual episodes and generalization because they prompt learners to retrieve earlier episodes during the encoding of later related episodes and to compare across episodes. Across three experiments, we compared the consequences of comparison and reminding on memory and transfer. Participants studied a sequence of related, but superficially different, proverb pairs. In the comparison condition, participants saw proverb pairs presented together and compared their meaning. In the reminding condition, participants viewed proverbs one at a time and retrieved any prior studied proverb that shared the same deep meaning as the current proverb. Experiment 1 revealed that participants in the reminding condition recalled more proverbs than those in the comparison condition. Experiment 2 showed that the mnemonic benefits of reminding persisted over a one-week retention interval. Finally, in Experiment 3, we examined the ability of participants to generalize their remembered information to new items in a task that required participants to identify unstudied proverbs that shared the same meaning as studied proverbs. Comparison led to worse discrimination between proverbs related to studied proverbs and proverbs unrelated to studied proverbs than reminding. Reminding supported better memory for individual instances and transfer to new situations than comparison.

  7. Statistical Group Comparison

    CERN Document Server

    Liao, Tim Futing

    2011-01-01

    An incomparably useful examination of statistical methods for comparisonThe nature of doing science, be it natural or social, inevitably calls for comparison. Statistical methods are at the heart of such comparison, for they not only help us gain understanding of the world around us but often define how our research is to be carried out. The need to compare between groups is best exemplified by experiments, which have clearly defined statistical methods. However, true experiments are not always possible. What complicates the matter more is a great deal of diversity in factors that are not inde

  8. Public opinion: Country comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Debbie

    2015-11-01

    Climate change awareness, risk perception and policy support vary between and within countries. National-scale comparisons can help to explain this variability and be used to develop targeted interventions.

  9. On dose distribution comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Steve B; Sharp, Greg C; Neicu, Toni; Berbeco, Ross I; Flampouri, Stella; Bortfeld, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    In radiotherapy practice, one often needs to compare two dose distributions. Especially with the wide clinical implementation of intensity-modulated radiation therapy, software tools for quantitative dose (or fluence) distribution comparison are required for patient-specific quality assurance. Dose distribution comparison is not a trivial task since it has to be performed in both dose and spatial domains in order to be clinically relevant. Each of the existing comparison methods has its own strengths and weaknesses and there is room for improvement. In this work, we developed a general framework for comparing dose distributions. Using a new concept called maximum allowed dose difference (MADD), the comparison in both dose and spatial domains can be performed entirely in the dose domain. Formulae for calculating MADD values for various comparison methods, such as composite analysis and gamma index, have been derived. For convenience in clinical practice, a new measure called normalized dose difference (NDD) has also been proposed, which is the dose difference at a point scaled by the ratio of MADD to the predetermined dose acceptance tolerance. Unlike the simple dose difference test, NDD works in both low and high dose gradient regions because it considers both dose and spatial acceptance tolerances through MADD. The new method has been applied to a test case and a clinical example. It was found that the new method combines the merits of the existing methods (accurate, simple, clinically intuitive and insensitive to dose grid size) and can easily be implemented into any dose/intensity comparison tool

  10. CCF model comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulkkinen, U.

    2004-04-01

    The report describes a simple comparison of two CCF-models, the ECLM, and the Beta-model. The objective of the comparison is to identify differences in the results of the models by applying the models in some simple test data cases. The comparison focuses mainly on theoretical aspects of the above mentioned CCF-models. The properties of the model parameter estimates in the data cases is also discussed. The practical aspects in using and estimating CCFmodels in real PSA context (e.g. the data interpretation, properties of computer tools, the model documentation) are not discussed in the report. Similarly, the qualitative CCF-analyses needed in using the models are not discussed in the report. (au)

  11. Comparisons and Lessons Learned

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jensen, PA; van der Voordt, Theo; Coenen, C; Sarasoja, AL; van der Voordt, DJM; Jensen, PA; Coenen, C

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To create an overview and evaluation of the achievements of the contributions in this book by identifying, summarising and discussing cross-cutting themes and essential learning points across the former chapters.
    Methodology: Based on a purposeful reading of all chapters comparisons are

  12. Motives for Social Comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helgeson, Vicki S.; Mickelson, Kristin D.

    1995-01-01

    A set of motive statements for social comparison was elicited from one group of subjects and then rated in terms of usefulness by a second group of subjects. Analysis of these statements revealed six motives in response to two different hypothetical scenarios: self-evaluation, common bond, self-improvement, self-enhancement, altruism, and…

  13. MCNP and GADRAS Comparisons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klasky, Marc Louis; Myers, Steven Charles; James, Michael R.; Mayo, Douglas R.

    2016-01-01

    To facilitate the timely execution of System Threat Reviews (STRs) for DNDO, and also to develop a methodology for performing STRs, LANL performed comparisons of several radiation transport codes (MCNP, GADRAS, and Gamma-Designer) that have been previously utilized to compute radiation signatures. While each of these codes has strengths, it is of paramount interest to determine the limitations of each of the respective codes and also to identify the most time efficient means by which to produce computational results, given the large number of parametric cases that are anticipated in performing STR's. These comparisons serve to identify regions of applicability for each code and provide estimates of uncertainty that may be anticipated. Furthermore, while performing these comparisons, examination of the sensitivity of the results to modeling assumptions was also examined. These investigations serve to enable the creation of the LANL methodology for performing STRs. Given the wide variety of radiation test sources, scenarios, and detectors, LANL calculated comparisons of the following parameters: decay data, multiplicity, device (n,γ) leakages, and radiation transport through representative scenes and shielding. This investigation was performed to understand potential limitations utilizing specific codes for different aspects of the STR challenges.

  14. Secure quantum private comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Yuguang; Cao Weifeng; Wen Qiaoyan

    2009-01-01

    We propose a two-party quantum private comparison protocol using single photons, in which two distrustful parties can compare whether their secrets are equal with the help of a third party (TP). Any information about the values of their respective secrets will not be leaked out even with a compromised TP. Security is also discussed.

  15. Secure quantum private comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Yuguang [College of Computer Science and Technology, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124 (China); Cao Weifeng [College of Electric and Information Engineering, Zhengzhou University of Light Industry, Zhengzhou 450002 (China); Wen Qiaoyan [State Key Laboratory of Networking and Switching Technology, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing 100876 (China)], E-mail: yangyang7357@bjut.edu.cn

    2009-12-15

    We propose a two-party quantum private comparison protocol using single photons, in which two distrustful parties can compare whether their secrets are equal with the help of a third party (TP). Any information about the values of their respective secrets will not be leaked out even with a compromised TP. Security is also discussed.

  16. Use of comparison cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, G.A.

    1982-01-01

    How can we make predictions about complex ill-defined domains. expert judgement does not tell us about the basis for the prediction. Formal analysis, on the other hand, is expensive to implement and may not be feasible if there are unknown parameters. The use of comparison cases offers a middle ground between these two extremes. In order to apply comparison-based predictions, we must understand the logic governing its use. It is argued that the use of comparision cases in analogical reasoning is a form of deductive rather than probabilistic inference, and under certain conditions can yield valid conclusions. For most applications, the necessary conditions for ensuring validity will not be met, but actions can be taken to increase confidence in the prediction. 4 references.

  17. Problems of comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horn, G.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports on determination of the balance of forces embrace a much wider area than the scope of mere numerical comparisons. In Europe that there is rough parity between the conventional forces of WTO and NATO, we do not claim that both sides have the same forces. The balance of forces cannot be considered except in view of purpose and circumstances. In our case, the balance of forces in Europe can be taken to mean that neither side has enough strength to impose its will on the other by military force. Of course, this type of comparison cannot be used at the disarmament talks to take stock of armed forces and to determine the final result of reductions, or of the reduction process. Nevertheless it is very important to know that the talks will be conducted against the background and that the final result should not, in this one respect, be any different from the point of departure

  18. Comparison of societal risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, C.A.

    1976-01-01

    The utility of the societal risk approach to the design and evaluation of safeguards systems is examined with particular reference to the comparison of the relative effectiveness of various safeguards mechanisms. Research on threat evaluation is reviewed, and the need for further research on consequences is discussed in terms of the extension of the definition of the safeguards objective from system capability to societal consequences and the establishment of public confidence. 14 references

  19. Robust forecast comparison

    OpenAIRE

    Jin, Sainan; Corradi, Valentina; Swanson, Norman

    2015-01-01

    Forecast accuracy is typically measured in terms of a given loss function. However, as a consequence of the use of misspecified models in multiple model comparisons, relative forecast rankings are loss function dependent. This paper addresses this issue by using a novel criterion for forecast evaluation which is based on the entire distribution of forecast errors. We introduce the concepts of general-loss (GL) forecast superiority and convex-loss (CL) forecast superiority, and we establish a ...

  20. Retained gas inventory comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BARTON, W.B.

    1999-01-01

    Gas volume data derived from four different analytical methods were collected and analyzed for comparison to volumes originally used in the technical basis for the Basis for Interim Operations (BIO). The original volumes came from Hodgson (1996) listed in the reference section of this document. Hodgson (1996) screened all 177 single and double-shell tanks for the presence of trapped gas in waste via two analytical methods: Surface Level Rise (SLR), and Barometric Pressure Effect (BPE). More recent gas volume projections have been calculated using different analytical techniques along with updates to the parameters used as input to the SLR and BPE models. Gas volumes derived from new analytical instruments include those as measured by the Void Fraction Instrument (VFI) and Retained Gas Sampler (RGS). The results of this comparison demonstrate that the original retained gas volumes of Hodgson (1996) used as a technical basis in developing the BIO were conservative, and were conservative from a safety analysis standpoint. These results represent only comparisons to the original reported volumes using the limited set of newly acquired data that is available

  1. NTP comparison process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corban, Robert

    The systems engineering process for the concept definition phase of the program involves requirements definition, system definition, and consistent concept definition. The requirements definition process involves obtaining a complete understanding of the system requirements based on customer needs, mission scenarios, and nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) operating characteristics. A system functional analysis is performed to provide a comprehensive traceability and verification of top-level requirements down to detailed system specifications and provides significant insight into the measures of system effectiveness to be utilized in system evaluation. The second key element in the process is the definition of system concepts to meet the requirements. This part of the process involves engine system and reactor contractor teams to develop alternative NTP system concepts that can be evaluated against specific attributes, as well as a reference configuration against which to compare system benefits and merits. Quality function deployment (QFD), as an excellent tool within Total Quality Management (TQM) techniques, can provide the required structure and provide a link to the voice of the customer in establishing critical system qualities and their relationships. The third element of the process is the consistent performance comparison. The comparison process involves validating developed concept data and quantifying system merits through analysis, computer modeling, simulation, and rapid prototyping of the proposed high risk NTP subsystems. The maximum amount possible of quantitative data will be developed and/or validated to be utilized in the QFD evaluation matrix. If upon evaluation of a new concept or its associated subsystems determine to have substantial merit, those features will be incorporated into the reference configuration for subsequent system definition and comparison efforts.

  2. Comparison of imagine systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, F. [Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Kowloon (Hong Kong). Optometry and Radiography Department

    1997-12-01

    It is of great use to be able to accurately compare different film/screen systems. It allows informed decisions to be made as to the optimal choice of film and screens in regard to technical matters such as speed and resolution. Comparisons of these have not been easy, especially in the face of different terminology and specifications used by different manufacturers. A straight forward method is proposed, which requires only a line pair test tool, and the ability to produce scattergraphs. The relative efficiencies of different film/screen systems, incorporating orthochromatic and monochromatic elements are clearly portrayed. Copyright (1997) Australian Institute of Radiography 12 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs.

  3. Comparison of imagine systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, F.

    1997-01-01

    It is of great use to be able to accurately compare different film/screen systems. It allows informed decisions to be made as to the optimal choice of film and screens in regard to technical matters such as speed and resolution. Comparisons of these have not been easy, especially in the face of different terminology and specifications used by different manufacturers. A straight forward method is proposed, which requires only a line pair test tool, and the ability to produce scattergraphs. The relative efficiencies of different film/screen systems, incorporating orthochromatic and monochromatic elements are clearly portrayed. Copyright (1997) Australian Institute of Radiography

  4. Brain networks of social comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kedia, Gayannée; Lindner, Michael; Mussweiler, Thomas; Ihssen, Niklas; Linden, David E J

    2013-03-27

    Social comparison, that is, the process of comparing oneself to other people, is a ubiquitous social cognitive mechanism; however, so far its neural correlates have remained unknown. The present study tested the hypothesis that social comparisons are supported by partly dissociated networks, depending on whether the dimension under comparison concerns a physical or a psychological attribute. We measured brain activity with functional MRI, whereas participants were comparing their own height or intelligence to that of individuals they personally know. Height comparisons were associated with higher activity in a frontoparietal network involved in spatial and numerical cognition. Conversely, intelligence comparisons recruited a network of midline areas that have been previously implicated in the attribution of mental states to oneself and others (Theory of mind). These findings suggest that social comparisons rely on diverse domain-specific mechanisms rather than on one unitary process.

  5. PSF interlaboratory comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kellogg, L.S.; Lippincott, E.P.

    1982-01-01

    Two experiments for interlaboratory verification of radiometric analysis methods have been conducted with dosimeters irradiated in the Oak Ridge Research Reactor (ORR) Poolside Facility (PSF) Surveillance Dosimeter Measurement Facility (SDMF). In a preliminary analysis of data supplied by the six participants, biases as large as 60% were observed which could lead to errors of this general magnitude in reported surveillance capsule fluence values. As a result of these comparisons, problems were identified and the spread in final values was greatly reduced. Relative agreement among the final results reported by four of the laboratories now appears to be satisfactory (the non-fission dosimeter results generally falling within +-5% and the fission dosimeter results within +-10%), but improvement is required in order to routinely meet Reactor Vessel Material Surveillance Program goals

  6. Interlaboratory niobium dosimetry comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wille, P.

    1980-01-01

    For an interlaboratory comparison of neutron dosimetry using niobium the 93 sup(m)Nb activities of irradiated niobium monitors were measured. This work was performed to compare the applied techniques of dosimetry with Nb in different laboratories. The niobium monitors were irradiated in the fast breeder EBRII, USA and the BR2, Belgium. The monitors were dissolved and several samples were prepared. Their niobium contents were determined by the 94 Nb-count rates. since the original specific count rate was known. The KX radiations of the 93 sup(m)Nb of the samples and of a calibrated Nb-foil were compared. This foil was measured by PTB, Braunschweig and CBNM, Geel, which we additionally compared with the KX radiation of 88 Sr produced by a thin 88 Y source from a 88 Y-standard solution (PTB). (orig.) [de

  7. Glovebox decontamination technology comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quintana, D.M.; Rodriguez, J.B.; Cournoyer, M.E.

    1999-01-01

    Reconfiguration of the CMR Building and TA-55 Plutonium Facility for mission requirements will require the disposal or recycle of 200--300 gloveboxes or open front hoods. These gloveboxes and open front hoods must be decontaminated to meet discharge limits for Low Level Waste. Gloveboxes and open front hoods at CMR have been painted. One of the deliverables on this project is to identify the best method for stripping the paint from large numbers of gloveboxes. Four methods being considered are the following: conventional paint stripping, dry ice pellets, strippable coatings, and high pressure water technology. The advantages of each technology will be discussed. Last, cost comparisons between the technologies will be presented

  8. Improving the DGK comparison protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veugen, P.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    When processing signals in the encrypted domain, homomorphic encryption can be used to enable linear operations on encrypted data. Comparison of encrypted data however requires an additional protocol between the parties and will be relatively expensive. A well-known and frequently used comparison

  9. EUROMET SUPPLEMENTARY COMPARISON - SURFACE TEXTURE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koenders, L.; Andreasen, Jan Lasson; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    At the length meeting in Prague in Oct. 1999 a new comparison was suggested on surface texture. The last comparison on this field was finished in 1989. In the meantime the instrumentation, the standards and the written standards have been improved including some software filters. The pilot labora...

  10. NTF – wind speed comparison

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesth, Allan; Gómez Arranz, Paula

    The report describes measurements carried out on a given turbine. A comparison between wind speed on the met mast and Nacelle Wind speed are made and the results are presented on graphs and in a table. The data used for the comparison are the data that are same as used for the power curve report...

  11. Social Comparison in the Classroom: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkstra, Pieternel; Kuyper, Hans; van der Werf, Greetje; Buunk, Abraham P.; van der Zee, Yvonne G.

    2008-01-01

    This article reviews research conducted on social comparison processes in the classroom since Festinger proposed his theory of social comparison. It covers the theoretical framework of social comparison theory, and it is organized around the following themes: motives for social comparison, dimensions of social comparison, direction of social…

  12. Comparisons of mental clocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paivio, A

    1978-02-01

    Subjects in three experiments were presented with pairs of clock times and were required to choose the one in which the hour and minute hand formed the smaller angle. In Experiments 1 and 2, the times were presented digitally, necessitating a transformation into symbolic representations from which the angular size difference could be inferred. The results revealed orderly symbolic distance effects so that comparison reaction time increased as the angular size difference decreased. Moreover, subjects generally reported using imagery to make the judgment, and subjects scoring high on test of imagery ability were faster than those scoring low on such tests. Experiment 3 added a direct perceptual condition in which subjects compared angles between pairs of hands on two drawn (analog) clocks, as well as a mixed condition involving one digital and one analog clock time. The results showed comparable distance effects for all conditions. In addition, reaction time increased from the perceptual, to the mixed, to the pure-digital condition. These results are consistent with predictions from an image-based dual-coding theory.

  13. [Anemia: guidelines comparison].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Vecchio, Lucia

    2009-01-01

    The development of recombinant human erythropoietin and its introduction into the market in the late 1980s has significantly improved the quality of life of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and reduced the need for blood transfusions. Starting from a cautious target, a progressive increase in the recommended hemoglobin levels has been observed over the years, in parallel with an increase in the obtained levels. This trend has gone together with the publication of findings of observational studies showing a relationship between the increase in hemoglobin levels and a reduction in the mortality risk, with the conduction of clinical trials testing the effects of complete anemia correction, and with the compilation of guidelines on anemia control in CKD patients by scientific societies and organizations. In the last two years, evidence of a possible increase in the mortality risk in those patients who were randomized to high hemoglobin levels has resulted in a decrease in the upper limit of the recommended Hb target to be obtained with erythropoietin stimulating agents (ESA), and consequently in a narrowing of the target range. Comparison of guidelines on anemia control in CKD patients is an interesting starting point to discuss single recommendations, strengthen their importance, or suggest new topics of research to fill up important gaps in knowledge.

  14. Isolation and characterization of gonadotropin isohormones from the pituitary gland of pike eel (Muraenesox cinereus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, F.-L.; Huang, C.-J.; Lin, S.-H.; Lo, T.-B.; Papkoff, H.

    1981-01-01

    Pike eel gonadotropins were isolated from pituitary glands by 40% alcohol-6% ammonium acetate, pH 5.1 extraction and were purified by DEAE-cellulose chromatography and electrophoresis into four electrophoretically homogeneous forms. These four isohormones were biologically identified as gonadotropins by the stimulation of 32 P-uptake in 1-day-old chick testes, by the induction of ovulation in catfish, and by the in vitro production of testosterone from isolated rat Leydig cells and of androgen from carp testes. The amino acid composition of the isohormones were similar to other known piscine gonadotropins (carp and salmon) and were composed of two non-identical subunits with Tyr and Ser as N-terminal amino acid residues. The molecular weights of two subunits were 15000 and 10500, respectively, as estimated by SDS-gel disc electrophoresis. (author)

  15. Homomorphic encryption and secure comparison

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgård, Ivan Bjerre; Geisler, Martin; Krøigaard, Mikkel

    2008-01-01

    Computation (MPC). We show how our comparison protocol can be used to improve security of online auctions, and demonstrate that it is efficient enough to be used in practice. For comparison of 16 bits numbers with security based on 1024 bits RSA (executed by two parties), our implementation takes 0.28 sec......We propose a protocol for secure comparison of integers based on homomorphic encryption.We also propose a homomorphic encryption scheme that can be used in our protocol, makes it more efficient than previous solutions, and can also be used as the basis of efficient and general secure Multiparty...

  16. Radiological risk comparison guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallinan, E.J.; Muhlestein, L.D.; Brown, L.F.; Yoder, R.E.

    1992-01-01

    An important aspect of DOE safety analyses is estimating potential accident risk. The estimates are used to: determine if additional controls are needed, identify Safety Class Items, and demonstrate adequate risk reduction. Thus, guidelines are needed to measure comparative risks. The Westinghouse M ampersand O Nuclear Facility Safety Committee and the Safety Envelope Working Group have developed radiological risk guidelines for comparing the risks from individual accident analyses. These guidelines were prepared under contract with the US Department of Energy. These guidelines are based on historical DOE guidelines and current requirements, and satisfy DOE and technical community proposals. for goals that demonstrate acceptable risk. The guidelines consist of a frequency versus consequence curve for credible accidents. Offsite and onsite guidelines are presented. The offsite risk acceptance guidelines are presented in Figure 1. The guidelines are nearly isorisk for anticipated events where impacts are chronic, and provide additional reduction for unlikely events where impacts may be acute and risk uncertainties may be significant. The guidelines are applied to individual release accident scenarios where a discrete frequency and consequence has been estimated. The guideline curves are not to be used for total risk assessments. Common cause events are taken into consideration only for an individual facility. Frequencies outside the guideline range are considered to be local site option (analyst judgement) as far as assessments of risk acceptance are concerned. If the curve is exceeded, then options include either a more detailed analysis or imposing additional preventive or mitigative features. Another presentation discusses implementation in detail. Additional work is needed to provide risk comparison guidelines for releases from multiple facilities and for toxic releases

  17. Comprehensive profiling of retroviral integration sites using target enrichment methods from historical koala samples without an assembled reference genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pin Cui

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Retroviral integration into the host germline results in permanent viral colonization of vertebrate genomes. The koala retrovirus (KoRV is currently invading the germline of the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus and provides a unique opportunity for studying retroviral endogenization. Previous analysis of KoRV integration patterns in modern koalas demonstrate that they share integration sites primarily if they are related, indicating that the process is currently driven by vertical transmission rather than infection. However, due to methodological challenges, KoRV integrations have not been comprehensively characterized. Results. To overcome these challenges, we applied and compared three target enrichment techniques coupled with next generation sequencing (NGS and a newly customized sequence-clustering based computational pipeline to determine the integration sites for 10 museum Queensland and New South Wales (NSW koala samples collected between the 1870s and late 1980s. A secondary aim of this study sought to identify common integration sites across modern and historical specimens by comparing our dataset to previously published studies. Several million sequences were processed, and the KoRV integration sites in each koala were characterized. Conclusions. Although the three enrichment methods each exhibited bias in integration site retrieval, a combination of two methods, Primer Extension Capture and hybridization capture is recommended for future studies on historical samples. Moreover, identification of integration sites shows that the proportion of integration sites shared between any two koalas is quite small.

  18. A Few Large Roads or Many Small Ones? How to Accommodate Growth in Vehicle Numbers to Minimise Impacts on Wildlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Jonathan R.; Lunney, Daniel; Callaghan, John; McAlpine, Clive A.

    2014-01-01

    Roads and vehicular traffic are among the most pervasive of threats to biodiversity because they fragmenting habitat, increasing mortality and opening up new areas for the exploitation of natural resources. However, the number of vehicles on roads is increasing rapidly and this is likely to continue into the future, putting increased pressure on wildlife populations. Consequently, a major challenge is the planning of road networks to accommodate increased numbers of vehicles, while minimising impacts on wildlife. Nonetheless, we currently have few principles for guiding decisions on road network planning to reduce impacts on wildlife in real landscapes. We addressed this issue by developing an approach for quantifying the impact on wildlife mortality of two alternative mechanisms for accommodating growth in vehicle numbers: (1) increasing the number of roads, and (2) increasing traffic volumes on existing roads. We applied this approach to a koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) population in eastern Australia and quantified the relative impact of each strategy on mortality. We show that, in most cases, accommodating growth in traffic through increases in volumes on existing roads has a lower impact than building new roads. An exception is where the existing road network has very low road density, but very high traffic volumes on each road. These findings have important implications for how we design road networks to reduce their impacts on biodiversity. PMID:24646891

  19. Hybridization Capture Reveals Evolution and Conservation across the Entire Koala Retrovirus Genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Yasuko; Cui, Pin; Vielgrader, Hanna; Helgen, Kristofer M.; Roca, Alfred L.; Greenwood, Alex D.

    2014-01-01

    The koala retrovirus (KoRV) is the only retrovirus known to be in the midst of invading the germ line of its host species. Hybridization capture and next generation sequencing were used on modern and museum DNA samples of koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) to examine ca. 130 years of evolution across the full KoRV genome. Overall, the entire proviral genome appeared to be conserved across time in sequence, protein structure and transcriptional binding sites. A total of 138 polymorphisms were detected, of which 72 were found in more than one individual. At every polymorphic site in the museum koalas, one of the character states matched that of modern KoRV. Among non-synonymous polymorphisms, radical substitutions involving large physiochemical differences between amino acids were elevated in env, potentially reflecting anti-viral immune pressure or avoidance of receptor interference. Polymorphisms were not detected within two functional regions believed to affect infectivity. Host sequences flanking proviral integration sites were also captured; with few proviral loci shared among koalas. Recently described variants of KoRV, designated KoRV-B and KoRV-J, were not detected in museum samples, suggesting that these variants may be of recent origin. PMID:24752422

  20. Recent advances in understanding the biology, epidemiology and control of chlamydial infections in koalas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polkinghorne, Adam; Hanger, Jon; Timms, Peter

    2013-08-30

    The koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) is recognised as a threatened wildlife species in various parts of Australia. A major contributing factor to the decline and long-term viability of affected populations is disease caused by the obligate intracellular bacteria, Chlamydia. Two chlamydial species infect the koala, Chlamydia pecorum and Chlamydia pneumoniae, and have been reported in nearly all mainland koala populations. Chlamydial infections of koalas are associated with ocular infections leading to blindness and genital tract infections linked to infertility, among other serious clinical manifestations. Diagnosis can be based on clinical presentation alone, however, it is complicated by the observation that many koala chlamydial infections occur with no overt signs of clinical disease. Instead, accurate diagnosis requires detailed clinical assessment and confirmatory testing by a range of PCR-based assays. Antibiotic treatment for koala chlamydial infection is possible, however, results on its success are mixed. A more practical solution for the protection of diseased populations is the application of a koala Chlamydia vaccine, with recent trials indicating promising results. Interestingly, molecular epidemiology studies of koala C. pecorum infections and recent comparative genomic analyses of koala C. pneumoniae have revealed potential differences in their origin that will have wider ramifications for our understanding of human chlamydial infections and host adaptation of the chlamydiae. This review summarises changes to the taxonomy of koala chlamydial infections and recent advances in our understanding of the epidemiology, diagnosis, treatment, control and evolution of Chlamydia infections in this iconic wildlife species. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Experimental Evaluation of Koala Scat Persistence and Detectability with Implications for Pellet-Based Fauna Census

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romane H. Cristescu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Establishing species distribution and population trends are basic requirements in conservation biology, yet acquiring this fundamental information is often difficult. Indirect survey methods that rely on fecal pellets (scats can overcome some difficulties but present their own challenges. In particular, variation in scat detectability and decay rate can introduce biases. We studied how vegetation communities affect the detectability and decay rate of scats as exemplified by koalas Phascolarctos cinereus: scat detectability was highly and consistently dependent on ground layer complexity (introducing up to 16% non-detection bias; scat decay rates were highly heterogeneous within vegetation communities; exposure of scats to surface water and rain strongly accelerated scat decay rate and finally, invertebrates were found to accelerate scat decay rate markedly, but unpredictably. This last phenomenon may explain the high variability of scat decay rate within a single vegetation community. Methods to decrease biases should be evaluated when planning scat surveys, as the most appropriate method(s will vary depending on species, scale of survey and landscape characteristics. Detectability and decay biases are both stronger in certain vegetation communities, thus their combined effect is likely to introduce substantial errors in scat surveys and this could result in inappropriate and counterproductive management decisions.

  2. Tree-hugging koalas demonstrate a novel thermoregulatory mechanism for arboreal mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briscoe, Natalie J; Handasyde, Kathrine A; Griffiths, Stephen R; Porter, Warren P; Krockenberger, Andrew; Kearney, Michael R

    2014-06-01

    How climate impacts organisms depends not only on their physiology, but also whether they can buffer themselves against climate variability via their behaviour. One of the way species can withstand hot temperatures is by seeking out cool microclimates, but only if their habitat provides such refugia. Here, we describe a novel thermoregulatory strategy in an arboreal mammal, the koala Phascolarctos cinereus. During hot weather, koalas enhanced conductive heat loss by seeking out and resting against tree trunks that were substantially cooler than ambient air temperature. Using a biophysical model of heat exchange, we show that this behaviour greatly reduces the amount of heat that must be lost via evaporative cooling, potentially increasing koala survival during extreme heat events. While it has long been known that internal temperatures of trees differ from ambient air temperatures, the relevance of this for arboreal and semi-arboreal mammals has not previously been explored. Our results highlight the important role of tree trunks as aboveground 'heat sinks', providing cool local microenvironments not only for koalas, but also for all tree-dwelling species. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  3. Hybridization capture reveals evolution and conservation across the entire Koala retrovirus genome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyriakos Tsangaras

    Full Text Available The koala retrovirus (KoRV is the only retrovirus known to be in the midst of invading the germ line of its host species. Hybridization capture and next generation sequencing were used on modern and museum DNA samples of koala (Phascolarctos cinereus to examine ca. 130 years of evolution across the full KoRV genome. Overall, the entire proviral genome appeared to be conserved across time in sequence, protein structure and transcriptional binding sites. A total of 138 polymorphisms were detected, of which 72 were found in more than one individual. At every polymorphic site in the museum koalas, one of the character states matched that of modern KoRV. Among non-synonymous polymorphisms, radical substitutions involving large physiochemical differences between amino acids were elevated in env, potentially reflecting anti-viral immune pressure or avoidance of receptor interference. Polymorphisms were not detected within two functional regions believed to affect infectivity. Host sequences flanking proviral integration sites were also captured; with few proviral loci shared among koalas. Recently described variants of KoRV, designated KoRV-B and KoRV-J, were not detected in museum samples, suggesting that these variants may be of recent origin.

  4. ECG response of koalas to tourists proximity: a preliminary study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Ropert-Coudert

    Full Text Available Koalas operate on a tight energy budget and, thus, may not always display behavioral avoidance reaction when placed in a stressful condition. We investigated the physiological response of captive koalas Phascolarctos cinereus in a conservation centre to the presence of tourists walking through their habitat. We compared, using animal-attached data-recorders, the electrocardiogram activity of female koalas in contact with tourists and in a human-free area. One of the koalas in the tourist zone presented elevated heart rate values and variability throughout the recording period. The remaining female in the exhibit area showed a higher field resting heart rates during the daytime than that in the isolated area. In the evening, heart rate profiles changed drastically and both the koalas in the exhibit and in the tourist-free zones displayed similar field resting heart rates, which were lower than those during the day. In parallel, the autonomic nervous systems of these two individuals evolved from sympathetic-dominant during the day to parasympathetic-dominant in the evening. Our results report ECG of free-living koalas for the first time. Although they are preliminary due to the difficulty of having sufficient samples of animals of the same sex and age, our results stress out the importance of studies investigating the physiological reaction of animals to tourists.

  5. Herds Overhead: Nimbadon lavarackorum (Diprotodontidae), Heavyweight Marsupial Herbivores in the Miocene Forests of Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Karen H.; Camens, Aaron B.; Archer, Michael; Hand, Suzanne J.

