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Sample records for phantom scatter factors

  1. Verification of a table of phantom scatter factors for radiotherapy treatment planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arts, J.K.; Bailey, M.J.; Hill, R.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Many commercially available treatment planning systems require the medical physicist to measure and enter significant quantities of data for the verification of physics based algorithms. The CMS XiO (St. Louis, USA) treatment planning system requires a table of phantom scatter factors amongst other data. In a previous paper by Storchi et al, a table of phantom scatter factors is described. This table gives the phantom scatter factor as a function of field size and quality index determined from a collection of measured data for the total scatter factor and the collimator scatter factor from 25 different beam qualities ranging from 4MV up to 25MV. These factors have been determined at a fixed reference depth of 10cm for square fields of various sizes. This work investigates the claim that this table can be used as an alternative to calculated phantom scatter curve from measured data of a particular treatment unit. According to definition, it is difficult to directly measure the phantom scatter correction factor (Sp). This problem can be solved using the relation; S cp (A) = S c (A)S p (A) where S cp (A)) is the measured total scatter factor for a field size of square side dimension, A and S c (A) is the measured collimator scatter factor for a field size of square side dimension, A (Khan et al 1980, van Gasteren et al 1991). The total scatter correction factor (Sc,p) was measured in a full phantom, and the collimator scatter factor (Sc) measured using an ESTRO mini-phantom. These factors were measured on three Siemens linear accelerators (Concord, USA) with energies 6MV and 18MV and square field sizes ranging from 4x4cm to 40x40cm. The Primus and KD Mevatron produced 6 and 18MV X-rays and the MXE Mevatron produced 6Mv X-rays only. The values for Sp were calculated by rearranging equation (1). Phantom scatter factors were calculated from the data provided by Storchi et al using the quality index of each beam. For comparison, a set of Sp values was

  2. The justification for the use of table of equivalent squares with respect to reference depth total scatter factor, and phantom scatter factor, for cobalt-60 teletherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afari, F.

    2011-01-01

    The use of equivalent squares is of great value and importance when determining output and depth dose data for rectangular fields. The variation with field shape of collimator scatter factors (S c ), phantom scatter factors (S c,p ) were studied using measurements on GWGP 80 cobalt - 60 teletherapy machine at the National Centre of Radiotherapy and Nuclear Medicine in the Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital. Measurements of the collimator scatter factors (S c ), phantom scatter factors (S p ) and total scatter factors (S c, p) were made at the depth of 5 cm, 10 cm, 15 cm and 20 cm in full scatter water phantom for square field side and rectangular fields of varying dimensions. The measurements were done using the source - axis distance (Sad) technique. The values of total scatter factor (S c,p ), phantom scatter factor and collimator scatter factor (S c ) obtained were used to estimate equivalent squares for the rectangular fields at the various depths. The equivalent squares were computed using the method of interpolation which is based on the scatter analysis of these scatter factors and these estimated equivalent squares were then compared with equivalent squares were then compared with equivalent square fields from BJR (supplement 21) tables of equivalent squares. The research revealed that there were average deviation of 1.5% for smaller rectangular field sizes and 8.8% for elongated rectangular field sizes between the estimated square field sizes and the equivalent square field from BJR (supplement 21) Table of equivalent square fields. The 8.8% for the elongated rectangular fields is not accepted, though such fields are rarely used in our Hospitals. It was found that the values of the equivalent square at the various depth were very consistent and do not vary with reference depth. These findings confirm that the clinical use of the BJR (supplement 21) Table of equivalent squares for total scatter factors and phantom scatter related quantities of rectangular fields is

  3. Comparison of Head Scatter Factor for 6MV and 10MV flattened (FB) and Unflattened (FFF) Photon Beam using indigenously Designed Columnar Mini Phantom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashokkumar, Sigamani; Nambi Raj, N Arunai; Sinha, Sujit Nath; Yadav, Girigesh; Thiyagarajan, Rajesh; Raman, Kothanda; Mishra, Manindra Bhushan

    2014-07-01

    To measure and compare the head scatter factor for flattened (FB) and unflattened (FFF) of 6MV and 10MV photon beam using indigenously designed mini phantom. A columnar mini phantom was designed as recommended by AAPM Task Group 74 with low and high atomic number materials at 10 cm (mini phantom) and at approximately twice the depth of maximum dose water equivalent thickness (brass build-up cap). Scatter in the accelerator (Sc) values of 6MV-FFF photon beams are lesser than that of the 6MV-FB photon beams (0.66-2.8%; Clinac iX, 2300CD) and (0.47-1.74%; True beam) for field sizes ranging from 10 × 10 cm(2) to 40 × 40 cm(2). Sc values of 10MV-FFF photon beams are lesser (0.61-2.19%; True beam) than that of the 10MV-FB photons beams for field sizes ranging from 10 × 10 cm(2) to 40 × 40 cm(2). The SSD had no influence on head scatter for both flattened and unflattened beams and irrespective of head design of the different linear accelerators. The presence of field shaping device influences the Sc values. The collimator exchange effect reveals that the opening of the upper jaw increases Sc irrespective of FB or FFF photon beams and different linear accelerators, and it is less significant in FFF beams. Sc values of 6MV-FB square field were in good agreement with that of AAPM, TG-74 published data for Varian (Clinac iX, 2300CD) accelerator. Our results confirm that the removal of flattening filter decreases in the head scatter factor compared to flattened beam. This could reduce the out-of-field dose in advanced treatment delivery techniques.

  4. Deformable and durable phantoms with controlled density of scatterers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisaillon, Charles-Etienne; Lamouche, Guy; Dufour, Marc; Monchalin, Jean-Pierre [Industrial Materials Institute, National Research Council Canada, 75 de Mortagne, Boucherville, Quebec J4B 6Y4 (Canada); Maciejko, Romain [Optoelectronics Laboratory, Engineering Physics, Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal, PO Box 6079, Station ' Centre-ville' Montreal, Quebec H3C 3A7 (Canada)], E-mail: charles-etienne.bisaillon@cnrc-nrc.gc.ca, E-mail: guy.lamouche@cnrc-nrc.gc.ca, E-mail: marc.dufour@cnrc-nrc.gc.ca, E-mail: jean-pierre.monchalin@cnrc-nrc.gc.ca, E-mail: romain.maciejko@polytml.ca

    2008-07-07

    We have developed deformable and durable optical tissue phantoms with a simple and well-defined microstructure including a novel combination of scatterers and a matrix material. These were developed for speckle and elastography investigations in optical coherence tomography, but should prove useful in many other fields. We present in detail the fabrication process which involves embedding silica microspheres in a silicone matrix. We also characterize the resulting phantoms with scanning electron microscopy and optical measurements. To our knowledge, no such phantoms were proposed in the literature before. Our technique has a wide range of applicability and could also be adapted to fabricate phantoms with various optical and mechanical properties. (note)

  5. Tissue Equivalent Phantom Design for Characterization of a Coherent Scatter X-ray Imaging System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albanese, Kathryn Elizabeth

    Scatter in medical imaging is typically cast off as image-related noise that detracts from meaningful diagnosis. It is therefore typically rejected or removed from medical images. However, it has been found that every material, including cancerous tissue, has a unique X-ray coherent scatter signature that can be used to identify the material or tissue. Such scatter-based tissue-identification provides the advantage of locating and identifying particular materials over conventional anatomical imaging through X-ray radiography. A coded aperture X-ray coherent scatter spectral imaging system has been developed in our group to classify different tissue types based on their unique scatter signatures. Previous experiments using our prototype have demonstrated that the depth-resolved coherent scatter spectral imaging system (CACSSI) can discriminate healthy and cancerous tissue present in the path of a non-destructive x-ray beam. A key to the successful optimization of CACSSI as a clinical imaging method is to obtain anatomically accurate phantoms of the human body. This thesis describes the development and fabrication of 3D printed anatomical scatter phantoms of the breast and lung. The purpose of this work is to accurately model different breast geometries using a tissue equivalent phantom, and to classify these tissues in a coherent x-ray scatter imaging system. Tissue-equivalent anatomical phantoms were designed to assess the capability of the CACSSI system to classify different types of breast tissue (adipose, fibroglandular, malignant). These phantoms were 3D printed based on DICOM data obtained from CT scans of prone breasts. The phantoms were tested through comparison of measured scatter signatures with those of adipose and fibroglandular tissue from literature. Tumors in the phantom were modeled using a variety of biological tissue including actual surgically excised benign and malignant tissue specimens. Lung based phantoms have also been printed for future

  6. Scatter correction method for x-ray CT using primary modulation: Phantom studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Hewei; Fahrig, Rebecca; Bennett, N. Robert; Sun Mingshan; Star-Lack, Josh; Zhu Lei

    2010-01-01

    elliptical annulus (30 cm in the minor axis and 38 cm in the major axis) and with a circular annulus (38 cm in diameter). Conclusions: On the three phantom studies, good scatter correction performance of the proposed method has been demonstrated using both image comparisons and quantitative analysis. The theory and experiments demonstrate that a strong primary modulation that possesses a low transmission factor and a high modulation frequency is preferred for high scatter correction accuracy.

  7. Scatter factor corrections for elongated fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higgins, P.D.; Sohn, W.H.; Sibata, C.H.; McCarthy, W.A.

    1989-01-01

    Measurements have been made to determine scatter factor corrections for elongated fields of Cobalt-60 and for nominal linear accelerator energies of 6 MV (Siemens Mevatron 67) and 18 MV (AECL Therac 20). It was found that for every energy the collimator scatter factor varies by 2% or more as the field length-to-width ratio increases beyond 3:1. The phantom scatter factor is independent of which collimator pair is elongated at these energies. For 18 MV photons it was found that the collimator scatter factor is complicated by field-size-dependent backscatter into the beam monitor

  8. Calculation of cobalt-60 primary and scatter dose in layered heterogeneous phantoms using primary and scatter dose spread arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwasaki, Akira

    1993-01-01

    A method of making 60 Co γ-ray primary and scatter dose spread arrays in water is described. The primary dose spread array is made using forward and backward primary dose spread equations (h 1 and h 2 ), where both equations contain a laterally spread primary dose equation (G), made from measured dose data in a cork phantom. The scatter dose spread array is made using differential scatter-maximum ratio (dSMR) and differential backscatter factor (dBSF) equations (k 1 and k 2 ), where both equations are made to be continuous on the boundary. Primary and scatter dose calculations are performed along the beam axis in layered cork heterogeneous phantoms. It is found, even for 60 Co γ-rays, that when a small tumor in the lung is irradiated with a field that just surrounds the tumor, the beam entrance surface and lateral side of the tumor may obtain no therapeutic dose, because of loss of longitudinal and lateral electronic equilibrium, and when a large tumor in the lung is irradiated with a field just surrounding the tumor, the lateral side of the tumor may obtain no therapeutic dose due to loss of lateral electronic equilibrium. (author)

  9. ITERATIVE SCATTER CORRECTION FOR GRID-LESS BEDSIDE CHEST RADIOGRAPHY: PERFORMANCE FOR A CHEST PHANTOM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mentrup, Detlef; Jockel, Sascha; Menser, Bernd; Neitzel, Ulrich

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this work was to experimentally compare the contrast improvement factors (CIFs) of a newly developed software-based scatter correction to the CIFs achieved by an antiscatter grid. To this end, three aluminium discs were placed in the lung, the retrocardial and the abdominal areas of a thorax phantom, and digital radiographs of the phantom were acquired both with and without a stationary grid. The contrast generated by the discs was measured in both images, and the CIFs achieved by grid usage were determined for each disc. Additionally, the non-grid images were processed with a scatter correction software. The contrasts generated by the discs were determined in the scatter-corrected images, and the corresponding CIFs were calculated. The CIFs obtained with the grid and with the software were in good agreement. In conclusion, the experiment demonstrates quantitatively that software-based scatter correction allows restoring the image contrast of a non-grid image in a manner comparable with an antiscatter grid. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Evaluation of penetration and scattering components in conventional pinhole SPECT: phantom studies using Monte Carlo simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deloar, Hossain M; Watabe, Hiroshi; Aoi, Toshiyuki; Iida, Hidehiro

    2003-01-01

    In quantitative pinhole SPECT, photon penetration through the collimator edges (penetration), and photon scattering by the object (object scatter) and collimator (collimator scatter) have not been investigated rigorously. Monte Carlo simulation was used to evaluate these three physical processes for different tungsten knife-edge pinhole collimators using uniform, hotspot and donut phantoms filled with 201 Tl, 99m Tc, 123 I and 131 I solutions. For the hotspot phantom, the penetration levels with respect to total counts for a 1 mm pinhole aperture were 78%, 28% and 23% for 131 I, 123 I and 99m Tc, respectively. For a 2 mm aperture, these values were 65% for 131 I, 16% for 123 I and 12% for 99m Tc. For all pinholes, 201 Tl penetration was less than 4%. The evaluated scatter (from object and collimator) with a hotspot phantom for the 1 mm pinhole was 24%, 16%, 18% and 13% for 201 Tl, 99m Tc, 123 I and 131 I, respectively. Summation of the object and collimator scatter for the uniform phantom was approximately 20% higher than that for the hotspot phantom. Significant counts due to penetration and object and collimator scatter in the reconstructed image were observed inside the core of the donut phantom. The collimator scatter can be neglected for all isotopes used in this study except for 131 I. Object scatter correction for all radionuclides used in this study is necessary and correction for the penetration contribution is necessary for all radionuclides but 201 Tl

  11. Field size dependence of wedge factor: miniphantom vs full phantom measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen Li, X.; Szanto, J.; Soubra, M.; Gerig, L. H.

    1995-01-01

    It is empirically known that the transmission factor for wedge in a high-energy photon beam is dependent upon field size and depth of measurement. The field-size dependence of wedge factors may be attributed to changes in (i) head scatter, (ii) phantom scatter, and (iii) backscatter from the wedge into the linac monitor chamber. In this work we present the results of studies designed to examine each of these factors in isolation. The wedge factors for wedges with nominal wedge angles of 15 deg. , 30 deg. , 45 deg. and 60 deg. were measured with a 3-g/cm 2 -diameter narrow cylindrical phantom (miniphantom), a brass cap with 1.5-g/cm 2 side-wall thickness and a full water phantom for 6-, 10- and 18-MV photon beams. The measurements were performed with and without flattening filter in place. The wedge factors measured with the miniphantom and the brass cap exclude the phantom scatter contribution. It has been found that the field-size behaviour of wedge factor measured with full water phantom is similar to that measured with the miniphantom and cap. This indicates that the head scatter radiation is the major contributor to the field size dependence of wedge factors. Wedge factors measured with water phantom are up to 5.0% smaller than those measured with miniphantom. This difference increases with wedge angle. When Measured with the flattening filter removed, the field size dependence of the wedge factor is reduced. This justify that the flattening filter is one of the major contributors to head scatters. The measurement results made with the brass cap agree well with those made by using the miniphantom. By measuring the monitor chamber output, it is found that the backscatters from the wedge into the linac ion chamber have little effect on the field size dependence of the wedge factor

  12. Optimization of phantom backscatter thickness and lateral scatter volume for radiographic film dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, R.P.; De Wagter, C.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the optimal backscatter thickness and lateral phantom dimension beyond the irradiated volume for the dosimetric verification with radiographic film when applying large field sizes. Polystyrene and Virtual Water™ phantoms were used to study the influence of the phantom backscatter thickness. EDR2 and XV films were used in 6 and 18 MV photon beams. The results show 11.4% and 6.4% over-response of the XV2 film when compared to the ion chamber for 6 MV 30×30 and 10×10 cm 2 field sizes, respectively, when the phantom backscatter thickness is 5 cm. For the same setup, measurements with EDR2 films indicate 8.5% and 1.7% over-response. The XV2 film response in the polystyrene phantom is about 2.0% higher than in the Virtual Water™ phantom for the 6 MV beam and 20 cm backscatter thickness. Similar results were obtained for EDR2 film. In the lateral scatter study, film response was nearly constant within 5 cm of lateral thickness and it increases when lateral thickness increases due to more multiple scatter of low energy photons. The backscatter thickness of the phantom should be kept below 7 cm for the accuracy of the film dosimetry. The lateral extension of the phantom should not be more than 5 cm from the field boundary in case of large irradiated volumes.

  13. TH-AB-209-12: Tissue Equivalent Phantom with Excised Human Tissue for Assessing Clinical Capabilities of Coherent Scatter Imaging Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albanese, K; Morris, R; Spencer, J [Medical Physics Graduate Program, Duke University, Durham, NC (United States); Greenberg, J [Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Duke University, Durham, NC (United States); Kapadia, A [Carl E Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Durham, NC (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Previously we reported the development of anthropomorphic tissue-equivalent scatter phantoms of the human breast. Here we present the first results from the scatter imaging of the tissue equivalent breast phantoms for breast cancer diagnosis. Methods: A breast phantom was designed to assess the capability of coded aperture coherent x-ray scatter imaging to classify different types of breast tissue (adipose, fibroglandular, tumor). The phantom geometry was obtained from a prone breast geometry scanned on a dedicated breast CT system. The phantom was 3D printed using the segmented DICOM breast CT data. The 3D breast phantom was filled with lard (as a surrogate for adipose tissue) and scanned in different geometries alongside excised human breast tissues (obtained from lumpectomy and mastectomy procedures). The raw data were reconstructed using a model-based reconstruction algorithm and yielded the location and form factor (i.e., momentum transfer (q) spectrum) of the materials that were imaged. The measured material form factors were then compared to the ground truth measurements acquired by x-ray diffraction (XRD) imaging. Results: Our scatter imaging system was able to define the location and composition of the various materials and tissues within the phantom. Cancerous breast tissue was detected and classified through automated spectral matching and an 86% correlation threshold. The total scan time for the sample was approximately 10 minutes and approaches workflow times for clinical use in intra-operative or other diagnostic tasks. Conclusion: This work demonstrates the first results from an anthropomorphic tissue equivalent scatter phantom to characterize a coherent scatter imaging system. The functionality of the system shows promise in applications such as intra-operative margin detection or virtual biopsy in the diagnosis of breast cancer. Future work includes using additional patient-derived tissues (e.g., human fat), and modeling additional organs

  14. Customized three-dimensional printed optical phantoms with user defined absorption and scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannem, Sanjana; Sweer, Jordan; Diep, Phuong; Lo, Justine; Snyder, Michael; Stueber, Gabriella; Zhao, Yanyu; Tabassum, Syeda; Istfan, Raeef; Wu, Junjie; Erramilli, Shyamsunder; Roblyer, Darren M.

    2016-03-01

    The use of reliable tissue-simulating phantoms spans multiple applications in spectroscopic imaging including device calibration and testing of new imaging procedures. Three-dimensional (3D) printing allows for the possibility of optical phantoms with arbitrary geometries and spatially varying optical properties. We recently demonstrated the ability to 3D print tissue-simulating phantoms with customized absorption (μa) and reduced scattering (μs`) by incorporating nigrosin, an absorbing dye, and titanium dioxide (TiO2), a scattering agent, to acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) during filament extrusion. A physiologically relevant range of μa and μs` was demonstrated with high repeatability. We expand our prior work here by evaluating the effect of two important 3D-printing parameters, percent infill and layer height, on both μa and μs`. 2 cm3 cubes were printed with percent infill ranging from 10% to 100% and layer height ranging from 0.15 to 0.40 mm. The range in μa and μs` was 27.3% and 19.5% respectively for different percent infills at 471 nm. For varying layer height, the range in μa and μs` was 27.8% and 15.4% respectively at 471 nm. These results indicate that percent infill and layer height substantially alter optical properties and should be carefully controlled during phantom fabrication. Through the use of inexpensive hobby-level printers, the fabrication of optical phantoms may advance the complexity and availability of fully customizable phantoms over multiple spatial scales. This technique exhibits a wider range of adaptability than other common methods of fabricating optical phantoms and may lead to improved instrument characterization and calibration.

  15. SU-E-T-499: Comparison of Measured Tissue Phantom Ratios (TPR) Against Calculated From Percent Depth Doses (PDD) with and Without Peak Scatter Factor (PSF) in 6MV Open Beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narayanasamy, G; Cruz, W; Gutierrez, Alonso; Mavroidis, Panayiotis; Papanikolaou, N; Stathakis, S; Breton, C

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the accuracy of measured tissue phantom ratios (TPR) values with TPR calculated from percentage depth dose (PDD) with and without peak scatter fraction (PSF) correction. Methods: For 6MV open beam, TPR and PDD values were measured using PTW Semiflex (31010) ionization field and reference chambers (0.125cc volume) in a PTW MP3-M water tank. PDD curves were measured at SSD of 100cm for 7 square fields from 3cm to 30cm. The TPR values were measured up to 22cm depth for the same fields by continuous water draining method with ionization chamber static at 100cm from source. A comparison study was performed between the (a) measured TPR, (b) TPR calculated from PDD without PSF, (c) TPR calculated from PDD with PSF and (d) clinical TPR from RadCalc (ver 6.2, Sun Nuclear Corp). Results: There is a field size, depth dependence on TPR values. For 10cmx10cm, the differences in surface dose (DDs), dose at 10cm depth (DD10) <0.5%; differences in dmax (Ddmax) <2mm for the 4 methods. The corresponding values for 30cmx30cm are DDs, DD10 <0.2% and Ddmax<3mm. Even though for 3cmx3cm field, DDs and DD10 <1% and Ddmax<1mm, the calculated TPR values with and without PSF correction differed by 2% at >20cm depth. In all field sizes at depths>28cm, (d) clinical TPR values are larger than that from (b) and (c) by >3%. Conclusion: Measured TPR in method (a) differ from calculated TPR in methods (b) and (c) to within 1% for depths < 28cm in all 7 fields in open 6MV beam. The dmax values are within 3mm of each other. The largest deviation of >3% was observed in clinical TPR values in method (d) for all fields at depths < 28cm

  16. Disadvantage factor for anisotropic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saad, E.A.; Abdel Krim, M.S.; EL-Dimerdash, A.A.

    1990-01-01

    The invariant embedding method is used to solve the problem for a two region reactor with anisotropic scattering and to compute the disadvantage factor necessary for calculating some reactor parameters

  17. Output factors and scatter ratios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shrivastava, P N; Summers, R E; Samulski, T V; Baird, L C [Allegheny General Hospital, Pittsburgh, PA (USA); Ahuja, A S; Dubuque, G L; Hendee, W R; Chhabra, A S

    1979-07-01

    Reference is made to a previous publication on output factors and scatter ratios for radiotherapy units in which it was suggested that the output factor should be included in the definitions of scatter-air ratio and tissue-maximum ratio. In the present correspondence from other authors and from the authors of the previous publication, the original definitions and the proposed changes are discussed. Radiation scatter from source and collimator degradation of beam energy and calculation of dose in tissue are considered in relation to the objective of accurate dosimetry.

  18. The collapsed cone algorithm for (192)Ir dosimetry using phantom-size adaptive multiple-scatter point kernels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedgren, Åsa Carlsson; Plamondon, Mathieu; Beaulieu, Luc

    2015-07-07

    The aim of this work was to investigate how dose distributions calculated with the collapsed cone (CC) algorithm depend on the size of the water phantom used in deriving the point kernel for multiple scatter. A research version of the CC algorithm equipped with a set of selectable point kernels for multiple-scatter dose that had initially been derived in water phantoms of various dimensions was used. The new point kernels were generated using EGSnrc in spherical water phantoms of radii 5 cm, 7.5 cm, 10 cm, 15 cm, 20 cm, 30 cm and 50 cm. Dose distributions derived with CC in water phantoms of different dimensions and in a CT-based clinical breast geometry were compared to Monte Carlo (MC) simulations using the Geant4-based brachytherapy specific MC code Algebra. Agreement with MC within 1% was obtained when the dimensions of the phantom used to derive the multiple-scatter kernel were similar to those of the calculation phantom. Doses are overestimated at phantom edges when kernels are derived in larger phantoms and underestimated when derived in smaller phantoms (by around 2% to 7% depending on distance from source and phantom dimensions). CC agrees well with MC in the high dose region of a breast implant and is superior to TG43 in determining skin doses for all multiple-scatter point kernel sizes. Increased agreement between CC and MC is achieved when the point kernel is comparable to breast dimensions. The investigated approximation in multiple scatter dose depends on the choice of point kernel in relation to phantom size and yields a significant fraction of the total dose only at distances of several centimeters from a source/implant which correspond to volumes of low doses. The current implementation of the CC algorithm utilizes a point kernel derived in a comparatively large (radius 20 cm) water phantom. A fixed point kernel leads to predictable behaviour of the algorithm with the worst case being a source/implant located well within a patient/phantom

  19. Effects of scatter and attenuation corrections on phantom and clinical brain SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prando, S.; Robilotta, C.C.R.; Oliveira, M.A.; Alves, T.C.; Busatto Filho, G.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: The present work evaluated the effects of combinations of scatter and attenuation corrections on the analysis of brain SPECT. Materials and Methods: We studied images of the 3D Hoffman brain phantom and from a group of 20 depressive patients with confirmed cardiac insufficiency (CI) and 14 matched healthy controls (HC). Data were acquired with a Sophy-DST/SMV-GE dual-head camera after venous injection of 1110MBq 99m Tc-HMPAO. Two energy windows, 15% on 140keV and 30% centered on 108keV of the Compton distribution, were used to obtain corresponding sets of 128x128x128 projections. Tomograms were reconstructed using OSEM (2 iterations, 8 sub-sets) and Metz filter (order 8, 4 pixels FWHM psf) and FBP with Butterworth filter (order 10, frequency 0.7 Nyquist). Ten combinations of Jaszczak correction (factors 0.3, 0.4 and 0.5) and the 1st order Chang correction (u=0.12cm -1 and 0.159cm -1 ) were applied on the phantom data. In all the phantom images, contrast and signal-noise ratio between 3 ROIs (ventricle, occipital and thalamus) and cerebellum, as well as the ratio between activities in gray and white matters, were calculated and compared with the expected values. The patients images were corrected with k=0.5 and u=0.159cm -1 and reconstructed with OSEM and Metz filter. The images were inspected visually and blood flow comparisons between the CI and the HC groups were performed using Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM). Results: The best results in the analysis of the contrast and activities ratio were obtained with k=0.5 and u=0.159cm -1 . The results of the activities ratio obtained with OSEM e Metz filter are similar to those published by Laere et al.[J.Nucl.Med 2000;41:2051-2062]. The method of correction using effective attenuation coefficient produced results visually acceptable, but inadequate for the quantitative evaluation. The results of signal-noise ratio are better with OSEM than FBP reconstruction method. The corrections in the CI patients studies

  20. Initial investigation of a novel light-scattering gel phantom for evaluation of optical CT scanners for radiotherapy gel dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosi, Stephen; Naseri, Pourandokht; Puran, Alicia; Davies, Justin; Baldock, Clive

    2007-01-01

    There is a need for stable gel materials for phantoms used to validate optical computerized tomography (CT) scanners used in conjunction with radiation-induced polymerizing gel dosimeters. Phantoms based on addition of light-absorbing dyes to gelatine to simulate gel dosimeters have been employed. However, to more accurately simulate polymerizing gels one requires phantoms that employ light-scattering colloidal suspensions added to the gel. In this paper, we present the initial results of using an optical CT scanner to evaluate a novel phantom in which radiation-exposed polymer gels are simulated by the addition of colloidal suspensions of varying turbidity. The phantom may be useful as a calibration transfer standard for polymer gel dosimeters. The tests reveal some phenomena peculiar to light-scattering gels that need to be taken into account when calibrating polymer gel dosimeters

  1. Determination of dose correction factor for energy and directional dependence of the MOSFET dosimeter in an anthropomorphic phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Sung Koo; Choi, Sang Hyoun; Kim, Chan Hyeong; Na, Seong Ho

    2006-01-01

    In recent years, the MOSFET dosimeter has been widely used in various medical applications such as dose verification in radiation therapeutic and diagnostic applications. The MOSFET dosimeter is, however, mainly made of silicon and shows some energy dependence for low energy photons. Therefore, the MOSFET dosimeter tends to overestimate the dose for low energy scattered photons in a phantom. This study determines the correction factors to compensate these dependences of the MOSFET dosimeter in ATOM phantom. For this, we first constructed a computational model of the ATOM phantom based on the 3D CT image data of the phantom. The voxel phantom was then implemented in a Monte Carlo simulation code and used to calculate the energy spectrum of the photon field at each of the MOSFET dosimeter locations in the phantom. Finally, the correction factors were calculated based on the energy spectrum of the photon field at the dosimeter locations and the pre-determined energy and directional dependence of the MOSFET dosimeter. Our result for 60 Co and 137 Cs photon fields shows that the correction factors are distributed within the range of 0.89 and 0.97 considering all the MOSFET dosimeter locations in the phantom

  2. Determination of photon conversion factors relating exposure and dose for several extremity phantom designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberson, P.L.; Eichner, F.N.; Reece, W.D.

    1986-09-01

    This report presents the results of measurements of dosimetric properties of simple extremity phantoms suitable for use in extremity dosimeter performance testing. Two sizes of phantoms were used in this study. One size represented the forearm or lower leg and the other size represented the finger or toe. For both phantom sizes, measurements were performed on solid plastic phantoms and on phantoms containing simulated bone material to determine the effect of backscattered radiations from the bone on the surface dose. Exposure-to-dose conversion factors (C/sub x/ factors) were determined for photon energies ranging from 16 to 1250 keV (average for 60 Co). The effect of the presence of a phantom was also measured for a 90 Sr/ 90 Y source. Significant differences in the measured C/sub x/ factors were found among the phantoms investigated. The factors for the finger-sized phantoms were uniformly less than for the arm-sized phantoms

  3. Efficiency factors for Phoswich based lung monitor using ICRP Voxel phantoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manohari, M.; Mathiyarasu, R.; Rajagopal, V.; Jose, M.T.; Venkatraman, B.