    2012-01-01

    The marsupial family Diprotodontidae (Diprotodontia, Vombatiformes) is a group of extinct large-bodied (60–2500 kg) wombat-like herbivores that were common and geographically widespread in Cenozoic fossil deposits of Australia and New Guinea. Typically they are regarded to be gregarious, terrestrial quadrupeds and have been likened in body form among placental groups to sheep, rhinoceros and hippopotami. Arguably, one of the best represented species is the zygomaturine diprotodontid Nimbadon lavarackorum which is known from exceptionally well-preserved cranial and postcranial material from the middle Miocene cave deposit AL90, in the Riversleigh World Heritage Area, northwestern Queensland. Here we describe and functionally analyse the appendicular skeleton of Nimbadon lavarackorum and reveal a far more unique lifestyle for this plesiomorphic and smallest of diprotodontids. Striking similarities are evident between the skeleton of Nimbadon and that of the extant arboreal koala Phascolarctos cinereus, including the powerfully built forelimbs, highly mobile shoulder and elbow joints, proportionately large manus and pes (both with a semi-opposable digit I) and exceedingly large, recurved and laterally compressed claws. Combined with the unique (among australidelphians) proportionately shortened hindlimbs of Nimbadon, these features suggest adept climbing ability, probable suspensory behaviour, and an arboreal lifestyle. At approximately 70 kg, Nimbadon is the largest herbivorous mammal to have occupied the forest canopies of Australia - an ecological niche that is no longer occupied in any Australian ecosystem and one that further expands the already significant niche diversity displayed by marsupials during the Cenozoic. PMID:23185250

  6. A few large roads or many small ones? How to accommodate growth in vehicle numbers to minimise impacts on wildlife.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan R Rhodes

    Full Text Available Roads and vehicular traffic are among the most pervasive of threats to biodiversity because they fragmenting habitat, increasing mortality and opening up new areas for the exploitation of natural resources. However, the number of vehicles on roads is increasing rapidly and this is likely to continue into the future, putting increased pressure on wildlife populations. Consequently, a major challenge is the planning of road networks to accommodate increased numbers of vehicles, while minimising impacts on wildlife. Nonetheless, we currently have few principles for guiding decisions on road network planning to reduce impacts on wildlife in real landscapes. We addressed this issue by developing an approach for quantifying the impact on wildlife mortality of two alternative mechanisms for accommodating growth in vehicle numbers: (1 increasing the number of roads, and (2 increasing traffic volumes on existing roads. We applied this approach to a koala (Phascolarctos cinereus population in eastern Australia and quantified the relative impact of each strategy on mortality. We show that, in most cases, accommodating growth in traffic through increases in volumes on existing roads has a lower impact than building new roads. An exception is where the existing road network has very low road density, but very high traffic volumes on each road. These findings have important implications for how we design road networks to reduce their impacts on biodiversity.

  7. Herds overhead: Nimbadon lavarackorum (Diprotodontidae, heavyweight marsupial herbivores in the Miocene forests of Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen H Black

    Full Text Available The marsupial family Diprotodontidae (Diprotodontia, Vombatiformes is a group of extinct large-bodied (60-2500 kg wombat-like herbivores that were common and geographically widespread in Cenozoic fossil deposits of Australia and New Guinea. Typically they are regarded to be gregarious, terrestrial quadrupeds and have been likened in body form among placental groups to sheep, rhinoceros and hippopotami. Arguably, one of the best represented species is the zygomaturine diprotodontid Nimbadon lavarackorum which is known from exceptionally well-preserved cranial and postcranial material from the middle Miocene cave deposit AL90, in the Riversleigh World Heritage Area, northwestern Queensland. Here we describe and functionally analyse the appendicular skeleton of Nimbadon lavarackorum and reveal a far more unique lifestyle for this plesiomorphic and smallest of diprotodontids. Striking similarities are evident between the skeleton of Nimbadon and that of the extant arboreal koala Phascolarctos cinereus, including the powerfully built forelimbs, highly mobile shoulder and elbow joints, proportionately large manus and pes (both with a semi-opposable digit I and exceedingly large, recurved and laterally compressed claws. Combined with the unique (among australidelphians proportionately shortened hindlimbs of Nimbadon, these features suggest adept climbing ability, probable suspensory behaviour, and an arboreal lifestyle. At approximately 70 kg, Nimbadon is the largest herbivorous mammal to have occupied the forest canopies of Australia - an ecological niche that is no longer occupied in any Australian ecosystem and one that further expands the already significant niche diversity displayed by marsupials during the Cenozoic.

  8. Tree-hugging koalas demonstrate a novel thermoregulatory mechanism for arboreal mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briscoe, Natalie J.; Handasyde, Kathrine A.; Griffiths, Stephen R.; Porter, Warren P.; Krockenberger, Andrew; Kearney, Michael R.

    2014-01-01

    How climate impacts organisms depends not only on their physiology, but also whether they can buffer themselves against climate variability via their behaviour. One of the way species can withstand hot temperatures is by seeking out cool microclimates, but only if their habitat provides such refugia. Here, we describe a novel thermoregulatory strategy in an arboreal mammal, the koala Phascolarctos cinereus. During hot weather, koalas enhanced conductive heat loss by seeking out and resting against tree trunks that were substantially cooler than ambient air temperature. Using a biophysical model of heat exchange, we show that this behaviour greatly reduces the amount of heat that must be lost via evaporative cooling, potentially increasing koala survival during extreme heat events. While it has long been known that internal temperatures of trees differ from ambient air temperatures, the relevance of this for arboreal and semi-arboreal mammals has not previously been explored. Our results highlight the important role of tree trunks as aboveground ‘heat sinks’, providing cool local microenvironments not only for koalas, but also for all tree-dwelling species. PMID:24899683

  9. A few large roads or many small ones? How to accommodate growth in vehicle numbers to minimise impacts on wildlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Jonathan R; Lunney, Daniel; Callaghan, John; McAlpine, Clive A

    2014-01-01

    Roads and vehicular traffic are among the most pervasive of threats to biodiversity because they fragmenting habitat, increasing mortality and opening up new areas for the exploitation of natural resources. However, the number of vehicles on roads is increasing rapidly and this is likely to continue into the future, putting increased pressure on wildlife populations. Consequently, a major challenge is the planning of road networks to accommodate increased numbers of vehicles, while minimising impacts on wildlife. Nonetheless, we currently have few principles for guiding decisions on road network planning to reduce impacts on wildlife in real landscapes. We addressed this issue by developing an approach for quantifying the impact on wildlife mortality of two alternative mechanisms for accommodating growth in vehicle numbers: (1) increasing the number of roads, and (2) increasing traffic volumes on existing roads. We applied this approach to a koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) population in eastern Australia and quantified the relative impact of each strategy on mortality. We show that, in most cases, accommodating growth in traffic through increases in volumes on existing roads has a lower impact than building new roads. An exception is where the existing road network has very low road density, but very high traffic volumes on each road. These findings have important implications for how we design road networks to reduce their impacts on biodiversity.

  10. KOALA RETROVIRUS: A REVIEW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinney, Matthew E; Pye, Geoffrey W

    2016-06-01

    Koala retrovirus (KoRV) is a gammaretrovirus that has been identified in both captive and free-ranging koalas ( Phascolarctos cinereus ) with variable geographic distribution in Australia. KoRV is capable of both exogenous and endogenous transmission, which provides an interesting research platform for scientists to study active retrovirus endogenization into a host genome and offers veterinary scientists an opportunity to examine the clinical consequences of KoRV infection in koalas. Causation between KoRV and frequently recognized clinical conditions associated with immune suppression and neoplasia in koalas has not been definitively established, however research continues to evaluate a potential association. Three KoRV variants, KoRV-A, KoRV-B, and KoRV-J, have been the most thoroughly described and preliminary evidence suggests KoRV variability may be fundamental in host pathogenicity. In addition to reviewing what is currently known about KoRV, this article discusses treatment, management, and future research directions.

  11. Visual comparison for information visualization

    KAUST Repository

    Gleicher, M.; Albers, D.; Walker, R.; Jusufi, I.; Hansen, C. D.; Roberts, J. C.

    2011-01-01

    Data analysis often involves the comparison of complex objects. With the ever increasing amounts and complexity of data, the demand for systems to help with these comparisons is also growing. Increasingly, information visualization tools support such comparisons explicitly, beyond simply allowing a viewer to examine each object individually. In this paper, we argue that the design of information visualizations of complex objects can, and should, be studied in general, that is independently of what those objects are. As a first step in developing this general understanding of comparison, we propose a general taxonomy of visual designs for comparison that groups designs into three basic categories, which can be combined. To clarify the taxonomy and validate its completeness, we provide a survey of work in information visualization related to comparison. Although we find a great diversity of systems and approaches, we see that all designs are assembled from the building blocks of juxtaposition, superposition and explicit encodings. This initial exploration shows the power of our model, and suggests future challenges in developing a general understanding of comparative visualization and facilitating the development of more comparative visualization tools. © The Author(s) 2011.

  12. Visual comparison for information visualization

    KAUST Repository

    Gleicher, M.

    2011-09-07

    Data analysis often involves the comparison of complex objects. With the ever increasing amounts and complexity of data, the demand for systems to help with these comparisons is also growing. Increasingly, information visualization tools support such comparisons explicitly, beyond simply allowing a viewer to examine each object individually. In this paper, we argue that the design of information visualizations of complex objects can, and should, be studied in general, that is independently of what those objects are. As a first step in developing this general understanding of comparison, we propose a general taxonomy of visual designs for comparison that groups designs into three basic categories, which can be combined. To clarify the taxonomy and validate its completeness, we provide a survey of work in information visualization related to comparison. Although we find a great diversity of systems and approaches, we see that all designs are assembled from the building blocks of juxtaposition, superposition and explicit encodings. This initial exploration shows the power of our model, and suggests future challenges in developing a general understanding of comparative visualization and facilitating the development of more comparative visualization tools. © The Author(s) 2011.

  13. Social Comparison in the Classroom : A Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Pieternel; Kuyper, Hans; van der Werf, Greetje; Buunk, Abraham P.; van der Zee, Yvonne G.

    2008-01-01

    This article reviews research conducted on social comparison processes in the classroom since Festinger proposed his theory of social comparison. It covers the theoretical framework of social comparison theory, and it is organized around the following themes: motives for social comparison,

  14. Generating explanations via analogical comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyos, Christian; Gentner, Dedre

    2017-10-01

    Generating explanations can be highly effective in promoting learning in both adults and children. Our interest is in the mechanisms that underlie this effect and in whether and how they operate in early learning. In adult reasoning, explanation may call on many subprocesses-including comparison, counterfactual reasoning, and reasoning by exclusion; but it is unlikely that all these processes are available to young children. We propose that one process that may serve both children and adults is comparison. In this study, we asked whether children would use the results of a comparison experience when asked to explain why a model skyscraper was stable. We focused on a challenging principle-that diagonal cross-bracing lends stability to physical structures (Gentner et al., Cognitive Science, 40, 224-240, 2016). Six-year-olds either received no training or interacted with model skyscrapers in one of three different conditions, designed to vary in their potential to invite and support comparison. In the Single Model condition, children interacted with a single braced model. In the comparison conditions (Low Alignability and High Alignability), children compared braced and unbraced models. Following experience with the models, children were asked to explain why the braced model was stable. They then received two transfer tasks. We found that children who received highly alignable pairs were most likely to (a) produce brace-based explanations and (b) transfer the brace principle to a dissimilar context. This provides evidence that children can benefit from analogical comparison in generating explanations and also suggests limitations on this ability.

  15. Austrian emission under international comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderl, M.; Gager, M.; Gugele, B.; Huttunen, K.; Kurzweil, A.; Poupa, S.; Ritter, M.; Wappel, D.; Wieser, M.

    2004-01-01

    A comparison between anthropogenic emissions of CO 2 , CH 4 , N 2 O, SO 2 , NO x , volatile organic compounds (NMVOC), NH 3 and CO from the European Union, European Union candidate countries and Austria is presented. Data covers the years 1999-2001 and the emissions values per habitant are provided as well as a comparison against the Kyoto goals. In the middle of the European mean values are the austrian emissions values, austrian SO 2 emissions are the smallest, however CH 4 , CO and NMVOC emissions are over the European mean values. 8 figs., 6 tabs. (nevyjel)

  16. Ordinal Comparison of Multidimensional Deprivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne-Schmidt, Christoffer Scavenius; Tarp, Finn; Østerdal, Lars Peter

    This paper develops an ordinal method of comparison of multidimensional inequality. In our model, population distribution g is more unequal than f when the distributions have common median and can be obtained from f  by one or more shifts in population density that increase inequality. For our be...... benchmark 2x2 case (i.e. the case of two binary outcome variables), we derive an empirical method for making inequality comparisons. As an illustration, we apply the model to childhood poverty in Mozambique....

  17. Metamodel comparison and model comparison for safety assurance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luo, Y.; Engelen, L.J.P.; Brand, van den M.G.J.; Bondavelli, A.; Ceccarelli, A.; Ortmeier, F.

    2014-01-01

    In safety-critical domains, conceptual models are created in the form of metamodels using different concepts from possibly overlapping domains. Comparison between those conceptual models can facilitate the reuse of models from one domain to another. This paper describes the mappings detected when

  18. Comparison between TRMM PR and

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A comparison between TRMM PR rainfall estimates and rain gauge data from ANEEL and com- bined gauge/satellite ..... correctly the of the south Atlantic convergence ..... vapor, snow cover, and sea ice derived from SSM/I mea- surements ...

  19. Saliency of social comparison dimensions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuyper, H.

    2007-01-01

    The present article discusses a theory of the saliency of social comparison dimensions and presents the results of an experiment about the effects of two different experimental situations on the saliency of exterior, task-related and socio-emotional dimensions. Saliency was operationalized with a

  20. Homomorphic encryption and secure comparison

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damgard, Ivan; Geisler, M.; Kroigaard, M.

    2008-01-01

    We propose a protocol for secure comparison of integers based on homomorphic encryption.We also propose a homomorphic encryption scheme that can be used in our protocol, makes it more efficient than previous solutions, and can also be used as the basis of efficient and general secure Multiparty

  1. Aggregation Methods in International Comparisons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.M. Balk (Bert)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractThis paper reviews the progress that has been made over the past decade in understanding the nature of the various multilateral in- ternational comparison methods. Fifteen methods are discussed and subjected to a system of ten tests. In addition, attention is paid to recently developed

  2. Quantum secure communication models comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgi Petrov Bebrov

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper concerns the quantum cryptography, more specifically, the quantum secure communication type of schemes. The main focus here is on making a comparison between the distinct secure quantum communication models – quantum secure direct communication and deterministic secure quantum communication, in terms of three parameters: resource efficiency, eavesdropping check efficiency, and security (degree of preserving the confidentiality.

  3. Pluralism and Objectivism: Cornerstones for Interpersonal Comparisons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lasse

    2012-01-01

    comparison, and between a subjectivist and objectivist standard of interpersonal comparison. The paper provides a normative argument for pluralism and objectivism with regard to interpersonal comparison, and it suggests that the Capability Approach as developed by Amartya Sen and Martha Nussbaum fits...

  4. Cross-National Yardstick Comparisons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller Hansen, Kasper; Leth Olsen, Asmus; Bech, Mickael

    2015-01-01

    performance comparisons—even when accounting for classic national sociotropic and egotropic items. Specifically, voters respond strongly to how the prospective wealth of Denmark evolves relative to the neighboring Sweden. Interestingly, voters are more negative in their response to cross-national losses......Comparing performance between countries is both a theoretically and intuitively useful yardstick for voters. Cross-national comparisons provide voters with heuristics that are less cognitively demanding, less ambiguous, and less uncertain than solely national, absolute performance measurements. We...... test this proposition using a unique, choice experiment embedded in the 2011 Danish National Election Study. This design allows to contrast cross-national comparisons with more traditional national sociotropic and egotropic concerns. The findings suggest that voters are strongly influenced by cross-national...

  5. Numerical Tokamak Project code comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waltz, R.E.; Cohen, B.I.; Beer, M.A.

    1994-01-01

    The Numerical Tokamak Project undertook a code comparison using a set of TFTR tokamak parameters. Local radial annulus codes of both gyrokinetic and gyrofluid types were compared for both slab and toroidal case limits assuming ion temperature gradient mode turbulence in a pure plasma with adiabatic electrons. The heat diffusivities were found to be in good internal agreement within ± 50% of the group average over five codes

  6. Comparison of BIOPATH and MARCEN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno, R.A.; Barrdahl, R. [Swedish Radiation Protection Inst., Stockholm (Sweden); Bergstroem, U.; Nordlinder, S. [Studsvik Eco and Safety AB, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    1995-11-01

    The present report discusses a comparison of two models for assessing the environmental transfer of radionuclides from routine releases to the sea from nuclear power plants: BIOPATH and MARCEN. The purpose of the comparison was to assess the credibility of MARCEN`s predictions of doses to critical groups. BIOPATH, which has previously been validated and compared with other models, was a suitable code for this purpose. The releases from Ringhals during 1993 were used for the comparison. For this scenario BIOPATH and MARCEN predicted the same critical radionuclide/pathway combinations. The observed quantitative disagreement between the models was mainly due to scale differences. The ratio of the mean values predicted by BIOPATH and MARCEN ranged from 0.91 ({sup 60}Co/shellfish) to 2.43 ({sup 137}Cs/fish). The observed differences between the models are small in general, and can be neglected if the predicted doses are one or more orders of magnitude below the dose limits. 8 refs, 12 figs, 9 tabs.

  7. Comparison of BIOPATH and MARCEN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno, R.A.; Barrdahl, R.; Bergstroem, U.; Nordlinder, S.

    1995-11-01

    The present report discusses a comparison of two models for assessing the environmental transfer of radionuclides from routine releases to the sea from nuclear power plants: BIOPATH and MARCEN. The purpose of the comparison was to assess the credibility of MARCEN's predictions of doses to critical groups. BIOPATH, which has previously been validated and compared with other models, was a suitable code for this purpose. The releases from Ringhals during 1993 were used for the comparison. For this scenario BIOPATH and MARCEN predicted the same critical radionuclide/pathway combinations. The observed quantitative disagreement between the models was mainly due to scale differences. The ratio of the mean values predicted by BIOPATH and MARCEN ranged from 0.91 ( 60 Co/shellfish) to 2.43 ( 137 Cs/fish). The observed differences between the models are small in general, and can be neglected if the predicted doses are one or more orders of magnitude below the dose limits. 8 refs, 12 figs, 9 tabs

  8. Ascertainment and comparison of risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devooght, J.

    1981-01-01

    The author reviews the major problems arising from a comparison and an ascertainment of risks. Extensive scattering shown in the results from ten different studies reflect statistical inadequacies as well as differences in methodological approach. The controversy over renewable energy sources illustrates how the use of different criteria produce different results. Each source of energy (except coal) has practically the same number of lost working days as well as deaths per worker unit, but the risks are lower using nuclear energy as opposed to other sources if calculated pro unit or produced energy. Despite considerable uncertainty over the consequences of nuclear accidents, comparative nuclear energy shows up very favourably. (AF)

  9. Comparison of tritium production facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Kaihui; Huang Jinhua

    2002-01-01

    Detailed investigation and research on the source of tritium, tritium production facilities and their comparison are presented based on the basic information about tritium. The characteristics of three types of proposed tritium production facilities, i.e., fissile type, accelerator production tritium (APT) and fusion type, are presented. APT shows many advantages except its rather high cost; fusion reactors appear to offer improved safety and environmental impacts, in particular, tritium production based on the fusion-based neutron source costs much lower and directly helps the development of fusion energy source

  10. Comparison of Nordic dose models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thykier-Nielsen, S.

    1978-04-01

    A comparison is made between the models used in the four Nordic countries, Finland, Norway, Sweden and Denmark, for calculation of concentrations and doses from releases of radioactive material to the atmosphere. The comparison is limited to the near-zone models, i.e. the models for calculation of concentrations and doses within 50 km from the release point, and it comprises the following types of calculation: a. Concentrations of airborne material, b. External gamma doses from a plume, c. External gamma doses from radioactive material deposited on the ground. All models are based on the gaussian dispersion model (the gaussian plume model). Unit releases of specific isotopes under specific meteorological conditions are assumed. On the basis of the calculation results from the models, it is concluded that there are no essential differences. The difference between the calculation results only exceeds a factor of 3 in special cases. It thus lies within the known limits of uncertainty for the gaussian plume model. (author)

  11. RISKIND verification and benchmark comparisons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biwer, B.M.; Arnish, J.J.; Chen, S.Y.; Kamboj, S.

    1997-08-01

    This report presents verification calculations and benchmark comparisons for RISKIND, a computer code designed to estimate potential radiological consequences and health risks to individuals and the population from exposures associated with the transportation of spent nuclear fuel and other radioactive materials. Spreadsheet calculations were performed to verify the proper operation of the major options and calculational steps in RISKIND. The program is unique in that it combines a variety of well-established models into a comprehensive treatment for assessing risks from the transportation of radioactive materials. Benchmark comparisons with other validated codes that incorporate similar models were also performed. For instance, the external gamma and neutron dose rate curves for a shipping package estimated by RISKIND were compared with those estimated by using the RADTRAN 4 code and NUREG-0170 methodology. Atmospheric dispersion of released material and dose estimates from the GENII and CAP88-PC codes. Verification results have shown the program to be performing its intended function correctly. The benchmark results indicate that the predictions made by RISKIND are within acceptable limits when compared with predictions from similar existing models

  12. RISKIND verification and benchmark comparisons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biwer, B.M.; Arnish, J.J.; Chen, S.Y.; Kamboj, S.

    1997-08-01

    This report presents verification calculations and benchmark comparisons for RISKIND, a computer code designed to estimate potential radiological consequences and health risks to individuals and the population from exposures associated with the transportation of spent nuclear fuel and other radioactive materials. Spreadsheet calculations were performed to verify the proper operation of the major options and calculational steps in RISKIND. The program is unique in that it combines a variety of well-established models into a comprehensive treatment for assessing risks from the transportation of radioactive materials. Benchmark comparisons with other validated codes that incorporate similar models were also performed. For instance, the external gamma and neutron dose rate curves for a shipping package estimated by RISKIND were compared with those estimated by using the RADTRAN 4 code and NUREG-0170 methodology. Atmospheric dispersion of released material and dose estimates from the GENII and CAP88-PC codes. Verification results have shown the program to be performing its intended function correctly. The benchmark results indicate that the predictions made by RISKIND are within acceptable limits when compared with predictions from similar existing models.

  13. Angle comparison using an autocollimator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geckeler, Ralf D.; Just, Andreas; Vasilev, Valentin; Prieto, Emilio; Dvorácek, František; Zelenika, Slobodan; Przybylska, Joanna; Duta, Alexandru; Victorov, Ilya; Pisani, Marco; Saraiva, Fernanda; Salgado, Jose-Antonio; Gao, Sitian; Anusorn, Tonmueanwai; Leng Tan, Siew; Cox, Peter; Watanabe, Tsukasa; Lewis, Andrew; Chaudhary, K. P.; Thalmann, Ruedi; Banreti, Edit; Nurul, Alfiyati; Fira, Roman; Yandayan, Tanfer; Chekirda, Konstantin; Bergmans, Rob; Lassila, Antti

    2018-01-01

    Autocollimators are versatile optical devices for the contactless measurement of the tilt angles of reflecting surfaces. An international key comparison (KC) on autocollimator calibration, EURAMET.L-K3.2009, was initiated by the European Association of National Metrology Institutes (EURAMET) to provide information on the capabilities in this field. The Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) acted as the pilot laboratory, with a total of 25 international participants from EURAMET and from the Asia Pacific Metrology Programme (APMP) providing measurements. This KC was the first one to utilise a high-resolution electronic autocollimator as a standard. In contrast to KCs in angle metrology which usually involve the full plane angle, it focused on relatively small angular ranges (+/-10 arcsec and +/-1000 arcsec) and step sizes (10 arcsec and 0.1 arcsec, respectively). This document represents the approved final report on the results of the KC. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCL, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  14. Review of interspecies risk comparisons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, S.L.; Brett, S.M.; Gough, M.; Rodricks, J.V.; Tardiff, R.G.; Turnbull, D.

    1988-01-01

    Use of laboratory animal data to make quantitative predictions of the risks of toxic effects in humans assumes that a relationship exists between the potencies in animals and humans and that its parameters can be estimated adequately. Such ''scaling rules'' have been used to predict the risks of carcinogenicity or other effects. A survey of the literature yielded only a modest number of papers devoted to the validity of these interspecies risk extrapolations, of which approximately 25 attempt quantitative comparisons for either radiation or chemical hazards. Some authors have investigated relatively large data sets in an attempt to identify the scaling rule that provides the best correlation of risks in two or more species. Others have selected a scaling rule and investigated whether its predictions from data in laboratory species match the risks found in humans. Opinion is divided on the validity of specific extrapolation rules and the utility of animal experiments for quantitative risk assessment. Correlations exist among risk levels in various species, but many factors appear to influence toxicity that are not captured in a simple scaling rule such as dose per unit weight or per unit surface area. Although scaling rules are useful, better projections will be made if case-specific factors such as pharmacokinetics can be considered. Further careful comparisons of quantitative risk estimates are needed. 38 references

  15. Efficient RNA structure comparison algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Abdullah N; Anandan, Jithendar; Fry, Eric; Monschke, Keith; Ganneboina, Nitin; Bowerman, Jason

    2017-12-01

    Recently proposed relative addressing-based ([Formula: see text]) RNA secondary structure representation has important features by which an RNA structure database can be stored into a suffix array. A fast substructure search algorithm has been proposed based on binary search on this suffix array. Using this substructure search algorithm, we present a fast algorithm that finds the largest common substructure of given multiple RNA structures in [Formula: see text] format. The multiple RNA structure comparison problem is NP-hard in its general formulation. We introduced a new problem for comparing multiple RNA structures. This problem has more strict similarity definition and objective, and we propose an algorithm that solves this problem efficiently. We also develop another comparison algorithm that iteratively calls this algorithm to locate nonoverlapping large common substructures in compared RNAs. With the new resulting tools, we improved the RNASSAC website (linked from http://faculty.tamuc.edu/aarslan ). This website now also includes two drawing tools: one specialized for preparing RNA substructures that can be used as input by the search tool, and another one for automatically drawing the entire RNA structure from a given structure sequence.

  16. Comparison of turbulence mitigation algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozacik, Stephen T.; Paolini, Aaron; Sherman, Ariel; Bonnett, James; Kelmelis, Eric

    2017-07-01

    When capturing imagery over long distances, atmospheric turbulence often degrades the data, especially when observation paths are close to the ground or in hot environments. These issues manifest as time-varying scintillation and warping effects that decrease the effective resolution of the sensor and reduce actionable intelligence. In recent years, several image processing approaches to turbulence mitigation have shown promise. Each of these algorithms has different computational requirements, usability demands, and degrees of independence from camera sensors. They also produce different degrees of enhancement when applied to turbulent imagery. Additionally, some of these algorithms are applicable to real-time operational scenarios while others may only be suitable for postprocessing workflows. EM Photonics has been developing image-processing-based turbulence mitigation technology since 2005. We will compare techniques from the literature with our commercially available, real-time, GPU-accelerated turbulence mitigation software. These comparisons will be made using real (not synthetic), experimentally obtained data for a variety of conditions, including varying optical hardware, imaging range, subjects, and turbulence conditions. Comparison metrics will include image quality, video latency, computational complexity, and potential for real-time operation. Additionally, we will present a technique for quantitatively comparing turbulence mitigation algorithms using real images of radial resolution targets.

  17. Comparison of sodium aerosol codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunbar, I.H.; Fermandjian, J.; Bunz, H.; L'homme, A.; Lhiaubet, G.; Himeno, Y.; Kirby, C.R.; Mitsutsuka, N.

    1984-01-01

    Although hypothetical fast reactor accidents leading to severe core damage are very low probability events, their consequences are to be assessed. During such accidents, one can envisage the ejection of sodium, mixed with fuel and fission products, from the primary circuit into the secondary containment. Aerosols can be formed either by mechanical dispersion of the molten material or as a result of combustion of the sodium in the mixture. Therefore considerable effort has been devoted to study the different sodium aerosol phenomena. To ensure that the problems of describing the physical behaviour of sodium aerosols were adequately understood, a comparison of the codes being developed to describe their behaviour was undertaken. The comparison consists of two parts. The first is a comparative study of the computer codes used to predict aerosol behaviour during a hypothetical accident. It is a critical review of documentation available. The second part is an exercise in which code users have run their own codes with a pre-arranged input. For the critical comparative review of the computer models, documentation has been made available on the following codes: AEROSIM (UK), MAEROS (USA), HAARM-3 (USA), AEROSOLS/A2 (France), AEROSOLS/B1 (France), and PARDISEKO-IIIb (FRG)

  18. Computational Chemistry Comparison and Benchmark Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRD 101 NIST Computational Chemistry Comparison and Benchmark Database (Web, free access)   The NIST Computational Chemistry Comparison and Benchmark Database is a collection of experimental and ab initio thermochemical properties for a selected set of molecules. The goals are to provide a benchmark set of molecules for the evaluation of ab initio computational methods and allow the comparison between different ab initio computational methods for the prediction of thermochemical properties.

  19. European Measurement Comparisons of Environmental Radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waetjen, Uwe

    2008-01-01

    The scheme of European measurement comparisons to verify radioactivity monitoring in the European Union is briefly explained. After a review of comparisons conducted during the years 1990, the approach of IRMM organising these comparisons since 2003 is presented. IRMM is providing comparison samples with a reference value traceable to the SI units and which is fully documented to all participants and national authorities after completion of the comparison. The sample preparation and determination of traceable reference values at IRMM, the sample treatment and measurement in the participating laboratories, as well as the evaluation of comparison results are described in some detail using the example of an air filter comparison. The results of a comparison to determine metabolised 40 K, 90 Sr and 137 Cs in milk powder are presented as well. The necessary improvements in the estimation of measurement uncertainty by the participating laboratories are discussed. The performance of individual laboratories which have participated in at least four comparison exercises over the years is studied in terms of observable trends

  20. The neural correlates of beauty comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kedia, Gayannée; Mussweiler, Thomas; Mullins, Paul; Linden, David E J

    2014-05-01

    Beauty is in the eye of the beholder. How attractive someone is perceived to be depends on the individual or cultural standards to which this person is compared. But although comparisons play a central role in the way people judge the appearance of others, the brain processes underlying attractiveness comparisons remain unknown. In the present experiment, we tested the hypothesis that attractiveness comparisons rely on the same cognitive and neural mechanisms as comparisons of simple nonsocial magnitudes such as size. We recorded brain activity with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while participants compared the beauty or height of two women or two dogs. Our data support the hypothesis of a common process underlying these different types of comparisons. First, we demonstrate that the distance effect characteristic of nonsocial comparisons also holds for attractiveness comparisons. Behavioral results indicated, for all our comparisons, longer response times for near than far distances. Second, the neural correlates of these distance effects overlapped in a frontoparietal network known for its involvement in processing simple nonsocial quantities. These results provide evidence for overlapping processes in the comparison of physical attractiveness and nonsocial magnitudes.

  1. Comparison Direction and Comparison Dimension among Disabled Individuals: Toward a Refined Conceptualization of Social Comparison under Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buunk, Bram P.