    2016-01-01

    The actinide contamination in lungs is measured either using array of HPGe detector or Phoswich based lung monitors. This paper discusses the results obtained during numerical calibration of Phoswich based lung counting system using ICRP VOXEL phantoms. The results are also compared with measured efficiency values obtained using LLNL phantom. The efficiency factors of 241 Am present in the lungs for phoswich detector was simulated using ICRP male voxel phantom and compared with experimentally observed values using LLNL Phantom. The observed deviation is 12%. The efficiency of the same for female subjects was estimated using ICRP female voxel phantom for both supine and posterior geometries

  4. Factorization and non-factorization in diffractive hard scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berera, Arjun

    1997-01-01

    Factorization, in the sense defined for inclusive hard scattering, is discussed for diffractive hard scattering. A factorization theorem similar to its inclusive counterpart is presented for diffractive DIS. For hadron-hadron diffractive hard scattering, in contrast to its inclusive counterpart, the expected breakdown of factorization is discussed. Cross section estimates are given from a simple field theory model for non-factorizing double-pomeron-exchange (DPE) dijet production with and without account for Sudakov suppression

  5. A novel phantom design for emission tomography enabling scatter- and attenuation-''free'' single-photon emission tomography imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsson, S.A.; Johansson, L.; Jonsson, C.; Pagani, M.; Jacobsson, H.

    2000-01-01

    A newly designed technique for experimental single-photon emission tomography (SPET) and positron emission tomography (PET) data acquisition with minor disturbing effects from scatter and attenuation has been developed. In principle, the method is based on discrete sampling of the radioactivity distribution in 3D objects by means of equidistant 2D planes. The starting point is a set of digitised 2D sections representing the radioactivity distribution of the 3D object. Having a radioactivity-related grey scale, the 2D images are printed on paper sheets using radioactive ink. The radioactive sheets can be shaped to the outline of the object and stacked into a 3D structure with air or some arbitrary dense material in between. For this work, equidistantly spaced transverse images of a uniform cylindrical phantom and of the digitised Hoffman rCBF phantom were selected and printed out on paper sheets. The uniform radioactivity sheets were imaged on the surface of a low-energy ultra-high-resolution collimator (4 mm full-width at half-maximum) of a three-headed SPET camera. The reproducibility was 0.7% and the uniformity was 1.2%. Each rCBF sheet, containing between 8.3 and 80 MBq of 99m TcO 4 - depending on size, was first imaged on the collimator and then stacked into a 3D structure with constant 12 mm air spacing between the slices. SPET was performed with the sheets perpendicular to the central axis of the camera. The total weight of the stacked rCBF phantom in air was 63 g, giving a scatter contribution comparable to that of a point source in air. The overall attenuation losses were <20%. A second SPET study was performed with 12-mm polystyrene plates in between the radioactive sheets. With polystyrene plates, the total phantom weight was 2300 g, giving a scatter and attenuation magnitude similar to that of a patient study. With the proposed technique, it is possible to obtain ''ideal'' experimental images (essentially built up by primary photons) for comparison with

  6. Improved scatter correction with factor analysis for planar and SPECT imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoll, Peter; Rahmim, Arman; Gültekin, Selma; Šámal, Martin; Ljungberg, Michael; Mirzaei, Siroos; Segars, Paul; Szczupak, Boguslaw

    2017-09-01

    Quantitative nuclear medicine imaging is an increasingly important frontier. In order to achieve quantitative imaging, various interactions of photons with matter have to be modeled and compensated. Although correction for photon attenuation has been addressed by including x-ray CT scans (accurate), correction for Compton scatter remains an open issue. The inclusion of scattered photons within the energy window used for planar or SPECT data acquisition decreases the contrast of the image. While a number of methods for scatter correction have been proposed in the past, in this work, we propose and assess a novel, user-independent framework applying factor analysis (FA). Extensive Monte Carlo simulations for planar and tomographic imaging were performed using the SIMIND software. Furthermore, planar acquisition of two Petri dishes filled with 99mTc solutions and a Jaszczak phantom study (Data Spectrum Corporation, Durham, NC, USA) using a dual head gamma camera were performed. In order to use FA for scatter correction, we subdivided the applied energy window into a number of sub-windows, serving as input data. FA results in two factor images (photo-peak, scatter) and two corresponding factor curves (energy spectra). Planar and tomographic Jaszczak phantom gamma camera measurements were recorded. The tomographic data (simulations and measurements) were processed for each angular position resulting in a photo-peak and a scatter data set. The reconstructed transaxial slices of the Jaszczak phantom were quantified using an ImageJ plugin. The data obtained by FA showed good agreement with the energy spectra, photo-peak, and scatter images obtained in all Monte Carlo simulated data sets. For comparison, the standard dual-energy window (DEW) approach was additionally applied for scatter correction. FA in comparison with the DEW method results in significant improvements in image accuracy for both planar and tomographic data sets. FA can be used as a user

  7. Efficiency factors in Mie scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nussenzveig, H.M.

    1980-04-01

    Asymptotic approximation to the Mie efficiency factors for extinction, absorption and radiation pressure, derived from complex angular momentum theory and averaged over Δβ approximately π (β = size parameter), are given and compared with the exact results. For complex refractive indices N = n + i kappa with 1.1 -2 - 10 -3 % between β = 10 and β = 1000, and computing time is reduced by a factor of order β, so that the Mie formulae can advantageously by replaced by the asymptotic ones in most applications. (Author) [pt

  8. Use of scatter correction in quantitative I-123 MIBG scintigraphy for differentiating patients with Parkinsonism: Results from Phantom experiment and clinical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai, J.; Hashimoto, J.; Suzuki, T.; Nakahara, T.; Kubo, A.; Ohira, M.; Takao, M.; Ogawa, K.

    2007-01-01

    The aims of this study were to elucidate the feasibility of scatter correction in improving the quantitative accuracy of the Heart-to-Mediastinum (H/M) ratio in I-123 MIBG imaging and to clarify whether the H/M ratio calculated from the scatter corrected image improves the accuracy of differentiating patients with Parkinsonism from other neurological disorders. The H/M ratio was calculated using the counts from planar images processed with and without scatter correction in the phantom and on patients. The triple energy window (TEW) method was used for scatter correction. Fifty five patients were enrolled in the clinical study. The Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) Curve analysis was used to evaluate diagnostic performance. The H/M ratio was found to be increased after scatter correction in the phantom simulating normal cardiac uptake, while no changes were observed in the phantom simulating no uptake. It was observed that scatter correction stabilized the H/M ratio by eliminating the influence of scatter photons originating from the liver, especially in the condition of no cardiac uptake. Similarly, scatter correction increased the H/M ratio in conditions other than Parkinson's disease but did not show any change in Parkinson's disease itself to widen the differences in the H/M ratios between the two groups. The overall power of the test did not show any significant improvement after scatter correction in differentiating patients with Parkinsonism. Based on the results of this study it has been concluded that scatter correction improves the quantitative accuracy of H/M ratio in MIBG imaging, but it does not offer any significant incremental diagnostic value over conventional imaging (without scatter correction). Nevertheless it is felt that the scatter correction technique deserves special consideration in order to make the test more robust and obtain stable H/M ratios. (author)

  9. Understanding the scatter radiation distribution during C-arm CT examination. A body phantom study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norimasa, Toshiyo; Kakimi, Akihiko; Takao, Yoshinori; Sasaki, Shohei; Katayama, Yutaka; Himoto, Daisuke; Izuta, Shinichiro; Ichida, Takao

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand the scatter radiation distribution during C-arm CT examination in the interventional radiography (IVR) room to show the escaped area and the radiation protective method. The C-arm rotates 200deg in 5 s. The tube voltage was 90 kV, and the entrance dose to the detector was 0.36 μGy/frame during C-arm CT examination. The scattered doses were measured each 50 cm from the isocenter like a grid pattern. The heights of the measurement were 50, 100, and 150 cm from the floor. The maximum scattered doses were 38.23 ± 0.60 μGy at 50 cm, 43.86 ± 20 μGy at 100 cm, and 25.78 ± 0.37 μGy at 150 cm. The scatter radiation distribution at 100 cm was the highest scattered dose. The operator should protect their reproductive gland, thyroid, and lens. The scattered dose was low behind the C-arm body and the bed, so they will be able to become the escaped area for staff. (author)

  10. Material-specific Conversion Factors for Different Solid Phantoms Used in the Dosimetry of Different Brachytherapy Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedigheh Sina

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Based on Task Group No. 43 (TG-43U1 recommendations, water phantom is proposed as a reference phantom for the dosimetry of brachytherapy sources. The experimental determination of TG-43 parameters is usually performed in water-equivalent solid phantoms. The purpose of this study was to determine the conversion factors for equalizing solid phantoms to water. Materials and Methods TG-43 parameters of low- and high-energy brachytherapy sources (i.e., Pd-103, I-125 and Cs-137 were obtained in different phantoms, using Monte Carlo simulations. The brachytherapy sources were simulated at the center of different phantoms including water, solid water, poly(methyl methacrylate, polystyrene and polyethylene. Dosimetric parameters such as dose rate constant, radial dose function and anisotropy function of each source were compared in different phantoms. Then, conversion factors were obtained to make phantom parameters equivalent to those of water. Results Polynomial coefficients of conversion factors were obtained for all sources to quantitatively compare g(r values in different phantom materials and the radial dose function in water. Conclusion Polynomial coefficients of conversion factors were obtained for all sources to quantitatively compare g(r values in different phantom materials and the radial dose function in water.

  11. Effects of tube potential and scatter rejection on image quality and effective dose in digital chest X-ray examination: An anthropomorphic phantom study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, D.J., E-mail: daniel.shaw@christie.nhs.uk [Diagnostic Radiology, Department of Medical Physics and Engineering, Leeds Teaching Hospitals, Leeds General Infirmary, Great George Street, Leeds LS1 3EX (United Kingdom); Crawshaw, I. [Diagnostic X-ray Department, York Teaching Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, The York Hospital, Wigginton Road, York YO31 8HE (United Kingdom); Rimmer, S. D. [Diagnostic Radiology, Department of Medical Physics and Engineering, Leeds Teaching Hospitals, Leeds General Infirmary, Great George Street, Leeds LS1 3EX (United Kingdom)

    2013-11-15

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of tube potential and scatter rejection techniques on image quality of digital posteroanterior (PA) chest radiographs. Methods: An anthropomorphic phantom was imaged using a range of tube potentials (81–125 kV{sub p}) without scatter rejection, with an anti-scatter grid, and using a 10 cm air gap. Images were anonymised and randomised before being evaluated using a visual graded analysis (VGA) method. Results: The effects of tube potential on image quality were found to be negligible (p > 0.63) for the flat panel detector (FPD). Decreased image quality (p = 0.031) was noted for 125 kV{sub p} relative to 109 kV{sub p}, though no difference was noted for any of the other potentials (p > 0.398) for computed radiography (CR). Both scatter rejection techniques improved image quality (p < 0.01). For FPD imaging the anti-scatter grid offered slightly improved image quality relative to the air gap (p = 0.038) but this was not seen for CR (p = 0.404). Conclusions: For FPD chest imaging of the anthropomorphic phantom there was no dependence of image quality on tube potential. Scatter rejection improved image quality, with the anti-scatter grid giving greater improvements than an air-gap, but at the expense of increased effective dose. CR imaging of the chest phantom demonstrated negligible dependence on tube potential except at 125 kV{sub p}. Scatter rejection improved image quality, but with no difference found between techniques. The air-gap resulted in a smaller increase in effective dose than the anti-scatter grid and would be the preferred scatter rejection technique.

  12. Optimizing cone beam CT scatter estimation in egs-cbct for a clinical and virtual chest phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thing, Rune Slot; Mainegra-Hing, Ernesto

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) image quality suffers from contamination from scattered photons in the projection images. Monte Carlo simulations are a powerful tool to investigate the properties of scattered photons.egs-cbct, a recent EGSnrc user code, provides the ability of performing fast scatter calculations in CBCT projection images. This paper investigates how optimization of user inputs can provide the most efficient scatter calculations. Methods: Two simulation geometries with two different x-ray sources were simulated, while the user input parameters for the efficiency improving techniques (EITs) implemented inegs-cbct were varied. Simulation efficiencies were compared to analog simulations performed without using any EITs. Resulting scatter distributions were confirmed unbiased against the analog simulations. Results: The optimal EIT parameter selection depends on the simulation geometry and x-ray source. Forced detection improved the scatter calculation efficiency by 80%. Delta transport improved calculation efficiency by a further 34%, while particle splitting combined with Russian roulette improved the efficiency by a factor of 45 or more. Combining these variance reduction techniques with a built-in denoising algorithm, efficiency improvements of 4 orders of magnitude were achieved. Conclusions: Using the built-in EITs inegs-cbct can improve scatter calculation efficiencies by more than 4 orders of magnitude. To achieve this, the user must optimize the input parameters to the specific simulation geometry. Realizing the full potential of the denoising algorithm requires keeping the statistical uncertainty below a threshold value above which the efficiency drops exponentially

  13. Detour factors in water and plastic phantoms and their use for range and depth scaling in electron-beam dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez-Varea, J.M.; Andreo, P.; Tabata, T.

    1996-01-01

    Average penetration depths and detour factors of 1-50 MeV electrons in water and plastic materials have been computed by means of analytical calculation, within the continuous-slowing-down approximation and including multiple scattering, and using the Monte Carlo codes ITS and PENELOPE. Results are compared to detour factors from alternative definitions previously proposed in the literature. Different procedures used in low-energy electron-beam dosimetry to convert ranges and depths measured in plastic phantoms into water-equivalent ranges and depths are analysed. A new simple and accurate scaling method, based on Monte Carlo-derived ratios of average electron penetration depths and thus incorporating the effect of multiple scattering, is presented. Data are given for most plastics used in electron-beam dosimetry together with a fit which extends the method to any other low-Z plastic material. A study of scaled depth - dose curves and mean energies as a function of depth for some plastics of common usage shows that the method improves the consistency and results of other scaling procedures in dosimetry with electron beams at therapeutic energies. (author)

  14. Effect of scatter and attenuation correction in ROI analysis of brain perfusion scintigraphy. Phantom experiment and clinical study in patients with unilateral cerebrovascular disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, J. [Keio Univ., Tokyo (Japan). 21st Century Center of Excellence Program; Hashimoto, J.; Kubo, A. [Keio Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Radiology; Ogawa, K. [Hosei Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Electronic Informatics; Fukunaga, A.; Onozuka, S. [Keio Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Neurosurgery

    2007-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of scatter and attenuation correction in region of interest (ROI) analysis of brain perfusion single-photon emission tomography (SPECT), and to assess the influence of selecting the reference area on the calculation of lesion-to-reference count ratios. Patients, methods: Data were collected from a brain phantom and ten patients with unilateral internal carotid artery stenosis. A simultaneous emission and transmission scan was performed after injecting {sup 123}I-iodoamphetamine. We reconstructed three SPECT images from common projection data: with scatter correction and nonuniform attenuation correction, with scatter correction and uniform attenuation correction, and with uniform attenuation correction applied to data without scatter correction. Regional count ratios were calculated by using four different reference areas (contralateral intact side, ipsilateral cerebellum, whole brain and hemisphere). Results: Scatter correction improved the accuracy of measuring the count ratios in the phantom experiment. It also yielded marked difference in the count ratio in the clinical study when using the cerebellum, whole brain or hemisphere as the reference. Difference between nonuniform and uniform attenuation correction was not significant in the phantom and clinical studies except when the cerebellar reference was used. Calculation of the lesion-to-normal count ratios referring the same site in the contralateral hemisphere was not dependent on the use of scatter correction or transmission scan-based attenuation correction. Conclusion: Scatter correction was indispensable for accurate measurement in most of the ROI analyses. Nonuniform attenuation correction is not necessary when using the reference area other than the cerebellum. (orig.)

  15. A phantom study on fetal dose reducing factors in pregnant patients with breast cancer during radiotherapy treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akın Ogretici

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study aims to investigate the factors that reduce fetal dose in pregnant patients with breast cancer throughout their radiation treatment. Two main factors in a standard radiation oncology center are considered as the treatment planning systems (TPSs and simple shielding for intensity modulated radiation therapy technique. Materials and Methods: TPS factor was evaluated with two different planning algorithms: Anisotropic analytical algorithm and Acuros XB (external beam. To evaluate the shielding factor, a standard radiological purpose lead apron was chosen. For both studies, thermoluminescence dosimeters were used to measure the point dose, and an Alderson RANDO-phantom was used to simulate a female pregnant patient in this study. Thirteen measurement points were chosen in the 32nd slice of the phantom to cover all possible locations of a fetus up to 8th week of gestation. Results: The results show that both of the TPS algorithms are incapable of calculating the fetal doses, therefore, unable to reduce them at the planning stage. Shielding with a standard lead apron, however, showed a slight radiation protection (about 4.7% to the fetus decreasing the mean fetal dose from 84.8 mGy to 80.8 mGy, which cannot be disregarded in case of fetal irradiation. Conclusions: Using a lead apron for shielding the abdominal region of a pregnant patient during breast irradiation showed a minor advantage; however, its possible side effects (i.e., increased scattered radiation and skin dose should also be investigated further to solidify its benefits.

  16. Scatter and leakage contributions to the out-of-field absorbed dose distribution in water phantom around the medical LINAC radiation beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bordy, J.M.; Bessiere, I.; Ostrowsky, A.; Poumarede, B.; Sorel, S.; Vermesse, D.

    2013-01-01

    This work is carried out within the framework of EURADOS Working Group 9 (WG9) whose general objective is 'to assess non-target organ doses in radiotherapy and the related risks of second cancers, with the emphasis on dosimetry'. The objective of the present work is to provide reference values (i) to evaluate the current methods of deriving three-dimensional dose distributions in and around the target volume using passive dosimeters, (ii) to derive the leakage dose from the head of the medical linear accelerator (LINAC) and the doses due to scattered radiation from the collimator edges and the body (phantom) itself. Radiation qualities of 6, 12 and 20 MV are used with standard calibration conditions described in IAEA TRS 398 and nonstandard conditions at a reference facility at the Laboratoire National Henri Becquerel (CEA LIST/LNE LNHB). An ionisation chamber is used to measure profile and depth dose in especially design water phantom built to enable investigation of doses up to 60 cm from the beam axis. A first set of experiments is carried out with the beam passing through the tank. From this first experiment, penumbra and out-of-field dose profiles including water and collimator scatter and leakage are found over three orders of magnitude. Two further sets of experiments using the same experimental arrangement with the beam outside the tank, to avoid water scatter, are designed to measure collimator scatter and leakage by closing the jaws of the collimator. It is shown that the ratios between water scatter, collimator scatter and leakage depend on the photon energy. Depending on the energy, typical leakage and collimator scatter represents 10-40% and 30-50% of the total out-of-field doses respectively. Water scatter decreases with energy while leakage increases with energy, and collimator scatter varies only slowly with energy. (authors)

  17. Comparison of the local dose of scattered radiation of a special dental - phantom and a real human head by using a Digital Volume Tomography (DVT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neuwirth, J.; Hefner, A.

    2008-01-01

    Dental Radiography Digital Volume Tomography (DVT) gains more and more importance due to its possibility of three-dimensional imaging of teeth, jaw and visercoranium and the reduced radiation dose in comparison to conventional Computer Tomography (CT). Contrary to other, well documented radiographic procedures like dental panorama X-ray imaging there are no national or international guidelines or recommendations relating to DVT which regulate the designation of areas and standardize risk assessment. This study aims to assess the parameters necessary for local radiation protection in dental practices. Measurements were carried out in dental practices in order to evaluate the local dose resulting from different DVT devices. A special dental-phantom and a real human head were used in the irradiations in order to define the local dose of scattered radiation by nominal voltage. The dental-phantom was created for conventional dental panorama X-ray devices which make use of lower nominal voltages. This poses the question if the scatter performance of the special dental-phantom is comparable to a real human head and therefore applicable to the estimation of the radiation quality of a DVT when using 120 kV. The existing guidelines for dental panorama xray are analyzed and suggestions for future recommendations concerning the designation of areas and risk assessment for DVT are then deducted by comparing both sets of measurements. The results show that the special dental-phantom is absolutely suitable for the definition of the local dose resulting from the scattered radiation of a DVT. (author)

  18. Effects of tube potential and scatter rejection on image quality and effective dose in digital chest X-ray examination: An anthropomorphic phantom study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, D.J.; Crawshaw, I.; Rimmer, S.D.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of tube potential and scatter rejection techniques on image quality of digital posteroanterior (PA) chest radiographs. Methods: An anthropomorphic phantom was imaged using a range of tube potentials (81–125 kV p ) without scatter rejection, with an anti-scatter grid, and using a 10 cm air gap. Images were anonymised and randomised before being evaluated using a visual graded analysis (VGA) method. Results: The effects of tube potential on image quality were found to be negligible (p > 0.63) for the flat panel detector (FPD). Decreased image quality (p = 0.031) was noted for 125 kV p relative to 109 kV p , though no difference was noted for any of the other potentials (p > 0.398) for computed radiography (CR). Both scatter rejection techniques improved image quality (p p . Scatter rejection improved image quality, but with no difference found between techniques. The air-gap resulted in a smaller increase in effective dose than the anti-scatter grid and would be the preferred scatter rejection technique

  19. Pseudoscalar form factors in tau-neutrino nucleon scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagiwara, K.; Mawatari, K.; Yokoya, H.

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the pseudoscalar transition form factors of nucleon for quasi-elastic scattering and Δ resonance production in tau-neutrino nucleon scattering via the charged current interactions. Although the pseudoscalar form factors play an important role for the τ production in neutrino-nucleon scattering, these are not known well. In this Letter, we examine their effects in quasi-elastic scattering and Δ resonance production and find that the cross section, Q 2 distribution, and spin polarization of the produced τ ± leptons are quite sensitive to the pseudoscalar form factors

  20. NADH-fluorescence scattering correction for absolute concentration determination in a liquid tissue phantom using a novel multispectral magnetic-resonance-imaging-compatible needle probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Frank; Schalk, Robert; Heintz, Annabell; Feike, Patrick; Firmowski, Sebastian; Beuermann, Thomas; Methner, Frank-Jürgen; Kränzlin, Bettina; Gretz, Norbert; Rädle, Matthias

    2017-07-01

    In this report, a quantitative nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide hydrate (NADH) fluorescence measurement algorithm in a liquid tissue phantom using a fiber-optic needle probe is presented. To determine the absolute concentrations of NADH in this phantom, the fluorescence emission spectra at 465 nm were corrected using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy between 600 nm and 940 nm. The patented autoclavable Nitinol needle probe enables the acquisition of multispectral backscattering measurements of ultraviolet, visible, near-infrared and fluorescence spectra. As a phantom, a suspension of calcium carbonate (Calcilit) and water with physiological NADH concentrations between 0 mmol l-1 and 2.0 mmol l-1 were used to mimic human tissue. The light scattering characteristics were adjusted to match the backscattering attributes of human skin by modifying the concentration of Calcilit. To correct the scattering effects caused by the matrices of the samples, an algorithm based on the backscattered remission spectrum was employed to compensate the influence of multiscattering on the optical pathway through the dispersed phase. The monitored backscattered visible light was used to correct the fluorescence spectra and thereby to determine the true NADH concentrations at unknown Calcilit concentrations. Despite the simplicity of the presented algorithm, the root-mean-square error of prediction (RMSEP) was 0.093 mmol l-1.

  1. The equivalent square concept for the head scatter factor based on scatter from flattening filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Siyong; Palta, Jatinder R.; Zhu, Timothy C.

    1998-01-01

    The equivalent field relationship between square and circular fields for the head scatter factor was evaluated at the source plane. The method was based on integrating the head scatter parameter for projected shaped fields in the source plane and finding a field that produced the same ratio of head scatter to primary dose on the central axis. A value of σ/R≅0.9 was obtained, where σ was one-half of the side length of the equivalent square and R was the radius of the circular field. The assumptions were that the equivalent field relationship for head scatter depends primarily on the characteristics of scatter from the flattening filter, and that the differential scatter-to-primary ratio of scatter from the flattening filter decreases linearly with the radius, within the physical radius of the flattening filter. Lam and co-workers showed empirically that the area-to-perimeter ratio formula, when applied to an equivalent square formula at the flattening filter plane, gave an accurate prediction of the head scatter factor. We have analytically investigated the validity of the area-to-perimeter ratio formula. Our results support the fact that the area-to-perimeter ratio formula can also be used as the equivalent field formula for head scatter at the source plane. The equivalent field relationships for wedge and tertiary collimator scatter were also evaluated. (author)

  2. The equivalent square concept for the head scatter factor based on scatter from flattening filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Siyong; Palta, Jatinder R.; Zhu, Timothy C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, Florida (United States)

    1998-06-01

    The equivalent field relationship between square and circular fields for the head scatter factor was evaluated at the source plane. The method was based on integrating the head scatter parameter for projected shaped fields in the source plane and finding a field that produced the same ratio of head scatter to primary dose on the central axis. A value of {sigma}/R{approx_equal}0.9 was obtained, where {sigma} was one-half of the side length of the equivalent square and R was the radius of the circular field. The assumptions were that the equivalent field relationship for head scatter depends primarily on the characteristics of scatter from the flattening filter, and that the differential scatter-to-primary ratio of scatter from the flattening filter decreases linearly with the radius, within the physical radius of the flattening filter. Lam and co-workers showed empirically that the area-to-perimeter ratio formula, when applied to an equivalent square formula at the flattening filter plane, gave an accurate prediction of the head scatter factor. We have analytically investigated the validity of the area-to-perimeter ratio formula. Our results support the fact that the area-to-perimeter ratio formula can also be used as the equivalent field formula for head scatter at the source plane. The equivalent field relationships for wedge and tertiary collimator scatter were also evaluated. (author)

  3. Comparison of internal dosimetry factors for three classes of adult computational phantoms with emphasis on I-131 in the thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamart, Stephanie; Simon, Steven L; Lee, Choonsik; Bouville, Andre; Eckerman, Keith F; Melo, Dunstana

    2011-01-01

    source region for selected target organs—small intestine wall, lungs, pancreas and breast—as well as illustrate differences in energy deposition across the energy range (12 photon energies from 0.01 to 4 MeV). Differences were found in the SAFs between phantoms in a similar manner as the differences observed in S values but with larger differences at lower photon energies. To investigate the differences observed in the S and SAF values, the chord length distributions (CLDs) were computed for the selected source–target pairs and compared across the phantoms. As demonstrated by the CLDs, we found that the differences between phantoms in those factors used in internal dosimetry were governed to a significant degree by inter-organ distances which are a function of organ shape as well as organ location.

  4. Comparison of internal dosimetry factors for three classes of adult computational phantoms with emphasis on I-131 in the thyroid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamart, Stephanie; Bouville, Andre; Simon, Steven L.; Eckerman, Keith F.; Melo, Dunstana; Lee, Choonsik

    2011-11-01

    source region for selected target organs—small intestine wall, lungs, pancreas and breast—as well as illustrate differences in energy deposition across the energy range (12 photon energies from 0.01 to 4 MeV). Differences were found in the SAFs between phantoms in a similar manner as the differences observed in S values but with larger differences at lower photon energies. To investigate the differences observed in the S and SAF values, the chord length distributions (CLDs) were computed for the selected source-target pairs and compared across the phantoms. As demonstrated by the CLDs, we found that the differences between phantoms in those factors used in internal dosimetry were governed to a significant degree by inter-organ distances which are a function of organ shape as well as organ location.

  5. Debye-Waller Factor in Neutron Scattering by Ferromagnetic Metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradezhenko, G. V.; Melnikov, N. B.; Reser, B. I.

    2018-04-01

    We obtain an expression for the neutron scattering cross section in the case of an arbitrary interaction of the neutron with the crystal. We give a concise, simple derivation of the Debye-Waller factor as a function of the scattering vector and the temperature. For ferromagnetic metals above the Curie temperature, we estimate the Debye-Waller factor in the range of scattering vectors characteristic of polarized magnetic neutron scattering experiments. In the example of iron, we compare the results of harmonic and anharmonic approximations.

  6. Phantom Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Because this is yet another version of tangled sensory wires, the result can be pain. A number of other factors are believed to contribute to phantom pain, including damaged nerve endings, scar tissue at the site of the amputation and the physical memory of pre-amputation pain in the affected area. ...

  7. An investigation of accelerator head scatter and output factor in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, George X.

    2004-01-01

    Our purpose in this study was to investigate whether the Monte Carlo simulation can accurately predict output factors in air. Secondary goals were to study the head scatter components and investigate the collimator exchange effect. The Monte Carlo code, BEAMnrc, was used in the study. Photon beams of 6 and 18 MV were from a Varian Clinac 2100EX accelerator and the measurements were performed using an ionization chamber in a mini-phantom. The Monte Carlo calculated in air output factors was within 1% of measured values. The simulation provided information of the origin and the magnitude of the collimator exchange effect. It was shown that the collimator backscatter to the beam monitor chamber played a significant role in the beam output factors. However the magnitude of the scattered dose contributions from the collimator at the isocenter is negligible. The maximum scattered dose contribution from the collimators was about 0.15% and 0.4% of the total dose at the isocenter for a 6 and 18 MV beam, respectively. The scattered dose contributions from the flattening filter at the isocenter were about 0.9-3% and 0.2-6% of the total dose for field sizes of 4x4 cm 2 -40x40 cm 2 for the 6 and 18 MV beam, respectively. The study suggests that measurements of head scatter factors be done at large depth well beyond the depth of electron contamination. The insight information may have some implications for developing generalized empirical models to calculate the head scatter

  8. Evaluation of influence by room-scattered neutrons and source-to-phantom geometrical effect for calibration of personal neutron dosemeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Tadayoshi; Tsujimura, Norio

    2005-01-01

    Correction for the influence of room-scattered neutrons in irradiation rooms is essential in the case of calibrating neutron dosemeters. The ISO8529-2 recommends some correction method such as the shadow-cone method and the generalized-fit method for the calibration of neutron ambient dose equivalent (rate) meters. However, the ISO standard does not describe the correction methods for personal neutron dosemeters in detail. The authors investigated the variation of responses of neutron detectors mounted on phantom as a function of source-to-phantom distance, and discussed the applicability of the shadow-cone method and generalized-fit method for calibrating personal neutron dosemeters. The measurements were carried out using 3 He and hydrogen-filled proportional counters as surrogates of albedo and recoil-proton type dosemeters, respectively, at different distances ranging from 30 cm to 400 cm. As a result, it was clarified that both correction methods are applicable for recoil-proton type detectors over any distance. Contrarily, for albedo-type detectors, the variation of response does not follow the curve predicted from the generalized fit method at distances smaller than 70 cm. This result strongly suggests that the correction for source-to-phantom geometry effect should be made for calibrating albedo-type detectors at smaller distances. (author)

  9. Robust parameterization of elastic and absorptive electron atomic scattering factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, L.M.; Ren, G.; Dudarev, S.L.; Whelan, M.J.