    1995-01-01

    Illuminates the nature and direction of social comparison research using a sample of 168 Dutch individuals. Some of the findings revealed uncertainty and frustration related to a need for social comparison, a desire more for information than affiliation about similar others, and the influence of health problems in evaluating one's situation. (RJM)

  2. MCNPX Model/Table Comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendricks, J.S.

    2003-01-01

    MCNPX is a Monte Carlo N-Particle radiation transport code extending the capabilities of MCNP4C. As with MCNP, MCNPX uses nuclear data tables to transport neutrons, photons, and electrons. Unlike MCNP, MCNPX also uses (1) nuclear data tables to transport protons; (2) physics models to transport 30 additional particle types (deuterons, tritons, alphas, pions, muons, etc.); and (3) physics models to transport neutrons and protons when no tabular data are available or when the data are above the energy range (20 to 150 MeV) where the data tables end. MCNPX can mix and match data tables and physics models throughout a problem. For example, MCNPX can model neutron transport in a bismuth germinate (BGO) particle detector by using data tables for bismuth and oxygen and using physics models for germanium. Also, MCNPX can model neutron transport in UO 2 , making the best use of physics models and data tables: below 20 MeV, data tables are used; above 150 MeV, physics models are used; between 20 and 150 MeV, data tables are used for oxygen and models are used for uranium. The mix-and-match capability became available with MCNPX2.5.b (November 2002). For the first time, we present here comparisons that calculate radiation transport in materials with various combinations of data charts and model physics. The physics models are poor at low energies (<150 MeV); thus, data tables should be used when available. Our comparisons demonstrate the importance of the mix-and-match capability and indicate how well physics models work in the absence of data tables

  3. Advanced nuclear systems in comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brogli, R.; Foskolos, K.; Goetzmann, C.; Kroeger, W.; Stanculescu, A.; Wydler, P.

    1996-09-01

    This study aims at a comparison of future reactor concepts, paying particular attention to aspects of safety, of the fuel cycle, the economics, the experience-base and the state of development. Representative examples of typical development lines, that could possibly be 'of interest' within a time horizon of 50 years were selected for comparison. This can be divided into three phases: - Phase I includes the next 10 years and will be characterised mainly by evolutionary developments of light water reactors (LWR) of large size; representative: EPR, - Phase II: i.e. the time between 2005 and 2020 approximately, encompasses the forecasted doubling of today's world-wide installed nuclear capacity; along with evolutionary reactors, innovative systems like AP600, PIUS, MHTGR, EFR will emerge, - Phase III covers the time between 2020 and 2050 and is characterised by the issue of sufficient fissile material resources; novel fast reactor systems including hybrid systems can, thus, become available; representatives: IFR, EA, ITER (the latter being). The evaluated concepts foresee partly different fuel cycles. Fission reactors can be operated in principle on the basis of either a Uranium-Plutonium-cycle or a Thorium-Uranium-cycle, while combinations of these cycles among them or with other reactor concepts than proposed are possible. With today's nuclear park (comprising mainly LWRs), the world-wide plutonium excess increases annually by about 100 t. Besides strategies based on reprocessing like: - recycling in thermal and fast reactors with mixed oxide fuels, - plutonium 'burning' in reactors with novel fuels without uranium or in 'hybrid' systems, allowing a reduction of this excess, direct disposal of spent fuel elements including their plutonium content ('one-through') is being considered. (author) figs., tabs., 32 refs

  4. Individual differences in social comparison : Development of a scale of social comparison orientation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gibbons, FX; Buunk, BP

    Development and validation of a measure of individual differences in social comparison orientation (the Iowa-Netherlands Comparison Orientation Measure [INCOM]) are described. Assuming that the tendency toward social comparison is universal, the scale was constructed so as to be appropriate to and

  5. Neuroticism and social comparison orientation as moderators of affective responses to social comparison at work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buunk, Abraham P.; Van der Zee, K.I.; Van Yperen, N.W.

    2001-01-01

    In a study among 72 nurses, the affective consequences of social comparison were examined and related to neuroticism, (N) and to social comparison orientation (SCO). Participants were confronted with a bogus interview with an upward versus a downward comparison target. Positive affect and

  6. Neuroticism and social comparison orientation as moderators of affective responses to social comparison at work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buunk, Bram P.; Van der Zee, K.I.; VanYperen, Nico W.

    2001-01-01

    In a study among 72 nurses, the affective consequences of social comparison were examined and related to neuroticism (N) and to social comparison orientation (SCO). Participants were confronted with a bogus interview with an upward versus a downward comparison target. Positive affect and

  7. Projected cost comparison of nuclear electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juhn, P.E.; Hu, C.W.

    2000-01-01

    Comparison of electricity generation costs has been done in the late years through a large co-operation between several organisations. The studies are aiming to provide reliable comparison of electricity generating costs of nuclear and conventional base load power plants. This paper includes the result of the joint IAEA/OECD study published in 1997. (author)

  8. The distribution of interlaboratory comparison data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heydorn, Kaj

    2008-01-01

    The distribution of mutually consistent results from interlaboratory comparisons is expected to be leptokurtic, and readers are warned against accepting conclusions based on simulations assuming normality.......The distribution of mutually consistent results from interlaboratory comparisons is expected to be leptokurtic, and readers are warned against accepting conclusions based on simulations assuming normality....

  9. Comparison of TRAC calculations with experimental data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, J.F.; Vigil, J.C.

    1980-01-01

    TRAC is an advanced best-estimate computer code for analyzing postulated accidents in light water reactors. This paper gives a brief description of the code followed by comparisons of TRAC calculations with data from a variety of separate-effects, system-effects, and integral experiments. Based on these comparisons, the capabilities and limitations of the early versions of TRAC are evaluated

  10. What Is Social Comparison and How Should We Study It?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Joanne V.

    1996-01-01

    Examines frequently used measures and procedures in social comparison research. The question of whether a method truly captures social comparison requires a clear understanding of what social comparison is; hence a definition of social comparison is proposed, multiple ancillary processes in social comparison are identified, and definitional…

  11. The Language of Comparisons: Communicating about Percentages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Polito

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available While comparisons between percentages or rates appear frequently in journalism and advertising, and are an essential component of quantitative writing, many students fail to understand precisely what percentages mean, and lack fluency with the language used for comparisons. After reviewing evidence demonstrating this weakness, this experience-based perspective lays out a framework for teaching the language of comparisons in a structured way, and illustrates it with several authentic examples that exemplify mistaken or misleading uses of such numbers. The framework includes three common types of erroneous or misleading quantitative writing: the missing comparison, where a key number is omitted; the apples-to-pineapples comparison, where two subtly incomparable rates are presented; and the implied fallacy, where an invalid quantitative conclusion is left to the reader to infer.

  12. The Current Status of Microscopical Hair Comparisons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter F. Rowe

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the microscopical comparison of human hairs has been accepted in courts of law for over a century, recent advances in DNA technology have called this type of forensic examination into question. In a number of cases, post-conviction DNA testing has exonerated defendants who were convicted in part on the results of microscopical hair comparisons. A federal judge has held a Daubert hearing on the microscopical comparison of human hairs and has concluded that this type of examination does not meet the criteria for admission of scientific evidence in federal courts. A review of the available scientific literature on microscopical hair comparisons (including studies conducted by the Royal Canadian Mounted Police and the Federal Bureau of Investigation leads to three conclusions: (1 microscopical comparisons of human hairs can yield scientifically defensible conclusions that can contribute to criminal investigations and criminal prosecutions, (2 the reliability of microscopical hair comparisons is strongly affected by the training of the forensic hair examiner, (3 forensic hair examiners cannot offer estimates of the probability of a match of a questioned hair with a hair from a randomly selected person. In order for microscopical hair examinations to survive challenges under the U.S. Supreme Court’s Daubert decision, hair microscopists must be better trained and undergo frequent proficiency testing. More research on the error rates of microscopical hair comparisons should be undertaken, and guidelines for the permissible interpretations of such comparisons should be established. Until these issues have been addressed and satisfactorily resolved, microscopical hair comparisons should be regarded by law enforcement agencies and courts of law as merely presumptive in nature, and all microscopical hair comparisons should be confirmed by nuclear DNA profiling or mitochondrial DNA sequencing.

  13. Zika detection: comparison of methodologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Elias Colombo

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Many countries in the Americas have detected local transmission of multiple arboviruses that cause febrile illnesses. Therefore, laboratory testing has become an important tool for confirming the etiology of these diseases. The present study aimed to compare the sensitivity and specificity of three different Zika virus detection assays. One hundred serum samples from patients presenting with acute febrile symptoms were tested using a previously reported TaqMan® RT-qPCR assay. We used a SYBR® Green RT-qPCR and a conventional PCR methodologies to compare the results. Of the samples that were determined to be negative by the TaqMan® RT-qPCR assay, 100% (Kappa = 0.670 were also found to be negative by SYBR® Green RT-qPCR based on Tm comparison; however, 14% (Kappa = 0.035 were found to be positive by conventional PCR followed by agarose gel electrophoresis. The differences between the ZIKV strains circulating worldwide and the low viremia period can compromise diagnostic accuracy and thereby the accuracy of outbreak data. Therefore, improved assays are required to improve the diagnosis and surveillance of arbovirus.

  14. Distributed Wind Policy Comparison Tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2011-12-01

    Power through Policy: 'Best Practices' for Cost-Effective Distributed Wind is a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-funded project to identify distributed wind technology policy best practices and to help policymakers, utilities, advocates, and consumers examine their effectiveness using a pro forma model. Incorporating a customized feed from the Database of State Incentives for Renewables and Efficiency (DSIRE), the Web-based Distributed Wind Policy Comparison Tool (Policy Tool) is designed to assist state, local, and utility officials in understanding the financial impacts of different policy options to help reduce the cost of distributed wind technologies. The Policy Tool can be used to evaluate the ways that a variety of federal and state policies and incentives impact the economics of distributed wind (and subsequently its expected market growth). It also allows policymakers to determine the impact of policy options, addressing market challenges identified in the U.S. DOE’s '20% Wind Energy by 2030' report and helping to meet COE targets.

  15. [Comparison among families of Mutong].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hong-mei; Zhang, Bo-li

    2002-06-01

    To distinguish families of Mutong correctly and direct effective and safe clinical administration. Comparison among families of Mutong on Herbs, Taxology, Clinic, Pharmacology and Toxicology. 1. There are mainly three families of Mutong: Lardizabalaceae, Ranunculaceae, Aristolochiaceae, which were all included in China Pharmacopeia in 1963. However only Mutong of Ranunculaceae and Aristolochiaceae family have been included in China Pharmacopeia since 1977, but Mutong of Lardizabalaceae family has not been included in China Pharmacopeia ever since. 2. It was Mutong of Lardizabalaceae family that was used mainly through the ages without toxic records, and Mutong of Aristolochiaceae e.g. Caulis Aristolochia manshuriensis (CAM) was not put down in writing of past ages but is mainly used today with toxicity repeatedly. 3. CAM contain aristolochic acid and aristololactam with high toxicity, which plays an uncertain role in diuresis with poor bactericidal power. Mutong of Lardizabalaceae family e.g. Akebia trifoliata (Thunb.) Koidz. var. australis (Diels) Rehd (ATKV) don't contain aristolochic acid and aristololactam, which has low toxicity and plays a certain role in diuresis with high bactericidal power. It may be quite safe to use ATKV instead of CAM in clinics. So we suggest that ATKV should be reused as first Mutong in China Pharmacopeia revised edition in order to ensure a correct understanding of the facts and reveal Mutong in its true colors, and CAM should be used as second Mutong strictly according to the rules in China Pharmacopeia revised edition.

  16. Construction contract revenue recording comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Bohušová

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Publicly traded companies prepare their consolidated accounts in conformity with the international accounting standards (IAS/IFRS in accordance with the Regulation No. 1606/2002. This is obliged for all publicly traded joint-stock companies in the Czech Republic. Other companies prepare financial statements in accordance with national accounting standards. There are Accounting Act No. 563/1991 of Coll. and Regulation No. 500/2002 of Coll., Czech Accounting Standards in the Czech Republic. Both systems are based on different principles so there are many differences. The Czech Accounting System (CAS is based on the rules while IAS/IFRS are based on principles (Kovanicová, 2005. These differences are mainly caused by the different philosophy. CAS prefers the fiscal policy to the economic substance while IAS/IFRS prefere the economic substance. One of the most significant dif­fe­ren­ces is in the field of revenue recording. There are two standards concerning the revenues recording (IAS 18 − Revenue, IAS 11 – Construction Contracts in IAS/IFRS. CAS 019 – Expenses and Revenue are dealing with the revenue recording in the Czech Republic. The paper is aimed at the comparison of the methodical approaches for revenue recording used by IAS/IFRS and by CAS. The most important differences are caused by the different approach to the long term contracts (construction contracts, software development contracts revenues recording.

  17. Attractor comparisons based on density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carroll, T. L.

    2015-01-01

    Recognizing a chaotic attractor can be seen as a problem in pattern recognition. Some feature vector must be extracted from the attractor and used to compare to other attractors. The field of machine learning has many methods for extracting feature vectors, including clustering methods, decision trees, support vector machines, and many others. In this work, feature vectors are created by representing the attractor as a density in phase space and creating polynomials based on this density. Density is useful in itself because it is a one dimensional function of phase space position, but representing an attractor as a density is also a way to reduce the size of a large data set before analyzing it with graph theory methods, which can be computationally intensive. The density computation in this paper is also fast to execute. In this paper, as a demonstration of the usefulness of density, the density is used directly to construct phase space polynomials for comparing attractors. Comparisons between attractors could be useful for tracking changes in an experiment when the underlying equations are too complicated for vector field modeling

  18. Inferior or superior : socials comparison in Dutch and Spanish organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carmona Rodriguez, Carmen

    2006-01-01

    SUMMARY Social comparison is an automatic and daily process through which individuals acquire information about themselves. Since Festinger (1954) postulated his assumptions on social comparison, extensive research has focused on understanding and explaining the social comparison process. In

  19. Symbolic comparisons of objects on color attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paivio, A; te Linde, J

    1980-11-01

    Symbolic comparisons of object brightness and color were investigated in two experiments using words and outline drawings as stimuli. Both experiments yielded orderly symbolic distance effects. Contrary to prediction, no reliable picture advantages emerged. For color comparison, individual differences in word fluency and color memory predicted decision time with word stimuli. These results contrast sharply with those of previous comparison studies involving concrete dimensions. The results are discussed in terms of dual-coding theory and the role of verbal mechanisms in memory for object color.

  20. Inter laboratory comparison on Industrial Computed Tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angel, Jais Andreas Breusch; De Chiffre, Leonardo; Larsen, Erik

    The ‘CIA-CT comparison - Inter laboratory comparison on industrial Computed Tomography” is organized by DTU Department of Mechanical Engineering within the Danish project “Centre for Industrial Application of CT scanning - CIA-CT”. The project is co-financed by the Danish Ministry of Science......, Technology and Innovation. The comparison aims to collect information about measurement performance in state-of the-art industrial CT (Computed Tomography) scanning. Since CT scanning has entered the field of manufacturing and coordinate metrology, evaluation of uncertainty of measurement with assessment...

  1. An ecological momentary assessment of comparison target as a moderator of the effects of appearance-focused social comparisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leahey, Tricia M; Crowther, Janis H

    2008-09-01

    This research examined whether comparison target moderates the effects of naturally occurring appearance-focused social comparisons on women's affect, appearance esteem, and dieting thoughts. During daily activities, body-satisfied (BS) women and body-dissatisfied (BD) women recorded their comparison targets and reactions to comparison information. For BS women, upward comparisons with peers were associated with more positive affect (PA) and appearance esteem and less guilt than upward comparisons with media images and downward comparisons with peers were associated with less PA than downward comparisons with media images. For BD women, upward comparisons with peers were associated with more appearance esteem and diet thoughts than upward comparisons with media images and downward comparisons with peers were associated with less PA, appearance esteem, and diet thoughts and more guilt than downward comparisons with media images.

  2. UAV PHOTOGRAMMETRY: BLOCK TRIANGULATION COMPARISONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Gini

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available UAVs systems represent a flexible technology able to collect a big amount of high resolution information, both for metric and interpretation uses. In the frame of experimental tests carried out at Dept. ICA of Politecnico di Milano to validate vector-sensor systems and to assess metric accuracies of images acquired by UAVs, a block of photos taken by a fixed wing system is triangulated with several software. The test field is a rural area included in an Italian Park ("Parco Adda Nord", useful to study flight and imagery performances on buildings, roads, cultivated and uncultivated vegetation. The UAV SenseFly, equipped with a camera Canon Ixus 220HS, flew autonomously over the area at a height of 130 m yielding a block of 49 images divided in 5 strips. Sixteen pre-signalized Ground Control Points, surveyed in the area through GPS (NRTK survey, allowed the referencing of the block and accuracy analyses. Approximate values for exterior orientation parameters (positions and attitudes were recorded by the flight control system. The block was processed with several software: Erdas-LPS, EyeDEA (Univ. of Parma, Agisoft Photoscan, Pix4UAV, in assisted or automatic way. Results comparisons are given in terms of differences among digital surface models, differences in orientation parameters and accuracies, when available. Moreover, image and ground point coordinates obtained by the various software were independently used as initial values in a comparative adjustment made by scientific in-house software, which can apply constraints to evaluate the effectiveness of different methods of point extraction and accuracies on ground check points.

  3. Comparison of Vehicle Choice Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephens, Thomas S. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Levinson, Rebecca S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Brooker, Aaron [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Liu, Changzheng [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Lin, Zhenhong [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Birky, Alicia [Energetics Incorporated, Columbia, MD (United States); Kontou, Eleftheria [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-10-31

    Five consumer vehicle choice models that give projections of future sales shares of light-duty vehicles were compared by running each model using the same inputs, where possible, for two scenarios. The five models compared — LVCFlex, MA3T, LAVE-Trans, ParaChoice, and ADOPT — have been used in support of the Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Vehicle Technologies Office in analyses of future light-duty vehicle markets under different assumptions about future vehicle technologies and market conditions. The models give projections of sales shares by powertrain technology. Projections made using common, but not identical, inputs showed qualitative agreement, with the exception of ADOPT. ADOPT estimated somewhat lower advanced vehicle shares, mostly composed of hybrid electric vehicles. Other models projected large shares of multiple advanced vehicle powertrains. Projections of models differed in significant ways, including how different technologies penetrated cars and light trucks. Since the models are constructed differently and take different inputs, not all inputs were identical, but were the same or very similar where possible. Projections by all models were in close agreement only in the first few years. Although the projections from LVCFlex, MA3T, LAVE-Trans, and ParaChoice were in qualitative agreement, there were significant differences in sales shares given by the different models for individual powertrain types, particularly in later years (2030 and later). For example, projected sales shares of conventional spark-ignition vehicles in 2030 for a given scenario ranged from 35% to 74%. Reasons for such differences are discussed, recognizing that these models were not developed to give quantitatively accurate predictions of future sales shares, but to represent vehicles markets realistically and capture the connections between sales and important influences. Model features were also compared at a high level, and suggestions for further comparison

  4. Management and Level of Asian small-clawed otter (Aonyx cinereus Illinger, 1815 as Display Animal in Indonesia Conservation Institution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulfa Hansyari Ar-Rasyid

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Education and breeding become main reasons for asian small-clawed otter placement as display animal in zoo. Proper management is needed to maintain asian small-clawed otter welfare. This research objectives were to examine and assess asian small-clawed otter welfare in three Indonesia zoos. The study was conducted from December 2016 to February 2017 in Bandung Zoo, Ragunan Zoo and Ocean Dream Samudra Ancol. The methods of this research were literature review, interview and field observation. Data were analyzed using the suitability of management and animal welfare assessment. The result showed that there were three main management activities conducted at the three study locations, i.e., nutrition, housing, and health management. Bandung Zoo achieved the lowest score of asian small-clawed otter welfare (45,24% compared to Ragunan Zoo (62,24% and Ocean Dream Samudra (65,90%. Asian small-clawed otter welfare in three institutions were relatively low to fair category, this was due to the unfilled quality of food and water i.e.,  the type, amount, feeding frequency, diet and preparing of food; the unavailability of suitable and favorable environmental conditions; the care facilities provided could not ensure the health of animal; the appearance of abnormal behavior that affected the growth and breeding of animal; and animal had no freedom to behave as in their natural habitat. Keywords: animal display, animal welfare, Asian small-clawed otter, zoo 

  5. Micro Foundations for International Productivity Comparisons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gersbach, Hans; Ark, Bart van

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes the methodology and procedures of international comparisons of productivity levels for twelve manufacturing industries (producing food products, beer, soap and detergents, iron and steel, machine tools, various types of machinery, computers, audio and video equipment, industrial

  6. Comparison between KARBUS and APOLLO 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payer, L.; Broeders, C.

    1995-01-01

    A comparison is made between benchmark calculations by the French APOLLO 1 code and the Karlsruhe KARBUS procedure. Independently these two codes had been developed for transport computations in infinite reactor configurations and for burnup calculations. (orig.)

  7. Brain connectivity measures: computation and comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Aleksandar

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article computation and comparison of causality measures which are used in determination of brain connectivity patterns is investigated. Main analyzed examples included published computation and comparisons of Directed Transfer Function ‐ DTF and Partial Directed Coherence ‐ PDC. It proved that serious methodology mistakes were involved in measure computations and comparisons. It is shown that the neighborhood of zero is of accented importance in such evaluations and that the issues of semantic stability have to be treated with more attention. Published results on the relationship of these two important measures are partly unstable with small changes of zero threshold and pictures of involved brain structures deduced from the cited articles have to be corrected. Analysis of the operators involved in evaluation and comparisons is given with suggestions for their improvement and complementary additional actions.

  8. Comparison Of Clinical, Parasitological And Serological Diagnostic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparison Of Clinical, Parasitological And Serological Diagnostic Methods For The Definitive ... Consideringthe relative significance of these methods in the diagnosis of onchocerciasis, we ... http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ari.v1i3.40835.

  9. Doctoral Program Selection Using Pairwise Comparisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadisina, Suresh K.; Bhasin, Vijay

    1989-01-01

    The application of a pairwise comparison methodology (Saaty's Analytic Hierarchy Process) to the doctoral program selection process is illustrated. A hierarchy for structuring and facilitating the doctoral program selection decision is described. (Author/MLW)

  10. Quantum-state comparison and discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, A.; Hashimoto, T.; Horibe, M.

    2018-05-01

    We investigate the performance of discrimination strategy in the comparison task of known quantum states. In the discrimination strategy, one infers whether or not two quantum systems are in the same state on the basis of the outcomes of separate discrimination measurements on each system. In some cases with more than two possible states, the optimal strategy in minimum-error comparison is that one should infer the two systems are in different states without any measurement, implying that the discrimination strategy performs worse than the trivial "no-measurement" strategy. We present a sufficient condition for this phenomenon to happen. For two pure states with equal prior probabilities, we determine the optimal comparison success probability with an error margin, which interpolates the minimum-error and unambiguous comparison. We find that the discrimination strategy is not optimal except for the minimum-error case.

  11. Acute ischemic stroke prognostication, comparison between ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ossama Y. Mansour

    2014-11-20

    Nov 20, 2014 ... patients with acute ischemic stroke in comparison with the NIHSS and the GCS. Methods: .... All patients received a CT scan of the brain on admission. Diagnostic ... adjusted for age, sex, Charlson Index and Oxfordshire. 248.

  12. Synthesis, characterization and comparison of polythiophene ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    38

    Synthesis, characterization and comparison of polythiophene-carbon ... b Nanotechnology Research Institute, School of Chemical Engineering, Babol University of Technology, Babol, ..... The scan range was from −0.24 to 1.2 V in reference to.

  13. Medicare Managed Care plan Performance, A Comparison...

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The study evaluates the performance of Medicare managed care, Medicare Advantage, Plans in comparison to Medicare fee-for-service Plans in three states with...

  14. Comparison of GLONASS and GPS Time Transfers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, P.; Koshelyaevsky, N. B.; Lewandowski, W.; Petit, G.; Thomas, C.

    1993-01-01

    The Russian global space navigation system GLONASS could provide a technique similar to GPS for international time comparison. The main limitation to its use for time transfer is the lack of commercially available time receivers. The University of Leeds built a GPS/GLONASS receiver five years ago and since then has provided continuous information about GLONASS time and its comparison with GPS time. For the last two years the VNIIFTRI and several other Russian time laboratories have used Russian-built GLONASS navigation receivers for time comparisons. Since June 1991, the VNIIFTRI has operated a GPS time receiver which offers, for the first time, an opportunity for the direct comparison of time transfers using GPS and GLONASS. This seven-month experiment shows that even with relatively imprecise data recording and processing, in terms of time metrology, GLONASS can provide continental time transfer at a level of several tens of nanoseconds.

  15. Comparison of SAND-II and FERRET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wootan, D.W.; Schmittroth, F.

    1981-01-01

    A comparison was made of the advantages and disadvantages of two codes, SAND-II and FERRET, for determining the neutron flux spectrum and uncertainty from experimental dosimeter measurements as anticipated in the FFTF Reactor Characterization Program. This comparison involved an examination of the methodology and the operational performance of each code. The merits of each code were identified with respect to theoretical basis, directness of method, solution uniqueness, subjective influences, and sensitivity to various input parameters

  16. Comparison of physical fitness tests in swimming

    OpenAIRE

    Dostálová, Sabina

    2015-01-01

    Title: Comparison of physical fitness tests in swimming. Objective: The aim of this thesis is to evaluate specific tests, used while testing selected physical abilities in swimming. By specific tests we mean tests realized in the water. Selected tests are intended for swim coaches, who train junior to senior age groups. Methods: The chosen method was a comparison of studies, that pursue selected specific tests. We created partial conclusions for every test by summing up the results of differe...

  17. Proliferation of endogenous retroviruses in the early stages of a host germ line invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Yasuko; Zhao, Kai; Greenwood, Alex D; Roca, Alfred L

    2015-01-01

    Endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) comprise 8% of the human genome and are common in all vertebrate genomes. The only retrovirus known to be currently transitioning from exogenous to endogenous form is the koala retrovirus (KoRV), making koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) ideal for examining the early stages of retroviral endogenization. To distinguish endogenous from exogenous KoRV proviruses, we isolated koala genomic regions flanking KoRV integration sites. In three wild southern Australian koalas, there were fewer KoRV loci than in three captive Queensland koalas, consistent with reports that southern Australian koalas carry fewer KoRVs. Of 39 distinct KoRV proviral loci examined in a sire-dam-progeny triad, all proved to be vertically transmitted and endogenous; none was exogenous. Of the 39 endogenous KoRVs (enKoRVs), only one was present in the genomes of both the sire and the dam, suggesting that, at this early stage in the retroviral invasion of a host germ line, very large numbers of ERVs have proliferated at very low frequencies in the koala population. Sequence divergence between the 5'- and 3'-long terminal repeats (LTRs) of a provirus can be used as a molecular clock. Within each of ten enKoRVs, the 5'-LTR sequence was identical to the 3'-LTR sequence, suggesting a maximum age for enKoRV invasion of the koala germ line of approximately 22,200-49,900 years ago, although a much younger age is possible. Across the ten proviruses, seven LTR haplotypes were detected, indicating that at least seven different retroviral sequences had entered the koala germ line. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Nutritional Correlates of Koala Persistence in a Low-Density Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stalenberg, Eleanor; Wallis, Ian R.; Cunningham, Ross B.; Allen, Chris; Foley, William J.

    2014-01-01

    It is widely postulated that nutritional factors drive bottom-up, resource-based patterns in herbivore ecology and distribution. There is, however, much controversy over the roles of different plant constituents and how these influence individual herbivores and herbivore populations. The density of koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) populations varies widely and many attribute population trends to variation in the nutritional quality of the eucalypt leaves of their diet, but there is little evidence to support this hypothesis. We used a nested design that involved sampling of trees at two spatial scales to investigate how leaf chemistry influences free-living koalas from a low-density population in south east New South Wales, Australia. Using koala faecal pellets as a proxy for koala visitation to trees, we found an interaction between toxins and nutrients in leaves at a small spatial scale, whereby koalas preferred trees with leaves of higher concentrations of available nitrogen but lower concentrations of sideroxylonals (secondary metabolites found exclusively in eucalypts) compared to neighbouring trees of the same species. We argue that taxonomic and phenotypic diversity is likely to be important when foraging in habitats of low nutritional quality in providing diet choice to tradeoff nutrients and toxins and minimise movement costs. Our findings suggest that immediate nutritional concerns are an important priority of folivores in low-quality habitats and imply that nutritional limitations play an important role in constraining folivore populations. We show that, with a careful experimental design, it is possible to make inferences about populations of herbivores that exist at extremely low densities and thus achieve a better understanding about how plant composition influences herbivore ecology and persistence. PMID:25470599

  19. Nutritional correlates of koala persistence in a low-density population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleanor Stalenberg

    Full Text Available It is widely postulated that nutritional factors drive bottom-up, resource-based patterns in herbivore ecology and distribution. There is, however, much controversy over the roles of different plant constituents and how these influence individual herbivores and herbivore populations. The density of koala (Phascolarctos cinereus populations varies widely and many attribute population trends to variation in the nutritional quality of the eucalypt leaves of their diet, but there is little evidence to support this hypothesis. We used a nested design that involved sampling of trees at two spatial scales to investigate how leaf chemistry influences free-living koalas from a low-density population in south east New South Wales, Australia. Using koala faecal pellets as a proxy for koala visitation to trees, we found an interaction between toxins and nutrients in leaves at a small spatial scale, whereby koalas preferred trees with leaves of higher concentrations of available nitrogen but lower concentrations of sideroxylonals (secondary metabolites found exclusively in eucalypts compared to neighbouring trees of the same species. We argue that taxonomic and phenotypic diversity is likely to be important when foraging in habitats of low nutritional quality in providing diet choice to tradeoff nutrients and toxins and minimise movement costs. Our findings suggest that immediate nutritional concerns are an important priority of folivores in low-quality habitats and imply that nutritional limitations play an important role in constraining folivore populations. We show that, with a careful experimental design, it is possible to make inferences about populations of herbivores that exist at extremely low densities and thus achieve a better understanding about how plant composition influences herbivore ecology and persistence.

  20. Remote Sensing Forage Quality for Browsing Herbivores: A Case Study of Cutting Edge Koala Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youngentob, K. N.; Au, J.; Held, A. A.; Foley, W. J.; Possingham, H. P.

    2014-12-01

    Managing landscapes for conservation requires a capacity to measure habitat quality. Although multiple factors are often responsible for the distribution and abundance of herbivores, spatial variations in the quality and quantity of plant forage are known to be important for many species. While we cannot see the chemical complexity of landscapes with our naked-eye, advances in imaging spectroscopy are making it possible to assess the quality of forage on a landscape-scale. Much research in this area has focused on the ability to estimate foliar nitrogen (N), because N is believed to be a limiting nutrient for many leaf eating animals. However, the total quantity of foliar N does not necessarily reflect the amount of N that can be utilized by herbivores. Available nitrogen (AvailN) is an invitro measure of forage quality that integrates the influence of tannins and fibre on the amount of foliar N that is available for digestion by herbivores. This may be a more meaningful measure of forage quality than total N for the many herbivorous species that are sensitive to the effects of tannins. Our previous research has demonstrated that it is possible to estimate this integrated measure of foliar nutritional quality at an individual tree crown level across multiple tree species using imaging spectroscopy (HyMap). Here we present a case study of how this remote sensing data is being used to help inform landscape management and conservation decisions for an iconic Australian species, the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus). We review the methods involved in developing maps of integrated measures of foliar nutritional quality for browsing herbivores with airborne imaging spectroscopy data and discuss their applications for wildlife management.

  1. Impediments to the success of management actions for species recovery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chooi Fei Ng

    Full Text Available Finding cost-effective management strategies to recover species declining due to multiple threats is challenging, especially when there are limited resources. Recent studies offer insights into how costs and threats can influence the best choice of management actions. However, when implementing management actions in the real-world, a range of impediments to management success often exist that can be driven by social, technological and land-use factors. These impediments may limit the extent to which we can achieve recovery objectives and influence the optimal choice of management actions. Nonetheless, the implications of these impediments are not well understood, especially for recovery planning involving multiple actions. We used decision theory to assess the impact of these types of impediments for allocating resources among recovery actions to mitigate multiple threats. We applied this to a declining koala (Phascolarctos cinereus population threatened by habitat loss, vehicle collisions, dog attacks and disease. We found that the unwillingness of dog owners to restrain their dogs at night (a social impediment, the effectiveness of wildlife crossings to reduce vehicle collisions (a technological impediment and the unavailability of areas for restoration (a land-use impediment significantly reduced the effectiveness of our actions. In the presence of these impediments, achieving successful recovery may be unlikely. Further, these impediments influenced the optimal choice of recovery actions, but the extent to which this was true depended on the target koala population growth rate. Given that species recovery is an important strategy for preserving biodiversity, it is critical that we consider how impediments to the success of recovery actions modify our choice of actions. In some cases, it may also be worth considering whether investing in reducing or removing impediments may be a cost-effective course of action.

  2. Proliferation of Endogenous Retroviruses in the Early Stages of a Host Germ Line Invasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Yasuko; Zhao, Kai; Greenwood, Alex D.; Roca, Alfred L.

    2015-01-01

    Endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) comprise 8% of the human genome and are common in all vertebrate genomes. The only retrovirus known to be currently transitioning from exogenous to endogenous form is the koala retrovirus (KoRV), making koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) ideal for examining the early stages of retroviral endogenization. To distinguish endogenous from exogenous KoRV proviruses, we isolated koala genomic regions flanking KoRV integration sites. In three wild southern Australian koalas, there were fewer KoRV loci than in three captive Queensland koalas, consistent with reports that southern Australian koalas carry fewer KoRVs. Of 39 distinct KoRV proviral loci examined in a sire–dam–progeny triad, all proved to be vertically transmitted and endogenous; none was exogenous. Of the 39 endogenous KoRVs (enKoRVs), only one was present in the genomes of both the sire and the dam, suggesting that, at this early stage in the retroviral invasion of a host germ line, very large numbers of ERVs have proliferated at very low frequencies in the koala population. Sequence divergence between the 5′- and 3′-long terminal repeats (LTRs) of a provirus can be used as a molecular clock. Within each of ten enKoRVs, the 5′-LTR sequence was identical to the 3′-LTR sequence, suggesting a maximum age for enKoRV invasion of the koala germ line of approximately 22,200–49,900 years ago, although a much younger age is possible. Across the ten proviruses, seven LTR haplotypes were detected, indicating that at least seven different retroviral sequences had entered the koala germ line. PMID:25261407

  3. The role of comparison motives in the relationship between personality and comparison level choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eggens, L.; Hendriks, A. A. J.; Bosker, R. J.; van der Werf, M. P. C.

    2011-01-01

    This article studied whether the motives for comparison of grades with those of others play a mediating role in the relationship between the Big Five personality traits and the choice of the level of comparison of students. The study was conducted among about 1,500 students in higher education. Of

  4. Is Comparison the Thief of Joy? Sexual Narcissism and Social Comparisons in the Domain of Sexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Lisa C; Muise, Amy; Impett, Emily A

    2017-02-01

    Are people who are high in sexual narcissism more sensitive to information comparing their sex lives with the sex lives of others? Does this sensitivity explain narcissists' lower sexual and relationship satisfaction? We conducted three studies to address this question. Participants completed the Sexual Narcissism Scale (Widman & McNulty, 2010), and then either recalled (Study 1), imagined (Study 2), or actually made (Study 3) a sexual comparison. We found that people high in sexual narcissism (compared with those lower in sexual narcissism) were more bothered when comparing themselves with someone with a higher sexual frequency and felt better about a comparison with someone with a lower sexual frequency. In turn, narcissists' greater sensitivity to upward social comparisons predicted lower sexual and relationship satisfaction. These results suggest that those high in sexual narcissism may use downward sexual comparisons to maintain their grandiose self-views and be particularly sensitive to upward sexual comparisons.

  5. Comparison of Tritium Component Failure Rate Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee C. Cadwallader

    2004-01-01

    Published failure rate values from the US Tritium Systems Test Assembly, the Japanese Tritium Process Laboratory, the German Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe, and the Joint European Torus Active Gas Handling System have been compared. This comparison is on a limited set of components, but there is a good variety of data sets in the comparison. The data compared reasonably well. The most reasonable failure rate values are recommended for use on next generation tritium handling system components, such as those in the tritium plant systems for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor and the tritium fuel systems of inertial fusion facilities, such as the US National Ignition Facility. These data and the comparison results are also shared with the International Energy Agency cooperative task on fusion component failure rate data

  6. Active Metric Learning from Relative Comparisons

    OpenAIRE

    Xiong, Sicheng; Rosales, Rómer; Pei, Yuanli; Fern, Xiaoli Z.

    2014-01-01

    This work focuses on active learning of distance metrics from relative comparison information. A relative comparison specifies, for a data point triplet $(x_i,x_j,x_k)$, that instance $x_i$ is more similar to $x_j$ than to $x_k$. Such constraints, when available, have been shown to be useful toward defining appropriate distance metrics. In real-world applications, acquiring constraints often require considerable human effort. This motivates us to study how to select and query the most useful ...

  7. A comparison of goniophotometric measurement facilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorseth, Anders; Lindén, Johannes; Dam-Hansen, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present the preliminary results of a comparison between widely different goniophotometric and goniospectroradiometric measurement facilities. The objective of the comparison is to increase consistency and clarify the capabilities among Danish test laboratories. The study will seek...... to find the degree of equivalence between the various facilities and methods. The collected data is compared by using a three-way variation of principal component analysis, which is well suited for modelling large sets of correlated data. This method drastically decreases the number of numerical values...

  8. Assertiveness, submissive behaviour and social comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, P; Allan, S

    1994-09-01

    This paper explores the relationship between a new assertiveness measure (the Scale for Interpersonal Behaviour--SIB), social comparison and submissive behaviour. The paper investigates these measures in relation to the personality traits of neuroticism and introversion. Findings suggest: (a) that social comparison may be an important variable in assertiveness and submissive behaviour and shows a strong relationship to neuroticism and introversion; (b) that submissive behaviour is not the mirror opposite of assertive behaviour; and (c) submissive behaviour seems more strongly associated with introversion and neuroticism than assertive performance.

  9. Ranking health between countries in international comparisons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Cross-national comparisons and ranking of summary measures of population health sometimes give rise to inconsistent and diverging conclusions. In order to minimise confusion, international comparative studies ought to be based on well-harmonised data with common standards of definitions and docum......Cross-national comparisons and ranking of summary measures of population health sometimes give rise to inconsistent and diverging conclusions. In order to minimise confusion, international comparative studies ought to be based on well-harmonised data with common standards of definitions...

  10. CCD Photometry Using Multiple Comparison Stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonggi Kim

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The accuracy of CCD observations obtained at the Korean 1.8 m telescope has been studied. Seventeen comparison stars in the vicinity of the cataclysmic variable BG CMi have been measured. The ``artificial" star has been used instead of the ``control" star, what made possible to increase accuracy estimates by a factor of 1.3-2.1 times for ``good" and ``cloudy" nights, respectively. The algorithm of iterative determination of accuracy and weights of few comparison stars contributing to the artificial star, has been presented. The accuracy estimates for 13-mag stars are around 0.002 m mag for exposure times of 30 sec.

  11. Microbiological decomposition of bagasse after radiation pasteurization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Hitoshi; Ishigaki, Isao

    1987-01-01

    Microbiological decomposition of bagasse was studied for upgrading to animal feeds after radiation pasteurization. Solid-state culture media of bagasse were prepared with addition of some amount of inorganic salts for nitrogen source, and after irradiation, fungi were infected for cultivation. In this study, many kind of cellulosic fungi such as Pleurotus ostreatus, P. flavellatus, Verticillium sp., Coprinus cinereus, Lentinus edodes, Aspergillus niger, Trichoderma koningi, T. viride were used for comparison of decomposition of crude fibers. In alkali nontreated bagasse, P. ostreatus, P. flavellatus, C. cinereus and Verticillium sp. could decompose crude fibers from 25 to 34 % after one month of cultivation, whereas other fungi such as A. niger, T. koningi, T. viride, L. edodes decomposed below 10 %. On the contrary, alkali treatment enhanced the decomposition of crude fiber by A. niger, T. koningi and T. viride to be 29 to 47 % as well as Pleurotus species or C. cinereus. Other species of mushrooms such as L. edodes had a little ability of decomposition even after alkali treatment. Radiation treatment with 10 kGy could not enhance the decomposition of bagasse compared with steam treatment, whereas higher doses of radiation treatment enhanced a little of decomposition of crude fibers by microorganisms. (author)

  12. Microbiological decomposition of bagasse after radiation pasteurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Hitoshi; Ishigaki, Isao

    1987-11-01

    Microbiological decomposition of bagasse was studied for upgrading to animal feeds after radiation pasteurization. Solid-state culture media of bagasse were prepared with addition of some amount of inorganic salts for nitrogen source, and after irradiation, fungi were infected for cultivation. In this study, many kind of cellulosic fungi such as Pleurotus ostreatus, P. flavellatus, Verticillium sp., Coprinus cinereus, Lentinus edodes, Aspergillus niger, Trichoderma koningi, T. viride were used for comparison of decomposition of crude fibers. In alkali nontreated bagasse, P. ostreatus, P. flavellatus, C. cinereus and Verticillium sp. could decompose crude fibers from 25 to 34 % after one month of cultivation, whereas other fungi such as A. niger, T. koningi, T. viride, L. edodes decomposed below 10 %. On the contrary, alkali treatment enhanced the decomposition of crude fiber by A. niger, T. koningi and T. viride to be 29 to 47 % as well as Pleurotus species or C. cinereus. Other species of mushrooms such as L. edodes had a little ability of decomposition even after alkali treatment. Radiation treatment with 10 kGy could not enhance the decomposition of bagasse compared with steam treatment, whereas higher doses of radiation treatment enhanced a little of decomposition of crude fibers by microorganisms.

  13. Immediacy bias in social-emotional comparisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Katherine; Van Boven, Leaf

    2012-08-01

    In seven studies of naturally occurring, "real-world" emotional events, people demonstrated an immediacy bias in social-emotional comparisons, perceiving their own current or recent emotional reactions as more intense compared with others' emotional reactions to the same events. The events examined include crossing a scary bridge (study 1a), a national tragedy (study 1b), terrorist attacks (studies 2a and 3b), a natural disaster (study 2b), and a presidential election (study 3b). These perceived differences between one's own and others' emotions declined over time, as relatively immediate and recent emotions subsided, a pattern that people were not intuitively aware of (study 2c). This immediacy bias in social-emotional comparisons emerged for both explicit comparisons (studies 1a, 1b, and 3b), and for absolute judgments of emotional intensity (studies 2a, 2b, and 3a). Finally, the immediacy bias in social-emotional comparisons was reduced when people were reminded that emotional display norms might lead others' appearances to understate emotional intensity (studies 3a and 3b). Implications of these findings for social-emotional phenomena are discussed.

  14. Comparison of neutron spectrum unfolding codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zijp, W.

    1979-02-01

    This final report contains a set of four ECN-reports. The first is dealing with the comparison of the neutron spectrum unfolding codes CRYSTAL BALL, RFSP-JUL, SAND II and STAY'SL. The other three present the results of calculations about the influence of statistical weights in CRYSTAL BALL, SAND II and RFSP-JUL

  15. Transports and the environment: European comparisons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    For different issues (freight transport, passenger transport, greenhouse gas emissions, air pollution, fuel consumption in transport and energy efficiency), and illustrated by data tables and figures, this report proposes assessments and comments of the impact on the environment, an overview of the French situation, a comparison with European countries, and an analysis of French peculiarities

  16. Ordinal Welfare Comparisons with Multiple Discrete Indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Distante, Roberta; Hussain, M. Azhar

    We develop an ordinal method for making welfare comparisons between populations with multidimensional discrete well-being indicators observed at the micro level. The approach assumes that, for each well-being indicator, the levels can be ranked from worse to better; however, no assumptions are made...

  17. A photon dominated region code comparison study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roellig, M.; Abel, N. P.; Bell, T.; Bensch, F.; Black, J.; Ferland, G. J.; Jonkheid, B.; Kamp, I.; Kaufman, M. J.; Le Bourlot, J.; Le Petit, F.; Meijerink, R.; Morata, O.; Ossenkopf, Volker; Roueff, E.; Shaw, G.; Spaans, M.; Sternberg, A.; Stutzki, J.; Thi, W.-F.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; van Hoof, P. A. M.; Viti, S.; Wolfire, M. G.

    Aims. We present a comparison between independent computer codes, modeling the physics and chemistry of interstellar photon dominated regions (PDRs). Our goal was to understand the mutual differences in the PDR codes and their effects on the physical and chemical structure of the model clouds, and

  18. New directions in social comparison research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buunk, Abraham (Bram); Mussweiler, T

    2001-01-01

    This article notices that social comparison theory has developed from being a focused theoretical statement on the use of others for self-evaluation into a lively and varied area of research encompassing many different paradigms, approaches and applications. A recent 'renaissance' in social

  19. Comparison of community managed projects and conventional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparison of community managed projects and conventional approaches in rural water supply of Ethiopia. ... African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology ... This study aimed to compare Community Managed Projects (CMP) approach with the conventional approaches (Non-CMP) in the case of Ethiopia.

  20. Model comparisons and genetic and environmental parameter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    arc

    Model comparisons and genetic and environmental parameter estimates of growth and the ... breeding strategies and for accurate breeding value estimation. The objectives ...... Sci. 23, 72-76. Van Wyk, J.B., Fair, M.D. & Cloete, S.W.P., 2003.

  1. Privacy Preserving Mapping Schemes Supporting Comparison

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tang, Qiang

    2010-01-01

    To cater to the privacy requirements in cloud computing, we introduce a new primitive, namely Privacy Preserving Mapping (PPM) schemes supporting comparison. An PPM scheme enables a user to map data items into images in such a way that, with a set of images, any entity can determine the <, =, >

  2. Comparison on Computed Tomography using industrial items

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angel, Jais Andreas Breusch; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2014-01-01

    In a comparison involving 27 laboratories from 8 countries, measurements on two common industrial items, a polymer part and a metal part, were carried out using X-ray Computed Tomography. All items were measured using coordinate measuring machines before and after circulation, with reference...

  3. Inter laboratory comparison on Industrial Computed Tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angel, Jais Andreas Breusch; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    An interlaboratory comparison on industrial X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) was organized by the Centre for Geometrical Metrology (CGM), Department of Mechanical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark (DTU) and carried out within the project “Centre for Industrial Application of CT scanning...

  4. "Units of Comparison" across Languages, across Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Margaret

    2009-01-01

    Lardiere's keynote article adverts to a succession of "units of comparison" that have been employed in the study of cross-linguistic differences, including mid-twentieth-century structural patterns, generative grammar's parameters, and (within contemporary Minimalism) features. This commentary expands on the idea of units of cross-linguistic…

  5. Comparison of spent nuclear fuel management alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beebe, C.L.; Caldwell, M.A.

    1996-01-01

    This paper reports the process an results of a trade study of spent nuclear fuel (SNF)management alternatives. The purpose of the trade study was to provide: (1) a summary of various SNF management alternatives, (2) an objective comparison of the various alternatives to facilitate the decision making process, and (3) documentation of trade study rational and the basis for decisions

  6. Comparison as a Universal Learning Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkulova, T. V.

    2016-01-01

    This article explores "comparison" as a universal metasubject learning action, a key curricular element envisaged by the Russian Federal State Educational Standards. Representing the modern learner's fundamental pragmatic skill embedding such core capacities as information processing, critical thinking, robust decision-making, and…

  7. A Comparison of Software Schedule Estimators

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-09-01

    SLIM ...................................... 33 SPQR /20 ................................... 35 System -4 .................................... 37 Previous...24 3. PRICE-S Outputs ..................................... 26 4. COCOMO Factors by Category ........................... 28 5. SPQR /20 Activities...actual schedules experienced on the projects. The models analyzed were REVIC, PRICE-S, System-4, SPQR /20, and SEER. ix A COMPARISON OF SOFTWARE

  8. Social Comparison of Pay and Inequity Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judd, Ben

    Inequity theory differs from social exchange theory in its analysis of a worker's reaction to pay by asserting that effects on work performance caused by high or low pay are due to social comparison of fairness rather than principles of direct exchange, such as reciprocity and power. The present experiment held piece-rate pay constant at two…

  9. Algorithmic parameterization of mixed treatment comparisons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Valkenhoef, Gert; Tervonen, Tommi; de Brock, Bert; Hillege, Hans

    Mixed Treatment Comparisons (MTCs) enable the simultaneous meta-analysis (data pooling) of networks of clinical trials comparing a parts per thousand yen2 alternative treatments. Inconsistency models are critical in MTC to assess the overall consistency between evidence sources. Only in the absence

  10. Algorithmic parameterization of mixed treatment comparisons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. van Valkenhoef (Gert); T. Tervonen (Tommi); B. de Brock (Bert)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractMixed Treatment Comparisons (MTCs) enable the simultaneous meta-analysis (data pooling) of networks of clinical trials comparing ≥2 alternative treatments. Inconsistency models are critical in MTC to assess the overall consistency between evidence sources. Only in the absence of

  11. Sequence Comparison: Close and Open problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenzini, Gabriele; Cerrai, P.; Freguglia, P.

    Comparing sequences is a very important activity both in computer science and in a many other areas as well. For example thank to text editors, everyone knows the particular instance of a sequence comparison problem knonw as ``string mathcing problem''. It consists in searching a given work

  12. 78 FR 38075 - International Labor Comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-25

    ... concepts, definitions, and classifications to facilitate data comparisons between the United States and... referred to as sequestration) required by the Balanced Budget and Emergency Deficit Control Act, as amended..., Room 2120, 2 Massachusetts Avenue NE., Washington, DC 20212 or by email to: [email protected] . FOR...

  13. Better than my loved ones: Social comparison tendencies among narcissists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krizan, Z.; Bushman, B.J.

    2011-01-01

    Narcissists pursue superiority and status at frequent costs to their relationships, and social comparisons seem central to these pursuits. Critically, these comparison tendencies should distinguish narcissism from healthy self-esteem. We tested this hypothesis in a study examining individual

  14. Atmospheric Correction Inter-comparison Exercise (ACIX)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermote, E.; Doxani, G.; Gascon, F.; Roger, J. C.; Skakun, S.

    2017-12-01

    The free and open data access policy to Landsat-8 (L-8) and Sentinel-2 (S-2) satellite imagery has encouraged the development of atmospheric correction (AC) approaches for generating Bottom-of-Atmosphere (BOA) products. Several entities have started to generate (or plan to generate in the short term) BOA reflectance products at global scale for L-8 and S-2 missions. To this end, the European Space Agency (ESA) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) have initiated an exercise on the inter-comparison of the available AC processors. The results of the exercise are expected to point out the strengths and weaknesses, as well as communalities and discrepancies of various AC processors, in order to suggest and define ways for their further improvement. In particular, 11 atmospheric processors from five different countries participate in ACIX with the aim to inter-compare their performance when applied to L-8 and S-2 data. All the processors should be operational without requiring parametrization when applied on different areas. A protocol describing in details the inter-comparison metrics and the test dataset based on the AERONET sites has been agreed unanimously during the 1st ACIX workshop in June 2016. In particular, a basic and an advanced run of each of the processor were requested in the frame of ACIX, with the aim to draw robust and reliable conclusions on the processors' performance. The protocol also describes the comparison metrics of the aerosol optical thickness and water vapour products of the processors with the corresponding AERONET measurements. Moreover, concerning the surface reflectances, the inter-comparison among the processors is defined, as well as the comparison with the MODIS surface reflectance and with a reference surface reflectance product. Such a reference product will be obtained using the AERONET characterization of the aerosol (size distribution and refractive indices) and an accurate radiative transfer code. The inter-comparison

  15. Economic Comparison and Group Identity: Lessons from India

    OpenAIRE

    Xavier Fontaine; Katsunori Yamada

    2012-01-01

    The caste issue dominates a large part of India's social and political life. Caste shapes one's identity. Furthermore, strong tensions exist between castes. Using subjective well-being data, we assess the role economic comparisons play in this society. We focus on both within and between-castes comparisons. Within-caste comparisons appear to reduce well-being. Comparisons between rival castes are found to decrease well-being three times more. We link these results to two models in which econo...

  16. The relationship between social comparison processes and personality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VanderZee, K; Buunk, B; Sanderman, R

    The relationship between social comparison processes and personality was examined in a sample of cancer patients (Study 1) and in a random population sample (Study 2). Previous studies showed that the need for comparison, its affective consequences and the tendency to make self-enhancing comparisons

  17. Quantum Private Comparison via Cavity QED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Tian-Yu

    2017-01-01

    The first quantum private comparison (QPC) protocol via cavity quantum electrodynamics (QED) is proposed in this paper by making full use of the evolution law of atom via cavity QED, where the third party (TP) is allowed to misbehave on his own but cannot conspire with either of the two users. The proposed protocol adopts two-atom product states rather than entangled states as the initial quantum resource, and only needs single-atom measurements for two users. Both the unitary operations and the quantum entanglement swapping operation are not necessary for the proposed protocol. The proposed protocol can compare the equality of one bit from each user in each round comparison with one two-atom product state. The proposed protocol can resist both the outside attack and the participant attack. Particularly, it can prevent TP from knowing two users’ secrets. Furthermore, the qubit efficiency of the proposed protocol is as high as 50%. (paper)

  18. Sorting processes with energy-constrained comparisons*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geissmann, Barbara; Penna, Paolo

    2018-05-01

    We study very simple sorting algorithms based on a probabilistic comparator model. In this model, errors in comparing two elements are due to (1) the energy or effort put in the comparison and (2) the difference between the compared elements. Such algorithms repeatedly compare and swap pairs of randomly chosen elements, and they correspond to natural Markovian processes. The study of these Markov chains reveals an interesting phenomenon. Namely, in several cases, the algorithm that repeatedly compares only adjacent elements is better than the one making arbitrary comparisons: in the long-run, the former algorithm produces sequences that are "better sorted". The analysis of the underlying Markov chain poses interesting questions as the latter algorithm yields a nonreversible chain, and therefore its stationary distribution seems difficult to calculate explicitly. We nevertheless provide bounds on the stationary distributions and on the mixing time of these processes in several restrictions.

  19. Nonparametric predictive pairwise comparison with competing risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coolen-Maturi, Tahani

    2014-01-01

    In reliability, failure data often correspond to competing risks, where several failure modes can cause a unit to fail. This paper presents nonparametric predictive inference (NPI) for pairwise comparison with competing risks data, assuming that the failure modes are independent. These failure modes could be the same or different among the two groups, and these can be both observed and unobserved failure modes. NPI is a statistical approach based on few assumptions, with inferences strongly based on data and with uncertainty quantified via lower and upper probabilities. The focus is on the lower and upper probabilities for the event that the lifetime of a future unit from one group, say Y, is greater than the lifetime of a future unit from the second group, say X. The paper also shows how the two groups can be compared based on particular failure mode(s), and the comparison of the two groups when some of the competing risks are combined is discussed

  20. Supplier Evaluation Process by Pairwise Comparisons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkadiusz Kawa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose to assess suppliers by using consistency-driven pairwise comparisons for tangible and intangible criteria. The tangible criteria are simpler to compare (e.g., the price of a service is lower than that of another service with identical characteristics. Intangible criteria are more difficult to assess. The proposed model combines assessments of both types of criteria. The main contribution of this paper is the presentation of an extension framework for the selection of suppliers in a procurement process. The final weights are computed from relative pairwise comparisons. For the needs of the paper, surveys were conducted among Polish managers dealing with cooperation with suppliers in their enterprises. The Polish practice and restricted bidding are discussed, too.

  1. Comparison of energy performance requirements levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spiekman, Marleen; Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund; Rose, Jørgen

    This summary report provides a synthesis of the work within the EU SAVE project ASIEPI on developing a method to compare the energy performance (EP) requirement levels among the countries of Europe. Comparing EP requirement levels constitutes a major challenge. From the comparison of for instance...... the present Dutch requirement level (EPC) of 0,8 with the present Flemish level of E80, it can easily be seen that direct comparison is not possible. The conclusions and recommendations of the study are presented in part A. These constitute the most important result of the project. Part B gives an overview...... of all other project material related to that topic, which allows to easily identify the most pertinent information. Part C lists the project partners and sponsors....

  2. Robot Trajectories Comparison: A Statistical Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ansuategui

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The task of planning a collision-free trajectory from a start to a goal position is fundamental for an autonomous mobile robot. Although path planning has been extensively investigated since the beginning of robotics, there is no agreement on how to measure the performance of a motion algorithm. This paper presents a new approach to perform robot trajectories comparison that could be applied to any kind of trajectories and in both simulated and real environments. Given an initial set of features, it automatically selects the most significant ones and performs a statistical comparison using them. Additionally, a graphical data visualization named polygraph which helps to better understand the obtained results is provided. The proposed method has been applied, as an example, to compare two different motion planners, FM2 and WaveFront, using different environments, robots, and local planners.

  3. Robot Trajectories Comparison: A Statistical Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansuategui, A.; Arruti, A.; Susperregi, L.; Yurramendi, Y.; Jauregi, E.; Lazkano, E.; Sierra, B.

    2014-01-01

    The task of planning a collision-free trajectory from a start to a goal position is fundamental for an autonomous mobile robot. Although path planning has been extensively investigated since the beginning of robotics, there is no agreement on how to measure the performance of a motion algorithm. This paper presents a new approach to perform robot trajectories comparison that could be applied to any kind of trajectories and in both simulated and real environments. Given an initial set of features, it automatically selects the most significant ones and performs a statistical comparison using them. Additionally, a graphical data visualization named polygraph which helps to better understand the obtained results is provided. The proposed method has been applied, as an example, to compare two different motion planners, FM2 and WaveFront, using different environments, robots, and local planners. PMID:25525618

  4. Comparison exercise of probabilistic precursor analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fauchille, V.; Babst, S.

    2004-01-01

    From 2000 up to 2003, a comparison exercise concerning accident precursor programs was performed by IRSN, GRS, and NUPEC (Japan). The objective of this exercise was to compare the methodologies used to quantify conditional core damage probability related to incidents which can be considered as accident precursors. This exercise provided interesting results concerning the interpretation of such events. Generally, the participants identified similar scenarios of potential degradation. However, for several dominant sequences, differences in the results were noticed. The differences can be attributed to variations in the plant design, the strategy of management and in the methodological approach. For many reasons, comparison of human reliability analysis was difficult and perhaps another exercise in the future could provide more information about this subject. On the other hand, interesting outcomes have been obtained from the quantification of both common cause failures and potential common cause failures. (orig.)

  5. Patent documentation - comparison of two MT strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Offersgaard, Lene; Povlsen, Claus

    2007-01-01

    This paper focuses on two matters: A comparison of how two different MT strategies manage translating the text type of patent documentation and a survey of what is needed to transform a MT research prototype system to a translation application for patent texts. The two MT strategies is represented....... The distinctive text type of patents pose special demands for machine translation and these aspects are discussed based on linguistic observations with focus on the users point of view. Two main demands are automatic pre processing of the documents and implementation of a module which in a flexible and user......-friendly manner offers the opportunity to extend the lexical coverage of the system. These demands and the comparison of the two MT strategies are discussed on the basis of proofread patents....

  6. Fatigue and rupture codified rules comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faidy, C.

    2004-01-01

    The European Directive on Pressure Equipment requests risk studies and in particular to assure no risk of fatigue and rupture in operation. The answers to these questions are different in the different existing design codes (EN Standards, ASME III and VIII or RCC-M or CODAP-CODETI codes) and corresponding in operation codes (ASME or RSE-M). Design safety factors, material properties, fabrication, refinement in the analysis methods, monitoring in operation, hydro-proof test level... Around these Codes, different rules are under development. A16 in France, R6 in UK or FITNET at the EC level. This paper is concerned by a comparison between 2 different Codes to analyze the risk of fatigue or rupture of pressure equipments and mainly a comparison between RCC-M Code and EN 13445 standard for pressure vessel. Recommendations for future work will be proposed. (authors)

  7. Kruskal-Wallis Test in Multiple Comparisons

    OpenAIRE

    Parys, Dariusz

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we show that the Kruskal-Wallis test can be transform to quadratic form among the Mann-Whitney or Kendal τ au concordance measures between pairs of treatments. A multiple comparisons procedure based on patterns of transitive ordering among treatments is implement. We also consider the circularity and non-transitive effects. Statystyka testu Kruskala-Wallisa przedstawiona jest w postaci formy kwadratowej z użyciem statystyki Manna-Whitneya lub miar konkordacji τ au Kendalla. N...

  8. Costs comparison of electric energy in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncalves, D.; Menegassi, J.

    1981-01-01

    A cost comparison study of various sources of electric energy generation was performed using uniform analysis criteria. The results indicate higher costs for coal, followed by nuclear and hidro. It was verified that presently, large hidro-power plants can only be located far from the load centers, with increasing costs of hidro-power energy in Brazil. These costs become higher than the nuclear plant if the hidro plant is located at distances exceeding 1000 Km. (Author) [pt

  9. Energy security externalities and fuel cycle comparisons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohi, D.; Toman, M.

    1994-01-01

    Externalities related to 'energy security' may be one way in which the full social costs of energy use diverge from the market prices of energy commodities. Such divergences need to be included in reckoning the full costs of different fuel cycles. In this paper we critically examine potential externalities related to energy security and issues related to the measurement of 2 these externalities, in the context of fuel cycle comparisons

  10. Traditional marketing vs. Internet marketing. A comparison

    OpenAIRE

    Varfan, Mona; Shima, Alfa

    2008-01-01

    Title: Traditional marketing vs. Internet marketing: A comparison Problem: Marketing is an important strategy for businesses and it contains numerous effective tools. Traditional marketing has been in use for many years and nowadays Internet has brought new ways of doing business for companies and that has affected marketing. What are the main differences between Internet marketing and traditional marketing? Which one of the two approaches contains the most used and effective marketing tools ...

  11. Comparison of Remote Labs in Different Technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Christian Mergl

    2006-01-01

    Recently several possibilities arose to conduct electronic measurement experiments via remote control. Now a comparison of the latest different technologies should bring some answers to interested people, so that they can choose the best technology for them under their criteria. Criteria in this case are, the up-to-dateness of the technology, the development-time, the system-independency of the client in terms of the operating system and internet browser as well as other necessary installatio...

  12. Comparison of investment opportunities in mutual funds

    OpenAIRE

    NOVÁKOVÁ, Petra

    2012-01-01

    This thesis deals with the comparison of selected mutual funds in the Czech Republic. The main aim of this thesis is to evaluate the situation on the securities market of mutual funds and help to the investor with right choice of mutual fund. Work is initially devoted to the characteristics and history of collective investment. The following section describes mutual funds their characteristics, classification, creation and termination. Conclusion of the theoretical part is devoted to investme...

  13. Level comparison theorems and supersymmetric quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumgartner, B.; Grosse, H.

    1986-01-01

    The sign of the Laplacian of the spherical symmetric potential determines the order of energy levels with the same principal Coulomb quantum number. This recently derived theorem has been generalized, extended and applied to various situations in particle, nuclear and atomic physics. Besides a comparison theorem the essential step was the use of supersymmetric quantum mechanics. Recently worked out applications of supersymmetric quantum mechanics to index problems of Dirac operators are mentioned. (Author)

  14. Energy security externalities and fuel cycle comparisons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohi, D; Toman, M

    1994-07-01

    Externalities related to 'energy security' may be one way in which the full social costs of energy use diverge from the market prices of energy commodities. Such divergences need to be included in reckoning the full costs of different fuel cycles. In this paper we critically examine potential externalities related to energy security and issues related to the measurement of 2 these externalities, in the context of fuel cycle comparisons.