    1996-01-01

    A robust algorithm and computer program have been developed for the parameterization of elastic and absorptive electron atomic scattering factors. The algorithm is based on a combined modified simulated-annealing and least-squares method, and the computer program works well for fitting both elastic and absorptive atomic scattering factors with five Gaussians. As an application of this program, the elastic electron atomic scattering factors have been parameterized for all neutral atoms and for s up to 6 A -1 . Error analysis shows that the present results are considerably more accurate than the previous analytical fits in terms of the mean square value of the deviation between the numerical and fitted scattering factors. Parameterization for absorptive atomic scattering factors has been made for 17 important materials with the zinc blende structure over the temperature range 1 to 1000 K, where appropriate, and for temperature ranges for which accurate Debye-Waller factors are available. For other materials, the parameterization of the absorptive electron atomic scattering factors can be made using the program by supplying the atomic number of the element, the Debye-Waller factor and the acceleration voltage. For ions or when more accurate numerical results for neutral atoms are available, the program can read in the numerical values of the elastic scattering factors and return the parameters for both the elastic and absorptive scattering factors. The computer routines developed have been tested both on computer workstations and desktop PC computers, and will be made freely available via electronic mail or on floppy disk upon request. (orig.)

  10. Monte Carlo study of correction factors for the use of plastic phantoms in clinical electron dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araki, Fujio

    2007-01-01

    In some recent dosimetry protocols, plastic is allowed as a phantom material for the determination of an absorbed dose to water in electron beams, especially for low energy with beam qualities R 50 2 . In electron dosimetry with plastic, a depth-scaling factor, c pl , and a chamber-dependent fluence correction factor, h pl , are needed to convert the dose measured at a water-equivalent reference depth in plastic to a dose at a reference depth in water. The purpose of this study is to calculate correction factors for the use of plastic phantoms for clinical electron dosimetry using the EGSnrc Monte Carlo code system. RMI-457 and WE-211 were investigated as phantom materials. First the c pl values for plastic materials were calculated as a function of a half-value depth of maximum ionization, I 50 , in plastic. The c pl values for RMI-457 and WE-211 varied from 0.992 to 1.002 and from 0.971 to 0.979, respectively, in a range of nominal energies from 4 MeV to 18 MeV, and varied slightly as a function of I 50 in plastic. Since h pl values depend on the wall correction factor, P wall , of the chamber used, they are evaluated using a pure electron fluence correction factor, φ pl w , and P wall w and P wall pl for a combination of water or plastic phantoms and plane-parallel ionization chambers (NACP-02, Markus and Roos). The φ pl w and P wall (P wall w and P wall pl ) values were calculated as a function of the water-equivalent depth in plastic materials and at a reference depth as a function of R 50 in water, respectively. The φ pl w values varied from 1.024 at 4 MeV to 1.013 at 18 MeV for RMI-457, and from 1.025 to 1.016 for WE-211. P wall w values for plane-parallel chambers showed values in the order of 1.5% to 2% larger than unity at 4 MeV, consistent with earlier results. The P wall pl values of RMI-457 and WE-211 were close to unity for all the energy beams. Finally, calculated h pl values of RMI-457 ranged from 1.009 to 1.005, from 1.010 to 1.003 and from 1

  11. Activated human neutrophils release hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McCourt, M

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: Hepatocyte growth factor or scatter factor (HGF\\/SF) is a pleiotropic cytokine that has potent angiogenic properties. We have previously demonstrated that neutrophils (PMN) are directly angiogenic by releasing vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). We hypothesized that the acute inflammatory response can stimulate PMN to release HGF. AIMS: To examine the effects of inflammatory mediators on PMN HGF release and the effect of recombinant human HGF (rhHGF) on PMN adhesion receptor expression and PMN VEGF release. METHODS: In the first experiment, PMN were isolated from healthy volunteers and stimulated with tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), lipopolysaccharide (LPS), interleukin-8 (IL-8), and formyl methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP). Culture supernatants were assayed for HGF using ELISA. In the second experiment, PMN were lysed to measure total HGF release and HGF expression in the PMN was detected by Western immunoblotting. Finally, PMN were stimulated with rhHGF. PMN CD 11a, CD 11b, and CD 18 receptor expression and VEGF release was measured using flow cytometry and ELISA respectively. RESULTS: TNF-alpha, LPS and fMLP stimulation resulted in significantly increased release of PMN HGF (755+\\/-216, 484+\\/-221 and 565+\\/-278 pg\\/ml, respectively) compared to controls (118+\\/-42 pg\\/ml). IL-8 had no effect. Total HGF release following cell lysis and Western blot suggests that HGF is released from intracellular stores. Recombinant human HGF did not alter PMN adhesion receptor expression and had no effect on PMN VEGF release. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that pro-inflammatory mediators can stimulate HGF release from a PMN intracellular store and that activated PMN in addition to secreting VEGF have further angiogenic potential by releasing HGF.

  12. Using NURBS type phantoms for the investigation of morphological factors affecting pulmonary anthropo-radiometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farah, J.; Broggio, D.; Franck, D.

    2010-01-01

    As existing phantoms used for the calibration of dosimetry measurements, notably in anthropo-radiometry, exhibit a poor anatomic realism because of their crude geometries, compositions and densities, and some other drawbacks, the authors, within the frame of improvement of calibration techniques, report the combined use of Mesh and NURBS-type phantoms (Non Uniform Rational B-Splines) which allow smooth shapes and finer geometries to be replicated. More precisely, they report the application of this type of phantoms to the modelling of a thorax and of a ribcage. They describe the protocols used to generate these phantoms and how some variations are introduced to take morphological characteristics (for example a female thorax) as well as various gamma ray distributions into account. Results are discussed in terms of validation of phantoms, and morphology variation

  13. Individualized adjustments to reference phantom internal organ dosimetry—scaling factors given knowledge of patient external anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayson, Michael B.; Bolch, Wesley E.

    2018-04-01

    Internal radiation dose estimates for diagnostic nuclear medicine procedures are typically calculated for a reference individual. Resultantly, there is uncertainty when determining the organ doses to patients who are not at 50th percentile on either height or weight. This study aims to better personalize internal radiation dose estimates for individual patients by modifying the dose estimates calculated for reference individuals based on easily obtainable morphometric characteristics of the patient. Phantoms of different sitting heights and waist circumferences were constructed based on computational reference phantoms for the newborn, 10 year-old, and adult. Monoenergetic photons and electrons were then simulated separately at 15 energies. Photon and electron specific absorbed fractions (SAFs) were computed for the newly constructed non-reference phantoms and compared to SAFs previously generated for the age-matched reference phantoms. Differences in SAFs were correlated to changes in sitting height and waist circumference to develop scaling factors that could be applied to reference SAFs as morphometry corrections. A further set of arbitrary non-reference phantoms were then constructed and used in validation studies for the SAF scaling factors. Both photon and electron dose scaling methods were found to increase average accuracy when sitting height was used as the scaling parameter (~11%). Photon waist circumference-based scaling factors showed modest increases in average accuracy (~7%) for underweight individuals, but not for overweight individuals. Electron waist circumference-based scaling factors did not show increases in average accuracy. When sitting height and waist circumference scaling factors were combined, modest average gains in accuracy were observed for photons (~6%), but not for electrons. Both photon and electron absorbed doses are more reliably scaled using scaling factors computed in this study. They can be effectively scaled using sitting

  14. Individualized adjustments to reference phantom internal organ dosimetry-scaling factors given knowledge of patient external anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayson, Michael B; Bolch, Wesley E

    2018-04-13

    Internal radiation dose estimates for diagnostic nuclear medicine procedures are typically calculated for a reference individual. Resultantly, there is uncertainty when determining the organ doses to patients who are not at 50th percentile on either height or weight. This study aims to better personalize internal radiation dose estimates for individual patients by modifying the dose estimates calculated for reference individuals based on easily obtainable morphometric characteristics of the patient. Phantoms of different sitting heights and waist circumferences were constructed based on computational reference phantoms for the newborn, 10 year-old, and adult. Monoenergetic photons and electrons were then simulated separately at 15 energies. Photon and electron specific absorbed fractions (SAFs) were computed for the newly constructed non-reference phantoms and compared to SAFs previously generated for the age-matched reference phantoms. Differences in SAFs were correlated to changes in sitting height and waist circumference to develop scaling factors that could be applied to reference SAFs as morphometry corrections. A further set of arbitrary non-reference phantoms were then constructed and used in validation studies for the SAF scaling factors. Both photon and electron dose scaling methods were found to increase average accuracy when sitting height was used as the scaling parameter (~11%). Photon waist circumference-based scaling factors showed modest increases in average accuracy (~7%) for underweight individuals, but not for overweight individuals. Electron waist circumference-based scaling factors did not show increases in average accuracy. When sitting height and waist circumference scaling factors were combined, modest average gains in accuracy were observed for photons (~6%), but not for electrons. Both photon and electron absorbed doses are more reliably scaled using scaling factors computed in this study. They can be effectively scaled using sitting

  15. Evaluation of factors influencing arterial Doppler waveforms in an in vitro flow phantom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, Chang Kyu [Dept. of Radiology, SMG-SNU Boramae Medical Center, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kyoung Ho [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seung Hyup [Dept. of Radiology and the Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-01-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate factors that influence arterial Doppler waveforms in an in vitro phantom to provide a more accurate and comprehensive explanation of the Doppler signal. A flow model was created using a pulsatile artificial heart, rubber or polyethylene tubes, a water tank, and a glass tube. Spectral Doppler tracings were obtained in multiple combinations of compliance, resistance, and pulse rate. Peak systolic velocity, minimum diastolic velocity, resistive index (RI), pulsatility index, early systolic acceleration time, and acceleration index were measured. On the basis of these measurements, the influences of the variables on the Doppler waveforms were analyzed. With increasing distal resistance, the RI increased in a relatively linear relationship. With increasing proximal resistance, the RI decreased. The pulsus tardus and parvus phenomenon was observed with a small acceleration index in the model with a higher grade of stenosis. An increase in the distal resistance masked the pulsus tardus and parvus phenomenon by increasing the acceleration index. Although this phenomenon occurred independently of compliance, changes in the compliance of proximal or distal tubes caused significant changes in the Doppler waveform. There was a reverse relationship between the RI and the pulse rate. Resistance and compliance can alter the Doppler waveforms independently. The pulse rate is an extrinsic factor that also influences the RI. The compliance and distal resistance, as well as proximal resistance, influence the pulsus tardus and parvus phenomenon.

  16. Optimizing cone beam CT scatter estimation in egs_cbct for a clinical and virtual chest phantom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slot Thing, Rune; Mainegra-Hing, Ernesto

    2014-01-01

    improving techniques (EITs) implemented inegs_cbct were varied. Simulation efficiencies were compared to analog simulations performed without using any EITs. Resulting scatter distributions were confirmed unbiased against the analog simulations. RESULTS: The optimal EIT parameter selection depends...... reduction techniques with a built-in denoising algorithm, efficiency improvements of 4 orders of magnitude were achieved. CONCLUSIONS: Using the built-in EITs inegs_cbct can improve scatter calculation efficiencies by more than 4 orders of magnitude. To achieve this, the user must optimize the input...

  17. Dose distribution around Ir192 brachytherapy source in non-full scattering conditions: comparison of in-phantom measurements and Nucletron-Oldelft plato system calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jastrzembski, Michal; Kabacinska, Renata; Makarewicz, Roman

    1996-01-01

    Introduction: Comparing the values of doses measured in vivo during gynaecological brachytherapy with those computed with the use of Nucletron-Oldelft brachytherapy treatment planning system a high level of uncertainty appears. In case of points located close to the media border this is also due to the lack of scattering in this region. The influence of the lack of scattering on dose distribution has been investigated. Measured data has been compared to those given by Nucletron-Oldelft BPS. Materials and methods: Profiles in a large water phantom (PTW MP3 system) has been measured in directions perpendicular to the long axis of the fixed source at varied water level and at varied source-to-detector distances. Normalization values for the curves has been acquired by absolute dose measurements. Obtained data has been compared to profiles calculated in the same axes by Nucletron-Oldelft BPS. Results: The lack of scattering in the region close to water surface (up to 8cm) results in significant drop in measured dose. The decrease depends both on the distance from the medium border and on the distance from the source. For source-to-detector distance of 6.5cm the difference between calculated and measured dose is 8% for 3cm and 21% for 1cm of water above the source. Profiles in this region become flattened and asymmetric according to the drop in dose level. Conclusions: The lack of scattering in the region close to the patient skin results in significant drop in dose which is not taken into account by Nucletron-Oldelft BPS. This means that dose distribution calculated in this region by the System is not correct

  18. Experimental determination of the angular dependence factor for the dose equivalent for photons in calibration phantoms of PMMA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, E.; Carlsson, C.A.; Pernicka, F.

    1994-01-01

    The conversion coefficients from air kerma to dose equivalent at a depth of 10 mm in both a spherical and a slab phantom of PMMA have been determined for the X ray qualities: 40, 80 and 295 kV, ISO 'narrow' spectra; and for 137 Cs γ rays. The angular dependence factors have been experimentally determined for the same qualities and for different angles between 0 o and 180 o . The absorbed doses have been measured with thermoluminescence LiF dosemeters. The conversion coefficients and the angular dependence factors are generally found to agree well with calculated ones. Some minor discrepancies are found for the angular dependence factors and the 30 x 30 x 15 cm 3 PMMA slab phantom. (Author)

  19. Symbol phantoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Hongo, Syozo; Takeshita, Hiroshi

    1990-01-01

    We have developed Japanese phantoms in two procedures for computation of organ doses exposed to internal and/or external radiation sources. One method is to make mathematical phantoms on the basis of ORNL mathematical phantoms. Parameters to specify organs of Japanese mathematical phantom are determined by interpolations of the ORNL data, which define the organs of Caucasian males and females of various ages, i.e. new born, 1, 5, 10, 15 years and adult, with survey data for Japanese physiques. Another procedure is to build 'symbol phantoms' for the Japanese public. The concept and its method of the symbol phantom enables us to make a phantom for an individual when we have all of his transversal section images obtained by a medical imaging device like MRI, and thus we may achieve more realistic phantoms for Japanese public than the mathematical phantoms. Both studies are in progress in NIRS. (author)

  20. Reconstruction of atomic effective potentials from isotropic scattering factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romera, E.; Angulo, J.C.; Torres, J.J.

    2002-01-01

    We present a method for the approximate determination of one-electron effective potentials of many-electron systems from a finite number of values of the isotropic scattering factor. The method is based on the minimum cross-entropy technique. An application to some neutral ground-state atomic systems has been done within a Hartree-Fock framework

  1. Distance factor on reducing scattered radiation risk during interventional fluoroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Husaini Salleh; Mohd Khalid Matori; Muhammad Jamal Mat Isa; Zainal Jamaluddin; Mohd Firdaus Abdul Rahman; Mohd Khairusalih Mohd Zin

    2012-01-01

    Interventional Radiology (IR) is subspecialty of diagnostic radiology where minimally invasive procedures are performed using an x-ray as a guidance. This procedure can deliver high radiation doses to patient and medical staff compared with other radiological method due to long screening time. The use of proper shielding, shorten the exposure time and keep the distance are the practices to reduce scattered radiation risks to staff involve in this procedure. This project is to study the distance factor on reducing the scattered radiation effect to the medical staff. It also may provide the useful information which can be use to establish the scattered radiation profile during the IR for the sake of radiation protection and safety to the medical staff involved. (author)

  2. A Novel Simple Phantom for Verifying the Dose of Radiation Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. H. Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A standard protocol of dosimetric measurements is used by the organizations responsible for verifying that the doses delivered in radiation-therapy institutions are within authorized limits. This study evaluated a self-designed simple auditing phantom for use in verifying the dose of radiation therapy; the phantom design, dose audit system, and clinical tests are described. Thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs were used as postal dosimeters, and mailable phantoms were produced for use in postal audits. Correction factors are important for converting TLD readout values from phantoms into the absorbed dose in water. The phantom scatter correction factor was used to quantify the difference in the scattered dose between a solid water phantom and homemade phantoms; its value ranged from 1.084 to 1.031. The energy-dependence correction factor was used to compare the TLD readout of the unit dose irradiated by audit beam energies with 60Co in the solid water phantom; its value was 0.99 to 1.01. The setup-condition factor was used to correct for differences in dose-output calibration conditions. Clinical tests of the device calibrating the dose output revealed that the dose deviation was within 3%. Therefore, our homemade phantoms and dosimetric system can be applied for accurately verifying the doses applied in radiation-therapy institutions.

  3. Analytical evaluation of atomic form factors: Application to Rayleigh scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Safari, L., E-mail: laleh.safari@ist.ac.at [IST Austria (Institute of Science and Technology Austria), Am Campus 1, 3400 Klosterneuburg (Austria); Department of Physics, University of Oulu, Box 3000, FI-90014 Oulu (Finland); Santos, J. P. [Laboratório de Instrumentação, Engenharia Biomédica e Física da Radiação (LIBPhys-UNL), Departamento de Física, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, FCT, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Amaro, P. [Laboratório de Instrumentação, Engenharia Biomédica e Física da Radiação (LIBPhys-UNL), Departamento de Física, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, FCT, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Physikalisches Institut, Universität Heidelberg, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Jänkälä, K. [Department of Physics, University of Oulu, Box 3000, FI-90014 Oulu (Finland); Fratini, F. [Department of Physics, University of Oulu, Box 3000, FI-90014 Oulu (Finland); Institute of Atomic and Subatomic Physics, TU Wien, Stadionallee 2, 1020 Wien (Austria); Departamento de Física, Instituto de Ciências Exatas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, 31270-901 Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2015-05-15

    Atomic form factors are widely used for the characterization of targets and specimens, from crystallography to biology. By using recent mathematical results, here we derive an analytical expression for the atomic form factor within the independent particle model constructed from nonrelativistic screened hydrogenic wave functions. The range of validity of this analytical expression is checked by comparing the analytically obtained form factors with the ones obtained within the Hartee-Fock method. As an example, we apply our analytical expression for the atomic form factor to evaluate the differential cross section for Rayleigh scattering off neutral atoms.

  4. Soft factors for double parton scattering at NNLO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vladimirov, Alexey [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Universität Regensburg,D-93040 Regensburg (Germany)

    2016-12-13

    We show at NNLO that the soft factors for double parton scattering (DPS) for both integrated and unintegrated kinematics, can be presented entirely in the terms of the soft factor for single Drell-Yan process, i.e. the transverse momentum dependent (TMD) soft factor. Using the linearity of the logarithm of TMD soft factor in rapidity divergences, we decompose the DPS soft factor matrices into a product of matrices with rapidity divergences in given sectors, and thus, define individual double parton distributions at NNLO. The rapidity anomalous dimension matrices for double parton distributions are presented in the terms of TMD rapidity anomalous dimension. The analysis is done using the generating function approach to web diagrams. Significant part of the result is obtained from the symmetry properties of web diagrams without referring to explicit expressions or a particular rapidity regularization scheme. Additionally, we present NNLO expression for the web diagram generating function for Wilson lines with two light-like directions.

  5. Atomic form factors, incoherent scattering functions, and photon scattering cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubbell, J.H.; Veigele, W.J.; Briggs, E.A.; Brown, R.T.; Cromer, D.T.; Howerton, R.J.

    1975-01-01

    Tabulations are presented of the atomic form factor, F (α,Z), and the incoherent scattering function, S (x,Z), for values of x (=sin theta/2)/lambda) from 0.005 A -1 to 10 9 A -1 , for all elements A=1 to 100. These tables are constructed from available state-of-the-art theoretical data, including the Pirenne formulas for Z=1, configuration-into action results by Brown using Brown-Fontana and Weiss correlated wavefunctions for Z=2 to 6 non-relativistic Hartree-Fock results by Cromer for Z=7 to 100 and a relativistic K-shell analytic expression for F (x,Z) by Bethe Levinger for x>10 A -1 for all elements Z=2 to 100. These tabulated values are graphically compared with available photon scattering angular distribution measurements. Tables of coherent (Rayleigh) and incoherent (Compton) total scattering cross sections obtained by nummerical integration over combinations of F 2 (x,Z) with the Thomson formula and S (x,Z) with the Klum-Nishina Formual, respectively, are presented for all elements Z=1 to 100, for photon energies 100 eV (lambda=124 A) to 100 MeV (0.000124 A). The incoherent scattering cross sections also include the radiative and double-Compton corrections as given by Mork. Similar tables are presented for the special cases of terminally-bonded hydrogen and for the H 2 molecule, interpolated and extrapolated from values calculated by Stewart et al., and by Bentley and Stewart using Kolos-Roothaan wavefunctions

  6. Evaluation of radiotherapy beams attenuation and scattering caused by a printed phantom filled with an organic solution used in nanoparticle synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correa, Eduardo L.; Bosch-Santos, Brianna; Veneziani, Glauco R.; Vivolo, Vitor; Carbonari, Artur W.; Potiens, Maria da Penha A.

    2015-01-01

    In the past years nanotechnology has been distinguishing as a quick growing field, with many medical applications including drug delivery and medical images. For medical procedures gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have been widely studied. The characteristics that make this material a good option to improve radiosensitivity in a specific tissue are their stability in a biological ambient and affinity to polyethylene glycol, which reduces its toxicity in mammals. A good method to produce AuNPs for medical applications is thermal decomposition, which is known for providing homogenous nanostructures and narrow size distribution. This production process consists in mixing gold acetate in an organic solution containing diphenyl ether, oleylamine, oleic acid and 1,2 octanediol, which is kept in a temperature of 300 deg C for about two hours. After cooled the mixture must be centrifuged and washed in order to obtain the nanostructured grains. In this study a behavior comparison between water and the organic solution was made. The goal is to verify the viability of using this solution, instead of water, with a 3D printed phantom, as a dosimetric reference, since the removal process of nanoparticles from this solution to take them to water may cause a huge material loss. The comparison procedure was made in an industrial X-ray system operating in a voltage range from 10 kV to 50 kV. The results presented a variation up to 42.2 % between water and the organic solution radiation attenuation and up to 30 % for radiation scattering. (author)

  7. Parametrisation of the collimator scatter correction factors of square and rectangular photon beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jager, H.N.; Heukelom, S.; Kleffens, H.J. van; Gasteren, J.J.M. van; Laarse, R. van der; Venselaar, J.L.M.; Westermann, C.F.

    1995-01-01

    Collimator scatter correction factors S c have been measured with a cylindrical mini-phantom for five types of dual photon energy accelerators with energies between 6 and 25 MV. Using these S c -data three methods to parametrize S c of square fields have been compared including a third-order polynomial of the natural logarithm of the fieldsize normalised by the fieldsize of 10 cm 2 . Also six methods to calculate S c of rectangular fields have been compared including a new one which determines the equivalent fieldsize by extending Sterling's method. The deviation between measured and calculated S c for every accelerator, energy and all methods are determined resulting in the maximum and average deviation per method. Applied to square fields the maximum and average deviation were for the method of Chen 0.64% and 0.15%, of Szymzcyk 0.98% and 0.21%, and of this work 0.41% and 0.10%. For the rectangular fields the deviations were for the method of Sterling 1.89% and 0.50%, of Vadash 1.60% and 0.28%, of Szymczyk et al. 1.21% and 0.25%, of Chen 1.84% and 0.31% and of this work 0.79% and 0.20%. Finally, a recommendation is given how to limit the number of fields at which S c should be measured

  8. Factors affecting methylmercury biomagnification by a widespread aquatic invertebrate predator, the phantom midge larvae Chaoborus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Jeune, Anne-Hélène; Bourdiol, Floriane; Aldamman, Lama; Perron, Tania; Amyot, Marc; Pinel-Alloul, Bernadette

    2012-01-01

    MeHg biomagnification by the phantom midge Chaoborus in relation to MeHg concentrations in their prey and its migratory behavior was investigated in two Canadian Precambrian Shield lakes. Three Chaoborus species with contrasted migratory behavior were collected in a fishless and a fish-inhabited lake. All species accumulated MeHg through their ontogenic development. In the lake inhabited by fish, all instars of Chaoborus punctipennis displayed a marked migratory behavior and were unable to biomagnify MeHg, whereas in the fishless lake, Chaoborus americanus and Chaoborus trivittatus biomagnified MeHg. Reduced biomagnification capacity of C. trivittatus, the coexisting species living with C. americanus, was also ascribed to a progressive vertical segregation with age. Growth dilution, amount and type of prey items or trophic position could not explain the different patterns of biomagnification. Our findings demonstrate that the most common invertebrate predator of temperate planktonic food webs can biomagnify mercury, contrarily to previous reports. - Highlights: ► Chaoborids are key invertebrate predators of temperate freshwater food webs. ► We sampled three Chaoborus species with contrasted migratory behavior. ► All species accumulated MeHg through their development. ► We found that some species could biomagnify mercury. ► The best biomagnifiers were those who migrated the least. - Chaoborids, the most common invertebrate predator of temperate planktonic food webs, can biomagnify mercury, contrarily to previous reports.

  9. Blood flow measurement of transverse sinuses by using MR: a phantom study of its influence factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Gejun; Feng Xiaoyuan; Li Yuan; Geng Daoying; Yao Zhengyu

    2003-01-01

    Objective: (1) To determine the relationship between the MR signal intensity and the actual flow velocity under steady flow condition. (2) to analyze the influence produced by the angle (θ) between the flow direction and the velocity-encoded gradient direction, and flip angle as well as section thickness on the velocity measurement under oblique flow condition. (3) to develop a suitable protocol for using this method to measure volumetric flow rate in the transverse sinus system. Methods: Flow phantom, which simulated blood-flow conditions in the transverse sinus system, consisted of a fluid-filled cylinder and a bent tube with a 3.4 mm internal diameter. A 1.5 T superconductive MR imager and VIGRE sequence were used for these studies. A suitable protocol was based on consideration of the effects of (1) the accuracy of velocity and transverse area measurement of flow, and (2) signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Results: (1) Signal intensity (y) determined by MR and the actual flow velocity (x) showed straight-line correlation, y=68.914x + 357.206, R 2 =0.998. (2) As the angle (θ) increased, the transverse area of the signal determined by MR also increased, but the value of flow velocity decreased. (3) As the flip angle increased, the SNR varied from 5.7 to 11.2. The maximum SNR was obtained with 30 degree flip angle. (4) As the section thickness increased, the SNR and the transverse area of the signal determined by MR slightly increased. Conclusions: Phase-contrast MR imaging is a practical method for measuring volumetric flow rates. The angle (θ influenced the accuracy of flow velocity and the measurement of transverse area of flow whereas the flip angle and the section thickness substantially influenced the signal-to-noise ratio and the transverse area of flow

  10. SCATTER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broome, J.

    1965-11-01

    The programme SCATTER is a KDF9 programme in the Egtran dialect of Fortran to generate normalized angular distributions for elastically scattered neutrons from data input as the coefficients of a Legendre polynomial series, or from differential cross-section data. Also, differential cross-section data may be analysed to produce Legendre polynomial coefficients. Output on cards punched in the format of the U.K. A. E. A. Nuclear Data Library is optional. (author)

  11. Wide angle Compton scattering within the SCET factorization framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kivel, N.

    2016-01-01

    Existing data for the electromagnetic proton form factors and for the cross section of the wide angle Compton scattering (WACS) show that the hard two-gluon exchange mechanism (collinear factorization) is still not applicable in the kinematical region where Mandelstam variables s ∼ -t ∼ -u are about a few GeV 2 . On the other hand these observables can be described in phenomenological models where spectator quarks are soft which assumes a large contribution due to the soft-overlap mechanism. It turns out that the simple QCD factorization picture is not complete and must also include the soft-overlap contribution which can be described as a certain matrix element in the soft collinear effective theory (SCET). Then the leading power contribution to WACS amplitude is described as a sum of the hard- and soft-spectator contributions. The existing experimental data allows one to check certain conclusions based on the assumption about dominant role of the soft-spectator mechanism. (author)

  12. Impact of patient weight on tumor visibility based on human-shaped phantom simulation study in PET imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musarudin, M.; Saripan, M. I.; Mashohor, S.; Saad, W. H. M.; Nordin, A. J.; Hashim, S.

    2015-10-01

    Energy window technique has been implemented in all positron emission tomography (PET) imaging protocol, with the aim to remove the unwanted low energy photons. Current practices in our institution however are performed by using default energy threshold level regardless of the weight of the patient. Phantom size, which represents the size of the patient's body, is the factor that determined the level of scatter fraction during PET imaging. Thus, the motivation of this study is to determine the optimum energy threshold level for different sizes of human-shaped phantom, to represent underweight, normal, overweight and obese patients. In this study, the scanner was modeled by using Monte Carlo code, version MCNP5. Five different sizes of elliptical-cylinder shaped of human-sized phantoms with diameter ranged from 15 to 30 cm were modeled. The tumor was modeled by a cylindrical line source filled with 1.02 MeV positron emitters at the center of the phantom. Various energy window widths, in the ranged of 10-50% were implemented to the data. In conclusion, the phantom mass volume did influence the scatter fraction within the volume. Bigger phantom caused more scattering events and thus led to coincidence counts lost. We evaluated the impact of phantom sizes on the sensitivity and visibility of the simulated models. Implementation of wider energy window improved the sensitivity of the system and retained the coincidence photons lost. Visibility of the tumor improved as an appropriate energy window implemented for the different sizes of phantom.