  15. comparison of english and chinese advertisement slogan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张悦

    2011-01-01

    advertisements in cross-culture communication come from different cultural background.the english and chinese advertisement slogan is a lively and distinctive field.differences of advertising slogan are becoming more important in the context of economic globalization.this paper,from the comparison of chinese and english advertisement slogan,language used in slogans,translation of slogan,mainly from the points of view of cross-culture to analysis the differences of tow language ads slogan.

  16. Olympic games in Sochi, comparison and forecast

    OpenAIRE

    Kudrina, Anastasia

    2015-01-01

    Title: Olympic Games in Sochi, comparison and prediction Goals: Based on a research of the Olympic Games in Sochi to create a forecast of future economic effects on the territorium Method: The prediction is based on the analogic situation in other countries that held the Olympic Games in the past. Induction method of representing the thought process, during which the individual facts formulate more general assertions and theories; deduction method, which are derived from the general conclusio...

  17. Explosive Infrasonic Events: Sensor Comparison Experiment (SCE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schnurr, J. M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Garces, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Rodgers, A. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-02-06

    SCE (sensor comparison experiment) 1 through 4 consists of a series of four controlled above-ground explosions designed to provide new data for overpressure propagation. Infrasound data were collected by LLNL iPhones and other sensors. Origin times, locations HOB, and yields are not being released at this time and are therefore not included in this report. This preliminary report will be updated as access to additional data changes, or instrument responses are determined.

  18. COBRA-IV wire wrap data comparisons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donovan, T.E.; George, T.L.; Wheeler, C.L.

    1979-02-01

    Thermal hydraulic analyses of hexagonally packed wire-wrapped fuel assemblies are complicated by the induced crossflow between adjacent subchannels. The COBRA-IV computer code simultaneously solves the hydrodynamics and thermodynamics of fuel assemblies. The modifications and the results are presented which are predicted by the COBRA-IV calculation. Comparisons are made with data measured in five experimental models of a wire-wrapped fuel assembly

  19. Strain comparisons in aquaculture species: a manual

    OpenAIRE

    Ponzoni, R.W.; James, J.W.; Nguyen, N.H.; Mekkawy, W.; Khaw, H.L.

    2013-01-01

    When different strains or breeds of a particular species are available, the best choice is seldom immediately obvious for producers. Scientists are also interested in the relative performance of different strains because it provides a basis for recommendations to producers and it often stimulates the conduct of work aimed at unraveling the underlying biological mechanisms involved in the expression of such differences. Hence, strain or breed comparisons of some sort are frequently conducted. ...

  20. Atmospheric Correction Inter-Comparison Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgia Doxani

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The Atmospheric Correction Inter-comparison eXercise (ACIX is an international initiative with the aim to analyse the Surface Reflectance (SR products of various state-of-the-art atmospheric correction (AC processors. The Aerosol Optical Thickness (AOT and Water Vapour (WV are also examined in ACIX as additional outputs of AC processing. In this paper, the general ACIX framework is discussed; special mention is made of the motivation to initiate the experiment, the inter-comparison protocol, and the principal results. ACIX is free and open and every developer was welcome to participate. Eventually, 12 participants applied their approaches to various Landsat-8 and Sentinel-2 image datasets acquired over sites around the world. The current results diverge depending on the sensors, products, and sites, indicating their strengths and weaknesses. Indeed, this first implementation of processor inter-comparison was proven to be a good lesson for the developers to learn the advantages and limitations of their approaches. Various algorithm improvements are expected, if not already implemented, and the enhanced performances are yet to be assessed in future ACIX experiments.

  1. Misleading Comparisons between Chernobyl and Fukushima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiranuma, Yuri

    2016-01-01

    This paper critically analyzes illogical and often misleading comparisons between Fukushima and Chernobyl where the nuclear accidents have occurred. A letter by Takamura et al. published in The Lancet Diabetes and Endocrinology makes comparisons between the exposure doses and the age distributions of childhood thyroid cancer cases in Belarus and Fukushima. Estimated exposure doses in highly contaminated areas in Belarus were compared with potentially underestimated Fukushima doses. Age distributions of thyroid cancer cases are compared at different times after the accidents: after 4-5 years in Belarus vs. first 4 years in Fukushima. The absence of cancer cases in ages 0-5 at exposure in Fukushima in the first 4 years after the accident is not surprising because the supposed latency of childhood thyroid cancer is considered 4-5 years based on the Chernobyl experience. Yet this absence is claimed as a basis leading to a premature conclusion to dismiss radiation effects on thyroid cancer cases in Fukushima. Similar illogical comparisons made in Japan and overseas are discussed. A possibility of a shorter latency period is entertained based on a carcinogenic potential of ionizing radiation as initiator as well as promoter. Lastly, a pooled analysis of 12 studies on thyroid cancer after childhood external exposure (2016) is introduced as an evidence that exposure doses below 100 mGy lead to an increase in relative risk of thyroid cancer with a linear dose-response. (author)

  2. Selecting numerical scales for pairwise comparisons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliott, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    It is often desirable in decision analysis problems to elicit from an individual the rankings of a population of attributes according to the individual's preference and to understand the degree to which each attribute is preferred to the others. A common method for obtaining this information involves the use of pairwise comparisons, which allows an analyst to convert subjective expressions of preference between two attributes into numerical values indicating preferences across the entire population of attributes. Key to the use of pairwise comparisons is the underlying numerical scale that is used to convert subjective linguistic expressions of preference into numerical values. This scale represents the psychological manner in which individuals perceive increments of preference among abstract attributes and it has important implications about the distribution and consistency of an individual's preferences. Three popular scale types, the traditional integer scales, balanced scales and power scales are examined. Results of a study of 64 individuals responding to a hypothetical decision problem show that none of these scales can accurately capture the preferences of all individuals. A study of three individuals working on an actual engineering decision problem involving the design of a decay heat removal system for a nuclear fission reactor show that the choice of scale can affect the preferred decision. It is concluded that applications of pairwise comparisons would benefit from permitting participants to choose the scale that best models their own particular way of thinking about the relative preference of attributes.

  3. International Comparisons: Issues of Methodology and Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serova Irina A.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the methodology and organization of statistical observation of the level of countries’ economic development. The theoretical basis of international comparisons is singled out and on its basis the comparative evaluation of inconsistency of theoretical positions and the reasons of differences of GDP growth is carried out. Based on the complexity of the formation of homogeneous data sets in order to obtain correct comparison results, a general scheme for the relationship between the theoretical base of international comparisons and PPP constraints is defined. The possibility of obtaining a single measurement of the indicators of national economies based on the existing sampling errors, measurement uncertainties and classification errors is considered. The emphasis is placed on combining the work using the ICP and CPI with the aim of achieving comparability of data in the territorial and temporal cross-section. Using the basic characteristics of sustainable economic growth, long-term prospects for changing the ranking positions of countries with different levels of income are determined. It is shown that the clarity and unambiguity of the theoretical provisions is the defining condition for the further process of data collection and formation of correct analytical conclusions.

  4. Task-Driven Comparison of Topic Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Eric; Gleicher, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Topic modeling, a method of statistically extracting thematic content from a large collection of texts, is used for a wide variety of tasks within text analysis. Though there are a growing number of tools and techniques for exploring single models, comparisons between models are generally reduced to a small set of numerical metrics. These metrics may or may not reflect a model's performance on the analyst's intended task, and can therefore be insufficient to diagnose what causes differences between models. In this paper, we explore task-centric topic model comparison, considering how we can both provide detail for a more nuanced understanding of differences and address the wealth of tasks for which topic models are used. We derive comparison tasks from single-model uses of topic models, which predominantly fall into the categories of understanding topics, understanding similarity, and understanding change. Finally, we provide several visualization techniques that facilitate these tasks, including buddy plots, which combine color and position encodings to allow analysts to readily view changes in document similarity.

  5. Comparison of real development levels of countries: Genesis and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prekajac Zora

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Comparison of levels of development among countries is usually done by reducing values in national currencies with a common denominator, using the official exchange rate. Because of its unreality, the values calculated in this way do not illustrate real relations between compared countries. That brings about the launching of the UN International Comparison Project (latter Programme with two fold aims: developing a method for international comparison of real domestic product which could be applied to a number of very heterogeneous countries, and the comparison of growing number of very different countries. Until now six phases of comparisons are finished. Taking into consideration problems that appeared in the realization of the VI ICP phase as well as quality improvement proposals, a decision has been made to launch a new, global round for 2003-2006. Comparison will cover 150 countries (the widest coverage ever. This will give global character to the comparison, which was the end cause of the ICP.

  6. ACCELERATION RENDERING METHOD ON RAY TRACING WITH ANGLE COMPARISON AND DISTANCE COMPARISON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana liliana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In computer graphics applications, to produce realistic images, a method that is often used is ray tracing. Ray tracing does not only model local illumination but also global illumination. Local illumination count ambient, diffuse and specular effects only, but global illumination also count mirroring and transparency. Local illumination count effects from the lamp(s but global illumination count effects from other object(s too. Objects that are usually modeled are primitive objects and mesh objects. The advantage of mesh modeling is various, interesting and real-like shape. Mesh contains many primitive objects like triangle or square (rare. A problem in mesh object modeling is long rendering time. It is because every ray must be checked with a lot of triangle of the mesh. Added by ray from other objects checking, the number of ray that traced will increase. It causes the increasing of rendering time. To solve this problem, in this research, new methods are developed to make the rendering process of mesh object faster. The new methods are angle comparison and distance comparison. These methods are used to reduce the number of ray checking. The rays predicted will not intersect with the mesh, are not checked weather the ray intersects the mesh. With angle comparison, if using small angle to compare, the rendering process will be fast. This method has disadvantage, if the shape of each triangle is big, some triangles will be corrupted. If the angle to compare is bigger, mesh corruption can be avoided but the rendering time will be longer than without comparison. With distance comparison, the rendering time is less than without comparison, and no triangle will be corrupted.

  7. SUPPLEMENTARY COMPARISON: Final report on APMP.PR-S1.1: Bilateral comparison of irradiance responsivity of UVA detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xuebo

    2009-01-01

    In order to assess the performance of the standards and techniques used for calibration and measurement of UVA irradiance responsivity of photodetectors in NMISA, South Africa, a new comparison was decided as a follow-up to comparison APMP.PR-S1. It is registered in the Key Comparison Data Base (KCDB) of BIPM as a bilateral supplementary comparison, with the identifier APMP.PR-S1.1. The comparison was carried out following the same technical protocol as that of supplementary comparison APMP PR-S1. The principle, organization and method of the comparison, as well as the preliminary measurements at the pilot laboratory NMC-A*STAR Singapore, were described in the Final Report of the APMP.PR-S1 comparison. The results of this bilateral comparison show that the NMISA's results lie within ±2% against the comparison reference values of APMP.PR-S1, which is a great improvement. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the APMP, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA).

  8. Results from the FIN-2 formal comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Paul; Hoose, Corinna; Liu, Xiaohong; Moehler, Ottmar; Cziczo, Daniel; DeMott, Paul

    2017-04-01

    During the Fifth International Ice Nucleation Workshop (FIN-2) at the AIDA Ice Nucleation facility in Karlsruhe, Germany in March 2015, a formal comparison of ice nucleation measurement methods was conducted. During the experiments the samples of ice nucleating particles were not revealed to the instrument scientists, hence this was referred to as a "blind comparison". The two samples used were later revealed to be Arizona Test Dust and an Argentina soil sample. For these two samples seven mobile ice nucleating particle counters sampled directly from the AIDA chamber or from the aerosol preparation chamber at specified temperatures, whereas filter samples were taken for two offline deposition nucleation instruments. Wet suspension methods for determining IN concentrations were also used with 10 different methods employed. For the wet suspension methods experiments were conducted using INPs collected from the air inside the chambers (impinger sampling) and INPs taken from the bulk samples (vial sampling). Direct comparisons of the ice nucleating particle concentrations are reported as well as derived ice nucleation active site densities. The study highlights the difficulties in performing such analyses, but generally indicates that there is reasonable agreement between the wet suspension techniques. It is noted that ice nucleation efficiency derived from the AIDA chamber (quantified using the ice active surface site density approach) is higher than that for the cold stage techniques. This is both true for the Argentina soil sample and, to a lesser extent, for the Arizona Test Dust sample too. Other interesting effects were noted: for the ATD the impinger sampling demonstrated higher INP efficiency at higher temperatures (>255 K) than the vial sampling, but agreed at the lower temperatures (<255K), whereas the opposite was true for the Argentina soil sample. The results are analysed to better understand the performance of the various techniques and to address any

  9. Comparison of RESRAD with hand calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rittmann, P.D.

    1995-09-01

    This report is a continuation of an earlier comparison done with two other computer programs, GENII and PATHRAE. The dose calculations by the two programs were compared with each other and with hand calculations. These band calculations have now been compared with RESRAD Version 5.41 to examine the use of standard models and parameters in this computer program. The hand calculations disclosed a significant computational error in RESRAD. The Pu-241 ingestion doses are five orders of magnitude too small. In addition, the external doses from some nuclides differ greatly from expected values. Both of these deficiencies have been corrected in later versions of RESRAD

  10. Comparison between Dutch and German buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lony, R.J.M.; Molenaar, D.J.; Rietkerk, J.; Schuiling, D.J.B.W.; Zeiler, W. [TU/e, Univ. of Technology Eindhoven (Netherlands); Brunk, M. [RWTH Aachen (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    German buildings are often seen as an example to Dutch architects and Dutch building services consultants. Goal of this article is to examine and to understand differences between the Dutch and German top office buildings. Objective is to examine to which extent these buildings were designed intelligently. An Intelligent Building is one that provides a productive cost effective environment through the optimisation of six basic elements; site, skin, systems, structures, services, space plan and staff and the interrelationship between them. Based on these six aspects the comparison is made between Dutch and German buildings. (orig.)

  11. Comparison of future energy scenarios for Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kwon, Pil Seok; Østergaard, Poul Alberg

    2012-01-01

    Scenario-making is becoming an important tool in energy policy making and energy systems analyses. This article probes into the making of scenarios for Denmark by presenting a comparison of three future scenarios which narrate 100% renewable energy system for Denmark in 2050; IDA 2050, Climate...... Commission 2050, and CEESA (Coherent Energy and Environmental System Analysis). Generally, although with minor differences, the scenarios suggest the same technological solutions for the future such as expansion of biomass usage and wind power capacity, integration of transport sector into the other energy...

  12. Comparison of alternate fuels for aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witcofski, R. D.

    1979-01-01

    A comparison of candidate alternate fuels for aircraft is presented. The fuels discussed include liquid hydrogen, liquid methane, and synthetic aviation kerosene. Each fuel is evaluated from the standpoint of production, transmission, airport storage and distribution facilities, and use in aircraft. Technology deficient areas for cryogenic fuels, which should be advanced prior to the introduction of the fuels into the aviation industry, are identified, as are the cost and energy penalties associated with not achieving those advances. Environmental emissions and safety aspects of fuel selection are discussed. A detailed description of the various fuel production and liquefaction processes and their efficiencies and economics is given.

  13. Comparison of Remote Labs in Different Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Mergl

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Recently several possibilities arose to conduct electronic measurement experiments via remote control. Now a comparison of the latest different technologies should bring some answers to interested people, so that they can choose the best technology for them under their criteria. Criteria in this case are, the up-to-dateness of the technology, the development-time, the system-independency of the client in terms of the operating system and internet browser as well as other necessary installations on the client.

  14. Comparison between Microfabrication Technologies for Metal Tooling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Peter Torben

    2005-01-01

    of metal. The following technologies have been analysed: micromilling, microEDM (microelectro discharge machining, including wire-EDM, sinking-EDM and EDM-milling), laser micromachining, electroforming and ECF (an innovative process proposed by HSG-IMAT). Considered materials are nickel for electroforming......, stainless steel for ECF, and tool steel (AISI H13) for the other processes. Typical features (ribs, channels, pins and holes) required by microoptics, microfluidics and sensors and actuators applications have been selected to carry out this analysis The task results provide a global comparison between...

  15. Preference Learning and Ranking by Pairwise Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fürnkranz, Johannes; Hüllermeier, Eyke

    This chapter provides an overview of recent work on preference learning and ranking via pairwise classification. The learning by pairwise comparison (LPC) paradigm is the natural machine learning counterpart to the relational approach to preference modeling and decision making. From a machine learning point of view, LPC is especially appealing as it decomposes a possibly complex prediction problem into a certain number of learning problems of the simplest type, namely binary classification. We explain how to approach different preference learning problems, such as label and instance ranking, within the framework of LPC. We primarily focus on methodological aspects, but also address theoretical questions as well as algorithmic and complexity issues.

  16. Comparison of Shallow Survey 2012 Multibeam Datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, T. M.

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of the Shallow Survey common dataset is a comparison of the different technologies utilized for data acquisition in the shallow survey marine environment. The common dataset consists of a series of surveys conducted over a common area of seabed using a variety of systems. It provides equipment manufacturers the opportunity to showcase their latest systems while giving hydrographic researchers and scientists a chance to test their latest algorithms on the dataset so that rigorous comparisons can be made. Five companies collected data for the Common Dataset in the Wellington Harbor area in New Zealand between May 2010 and May 2011; including Kongsberg, Reson, R2Sonic, GeoAcoustics, and Applied Acoustics. The Wellington harbor and surrounding coastal area was selected since it has a number of well-defined features, including the HMNZS South Seas and HMNZS Wellington wrecks, an armored seawall constructed of Tetrapods and Akmons, aquifers, wharves and marinas. The seabed inside the harbor basin is largely fine-grained sediment, with gravel and reefs around the coast. The area outside the harbor on the southern coast is an active environment, with moving sand and exposed reefs. A marine reserve is also in this area. For consistency between datasets, the coastal research vessel R/V Ikatere and crew were used for all surveys conducted for the common dataset. Using Triton's Perspective processing software multibeam datasets collected for the Shallow Survey were processed for detail analysis. Datasets from each sonar manufacturer were processed using the CUBE algorithm developed by the Center for Coastal and Ocean Mapping/Joint Hydrographic Center (CCOM/JHC). Each dataset was gridded at 0.5 and 1.0 meter resolutions for cross comparison and compliance with International Hydrographic Organization (IHO) requirements. Detailed comparisons were made of equipment specifications (transmit frequency, number of beams, beam width), data density, total uncertainty, and

  17. The Comparison Study of Six University Archives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Fen Liu

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available The university archives is not only the extension of a building, but also includes the archival records, archivists and equipments. The university archives is the historical memory of a university, which could let people to predict the future by reviewing the past. The university archives has abundant collections, both teachers and students can review history of this university. This paper mainly compares six university archives of Taiwan, and the interviewing method is used in this research. After comparison of the six university archives, we have found the six university archives have different organizational structures, budgets, and functions. Finally the authors propose some suggestions.[Article content in Chinese

  18. Comparison between calorimeter and HLNC errors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldman, A.S.; De Ridder, P.; Laszlo, G.

    1991-01-01

    This paper summarizes an error analysis that compares systematic and random errors of total plutonium mass estimated for high-level neutron coincidence counter (HLNC) and calorimeter measurements. This task was part of an International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) study on the comparison of the two instruments to determine if HLNC measurement errors met IAEA standards and if the calorimeter gave ''significantly'' better precision. Our analysis was based on propagation of error models that contained all known sources of errors including uncertainties associated with plutonium isotopic measurements. 5 refs., 2 tabs

  19. Rooftop Unit Comparison Calculator User Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, James D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-04-30

    This document serves as a user manual for the Packaged rooftop air conditioners and heat pump units comparison calculator (RTUCC) and is an aggregation of the calculator’s website documentation. Content ranges from new-user guide material like the “Quick Start” to the more technical/algorithmic descriptions of the “Methods Pages.” There is also a section listing all the context-help topics that support the features on the “Controls” page. The appendix has a discussion of the EnergyPlus runs that supported the development of the building-response models.

  20. The politics of comparison in mediated publics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkbak, Andreas

    News media and social media are often compared in a way that focuses on their contrasts, e.g. as between objective news and passionate opinions – or between a clear-cut public and multiple issue-oriented quasi-publics. If we do not assume such divisions to be pre-given, it becomes possible to study...... of mediated publics. Here, the researcher can begin to think with and not just about contemporary media practices when trying to rethink comparison and its politics....

  1. Benefit/risk comparisons in diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oosterkamp, W.J.

    1976-01-01

    Benefit and risks in radiodiagnostic examination, either with X-rays or with radioactive isotopes, can be expressed in restored health and health impaired by radiation or: lives saved and estimated lives lost as a result of genetic or somatic radiation damage. Published data on benefit-risk comparisons for mass stomach and chest surveys show a considerable benefit surplus. It is demonstrated that this is also true in the case of clinical examinations of the sick. Efforts should be concentrated on better ways and means to reduce the number of diagnostic errors. Risk estimates should be made as realistic as possible

  2. Individual differences on social comparison : properties of the orientation Spanish scale towards social comparison

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buunk, AP; Belmonte, J; Peiro, JM; Zurriaga, R; Gibbons, FX

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the development and the properties of the INCOM-E, the Spanish language version of the INCOM, a measure to assess individual differences in social comparison orientation that was originally developed simultaneously in English and in Dutch. In both Study 1 (including 212

  3. Smart Grid communication middleware comparison distributed control comparison for the internet of things

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Bo Søborg; Bindner, Henrik W.; Poulsen, Bjarne

    2017-01-01

    are possible by their performance, which is limited by the middleware characteristics, primarily interchangeable serialization and the Publish-Subscribe messaging pattern. The earlier paper "Smart Grid Serialization Comparison" (Petersen et al. 2017) AIDS in the choice of serialization, which has a big impact...

  4. Is nuclear economical in comparison to renewables?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suna, Demet; Resch, Gustav

    2016-01-01

    The European Union is divided on the issue of electricity production. While there is consensus that generation technologies need to be low on greenhouse gas emissions, the question of whether to use renewables or nuclear to meet this power demand is highly controversial. Both options still require financial support and this is not going to change in the near future. This raises the question of where public money should be invested in order to achieve greater economic efficiency: into support for renewable energies (RE) or support for nuclear power plants? This paper sets out to answer this question. The detailed model-based prospective scenario assessment performed in this study provides the basis for estimating future cost developments. After discussing the existing support schemes for renewables, the paper compares these with a nuclear model. The comparison is conducted exemplarily for the United Kingdom (UK) at a country level and for the EU 28 overall. The recent state aid case for the construction of the Hinkley Point nuclear power plant (NPP) in the UK serves as the model for the nuclear option. - Highlights: • State aids for new nuclear power is compared with incentives for renewables. • Hinkley Point C in the UK is considered as example for new nuclear power. • Comparison is conducted for the UK at a country level and for the EU 28 overall. • Analysis shows that renewable energies are more economical than nuclear power.

  5. Thermal sensation models: a systematic comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koelblen, B; Psikuta, A; Bogdan, A; Annaheim, S; Rossi, R M

    2017-05-01

    Thermal sensation models, capable of predicting human's perception of thermal surroundings, are commonly used to assess given indoor conditions. These models differ in many aspects, such as the number and type of input conditions, the range of conditions in which the models can be applied, and the complexity of equations. Moreover, the models are associated with various thermal sensation scales. In this study, a systematic comparison of seven existing thermal sensation models has been performed with regard to exposures including various air temperatures, clothing thermal insulation, and metabolic rate values after a careful investigation of the models' range of applicability. Thermo-physiological data needed as input for some of the models were obtained from a mathematical model for human physiological responses. The comparison showed differences between models' predictions for the analyzed conditions, mostly higher than typical intersubject differences in votes. Therefore, it can be concluded that the choice of model strongly influences the assessment of indoor spaces. The issue of comparing different thermal sensation scales has also been discussed. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Comparison of several potential myocardial imaging agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, E.E.; Stabin, M.G.; Goodman, M.M.; Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Srivastava, P.C.

    1985-01-01

    Although myocardial imaging is currently dominated by Tl-201, several alternative agents with improved physiologic or radionuclidic properties have been proposed. Based on human and animal studies in the literature, the metabolism of several of these compounds was studied for the purpose of generating radiation dose estimates. Dose estimates are listed for several I-123 labeled free fatty acids, an I-123 labeled phosphonium compound, Rb-82, Cu-64, F-18 FDG (all compounds which are taken up by the normal myocardium), and for Tc-99m pyrophosphate (PYP) (which localizes in myocardial infarcts). Dose estimates could not be generated for C-11 palmitate, but this compound was included in a comparison of myocardial retention times. For the I-123 labeled compounds, I-124 was included as a contaminant in generating the dose estimates. Radiation doses were lowest for Rb-82 (gonads 0.3 to 0.5 μGy/MBq, heart wall 15 μGy/MBq). Doses for the I-123 labeled fatty acids were similar to one another, with IPPA being the lowest (gonads 20 μGy/MBq, heart wall 15 μGy/MBq). Doses for Tc-99m PYP were also low (gonads 4 to 7 μGy/MBq, heart wall 4 μGy/MBq, skeleton 15 μGy/MBq). The desirability of these compounds is discussed briefly, considering half life, imaging mode and energy, and dosimetry, including a comparison of the effective whole body dose equivalents. 34 refs., 11 tabs

  7. If psychosis were cancer: a speculative comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boden, Zoë; Newton, Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    Recently, health policy in the UK has begun to engage with the concept of ‘parity of esteem’ between physical and mental healthcare. This has led one recent initiative to improve service provision for first episode psychosis, which aims to bring it into line with some of the principles underpinning good practice in cancer care. In this paper, we consider some of the metaphorical consequences of likening psychosis to cancer. While we find the comparison unhelpful for clinical purposes, we argue that it can be a helpful lens through which to examine service provision for psychosis in young people. Through this lens, specialist community-based services would appear to compare reasonably well. Inpatient care for young people with psychosis, on the other hand, suffers very badly by comparison with inpatient facilities for teenage cancer care. We note some of the many positive features of inpatient cancer care for young adults, and—drawing upon previous research on inpatient psychiatric care—observe that many of these are usually absent from mental health facilities. We conclude that this metaphor may be a helpful rhetorical device for communicating the lack of ‘parity of esteem’ between mental and physical healthcare. This inequity must be made visible in health policy, in commissioning, and in service provision. PMID:28559369

  8. Data for Room Fire Model Comparisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peacock, Richard D; Davis, Sanford; Babrauskas, Vytenis

    1991-01-01

    With the development of models to predict fire growth and spread in buildings, there has been a concomitant evolution in the measurement and analysis of experimental data in real-scale fires. This report presents the types of analyses that can be used to examine large-scale room fire test data to prepare the data for comparison with zone-based fire models. Five sets of experimental data which can be used to test the limits of a typical two-zone fire model are detailed. A standard set of nomenclature describing the geometry of the building and the quantities measured in each experiment is presented. Availability of ancillary data (such as smaller-scale test results) is included. These descriptions, along with the data (available in computer-readable form) should allow comparisons between the experiment and model predictions. The base of experimental data ranges in complexity from one room tests with individual furniture items to a series of tests conducted in a multiple story hotel equipped with a zoned smoke control system.

  9. YBYRÁ facilitates comparison of large phylogenetic trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Denis Jacob

    2015-07-01

    The number and size of tree topologies that are being compared by phylogenetic systematists is increasing due to technological advancements in high-throughput DNA sequencing. However, we still lack tools to facilitate comparison among phylogenetic trees with a large number of terminals. The "YBYRÁ" project integrates software solutions for data analysis in phylogenetics. It comprises tools for (1) topological distance calculation based on the number of shared splits or clades, (2) sensitivity analysis and automatic generation of sensitivity plots and (3) clade diagnoses based on different categories of synapomorphies. YBYRÁ also provides (4) an original framework to facilitate the search for potential rogue taxa based on how much they affect average matching split distances (using MSdist). YBYRÁ facilitates comparison of large phylogenetic trees and outperforms competing software in terms of usability and time efficiency, specially for large data sets. The programs that comprises this toolkit are written in Python, hence they do not require installation and have minimum dependencies. The entire project is available under an open-source licence at http://www.ib.usp.br/grant/anfibios/researchSoftware.html .

  10. Water gun vs air gun: A comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, D.R.; Detrick, R. S.

    1984-01-01

    The water gun is a relatively new marine seismic sound source that produces an acoustic signal by an implosive rather than explosive mechanism. A comparison of the source characteristics of two different-sized water guns with those of conventional air guns shows the the water gun signature is cleaner and much shorter than that of a comparable-sized air gun: about 60-100 milliseconds (ms) for an 80-in3. (1.31-liter (I)) water gun compared with several hundred ms for an 80-in3. (1.31-1) air gun. The source spectra of water guns are richer in high frequencies (>200 Hz) than are those of air guns, but they also have less energy than those of air guns at low frequencies. A comparison between water gun and air gun reflection profiles in both shallow (Long Island Sound)-and deep (western Bermuda Rise)-water settings suggests that the water gun offers a good compromise between very high resolution, limited penetration systems (e.g. 3.5-kHz profilers and sparkers) and the large volume air guns and tuned air gun arrays generally used where significant penetration is required. ?? 1984 D. Reidel Publishing Company.

  11. Rapid comparison of properties on protein surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sael, Lee; La, David; Li, Bin; Rustamov, Raif; Kihara, Daisuke

    2008-10-01

    The mapping of physicochemical characteristics onto the surface of a protein provides crucial insights into its function and evolution. This information can be further used in the characterization and identification of similarities within protein surface regions. We propose a novel method which quantitatively compares global and local properties on the protein surface. We have tested the method on comparison of electrostatic potentials and hydrophobicity. The method is based on 3D Zernike descriptors, which provides a compact representation of a given property defined on a protein surface. Compactness and rotational invariance of this descriptor enable fast comparison suitable for database searches. The usefulness of this method is exemplified by studying several protein families including globins, thermophilic and mesophilic proteins, and active sites of TIM beta/alpha barrel proteins. In all the cases studied, the descriptor is able to cluster proteins into functionally relevant groups. The proposed approach can also be easily extended to other surface properties. This protein surface-based approach will add a new way of viewing and comparing proteins to conventional methods, which compare proteins in terms of their primary sequence or tertiary structure.

  12. Social comparison, personal relative deprivation, and materialism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyunji; Callan, Mitchell J; Gheorghiu, Ana I; Matthews, William J

    2017-06-01

    Across five studies, we found consistent evidence for the idea that personal relative deprivation (PRD), which refers to resentment stemming from the belief that one is deprived of deserved outcomes compared to others, uniquely contributes to materialism. In Study 1, self-reports of PRD positively predicted materialistic values over and above socioeconomic status, personal power, self-esteem, and emotional uncertainty. The experience of PRD starts with social comparison, and Studies 2 and 3 found that PRD mediated the positive relation between a tendency to make social comparisons of abilities and materialism. In Study 4, participants who learned that they had less (vs. similar) discretionary income than people like them reported a stronger desire for more money relative to donating more to charity. In Study 5, during a windfall-spending task, participants higher in PRD spent more on things they wanted relative to other spending categories (e.g., paying off debts). © 2016 The Authors. British Journal of Social Psychology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Psychological Society.

  13. Data for Room Fire Model Comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peacock, Richard D.; Davis, Sanford; Babrauskas, Vytenis

    1991-01-01

    With the development of models to predict fire growth and spread in buildings, there has been a concomitant evolution in the measurement and analysis of experimental data in real-scale fires. This report presents the types of analyses that can be used to examine large-scale room fire test data to prepare the data for comparison with zone-based fire models. Five sets of experimental data which can be used to test the limits of a typical two-zone fire model are detailed. A standard set of nomenclature describing the geometry of the building and the quantities measured in each experiment is presented. Availability of ancillary data (such as smaller-scale test results) is included. These descriptions, along with the data (available in computer-readable form) should allow comparisons between the experiment and model predictions. The base of experimental data ranges in complexity from one room tests with individual furniture items to a series of tests conducted in a multiple story hotel equipped with a zoned smoke control system. PMID:28184121

  14. Economic comparison of fusion fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brereton, S.J.; Kazimi, M.S.

    1987-01-01

    The economics of the DT, DD, and DHe fusion fuel cycles are evaluated by comparison on a consistent basis. The designs for the comparison employ HT-9 structure and helium coolant; liquid lithium is used as the tritium breeding material for the DT fuel cycle. The reactors are pulsed, superconducting tokamaks, producing 1200 MW of electric power. The DT and DD designs scan a range of values of plasma beta, assuming first stability scaling laws. The results indicate that on a purely economic basis, the DT fuel cycle is superior to both of the advanced fuel cycles. Geometric factors, materials limitations, and plasma beta were seen to have an impact on the Cost of Electricity (COE). The economics for the DD fuel cycle are more strongly affected by these parameters than is the DT fuel cycle. Fuel costs are a major factor in determining the COE for the DHe fuel cycle. Based on costs directly attributable to the fuel cycle, the DT fuel cycle appears most attractive. Technological advances, improved understanding of physics, or strides in advanced energy conversion schemes may result in altering the economic ranking of the fuel cycles indicated here. 7 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  15. Comparison between four dissimilar solar panel configurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suleiman, K.; Ali, U. A.; Yusuf, Ibrahim; Koko, A. D.; Bala, S. I.

    2017-12-01

    Several studies on photovoltaic systems focused on how it operates and energy required in operating it. Little attention is paid on its configurations, modeling of mean time to system failure, availability, cost benefit and comparisons of parallel and series-parallel designs. In this research work, four system configurations were studied. Configuration I consists of two sub-components arranged in parallel with 24 V each, configuration II consists of four sub-components arranged logically in parallel with 12 V each, configuration III consists of four sub-components arranged in series-parallel with 8 V each, and configuration IV has six sub-components with 6 V each arranged in series-parallel. Comparative analysis was made using Chapman Kolmogorov's method. The derivation for explicit expression of mean time to system failure, steady state availability and cost benefit analysis were performed, based on the comparison. Ranking method was used to determine the optimal configuration of the systems. The results of analytical and numerical solutions of system availability and mean time to system failure were determined and it was found that configuration I is the optimal configuration.

  16. Final report on CCM key comparison CCM.D-K2: Comparison of liquid density standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettin, Horst; Jacques, Claude; Zelenka, Zoltán; Fujii, Ken-ichi; Kuramoto, Naoki; Chang, Kyung-Ho; Lee, Yong Jae; Becerra, Luis Omar; Domostroeva, Natalia

    2013-01-01

    The results are presented of the key comparison CCM.D-K2 that covered the density measurements of four liquids: the density of water at 20 °C, of pentadecane at 15 °C, 20 °C, 40 °C and 60°C, of tetrachloroethlyene at 5 °C and 20 °C and of a viscous oil at 20 °C. Seven national metrology institutes measured the densities at atmospheric pressure by hydrostatic weighing of solid density standards in the time interval from 27 April 2004 to 28 June 2004. Since the participants were asked not to include components for a possible drift or inhomogeneity of the liquid in their uncertainty budget, these uncertainty contributions are investigated for the final evaluation of the data. For this purpose, results of stability and homogeneity measurements of the pilot laboratory are used. The participants decided not to include a possible drift of the liquid's density since no significant drift could be detected, and the influence of the drift and its uncertainty are negligible. Similarly, the inhomogeneity of the water and pentadecane samples is not significant and has no influence on the evaluation. Thus, it was neglected. Only the inhomogeneities of tetrachloroethylene and of the viscous oil were significant. Consequently, they were included in the evaluation. With one or two exceptions, the results show good agreement among the participants. Only in the case of water are the results clearly discrepant. The key comparison reference values were calculated by the weighted mean (taking into account a small correlation between two participants) in the case of consistent results. Otherwise the Procedure B of Cox was used. The expanded uncertainties of all reference densities are below 1 × 10-5 in relative terms. This satisfies the needs of all customers who wish to calibrate or check liquid density measuring instruments such as oscillation-type density meters. The comparison fully supports the calibration measurement capabilities table in the BIPM key comparison database

  17. SUPPLEMENTARY COMPARISON: EUROMET.L-S10 Comparison of squareness measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokros, Jiri

    2005-01-01

    The idea of performing a comparison of squareness resulted from the need to review the MRA Appendix C, Category 90° square. At its meeting in October 1999 (in Prague) it was decided upon a first comparison of squareness measurements in the framework of EUROMET, numbered #570, starting in 2000, with the Slovak Institute of Metrology (SMU) as the pilot laboratory. During the preparation stage of the project, it was agreed that it should be submitted as a EUROMET supplementary comparison in the framework of the Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA) of the Metre Convention and would boost confidence in calibration and measurement certificates issued by the participating national metrology institutes. The aim of the comparison of squareness measurement was to compare and verify the declared calibration measurement capabilities of participating laboratories and to investigate the effect of systematic influences in the measurement process and their elimination. Eleven NMIs from the EUROMET region carried out this project. Two standards were calibrated: granite squareness standard of rectangular shape, cylindrical squareness standard of steel with marked positions for the profile lines. The following parameters had to be calibrated: granite squareness standard: interior angle γB between two lines AB and AC (envelope - LS regression) fitted through the measured profiles, and/or granite squareness standard: interior angle γLS between two LS regression lines AB and AC fitted through the measured profiles, cylindrical squareness standard: interior angles γ0°, γ90°, γ180°, γ270° between the LS regression line fitted through the measurement profiles at 0°, 90°, 180°, 270° and the envelope plane of the basis (resting on a surface plate), local LS straightness deviation for all measured profiles (2 and 4) of both standards. The results of the comparison are the deviations of profiles and angles measured by the individual NMIs from the reference values. These resulted

  18. The efficiency of similarity-focused comparisons in person perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, Katja

    2013-01-01

    Comparison processes are ubiquitous in person perception. Comparative thinking can follow two routes: People either search for similarities or for dissimilarities while comparing. Which of these two routes is more efficient? Previous research indicates that people could compare two geometrical figures faster if they focused on similarities rather than dissimilarities. I examine comparisons of people and measure the consumption of cognitive resources as indicator for efficiency. The results confirm an efficiency-advantage of similarity-focused comparisons for social stimuli.

  19. Loss aversion, social comparison and physical abilities at younge age

    OpenAIRE

    Nakamoto, Yasuhiro; Sato, Masayuki

    2011-01-01

    We examine the relationship between competitive behavior and social comparison where in this paper competitive behavior is measured by physical ability performance. In particular, by incorporating social comparison into prospect theory, we directly estimate the degree of loss aversion with social comparison, a concept we term `ALJ' (Avoiding Loss relative to the Joneses). Our main findings are as follows: (i) the estimated value function is refracted at another's gain and the average estimate...

  20. A general comparison theorem for backward stochastic differential equations

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, Samuel N.; Elliott, Robert J.; Pearce, Charles E. M.

    2010-01-01

    A useful result when dealing with backward stochastic differential equations is the comparison theorem of Peng (1992). When the equations are not based on Brownian motion, the comparison theorem no longer holds in general. In this paper we present a condition for a comparison theorem to hold for backward stochastic differential equations based on arbitrary martingales. This theorem applies to both vector and scalar situations. Applications to the theory of nonlinear expectat...

  1. A Modified Image Comparison Algorithm Using Histogram Features

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Oraiqat, Anas M.; Kostyukova, Natalya S.

    2018-01-01

    This article discuss the problem of color image content comparison. Particularly, methods of image content comparison are analyzed, restrictions of color histogram are described and a modified method of images content comparison is proposed. This method uses the color histograms and considers color locations. Testing and analyzing of based and modified algorithms are performed. The modified method shows 97% average precision for a collection containing about 700 images without loss of the adv...

  2. GODAE Inter-Comparisons in the Tasman and Coral Seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    and salinity. All have their strengths and weaknesses, and each system out-performs all others in one aspect or another. With few exceptions, all... Auckland and Fiji (Fig 1), was occupied during the inter- comparison period. The observed T section from this line is shown in Fig 6a. Comparisons of T...has certain strengths and weaknesses. Inter-comparisons are regarded as valuable exer- cises that provide important insights into the ocean forecast

  3. Comparison of multiplex reverse transcription-PCR-enzyme ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparison of multiplex reverse transcription-PCR-enzyme hybridization assay with immunofluorescence techniques for the detection of four viral respiratory pathogens in pediatric community acquired pneumonia.

  4. Code comparison for accelerator design and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parsa, Z.

    1988-01-01

    We present a comparison between results obtained from standard accelerator physics codes used for the design and analysis of synchrotrons and storage rings, with programs SYNCH, MAD, HARMON, PATRICIA, PATPET, BETA, DIMAD, MARYLIE and RACE-TRACK. In our analysis we have considered 5 (various size) lattices with large and small angles including AGS Booster (10/degree/ bend), RHIC (2.24/degree/), SXLS, XLS (XUV ring with 45/degree/ bend) and X-RAY rings. The differences in the integration methods used and the treatment of the fringe fields in these codes could lead to different results. The inclusion of nonlinear (e.g., dipole) terms may be necessary in these calculations specially for a small ring. 12 refs., 6 figs., 10 tabs

  5. Insights from Human/Mouse genome comparisons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pennacchio, Len A.

    2003-03-30

    Large-scale public genomic sequencing efforts have provided a wealth of vertebrate sequence data poised to provide insights into mammalian biology. These include deep genomic sequence coverage of human, mouse, rat, zebrafish, and two pufferfish (Fugu rubripes and Tetraodon nigroviridis) (Aparicio et al. 2002; Lander et al. 2001; Venter et al. 2001; Waterston et al. 2002). In addition, a high-priority has been placed on determining the genomic sequence of chimpanzee, dog, cow, frog, and chicken (Boguski 2002). While only recently available, whole genome sequence data have provided the unique opportunity to globally compare complete genome contents. Furthermore, the shared evolutionary ancestry of vertebrate species has allowed the development of comparative genomic approaches to identify ancient conserved sequences with functionality. Accordingly, this review focuses on the initial comparison of available mammalian genomes and describes various insights derived from such analysis.

  6. Data evaluation and code comparison activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itikawa, Yukikazu; Takagi, Hidekazu; Nakamura, Yoshiharu; Imai, Makoto; Sasaki, Akira

    2013-01-01

    In atomic and molecular data base, intolerable numerical differences beyond error margin are found among some papers resulted from measurements or calculations even for the same collision processes. These differences spoil the reliability of the data base. This report describes the data evaluation for atomic and molecular data promoted by IAEA cooperated with other institutes, which Japanese researchers collaborate with. The reaction cross sections calculated numerically are evaluated for the collisions between electrons and molecular ions of H 2 + and HeH + . The application of an electron swarm parameter was shown for the evaluation and determination of the collision cross sections between electrons and molecules. In order to complete higher precision of atomic codes and a collisional-radiative model, IAEA held the workshop for the code comparison of the nonlocal thermodynamic equilibrium. (Y. Kazumata)

  7. Comparison of historical documents for writership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Gregory R.; Pu, Danjun; Stritmatter, Roger; Srihari, Sargur N.

    2010-01-01

    Over the last century forensic document science has developed progressively more sophisticated pattern recognition methodologies for ascertaining the authorship of disputed documents. These include advances not only in computer assisted stylometrics, but forensic handwriting analysis. We present a writer verification method and an evaluation of an actual historical document written by an unknown writer. The questioned document is compared against two known handwriting samples of Herman Melville, a 19th century American author who has been hypothesized to be the writer of this document. The comparison led to a high confidence result that the questioned document was written by the same writer as the known documents. Such methodology can be applied to many such questioned documents in historical writing, both in literary and legal fields.

  8. Terrestrial magnetosphere and comparison with Jupiter's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michel, F.C.

    1974-01-01

    A review of the characteristics of Jupiter's magnetosphere, with comparisons to the earth's is given. Radio observations of Jupiter indicate that energetic electrons are trapped in its magnetic field. The interaction of the trapped radiation with the satellite Io and the centrifugal instability of Jupiter's magnetosphere are discussed. Jupiter's outer magnetosphere is constantly accreting plasma at an uncertain rate. Various mechanisms for supplying ions to the outer magnetosphere are discussed, including: gravitational and centrifugal forces acting on corotating particles; field-line diffusion; photoelectron injection; excitation by Io or other satellites; and viscous interaction with the solar wind. The over-all morphology of the Jovian magnetosphere seems to be highly distorted by centrifugal forces and is easily compressed or deflected by the solar wind

  9. Tests and comparisons of gravity models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, J. G.; Douglas, B. C.

    1971-01-01

    Optical observations of the GEOS satellites were used to obtain orbital solutions with different sets of geopotential coefficients. The solutions were compared before and after modification to high order terms (necessary because of resonance) and were then analyzed by comparing subsequent observations with predicted trajectories. The most important source of error in orbit determination and prediction for the GEOS satellites is the effect of resonance found in most published sets of geopotential coefficients. Modifications to the sets yield greatly improved orbits in most cases. The results of these comparisons suggest that with the best optical tracking systems and gravity models, satellite position error due to gravity model uncertainty can reach 50-100 m during a heavily observed 5-6 day orbital arc. If resonant coefficients are estimated, the uncertainty is reduced considerably.

  10. Blanket comparison and selection study. Volume I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-10-01

    The objectives of the Blanket Comparison and Selection Study (BCSS) can be stated as follows: (1) Define a small number (approx. 3) of blanket design concepts that should be the focus of the blanket R and D program. A design concept is defined by the selection of all materials (e.g., breeder, coolant, structure and multiplier) and other major characteristics that significantly influence the R and D requirements. (2) Identify and prioritize the critical issues for the leading blanket concepts. (3) Provide the technical input necessary to develop a blanket R and D program plan. Guidelines for prioritizing the R and D requirements include: (a) critical feasibility issues for the leading blanket concepts will receive the highest priority, and (b) for equally important feasibility issues, higher R and D priority will be given to those that require minimum cost and short time

  11. COMPARISON OF TWO STRUCTURE AND MOTION STRATEGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Roncella

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Automatic orientation of image sequences in close range photogrammetry is becoming more and more important, not least to maintain a degree of competitiveness with other survey techniques, such as laser scanning. The objective of this paper is to compare two Structure from Motion (SFM strategies. The previous strategy has been used at our Department for some years already in a wide range of projects and is based on the Harris operator and the fundamental matrix plus the trifocal tensor estimation to filter out the outliers. While it has in most cases performed satisfactorily, the percentage of accepted matches is generally smaller than expected; sometimes this leads to failure of the successful estimation of the trifocal tensor. The second one has only recently been implemented and is still under testing; it is based on the SURF operator and the 5-point relative orientation algorithm. The paper will show a comparison between the two strategies on a series of test cases.

  12. Model Comparison for Electron Thermal Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, Gregory; Chenhall, Jeffrey; Cao, Duc; Delettrez, Jacques

    2015-11-01

    Four electron thermal transport models are compared for their ability to accurately and efficiently model non-local behavior in ICF simulations. Goncharov's transport model has accurately predicted shock timing in implosion simulations but is computationally slow and limited to 1D. The iSNB (implicit Schurtz Nicolai Busquet electron thermal transport method of Cao et al. uses multigroup diffusion to speed up the calculation. Chenhall has expanded upon the iSNB diffusion model to a higher order simplified P3 approximation and a Monte Carlo transport model, to bridge the gap between the iSNB and Goncharov models while maintaining computational efficiency. Comparisons of the above models for several test problems will be presented. This work was supported by Sandia National Laboratory - Albuquerque and the University of Rochester Laboratory for Laser Energetics.

  13. Survey and comparison of automated UT systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neeley, V.I.; Avioli, M.J.

    1988-01-01

    In the past decade, the limitations of manual UT inspections have become more severe and adverse. Perhaps the best evidence of this has been the problem of intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) in boiling water reactors (BWR). The onset of this problem clearly showed that better and more sophisticated UT inspection methods must be developed to assure the industry that an appropriate level of inspection integrity could be maintained. While automated UT inspection systems have been under development for some time, this event certainly spurred this activity and has resulted in a variety of commercial systems. The intent of this project, sponsored by EPRI, is to develop a utility engineer's 'Buyer guide' to automated UT systems. Comparison of different automated UT systems along with results of questionnaires on manual UT versus automated UT costs and effectiveness are reviewed. (author)

  14. Adaptive Robot Control – An Experimental Comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Alonge

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with experimental comparison between stable adaptive controllers of robotic manipulators based on Model Based Adaptive, Neural Network and Wavelet -Based control. The above control methods were compared with each other in terms of computational efficiency, need for accurate mathematical model of the manipulator and tracking performances. An original management algorithm of the Wavelet Network control scheme has been designed, with the aim of constructing the net automatically during the trajectory tracking, without the need to tune it to the trajectory itself. Experimental tests, carried out on a planar two link manipulator, show that the Wavelet-Based control scheme, with the new management algorithm, outperforms the conventional Model-Based schemes in the presence of structural uncertainties in the mathematical model of the robot, without pre-training and more efficiently than the Neural Network approach.

  15. Comparison of Hippocampal Volume in Dementia Subtypes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vijayakumar, Avinash; Vijayakumar, Abhishek

    2012-01-01

    Aims. To examine the relationship between different types of dementia and hippocampal volume. Methods. Hippocampal volume was measured using FL3D sequence magnetic resonance imaging in 26 Alzheimer's, vascular dementia, mixed dementia, and normal pressure hydrocephalus patients and 15 healthy controls and also hippocampal ratio, analyzed. Minimental scale was used to stratify patients on cognitive function impairments. Results. Hippocampal volume and ratio was reduced by 25% in Alzheimer's disease, 21% in mixed dementia, 11% in vascular dementia and 5% in normal pressure hydrocephalus in comparison to control. Also an asymmetrical decrease in volume of left hippocampus was noted. The severity of dementia increased in accordance to decreasing hippocampal volume. Conclusion. Measurement in hippocampal volume may facilitate in differentiating different types of dementia and in disease progression. There was a correlation between hippocampal volume and severity of cognitive impairment

  16. Thermoeconomic comparison of industrial heat pumps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ommen, Torben Schmidt; Markussen, Christen Malte; Reinholdt, L.

    2011-01-01

    Four natural working fluids in various heat pump cycles are expected to cover the heating range between 50oC and 150°C. The different thermodynamic cycles are the Condensing Vapour, Transcritical and Compression/Absorption. As the considered technologies have significant differences in application......, limitations and design, a generic comparison is used. To establish the optimal individual temperature range of operation, a thermoeconomic evaluation is performed, with heat price as the decision parameter. Each individual heat pump is favourable in specific temperature intervals, which will vary according...... to the temperature lift between sink and source. At temperature lifts below 30°C the entire temperature range is covered. Exceeding this temperature lift, the range of sink temperatures is not completely covered above 125°C. Three of the heat pumps prove very cost competitive when compared to heating with natural...

  17. Spread and Liquidity Issues: A markets comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strašek Sebastjan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The financial crises are closely connected with spread changes and liquidity issues. After defining and addressing spread considerations, we research in this paper the topic of liquidity issues in times of economic crisis. We analyse the liquidity effects as recorded on spreads of securities from different markets. We stipulate that higher international risk aversion in times of financial crises coincides with widening security spreads. The paper then introduces liquidity as a risk factor into the standard value-at-risk framework, using GARCH methodology. The comparison of results of these models suggests that the size of the tested markets does not have a strong effect on the models. Thus, we find that spread analysis is an appropriate tool for analysing liquidity issues during a financial crisis.

  18. The mutual recognition arrangement and primary standard dosimetry laboratory comparisons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allisy-Roberts, P.J.; Burns, D.T.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The majority of the Member States of the Metre Convention have signed an arrangement for the mutual recognition (MRA) of national measurement standards and calibration and measurement capabilities (CMCs). Part of the MRA involves an open access database of CMCs that in turn need to be supported by key and supplementary comparisons of national standards. This paper outlines the MRA, describing the comparisons of national primary standards in the field of dosimetry that support the claims of the CMCs in the key comparison database (KCDB). The MRA was drawn up by the International Committee for Weights and Measures (Comite International des Poids et Mesures CIPM) and was signed at a meeting held in Paris on 14 October 1999 by the directors of the national metrology institutes (NMIs) of thirty-eight Member States of the Metre Convention and representatives of two international organizations. Since that date, the directors of the NMIs of several other Member States and nine Associates of the General Conference (Conference Generale des Poids et Mesures CGPM) have also signed the MRA. The metrological objectives of the MRA are to establish the degree of equivalence of national measurement standards maintained by NMIs and thus provide the basis for the mutual recognition of calibration and measurement certificates issued by NMIs. The NMIs provide the traceability to the international system of units (SI) required for these services and thus mutual recognition of the capabilities of the NMIs is a prerequisite for the mutual recognition of the metrology services of countries in general. The objectives of the MRA are achieved through a process of: (a) international comparisons of measurements, known as key comparisons (b) supplementary international comparisons of measurements, and (c) quality systems and demonstrations of competence by the NMIs. The outcome of the MRA is a determination of the degrees of equivalence of national standards and a set of statements of

  19. Comparison of hydrocephalus appearance at spinaldysraphia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elshani, Besnik; Lenjani, Basri

    2013-01-01

    Congenital malformation of spinal dysraphism followed by hydrocephalus are phenomenon reveals during intrauterine child growth. Prime objective of this work was to present Comparison of hydrocephalus appearance at spinal dysraphism respectively at its meningocele and myelomeningocele forms in Neurosurgery Clinic in UCC in Prishtina. It is perfected with retrospective and prospective method precisely of its epidemiologic part summarizing notices from patients' histories which in 2000-2006 are hospitalized in Neurosurgery Clinic from (QFLPK)--Pediatric Clinic and Children Box (Department)--Gynecology Clinic and from Sanitary Regional Center throughout Kosova. Our study objects were two groups, as the first group 90 patients with spinal dysraphism where neurosurgery operations were done and classified types of dysraphism. At myelomeningocele hydrocephalus has dominated and in a percent of appearance and as acute of its active form was 97% of hydrocephalus form where subjected to cerebrospinal liquid derivation with ventriculo -peritoneal shunt in comparison with meningocele we do not have involvation of spinal nerve element, hydrocephalus takes active form with intervention indication in 60% of cases. Reflection in shown deficit aspect is totally different at myelomeningoceles where lower paraplegia dominate more than paraparesis. The second patient operative technique developed by hydrocephalus with neurosurgical intervention indication has to do with placing of (VP) ventriculo- peritoneal system (shant) at myelomeningoceles with hydrocephalus 58 cases and 12 cases meningoceles with hydrocephalus. Post operative meningitis (shant meningitis): from 70 operated cases of hydrocephalus with spinal dysraphism shunts complications from all types are just cases. Finally that appearance of hydrocephalus compared at spinal dysraphism dominate at myellomeningoceles as in notice time aspect, it is persisting and further acute, with vital motivation for neurosurgical

  20. Proton dosimetry comparison involving ionometry and calorimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delacroix, Sabine; Bridier, Andre; Mazal, Alexandre; Daures, Josiane; Ostrowsky, Aime; Nauraye, Catherine; Kacperek, Andre; Vynkier, Stephane; Brassard, Nicole; Habrand, Jean-Louis

    1997-01-01

    A comparison of the absorbed dose to tissue determined by various ionization chambers, Faraday cups, and an A-150 plastic calorimeter was performed in the 200 MeV proton beam of Orsay, France. Four European proton-therapy centers (Clatterbridge, UK, Louvain la Neuve, Belgium, and Nice and Orsay, France) participated in the comparison. An agreement of better than 1% was observed in the absorbed dose to A-150 measured with the different chambers of the participating groups. The mean ratio of the absorbed dose to A-150 determined with the calorimeter to that determined by the different ionization chambers in the different irradiation conditions was found to be 0.952 ± 0.007 [1 standard deviation (SD)] according to the code of practice used by all the participating centers, based on Janni's tables of stopping powers and a value of 35.2 J/Coulomb for (W air /e) p . A better agreement in the mean ratio calorimeter/chamber, 0.985 ± 0.007 (1 SD) is observed when using the proton stopping power ratio values recently published by the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements in Report no. 49. The mean ratio of these doses determined in accordance with the American Association of Physicists in Medicine protocol and using the new recommended stopping power tables becomes 1.002 ± 0.007 (1 SD). Two Faraday cups agree in measured charge to within 0.8%; however, the calculation of dose is underestimated by up to 17%; compared with ion chamber measurements and seems to be very sensitive to measurement conditions, particularly to the distance to the collimator

  1. INTERNATIONAL COMPARISONS IN THE IMPROVEMENT OF EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hebert David G.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Imperfections - such as inequality and inefficiency of learning - are perennial problems for education despite a diversity of foundations on which national systems are established, which range from the idealistic vision of fostering a utopian society to the utilitarian objective of producing skilled workers capable of engendering economic growth. Despite sharing many common conditions and fundamental values, educators rarely learn valuable lessons from the successes and failures of highly relevant initiatives in distant nations. This problem may be attributed to several factors, not the least of which includes the entrenchment of local traditions and ethnocentric assumptions, but surely the quality and relevance of international-comparative research - and the way its results are disseminated - are issues that must also be taken into careful consideration. What are the unique lessons to be learned from international comparisons, and what are the prospective risks for how such comparisons may be misinterpreted and misused in educational settings? How can international comparative research be made more relevant, with tangible applications that may be recognized and effectively used by school teachers? How can international comparative education meaningfully examine subjects beyond the reach of standardized testing, in such domains as the fostering of creativity, talent, and ethical sensibilities, for example? These themes will be presented through discussion of both research findings and anecdotes from the personal experience of working for universities on four continents. Specific topics will include the challenges of accounting for conceptual equivalency and representing cultural differences, sampling and generalizability, reconciling the diverging aims of economic, anthropological, sociological, and psychological research, as well as grappling with the ambivalent discourse of globalization, multiculturalism, post-colonialism, and other social

  2. Intercode comparison of SBO scenario for AHWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, A.; Kumar, Rajesh; Chatterjee, B.; Vijayan, P.K.

    2015-01-01

    This paper outlines the assessment of station blackout scenario for AHWR using last version of the French best estimate computer code CATHARE2/V2.5 2 and its comparison with RELAP5/mod3.2 findings. First, it explains the modelling of main heat transport system of AHWR and isolation Condenser loop along with GDWP in CATHARE2 followed by thermal hydraulic safety assessment of station blackout scenario and comparison of predictions with RELAP5 findings. The proposed Advanced Heavy Water Reactor is a 920 MWth Thorium based vertical pressure tube type boiling light water cooled and heavy water moderated reactor. One of the important passive design features of this reactor is that the heat removal is achieved through natural circulation of primary coolant at all allowed power levels with no primary coolant pumps.The prolonged SBO has been analyzed for AHWR using best estimate code CATHARE and results are compared with already available results of RELAP5 code. The ICs are able to remove decay heat with the help of GDWP and maintain core temperatures well with-in the limit. Decay heat is removed passively by GDWP initially by sensible heating and later by boil off as seen in long term calculation done with RELAP5. It has been found in that analysis, IC system is capable to remove decay heat for more than 7 days. The decay heat removal through IC path along with passive moderator and end shield cooling keeps the integrity of different system and maintains the core temperature well below the acceptance limit

  3. Dynamic programming algorithms for biological sequence comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, W R; Miller, W

    1992-01-01

    Efficient dynamic programming algorithms are available for a broad class of protein and DNA sequence comparison problems. These algorithms require computer time proportional to the product of the lengths of the two sequences being compared [O(N2)] but require memory space proportional only to the sum of these lengths [O(N)]. Although the requirement for O(N2) time limits use of the algorithms to the largest computers when searching protein and DNA sequence databases, many other applications of these algorithms, such as calculation of distances for evolutionary trees and comparison of a new sequence to a library of sequence profiles, are well within the capabilities of desktop computers. In particular, the results of library searches with rapid searching programs, such as FASTA or BLAST, should be confirmed by performing a rigorous optimal alignment. Whereas rapid methods do not overlook significant sequence similarities, FASTA limits the number of gaps that can be inserted into an alignment, so that a rigorous alignment may extend the alignment substantially in some cases. BLAST does not allow gaps in the local regions that it reports; a calculation that allows gaps is very likely to extend the alignment substantially. Although a Monte Carlo evaluation of the statistical significance of a similarity score with a rigorous algorithm is much slower than the heuristic approach used by the RDF2 program, the dynamic programming approach should take less than 1 hr on a 386-based PC or desktop Unix workstation. For descriptive purposes, we have limited our discussion to methods for calculating similarity scores and distances that use gap penalties of the form g = rk. Nevertheless, programs for the more general case (g = q+rk) are readily available. Versions of these programs that run either on Unix workstations, IBM-PC class computers, or the Macintosh can be obtained from either of the authors.

  4. A CFD code comparison of wind turbine wakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laan, van der, Paul Maarten; Storey, R. C.; Sørensen, Niels N.

    2014-01-01

    A comparison is made between the EllipSys3D and SnS CFD codes. Both codes are used to perform Large-Eddy Simulations (LES) of single wind turbine wakes, using the actuator disk method. The comparison shows that both LES models predict similar velocity deficits and stream-wise Reynolds-stresses fo...

  5. Technical recommendations for bilateral comparison in diagnosis radiology: part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peixoto, J.G.P.; Almeida, C.E.V. de

    2015-01-01

    The conventional radiology (≈70%), mammography(≈4%) and Computer Tomography (≈2%) will be in charge of this bilateral comparison. We could found the users ionization chambers, reference and radiations conditions, agenda and the comparison budget. The partial results will be presentation at metrology and medical physics congress. (author)

  6. Comparison of asphere measurements by tactile and optical metrological instruments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergmans, R.H.; Nieuwenkamp, H.J.; Kok, G.J.P.; Blobel, G.; Nouira, H.; Küng, A.; Baas, M.; Voert, M.J.A. te; Baer, G.; Stuerwald, S.

    2015-01-01

    A comparison of topography measurements of aspherical surfaces was carried out by European metrology institutes, other research institutes and a company as part of an European metrology research project. In this paper the results of this comparison are presented. Two artefacts were circulated, a

  7. Design and Comparison Direct Torque Control Techniques for Induction Motors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Kazmierkowski, Marian P.; Zelechowski, Marcin

    2005-01-01

    In this paper a comparison of two significant control methods of induction motor are presented. The first one is a classical Direct Torque and Flux Control (DTC) and is compared with a scheme, which uses Space Vector Modulator (DTC-SVM). A comparison in respect to dynamic and steady state...

  8. On Comparison Theorems for Conformable Fractional Differential Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Zeki Sarikaya

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the more general comparison theorems for conformable fractional differential equations is proposed and tested. Thus we prove some inequalities for conformable integrals by using the generalization of Sturm's separation and Sturm's comparison theorems. The results presented here would provide generalizations of those given in earlier works. The numerical example is also presented to verify the proposed theorem.

  9. 30 CFR 206.155 - Accounting for comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Accounting for comparison. 206.155 Section 206... MANAGEMENT PRODUCT VALUATION Federal Gas § 206.155 Accounting for comparison. (a) Except as provided in... the gas the residue gas is not sold pursuant to an arm's-length contract, the value, for royalty...

  10. COMPARISON THEOREMS AND APPLICATIONS OF OSCILLATION OF NEUTRAL DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    燕居让

    1991-01-01

    We first establish comparison theorems of the oscillation for a higher-order neutral delaydifferential equation. By these comparison theorems, the criterion of oscillation propertiesof neutral delay differential equation is reduced to that of nonneutral delay differential equa-tion, from which we give a series of oscillation theorems for neutral delay differentialequation.

  11. 42 CFR 493.1281 - Standard: Comparison of test results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standard: Comparison of test results. 493.1281 Section 493.1281 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Testing Analytic Systems § 493.1281 Standard: Comparison of test results. (a) If a laboratory performs the...