  13. A Software Phantom : Application in Digital Tomosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazos, D; Kolitsi, Z; Badea, C; Pallikarakis, N [Medical Physics Laboratory, School of Medicine, Univercity of Patras (Greece)

    1999-12-31

    A software phantom intended to be used in radiographic applications has been developed. The application was used for research in the field of Digital Tomosynthesis and specifically for studying tomographic noise removal methods. The application consists of a phantom design and a phantom imaging module. The radiation-matter interaction is based on the exponential relation of attenuation. Projections are formed by simulated irradiation with selectable geometrical parameters, source spectrum and detector response. Phantoms are defined either as sets containing certain geometrical objects or as groups of voxels. Comparison with real projections taken from a physical phantom with identical geometry and composition with the simulated one, showed good approximation with improved contrast due to the absence of scatter in the simulated projections. The software phantom proved to be a very useful tool for DTS investigations. Further development to include scatter is expected to expand the use of the application to more areas in radiological imaging research. (author) 4 refs., 3 figs

  14. A Software Phantom : Application in Digital Tomosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazos, D.; Kolitsi, Z.; Badea, C.; Pallikarakis, N.

    1998-01-01

    A software phantom intended to be used in radiographic applications has been developed. The application was used for research in the field of Digital Tomosynthesis and specifically for studying tomographic noise removal methods. The application consists of a phantom design and a phantom imaging module. The radiation-matter interaction is based on the exponential relation of attenuation. Projections are formed by simulated irradiation with selectable geometrical parameters, source spectrum and detector response. Phantoms are defined either as sets containing certain geometrical objects or as groups of voxels. Comparison with real projections taken from a physical phantom with identical geometry and composition with the simulated one, showed good approximation with improved contrast due to the absence of scatter in the simulated projections. The software phantom proved to be a very useful tool for DTS investigations. Further development to include scatter is expected to expand the use of the application to more areas in radiological imaging research. (author)

  15. Measurement of TLD Albedo response on various calibration phantoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Momose, T.; Tsujimura, N.; Shinohara, K.; Ishiguro, H.; Nakamura, T.

    1996-01-01

    The International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU) has recommended that individual dosemeter should be calibrated on a suitable phantom and has pointed out that the calibration factor of a neutron dosemeter is strongly influenced by the the exact size and shape of the body and the phantom to which the dosemeter is attached. As the principle of an albedo type thermoluminescent personal dosemeter (albedo TLD) is essentially based on a detection of scattered and moderated neutron from a human body, the sensitivity of albedo TLD is strongly influenced by the incident neutron energy and the calibration phantom. (1) Therefore for albedo type thermoluminescent personal dosemeter (albedo TLD), the information of neutron albedo response on the calibration phantom is important for appropriate dose estimation. In order to investigate the effect of phantom type on the reading of the albedo TLD, measurement of the TLD energy response and angular response on some typical calibration phantoms was performed using dynamitron accelerator and 252 Cf neutron source. (author)

  16. Haze-factor maakt plaats voor F-scatter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swinkels, G.L.A.M.

    2014-01-01

    Uitgelicht licht & scherming - Wageningen UR Glastuinbouw deed vorig jaar onderzoek naar een methode om de lichtspreiding onder diffuus glas te karakteriseren. dit resulteerde in een nieuwe waarde, de zogenaamde F-scatter voor voorwaartse lichtspreiding. Leveranciers van glas en

  17. SU-E-T-101: Determination and Comparison of Correction Factors Obtained for TLDs in Small Field Lung Heterogenous Phantom Using Acuros XB and EGSnrc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soh, R; Lee, J; Harianto, F

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To determine and compare the correction factors obtained for TLDs in 2 × 2cm 2 small field in lung heterogenous phantom using Acuros XB (AXB) and EGSnrc. Methods: This study will simulate the correction factors due to the perturbation of TLD-100 chips (Harshaw/Thermoscientific, 3 × 3 × 0.9mm 3 , 2.64g/cm 3 ) in small field lung medium for Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy (SBRT). A physical lung phantom was simulated by a 14cm thick composite cork phantom (0.27g/cm 3 , HU:-743 ± 11) sandwiched between 4cm thick Plastic Water (CIRS,Norfolk). Composite cork has been shown to be a good lung substitute material for dosimetric studies. 6MV photon beam from Varian Clinac iX (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA) with field size 2 × 2cm 2 was simulated. Depth dose profiles were obtained from the Eclipse treatment planning system Acuros XB (AXB) and independently from DOSxyznrc, EGSnrc. Correction factors was calculated by the ratio of unperturbed to perturbed dose. Since AXB has limitations in simulating actual material compositions, EGSnrc will also simulate the AXB-based material composition for comparison to the actual lung phantom. Results: TLD-100, with its finite size and relatively high density, causes significant perturbation in 2 × 2cm 2 small field in a low lung density phantom. Correction factors calculated by both EGSnrc and AXB was found to be as low as 0.9. It is expected that the correction factor obtained by EGSnrc wlll be more accurate as it is able to simulate the actual phantom material compositions. AXB have a limited material library, therefore it only approximates the composition of TLD, Composite cork and Plastic water, contributing to uncertainties in TLD correction factors. Conclusion: It is expected that the correction factors obtained by EGSnrc will be more accurate. Studies will be done to investigate the correction factors for higher energies where perturbation may be more pronounced

  18. Determination of the scattering coefficient of biological tissue considering the wavelength and absorption dependence of the anisotropy factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukutomi, Daichi; Ishii, Katsunori; Awazu, Kunio

    2016-04-01

    The anisotropy factor g, one of the optical properties of biological tissues, has a strong influence on the calculation of the scattering coefficient μ s in inverse Monte Carlo (iMC) simulations. It has been reported that g has the wavelength and absorption dependence; however, few attempts have been made to calculate μ s using g values by taking the wavelength and absorption dependence into account. In this study, the angular distributions of scattered light for biological tissue phantoms containing hemoglobin as a light absorber were measured by a goniometric optical setup at strongly (405 nm) and weakly (664 nm) absorbing wavelengths to obtain g. Subsequently, the optical properties were calculated with the measured values of g by integrating sphere measurements and an iMC simulation, and compared with the results obtained with a conventional g value of 0.9. The μ s values with measured g were overestimated at the strongly absorbing wavelength, but underestimated at the weakly absorbing wavelength if 0.9 was used in the iMC simulation.

  19. Determination of scattering coefficient considering wavelength and absorption dependence of anisotropy factor measured by polarized beam for biological tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukutomi, D.; Ishii, K.; Awazu, K.

    2015-12-01

    Anisotropy factor g, one of the optical properties of biological tissues, is the most important parameter to accurately determine scattering coefficient μs in the inverse Monte Carlo (iMC) simulation. It has been reported that g has wavelength and absorption dependence, however, there are few attempts in order to calculate μs of biological tissue considering the wavelength and absorption dependence of g. In this study, the scattering angular distributions of biological tissue phantoms were measured in order to determine g by using goniometric measurements with three polarization conditions at strongly and weakly absorbing wavelengths of hemoglobin. Then, optical properties, especially, μs were measured by integrating sphere measurements and iMC simulation in order to confirm the influence of measured g on optical properties in comparison of with general value of g (0.9) for soft biological tissue. Consequently, it was found that μs was overestimated at strongly absorbing wavelength, however, μs was underestimated at weakly absorbing wavelength if the g was not considered its wavelength and absorption dependence.

  20. Coherence factors in a high-tc cuprate probed by quasi-particle scattering off vortices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanaguri, T; Kohsaka, Y; Ono, M; Maltseva, M; Coleman, P; Yamada, I; Azuma, M; Takano, M; Ohishi, K; Takagi, H

    2009-02-13

    When electrons pair in a superconductor, quasi-particles develop an acute sensitivity to different types of scattering potential that is described by the appearance of coherence factors in the scattering amplitudes. Although the effects of coherence factors are well established in isotropic superconductors, they are much harder to detect in their anisotropic counterparts, such as high-superconducting-transition-temperature cuprates. We demonstrate an approach that highlights the momentum-dependent coherence factors in Ca2-xNaxCuO2Cl2. We used Fourier-transform scanning tunneling spectroscopy to reveal a magnetic-field dependence in quasi-particle scattering interference patterns that is sensitive to the sign of the anisotropic gap. This result is associated with the d-wave coherence factors and quasi-particle scattering off vortices. Our technique thus provides insights into the nature of electron pairing as well as quasi-particle scattering processes in unconventional superconductors.

  1. Consequences of the factorization hypothesis in nucleon-nucleon, $\\gamma p and \\gamma \\gamma$ scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Block, Martin M

    2002-01-01

    Using an eikonal structure for the scattering amplitude, factorization theorems for nucleon-nucleon, gamma p and gamma gamma scattering at high energies have been derived, using only some very general assumptions. Using a QCD-inspired eikonal analysis of nucleon-nucleon scattering, we present here experimental confirmation for factorization of cross sections, nuclear slope parameters B and rho -values (ratio of real to imaginary portion of forward scattering amplitudes), showing that: 1) the three factorization theorems of Block and Kaidalov [2000] hold, 2) the additive quark model holds to approximately=1%, and 3) vector dominance holds to better than approximately=4%. Predictions for the total cross section, elastic cross section and other forward scattering parameters at the LHC (14 TeV) are given. (12 refs).

  2. Universality of soft and collinear factors in hard-scattering factorization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, John C.; Metz, Andreas

    2004-01-01

    Universality in QCD factorization of parton densities, fragmentation functions, and soft factors is endangered by the process dependence of the directions of Wilson lines in their definitions. We find a choice of directions that is consistent with factorization and that gives universality between e + e - annihilation, semi-inclusive deep-inelastic scattering, and the Drell-Yan process. Universality is only modified by a time-reversal transformation of the soft function and parton densities between Drell-Yan and the other processes, whose only effect is the known reversal of sign for T-odd parton densities such as the Sivers function. The modifications of the definitions needed to remove rapidity divergences with lightlike Wilson lines do not affect the results

  3. Macroscopic folded form factors for 12C + 12C inelastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rickertsen, L.D.; Satchler, G.R.; Stokstad, R.G.; Wieland, R.M.

    1976-01-01

    The angular distributions for the scattering of carbon-12 from carbon-12 at 117.1 MeV are shown as is also the result of coupled-channel calculations for the elastic and inelastic scattering using these folded form factors

  4. Comparison of scatter rejection and low-contrast performance of scan equalization digital radiography (SEDR), slot-scan digital radiography, and full-field digital radiography systems for chest phantom imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Xinming; Shaw, Chris C.; Lai, Chao-Jen; Wang Tianpeng [Department of Imaging Physics, Digital Imaging Research Laboratory, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030-4009 (United States)

    2011-01-15

    Purpose: To investigate and compare the scatter rejection properties and low-contrast performance of the scan equalization digital radiography (SEDR) technique to the slot-scan and conventional full-field digital radiography techniques for chest imaging. Methods: A prototype SEDR system was designed and constructed with an a-Se flat-panel (FP) detector to improve image quality in heavily attenuating regions of an anthropomorphic chest phantom. Slot-scanning geometry was used to reject scattered radiation without attenuating primary x rays. The readout scheme of the FP was modified to erase accumulated scatter signals prior to image readout. A 24-segment beam width modulator was developed to regulate x-ray exposures regionally and compensate for the low x-ray flux in heavily attenuating regions. To measure the scatter-to-primary ratios (SPRs), a 2 mm thick lead plate with a 2-D array of aperture holes was used to measure the primary signals, which were then subtracted from those obtained without the lead plate to determine scatter components. A 2-D array of aluminum beads (3 mm in diameter) was used as the low-contrast objects to measure the contrast ratios (CRs) and contrast-to-noise ratios (CNRs) for evaluating the low-contrast performance in chest phantom images. A set of two images acquired with the same techniques were subtracted from each other to measure the noise levels. SPRs, CRs, and CNRs of the SEDR images were measured in four anatomical regions of chest phantom images and compared to those of slot-scan images and full-field images acquired with and without antiscatter grid. Results: The percentage reduction of SPR (percentage of SPRs reduced with scatter removal/rejection methods relative to that for nongrid full-field imaging) averaged over four anatomical regions was measured to be 80%, 83%, and 71% for SEDR, slot-scan, and full-field with grid, respectively. The average CR over four regions was found to improve over that for nongrid full

  5. Comparison of scatter rejection and low-contrast performance of scan equalization digital radiography (SEDR), slot-scan digital radiography, and full-field digital radiography systems for chest phantom imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xinming; Shaw, Chris C.; Lai, Chao-Jen; Wang Tianpeng

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate and compare the scatter rejection properties and low-contrast performance of the scan equalization digital radiography (SEDR) technique to the slot-scan and conventional full-field digital radiography techniques for chest imaging. Methods: A prototype SEDR system was designed and constructed with an a-Se flat-panel (FP) detector to improve image quality in heavily attenuating regions of an anthropomorphic chest phantom. Slot-scanning geometry was used to reject scattered radiation without attenuating primary x rays. The readout scheme of the FP was modified to erase accumulated scatter signals prior to image readout. A 24-segment beam width modulator was developed to regulate x-ray exposures regionally and compensate for the low x-ray flux in heavily attenuating regions. To measure the scatter-to-primary ratios (SPRs), a 2 mm thick lead plate with a 2-D array of aperture holes was used to measure the primary signals, which were then subtracted from those obtained without the lead plate to determine scatter components. A 2-D array of aluminum beads (3 mm in diameter) was used as the low-contrast objects to measure the contrast ratios (CRs) and contrast-to-noise ratios (CNRs) for evaluating the low-contrast performance in chest phantom images. A set of two images acquired with the same techniques were subtracted from each other to measure the noise levels. SPRs, CRs, and CNRs of the SEDR images were measured in four anatomical regions of chest phantom images and compared to those of slot-scan images and full-field images acquired with and without antiscatter grid. Results: The percentage reduction of SPR (percentage of SPRs reduced with scatter removal/rejection methods relative to that for nongrid full-field imaging) averaged over four anatomical regions was measured to be 80%, 83%, and 71% for SEDR, slot-scan, and full-field with grid, respectively. The average CR over four regions was found to improve over that for nongrid full

  6. Inelastic magnetic electron scattering form factors of the 26 Mg nucleus

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Magnetic electron scattering (3) form factors with core polarization effects, ... to 3+ states of the 26Mg nucleus have been studied using shell model calculations. ... The wave functions of the radial single-particle matrix elements have been ...

  7. Application of Voxel Phantoms to Study the Influence of Heterogeneous Distribution of Actinides in Lungs on In Vivo Counting Calibration Factors Using Animal Experimentations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamart, S.; Pierrat, N.; De Carlan, L.; Franck, D. [IRSN/DRPH/SDI/LEDI, BP 17, F-92 262 Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Dudoignon, N. [IRSN/DRPH/SRBE/LRPAT, BP 17, F-92 262 Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Rateau, S.; Van der Meeren, A.; Rouit, E. [CEA/DSV/DRR/SRCA/LRT BP no 12, F-91680 Bruyeres-le-Chatel (France); Bottlaender, M. [CEA/SHFJ, 4, place du General Leclerc F-91400 Orsay (France)

    2006-07-01

    Calibration of lung counting system dedicated to retention assessment of actinides in the lungs remains critical due to large uncertainties in calibration factors. Among them, the detector positioning, the chest wall thickness and composition (muscle/fat) assessment, and the distribution of the contamination are the main parameters influencing the detector response. In order to reduce these uncertainties, a numerical approach based on the application of voxel phantoms (numerical phantoms based on tomographic images, CT or MRI) associated to a Monte-Carlo code (namely M.C.N.P.) was developed. It led to the development of a dedicated tool, called O.E.D.I.P.E., that allows to easily handle realistic voxel phantoms for the simulation of in vivo measurement (or dose calculation, application that will not be presented in this paper). The goal of this paper is to present our study of the influence of the lung distribution on calibration factors using both animal experimentations and our numerical method. Indeed, physical anthropomorphic phantoms used for calibration always consider a uniform distribution of the source in the lungs, which is not true in many contamination conditions. The purpose of the study is to compare the response of the measurement detectors using a real distribution of actinide particles in the lungs, obtained from animal experimentations, with the homogeneous one considered as the reference. This comparison was performed using O.E.D.I.P.E. that can almost simulate any source distribution. A non human primate was contaminated heterogeneously by intra-tracheal administration of actinide oxide. After euthanasia, gamma spectrometry measurements were performed on the pulmonary lobes to obtain the distribution of the contamination in the lungs. This realistic distribution was used to simulate an heterogeneous contamination in the numerical phantom of the non human primate, which was compared with a simulation of an homogeneous contamination presenting the

  8. Application of Voxel Phantoms to Study the Influence of Heterogeneous Distribution of Actinides in Lungs on In Vivo Counting Calibration Factors Using Animal Experimentations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamart, S.; Pierrat, N.; De Carlan, L.; Franck, D.; Dudoignon, N.; Rateau, S.; Van der Meeren, A.; Rouit, E.; Bottlaender, M.

    2006-01-01

    Calibration of lung counting system dedicated to retention assessment of actinides in the lungs remains critical due to large uncertainties in calibration factors. Among them, the detector positioning, the chest wall thickness and composition (muscle/fat) assessment, and the distribution of the contamination are the main parameters influencing the detector response. In order to reduce these uncertainties, a numerical approach based on the application of voxel phantoms (numerical phantoms based on tomographic images, CT or MRI) associated to a Monte-Carlo code (namely M.C.N.P.) was developed. It led to the development of a dedicated tool, called O.E.D.I.P.E., that allows to easily handle realistic voxel phantoms for the simulation of in vivo measurement (or dose calculation, application that will not be presented in this paper). The goal of this paper is to present our study of the influence of the lung distribution on calibration factors using both animal experimentations and our numerical method. Indeed, physical anthropomorphic phantoms used for calibration always consider a uniform distribution of the source in the lungs, which is not true in many contamination conditions. The purpose of the study is to compare the response of the measurement detectors using a real distribution of actinide particles in the lungs, obtained from animal experimentations, with the homogeneous one considered as the reference. This comparison was performed using O.E.D.I.P.E. that can almost simulate any source distribution. A non human primate was contaminated heterogeneously by intra-tracheal administration of actinide oxide. After euthanasia, gamma spectrometry measurements were performed on the pulmonary lobes to obtain the distribution of the contamination in the lungs. This realistic distribution was used to simulate an heterogeneous contamination in the numerical phantom of the non human primate, which was compared with a simulation of an homogeneous contamination presenting the

  9. Individualized adjustments to reference phantom internal organ dosimetry—scaling factors given knowledge of patient internal anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayson, Michael B.; Bolch, Wesley E.

    2018-04-01

    Various computational tools are currently available that facilitate patient organ dosimetry in diagnostic nuclear medicine, yet they are typically restricted to reporting organ doses to ICRP-defined reference phantoms. The present study, while remaining computational phantom based, provides straightforward tools to adjust reference phantom organ dose for both internal photon and electron sources. A wide variety of monoenergetic specific absorbed fractions were computed using radiation transport simulations for tissue spheres of varying size and separation distance. Scaling methods were then constructed for both photon and electron self-dose and cross-dose, with data validation provided from patient-specific voxel phantom simulations, as well as via comparison to the scaling methodology given in MIRD Pamphlet No. 11. Photon and electron self-dose was found to be dependent on both radiation energy and sphere size. Photon cross-dose was found to be mostly independent of sphere size. Electron cross-dose was found to be dependent on sphere size when the spheres were in close proximity, owing to differences in electron range. The validation studies showed that this dataset was more effective than the MIRD 11 method at predicting patient-specific photon doses for at both high and low energies, but gave similar results at photon energies between 100 keV and 1 MeV. The MIRD 11 method for electron self-dose scaling was accurate for lower energies but began to break down at higher energies. The photon cross-dose scaling methodology developed in this study showed gains in accuracy of up to 9% for actual patient studies, and the electron cross-dose scaling methodology showed gains in accuracy up to 9% as well when only the bremsstrahlung component of the cross-dose was scaled. These dose scaling methods are readily available for incorporation into internal dosimetry software for diagnostic phantom-based organ dosimetry.

  10. Analysis of the factors that affect photon counts in Compton scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Guang; Xiao, Guangyu

    2015-01-01

    Compton scattering has been applied in a variety of fields. The factors that affect Compton scattering have been studied extensively in the literature. However, the factors that affect the measured photon counts in Compton scattering are rarely considered. In this paper, we make a detailed discussion on those factors. First, Compton scattering experiments of some alloy series and powder mixture series are explored. Second, the electron density is researched in terms of atom and lattice constants. Third, the factor of attenuation coefficient is discussed. And then, the active degree of electrons is discussed based on the DFT theory. Lastly, the conclusions are made, that the factors affecting Compton scattering photon counts include mainly electron number density, attenuation coefficient and active degree of electrons. - Highlights: • Compton scattering experiments of some alloy series and powder mixture series are explored. • The influence of electron density is researched in terms of atom and lattice constants. • The influence of attenuation coefficient is discussed. • The active degree of electrons is discussed detailedly based on DFT theory

  11. Contrast detail phantom for SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabrejas, M.L. de; Arashiro, J G; Giannone, C. [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Camuyrano, M; Nohara, G [Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires (Argentina). Facultad Ciencias Exactas

    1996-06-01

    A new low variable contrast phantom for single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) was constructed, tested and compared with other existing phantoms. It contains simulated cylindrical lesions of four different diameters (D{sub i}), embedded in a cylindrical scattering medium and a uniform section to evaluate tomographic uniformity. The concentration of tracer in the simulated lesions and the scattering medium (background) can be varied to simulate hot and cold lesions. Different applications of the phantom were tested, including determination of the minimum object contrast (OCm) necessary to detect lesions as a function of lesion size, lesion type (hot or cold) and acquisition and processing protocols by visual inspection. This parameter allows categorization of instruments comparing an `image quality index` (IQI). Preliminary comparison with the Britten contrast processing method showed that the detectable OCm was of the same order of magnitude, but the presented device seems more suitable for training and intercomparison purposes. The constructed phantom, of simple design, has proved to be useful for acquisition and processing condition evaluation, OCm estimation and external quality control. (author). 11 refs, 4 figs.

  12. Impact of patient weight on tumor visibility based on human-shaped phantom simulation study in PET imaging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musarudin, M.; Saripan, M.I.; Mashohor, S.; Saad, W.H.M.; Nordin, A.J.; Hashim, S.

    2015-01-01

    Energy window technique has been implemented in all positron emission tomography (PET) imaging protocol, with the aim to remove the unwanted low energy photons. Current practices in our institution however are performed by using default energy threshold level regardless of the weight of the patient. Phantom size, which represents the size of the patient's body, is the factor that determined the level of scatter fraction during PET imaging. Thus, the motivation of this study is to determine the optimum energy threshold level for different sizes of human-shaped phantom, to represent underweight, normal, overweight and obese patients. In this study, the scanner was modeled by using Monte Carlo code, version MCNP5. Five different sizes of elliptical-cylinder shaped of human-sized phantoms with diameter ranged from 15 to 30 cm were modeled. The tumor was modeled by a cylindrical line source filled with 1.02 MeV positron emitters at the center of the phantom. Various energy window widths, in the ranged of 10–50% were implemented to the data. In conclusion, the phantom mass volume did influence the scatter fraction within the volume. Bigger phantom caused more scattering events and thus led to coincidence counts lost. We evaluated the impact of phantom sizes on the sensitivity and visibility of the simulated models. Implementation of wider energy window improved the sensitivity of the system and retained the coincidence photons lost. Visibility of the tumor improved as an appropriate energy window implemented for the different sizes of phantom. - Highlights: • Optimizing the energy window improved the sensitivity of the PET system. • Improving the visibility of the tumors using the optimized energy window. • Recommendations on the optimized energy windows for different body sizes. • Using simulated phantom using MCNP to determine various body sizes

  13. Two-argument total scatter factor for small fields simultaneously collimated by MLC and jaws: application to stereotactic radiosurgery and radiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Zhaohui; Friesen, Scott; Hacker, Fred; Zygmanski, Piotr

    2018-01-01

    Direct use of the total scatter factor (S tot) for independent monitor unit (MU) calculations can be a good alternative approach to the traditional separate treatment of head/collimator scatter (S c) and phantom scatter (S p), especially for stereotactic small fields under the simultaneous collimation of secondary jaws and tertiary multileaf collimators (MLC). We have carried out the measurement of S tot in water for field sizes down to 0.5  ×  0.5 cm2 on a Varian TrueBeam STx medical linear accelerator (linac) equipped with high definition MLCs. Both the jaw field size (c) and MLC field size (s) significantly impact the linac output factors, especially when c \\gg s and s is small (e.g. s  effectively transforms the measured trapezoidal domain in (c,s) plane to a rectangular domain to facilitate easier two-dimensional interpolation to determine S tot for arbitrary (c,s) combinations. Both the empirical fit and interpolation showed good agreement with experimental validation data.

  14. Phantom pain and phantom sensations in upper limb amputees : an epidemiological study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooijman, CM; Dijkstra, PU; Geertzen, JHB; Elzinga, A; van der Schans, CP

    Phantom pain in subjects with an amputated limb is a well-known problem. However, estimates of the prevalence of phantom pain differ considerably in the literature. Various factors associated with phantom pain have been described including pain before the amputation, gender, dominance, and time

  15. Factorization for short distance hadron-hadron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, J.C.; Illinois Inst. of Tech., Chicago; Soper, D.E.; Sterman, G.

    1985-01-01

    We show that factorization holds at leading twist in the Drell-Yang cross section dsigma/dQ 2 dy and related inclusive hadron-hadron cross sections. We review the heuristic arguments for factorization, as well as the difficulties which must be overcome in a proof. We go on to give detailed arguments for the all order cancellation of soft gluons, and to show how this leads to factorization. (orig.)

  16. Structure factor of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine unilamellar vesicles: small-angle x-ray scattering study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiselev, M.A.; Aksenov, V.L.; Lombardo, D.; Kisselev, A.M.; Lesieur, P.

    2003-01-01

    Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) experiments have been performed on dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) unilamellar vesicles in 40% aqueous sucrose solution. Model of separated form factors was applied for the evaluation of SAXS curves from large unilamellar vesicles. For the first time vesicle structure factor, polydispersity, average radius and membrane thickness were calculated simultaneously from the SAXS curves at T=30 deg C for DMPC concentrations in the range from 15 to 75 mM (1-5% w/w). Structure factor correction to the scattering curve was shown to be negligibly small for the lipid concentration of 15 mM (1% w/w). It was proved to be necessary to introduce structure factor correction to the scattering curves for lipid concentrations ≥ 30 mM (2% w/w)

  17. Structure Factor of Dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine Unilamellar Vesicles Small-Angle X-Ray Scattering Study

    CERN Document Server

    Kiselev, M A; Kisselev, A M; Lesieur, P; Aksenov, V L

    2003-01-01

    Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) experiments have been performed on dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) unilamellar vesicles in 40 % aqueous sucrose solution. Model of separated form factors was applied for the evaluation of SAXS curves from large unilamellar vesicles. For the first time vesicle structure factor, polydispersity, average radius and membrane thickness were calculated simultaneously from the SAXS curves at T=306{\\circ}C for DMPC concentrations in the range from 15 to 75 mM (1-5 % w/w). Structure factor correction to the scattering curve was shown to be negligibly small for the lipid concentration of 15 mM (1 % w/w). It was proved to be necessary to introduce structure factor correction to the scattering curves for lipid concentrations {\\ge}30 mM (2 % w/w).

  18. Phantom position dependence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorson, M.R.; Endres, G.W.R.

    1981-01-01

    Sensitivity of the Hanford dosimeter response to its position relative to the phantom and the neutron source has always been recognized. A thorough investigation was performed to quantify dosimeter response according to: (a) dosimeter position on phantom, (b) dosimeter distance from phantom, and (c) angular relationship of dosimeter relative to neutron source and phantom. Results were obtained for neutron irradiation at several different energies

  19. MUTIL, Asymmetry Factor of Mott Cross-Sections for Electron, Positron Scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idoeta, R.; Legarda, F.

    2002-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: The asymmetry factor S of Mott's differential cross section for the scattering of electrons and positrons by point nuclei without screening is calculated for any energy, atomic number and angle of scattering. 2 - Method of solution: We have summed the conditionally convergent series, F and G, appearing in the asymmetry factor using two consecutive transformations: The one of Yennie, Ravenhall and Wilson and that of Euler till we have seven times six significant figures repeated in the factor S. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Those appearing in the use of Mott's cross section for unscreened point nuclei

  20. Hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor-MET signaling in neural crest-derived melanocyte development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kos, L; Aronzon, A; Takayama, H; Maina, F; Ponzetto, C; Merlino, G; Pavan, W

    1999-02-01

    The mechanisms governing development of neural crest-derived melanocytes, and how alterations in these pathways lead to hypopigmentation disorders, are not completely understood. Hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor (HGF/SF) signaling through the tyrosine-kinase receptor, MET, is capable of promoting the proliferation, increasing the motility, and maintaining high tyrosinase activity and melanin synthesis of melanocytes in vitro. In addition, transgenic mice that ubiquitously overexpress HGF/SF demonstrate hyperpigmentation in the skin and leptomenigenes and develop melanomas. To investigate whether HGF/ SF-MET signaling is involved in the development of neural crest-derived melanocytes, transgenic embryos, ubiquitously overexpressing HGF/SF, were analyzed. In HGF/SF transgenic embryos, the distribution of melanoblasts along the characteristic migratory pathway was not affected. However, additional ectopically localized melanoblasts were also observed in the dorsal root ganglia and neural tube, as early as 11.5 days post coitus (p.c.). We utilized an in vitro neural crest culture assay to further explore the role of HGF/SF-MET signaling in neural crest development. HGF/SF added to neural crest cultures increased melanoblast number, permitted differentiation into pigmented melanocytes, promoted melanoblast survival, and could replace mast-cell growth factor/Steel factor (MGF) in explant cultures. To examine whether HGF/SF-MET signaling is required for the proper development of melanocytes, embryos with a targeted Met null mutation (Met-/-) were analysed. In Met-/- embryos, melanoblast number and location were not overtly affected up to 14 days p.c. These results demonstrate that HGF/SF-MET signaling influences, but is not required for, the initial development of neural crest-derived melanocytes in vivo and in vitro.

  1. Quality factor due to roughness scattering of shear horizontal surface acoustic waves in nanoresonators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palasantzas, G.

    2008-01-01

    In this work we study the quality factor associated with dissipation due to scattering of shear horizontal surface acoustic waves by random self-affine roughness. It is shown that the quality factor is strongly influenced by both the surface roughness exponent H and the roughness amplitude w to

  2. Microstructural effect on radiative scattering coefficient and asymmetry factor of anisotropic thermal barrier coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, X. W.; Zhao, C. Y.; Wang, B. X.

    2018-05-01

    Thermal barrier coatings are common porous materials coated on the surface of devices operating under high temperatures and designed for heat insulation. This study presents a comprehensive investigation on the microstructural effect on radiative scattering coefficient and asymmetry factor of anisotropic thermal barrier coatings. Based on the quartet structure generation set algorithm, the finite-difference-time-domain method is applied to calculate angular scattering intensity distribution of complicated random microstructure, which takes wave nature into account. Combining Monte Carlo method with Particle Swarm Optimization, asymmetry factor, scattering coefficient and absorption coefficient are retrieved simultaneously. The retrieved radiative properties are identified with the angular scattering intensity distribution under different pore shapes, which takes dependent scattering and anisotropic pore shape into account implicitly. It has been found that microstructure significantly affects the radiative properties in thermal barrier coatings. Compared with spherical shape, irregular anisotropic pore shape reduces the forward scattering peak. The method used in this paper can also be applied to other porous media, which designs a frame work for further quantitative study on porous media.

  3. Analysis of main influence factors on coronary artery image quality with 64-multidetector row helical CT using a pulsating cardiac phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Bin; Zhao Hong; Wu Xingwang; Zhang Jiawen; Yu Yongqiang; Liao Jingmin

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To explore the main influence factors (heart rate, rotation speed, and reconstruction algorithm) on the image quality of coronary artery with 40 mm VCT (64-detector row helical CT) using a pulsating cardiac phantom. Methods: An adjustable pulsating cardiac phantom (GE) containing predetermined simulated coronary arteries was scanned using a 40 mm VCT (GE LightSpeed CT) with cardiac pulsating rates of 40, 45, 50, 55, 60, 65, 70, 75, 80, 85, 90, 95, 100, 105, 110, and 115 beats per minute (bpm). The variable rotation speeds technique of 0.35 s, 0.40 s, and 0.45 s were used, respectively. The raw data were reconstructed using both one-sector and multi-sector reconstruction algorithm at optimal window of the R-R interval. The image quality score (IQS) was evaluated by two radiologists according to the same evaluation standard of reformated image. The correlation between heart rate (HR), roation speed, reconstruction algorithm, and IQS were analyzed. The IQS as independent variable and the HR, rotation speed, reconstruction algorithm as dependent variables were analyzed by multiple linear regression analysis. Results: The heart rate and the reconstruction algorithm had significant influence on IQS. The rotation speed (0.35s, 0.40 s, and 0.45 s) didn't have significant influence on IQS. There was linear regression relationship between heart rate, reconstruction algorithm and IQS (P<0.01). The equation of multiple regression was IQS=5.154-0.046 x (HR) + 0.500 x (reconstruction algorithm). The multi-sector reconstruction algorithm improved the image quality than one-sector did. Conclusion: The main influence factors on the image quality of coronary artery can be evaluated with 40 mm VCT using a pulsating cardiac phantom. It plays an important role in clinical research and application. (authors)

  4. The prevalence of phantom vibration/ringing syndromes and their related factors in Iranian' students of medical sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadbeigi, Abolfazl; Mohammadsalehi, Narges; Moshiri, Esmail; Anbari, Zohreh; Ahmadi, Ali; Ansari, Hossein

    2017-06-01

    Mobile phone abuse can cause pathologic stress that may lead to addictive behavior such as Phantom Vibration Syndrome (PVS) and Phantom Ringing Syndrome (PRS). The current study aimed to determine the PVS and PRS due to mobile phone use in students of Qom University of medical Sciences in Iran. Cross-sectional study. The participants were 380 students selected by proportional stratified random sampling method in each stratum. Data were collected by a self-administered questionnaire and analyzed by descriptive and analytic statistical methods including t-test, chi square and analysis of variance. The prevalence of PVS and PRS due to mobile phones in students of medical sciences was estimated to be 54.3% and 49.3%, respectively. PVS was higher in female students than in males while the PRS was higher in male students. There was a significant relationship between PVS and using social networks such as Viber, WhatsApp, and Line. In addition, a significant association was observed between PVS and friend-finding, chatting and entertainment. Studies should be done in the future to assess the long-term complication of overusing mobile phones. In the current study, the prevalence of PVS and PRS in half of students is considerable. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Calculation of the thermal utilization factor in a heterogeneous slab cell scattering neutrons anisotropically

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdallah, A M; Elsherbiny, E M; Sobhy, M [Reactor departement, nuclear research centre, Inshaas, (Egypt)

    1995-10-01

    The P{sub n}-spatial expansion method has been used for calculating the one speed transport utilization factor in heterogenous slab cells in which neutrons may scatter anisotropically; by considering the P{sup 1-} approximation with a two-term scattering kernel in both the fuel and moderator regions, an analytical expression for the disadvantage factor has been derived. The numerical results obtained have been shown to be much better than those calculated by the usual P{sup 1-} and P{sup 3-} approximations and comparable with those obtained by some exact methods. 3 tabs.

  6. Parity Violation in Elastic Electron-Proton Scattering and the Proton's Strange Magnetic Form Factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spayde, D. T.; Averett, T.; Barkhuff, D.; Beck, D. H.; Beise, E. J.; Benson, C.; Breuer, H.; Carr, R.; Covrig, S.; DelCorso, J.

    2000-01-01

    We report a new measurement of the parity-violating asymmetry in elastic electron scattering from the proton at backward scattering angles. This asymmetry is sensitive to the strange magnetic form factor of the proton as well as electroweak axial radiative corrections. The new measurement of A=-4.92±0.61±0.73 ppm provides a significant constraint on these quantities. The implications for the strange magnetic form factor are discussed in the context of theoretical estimates for the axial corrections. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society

  7. MO-F-CAMPUS-I-02: Accuracy in Converting the Average Breast Dose Into the Mean Glandular Dose (MGD) Using the F-Factor in Cone Beam Breast CT- a Monte Carlo Study Using Homogeneous and Quasi-Homogeneous Phantoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lai, C; Zhong, Y; Wang, T; Shaw, C [UT MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate the accuracy in estimating the mean glandular dose (MGD) for homogeneous breast phantoms by converting from the average breast dose using the F-factor in cone beam breast CT. Methods: EGSnrc-based Monte Carlo codes were used to estimate the MGDs. 13-cm in diameter, 10-cm high hemi-ellipsoids were used to simulate pendant-geometry breasts. Two different types of hemi-ellipsoidal models were employed: voxels in quasi-homogeneous phantoms were designed as either adipose or glandular tissue while voxels in homogeneous phantoms were designed as the mixture of adipose and glandular tissues. Breast compositions of 25% and 50% volume glandular fractions (VGFs), defined as the ratio of glandular tissue voxels to entire breast voxels in the quasi-homogeneous phantoms, were studied. These VGFs were converted into glandular fractions by weight and used to construct the corresponding homogeneous phantoms. 80 kVp x-rays with a mean energy of 47 keV was used in the simulation. A total of 109 photons were used to image the phantoms and the energies deposited in the phantom voxels were tallied. Breast doses in homogeneous phantoms were averaged over all voxels and then used to calculate the MGDs using the F-factors evaluated at the mean energy of the x-rays. The MGDs for quasi-homogeneous phantoms were computed directly by averaging the doses over all glandular tissue voxels. The MGDs estimated for the two types of phantoms were normalized to the free-in-air dose at the iso-center and compared. Results: The normalized MGDs were 0.756 and 0.732 mGy/mGy for the 25% and 50% VGF homogeneous breasts and 0.761 and 0.733 mGy/mGy for the corresponding quasi-homogeneous breasts, respectively. The MGDs estimated for the two types of phantoms were similar within 1% in this study. Conclusion: MGDs for homogeneous breast models may be adequately estimated by converting from the average breast dose using the F-factor.

  8. MO-F-CAMPUS-I-02: Accuracy in Converting the Average Breast Dose Into the Mean Glandular Dose (MGD) Using the F-Factor in Cone Beam Breast CT- a Monte Carlo Study Using Homogeneous and Quasi-Homogeneous Phantoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, C; Zhong, Y; Wang, T; Shaw, C

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the accuracy in estimating the mean glandular dose (MGD) for homogeneous breast phantoms by converting from the average breast dose using the F-factor in cone beam breast CT. Methods: EGSnrc-based Monte Carlo codes were used to estimate the MGDs. 13-cm in diameter, 10-cm high hemi-ellipsoids were used to simulate pendant-geometry breasts. Two different types of hemi-ellipsoidal models were employed: voxels in quasi-homogeneous phantoms were designed as either adipose or glandular tissue while voxels in homogeneous phantoms were designed as the mixture of adipose and glandular tissues. Breast compositions of 25% and 50% volume glandular fractions (VGFs), defined as the ratio of glandular tissue voxels to entire breast voxels in the quasi-homogeneous phantoms, were studied. These VGFs were converted into glandular fractions by weight and used to construct the corresponding homogeneous phantoms. 80 kVp x-rays with a mean energy of 47 keV was used in the simulation. A total of 109 photons were used to image the phantoms and the energies deposited in the phantom voxels were tallied. Breast doses in homogeneous phantoms were averaged over all voxels and then used to calculate the MGDs using the F-factors evaluated at the mean energy of the x-rays. The MGDs for quasi-homogeneous phantoms were computed directly by averaging the doses over all glandular tissue voxels. The MGDs estimated for the two types of phantoms were normalized to the free-in-air dose at the iso-center and compared. Results: The normalized MGDs were 0.756 and 0.732 mGy/mGy for the 25% and 50% VGF homogeneous breasts and 0.761 and 0.733 mGy/mGy for the corresponding quasi-homogeneous breasts, respectively. The MGDs estimated for the two types of phantoms were similar within 1% in this study. Conclusion: MGDs for homogeneous breast models may be adequately estimated by converting from the average breast dose using the F-factor

  9. Separating form factor and nuclear model effects in quasielastic neutrino-nucleus scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieske, Joseph

    2017-09-01

    When studying neutrino oscillations an understanding of charged current quasielastic (CCQE) neutrino-nucleus scattering is imperative. This interaction depends on a nuclear model as well as knowledge of form factors. In the past, CCQE data from the MiniBooNE experiment was analyzed assuming the Relativistic Fermi Gas (RFG) nuclear model, an axial dipole form factor in, and using the the z-expansion for the axial form factor in. We present the first analysis that combines a non-RFG nuclear model, in particular the Correlated Fermi Gas nuclear model (CFG) of, and the z expansion for the axial form factor. This will allow us to separate form factor and nuclear model effects in CCQE scattering. This project was supported through the Wayne State University REU program under NSF Grant PHY-1460853 and by the DOE Grant DE-SC0007983.

  10. Comparison of analytic source models for head scatter factor calculation and planar dose calculation for IMRT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Guanghua; Liu, Chihray; Lu Bo; Palta, Jatinder R; Li, Jonathan G

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to choose an appropriate head scatter source model for the fast and accurate independent planar dose calculation for intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) with MLC. The performance of three different head scatter source models regarding their ability to model head scatter and facilitate planar dose calculation was evaluated. A three-source model, a two-source model and a single-source model were compared in this study. In the planar dose calculation algorithm, in-air fluence distribution was derived from each of the head scatter source models while considering the combination of Jaw and MLC opening. Fluence perturbations due to tongue-and-groove effect, rounded leaf end and leaf transmission were taken into account explicitly. The dose distribution was calculated by convolving the in-air fluence distribution with an experimentally determined pencil-beam kernel. The results were compared with measurements using a diode array and passing rates with 2%/2 mm and 3%/3 mm criteria were reported. It was found that the two-source model achieved the best agreement on head scatter factor calculation. The three-source model and single-source model underestimated head scatter factors for certain symmetric rectangular fields and asymmetric fields, but similar good agreement could be achieved when monitor back scatter effect was incorporated explicitly. All the three source models resulted in comparable average passing rates (>97%) when the 3%/3 mm criterion was selected. The calculation with the single-source model and two-source model was slightly faster than the three-source model due to their simplicity

  11. Comparison of analytic source models for head scatter factor calculation and planar dose calculation for IMRT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan Guanghua [Department of Nuclear and Radiological Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Liu, Chihray; Lu Bo; Palta, Jatinder R; Li, Jonathan G [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610-0385 (United States)

    2008-04-21

    The purpose of this study was to choose an appropriate head scatter source model for the fast and accurate independent planar dose calculation for intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) with MLC. The performance of three different head scatter source models regarding their ability to model head scatter and facilitate planar dose calculation was evaluated. A three-source model, a two-source model and a single-source model were compared in this study. In the planar dose calculation algorithm, in-air fluence distribution was derived from each of the head scatter source models while considering the combination of Jaw and MLC opening. Fluence perturbations due to tongue-and-groove effect, rounded leaf end and leaf transmission were taken into account explicitly. The dose distribution was calculated by convolving the in-air fluence distribution with an experimentally determined pencil-beam kernel. The results were compared with measurements using a diode array and passing rates with 2%/2 mm and 3%/3 mm criteria were reported. It was found that the two-source model achieved the best agreement on head scatter factor calculation. The three-source model and single-source model underestimated head scatter factors for certain symmetric rectangular fields and asymmetric fields, but similar good agreement could be achieved when monitor back scatter effect was incorporated explicitly. All the three source models resulted in comparable average passing rates (>97%) when the 3%/3 mm criterion was selected. The calculation with the single-source model and two-source model was slightly faster than the three-source model due to their simplicity.

  12. An improved Virtual Torso phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, Gary H; Crowley, Paul

    2000-01-01

    The virtual phantom that was previously designed by the Human Monitoring Laboratory had some limitations. It contained no sternum and the ribs extended all the way round the torso, whereas in reality the central part of the chest is covered with a mixture of cartilage (ribs) and bone (sternum). The ribs were located below the chest wall which added to the thickness of the chest wall. The lungs did not touch the inner surface of the chest wall along their length due to the differences in curvature between the ellipsoidal lungs and the ellipsoidal cylinder that defined the torso. As a result there was extra intervening tissue between the lungs and the chest wall. This was shown to have a noticeable effect on the simulation of low energy photons. The virtual phantom has been redesigned and comparison of measured and calculated counting efficiencies shows that it is a good representation of both of LLNL or JAERI at all photon energies measured. The redesigned virtual phantom agrees to within 11% of the torsos' counting efficiency over the energy range 17 - 240 keV. Before modification, the virtual phantom's counting efficiency was a of factor three lower at 17 keV and a factor of two lower at 20 keV; now it is within 5% at 17 keV and within 10% at 20 keV. This phantom can now be reliably used to simulate lung counting. The virtual phantom still contains no sternum and the ribs extend all the way round the torso, whereas in reality the central part of the chest is covered with cartilage (ribs) and bone (sternum). However, the above results indicate that this is not a major flaw in the design of the virtual phantom, as agreement between the Monte Carlo results and experimental data is good. (author)

  13. Phantom breast syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Phantom breast syndrome is a type of condition in which patients have a sensation of residual breast tissue and can include both non-painful sensations as well as phantom breast pain. The incidence varies in different studies, ranging from approximately 30% to as high as 80% of patients after mastectomy. It seriously affects quality of life through the combined impact of physical disability and emotional distress. The breast cancer incidence rate in India as well as Western countries has risen in recent years while survival rates have improved; this has effectively increased the number of women for whom post-treatment quality of life is important. In this context, chronic pain following treatment for breast cancer surgery is a significantly under-recognized and under-treated problem. Various types of chronic neuropathic pain may arise following breast cancer surgery due to surgical trauma. The cause of these syndromes is damage to various nerves during surgery. There are a number of assumed factors causing or perpetuating persistent neuropathic pain after breast cancer surgery. Most well-established risk factors for developing phantom breast pain and other related neuropathic pain syndromes are severe acute postoperative pain and greater postoperative use of analgesics. Based upon current evidence, the goals of prophylactic strategies could first target optimal peri-operative pain control and minimizing damage to nerves during surgery. There is some evidence that chronic pain and sensory abnormalities do decrease over time. The main group of oral medications studied includes anti-depressants, anticonvulsants, opioids, N-methyl-D-asparate receptor antagonists, mexilitine, topical lidocaine, cannabinoids, topical capsaicin and glysine antagonists. Neuromodulation techniques such as motor cortex stimulation, spinal cord stimulation, and intrathecal drug therapies have been used to treat various neuropathic pain syndromes.

  14. Effect of finite sample dimensions and total scatter acceptance angle on the gamma ray buildup factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Sukhpal; Kumar, Ashok; Singh, Charanjeet; Thind, Kulwant Singh; Mudahar, Gurmel S.

    2008-01-01

    The simultaneous variation of gamma ray buildup factors with absorber thickness (up to 6.5 mfp) and total scatter acceptance angle (which is the sum of incidence and exit beam divergence) in the media of high volume flyash concrete and water was studied experimentally using a point isotropic 137 Cs source

  15. Theory of Inclusive Scattering of Polarized Electrons by Polarized $^{3}$He and the Neutron Form Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Atti, C. Ciofi degli; Pace, E.; Salmé, G.

    1993-01-01

    The theory of inclusive lepton scattering of polarized leptons by polarized J = 1/2 hadrons is presented and the origin of different expressions for the polarized nuclear response function appearing in the literature is explained. The sensitivity of the longitudinal asymmetry upon the neutron form factors is investigated.

  16. The joint probability distribution of structure factors incorporating anomalous-scattering and isomorphous-replacement data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peschar, R.; Schenk, H.

    1991-01-01

    A method to derive joint probability distributions of structure factors is presented which incorporates anomalous-scattering and isomorphous-replacement data in a unified procedure. The structure factors F H and F -H , whose magnitudes are different due to anomalous scattering, are shown to be isomorphously related. This leads to a definition of isomorphism by means of which isomorphous-replacement and anomalous-scattering data can be handled simultaneously. The definition and calculation of the general term of the joint probability distribution for isomorphous structure factors turns out to be crucial. Its analytical form leads to an algorithm by means of which any particular joint probability distribution of structure factors can be constructed. The calculation of the general term is discussed for the case of four isomorphous structure factors in P1, assuming the atoms to be independently and uniformly distributed. A main result is the construction of the probability distribution of the 64 triplet phase sums present in space group P1 amongst four isomorphous structure factors F H , four isomorphous F K and four isomorphous F -H-K . The procedure is readily generalized in the case where an arbitrary number of isomorphous structure factors are available for F H , F K and F -H-K . (orig.)

  17. Computer tomographic phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lonn, A.H.R.; Jacobsen, D.R.; Zech, D.J.

    1988-01-01

    A reference phantom for computer tomography employs a flexible member with means for urging the flexible member into contact along the curved surface of the lumbar region of a human patient. In one embodiment, the reference phantom is pre-curved in an arc greater than required. Pressure from the weight of a patient laying upon the reference phantom is effective for straightening out the curvature sufficiently to achieve substantial contact along the lumbar region. The curvature of the reference phantom may be additionally distorted by a resilient pad between the resilient phantom and a table for urging it into contact with the lumbar region. In a second embodiment of the invention, a flexible reference phantom is disposed in a slot in the top of a resilient cushion. The resilient cushion and reference phantom may be enclosed in a flexible container. A partially curved reference phantom in a slot in a resilient cushion is also contemplated. (author)

  18. Evolution of dosimetric phantoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, A.R.

    2010-01-01

    In this oration evolution of the dosimetric phantoms for radiation protection and for medical use is briefly reviewed. Some details of the development of Indian Reference Phantom for internal dose estimation are also presented

  19. Plane-dependent ML scatter scaling: 3D extension of the 2D simulated single scatter (SSS) estimate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei, Ahmadreza; Salvo, Koen; Vahle, Thomas; Panin, Vladimir; Casey, Michael; Boada, Fernando; Defrise, Michel; Nuyts, Johan

    2017-08-01

    Scatter correction is typically done using a simulation of the single scatter, which is then scaled to account for multiple scatters and other possible model mismatches. This scaling factor is determined by fitting the simulated scatter sinogram to the measured sinogram, using only counts measured along LORs that do not intersect the patient body, i.e. ‘scatter-tails’. Extending previous work, we propose to scale the scatter with a plane dependent factor, which is determined as an additional unknown in the maximum likelihood (ML) reconstructions, using counts in the entire sinogram rather than only the ‘scatter-tails’. The ML-scaled scatter estimates are validated using a Monte-Carlo simulation of a NEMA-like phantom, a phantom scan with typical contrast ratios of a 68Ga-PSMA scan, and 23 whole-body 18F-FDG patient scans. On average, we observe a 12.2% change in the total amount of tracer activity of the MLEM reconstructions of our whole-body patient database when the proposed ML scatter scales are used. Furthermore, reconstructions using the ML-scaled scatter estimates are found to eliminate the typical ‘halo’ artifacts that are often observed in the vicinity of high focal uptake regions.

  20. Numerical tables of anomalous scattering factors calculated by the Cromer and Liberman's method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Satoshi.

    1989-02-01

    Anomalous scattering factors f' and f'' have been calculated for the atoms Li through Bi, plus U, using the relativistic treatment described by Cromer and Liberman. The final f' value does not include the Jensen's correction term on the magnetic scattering. The tables are presented with the f' and f'' values (i) at 0.01 A intervals in the wavelength range from 0.1 to 2.89 A and (ii) at 0.0001 A intervals in the neighborhood of the K, L 1 , L 2 , and L 3 absorption edges. (author)

  1. A paper sheet phantom for scintigraphic planar imaging. Usefulness of pouch-laminated paper source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takaki, Akihiro; Soma, Tsutomu; Murase, Kenya; Teraoka, Satomi; Murakami, Tomonori; Kojima, Akihiro; Matsumoto, Masanori

    2007-01-01

    In order to perform experimental measurements for evaluation of imaging device's performance, data acquisition technique, and clinical images on scintigraphic imaging, many kinds of phantoms are employed. However, since these materials are acrylic and plastic, the thickness and quality of those materials cause attenuation and scatter in itself. We developed a paper sheet phantom sealed with a pouch laminator, which can be a true radioactive source in air. In this study, the paper sheet phantom was compared to the acrylic liver phantom, with the thickness of 2 cm, which is commercially available. The results showed that although some scatter counts were contained within the image of the acrylic liver phantom, there were few scattered photons in the paper sheet phantom image. Furthermore, this laminated paper sheet phantom made handling of the source and its waste easier. If the paper sheet phantom will be designed more sophisticatedly, it becomes a useful tool for planar imaging experiments. (author)

  2. New elastic electron scattering factors for the elements for incident energies of 10, 40, 60, and 90 keV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, A.W.; Fink, M.

    1986-01-01

    An improved set of scattering factors for all neutral elements has bee completed for inclusion in the new edition of the International Tables of X-ray Crystallography . These calculations are compared with the former electron scattering factors and the deviations between the two are discussed

  3. Tissue-phantom dose ratio R(t, F) in irradiation planning. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hegewald, H.

    1986-01-01

    The principles for measuring doses are represented to complete the developed tissue-phantom dose ratio R(t, F). The functional dependence of the tissue-phantom dose ratio on the field size results from the different spectral energy distribution in the buildup range compared to greater depths. This once more illustrates the demand, to move the calibration and reference depths into greater depths than the dose maximum depth on account of a high precision. The scattering factors and their dependence on the type of collimator are represented and tables are made up for practical use. In a supplement the derivations of the equation systems are given, to find out the tissue-phantom dose ratio by computation and the correspondence is tested. The measurements are more relevant in the megavolt range since dose values typically for the equipment are measured in the buildup range and depth dose tables are not available in the required completeness. (author)

  4. The Proton Coulomb Form Factor from Polarized Inclusive e-p Scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, Christopher Matthew [Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States)

    2001-05-01

    The proton form factors provide information on the fundamental properties of the proton and provide a test for models based on QCD. In 1998 at Jefferson Lab (JLAB) in Newport News, VA, experiment E93026 measured the inclusive e-p scattering cross section from a polarized ammonia (15NH3) target at a four momentum transfer squared of Q2 = 0.5 (GeV/c)2. Longitudinally polarized electrons were scattered from the polarized target and the scattered electron was detected. Data has been analyzed to obtain the asymmetry from elastically scattered electrons from hydrogen in 15NH3. The asymmetry, Ap, has been used to determine the proton elastic form factor GEp. The result is consistent with the dipole model and data from previous experiments. However, due to the choice of kinematics, the uncertainty in the measurement is large.

  5. Experimental model for neutron scattering in disordered systems: static structure factor determination of mode-softening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siegel, E.

    1982-01-01

    The generalized-disorder collective-boson mode-softening universality-principle (GDCBMSUP) for collective-boson mode dispersion in disordered systems (liquids, quantum liquids, glasses, powders, disordered magnets, plasmas...), a unified qualitative and semi-qualitative and semi-quantitative descriptive prescription for treating the properties of very differently disordered systems, is directly dependent upon a measurement (or calculation) of the static structure factor S(k) determined from a frequency average of the dynamic structure factor S(k,w), a multiple of the inelastic differential neutron scattering cross section d 2 sigma/dwdOMEGA. The prescription for this principle is given and, because of its universal applicability to disordered systems of any type with any type and/or degree of disorder, the neutron scattering determination of S(k) takes on renewed importance

  6. On the Debye-Waller factor in atom-surface scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, N.; Maradudin, A.A.; Celli, V.

    1982-01-01

    A theory for the Debye-Waller factor in atom-surface scattering is presented, to lowest order in the phonon contributions. Multiple-scattering effects as well as the cross-correlated surface atom displacements are included. The theory accounts for experimental data without the necessity of introducing the Armand effect, which is due to the finite size of the incident atom. The work presented here implies that the Kirchhoff approximation fails when the energy of the incident particle is in the energy range of the phonon spectrum. The results of the calculation are presented in the high-temperature limit, and it is observed that the Rayleigh surface phonons contribute three-quarters of the Debye-Waller factor, while the bulk phonons account for the rest. This result is interesting because the calculation of the former contribution is simpler than that of the latter. (author)

  7. Baryon scattering at high energies. Wave function, impact factor, and gluon radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartels, J.; Motyka, L.; Jagellonian Univ., Krakow

    2007-11-01

    The scattering of a baryon consisting of three massive quarks is investigated in the high energy limit of perturbative QCD. A model of a relativistic proton-like wave function, dependent on valence quark longitudinal and transverse momenta and on quark helicities, is proposed, and we derive the baryon impact factors for two, three and four t-channel gluons. We find that the baryonic impact factor can be written as a sum of three pieces: in the first one a subsystem consisting of two of the three quarks behaves very much like the quark-antiquark pair in γ * scattering, whereas the third quark acts as a spectator. The second term belongs to the odderon, whereas in the third (C-even) piece all three quarks participate in the scattering. This term is new and has no analogue in γ * scattering. We also study the small x evolution of gluon radiation for each of these three terms. The first term follows the same pattern of gluon radiation as the γ * -initiated quark-antiquark dipole, and, in particular, it contains the BFKL evolution followed by the 2→4 transition vertex (triple Pomeron vertex). The odderon-term is described by the standard BKP evolution, and the baryon couples to both known odderon solutions, the Janik-Wosiek solution and the BLV solution. Finally, the t-channel evolution of the third term starts with a three reggeized gluon state which then, via a new 3→4 transition vertex, couples to the four gluon (two-Pomeron) state. We briefly discuss a few consequences of these findings, in particular the pattern of unitarization of high energy baryon scattering amplitudes. (orig.)

  8. Baryon scattering at high energies. Wave function, impact factor, and gluon radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartels, J. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Motyka, L. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik]|[Jagellonian Univ., Krakow (Poland). Inst. of Physics

    2007-11-15

    The scattering of a baryon consisting of three massive quarks is investigated in the high energy limit of perturbative QCD. A model of a relativistic proton-like wave function, dependent on valence quark longitudinal and transverse momenta and on quark helicities, is proposed, and we derive the baryon impact factors for two, three and four t-channel gluons. We find that the baryonic impact factor can be written as a sum of three pieces: in the first one a subsystem consisting of two of the three quarks behaves very much like the quark-antiquark pair in {gamma}{sup *} scattering, whereas the third quark acts as a spectator. The second term belongs to the odderon, whereas in the third (C-even) piece all three quarks participate in the scattering. This term is new and has no analogue in {gamma}{sup *} scattering. We also study the small x evolution of gluon radiation for each of these three terms. The first term follows the same pattern of gluon radiation as the {gamma}{sup *}-initiated quark-antiquark dipole, and, in particular, it contains the BFKL evolution followed by the 2{yields}4 transition vertex (triple Pomeron vertex). The odderon-term is described by the standard BKP evolution, and the baryon couples to both known odderon solutions, the Janik-Wosiek solution and the BLV solution. Finally, the t-channel evolution of the third term starts with a three reggeized gluon state which then, via a new 3{yields}4 transition vertex, couples to the four gluon (two-Pomeron) state. We briefly discuss a few consequences of these findings, in particular the pattern of unitarization of high energy baryon scattering amplitudes. (orig.)