  12. Finding a Comparison Group: Is Online Crowdsourcing a Viable Option?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzam, Tarek; Jacobson, Miriam R.

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the viability of online crowdsourcing for creating matched-comparison groups. This exploratory study compares survey results from a randomized control group to survey results from a matched-comparison group created from Amazon.com's MTurk crowdsourcing service to determine their comparability. Study findings indicate…

  13. A New Comparison Principle for Impulsive Functional Differential Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We establish a new comparison principle for impulsive differential systems with time delay. Then, using this comparison principle, we obtain some sufficient conditions for several stabilities of impulsive delay differential equations. Finally, we present an example to show the effectiveness of our results.

  14. Comparison of intravenous colloid and colloid‑crystalloid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-09-25

    Sep 25, 2013 ... Wennberg E, Frid I, Haljamae H, Wennergren M, Kjellmer I. Comparison of Ringers acetate with 3% dextran 70 for volume loading before extradural caesarean section. Br J Anaesth 1990;65:654‑60. 11. Sharma SK, Gajraj NM, Sidawi JE. Prevention of hypotension during spinal anaesthesia. A comparison ...

  15. International comparisons of road safety using Singular Value Decomposition.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oppe, S.

    2001-01-01

    There is a general interest in the comparison of road safety developments in different countries. Comparisons have been made, based on absolute levels of accident or fatality risk or on the rate of change of functions regarding risk, the number of accidents, fatalities or injuries over time. Such

  16. Learning radiological appearances of diseases: Does comparison help?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, Ellen M.; de Bruin, Anique B H; Robben, Simon C. F.; van Merrienboer, Jeroen J. G.

    Comparison learning is a promising approach for learning complex real-life visual tasks. When medical students study radiological appearances of diseases, comparison of images showing diseases with images showing no abnormalities could help them learn to discriminate relevant, disease-related

  17. Gender Differences in Comparisons and Entitlement: Implications for Comparable Worth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major, Brenda

    1989-01-01

    Addresses the role of comparison processes in the persistence of the gender wage gap, its toleration by those disadvantaged by it, and resistance to comparable worth as a corrective strategy. Argues that gender segregation and undercompensation for women's jobs leads women to use different comparison standards when evaluating what they deserve.…

  18. International Comparisons of Income Poverty and Extreme Income Poverty

    OpenAIRE

    Blackburn, McKinley L.

    1993-01-01

    Uses LIS data to study the sensitivity of cross-national income poverty comparisons to the method in which poverty is measured. Examined are the differences between using absolute and relative poverty comparisons as well as the consequence of lowering the real value of the poverty line to examine extreme poverty.

  19. Affect and identification in social comparison after loss of work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ybema, J.F.; Buunk, Abraham (Bram); Heesink, J.A.M.

    This study examined the effects of social comparison among 172 individuals who had recently lost their jobs in a collective dismissal of employees. A part of a fictitious interview with another fired person was presented to the participants. This interview contained social comparison information on

  20. Sample sizes and model comparison metrics for species distribution models

    Science.gov (United States)

    B.B. Hanberry; H.S. He; D.C. Dey

    2012-01-01

    Species distribution models use small samples to produce continuous distribution maps. The question of how small a sample can be to produce an accurate model generally has been answered based on comparisons to maximum sample sizes of 200 observations or fewer. In addition, model comparisons often are made with the kappa statistic, which has become controversial....

  1. Comparison preferences after success or failure at school

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wehrens, M. J. P. W.; Kuyper, H.; Buunk, A. P.; van der Werf, M. P. C.

    2011-01-01

    Getting an insufficient grade at school might be threatening for students. In such a situation the choice of a lower comparison level possibly functions as a self-protective strategy. The present study investigated whether students in high school reported a lower absolute preferred comparison level

  2. Grip-Pattern Verification for Smart Gun Based on Maximum-Pairwise Comparison and Mean-Template Comparison

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shang, X.; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.

    2008-01-01

    In our biometric verification system of a smart gun, the rightful user of a gun is authenticated by grip-pattern recognition. In this work verification will be done using two types of comparison methods, respectively. One is mean-template comparison, where the matching score between a test image and

  3. Comparison between uniaxially and isostatically compacted bentonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalbantner, P.; Sjoeblom, R.; Boergesson, Lennart

    2001-12-01

    The purpose of the present report is to provide the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) with the knowledge base needed for their selection of reference method for manufacturing of bentonite blocks. The purpose is also to provide support for the direction of the further development work. Three types of blocks are compared in the present report: uniaxially compacted medium high blocks, isostatically compacted medium high blocks, isostatically compacted high blocks. The analyses is based on three process systems relating to the sequence of excavation of bentonite-transport-powder preparation-compaction-handling and emplacement of bentonite blocks. The need for further knowledge has been identified and documented in conjunction with these analyses. The comparison is primarily made with regard to the criteria safety/risk, quality/ technique and economy. It is carried out through identification of issues of significance and subsequent analysis and evaluation as well as more formally in a simplified AHP (AHP = Analytical Hierarchic Process). The result of the analyses is that the isostatic technique is applicable for the production of high as well as medium size blocks. The pressed blocks are assessed to fulfil the basic requirements with a very large margin. The result of the analyses is also that the uniaxial technique is applicable for the preparation of medium size blocks, which are assessed to fulfil the basic requirements with a large margin. The need for development and process control is assessed to be somewhat higher for the uniaxial technique. One example is the friction against the walls of the die during the compaction, including the significance of this friction for the development of stresses and discontinuities in the block. These results support a selection of the isostatic technique as the reference technique as it provides flexibility in the choice of block height. The uniaxial technique can form a second alternative if medium high

  4. Comparison of Home Retrofit Programs in Wisconsin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunningham, Kerrie [Univ. of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN (United States). NorthernSTAR Building America Partnership; Hannigan, Eileen [Univ. of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN (United States). NorthernSTAR Building America Partnership

    2013-03-01

    To explore ways to reduce customer barriers and increase home retrofit completions, several different existing home retrofit models have been implemented in the state of Wisconsin. This study compared these programs' performance in terms of savings per home and program cost per home to assess the relative cost-effectiveness of each program design. However, given the many variations in these different programs, it is difficult to establish a fair comparison based on only a small number of metrics. Therefore, the overall purpose of the study is to document these programs' performance in a case study approach to look at general patterns of these metrics and other variables within the context of each program. This information can be used by energy efficiency program administrators and implementers to inform home retrofit program design. Six different program designs offered in Wisconsin for single-family energy efficiency improvements were included in the study. For each program, the research team provided information about the programs' approach and goals, characteristics, achievements and performance. The program models were then compared with performance results-program cost and energy savings-to help understand the overall strengths and weaknesses or challenges of each model.

  5. Comparison of Home Retrofit Programs in Wisconsin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunningham, K.; Hannigan, E.

    2013-03-01

    To explore ways to reduce customer barriers and increase home retrofit completions, several different existing home retrofit models have been implemented in the state of Wisconsin. This study compared these programs' performance in terms of savings per home and program cost per home to assess the relative cost-effectiveness of each program design. However, given the many variations in these different programs, it is difficult to establish a fair comparison based on only a small number of metrics. Therefore, the overall purpose of the study is to document these programs' performance in a case study approach to look at general patterns of these metrics and other variables within the context of each program. This information can be used by energy efficiency program administrators and implementers to inform home retrofit program design. Six different program designs offered in Wisconsin for single-family energy efficiency improvements were included in the study. For each program, the research team provided information about the programs' approach and goals, characteristics, achievements and performance. The program models were then compared with performance results -- program cost and energy savings -- to help understand the overall strengths and weaknesses or challenges of each model.

  6. Protein sequence comparison and protein evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearson, W.R. [Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States). Dept. of Biochemistry

    1995-12-31

    This tutorial was one of eight tutorials selected to be presented at the Third International Conference on Intelligent Systems for Molecular Biology which was held in the United Kingdom from July 16 to 19, 1995. This tutorial examines how the information conserved during the evolution of a protein molecule can be used to infer reliably homology, and thus a shared proteinfold and possibly a shared active site or function. The authors start by reviewing a geological/evolutionary time scale. Next they look at the evolution of several protein families. During the tutorial, these families will be used to demonstrate that homologous protein ancestry can be inferred with confidence. They also examine different modes of protein evolution and consider some hypotheses that have been presented to explain the very earliest events in protein evolution. The next part of the tutorial will examine the technical aspects of protein sequence comparison. Both optimal and heuristic algorithms and their associated parameters that are used to characterize protein sequence similarities are discussed. Perhaps more importantly, they survey the statistics of local similarity scores, and how these statistics can both be used to improve the selectivity of a search and to evaluate the significance of a match. They them examine distantly related members of three protein families, the serine proteases, the glutathione transferases, and the G-protein-coupled receptors (GCRs). Finally, the discuss how sequence similarity can be used to examine internal repeated or mosaic structures in proteins.

  7. Comparison of Spatiotemporal Fusion Models: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Chen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Simultaneously capturing spatial and temporal dynamics is always a challenge for the remote sensing community. Spatiotemporal fusion has gained wide interest in various applications for its superiority in integrating both fine spatial resolution and frequent temporal coverage. Though many advances have been made in spatiotemporal fusion model development and applications in the past decade, a unified comparison among existing fusion models is still limited. In this research, we classify the models into three categories: transformation-based, reconstruction-based, and learning-based models. The objective of this study is to (i compare four fusion models (STARFM, ESTARFM, ISTAFM, and SPSTFM under a one Landsat-MODIS (L-M pair prediction mode and two L-M pair prediction mode using time-series datasets from the Coleambally irrigation area and Poyang Lake wetland; (ii quantitatively assess prediction accuracy considering spatiotemporal comparability, landscape heterogeneity, and model parameter selection; and (iii discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the three categories of spatiotemporal fusion models.

  8. Energetic and economical comparison for biomass fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galins, A.; Grundulis, A.; Zihmane, K.

    2003-01-01

    The common agricultural biomass, such as wheat straw, rape straw, wheat small corn, wheat forage, rape oil cakes and other, we can use as fuel for heat production. The biomass application for burning depends on economical situation on agriculture and fuel market. Energetic and economical parameters of agricultural biomass are estimated and compared to wooden grain. As parameters for comparison used the biomass heat value Q (MJ/kg), specific cost per 1 kWh heat production C 0 (Ls/kWh) and the fuel consumption per 1 kWh heat production M 0 (kg/kWh). The rape oil cakes have best heat value (20.82 MJ/kg), but cheapest heat energy we can get from rape straw (0.0046 Ls/kWh). Expenses of heat production for forge wheat corn (0.011 Ls/kWh) are alike to wooden chip (0.0103 Ls/kWh) and wooden grain (0.0122 Ls/kWh) (authors)

  9. A Comparison of Simulation Capabilities for Ducts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, William A [ORNL; Smith, Matt K [ORNL; Gu, Lixing [Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC); New, Joshua Ryan [ORNL

    2014-11-01

    Typically, the cheapest way to install a central air conditioning system in residential buildings is to place the ductwork in the attic. Energy losses due to duct-attic interactions can be great, but current whole-house models are unable to capture the dynamic multi-mode physics of the interactions. The building industry is notoriously fragmented and unable to devote adequate research resources to solve this problem. Builders are going to continue to put ducts in the attic because floor space is too expensive to closet them within living space, and there are both construction and aesthetic issues with other approaches such as dropped ceilings. Thus, there is a substantial need to publicly document duct losses and the cost of energy used by ducts in attics so that practitioners, builders, homeowners and state and federal code officials can make informed decisions leading to changes in new construction and additional retrofit actions. Thus, the goal of this study is to conduct a comparison of AtticSim and EnergyPlus simulation algorithms to identify specific features for potential inclusion in EnergyPlus that would allow higher-fidelity modeling of HVAC operation and duct transport of conditioned air. It is anticipated that the resulting analysis from these simulation tools will inform energy decisions relating to the role of ducts in future building energy codes and standards.

  10. Comparison of hollow cathode discharge plasma configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farnell, Casey C; Farnell, Cody C; Williams, John D

    2011-01-01

    Hollow cathodes used in plasma contactor and electric propulsion devices provide electrons for sustaining plasma discharges and enabling plasma bridge neutralization. Life tests show erosion on hollow cathodes exposed to the plasma environment produced in the region downstream of these devices. To explain the observed erosion, plasma flow field measurements are presented for hollow cathode generated plasmas using both directly immersed probes and remotely located plasma diagnostics. Measurements on two cathode discharge configurations are presented: (1) an open, no magnetic field configuration and (2) a setup simulating the discharge chamber environment of an ion thruster. In the open cathode configuration, large amplitude plasma potential oscillations, ranging from 20 to 85 V within a 34 V discharge, were observed using a fast response emissive probe. These oscillations were observed over a dc potential profile that included a well-defined potential hill structure. A remotely located electrostatic analyzer (ESA) was used to measure the energy of ions produced within the plasma, and energies were detected that met, and in some cases exceeded, the peak oscillatory plasma potentials detected by the emissive probe. In the ion thruster discharge chamber configuration, plasma potentials from the emissive probe again agreed with ion energies recorded by the remotely located ESA; however, much lower ion energies were detected compared with the open configuration. A simplified ion-transit model that uses temporal and spatial plasma property measurements is presented and used to predict far-field plasma streaming properties. Comparisons between the model and remote measurements are presented.

  11. Comparisons of GLM and LMA Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, R. J.; Krehbiel, P. R.; Rison, W.; Stanley, M. A.; Attanasio, A.

    2017-12-01

    Observations from 3-dimensional VHF lightning mapping arrays (LMAs) provide a valuable basis for evaluating the spatial accuracy and detection efficiencies of observations from the recently launched, optical-based Geosynchronous Lightning Mapper (GLM). In this presentation, we describe results of comparing the LMA and GLM observations. First, the observations are compared spatially and temporally at the individual event (pixel) level for sets of individual discharges. For LMA networks in Florida, Colorado, and Oklahoma, the GLM observations are well correlated time-wise with LMA observations but are systematically offset by one- to two pixels ( 10 to 15 or 20 km) in a southwesterly direction from the actual lightning activity. The graphical comparisons show a similar location uncertainty depending on the altitude at which the scattered light is emitted from the parent cloud, due to being observed at slant ranges. Detection efficiencies (DEs) can be accurately determined graphically for intervals where individual flashes in a storm are resolved time-wise, and DEs and false alarm rates can be automated using flash sorting algorithms for overall and/or larger storms. This can be done as a function of flash size and duration, and generally shows high detection rates for larger flashes. Preliminary results during the May 1 2017 ER-2 overflight of Colorado storms indicate decreased detection efficiency if the storm is obscured by an overlying cloud layer.

  12. Method and apparatus for biological sequence comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marr, T.G.; Chang, W.I.

    1997-12-23

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for comparing biological sequences from a known source of sequences, with a subject (query) sequence. The apparatus takes as input a set of target similarity levels (such as evolutionary distances in units of PAM), and finds all fragments of known sequences that are similar to the subject sequence at each target similarity level, and are long enough to be statistically significant. The invention device filters out fragments from the known sequences that are too short, or have a lower average similarity to the subject sequence than is required by each target similarity level. The subject sequence is then compared only to the remaining known sequences to find the best matches. The filtering member divides the subject sequence into overlapping blocks, each block being sufficiently large to contain a minimum-length alignment from a known sequence. For each block, the filter member compares the block with every possible short fragment in the known sequences and determines a best match for each comparison. The determined set of short fragment best matches for the block provide an upper threshold on alignment values. Regions of a certain length from the known sequences that have a mean alignment value upper threshold greater than a target unit score are concatenated to form a union. The current block is compared to the union and provides an indication of best local alignment with the subject sequence. 5 figs.

  13. Comparison of computed tomography dose reporting software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdullah, A.; Sun, Z.; Pongnapang, N.; Ng, K. H.

    2008-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) dose reporting software facilitates the estimation of doses to patients undergoing CT examinations. In this study, comparison of three software packages, i.e. CT-Expo (version 1.5, Medizinische Hochschule, Hannover (Germany)), ImPACT CT Patients Dosimetry Calculator (version 0.99x, Imaging Performance Assessment on Computed Tomography, www.impactscan.org) and WinDose (version 2.1a, Wellhofer Dosimetry, Schwarzenbruck (Germany)), has been made in terms of their calculation algorithm and the results of calculated doses. Estimations were performed for head, chest, abdominal and pelvic examinations based on the protocols recommended by European guidelines using single-slice CT (SSCT) (Siemens Somatom Plus 4, Erlangen (Germany)) and multi-slice CT (MSCT) (Siemens Sensation 16, Erlangen (Germany)) for software-based female and male phantoms. The results showed that there are some differences in final dose reporting provided by these software packages. There are deviations of effective doses produced by these software packages. Percentages of coefficient of variance range from 3.3 to 23.4 % in SSCT and from 10.6 to 43.8 % in MSCT. It is important that researchers state the name of the software that is used to estimate the various CT dose quantities. Users must also understand the equivalent terminologies between the information obtained from the CT console and the software packages in order to use the software correctly. (authors)

  14. Graphical comparison of calculated internal conversion coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ewbank, W.B.

    1980-11-01

    Calculated values of the coefficients of internal conversion of gamma rays in the K shell and L 1 , L 2 , L 3 subshells from published tabulations by Band and Trzhaskovskaya and by Roesel et al. at Data Nucl. Data Tables, 21, 92-514(1978) are compared with values obtained by computer interpolation among tabulated values of Hager and Seltzer Nucl. Data, A4, 1-235(1968). In some cases, agreement among the three calculations is remarkably good, and differences are generally less than 5%. In a few cases, there are differences as large as 20 to 50%, corresponding to the threshold effect described by Roesel et al. The Z-dependent resonance minimum described by Roesel et al. is also observed in the comparison of E1-E4 conversion in the L 1 subshell. In several cases (notably M1-M4 conversion in the K shell and L 1 subshell), the Band and Roesel calculations show dramatically different dependence on gamma energy and atomic number. For Z = 100, the Band calculation for E4 conversion in the L 3 subshell shows irregular behavior at energies below the K-shell binding energy. A few high-quality measurements of internal conversion coefficients (+-5%) would help greatly to establish a basis for choice among the theoretical calculations. 32 figures

  15. Laparoscopic and abdominal hysterectomy: a cost comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsaltas, J; Magnus, A; Mamers, P M; Lawrence, A S; Lolatgis, N; Healy, D L

    1997-02-17

    To compare the cost of laparoscopically assisted vaginal hysterectomy (LAVH) with that of total abdominal hysterectomy (TAH) under casemix. Retrospective comparison of the costs, operating time and length of hospital stay. The 16 women undergoing consecutive LAVH and 16 age-matched women undergoing TAH between 1 February 1994 and 31 July 1995; all women were public patients undergoing hysterectomy for benign disease. Monash Medical Centre, a large tertiary teaching hospital in Melbourne, Australia, where casemix is used to determine funding and budget allocation. The difference between the costs of the two procedures was not statistically significant (P = 0.5), despite the cost of laparoscopic hysterectomy including that of disposables. The mean operating time for TAH was 86 minutes (95% CI, 65.5-106.5), compared with 120 minutes (95% CI, 100.8-140.5) for LAVH (P < 0.01). The mean length of stay in the TAH group was 5.75 days, compared with 3.25 days in the LAVH group (P < 0.001). In hysterectomy for benign gynaecological disease, the laparoscopic procedure costs the same as the total abdominal procedure. Audit such as this is important in patient management and in guiding hospitals in funding and bed allocation.

  16. Safeguards inventory and process monitoring regulatory comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavaluzzi, Jack M. [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Gibbs, Philip W. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2013-06-27

    Detecting the theft or diversion of the relatively small amount of fissile material needed to make a nuclear weapon given the normal operating capacity of many of today’s running nuclear production facilities is a difficult task. As throughput increases, the ability of the Material Control and Accountability (MC&A) Program to detect the material loss decreases because the statistical measurement uncertainty also increases. The challenge faced is the ability of current accounting, measurement, and material control programs to detect small yet significant losses under some regulatory approaches can decrease to the point where it is extremely low if not practically non-existent at normal operating capacities. Adding concern to this topic is that there are variations among regulatory bodies as far as what is considered a Significant Quantity (SQ). Some research suggests that thresholds should be lower than those found in any current regulation which if adopted would make meeting detection goals even more difficult. This paper reviews and compares the current regulatory requirements for the MA elements related to physical inventory, uncertainty of the Inventory Difference (ID), and Process Monitoring (PM) in the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Rosatom of the Russian Federation and the Chinese Atomic Energy Agency (CAEA) of China. The comparison looks at how the regulatory requirements for the implementation of various MA elements perform across a range of operating capacities in example facilities.

  17. Aerosol Angstrom Absorption Coefficient Comparisons during MILAGRO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marley, N. A.; Marchany-Rivera, A.; Kelley, K. L.; Mangu, A.; Gaffney, J. S.

    2007-12-01

    Measurements of aerosol absorption were obtained as part of the MAX-Mex component of the MILAGRO field campaign at site T0 (Instituto Mexicano de Petroleo in Mexico City) by using a 7-channel aethalometer (Thermo- Anderson) during the month of March, 2006. The absorption measurements obtained in the field at 370, 470, 520, 590, 660, 880, and 950 nm were used to determine the aerosol Angstrom absorption exponents by linear regression. Since, unlike other absorbing aerosol species (e.g. humic like substances, nitrated PAHs), black carbon absorption is relatively constant from the ultraviolet to the infrared with an Angstrom absorption exponent of -1 (1), a comparison of the Angstrom exponents can indicate the presence of aerosol components with an enhanced UV absorption over that expected from BC content alone. The Angstrom exponents determined from the aerosol absorption measurements obtained in the field varied from - 0.7 to - 1.3 during the study and was generally lower in the afternoon than the morning hours, indicating an increase in secondary aerosol formation and photochemically generated UV absorbing species in the afternoon. Twelve-hour integrated samples of fine atmospheric aerosols (Petroleo (IMP) and CENICA.

  18. Comparison of post circumcision complications and wound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, S.; Ahmad, S.A.; Habib, A.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study is to compare the frequency of post circumcision complications like bleeding and infection along with wound healing in infants by conventional open method and the bone-cutter method. Study Design: Randomized controlled trial. Place and Duration of Study: Combined Military Hospital and Military Hospital Rawalpindi, from March 2009 to March 2010. Patients and Methods: A total of 400 patients were included in the study that underwent circumcision. Patients were randomly allotted to either group A in whom the circumcision was done with conventional open technique (n = 200) or to group B, in whom circumcision was done with bone-cutter (n = 200). Patients were followed up in the surgical OPD after 5 days for assessment and earlier in case of any complication. Outcomes were measured by absence or presence of infection, post operative bleeding and cosmetic acceptance by the parents. Results: Comparison between the two groups showed that the bleeding rate was 8% in group A and 7% in group B (p = 0.704). Infection rate was 6% in group A and 5% in group B (p = 0.661). Delayed wound healing was seen in 4% of circumcisions in group A as opposed to 2% in group B ( p = 0.241). Conclusion: Complication is a part of any surgical procedure. So is the case with circumcision however no significant difference was found between the two procedures in terms of bleeding, infection, trauma to the glans and the cosmetic outcome. (author)

  19. Comparison of Sequential and Variational Data Assimilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado Montero, Rodolfo; Schwanenberg, Dirk; Weerts, Albrecht

    2017-04-01

    Data assimilation is a valuable tool to improve model state estimates by combining measured observations with model simulations. It has recently gained significant attention due to its potential in using remote sensing products to improve operational hydrological forecasts and for reanalysis purposes. This has been supported by the application of sequential techniques such as the Ensemble Kalman Filter which require no additional features within the modeling process, i.e. it can use arbitrary black-box models. Alternatively, variational techniques rely on optimization algorithms to minimize a pre-defined objective function. This function describes the trade-off between the amount of noise introduced into the system and the mismatch between simulated and observed variables. While sequential techniques have been commonly applied to hydrological processes, variational techniques are seldom used. In our believe, this is mainly attributed to the required computation of first order sensitivities by algorithmic differentiation techniques and related model enhancements, but also to lack of comparison between both techniques. We contribute to filling this gap and present the results from the assimilation of streamflow data in two basins located in Germany and Canada. The assimilation introduces noise to precipitation and temperature to produce better initial estimates of an HBV model. The results are computed for a hindcast period and assessed using lead time performance metrics. The study concludes with a discussion of the main features of each technique and their advantages/disadvantages in hydrological applications.

  20. Comparison of validation methods for forming simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schug, Alexander; Kapphan, Gabriel; Bardl, Georg; Hinterhölzl, Roland; Drechsler, Klaus

    2018-05-01

    The forming simulation of fibre reinforced thermoplastics could reduce the development time and improve the forming results. But to take advantage of the full potential of the simulations it has to be ensured that the predictions for material behaviour are correct. For that reason, a thorough validation of the material model has to be conducted after characterising the material. Relevant aspects for the validation of the simulation are for example the outer contour, the occurrence of defects and the fibre paths. To measure these features various methods are available. Most relevant and also most difficult to measure are the emerging fibre orientations. For that reason, the focus of this study was on measuring this feature. The aim was to give an overview of the properties of different measuring systems and select the most promising systems for a comparison survey. Selected were an optical, an eddy current and a computer-assisted tomography system with the focus on measuring the fibre orientations. Different formed 3D parts made of unidirectional glass fibre and carbon fibre reinforced thermoplastics were measured. Advantages and disadvantages of the tested systems were revealed. Optical measurement systems are easy to use, but are limited to the surface plies. With an eddy current system also lower plies can be measured, but it is only suitable for carbon fibres. Using a computer-assisted tomography system all plies can be measured, but the system is limited to small parts and challenging to evaluate.

  1. Comparison of infusion pumps calibration methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, Elsa; Godinho, Isabel; do Céu Ferreira, Maria; Furtado, Andreia; Lucas, Peter; Silva, Claudia

    2017-12-01

    Nowadays, several types of infusion pump are commonly used for drug delivery, such as syringe pumps and peristaltic pumps. These instruments present different measuring features and capacities according to their use and therapeutic application. In order to ensure the metrological traceability of these flow and volume measuring equipment, it is necessary to use suitable calibration methods and standards. Two different calibration methods can be used to determine the flow error of infusion pumps. One is the gravimetric method, considered as a primary method, commonly used by National Metrology Institutes. The other calibration method, a secondary method, relies on an infusion device analyser (IDA) and is typically used by hospital maintenance offices. The suitability of the IDA calibration method was assessed by testing several infusion instruments at different flow rates using the gravimetric method. In addition, a measurement comparison between Portuguese Accredited Laboratories and hospital maintenance offices was performed under the coordination of the Portuguese Institute for Quality, the National Metrology Institute. The obtained results were directly related to the used calibration method and are presented in this paper. This work has been developed in the framework of the EURAMET projects EMRP MeDD and EMPIR 15SIP03.

  2. Experimental comparison of two quantum computing architectures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linke, Norbert M; Maslov, Dmitri; Roetteler, Martin; Debnath, Shantanu; Figgatt, Caroline; Landsman, Kevin A; Wright, Kenneth; Monroe, Christopher

    2017-03-28

    We run a selection of algorithms on two state-of-the-art 5-qubit quantum computers that are based on different technology platforms. One is a publicly accessible superconducting transmon device (www. ibm.com/ibm-q) with limited connectivity, and the other is a fully connected trapped-ion system. Even though the two systems have different native quantum interactions, both can be programed in a way that is blind to the underlying hardware, thus allowing a comparison of identical quantum algorithms between different physical systems. We show that quantum algorithms and circuits that use more connectivity clearly benefit from a better-connected system of qubits. Although the quantum systems here are not yet large enough to eclipse classical computers, this experiment exposes critical factors of scaling quantum computers, such as qubit connectivity and gate expressivity. In addition, the results suggest that codesigning particular quantum applications with the hardware itself will be paramount in successfully using quantum computers in the future.

  3. A Comparison of Power Quality Controllers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Černek

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on certain types of FACTS (Flexibile AC Transmission System controllers, which can be used for improving the power quality at the point of connection with the power network. It focuses on types of controllers that are suitable for use in large buildings, rather than in transmission networks. The goal is to compare the features of the controllers in specific tasks, and to clarify which solution is best for a specific purpose. It is in some cases better and cheaper to use a combination of controllers than a single controller. The paper also presents the features of a shunt active harmonic compensator, which is a very modern power quality controller that can be used in many cases, or in combination with other controllers. The comparison was made using a matrix diagram that, resulted from mind mapsand other analysis tools. The paper should help engineers to choose the best solution for improving the power quality in a specific power network at distribution level.

  4. Distributed Wind Policy Comparison Tool Guidebook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-11-01

    Power through Policy: 'Best Practices' for Cost-Effective Distributed Wind is a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-funded project to identify distributed wind technology policy best practices and to help policymakers, utilities, advocates, and consumers examine their effectiveness using a pro forma model. Incorporating a customized feed from the Database of State Incentives for Renewables and Efficiency (DSIRE), the Web-based Distributed Wind Policy Comparison Tool (Policy Tool) is designed to assist state, local, and utility officials in understanding the financial impacts of different policy options to help reduce the cost of distributed wind technologies. The Policy Tool can be used to evaluate the ways that a variety of federal and state policies and incentives impact the economics of distributed wind (and subsequently its expected market growth). It also allows policymakers to determine the impact of policy options, addressing market challenges identified in the U.S. DOE's '20% Wind Energy by 2030' report and helping to meet COE targets.

  5. Comparison between electroglottography and electromagnetic glottography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Titze, Ingo R. [Department of Speech Pathology and Audiology and National Center for Voice and Speech, The University of Iowa and the Denver Center for the Performing Arts, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 (United States); Story, Brad H. [Department of Speech Pathology and Audiology and National Center for Voice and Speech, The University of Iowa and the Denver Center for the Performing Arts, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 (United States); Burnett, Gregory C. [Department of Applied Science, University of California at Davis, and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94557 (United States); Holzrichter, John F. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94551 (United States); Ng, Lawrence C. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94551 (United States); Lea, Wayne A. [Speech Sciences Institute, Apple Valley, Minnesota 55124 (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Newly developed glottographic sensors, utilizing high-frequency propagating electromagnetic waves, were compared to a well-established electroglottographic device. The comparison was made on four male subjects under different phonation conditions, including three levels of vocal fold adduction (normal, breathy, and pressed), three different registers (falsetto, chest, and fry), and two different pitches. Agreement between the sensors was always found for the glottal closure event, but for the general wave shape the agreement was better for falsetto and breathy voice than for pressed voice and vocal fry. Differences are attributed to the field patterns of the devices. Whereas the electroglottographic device can operate only in a conduction mode, the electromagnetic device can operate in either the forward scattering (diffraction) mode or in the backward scattering (reflection) mode. Results of our tests favor the diffraction mode because a more favorable angle imposed on receiving the scattered (reflected) signal did not improve the signal strength. Several observations are made on the uses of the electromagnetic sensors for operation without skin contact and possibly in an array configuration for improved spatial resolution within the glottis. (c) 2000 Acoustical Society of America.

  6. A Comprehensive Comparison of Relativistic Particle Integrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripperda, B.; Bacchini, F.; Teunissen, J.; Xia, C.; Porth, O.; Sironi, L.; Lapenta, G.; Keppens, R.

    2018-03-01

    We compare relativistic particle integrators commonly used in plasma physics, showing several test cases relevant for astrophysics. Three explicit particle pushers are considered, namely, the Boris, Vay, and Higuera–Cary schemes. We also present a new relativistic fully implicit particle integrator that is energy conserving. Furthermore, a method based on the relativistic guiding center approximation is included. The algorithms are described such that they can be readily implemented in magnetohydrodynamics codes or Particle-in-Cell codes. Our comparison focuses on the strengths and key features of the particle integrators. We test the conservation of invariants of motion and the accuracy of particle drift dynamics in highly relativistic, mildly relativistic, and non-relativistic settings. The methods are compared in idealized test cases, i.e., without considering feedback onto the electrodynamic fields, collisions, pair creation, or radiation. The test cases include uniform electric and magnetic fields, {\\boldsymbol{E}}× {\\boldsymbol{B}} fields, force-free fields, and setups relevant for high-energy astrophysics, e.g., a magnetic mirror, a magnetic dipole, and a magnetic null. These tests have direct relevance for particle acceleration in shocks and in magnetic reconnection.