  9. Measured and predicted aerosol light scattering enhancement factors at the high alpine site Jungfraujoch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Fierz-Schmidhauser

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Ambient relative humidity (RH determines the water content of atmospheric aerosol particles and thus has an important influence on the amount of visible light scattered by particles. The RH dependence of the particle light scattering coefficient (σsp is therefore an important variable for climate forcing calculations. We used a humidification system for a nephelometer which allows for the measurement of σsp at a defined RH in the range of 20–95%. In this paper we present measurements of light scattering enhancement factors f(RH=σsp(RH/σsp(dry from a 1-month campaign (May 2008 at the high alpine site Jungfraujoch (3580 m a.s.l., Switzerland. Measurements at the Jungfraujoch are representative for the lower free troposphere above Central Europe. For this aerosol type hardly any information about the f(RH is available so far. At this site, f(RH=85% varied between 1.2 and 3.3. Measured f(RH agreed well with f(RH calculated with Mie theory using measurements of the size distribution, chemical composition and hygroscopic diameter growth factors as input. Good f(RH predictions at RH<85% were also obtained with a simplified model, which uses the Ångström exponent of σsp(dry as input. RH influences further intensive optical aerosol properties. The backscatter fraction decreased by about 30% from 0.128 to 0.089, and the single scattering albedo increased on average by 0.05 at 85% RH compared to dry conditions. These changes in σsp, backscatter fraction and single scattering albedo have a distinct impact on the radiative forcing of the Jungfraujoch aerosol.

  10. Violation of the factorization theorem in large-angle radiative Bhabha scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arbuzov, A.B.; Kuraev, Eh.A.; Shajkhatdenov, B.G.

    1998-01-01

    The lowest order QED radiative corrections to the radiative large-angle Bhabha scattering process in the region where all the kinematical invariants are large compared to the electron mass are considered. We show that the leading logarithmic corrections do not factor before the Born cross section, contrary to the picture assumed in the renormalization group approach. Estimation of the leading and nonleading contributions for typical kinematics of the hard process for energy of Φ factory is done

  11. Anomalous scattering factors for synchrotron radiation users, calculated using Cromer and Liberman's method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Satoshi.

    1984-01-01

    Anomalous scattering factors f' and f'' have been calculated for the atoms Li through Bi, plus U, using the relativistic treatment described by Cromer and Liberman (1970, 1981). The tables presented in this paper include values (i) in the wavelength range from 0.1 to 2.89 A in 0.01 A intervals and (ii) in the neighborhood of the K,L 1 ,L 2 , and L 3 absorption edges in 0.0001 A intervals. (author)

  12. Thermodynamic model for the elastic form factor in diffraction scattering of protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grashin, A.F.; Evstratenko, A.S.; Lepeshkin, M.V.

    1988-01-01

    An explicit expression is obtained for the differential pp(p-bar)-scattering cross section in the diffraction-cone region by employing the thermodynamic model for the elastic form factor previously proposed in Ref. 4. Data for the energy region 16.3≤(s)/sup 1/2/ ≤546 GeV have been analyzed and significant deviations have been discovered from the commonly used approximations in the form of linear or quadratic exponentials

  13. Off-critical statistical models: factorized scattering theories and bootstrap program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mussardo, G.

    1992-01-01

    We analyze those integrable statistical systems which originate from some relevant perturbations of the minimal models of conformal field theories. When only massive excitations are present, the systems can be efficiently characterized in terms of the relativistic scattering data. We review the general properties of the factorizable S-matrix in two dimensions with particular emphasis on the bootstrap principle. The classification program of the allowed spins of conserved currents and of the non-degenerate S-matrices is discussed and illustrated by means of some significant examples. The scattering theories of several massive perturbations of the minimal models are fully discussed. Among them are the Ising model, the tricritical Ising model, the Potts models, the series of the non-unitary minimal models M 2,2n+3 , the non-unitary model M 3,5 and the scaling limit of the polymer system. The ultraviolet limit of these massive integrable theories can be exploited by the thermodynamics Bethe ansatz, in particular the central charge of the original conformal theories can be recovered from the scattering data. We also consider the numerical method based on the so-called conformal space truncated approach which confirms the theoretical results and allows a direct measurement of the scattering data, i.e. the masses and the S-matrix of the particles in bootstrap interaction. The problem of computing the off-critical correlation functions is discussed in terms of the form-factor approach

  14. Atomic scattering factor of the ASTRO-H (Hitomi) SXT reflector around the gold's L edges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kikuchi, Naomichi; Kurashima, Sho; Ishida, Manabu

    2016-01-01

    The atomic scattering factor in the energy range of 11.2-15.4 keV for the ASTRO-H Soft X-ray Telescope (SXT) is reported. The large effective area of the SXT makes use of photon spectra above 10 keV viable, unlike most other X-ray satellites with total-reflection mirror optics. Presence of gold's L-edges...... in the energy band is a major issue, as it complicates the function of the effective area. In order to model the area, the reflectivity measurements in the 11.2-15.4 keV band with the energy pitch of 0.4-0.7 eV were made in the synchrotron beamline Spring-8 BL01B1. We obtained atomic scattering factors f1 and f......2 by the curve fitting to the reflectivities of our witness sample. The edges associated with the L-I, II, and III transitions are identified, of which the depths are found to be roughly 60% shallower than those expected from the Henke's atomic scattering factor....

  15. Parity-Violating Electron Deuteron Scattering and the Proton's Neutral Axial Vector Form Factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, T.

    2003-01-01

    The authors report on a new measurement of the parity-violating asymmetry in quasielastic electron scattering from the deuteron at the backward angles at electron beam energy of 125 MeV [Q 2 =0.038 (GeV/c) 2 ]. This quantity provides a determination of the neutral weak axial vector form factor of the nucleon. In addition to the tree level amplitude associated with Z-exchange, the neutral weak axial vector form factor as measured in electron scattering can potentially receive large electroweak corrections, including the anapole moment, that are absent in neutrino scattering. The measured asymmetry A -3.51 ± 0.57 (stat) ± 0.58 (sys) ppm is consistent with theoretical predictions. We also report on updated results of the previous experiment at 200 MeV [Q 2 = 0.091 (GeV/c) 2 ] on a deuterium target. The updated results are also consistent with theoretical predictions on the neutral weal axial vector form factor

  16. Post-Mastectomy and Phantom Breast Pain: Risk Factors, Natural History, and Impact on Quality of Life

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dworkin, Robert

    2003-01-01

    .... The primary aims of this research were to identify risk factors for these chronic pain syndromes following surgical procedures for breast cancer, characterize their natural history, and examine...

  17. Synchronous scattering and diffraction from gold nanotextured surfaces with structure factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Min-Jhong; Lee, Ming-Tsang; Huang, Chien-Hsun; Wu, Chi-Chun; Chen, Yu-Bin

    2018-05-01

    Synchronous scattering and diffraction were demonstrated using reflectance from gold nanotextured surfaces at oblique (θi = 15° and 60°) incidence of wavelength λ = 405 nm. Two samples of unique auto-correlation functions were cost-effectively fabricated. Multiple structure factors of their profiles were confirmed with Fourier expansions. Bi-directional reflectance function (BRDF) from these samples provided experimental proofs. On the other hand, standard deviation of height and unique auto-correlation function of each sample were used to generate surfaces numerically. Comparing their BRDF with those of totally random rough surfaces further suggested that structure factors in profile could reduce specular reflection more than totally random roughness.

  18. Q resolution calculation of small angle neutron scattering spectrometer and analysis of form factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Liang; Peng Mei; Wang Yan; Sun Liangwei; Chen Bo

    2011-01-01

    The calculational methods of Small Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS) spectrometer Q resolution function and its correlative Q standard difference were introduced. The effects of Q standard difference were analysed with the geometry lay out of spectrometer and the spread of neutron wavelength. The one dimension Q resolution Gaussian function were analysed. The form factor curve of ideal solid sphere and two different instrument arrangement parameter was convoluted respectively and the different smearing curve of form factor was obtained. The combination of using the Q resolution function to more accurately analysis SANS data. (authors)

  19. Post-Mastectomy and Phantom Breast Pain: Risk Factors, Natural History, and Impact on Quality of Life

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dworkin, Robert

    1999-01-01

    ... from substantial reductions in quality of life. The primary aims of this research project are to identify risk factors for these chronic pain syndromes following surgical procedures for breast cancer, characterize their natural history...

  20. The factorization method for inverse acoustic scattering in a layered medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondarenko, Oleksandr; Kirsch, Andreas; Liu, Xiaodong

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we consider a problem of inverse acoustic scattering by an impenetrable obstacle embedded in a layered medium. We will show that the factorization method can be applied to recover the embedded obstacle; that is, the equation F-tilde g =φ z is solvable if and only if the sampling point z is in the interior of the unknown obstacle. Here, F-tilde is a self-adjoint operator related to the far field operator and ϕ z is the far field pattern of the Green function with respect to the problem of scattering by the background medium for point z. The validity of the factorization method is proven with the help of a mixed reciprocity principle and an application of the scattering operator. Due to the established mixed reciprocity principle, knowledge of the Green function for the background medium is no longer required, which makes the method attractive from the computational point of view. The paper is only concerned with sound-soft obstacles, but the analysis can be easily extended for sound-hard obstacles, or obstacles with separated sound-soft and sound-hard parts. Finally, we provide an explicit example for a radially symmetric case and present some numerical examples. (paper)

  1. Towards a Resolution of the Proton Form Factor Problem: New Electron and Positron Scattering Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adikaram, D.; Rimal, D.; Weinstein, L. B.; Raue, B.; Khetarpal, P.; Bennett, R. P.; Arrington, J.; Brooks, W. K.; Adhikari, K. P.; Afanasev, A. V.; Amaryan, M. J.; Anderson, M. D.; Anefalos Pereira, S.; Avakian, H.; Ball, J.; Battaglieri, M.; Bedlinskiy, I.; Biselli, A. S.; Bono, J.; Boiarinov, S.; Briscoe, W. J.; Burkert, V. D.; Carman, D. S.; Careccia, S.; Celentano, A.; Chandavar, S.; Charles, G.; Colaneri, L.; Cole, P. L.; Contalbrigo, M.; Crede, V.; D'Angelo, A.; Dashyan, N.; De Vita, R.; De Sanctis, E.; Deur, A.; Djalali, C.; Dodge, G. E.; Dupre, R.; Egiyan, H.; El Alaoui, A.; El Fassi, L.; Elouadrhiri, L.; Eugenio, P.; Fedotov, G.; Fegan, S.; Filippi, A.; Fleming, J. A.; Fradi, A.; Garillon, B.; Gilfoyle, G. P.; Giovanetti, K. L.; Girod, F. X.; Goetz, J. T.; Gohn, W.; Golovatch, E.; Gothe, R. W.; Griffioen, K. A.; Guegan, B.; Guidal, M.; Guo, L.; Hafidi, K.; Hakobyan, H.; Hanretty, C.; Harrison, N.; Hattawy, M.; Hicks, K.; Holtrop, M.; Hughes, S. M.; Hyde, C. E.; Ilieva, Y.; Ireland, D. G.; Ishkhanov, B. S.; Jenkins, D.; Jiang, H.; Jo, H. S.; Joo, K.; Joosten, S.; Kalantarians, N.; Keller, D.; Khandaker, M.; Kim, A.; Kim, W.; Klein, A.; Klein, F. J.; Koirala, S.; Kubarovsky, V.; Kuhn, S. E.; Livingston, K.; Lu, H. Y.; MacGregor, I. J. D.; Markov, N.; Mattione, P.; Mayer, M.; McKinnon, B.; Mestayer, M. D.; Meyer, C. A.; Mirazita, M.; Mokeev, V.; Montgomery, R. A.; Moody, C. I.; Moutarde, H.; Movsisyan, A.; Camacho, C. Munoz; Nadel-Turonski, P.; Niccolai, S.; Niculescu, G.; Osipenko, M.; Ostrovidov, A. I.; Park, K.; Pasyuk, E.; Peña, C.; Pisano, S.; Pogorelko, O.; Price, J. W.; Procureur, S.; Prok, Y.; Protopopescu, D.; Puckett, A. J. R.; Ripani, M.; Rizzo, A.; Rosner, G.; Rossi, P.; Roy, P.; Sabatié, F.; Salgado, C.; Schott, D.; Schumacher, R. A.; Seder, E.; Sharabian, Y. G.; Simonyan, A.; Skorodumina, I.; Smith, E. S.; Smith, G. D.; Sober, D. I.; Sokhan, D.; Sparveris, N.; Stepanyan, S.; Stoler, P.; Strauch, S.; Sytnik, V.; Taiuti, M.; Tian, Ye; Trivedi, A.; Ungaro, M.; Voskanyan, H.; Voutier, E.; Walford, N. K.; Watts, D. P.; Wei, X.; Wood, M. H.; Zachariou, N.; Zana, L.; Zhang, J.; Zhao, Z. W.; Zonta, I.; CLAS Collaboration

    2015-02-01

    There is a significant discrepancy between the values of the proton electric form factor, GEp, extracted using unpolarized and polarized electron scattering. Calculations predict that small two-photon exchange (TPE) contributions can significantly affect the extraction of GEp from the unpolarized electron-proton cross sections. We determined the TPE contribution by measuring the ratio of positron-proton to electron-proton elastic scattering cross sections using a simultaneous, tertiary electron-positron beam incident on a liquid hydrogen target and detecting the scattered particles in the Jefferson Lab CLAS detector. This novel technique allowed us to cover a wide range in virtual photon polarization (ɛ ) and momentum transfer (Q2) simultaneously, as well as to cancel luminosity-related systematic errors. The cross section ratio increases with decreasing ɛ at Q2=1.45 GeV2 . This measurement is consistent with the size of the form factor discrepancy at Q2≈1.75 GeV2 and with hadronic calculations including nucleon and Δ intermediate states, which have been shown to resolve the discrepancy up to 2 - 3 GeV2 .

  2. Study of the electromagnetic form factors of Helium-3 and Tritium nuclei by electron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amroun, A.

    1989-01-01

    Accurate measurements of the tritium electromagnetic form factor demonstrated that, when the exchange currents are included, the theoretical and the experimental data are in agreement. Similar calculations carried out on helium-3 were not satisfactory. In this investigation, a new electromagnetic form factor of helium-3 is measured. The transfer zone of the diffraction spectra concerning the first minimum and the second maximum is considered. The aim of the study is to test on both nuclei the validity and the uncertainties of the models. The scattering of electrons on helium-3 is analyzed. The experiment was performed in the Saclay linear accelerator. The isoscalar and isovector form factors could be differentiated. By comparing the theoretical and the experimental data, it is demonstrated that the use of three body forces in the calculations has no effect on the form factor results [fr

  3. Structure of rapidity divergences in multi-parton scattering soft factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vladimirov, Alexey

    2018-04-01

    We discuss the structure of rapidity divergences that are presented in the soft factors of transverse momentum dependent (TMD) factorization theorems. To provide the discussion on the most general level we consider soft factors for multi-parton scattering. We show that the rapidity divergences are result of the gluon exchanges with the distant transverse plane, and are structurally equivalent to the ultraviolet divergences. It allows to formulate and to prove the renormalization theorem for rapidity divergences. The proof is made with the help the conformal transformation which maps rapidity divergences to ultraviolet divergences. The theorem is the systematic form of the factorization of rapidity divergences, which is required for the definition of TMD parton distributions. In particular, the definition of multi parton distributions is presented. The equivalence of ultraviolet and rapidity divergences leads to the exact relation between soft and rapidity anomalous dimensions. Using this relation we derive the rapidity anomalous dimension at the three-loop order.

  4. SU-F-T-16: Experimental Determination of Ionization Chamber Correction Factors for In-Phantom Measurements of Reference Air Kerma Rate and Absorbed Water Dose Rate of Brachytherapy 192Ir Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, M; Lee, V; Wong, M; Leung, R; Law, G; Lee, K; Cheung, S; Tung, S

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Following the method of in-phantom measurements of reference air kerma rate (Ka) at 100cm and absorbed water dose rate (Dw1) at 1cm of high-dose-rate 192Ir brachytherapy source using 60Co absorbed-dose-to-water calibrated (ND,w,60Co) ionization chamber (IC), we experimentally determined the in-phantom correction factors (kglob) of the PTW30013 (PTW, Freiburg, Germany) IC by comparing the Monte Carlo (MC)-calculated kglob of the other PTW30016 IC. Methods: The Dw1 formalism of in-phantom measurement is: M*ND,w,60Co*(kglob)Dw1, where M is the collected charges, and (kglob)Dw1 the in-phantom Dw1 correction factor. Similarly, Ka is determined by M*ND,w,60Co*(kglob)ka, where (kglob)ka the in-phantom Ka correction factor. Two thimble ICs PTW30013 and another PTW30016 having a ND,w,60Co from the German primary standard laboratory (PTB) were simultaneously exposed to the microselectron 192Ir v2 source at 8cm in a PMMA phantom. A reference well chamber (PTW33004) with a PTB transfer Ka calibration Nka was used for comparing the in-phantom measurements to derive the experimental (kglob)ka factors. We determined the experimental (kglob)Dw1 of the PTW30013 by comparing the PTW30016 measurements with MC-calculated (kglob)Dw1. Results: Ka results of the PTW30016 based on ND,w,60Co and MC-calculated (kglob)ka differ from the well chamber results based on Nka by 1.6% and from the manufacturer by 1.0%. Experimental (kglob)ka factors for the PTW30016 and two other PTW30013 are 0.00683, 0.00681 and 0.00679, and vary <0.5% with 1mm source positioning uncertainty. Experimental (kglob)Dw1 of the PTW30013 ICs are 75.3 and 75.6, and differ by 1.6% from the conversion by dose rate constant from the AAPM report 229. Conclusion: The 1.7% difference between MC and experimental (kglob)ka for the PTW30016 IC is within the PTB 2.5% expanded uncertainty in Ka calibration standard. Using a single IC with ND,w,60Co to calibrate the brachytherapy source and dose output in external

  5. Phantom cosmologies and fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chimento, Luis P; Forte, Monica; Devecchi, Fernando P; Kremer, Gilberto M

    2008-01-01

    Form invariance transformations can be used for constructing phantom cosmologies starting with conventional cosmological models. In this work we reconsider the scalar field case and extend the discussion to fermionic fields, where the 'phantomization' process exhibits a new class of possible accelerated regimes. As an application we analyze the cosmological constant group for a fermionic seed fluid

  6. 21. Phantom pain.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolff, A.P.; Vanduynhoven, E.; Kleef, M. van; Huygen, F.; Pope, J.E.; Mekhail, N.

    2011-01-01

    Phantom pain is pain caused by elimination or interruption of sensory nerve impulses by destroying or injuring the sensory nerve fibers after amputation or deafferentation. The reported incidence of phantom limb pain after trauma, injury or peripheral vascular diseases is 60% to 80%. Over half the

  7. Development of digital phantom for DRR evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Tsuyoshi; Katsuta, Shoichi; Oyama, Masaya; Ogino, Takashi

    2009-01-01

    Generally, digitally reconstructed radiograph (DRR) is evaluated by physical phantom. The CT image is camouflaged by the performance of the radiation treatment planning system and contains a variety of error factors. The CT image (as follows the digital phantom), where an arbitrary CT value is arranged in the matrix, is necessary to evaluate the pure performance of the radiation treatment planning system. In this study, the development of a digital phantom is described, and the utility is discussed. CTport and the radiation treatment planning system are evaluated with the use of a digital phantom as follows: geometrical accuracy evaluation of DRR, consisting of the center position, size of irradiation field, distortion, extension of X-ray, and beam axis, and the image quality evaluation of DRR, which consists of the contrast resolution. As for DRR made with CTport and the treatment planning system, the part that shifted geometrically was confirmed. In the image quality evaluation, there was a remarkable difference. Because the making accuracy and the installation accuracy of the phantom do not influence the digital phantom, the geometrical accuracy of the DRR is reliable. Because the CT conditions and the phantom factor have no influence, the peculiar DRR image quality can be evaluated and used to evaluate the best image processing parameters. (author)

  8. Scattering factor evaluation for internal dose assessment due to 60Co

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gautam, Y.P.; Kumar, A.; Sharma, S.; Sharma, A.K.; Dube, B.; Hegde, A.G.

    2008-01-01

    Guidelines for the assessment of internal doses from monitoring suggest default measurement of uncertainties (i.e. lognormal scattering factor, SF) to be used for different types of monitoring data. In this paper, SF values have been evaluated for internal contamination due to 60 Co in two cases using whole body counting data. SF values of 1.04 and 1.03 were obtained for case I and II respectively while SF value of 1.03 was obtained using bioassay data for case I. SF evaluated is in good agreement with the default values given by IDEAS guidelines. (author)

  9. Factorization properties and spurious solutions in N-body scattering theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanzani, V.

    1979-01-01

    The origin of spurious solutions in N-body scattering equations is discussed. It is shown that spurious solutions are expected because of specific factorization properties of the homogeneous equations. The equations proposed by Rosenberg, by Mitra, Gillespie, Sugar and Panchapakesan, by Takahashi and Mishima, by Alessandrini, by Sasakawa, by Sloan, Bencze and Redish, by Weinberg and van Winter and by Avishai are considered. It is explicitly shown that spurious multipliers arise from repeated employment of resolvent equations or, equiValently, from generalized iteration procedure

  10. DetOx: a program for determining anomalous scattering factors of mixed-oxidation-state species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Karim J; Barnett, Sarah A; Christensen, Kirsten E; Nowell, Harriott; Thompson, Amber L; Allan, David R; Cooper, Richard I

    2013-01-01

    Overlapping absorption edges will occur when an element is present in multiple oxidation states within a material. DetOx is a program for partitioning overlapping X-ray absorption spectra into contributions from individual atomic species and computing the dependence of the anomalous scattering factors on X-ray energy. It is demonstrated how these results can be used in combination with X-ray diffraction data to determine the oxidation state of ions at specific sites in a mixed-valance material, GaCl(2).

  11. X-ray atomic scattering factors of low-Z ions with a core hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hau-Riege, Stefan P.

    2007-01-01

    Short and intense x-ray pulses may be used for atomic-resolution diffraction imaging of single biological molecules. One of the dominant damage mechanisms is atomic ionization, resulting in a large fraction of atoms with core holes. We calculated the atomic scattering factor of atoms with atomic charge numbers between 3 and 10 in different ionization states with and without a core hole. Our results show that orbital occupation and the change of the orbitals upon core ionization (core relaxation) have a significant impact on the diffraction pattern

  12. Theoretical evaluation of self-shielding factors due to scattering resonances in foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selander, W.N.

    1960-06-01

    A semi-analytical method is given for evaluating self-shielding factors for activation measurements which use thin foils having neutron scattering resonances. The energy loss by scattering in the foil is taken into account. The energy-dependent neutron angular distribution is expanded as a double series, the coefficients of which are (energy dependent) solutions of an infinite set of coupled integral equations. These are truncated in some suitable manner and solved numerically. The leading term of the series is proportional to the average, or effective flux in the activation sample. The product of this terra and the neutron capture cross-section is integrated numerically over the resonance to give the resonance self-shielding correction. Figure 4 shows resonance self-shielding factors derived in this mariner for the 132ev resonance in Co-59 and figure 5 shows similar results for the two Mn-55 resonances at 337ev and 1080ev. Self-shielding factors for 1/v capture are not significantly different from unity. (author)

  13. Asymptotic energy scale factors for pseudoscalar meson scattering and charmed meson couplings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thews, R.L.

    1977-01-01

    Energy scale factors ν 0 for PP → PP scattering amplitudes are related via absence of exotic resonances of ratios of tensor to vector coupling strengths. These same ratios are extracted from FESR's for non-exotic reactions. The scale factors obtained are all of the order of 1.0 GeV 2 or less, indepedent of quantum numbers. This contradicts the expectations of dual amplitudes in which ν 0 =1/α', and trajectory slopes are smaller for charmed mesons. Decay widths for tensor mesons are predicted. An observed SU(3) violation for the ratio A 2 → KantiK/K** → Kπ is shown to be consistent with the FESR results. Charmed meson decays are predicted to be factors of 2 to 3 larger than those predicted by SU(4). (author)

  14. Form factors and scattering amplitudes in N=4 SYM in dimensional and massive regularizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henn, Johannes M. [Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik; California Univ., Santa Barbara, CA (United States). Kavli Inst. for Theoretical Physics; Moch, Sven [California Univ., Santa Barbara, CA (United States). Kavli Inst. for Theoretical Physics; Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Naculich, Stephen G. [California Univ., Santa Barbara, CA (United States). Kavli Inst. for Theoretical Physics; Bowdoin College, Brunswick, ME (United States). Dept. of Physics

    2011-09-15

    The IR-divergent scattering amplitudes of N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory can be regulated in a variety of ways, including dimensional regularization and massive (or Higgs) regularization. The IR-finite part of an amplitude in different regularizations generally differs by an additive constant at each loop order, due to the ambiguity in separating finite and divergent contributions. We give a prescription for defining an unambiguous, regulator-independent finite part of the amplitude by factoring off a product of IR-divergent ''wedge'' functions. For the cases of dimensional regularization and the common-mass Higgs regulator, we define the wedge function in terms of a form factor, and demonstrate the regularization independence of the n-point amplitude through two loops. We also deduce the form of the wedge function for the more general differential-mass Higgs regulator, although we lack an explicit operator definition in this case. Finally, using extended dual conformal symmetry, we demonstrate the link between the differential-mass wedge function and the anomalous dual conformal Ward identity for the finite part of the scattering amplitude. (orig.)

  15. Form factors and scattering amplitudes in N=4 SYM in dimensional and massive regularizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henn, Johannes M.; Naculich, Stephen G.; Bowdoin College, Brunswick, ME

    2011-09-01

    The IR-divergent scattering amplitudes of N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory can be regulated in a variety of ways, including dimensional regularization and massive (or Higgs) regularization. The IR-finite part of an amplitude in different regularizations generally differs by an additive constant at each loop order, due to the ambiguity in separating finite and divergent contributions. We give a prescription for defining an unambiguous, regulator-independent finite part of the amplitude by factoring off a product of IR-divergent ''wedge'' functions. For the cases of dimensional regularization and the common-mass Higgs regulator, we define the wedge function in terms of a form factor, and demonstrate the regularization independence of the n-point amplitude through two loops. We also deduce the form of the wedge function for the more general differential-mass Higgs regulator, although we lack an explicit operator definition in this case. Finally, using extended dual conformal symmetry, we demonstrate the link between the differential-mass wedge function and the anomalous dual conformal Ward identity for the finite part of the scattering amplitude. (orig.)

  16. Conversion of ICRP male reference phantom to polygon-surface phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeom, Yeon Soo; Han, Min Cheol; Kim, Chan Hyeong; Jeong, Jong Hwi

    2013-01-01

    for highly penetrating radiations such as photons and neutrons. The results of the electron beams, on the other hand, show that the dose values of the polygon-surface phantom are higher by a factor of 2–5 times than those of the ICRP reference phantom for the skin and wall organs which have large holes due to low voxel resolution. The results demonstrate that the ICRP reference phantom could provide significantly unreasonable dose values to thin or wall organs especially for weakly penetrating radiations. Therefore, when compared to the original ICRP reference phantoms, it is believed that the polygon-surface version of ICRP reference phantoms properly developed will not only provide the same or similar dose values (say, difference <5 or 10%) for highly penetrating radiations, but also provide correct dose values for the weakly penetrating radiations such as electrons and other charged particles. (paper)

  17. Collinear factorization for deep inelastic scattering structure functions at large Bjorken xB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accardi, Alberto; Qiu, Jian-Wei

    2008-01-01

    http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1126-6708/2008/07/090 We examine the uncertainty of perturbative QCD factorization for hadron structure functions in deep inelastic scattering at a large value of the Bjorken variable xB. We analyze the target mass correction to the structure functions by using the collinear factorization approach in the momentum space. We express the long distance physics of structure functions and the leading target mass corrections in terms of parton distribution functions with the standard operator definition. We compare our result with existing work on the target mass correction. We also discuss the impact of a final-state jet function on the extraction of parton distributions at large fractional momentum x.

  18. Elastic removal self-shielding factors for light and medium nuclides with strong-resonance scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, Masayuki; Ishiguro, Yukio; Tokuno, Yukio.

    1978-01-01

    The self-shielding factors for elastic removal cross sections of light and medium weight nuclides were calculated for the parameter, σ 0 within the conventional concept of the group constant sets. The numerical study were performed for obtaining a simple and accurate method. The present results were compared with the exact values and the conventional ones, and shown to be remarkably improved. It became apparent that the anisotropy of the elastic scattering did not affect to the self-shielding factors though it did to the infinite dilution cross sections. With use of the present revised set, the neutron flux were calculated in an iron medium and in a prototype FBR and compared with those by the fine spectrum calculations and the conventional set. The present set showed the considerable improvement in the vicinity of the large resonance regions of sodium, iron and oxygen. (auth.)

  19. Compton scatter correction for planner scintigraphic imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaan Steelandt, E; Dobbeleir, A; Vanregemorter, J [Algemeen Ziekenhuis Middelheim, Antwerp (Belgium). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and Radiotherapy

    1995-12-01

    A major problem in nuclear medicine is the image degradation due to Compton scatter in the patient. Photons emitted by the radioactive tracer scatter in collision with electrons of the surrounding tissue. Due to the resulting loss of energy and change in direction, the scattered photons induce an object dependant background on the images. This results in a degradation of the contrast of warm and cold lesions. Although theoretically interesting, most of the techniques proposed in literature like the use of symmetrical photopeaks can not be implemented on the commonly used gamma camera due to the energy/linearity/sensitivity corrections applied in the detector. A method for a single energy isotope based on existing methods with adjustments towards daily practice and clinical situations is proposed. It is assumed that the scatter image, recorded from photons collected within a scatter window adjacent to the photo peak, is a reasonable close approximation of the true scatter component of the image reconstructed from the photo peak window. A fraction `k` of the image using the scatter window is subtracted from the image recorded in the photo peak window to produce the compensated image. The principal matter of the method is the right value for the factor `k`, which is determined in a mathematical way and confirmed by experiments. To determine `k`, different kinds of scatter media are used and are positioned in different ways in order to simulate a clinical situation. For a secondary energy window from 100 to 124 keV below a photo peak window from 126 to 154 keV, a value of 0.7 is found. This value has been verified using both an antropomorph thyroid phantom and the Rollo contrast phantom.

  20. A solid tissue phantom for photon migration studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cubeddu, Rinaldo; Pifferi, Antonio; Taroni, Paola; Torricelli, Alessandro; Valentini, Gianluca

    1997-01-01

    A solid tissue phantom made of agar, Intralipid and black ink is described and characterized. The preparation procedure is fast and easily implemented with standard laboratory equipment. An instrumentation for time-resolved transmittance measurements was used to determine the optical properties of the phantom. The absorption and the reduced scattering coefficients are linear with the ink and Intralipid concentrations, respectively. A systematic decrease of the reduced scattering coefficient dependent on the agar content is observed, but can easily be managed. The phantom is highly homogeneous and shows good repeatability among different preparations. Moreover, agar inclusions can be easily embedded in either solid or liquid matrixes, and no artefacts are caused by the solid - solid or solid - liquid interfaces. This allows one to produce reliable and realistic inhomogeneous phantoms with known optical properties, particularly interesting for studies on optical imaging through turbid media. (author)

  1. Validation of head scatter factor for an Elekta synergy platform linear accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johannes, N.B.

    2013-07-01

    A semi-empirical method has been proposed and developed to model and compute head or collimator scatter factors for 6 and 15 MV photon beams from Elekta Synergy platform linear accelerator at the radiation oncology centre of 'Sweden-Ghana Medical Centre Limited', East Legon Hills in Accra. The proposed model was based on two dimensional Gaussian distribution, whose output was compared to measured head scatter factor data for the linear accelerator obtained during commissioning of the teletherapy machine. The two dimensions Gaussian distribution model used physical specifications and configuration of the head unit (collimator system) of the linear accelerator, which were obtained from the user manual provided by the manufacturer of the linear accelerator. The algorithm for the model was implemented using Matlab software in the Microsoft windows environment. The model was done for both square and rectangular fields, and the output compared with corresponding measured data. The comparisons for the square fields were used to establish an error term in the Gaussian distribution function. The error term was determined by plotting the difference between the output factors from MatLab and the corresponding measured data as function of one side of a square field (equivalent square field). The correlation equation of the curve obtained was chosen as the error term, which was incorporated into the Gaussian distribution function. This was repeated for two photon beam energies (6 and 15 MV). The refined Gaussian distributions were then used to determine head scatter factors for square and rectangular fields. For the rectangular fields, Sterling's proposed formula was used to find equivalent square used to obtain the equivalent square fields found in the error terms of the proposed formula was sed to find equivalent square used to obtain the equivalent square fields found in the error terms of the proposed and developed model. The output of the 2D Gaussian distribution without

  2. Use of novel fibre-coupled radioluminescence and RADPOS dosimetry systems for total scatter factor measurements in small fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ploquin, N.; Kertzscher, Gustavo; Vandervoort, E.

    2015-01-01

    A dosimetry system based on Al2O3:C radioluminescence (RL), and RADPOS, a novel 4D dosimetry system using microMOSFETs, were used to measure total scatter factors, (Sc,p)fclindet, for the CyberKnife robotic radiosugery system. New Monte Carlo calculated correction factors are presented and applied...

  3. Measurement with total scatter calibrate factor at different depths in the calculation of prescription dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Lijun; Zhu Haijun; Zhang Xinzhong; Li Feizhou; Song Hongyu

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the method of measurement of total scatter calibrate factor (Sc, p). Methods: To measure the Sc, p at different depths on central axis of 6MV, 15MV photon beams through different ways. Results: It was found that the measured data of Sc, p changed with the different depths to a range of 1% - 7%. Using the direct method, the Sc, p measured depth should be the same as the depth in dose normalization point of the prescription dose. If the Sc, p (fsz, d) was measured at the other depths, it could be obtained indirectly by the calculation formula. Conclusions: The Sc, p in the prescription dose can be obtained either by the direct measure method or the indirect calculation formula. But emphasis should be laid on the proper measure depth. (authors)

  4. Diffractive Production of Jets and Weak Bosons, and Tests of Hard-Scattering Factorization

    CERN Document Server

    Alvero, L; Terrón, J; Whitmore, J; Alvero, Lyndon; Collins, John C.; Terron, Juan; Whitmore, Jim

    1999-01-01

    We extract diffractive parton densities from diffractive, deep inelastic (DIS) ep data from the ZEUS experiment. Then we use these fits to predict the diffractive production of jets and of W's and Z's in p\\bar p collisions at the Tevatron. Although the DIS data require a hard quark density in the pomeron, we find fairly low rates for the Tevatron processes (a few percent of the inclusive cross section). This results from the combined effects of Q^{2} evolution and of a normalization of the parton densities to the data. The calculated rates for W production are generally consistent with the preliminary data from the Tevatron. However, the jet data from CDF with a ``Roman pot'' trigger are substantially lower than the results of our calculations; if confirmed, this would signal a breakdown of hard-scattering factorization.

  5. Development and test of sets of 3D printed age-specific thyroid phantoms for 131I measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaumont, Tiffany; Caldeira Ideias, Pedro; Rimlinger, Maeva; Broggio, David; Franck, Didier

    2017-06-01

    In the case of a nuclear reactor accident the release contains a high proportion of iodine-131 that can be inhaled or ingested by members of the public. Iodine-131 is naturally retained in the thyroid and increases the thyroid cancer risk. Since the radiation induced thyroid cancer risk is greater for children than for adults, the thyroid dose to children should be assessed as accurately as possible. For that purpose direct measurements should be carried out with age-specific calibration factors but, currently, there is no age-specific thyroid phantoms allowing a robust measurement protocol. A set of age-specific thyroid phantoms for 5, 10, 15 year old children and for the adult has been designed and 3D printed. A realistic thyroid shape has been selected and material properties taken into account to simulate the attenuation of biological tissues. The thyroid volumes follow ICRP recommendations and the phantoms also include the trachea and a spine model. Several versions, with or without spine, with our without trachea, with or without age-specific neck have been manufactured, in order to study the influence of these elements on calibration factors. The calibration factor obtained with the adult phantom and a reference phantom are in reasonable agreement. In vivo calibration experiments with germanium detectors have shown that the difference in counting efficiency, the inverse of the calibration factor, between the 5 year and adult phantoms is 25% for measurement at contact. It is also experimentally evidenced that the inverse of the calibration factor varies linearly with the thyroid volume. The influence of scattering elements like the neck or spine is not evidenced by experimental measurements.

  6. Study on Compression Induced Contrast in X-ray Mammograms Using Breast Mimicking Phantoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. M. Aowlad Hossain

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available X-ray mammography is commonly used to scan cancer or tumors in breast using low dose x-rays. But mammograms suffer from low contrast problem. The breast is compressed in mammography to reduce x-ray scattering effects. As tumors are stiffer than normal tissues, they undergo smaller deformation under compression. Therefore, image intensity at tumor region may change less than the background tissues. In this study, we try to find out compression induced contrast from multiple mammographic images of tumorous breast phantoms taken with different compressions. This is an extended work of our previous simulation study with experiment and more analysis. We have used FEM models for synthetic phantom and constructed a phantom using agar and n-propanol for simulation and experiment. The x-ray images of deformed phantoms have been obtained under three compression steps and a non-rigid registration technique has been applied to register these images. It is noticeably observed that the image intensity changes at tumor are less than those at surrounding which induce a detectable contrast. Addition of this compression induced contrast to the simulated and experimental images has improved their original contrast by a factor of about 1.4

  7. Investigation of electron-loss and photon scattering correction factors for FAC-IR-300 ionization chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, S. M.; Tavakoli-Anbaran, H.; Zeinali, H. Z.

    2017-02-01

    The parallel-plate free-air ionization chamber termed FAC-IR-300 was designed at the Atomic Energy Organization of Iran, AEOI. This chamber is used for low and medium X-ray dosimetry on the primary standard level. In order to evaluate the air-kerma, some correction factors such as electron-loss correction factor (ke) and photon scattering correction factor (ksc) are needed. ke factor corrects the charge loss from the collecting volume and ksc factor corrects the scattering of photons into collecting volume. In this work ke and ksc were estimated by Monte Carlo simulation. These correction factors are calculated for mono-energy photon. As a result of the simulation data, the ke and ksc values for FAC-IR-300 ionization chamber are 1.0704 and 0.9982, respectively.

  8. Investigation of electron-loss and photon scattering correction factors for FAC-IR-300 ionization chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammadi, S.M.; Tavakoli-Anbaran, H.; Zeinali, H.Z.

    2017-01-01

    The parallel-plate free-air ionization chamber termed FAC-IR-300 was designed at the Atomic Energy Organization of Iran, AEOI. This chamber is used for low and medium X-ray dosimetry on the primary standard level. In order to evaluate the air-kerma, some correction factors such as electron-loss correction factor (k e ) and photon scattering correction factor (k sc ) are needed. k e factor corrects the charge loss from the collecting volume and k sc factor corrects the scattering of photons into collecting volume. In this work k e and k sc were estimated by Monte Carlo simulation. These correction factors are calculated for mono-energy photon. As a result of the simulation data, the k e and k sc values for FAC-IR-300 ionization chamber are 1.0704 and 0.9982, respectively.

  9. Comparison of different phantoms used in digital diagnostic imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bor, Dogan, E-mail: bor@eng.ankara.edu.tr [Ankara University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Engineering Physics. Tandogan, 06100 Ankara (Turkey); Unal, Elif, E-mail: elf.unall@gmail.com [Radat Dosimetry Laboratory Services, 06830, Golbasi, Ankara (Turkey); Uslu, Anil, E-mail: m.aniluslu@gmail.com [Radat Dosimetry Laboratory Services, 06830, Golbasi, Ankara (Turkey)

    2015-09-21

    The organs of extremity, chest, skull and lumbar were physically simulated using uniform PMMA slabs with different thicknesses alone and using these slabs together with aluminum plates and air gaps (ANSI Phantoms). The variation of entrance surface air kerma and scatter fraction with X-ray beam qualities was investigated for these phantoms and the results were compared with those measured from anthropomorphic phantoms. A flat panel digital radiographic system was used for all the experiments. Considerable variations of entrance surface air kermas were found for the same organs of different designs, and highest doses were measured for the PMMA slabs. A low contrast test tool and a contrast detail test object (CDRAD) were used together with each organ simulation of PMMA slabs and ANSI phantoms in order to test the clinical image qualities. Digital images of these phantom combinations and anthropomorphic phantoms were acquired in raw and clinically processed formats. Variation of image quality with kVp and post processing was evaluated using the numerical metrics of these test tools and measured contrast values from the anthropomorphic phantoms. Our results indicated that design of some phantoms may not be efficient enough to reveal the expected performance of the post processing algorithms.

  10. Measurement of exposure buildup factors: The influence of scattered photons on gamma-ray attenuation coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Kulwinder Singh

    2018-01-01

    Scattered photon's influence on measured values of attenuation coefficients (μm, cm2g-1) for six low-Z (effective atomic number) building materials, at three photon energies has been estimated. Narrow-beam transmission geometry has been used for the measurements. Samples of commonly used engineering materials (Cements, Clay, Lime-Stone, Plaster of Paris) have been selected for the present study. Standard radioactive sources Cs137 and Co60 have been used for obtaining γ-ray energies 661.66, 1173.24 and 1332.50 keV. The optical thickness (OT) of 0.5 mfp (mean free path) has been found the optimum optical thickness (OOT) for μm-measurement in the selected energy range (661.66-1332.50 keV). The aim of this investigation is to provide neglected information regarding subsistence of scattered photons in narrow beam geometry measurements for low-Z materials. The measurements have been performed for a wide range of sample-thickness (2-26 cm) such that their OT varies between 0.2-3.5 mfp in selected energy range. A computer program (GRIC2-toolkit) has been used for various theoretical computations required in this investigation. It has been concluded that in selected energy-range, good accuracy in μm-measurement of low-Z materials can be achieved by keeping their sample's OT below 0.5 mfp. The exposure buildup factors have been measured with the help of mathematical-model developed in this investigation.

  11. Phantom breast sensations are frequent after mastectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Dorthe Marie Helbo; Kehlet, Henrik; Gærtner, Rune

    2011-01-01

    Phantom breast sensation (PBS) following mastectomy has been recognized for many years. PBS is a feeling that the removed breast is still there. The reported prevalence and risk factors have not been established in large well-defined patient series. The purpose of this study was to examine...... the prevalence of PBS following mastectomy and associated risk factors....

  12. Measurement of the Hall scattering factor in 4H SiC epilayers from 40 K to 290 K and up to magnetic fields of nine Tesla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutsch, G. [Pittsburgh Univ., PA (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy]|[Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Devaty, R.P.; Choyke, W.J. [Pittsburgh Univ., PA (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Langer, D.W. [Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Rowland, L.B. [Northrop Grumman Science and Technology Center, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1998-06-01

    In order to accurately extract material properties from temperature dependent Hall measurements, it is necessary to know the Hall scattering factor (r{sub H}), among other material properties. We present measurements of the Hall scattering factor on nitrogen doped 4H SiC epitaxial layers from 40 K to room temperature in magnetic fields up to 9 Tesla. The measured effective Hall scattering factor varies from 0.91 to 1.21. (orig.) 6 refs.

  13. Monte Carlo-based investigation of water-equivalence of solid phantoms at 137Cs energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vishwakarma, Ramkrushna S.; Palani Selvam, T.; Sahoo, Sridhar; Mishra, Subhalaxmi; Chourasiya, Ghanshyam

    2013-01-01

    Investigation of solid phantom materials such as solid water, virtual water, plastic water, RW1, polystyrene, and polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) for their equivalence to liquid water at 137 Cs energy (photon energy of 662 keV) under full scatter conditions is carried out using the EGSnrc Monte Carlo code system. Monte Carlo-based EGSnrc code system was used in the work to calculate distance-dependent phantom scatter corrections. The study also includes separation of primary and scattered dose components. Monte Carlo simulations are carried out using primary particle histories up to 5 x 10 9 to attain less than 0.3% statistical uncertainties in the estimation of dose. Water equivalence of various solid phantoms such as solid water, virtual water, RW1, PMMA, polystyrene, and plastic water materials are investigated at 137 Cs energy under full scatter conditions. The investigation reveals that solid water, virtual water, and RW1 phantoms are water equivalent up to 15 cm from the source. Phantom materials such as plastic water, PMMA, and polystyrene phantom materials are water equivalent up to 10 cm. At 15 cm from the source, the phantom scatter corrections are 1.035, 1.050, and 0.949 for the phantoms PMMA, plastic water, and polystyrene, respectively. (author)

  14. The Phantom Menace

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vium, Christian

    2013-01-01

    as a phantom menace, which asserts itself through a form of omnipresent fear, nurtured by an inherent opaqueness. As this fundamental fear progressively permeates the nomadic landscape, it engenders a recasting of mobile strategies among the nomadic pastoralist groups who inhabit the interstitial desert spaces....

  15. Phantom crash confirms models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    To test computer models of how a nuclear reactor's containment building would fare if an airplane crashed into it, the Muto Institute in Tokyo sponsored a 3.2 million dollar project at Sandia National Laboratory to slam an F-4 Phantom jet into a 500 ton concrete wall. The results showed that the computer calculations were accurate

  16. SU-E-J-208: Feasibility Study On Using Small Plastic Phantoms for Auditing Radiation Output of MR-Linac Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen, Z; Alvarez, P; Ibbott, G [UT MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To study feasibility of using small plastic phantoms designed for conventional linac output auditing to measure the output of MR-Linac systems. Methods: For simulations, the CT scan of an IROC(formerly RPC) acrylic block phantom designed for 8 MV beams was imported in a research version of the treatment planning system (Monaco). Dose delivered to three TLDs in the block was calculated with a Monte Carlo algorithm and a beam model based on an MR-linac prototype with and without a magnetic field (B=1.5T). In a large mathematical water phantom, the same beam was used to calculate dose in full scatter conditions. The block factor (F) was calculated as the ratio of the average dose to the block TLDs to the dose at the reference point in the mathematical phantom. For experimental measurement, four IROC blocks were irradiated with the MR-linac prototype, and data were analyzed by IROC. Results: The F factor without a B field was 1.053. When a B field was applied, it changed the dose distribution in the block, especially on the edges. With a B field parallel to the long axes of the TLD, F was 1.038. However, with a perpendicular B field, F factor increased slightly to 1.075. In the IROC report, the output determined with two blocks parallel to the B field was 2.3% higher than the output by the two blocks perpendicular to the B field. The average of all four blocks was within 2% of machine output measured with an ion chamber. Conclusion: It may be feasible to expand the utility of the acrylic block phantoms for radiation output auditing from conventional linacs to MR-linacs. However, the scatter correction factor can change due to the B field and its orientation to the block. More symmetric phantom designs may be less prone to mistakes. We acknowledge research support from Elekta.

  17. Small photon beam measurements using radiochromic film and Monte Carlo simulations in a water phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Garduno, Olivia A.; Larraga-Gutierrez, Jose M.; Rodriguez-Villafuerte, Mercedes; Martinez-Davalos, Arnulfo; Celis, Miguel A.

    2010-01-01

    This work reports the use of both GafChromic EBT film immersed in a water phantom and Monte Carlo (MC) simulations for small photon beam stereotactic radiosurgery dosimetry. Circularly collimated photon beams with diameters in the 4-20 mm range of a dedicated 6 MV linear accelerator (Novalis (registered) , BrainLAB, Germany) were used to perform off-axis ratios, tissue maximum ratios and total scatter factors measurements, and MC simulations. GafChromic EBT film data show an excellent agreement with MC results (<2.7%) for all measured quantities.

  18. Universal analytical scattering form factor for shell-, core-shell, or homogeneous particles with continuously variable density profile shape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Tobias

    2011-09-01

    A novel analytical and continuous density distribution function with a widely variable shape is reported and used to derive an analytical scattering form factor that allows us to universally describe the scattering from particles with the radial density profile of homogeneous spheres, shells, or core-shell particles. Composed by the sum of two Fermi-Dirac distribution functions, the shape of the density profile can be altered continuously from step-like via Gaussian-like or parabolic to asymptotically hyperbolic by varying a single "shape parameter", d. Using this density profile, the scattering form factor can be calculated numerically. An analytical form factor can be derived using an approximate expression for the original Fermi-Dirac distribution function. This approximation is accurate for sufficiently small rescaled shape parameters, d/R (R being the particle radius), up to values of d/R ≈ 0.1, and thus captures step-like, Gaussian-like, and parabolic as well as asymptotically hyperbolic profile shapes. It is expected that this form factor is particularly useful in a model-dependent analysis of small-angle scattering data since the applied continuous and analytical function for the particle density profile can be compared directly with the density profile extracted from the data by model-free approaches like the generalized inverse Fourier transform method. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  19. Realistic deformable 3D numeric phantom for transcutaneous ultrasound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardoso, Fernando Mitsuyama; Moraes, Matheus Cardoso; Furuie, Sergio Shiguemi, E-mail: fernando.okara@gmail.com [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia

    2017-01-15

    Introduction: Numerical phantoms are important tools to design, calibrate and evaluate several methods in various image-processing applications, such as echocardiography and mammography. We present a framework for creating ultrasound numerical deformable phantoms based on Finite Element Method (FEM), Linear Isomorphism and Field II. The proposed method considers that the scatterers map is a property of the tissue; therefore, the scatterers should move according to the tissue strain. Methods: First, a volume representing the target tissue is loaded. Second, parameter values, such as Young's Modulus, scatterers density, attenuation and scattering amplitudes are inserted for each different regions of the phantom. Then, other parameters related to the ultrasound equipment, such as ultrasound frequency and number of transducer elements, are also defined in order to perform the ultrasound acquisition using Field II. Third, the size and position of the transducer and the pressures that are applied against the tissue are defined. Subsequently, FEM is executed and deformation is computed. Next, 3D linear isomorphism is performed to displace the scatterers according to the deformation. Finally, Field II is carried out to generate the non-deformed and deformed ultrasound data. Results: The framework is evaluated by comparing strain values obtained the numerical simulation and from the physical phantom from CIRS. The mean difference between both phantoms is lesser than 10%. Conclusion: The acoustic and deformation outcomes are similar to those obtained using a physical phantom. This framework led to a tool, which is available online and free of charges for educational and research purposes. (author)

  20. Influence of variation in eumelanin content on absorbance spectra of liquid skin-like phantoms

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Smit, Jacoba E

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available are often always limited. Hence the use of skin-like phantoms. Bashkatov et al. (25) measured the optical properties of gelatin skin-like phantoms prepared from different concentrations of synthetic and natural (from Sepia officianalis) melanin. Fat... emulsions like Intralipid are commonly used to mimic light propagation in turbit media (26) and hence Shimada et al. (27) used similar gelatin and Sepia melanin phantoms and added Intralipid to mimic the scattering properties of human skin. The purpose...

  1. Determination of optimum filter in myocardial SPECT: A phantom study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takavar, A.; Shamsipour, Gh.; Sohrabi, M.; Eftekhari, M.

    2004-01-01

    Background: In myocardial perfusion SPECT images are degraded by photon attenuation, the distance-dependent collimator, detector response and photons scatter. Filters greatly affect quality of nuclear medicine images. Materials and Methods: A phantom simulating heart left ventricle was built. About 1mCi of 99m Tc was injected into the phantom. Images was taken from this phantom. Some filters including Parzen, Hamming, Hanning, Butter worth and Gaussian were exerted on the phantom images. By defining some criteria such as contrast, signal to noise ratio, and defect size detectability, the best filter can be determined. Results: 0.325 Nyquist frequency and 0.5 nq was obtained as the optimum cut off frequencies respectively for hamming and handing filters. Order 11, cut off 0.45 Nq and order 20 cut off 0.5 Nq obtained optimum respectively for Butter worth and Gaussian filters. Conclusion: The optimum member of every filter's family was obtained

  2. Fabrication of subcutaneous veins phantom for vessel visualization system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Kai; Narita, Kazuyuki; Morita, Yusuke; Nakamachi, Eiji; Honda, Norihiro; Awazu, Kunio

    2013-09-01

    The technique of subcutaneous veins imaging by using NIR (Near Infrared Radiation) is widely used in medical applications, such as the intravenous injection and the blood sampling. In the previous study, an automatic 3D blood vessel search and automatic blood sampling system was newly developed. In order to validate this NIR imaging system, we adopted the subcutaneous vein in the human arm and its artificial phantom, which imitate the human fat and blood vessel. The human skin and subcutaneous vein is characterized as the uncertainty object, which has the individual specificity, non-accurate depth information, non-steady state and hardly to be fixed in the examination apparatus. On the other hand, the conventional phantom was quite distinct from the human's characteristics, such as the non-multilayer structure, disagreement of optical property. In this study, we develop a multilayer phantom, which is quite similar with human skin, for improvement of NIR detection system evaluation. The phantom consists of three layers, such as the epidermis layer, the dermis layer and the subcutaneous fat layer. In subcutaneous fat layer, we built a blood vessel. We use the intralipid to imitate the optical scattering characteristics of human skin, and the hemoglobin and melanin for the optical absorption characteristics. In this study, we did two subjects. First, we decide the fabrication process of the phantom. Second, we compared newly developed phantoms with human skin by using our NIR detecting system, and confirm the availability of these phantoms.

  3. Anthropomorphic phantom materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, D.R.; Constantinou, C.

    1982-01-01

    The need, terminology and history of tissue substitutes are outlined. Radiation properties of real tissues are described and simulation procedures are outlined. Recent tissue substitutes are described and charted, as are calculated radiation classifications. Manufacturing procedures and quality control are presented. Recent phantom studies are reviewed and a discussion recorded. Elemental compositions of the recommended tissue substitutes are charted with elemental composition given for each tissue substitute

  4. Solid water phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arguiropulo, M.Y.; Ghilardi Neto, T.; Pela, C.A.; Ghilardi, A.J.P.

    1992-01-01

    A phantom were developed for simulating water, based in plastics. The material was evaluated for different energies, and the measures of relative transmission showed that the transmission and the water were inside of 0,6% for gamma rays. The results of this new material were presented, showing that it could be used in photon beam calibration with energies on radiotherapy range. (C.G.C.)

  5. Phantom pain after eye amputation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Marie L R; Prause, Jan U; Toft, Peter B

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To characterize the quality of phantom pain, its intensity and frequency following eye amputation. Possible triggers and relievers of phantom pain are investigated. Methods: The hospital database was searched using surgery codes for patients who received ocular evisceration, enucleation...... was conducted by a trained interviewer. Results: Of the 173 patients in the study, 39 experienced phantom pain. The median age of patients who had experienced phantom pain was 45 years (range: 19–88). Follow-up time from eye amputation to participation in the investigation was 4 years (range: 2–46). Phantom...... scale, ranging from 0 to 100, was 36 (range: 1–89). One-third of the patients experienced phantom pain every day. Chilliness, windy weather and psychological stress/fatigue were the most commonly reported triggers for pain. Conclusions: Phantom pain after eye amputation is relatively common. The pain...

  6. Design and development of pixel size calibration phantom for gamma camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khokhar, S.B.; Manan, A.; Chaudary, M.A.; Pervaiz, T.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to make pixel calibration phantom, to measure pixel size for different zoom factors and matrix sizes and to compare the pixel size with the values of provided by the vendor. For this purpose pixel size calibration phantom (rectangular in shape) made up of acrylic material having dimension 43 x 10 square cm was prepared. Seven circular holes at exact known distance with whole diameter 1.5 mm were born. High specific activity was filled in the holes of the phantom, acquired the image by fixing the number of counts at all available matrices and zoom factors. Pixel size was calculated by counting the number of pixels between focused points and divided the distance thereof by the number of pixels. Mean pixel size was calculated and compared it with reference value provided by the manufacturer of the camera. P- value was calculated which showed that most results lie in the acceptable limit. The calculated values agreed very well. However there exist some deviation at larger matrix sizes, which might be due to scattering of radiation that overlaps nearest pixels, and due to human error. (author)

  7. Kernel integration scatter model for parallel beam gamma camera and SPECT point source response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marinkovic, P.M.

    2001-01-01

    Scatter correction is a prerequisite for quantitative single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). In this paper a kernel integration scatter Scatter correction is a prerequisite for quantitative SPECT. In this paper a kernel integration scatter model for parallel beam gamma camera and SPECT point source response based on Klein-Nishina formula is proposed. This method models primary photon distribution as well as first Compton scattering. It also includes a correction for multiple scattering by applying a point isotropic single medium buildup factor for the path segment between the point of scatter an the point of detection. Gamma ray attenuation in the object of imaging, based on known μ-map distribution, is considered too. Intrinsic spatial resolution of the camera is approximated by a simple Gaussian function. Collimator is modeled simply using acceptance angles derived from the physical dimensions of the collimator. Any gamma rays satisfying this angle were passed through the collimator to the crystal. Septal penetration and scatter in the collimator were not included in the model. The method was validated by comparison with Monte Carlo MCNP-4a numerical phantom simulation and excellent results were obtained. The physical phantom experiments, to confirm this method, are planed to be done. (author)

  8. MACS, Lattice Vibrations Structure Factors for Thermal Neutron Scattering in Moderators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMurry, H.L.; Suitt, W.J.; Worlton, T.G.; Martin, R.M.

    1974-01-01

    1 - Description of problem or function: This package of seven related codes is basically aimed at giving maximum capability for calculating slow-neutron scattering by moderators. MACS-C computes crystal vibrations when the potential energy is a sum of parts arising from short-range forces and long-range Coulomb interactions. It also obtains Jacobian matrices for determining adjustments in force constants and ionic charge which can lead to improved agreement with data. Structure factors for neutron inelastic scattering can also be calculated. MACS-J computes the dynamical matrix for the harmonic oscillations of a crystal, its eigenvalues and eigenvectors, the corresponding structure factors for coherent single-phonon scattering of neutrons, and Jacobian matrices for use in adjusting force constants to fit calculated to observed dispersion curves. REVISED-D calculates valance coordinates in terms of mass adjusted atom displacements, together with coordinates which define rigid group rotations. REVISED-MVFC constructs force constant matrices for use in valance force potential functions which are used in other programs dealing with molecular and crystal vibrations. ADJUSTER is a force adjuster program to obtain a least squares fit to observed frequencies of molecules and crystals. DIPOLE-SUM calculates dipole sums for an arbitrary crystal. MODEL-PI calculates crystal vibrations when the potential energy is a sum of short-range and long- or intermediate-range terms in the dipole coordinate approximation. It also obtains Jacobian matrices for use in adjusting input parameters. 2 - Method of solution: In MACS-C, ADJUSTER, and REVISED-D, matrix manipulations are applied to matrices which describe physical conditions. In MACS-J, first-order difference equations are substituted for partial differential equations for Jacobian elements. In MVFC the user employs a set of criteria for defining different types of interactions to prepare by hand the input to the program. For

  9. The pion form factor and δ11-phase of ππ-scattering in the quark confinement model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efimov, G.V.; Ivanov, M.A.; Mashnik, S.G.

    1988-01-01

    The pion form factor F π 1 (t) in the space- and time-like regions, p-wave phase of the ππ-scattering σ 1 1 (t) and the pion electromagnetic radius r π 2 =0.43 fm 2 are calculated in the quark confinement model. The comparison with experimental data and other approaches is performed. The agreement with experimental data in the region -10 GeV 2 2 is obtained

  10. Solid tissue simulating phantoms having absorption at 970 nm for diffuse optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Gordon T.; Lentsch, Griffin R.; Trieu, Brandon; Ponticorvo, Adrien; Saager, Rolf B.; Durkin, Anthony J.