  7. A comparison of interface tracking methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kothe, D.B.; Rider, W.J.

    1995-01-01

    In this Paper we provide a direct comparison of several important algorithms designed to track fluid interfaces. In the process we propose improved criteria by which these methods are to be judged. We compare and contrast the behavior of the following interface tracking methods: high order monotone capturing schemes, level set methods, volume-of-fluid (VOF) methods, and particle-based (particle-in-cell, or PIC) methods. We compare these methods by first applying a set of standard test problems, then by applying a new set of enhanced problems designed to expose the limitations and weaknesses of each method. We find that the properties of these methods are not adequately assessed until they axe tested with flows having spatial and temporal vorticity gradients. Our results indicate that the particle-based methods are easily the most accurate of those tested. Their practical use, however, is often hampered by their memory and CPU requirements. Particle-based methods employing particles only along interfaces also have difficulty dealing with gross topology changes. Full PIC methods, on the other hand, do not in general have topology restrictions. Following the particle-based methods are VOF volume tracking methods, which are reasonably accurate, physically based, robust, low in cost, and relatively easy to implement. Recent enhancements to the VOF methods using multidimensional interface reconstruction and improved advection provide excellent results on a wide range of test problems

  8. A questionnaire comparison of two alarm systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collier, Steven G.

    1997-11-01

    A questionnaire was developed, based on guidelines for alarm system design given in NUREG/CR-6105. The intentions were both to develop a subjective instrument for rating the effectiveness of alarm systems and to learn lessons on alarm system design from a comparison of two systems. The questionnaire was administered to reactor operations staff at two locations with different alarm systems embedded in a simulation of the same underlying PWR power plant: Loviisa NPP and Halden Man-Machine Laboratory. The questionnaire, considered as a measuring instrument, had good to high reliability and moderate to good content validity. The questionnaire is considered suitable for further use in the shortened form resulting from this study. Further work is also recommended. The degree of reliability and validity also lend a degree of validation to the NUREG guidelines. The questionnaire was able to show differences between ratings of the two alarm systems. The Loviisa system showed more consistency with other control room features and was better at drawing the operators' attention to important alarms. Both systems were not rated particularly well on alarm prioritisation and spurious alarms. The Halden system was better at showing naturally occurring relationships between alarms. Some of these differences may have been due to the subjects' greater familiarity with the Loviisa alarm system. The results nevertheless show that the questionnaire can measure subjective responses to alarm systems. (author)

  9. Comparison between electroglottography and electromagnetic glottography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Titze, Ingo R.; Story, Brad H.; Burnett, Gregory C.; Holzrichter, John F.; Ng, Lawrence C.; Lea, Wayne A.

    2000-01-01

    Newly developed glottographic sensors, utilizing high-frequency propagating electromagnetic waves, were compared to a well-established electroglottographic device. The comparison was made on four male subjects under different phonation conditions, including three levels of vocal fold adduction (normal, breathy, and pressed), three different registers (falsetto, chest, and fry), and two different pitches. Agreement between the sensors was always found for the glottal closure event, but for the general wave shape the agreement was better for falsetto and breathy voice than for pressed voice and vocal fry. Differences are attributed to the field patterns of the devices. Whereas the electroglottographic device can operate only in a conduction mode, the electromagnetic device can operate in either the forward scattering (diffraction) mode or in the backward scattering (reflection) mode. Results of our tests favor the diffraction mode because a more favorable angle imposed on receiving the scattered (reflected) signal did not improve the signal strength. Several observations are made on the uses of the electromagnetic sensors for operation without skin contact and possibly in an array configuration for improved spatial resolution within the glottis. (c) 2000 Acoustical Society of America

  10. Species comparison of inflammatory cell reactivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boncavage-Hennessey, E.M.; Twerdok, L.E. [Geo-Centers, Inc., Frederick, MD (United States); Finch, R.A.; Gardner, H.S. [Army Biomedical Research and Development Lab., Frederick, MD (United States)

    1994-12-31

    In comparison to the use of rodent models, the use of fish as a potential model to predict immune dysfunction in response to environmental contaminants is a relatively new concept. The development of a fish model for immunotoxicity is possible due to the phylogenetic conservation of many immune functions. The authors have compared mononuclear cell reactivity following in vitro stimulation among five species; Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes), rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), DBA/2 mice, Sprague-Dawley rats and human ML-1 cells. Mononuclear cells were isolated from the rodent bone marrow and from the teleost anterior kidney (the cell population which most closely resembles mammalian hematopoietic tissue). ML-1 cells are a myeloblastic cell line that were differentiated in vitro to monocytes/macrophages. Cell populations were characterized by myeloperoxidase and nonspecific esterase staining characteristic. Reactive oxidant production following in vitro stimulation by phorbol ester was measured using the following methods: reduction of cytochrome c (detection of extracellular superoxide), reduction of nitroblue tetrazolium (detection of intracellular superoxide) and oxidation of phenol red in the presence of horseradish peroxidase (hydrogen peroxide production). In general, teleost cells demonstrated higher superoxide anion production and mammalian cells produced higher quantities of hydrogen peroxide.

  11. Perceptual expertise in forensic facial image comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, David; Phillips, P Jonathon; Hahn, Carina A; Hill, Matthew; O'Toole, Alice J

    2015-09-07

    Forensic facial identification examiners are required to match the identity of faces in images that vary substantially, owing to changes in viewing conditions and in a person's appearance. These identifications affect the course and outcome of criminal investigations and convictions. Despite calls for research on sources of human error in forensic examination, existing scientific knowledge of face matching accuracy is based, almost exclusively, on people without formal training. Here, we administered three challenging face matching tests to a group of forensic examiners with many years' experience of comparing face images for law enforcement and government agencies. Examiners outperformed untrained participants and computer algorithms, thereby providing the first evidence that these examiners are experts at this task. Notably, computationally fusing responses of multiple experts produced near-perfect performance. Results also revealed qualitative differences between expert and non-expert performance. First, examiners' superiority was greatest at longer exposure durations, suggestive of more entailed comparison in forensic examiners. Second, experts were less impaired by image inversion than non-expert students, contrasting with face memory studies that show larger face inversion effects in high performers. We conclude that expertise in matching identity across unfamiliar face images is supported by processes that differ qualitatively from those supporting memory for individual faces. © 2015 The Author(s).

  12. Comparison of Ontology Reasoners: Racer, Pellet, Fact++

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, T.; Li, W.; Yang, C.

    2008-12-01

    In this paper, we examine some key aspects of three of the most popular and effective Semantic reasoning engines that have been developed: Pellet, RACER, and Fact++. While these reasonably advanced reasoners share some notable similarities, it is ultimately the creativity and unique nature of these reasoning engines that have resulted in the successes of each of these reasoners. Of the numerous dissimilarities, the most obvious example might be that while Pellet is written in Java, RACER employs the Lisp programming language and Fact++ was developed using C++. From this and many other distinctions in the system architecture, we can understand the benefits of each reasoner and potentially discover certain properties that may contribute to development of an optimal reasoner in the future. The objective of this paper is to establish a solid comparison of the reasoning engines based on their system architectures, features, and overall performances in real world application. In the end, we expect to produce a valid conclusion about the advantages and problems in each reasoner. While there may not be a decisive first place among the three reasoners, the evaluation will also provide some answers as to which of these current reasoning tools will be most effective in common, practical situations.

  13. Comparison of high-latitude thermospheric meridionalwinds I: optical and radar experimental comparisons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. M. Griffin

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Thermospheric neutral winds at Kiruna, Sweden (67.4°N, 20.4°E are compared using both direct optical Fabry-Perot Interferometer (FPI measurements and those derived from European incoherent scatter radar (EISCAT measurements. This combination of experimental data sets, both covering well over a solar cycle of data, allows for a unique comparison of the thermospheric meridional component of the neutral wind as observed by different experimental techniques. Uniquely in this study the EISCAT measurements are used to provide winds for comparison using two separate techniques: the most popular method based on the work of Salah and Holt (1974 and the Meridional Wind Model (MWM (Miller et al., 1997 application of servo theory. The balance of forces at this location that produces the observed diurnal pattern are investigated using output from the Coupled Thermosphere and Ionosphere (CTIM numerical model. Along with detailed comparisons from short periods the climatological behaviour of the winds have been investigated for seasonal and solar cycle dependence using the experimental techniques. While there are features which are consistent between the 3 techniques, such as the evidence of the equinoctial asymmetry, there are also significant differences between the techniques both in terms of trends and absolute values. It is clear from this and previous studies that the high-latitude representation of the thermospheric neutral winds from the empirical Horizontal Wind Model (HWM, though improved from earlier versions, lacks accuracy in many conditions. The relative merits of each technique are discussed and while none of the techniques provides the perfect data set to address model performance at high-latitude, one or more needs to be included in future HWM reformulations.

    Key words. Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (thermospheric dynamics, Ionosphere (ionosphere-atmosphere interactions, auroral ionosphere

  14. Comparison of high-latitude thermospheric meridionalwinds I: optical and radar experimental comparisons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. M. Griffin

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Thermospheric neutral winds at Kiruna, Sweden (67.4°N, 20.4°E are compared using both direct optical Fabry-Perot Interferometer (FPI measurements and those derived from European incoherent scatter radar (EISCAT measurements. This combination of experimental data sets, both covering well over a solar cycle of data, allows for a unique comparison of the thermospheric meridional component of the neutral wind as observed by different experimental techniques. Uniquely in this study the EISCAT measurements are used to provide winds for comparison using two separate techniques: the most popular method based on the work of Salah and Holt (1974 and the Meridional Wind Model (MWM (Miller et al., 1997 application of servo theory. The balance of forces at this location that produces the observed diurnal pattern are investigated using output from the Coupled Thermosphere and Ionosphere (CTIM numerical model. Along with detailed comparisons from short periods the climatological behaviour of the winds have been investigated for seasonal and solar cycle dependence using the experimental techniques. While there are features which are consistent between the 3 techniques, such as the evidence of the equinoctial asymmetry, there are also significant differences between the techniques both in terms of trends and absolute values. It is clear from this and previous studies that the high-latitude representation of the thermospheric neutral winds from the empirical Horizontal Wind Model (HWM, though improved from earlier versions, lacks accuracy in many conditions. The relative merits of each technique are discussed and while none of the techniques provides the perfect data set to address model performance at high-latitude, one or more needs to be included in future HWM reformulations. Key words. Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (thermospheric dynamics, Ionosphere (ionosphere-atmosphere interactions, auroral ionosphere

  15. Comparison of high-latitude thermospheric meridional winds I: optical and radar experimental comparisons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffin, E.M.; Mueller-Wodarg, I.C.F.; Aruliah, A.; Aylward, A. [Atmospheric Physics Lab., Univ. Coll. London, London (United Kingdom)

    2004-07-01

    Thermospheric neutral winds at Kiruna, Sweden (67.4 N, 20.4 E) are compared using both direct optical fabry-perot interferometer (FPI) measurements and those derived from European incoherent scatter radar (EISCAT) measurements. This combination of experimental data sets, both covering well over a solar cycle of data, allows for a unique comparison of the thermospheric meridional component of the neutral wind as observed by different experimental techniques. Uniquely in this study the EISCAT measurements are used to provide winds for comparison using two separate techniques: the most popular method based on the work of Salah and Holt (1974) and the meridional wind model (MWM) (Miller et al., 1997) application of servo theory. The balance of forces at this location that produces the observed diurnal pattern are investigated using output from the coupled thermosphere and ionosphere (CTIM) numerical model. Along with detailed comparisons from short periods the climatological behaviour of the winds have been investigated for seasonal and solar cycle dependence using the experimental techniques. While there are features which are consistent between the 3 techniques, such as the evidence of the equinoctial asymmetry, there are also significant differences between the techniques both in terms of trends and absolute values. It is clear from this and previous studies that the high-latitude representation of the thermospheric neutral winds from the empirical horizontal wind model (HWM), though improved from earlier versions, lacks accuracy in many conditions. The relative merits of each technique are discussed and while none of the techniques provides the perfect data set to address model performance at high-latitude, one or more needs to be included in future HWM reformulations. (orig.)

  16. Comparison of Standard and Fast Charging Methods for Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Chlebis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a comparison of standard and fast charging methods used in the field of electric vehicles and also comparison of their efficiency in terms of electrical energy consumption. The comparison was performed on three-phase buck converter, which was designed for EV’s fast charging station. The results were obtained by both mathematical and simulation methods. The laboratory model of entire physical application, which will be further used for simulation results verification, is being built in these days.

  17. Quality control of radionuclide calibrators: Interlaboratory comparison of thallium-201

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debertin, K.

    1985-01-01

    After 131 I and sup(99m)Tc comparisons in 1982 and 1983, the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) in cooperation with the firm Amersham-Buchler organized a further comparison in October 1984 in order to investigate the accuracy of activity measurements in nuclear medicine. 48 hospitals or institutes participated in this 201 TI comparison. The wast majority of the reported results agreed with the PTB-value to within 10%, however in 5 cases deviations amounted to more than 20%. (orig.) [de

  18. International price comparisons for pharmaceuticals. Measurement and policy issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danzon, P M; Kim, J D

    1998-01-01

    Cross-national price comparisons for pharmaceuticals are commonly used for two purposes. Comparisons based on a sample of products are used to draw conclusions about differences in average price levels. Cross-national comparisons applied to individual products are also used by governments to set domestic prices. This paper examines the major methodological issues raised by international price comparisons, focusing on measurement of differences in average price levels and the validity of policy conclusions drawn from such price comparison studies. It argues that valid measures of average price levels can only be obtained from comparisons based on a comprehensive or representative sample of products, appropriately weighted, following standard index number methods. Comparisons of individual product prices should take into account the manufacturer's entire product portfolio over time rather than focus narrowly on a single product at a point in time. Because of the great variation across countries in both the range of drug compounds available and the dosage forms, strengths and pack sizes for each compound, obtaining a broadly comprehensive or representative sample is problematical. If products are required to match on all dimensions, including molecule, manufacturer, strength and pack, as is common in most international price comparisons, then only a very small and unrepresentative sample of the drugs available in each country can be included in the analysis. A trade-off between the desire to compare only identical products and the need to compare a truly representative sample of a country's pharmaceutical market is therefore necessary. A valid comparison of average drug prices should include generics and over-the-counter products that are good substitutes for branded prescription drugs, with all forms, strengths and packs. To achieve this broad representation, however, the requirements of same manufacturer, same brand, dosage form, strength and pack size must be

  19. KEY COMPARISON: Key comparison CCQM-K60: Total selenium and selenomethionine in selenised wheat flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goenaga Infante, Heidi; Sargent, Mike

    2010-01-01

    Key comparison CCQM-K60 was performed to assess the analytical capabilities of national metrology institutes (NMIs) to accurately quantitate the mass fraction of selenomethionine (SeMet) and total selenium (at low mg kg-1 levels) in selenised wheat flour. It was organized by the Inorganic Analysis Working Group (IAWG) of the Comité Consultatif pour la Quantité de Matière (CCQM) as a follow-up key comparison to the previous pilot study CCQM-P86 on selenised yeast tablets. LGC Limited (Teddington, UK) and the Institute for National Measurement Standards, National Research Council Canada (NRCC, Ottawa, Canada) acted as the coordinating laboratories. CCQM-K60 was organized in parallel with a pilot study (CCQM-P86.1) involving not only NMIs but also expert laboratories worldwide, thus enabling them to assess their capabilities, discover problems and learn how to modify analytical procedures accordingly. Nine results for total Se and four results for SeMet were reported by the participant NMIs. Methods used for sample preparation were microwave assisted acid digestion for total Se and multiple-step enzymatic hydrolysis and hydrolysis with methanesulfonic acid for SeMet. For total Se, detection techniques included inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) with external calibration, standard additions or isotope dilution analysis (IDMS); instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA); and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) with external calibration. For determination of SeMet in the wheat flour sample, the four NMIs relied upon measurements using species-specific IDMS (using 76Se-enriched SeMet) with HPLC-ICP-MS. Eight of the nine participating NMIs reported results for total Se within 3.5% deviation from the key comparison reference value (KCRV). For SeMet, the four participating NMIs reported results within 3.2% deviation from the KCRV. This shows that the performance of the majority of the CCQM-K60 participants was very good

  20. COMPARISON OF METHODS FOR GEOMETRIC CAMERA CALIBRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Hieronymus

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Methods for geometric calibration of cameras in close-range photogrammetry are established and well investigated. The most common one is based on test-fields with well-known pattern, which are observed from different directions. The parameters of a distortion model are calculated using bundle-block-adjustment-algorithms. This methods works well for short focal lengths, but is essentially more problematic to use with large focal lengths. Those would require very large test-fields and surrounding space. To overcome this problem, there is another common method for calibration used in remote sensing. It employs measurements using collimator and a goniometer. A third calibration method uses diffractive optical elements (DOE to project holograms of well known pattern. In this paper these three calibration methods are compared empirically, especially in terms of accuracy. A camera has been calibrated with those methods mentioned above. All methods provide a set of distortion correction parameters as used by the photogrammetric software Australis. The resulting parameter values are very similar for all investigated methods. The three sets of distortion parameters are crosscompared against all three calibration methods. This is achieved by inserting the gained distortion parameters as fixed input into the calibration algorithms and only adjusting the exterior orientation. The RMS (root mean square of the remaining image coordinate residuals are taken as a measure of distortion correction quality. There are differences resulting from the different calibration methods. Nevertheless the measure is small for every comparison, which means that all three calibration methods can be used for accurate geometric calibration.

  1. Comparison of eigensolvers for symmetric band matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moldaschl, Michael; Gansterer, Wilfried N

    2014-09-15

    We compare different algorithms for computing eigenvalues and eigenvectors of a symmetric band matrix across a wide range of synthetic test problems. Of particular interest is a comparison of state-of-the-art tridiagonalization-based methods as implemented in Lapack or Plasma on the one hand, and the block divide-and-conquer (BD&C) algorithm as well as the block twisted factorization (BTF) method on the other hand. The BD&C algorithm does not require tridiagonalization of the original band matrix at all, and the current version of the BTF method tridiagonalizes the original band matrix only for computing the eigenvalues. Avoiding the tridiagonalization process sidesteps the cost of backtransformation of the eigenvectors. Beyond that, we discovered another disadvantage of the backtransformation process for band matrices: In several scenarios, a lot of gradual underflow is observed in the (optional) accumulation of the transformation matrix and in the (obligatory) backtransformation step. According to the IEEE 754 standard for floating-point arithmetic, this implies many operations with subnormal (denormalized) numbers, which causes severe slowdowns compared to the other algorithms without backtransformation of the eigenvectors. We illustrate that in these cases the performance of existing methods from Lapack and Plasma reaches a competitive level only if subnormal numbers are disabled (and thus the IEEE standard is violated). Overall, our performance studies illustrate that if the problem size is large enough relative to the bandwidth, BD&C tends to achieve the highest performance of all methods if the spectrum to be computed is clustered. For test problems with well separated eigenvalues, the BTF method tends to become the fastest algorithm with growing problem size.

  2. Multiple treatment comparisons in epilepsy monotherapy trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chadwick David W

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The choice of antiepileptic drug for an individual should be based upon the highest quality evidence regarding potential benefits and harms of the available treatments. Systematic reviews and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials should be a major source of evidence supporting this decision making process. We summarise all available individual patient data evidence from randomised controlled trials that compared at least two out of eight antiepileptic drugs given as monotherapy. Methods Multiple treatment comparisons from epilepsy monotherapy trials were synthesized in a single stratified Cox regression model adjusted for treatment by epilepsy type interactions and making use of direct and indirect evidence. Primary outcomes were time to treatment failure and time to 12 month remission from seizures. A secondary outcome was time to first seizure. Results Individual patient data for 6418 patients from 20 randomised trials comparing eight antiepileptic drugs were synthesized. For partial onset seizures (4628 (72% patients, lamotrigine, carbamazepine and oxcarbazepine provide the best combination of seizure control and treatment failure. Lamotrigine is clinically superior to all other drugs for treatment failure but estimates suggest a disadvantage compared to carbamazepine for time to 12 month remission [Hazard Ratio (95% Confidence Interval = 0.87(0.73 to 1.04] and time to first seizure [1.29(1.13 to 1.48]. Phenobarbitone may delay time to first seizure [0.77(0.61 to 0.96] but at the expense of increased treatment failure [1.60(1.22 to 2.10]. For generalized onset tonic clonic seizures (1790 (28% patients estimates suggest valproate or phenytoin may provide the best combination of seizure control and treatment failure but some uncertainty remains about the relative effectiveness of other drugs. Conclusion For patients with partial onset seizures, results favour carbamazepine, oxcarbazepine and lamotrigine. For

  3. Comparison of elastic and inelastic analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ammerman, D.J.; Heinstein, M.W.; Wellman, G.W.

    1992-01-01

    The use of inelastic analysis methods instead of the traditional elastic analysis methods in the design of radioactive material (RAM) transport packagings leads to a better understanding of the response of the package to mechanical loadings. Thus, better assessment of the containment, thermal protection, and shielding integrity of the package after a structure accident event can be made. A more accurate prediction of the package response can lead to enhanced safety and also allow for a more efficient use of materials, possibly leading to a package with higher capacity or lower weight. This paper discusses the advantages and disadvantages of using inelastic analysis in the design of RAM shipping packages. The use of inelastic analysis presents several problems to the package designer. When using inelastic analysis the entire nonlinear response of the material must be known, including the effects of temperature changes and strain rate. Another problem is that there currently is not an acceptance criteria for this type of analysis that is approved by regulatory agencies. Inelastic analysis acceptance criteria based on failure stress, failure strain , or plastic energy density could be developed. For both elastic and inelastic analyses it is also important to include other sources of stress in the analyses, such as fabrication stresses, thermal stresses, stresses from bolt preloading, and contact stresses at material interfaces. Offsetting these added difficulties is the improved knowledge of the package behavior. This allows for incorporation of a more uniform margin of safety, which can result in weight savings and a higher level of confidence in the post-accident configuration of the package. In this paper, comparisons between elastic and inelastic analyses are made for a simple ring structure and for a package to transport a large quantity of RAM by rail (rail cask) with lead gamma shielding to illustrate the differences in the two analysis techniques

  4. Erosion resistance comparison of alternative surface treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Česánek, Z.; Schubert, J.; Houdková, Š.

    2017-05-01

    Erosion is a process characterized by the particle separation and the damage of component functional surfaces. Thermal spraying technology HP/HVOF (High Pressure / High Velocity Oxygen Fuel) is commonly used for protection of component surfaces against erosive wear. Alloy as well as cermet based coatings meet the requirements for high erosion resistance. Wear resistance is in many cases the determining property of required component functioning. The application suitability of coating materials is particularly influenced by different hardness. This paper therefore presents an erosion resistance comparison of alloy and cermet based coatings. The coatings were applied on steel substrates and were subjected to the erosive test using the device for evaluation of material erosion resistance working on the principle of centrifugal erodent flow. Abrasive sand Al2O3 with grain size 212-250 μm was selected as an erosive material. For this purpose, the specimens were prepared by thermal spraying technology HP/HVOF using commercially available powders Stellite 6, NiCrBSi, Cr3C2-25%NiCr, Cr3C2-25%CoNiCrAlY, Hastelloy C-276 and experimental coating TiMoCN-29% Ni. Erosion resistance of evaluated coatings was compared with erosive resistance of 1.4923 high alloyed steel without nitridation and in nitrided state and further with surface treatment using technology PVD. According to the evaluation, the resulting erosive resistance depends not only on the selected erodent and surface protection, but also on the erodent impact angle.

  5. SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY VALUES: A CROSS COUNTRY COMPARISON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CATANA DOINA

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This empirical study aims at finding out how similar and/or different are the future Romanian and Slovenian managers in assessing the importance of organizations social responsibility values. The assumption of the research is that most of most of students in engineering and business will hold middle management position in the near future. The sample consists of 727 undergraduate and graduate students levels from Romania and Slovenia, two former socialist countries. The data has been collected between 2008 and 2009 in the framework of GLOBE student project , using a section of GLOBE III questionnaire, about the importance of CSR related values in critical decisions. The findings concern the similarities and significant differences between: 1 whole Romanian and Slovenian samples; 2 Romanian and Slovenian students in engineering; 3 Romanian and Slovenian students in business. Our findings revealed a trend toward convergence in the importance given to decisions effect on contribution to the economic welfare of the nation and local community, as well as on employees professional growth and development and on environment. The biggest difference between the groups concerns the decisions effect on firm profitability (the Romanians considering this value as more important in critical decisions than the Slovenians. The students in engineering proved to be a more homogeneous group, showing convergence in assessing the importance of eight out of fifteen social responsibility values. The biggest difference concerns the decisions effect on firm profitability (Romanians consider it as having higher importance in critical decisions than the Slovenians. Comparison of students in business revealed convergence in assessing the importance of employees professional growth and development and decisions effect on environment. The biggest positive difference concerns the same value of decisions effect on firm profitability. The Romanians are well behind Slovenians in

  6. Comparison of n-γ discrimination by zero-crossing and digital charge comparison methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolski, D.; Moszynski, M.; Ludziejewski, T.; Johnson, A.; Klamra, W.; Skeppstedt, Oe.

    1995-01-01

    A comparative study of the n-γ discrimination done by the digital charge comparison and zero-crossing methods was carried out for a 130 mm in diameter and 130 mm high BC501A liquid scintillator coupled to a 130 mm diameter XP4512B photomultiplier. The high quality of the tested detector was reflected in a photoelectron yield of 2300±100 phe/MeV and excellent n-γ discrimination properties with energy discrimination thresholds corresponding to very low neutron (or electron) energies. The superiority of the Z/C method was demonstrated for the n-γ discrimination method alone, as well as, for the simultaneous separation by the pulse shape discrimination and the time-of-flight methods down to about 30 keV recoil electron energy. The digital charge comparison method fails for a large dynamic range of energy and its separation is weakly improved by time-of-flight method for low energies. (orig.)

  7. KEY COMPARISON: Report on the Regional Comparison COOMET.AUV.A-K3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrera-Figueroa, Salvador; Nielsen, Lars; Rasmussen, Knud

    2007-01-01

    COOMET.AUV.A-K3 is a Regional Comparison that supplements the Key Comparison CCAUV.A-K3 organized by the CCAUV. The participating NMIs are GUM (Poland), INM (Romania), VNIIFTRI (Russia) and DP-NDI 'Systema' (Ukraine). The role of Pilot laboratory was undertaken by DPLADFM (Denmark). The measurements took place between May 2005 and February 2006. The time schedule was organized in a single star configuration. Initially, two LS2aP microphones were circulated. However, a sudden change of sensitivity of one of them forced the inclusion of an additional microphone. Nevertheless, the analysis was performed on all microphones involved. This report includes the measurement results from the participants, information about their calibration methods, and the analysis leading to the assignation of degrees of equivalence and the link to the CCAUV.A-K3. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCAUV, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA).

  8. Comparison of trauma on survivors of sexual assault and intimate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-06-20

    Jun 20, 2014 ... Conclusion: The need for counselling and support for the survivors of both traumas was .... comparison of sexually- and physically-assaulted individuals ..... assault groups revealed no significant difference with regard.

  9. Comparison of the efficacy and safety of budesonide turbuhaler ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparison of the efficacy and safety of budesonide turbuhaler administered once daily with twice the dose of beclomethasone dipropionate using pressurised metered dose inhaler in patients with mild to moderate asthma.

  10. Tradeoffs Between Branch Mispredictions and Comparisons for Sorting Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Moruz, Gabriel

    2005-01-01

    Branch mispredictions is an important factor affecting the running time in practice. In this paper we consider tradeoffs between the number of branch mispredictions and the number of comparisons for sorting algorithms in the comparison model. We prove that a sorting algorithm using O(dnlog n......) comparisons performs Omega(nlogd n) branch mispredictions. We show that Multiway MergeSort achieves this tradeoff by adopting a multiway merger with a low number of branch mispredictions. For adaptive sorting algorithms we similarly obtain that an algorithm performing O(dn(1+log (1+Inv/n))) comparisons must...... perform Omega(nlogd (1+Inv/n)) branch mispredictions, where Inv is the number of inversions in the input. This tradeoff can be achieved by GenericSort by Estivill-Castro and Wood by adopting a multiway division protocol and a multiway merging algorithm with a low number of branch mispredictions....

  11. Comparison of Cluster C personality disorders in couples with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparison of Cluster C personality disorders in couples with normal divorce. ... Also purposeful sampling was used to select individuals. ... that the personality disorder group C, there is no significant difference between men and women.

  12. Comparison of the perception of ideal body images of Ghanaian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparison of the perception of ideal body images of Ghanaian men and women. ... that Ghanaian men preferred Ghanaian women to be of the larger, traditional body size. ... of the preference of the opposite gender are significantly different.

  13. Learning from south–south comparison: the education systems of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erna Kinsey

    Graduate School of Education, Potchefstroom University, Private Bag X6001, Potchefstroom, ... The comparison with and learning from other countries are not done ..... the informal sector for 12%, and the remaining 29% were unemployed.

  14. Evaluation and Comparison of the Principal Component Analysis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-08-01

    Aug 1, 2012 ... Comparison evaluation of performance indicates that, with PCA,. 80% of good GTE ... power generation Systems, Trains, Marine ... distributed around the median. Before ... GTE data is nonlinear and the distribution of the data ...

  15. Comparison of the body compositions in obese and nonobese ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-03-01

    Mar 1, 2016 ... of metabolic disorders, type 2 diabetes mellitus, obstructive sleep apnea ..... besides BMI in patients with COPD.[21] Similarly to our .... chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: Comparison with malnutrition in healthy smokers.

  16. Comparison between two possible CMS Barrel Muon Readout Architectures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguayo, P.; Barcala, J.M.; Molinero, A.; Pablos, J.L.; Willmott, C.; Alberdi, J.; Marin, J.; Navarrete, J.; Romero, L.

    1997-01-01

    A comparison between two possible readout arquitectures for the CMS muon barrel readout electronics is presented, including various aspects like costs, reliability, installation, staging and maintenance. A review of the present baseline architecture is given in the appendix. (Author)

  17. Comparison of the properties of collagen extracted from dried ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sunny t

    2016-04-20

    Apr 20, 2016 ... proteins have been studied and a comparison made of the protein patterns of collagen extracted ... indicating some differences in amino acid sequence or conformation. ... encephalopathy (TSE) and foot and mouth disease.

  18. comparison of performance of public and private boreholes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    comparison of the performance of three categories of boreholes namely: public operated boreholes ... Port Harcourt in River State of Nigeria is a fast developing state. ..... World. Bank. Dujam, Consultants (1988). Nation-wide water. Supply and.

  19. Wild Cultures: A Comparison between Chimpanzee and Human Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Rocío Carvajal Contreras

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Review of Wild Cultures: A Comparison between Chimpanzee and Human Cultures. Christophe Boesch. 2012. Cambridge University Press. Pp. 276, 68 b & w illustrations, 11 tables. £60 (hardback. ISBN 9781109025370.

  20. Comparison of Optimised Treatment Plans for Radiosurgery and Conformal Radiotherapy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kulik, C

    2001-01-01

    ..., it is interesting to compare the different techniques to evaluate their effectiveness, This comparison involves 8 clinical cases, For each treatment modality, we compare indexes defined in the international...