    2017-07-01

    Tissue simulating phantoms can provide a valuable platform for quantitative evaluation of the performance of diffuse optical devices. While solid phantoms have been developed for applications related to characterizing exogenous fluorescence and intrinsic chromophores such as hemoglobin and melanin, we report the development of a poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) tissue phantom that mimics the spectral characteristics of tissue water. We have developed these phantoms to mimic different water fractions in tissue, with the purpose of testing new devices within the context of clinical applications such as burn wound triage. Compared to liquid phantoms, cured PDMS phantoms are easier to transport and use and have a longer usable life than gelatin-based phantoms. As silicone is hydrophobic, 9606 dye was used to mimic the optical absorption feature of water in the vicinity of 970 nm. Scattering properties are determined by adding titanium dioxide, which yields a wavelength-dependent scattering coefficient similar to that observed in tissue in the near-infrared. Phantom properties were characterized and validated using the techniques of inverse adding-doubling and spatial frequency domain imaging. Results presented here demonstrate that we can fabricate solid phantoms that can be used to simulate different water fractions.

  11. Effect of the strange axial form factor on structure functions for neutral current neutrino scattering in the quasielastic region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyungsik

    2011-01-01

    We study the effect of the strange axial form factor on various structure functions for the neutral reaction of neutrino-nucleus scattering in the quasielastic region within the framework of a relativistic single particle model. We use 12 C as the target nucleus, and the incident neutrino energy range is between 150 MeV and 1.5 GeV. The structure functions are extracted at a fixed three momentum transfer and energy transfer by using the intrinsic helicity of neutrino. While the effect of the strange axial form factor is very small, the effect on various structure functions is exhibited explicitly.

  12. Extensive small-angle X-ray scattering studies of blood coagulation factor VIIa reveal interdomain flexibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosbæk, Charlotte Rode; Nolan, David; Persson, Egon

    2010-01-01

    Blood coagulation factor VIIa (FVIIa) is used in the treatment of replacement therapy resistant hemophilia patients, and FVIIa is normally activated upon complex formation with tissue factor (TF), potentially in context with structural rearrangements. The solution behavior of uncomplexed FVIIa...... is important for understanding the mechanism of activation and for the stability and activity of the pharmaceutical product. However, crystal structures of FVIIa in complex with TF and of truncated free FVIIa reveal different overall conformations while previous small-angle scattering studies suggest FVIIa...... causing resistance to activation, thereby emphasizing the connection between the distribution of different conformations of FVII and the mechanism of activation....

  13. Poly(vinyl alcohol) gels as photoacoustic breast phantoms revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Wenfeng; Piras, Daniele; Heijblom, Michelle; Steenbergen, Wiendelt; van Leeuwen, Ton G; Manohar, Srirang

    2011-07-01

    A popular phantom in photoacoustic imaging is poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) hydrogel fabricated by freezing and thawing (F-T) aqueous solutions of PVA. The material possesses acoustic and optical properties similar to those of tissue. Earlier work characterized PVA gels in small test specimens where temperature distributions during F-T are relatively homogeneous. In this work, in breast-sized samples we observed substantial temperature differences between the shallow regions and the interior during the F-T procedure. We investigated whether spatial variations were also present in the acoustic and optical properties. The speed of sound, acoustic attenuation, and optical reduced scattering coefficients were measured on specimens sampled at various locations in a large phantom. In general, the properties matched values quoted for breast tissue. But while acoustic properties were relatively homogeneous, the reduced scattering was substantially different at the surface compared with the interior. We correlated these variations with gel microstructure inspected using scanning electron microscopy. Interestingly, the phantom's reduced scattering spatial distribution matches the optical properties of the standard two-layer breast model used in x ray dosimetry. We conclude that large PVA samples prepared using the standard recipe make excellent breast tissue phantoms.

  14. A new method for x-ray scatter correction: first assessment on a cone-beam CT experimental setup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rinkel, J; Gerfault, L; Esteve, F; Dinten, J-M

    2007-01-01

    Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) enables three-dimensional imaging with isotropic resolution and a shorter acquisition time compared to a helical CT scanner. Because a larger object volume is exposed for each projection, scatter levels are much higher than in collimated fan-beam systems, resulting in cupping artifacts, streaks and quantification inaccuracies. In this paper, a general method to correct for scatter in CBCT, without supplementary on-line acquisition, is presented. This method is based on scatter calibration through off-line acquisition combined with on-line analytical transformation based on physical equations, to adapt calibration to the object observed. The method was tested on a PMMA phantom and on an anthropomorphic thorax phantom. The results were validated by comparison to simulation for the PMMA phantom and by comparison to scans obtained on a commercial multi-slice CT scanner for the thorax phantom. Finally, the improvements achieved with the new method were compared to those obtained using a standard beam-stop method. The new method provided results that closely agreed with the simulation and with the conventional CT scanner, eliminating cupping artifacts and significantly improving quantification. Compared to the beam-stop method, lower x-ray doses and shorter acquisition times were needed, both divided by a factor of 9 for the same scatter estimation accuracy

  15. Influence of different types of phantoms on the calibration of dosemeters for eye lens dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshitomi, H.; Kowatari, M.

    2016-01-01

    Both a cylinder and a slab phantom have been recommended to be used as calibration phantoms for eye lens dosimetry in the International Atomic Energy Agency TECDOC. This study describes investigations on the influence of the type of phantom on the calibration of dosemeters. In order to fulfil the purpose, backscatter radiation from practically used water-filled phantoms was evaluated by calculations and experiments. For photons, the calculations showed that the cylinder phantom had 10 % lower backscattered effect at maximum than a slab phantom, and simulated well the backscattered effect of the human head or neck to within ±10 %. The irradiation results of non-filtered optically stimulated luminescence and radio-photoluminescence glass dosemeters indicated that the differences of the calibration factors between the two types of phantoms were up to 20 and 10 %, respectively, reflecting the response to backscattered photons. For electrons, no difference was found between the two types of phantoms. (authors)

  16. Development of a phantom to test fully automated breast density software – A work in progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waade, G.G.; Hofvind, S.; Thompson, J.D.; Highnam, R.; Hogg, P.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: Mammographic density (MD) is an independent risk factor for breast cancer and may have a future role for stratified screening. Automated software can estimate MD but the relationship between breast thickness reduction and MD is not fully understood. Our aim is to develop a deformable breast phantom to assess automated density software and the impact of breast thickness reduction on MD. Methods: Several different configurations of poly vinyl alcohol (PVAL) phantoms were created. Three methods were used to estimate their density. Raw image data of mammographic images were processed using Volpara to estimate volumetric breast density (VBD%); Hounsfield units (HU) were measured on CT images; and physical density (g/cm 3 ) was calculated using a formula involving mass and volume. Phantom volume versus contact area and phantom volume versus phantom thickness was compared to values of real breasts. Results: Volpara recognized all deformable phantoms as female breasts. However, reducing the phantom thickness caused a change in phantom density and the phantoms were not able to tolerate same level of compression and thickness reduction experienced by female breasts during mammography. Conclusion: Our results are promising as all phantoms resulted in valid data for automated breast density measurement. Further work should be conducted on PVAL and other materials to produce deformable phantoms that mimic female breast structure and density with the ability of being compressed to the same level as female breasts. Advances in knowledge: We are the first group to have produced deformable phantoms that are recognized as breasts by Volpara software. - Highlights: • Several phantoms of different configurations were created. • Three methods to assess phantom density were implemented. • All phantoms were identified as breasts by the Volpara software. • Reducing phantom thickness caused a change in phantom density.

  17. Evaluation of scatter correction using a single isotope for simultaneous emission and transmission data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, J.; Kuikka, J.T.; Vanninen, E.; Laensimies, E.; Kauppinen, T.; Patomaeki, L.

    1999-01-01

    Photon scatter is one of the most important factors degrading the quantitative accuracy of SPECT images. Many scatter correction methods have been proposed. The single isotope method was proposed by us. Aim: We evaluate the scatter correction method of improving the quality of images by acquiring emission and transmission data simultaneously with single isotope scan. Method: To evaluate the proposed scatter correction method, a contrast and linearity phantom was studied. Four female patients with fibromyalgia (FM) syndrome and four with chronic back pain (BP) were imaged. Grey-to-cerebellum (G/C) and grey-to-white matter (G/W) ratios were determined by one skilled operator for 12 regions of interest (ROIs) in each subject. Results: The linearity of activity response was improved after the scatter correction (r=0.999). The y-intercept value of the regression line was 0.036 (p [de

  18. Proton nuclear scattering radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saudinos, J.

    1982-04-01

    Nuclear scattering of protons allows to radiograph objects with specific properties: 3-dimensional radiography, different information as compared to X-ray technique, hydrogen radiography. Furthermore the nuclear scattering radiography (NSR) is a well adapted method to gating techniques allowing the radiography of fast periodic moving objects. Results obtained on phantoms, formalin fixed head and moving object are shown and discussed. The dose delivery is compatible with clinical use, but at the moment, the irradiation time is too long between 1 and 4 hours. Perspectives to make the radiograph faster and to get a practical method are discussed

  19. A simple, direct method for x-ray scatter estimation and correction in digital radiography and cone-beam CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siewerdsen, J.H.; Daly, M.J.; Bakhtiar, B.

    2006-01-01

    X-ray scatter poses a significant limitation to image quality in cone-beam CT (CBCT), resulting in contrast reduction, image artifacts, and lack of CT number accuracy. We report the performance of a simple scatter correction method in which scatter fluence is estimated directly in each projection from pixel values near the edge of the detector behind the collimator leaves. The algorithm operates on the simple assumption that signal in the collimator shadow is attributable to x-ray scatter, and the 2D scatter fluence is estimated by interpolating between pixel values measured along the top and bottom edges of the detector behind the collimator leaves. The resulting scatter fluence estimate is subtracted from each projection to yield an estimate of the primary-only images for CBCT reconstruction. Performance was investigated in phantom experiments on an experimental CBCT benchtop, and the effect on image quality was demonstrated in patient images (head, abdomen, and pelvis sites) obtained on a preclinical system for CBCT-guided radiation therapy. The algorithm provides significant reduction in scatter artifacts without compromise in contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR). For example, in a head phantom, cupping artifact was essentially eliminated, CT number accuracy was restored to within 3%, and CNR (breast-to-water) was improved by up to 50%. Similarly in a body phantom, cupping artifact was reduced by at least a factor of 2 without loss in CNR. Patient images demonstrate significantly increased uniformity, accuracy, and contrast, with an overall improvement in image quality in all sites investigated. Qualitative evaluation illustrates that soft-tissue structures that are otherwise undetectable are clearly delineated in scatter-corrected reconstructions. Since scatter is estimated directly in each projection, the algorithm is robust with respect to system geometry, patient size and heterogeneity, patient motion, etc. Operating without prior information, analytical modeling

  20. Design and fabrication of a realistic anthropomorphic heterogeneous head phantom for MR purposes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sossena Wood

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to design an anthropomorphic heterogeneous head phantom that can be used for MRI and other electromagnetic applications.An eight compartment, physical anthropomorphic head phantom was developed from a 3T MRI dataset of a healthy male. The designed phantom was successfully built and preliminarily evaluated through an application that involves electromagnetic-tissue interactions: MRI (due to it being an available resource. The developed phantom was filled with media possessing electromagnetic constitutive parameters that correspond to biological tissues at ~297 MHz. A preliminary comparison between an in-vivo human volunteer (based on whom the anthropomorphic head phantom was created and various phantoms types, one being the anthropomorphic heterogeneous head phantom, were performed using a 7 Tesla human MRI scanner.Echo planar imaging was performed and minimal ghosting and fluctuations were observed using the proposed anthropomorphic phantom. The magnetic field distributions (during MRI experiments at 7 Tesla and the scattering parameter (measured using a network analyzer were most comparable between the anthropomorphic heterogeneous head phantom and an in-vivo human volunteer.The developed anthropomorphic heterogeneous head phantom can be used as a resource to various researchers in applications that involve electromagnetic-biological tissue interactions such as MRI.

  1. SU-F-J-08: Quantitative SPECT Imaging of Ra-223 in a Phantom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yue, J; Hobbs, R; Sgouros, G; Frey, E [Johns Hopkins University Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Ra-223 therapy of prostate cancer bone metastases is being used to treat patients routinely. However, the absorbed dose distribution at the macroscopic and microscopic scales remains elusive, due to the inability to image the small activities injected. Accurate activity quantification through imaging is essential to calculate the absorbed dose in organs and sub-units in radiopharmaceutical therapy, enabling personalized absorbed dose-based treatment planning methodologies and more effective and optimal treatments. Methods: A 22 cm diameter by 20 cm long cylindrical phantom, containing a 3.52 cm diameter sphere, was used. A total of 2.01 MBq of Ra-223 was placed in the phantom with 177.6 kBq in the sphere. Images were acquired on a dual-head Siemens Symbia T16 gamma camera using three 20% full-width energy windows and centered at 84, 154, and 269 keV (120 projections, 360° rotation, 45 s per view). We have implemented reconstruction of Ra-223 SPECT projections using OS-EM (up to 20 iterations of 10 subsets) with compensation for attenuation using CT-based attenuation maps, collimator-detector response (CDR) (including septal penetration, scatter and Pb x-ray modeling), and scatter in the patient using the effective source scatter estimation (ESSE) method. The CDR functions and scatter kernels required for ESSE were computed using the SIMIND MC simulation code. All Ra-223 photon emissions as well as gamma rays from the daughters Rn-219 and Bi-211 were modeled. Results: The sensitivity of the camera in the three combined windows was 107.3 cps/MBq. The visual quality of the SPECT images was reasonably good and the activity in the sphere was 27% smaller than the true activity. This underestimation is likely due to partial volume effect. Conclusion: Absolute quantitative Ra-223 SPECT imaging is achievable with careful attention to compensate for image degrading factors and system calibration.

  2. Interleaved segment correction achieves higher improvement factors in using genetic algorithm to optimize light focusing through scattering media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Runze; Peng, Tong; Liang, Yansheng; Yang, Yanlong; Yao, Baoli; Yu, Xianghua; Min, Junwei; Lei, Ming; Yan, Shaohui; Zhang, Chunmin; Ye, Tong

    2017-10-01

    Focusing and imaging through scattering media has been proved possible with high resolution wavefront shaping. A completely scrambled scattering field can be corrected by applying a correction phase mask on a phase only spatial light modulator (SLM) and thereby the focusing quality can be improved. The correction phase is often found by global searching algorithms, among which Genetic Algorithm (GA) stands out for its parallel optimization process and high performance in noisy environment. However, the convergence of GA slows down gradually with the progression of optimization, causing the improvement factor of optimization to reach a plateau eventually. In this report, we propose an interleaved segment correction (ISC) method that can significantly boost the improvement factor with the same number of iterations comparing with the conventional all segment correction method. In the ISC method, all the phase segments are divided into a number of interleaved groups; GA optimization procedures are performed individually and sequentially among each group of segments. The final correction phase mask is formed by applying correction phases of all interleaved groups together on the SLM. The ISC method has been proved significantly useful in practice because of its ability to achieve better improvement factors when noise is present in the system. We have also demonstrated that the imaging quality is improved as better correction phases are found and applied on the SLM. Additionally, the ISC method lowers the demand of dynamic ranges of detection devices. The proposed method holds potential in applications, such as high-resolution imaging in deep tissue.

  3. Factorized tree-level scattering in AdS4 x CP3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalousios, Chrysostomos; Vergu, C.; Volovich, Anastasia

    2009-01-01

    AdS 4 /CFT 3 duality relating IIA string theory on AdS 4 x CP 3 to N = 6 superconformal Chern-Simons theory provides an arena for studying aspects of integrability in a new potentially exactly solvable system. In this paper we explore the tree-level worldsheet scattering for strings on AdS 4 x CP 3 . We compute all bosonic four-, five- and six-point amplitudes in the gauge-fixed action and demonstrate the absence of particle production.

  4. Differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS and air mass factor concept for a multiply scattering vertically inhomogeneous medium: theoretical consideration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Rozanov

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS technique is widely used to retrieve amounts of atmospheric species from measurements of the direct solar light transmitted through the Earth's atmosphere as well as of the solar light scattered in the atmosphere or reflected from the Earth's surface. For the transmitted direct solar light the theoretical basis of the DOAS technique represented by the Beer-Lambert law is well studied. In contrast, scarcely investigated is the theoretical basis and validity range of the DOAS method for those cases where the contribution of the multiple scattering processes is not negligible. Our study is intended to fill this gap by means of a theoretical investigation of the applicability of the DOAS technique for the retrieval of amounts of atmospheric species from observations of the scattered solar light with a non-negligible contribution of the multiple scattering.

    Starting from the expansion of the intensity logarithm in the functional Taylor series we formulate the general form of the DOAS equation. The thereby introduced variational derivative of the intensity logarithm with respect to the variation of the gaseous absorption coefficient, which is often referred to as the weighting function, is demonstrated to be closely related to the air mass factor. Employing some approximations we show that the general DOAS equation can be rewritten in the form of the weighting function (WFDOAS, the modified (MDOAS, and the standard DOAS equations. For each of these forms a specific equation for the air mass factor follows which, in general, is not suitable for other forms of the DOAS equation. Furthermore, the validity range of the standard DOAS equation is quantitatively investigated using a suggested criterion of a weak absorption.

    The results presented in this study are intended to provide a basis for a better understanding of the applicability range of different forms of the DOAS equation as

  5. Studies on Phantom Vibration and Ringing Syndrome among Postgraduate Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atul Kumar Goyal

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Phantom vibrations and ringing of mobile phones are prevalent hallucinations in the general population. They might be considered as a normal brain mechanism. The aim of this study was to establish the prevalence of Phantom vibrations and ringing syndrome among students and to assess factors associated it. The survey of 300 postgraduate students belonging to different field of specialization was conducted at Kurukshetra University. 74% of students were found to have both Phantom vibrations and ringing syndrome. Whereas 17% of students felt Phantom vibration exclusively and 4% students face only Phantom ringing syndrome. Both the syndrome occurs more fervent in students who kept their mobile phone in shirt or jean pocket than to who kept mobile in handbag. 75% of students felt vibration or ringing even when the phone is switched off or phone was not in their pocket. Also the frequency of both the syndrome is directly proportional to the duration of mobile phone use and person emotional behavior. Although most of students agree that the Phantom syndrome did not bother them but some students deals with anxiety when they feel symptoms associated with Phantom syndrome. By using mobile phones in proper way, one can avoid these syndromes, or at least can ameliorate the symptoms.

  6. Influence of lucite phantoms on calibration of dosimetric pens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, E.C.; Xavier, M.; Caldas, L.E.V.

    1992-01-01

    Dosimetrical pens were studied for the answer repetition and were tested in gamma radiation fields ( 60 Co and 137 Cs) in air and in front of a lucite phantom, obtaining a backscattering contribution. The medium backscattering factors were 1,053 and 1,108 for respectively 60 Co and 137 Cs. The pens were placed behind the phantom for verifying the radiation attenuation. (C.G.C.)

  7. Free NH3 quantum rotations in Hofmann clathrates: structure factors and line widths studied by inelastic neutron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobolev, O.; Vorderwisch, P.; Desmedt, A.

    2005-01-01

    Quantum rotations of NH 3 groups in Hofmann clathrates Ni-Ni-C 6 H 6 and Ni-Ni-C 12 H 10 have been studied using inelastic neutron scattering. Calculations of the dynamical structure factor for a free uniaxial quantum rotor reproduce the neutron scattering data with respect to their Q- and T-dependence as well as the relative intensities for the 0 → 1, 0 → 2 and 1 → 2 transitions. Though the effective NH 3 rotation constant is different from the gas phase value, the effective radius of rotation (i.e., the average distance of protons from the rotation axis) is equal or very close to the geometrical value r = 0.94 A for a NH 3 group. Comparing the experimental data with the calculated dynamical structure factor for the 0 → 3 transition it could be shown, that the corresponding transition line, in contrast to transitions between j = 0,1,2 levels measured so far, has a finite width at T = 0 K

  8. Monte Carlo simulation of a mammographic test phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, R. A.; Dance, D. R.; Pachoud, M.; Carlsson, G. A.; Sandborg, M.; Ullman, G.

    2005-01-01

    A test phantom, including a wide range of mammographic tissue equivalent materials and test details, was imaged on a digital mammographic system. In order to quantify the effect of scatter on the contrast obtained for the test details, calculations of the scatter-to-primary ratio (S/P) have been made using a Monte Carlo simulation of the digital mammographic imaging chain, grid and test phantom. The results show that the S/P values corresponding to the imaging conditions used were in the range 0.084-0.126. Calculated and measured pixel values in different regions of the image were compared as a validation of the model and showed excellent agreement. The results indicate the potential of Monte Carlo methods in the image quality-patient dose process optimisation, especially in the assessment of imaging conditions not available on standard mammographic units. (authors)

  9. Scatter and transmission doses from several pediatric X-ray examinations in a nursery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burrage, John W.; Rampant, Peter L.; Beeson, Brendan P.

    2003-01-01

    While several studies have investigated the dose from scattered radiation from X-ray procedures in a pediatric nursery, they examined scatter from chest procedures only, or the types of examination were not specified. The aim of this study was to collect scatter and transmission data from several types of X-ray examinations. Using a ''newborn'' anthropomorphic phantom and an ion chamber, a series of scatter and transmission dose measurements were performed using typical exposure factors for chest, chest and abdomen, skull, skeletal long bone and spine procedures. The phantom was inside a crib for all exposures. The maximum scatter dose measured at 1 m from the field center was about 0.05 μGy per exposure for lateral skulls. Transmission doses for lateral exams were around 0.1 μGy per exposure at 1 m from the isocenter. The study demonstrated that scatter dose to other patients in a neonatal unit is not significant, assuming the distance between adjacent cribs is in the order of 1 m. Transmission doses are also low provided the beam is fully intercepted by the cassette. For an average workload the dose received by imaging technologists would be small. (orig.)

  10. Physical evaluation of prototype high-performance anti-scatter grids: potential for improved digital radiographic image quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fetterly, Kenneth A; Schueler, Beth A

    2009-01-01

    Grid evaluation for a screen-film x-ray system has typically included independent measurement of the opposing contrast improvement factor and Bucky factor. Neither of these metrics, however, is appropriate when assessing grid performance in a digital imaging environment. For digital radiographic systems, the benefit of an anti-scatter grid is well characterized by the quantum signal-to-noise ratio improvement factor (K SNR ) provided by the grid. The purpose of this work was to measure K SNR of prototype grids designed for use with digital radiographic systems. The prototype grids had 5 mm tall lead septa, fiber interspace material, line rate N = 25 and 36 cm -1 and ratio r = 15 and 21, respectively. The primary and scatter transmission properties of the grids were measured, and K SNR was evaluated over a phantom thickness range of 10-50 cm. To provide a comparison, the K SNR of similarly constructed N44r15 and N80r15 grids is also reported. K SNR of the prototype grids ranged from 1.4 for the 10 cm phantom to 2.4 for the 50 cm phantom. For the thickest phantom, the SNR improvement factor of the prototype grids was 18-83% higher than that of the N44r15 and N80r15 grids, respectively. (note)

  11. Optical constants and scattering factors from reflectivity measurements: 50 eV to 5 keV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blake, R.L.; Davis, J.C.; Graessle, D.E.; Burbine, T.H.; Gullikson, E.M.

    1992-01-01

    An improved reflection technique has been introduced to permit more accurate measurements of material optical constants δ and β, the density ρ, and from these the atomic scattering factors f ' and f double-prime. Regions of normal and anomolous dispersion can be measured with resolving power 1000 or larger using a portable reflectometer that is moved to any of three beamlines at NSLS or two at CHESS. Herein the reflectometer and measurement techniques are described together with sample characteristics and preliminary results for the Ni LIII edge and the M edges of Au, Pt, and Ir. The primary accuracy limiting factors are density determination, accumulation of surface oxides or carbonaceous deposits, and synchrotron orbit stability. Each sample must be prepared for the specific energy range to be measured so that model fitting routines have the minimum possible number of free variables

  12. A new anthropometric phantom of the human leg for calibrating in vivo measurements of stable lead in bone using x-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spitz, Henry; Jenkins, Mark; Lodwick, Jeffrey

    1997-01-01

    Full text. A new anthropometric phantom of the human leg has been developed for calibrating in vivo measurements of stable lead in the bone using x-ray fluorescence. The phantom reproduces the shape and radiological characteristics of the midshaft of the human leg and includes tissue substitutes for cortical bone, bone marrow, and muscle which have been formulated using polyurethanes and calcium carbonate to provide the desired characteristics of density x-ray attenuation, and calcium content. The phantom includes a set of simulated tibia bones, each containing a precisely known concentration of stable lead, that can be easily inserted into the leg. Formerly, of a set of plexiglas cylinders filled with plaster of-paris, each containing a known lead content, was the consensus standard calibration phantom. Tissue substitute materials used in the new anthropometric calibration phantom are much more uniform in density and composition than the plaster-of-paris phantoms and its realistic appearance provides a practical means of evaluating the variability in measurements results due to the changes in subject-detector positioning. Use of the new anthropometric calibration phantom results in a energy spectrum that closely resembles the spectrum observed when measuring a human subject. The energy spectrum produced by the plaster-of-paris phantom lacks the substantial Compton Scattering component produced by the leg muscle mass which leads to unrealistic estimates of in vivo measurement sensitivity. The minimum detection limit (MDL) for in vivo measurement of stable lead in bone, using an efficiency derived from the new anthropometric phantom, ranges from 18,6 parts per million (ppm) to 26,3 ppm using the K β1,3 /Elastic ratio or the K 1 /Elastic ratio, respectively. These values are significantly greater than the MDL cited in the literature obtained using a efficiency derived the conventional cylindrical plaster-of-paris phantom. Likewise, the realistic shape of the new

  13. Atypical Odontalgia (Phantom Tooth Pain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... atypical facial pain, phantom tooth pain, or neuropathic orofacial pain, is characterized by chronic pain in a tooth ... such as a specialist in oral medicine or orofacial pain. The information contained in this monograph is for ...

  14. Scattered radiation in fan beam imaging systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johns, P.C.; Yaffe, M.

    1982-01-01

    Scatter-to-primary energy fluence ratios (S/P) have been studied for fan x-ray beams as used in CT scanners and slit projection radiography systems. The dependence of S/P on phantom diameter, distance from phantom to image receptor, and kilovoltage is presented. An empirical equation is given that predicts S/P over a wide range of fan beam imaging configurations. For CT body scans on a 4th-generation machine, S/P is approximately 5%. Scattered radiation can produce a significant cupping artefact in CT images which is similar to that due to beam hardening. When multiple slices are used in scanned slit radiography, they can be arranged such that the increase in S/P is negligible. Calculations of scatter-to-primary ratios for first order scattering showed that for fan beams the contribution of coherent scatter is comparable to or greater than that of incoherent first scatter

  15. Wormholes supported by phantom energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, J. A.; Guzman, F. S.; Montelongo-Garcia, N.; Zannias, T.

    2009-01-01

    By a combination of analytical and numerical techniques, we demonstrate the existence of spherical, asymptotically flat traversable wormholes supported by exotic matter whose stress tensor relative to the orthonormal frame of Killing observers takes the form of a perfect fluid possessing anisotropic pressures and subject to linear equations of state: τ=λρc 2 , P=μρc 2 . We show that there exists a four parameter family of asymptotically flat spherical wormholes parametrized by the area of the throat A(0), the gradient Λ(0) of the red shift factor evaluated on the throat as well as the values of (λ,μ). The latter are subject to restrictions: λ>1 and 2μ>λ or λ<0 and 2μ<-|λ|. For particular values of (λ,μ), the stress tensor may be interpreted as representing a phantom configuration, while for other values represents exotic matter. All solutions have the property that the two asymptotically flat ends possess finite Arnowitt-Deser-Misner mass.

  16. Introduction of a stack-phantom for PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonsson, C.; Schnell, P.O.; Jacobsson, H.; Engelin, L.; Danielsson, A.M.; Johansson, L.; Larsson, S.A.; Pagani, M.; Stone-Elander, S.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: We have previously developed a new flexible phantom system for SPECT, i.e. 'the stack phantom' (Eur. J. Nucl. Med. 27, No.2, 131-139, 2000). The unique feature of this phantom system is that it allows studies with, as well as without major degrading impacts from photon attenuation and Compton scattering. The specific aim of this work was to further develop the system with special reference to PET. Material and methods: The principle of the phantom concept is discrete sampling of 3D objects by a series of equidistant 2D planes. The 2D planes are a digitised set of 2D sections, representing the radioactivity distribution in the object of interest. Using a grey scale related to the radioactivity concentration, selected images are printed by radioactive ink on thin paper sheets and stacked into the 3D structure with low-density or with tissue equivalent material in between. Using positron emitting radionuclides, the paper sheets alone may not be sufficiently thick to avoid annihilation losses due to escaping positrons. In order to investigate the amount of additional material needed, a spot of radioactivity ( 18 F) was printed out and subsequently covered by adding thin plastic films (0.055mm) on both sides of the paper. Short PET scans (ECAT 921) were performed and the count-rate was registered after each additional layer of plastic cover. A first prototype, a cylindrical cold-spot phantom was constructed on the basis of these results. Nine identical sheets were printed out and first mounted in between 4 mm plates of polystyrene (density 1.04 g/cm 3 ). After a PET-scan, the paper sheets were re-mounted in between a low-density material (Divinycell, H30, density 0.03 g/cm 3 ) before repeating the PET scan. Results: For 18 F, the number of registered annihilation photons increased with increasing number of plastic sheets from 70% for the pure paper sheet to about 100% with 0.5 mm plastic cover on each side. PET of the low-density stacked cold spot phantom

  17. Computer phantoms for simulating ultrasound B-mode and CFM images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Munk, Peter

    1997-01-01

    in a file that defines their position and amplitude. Adjusting the number of scatterers and their relative amplitude yields the proper image.Five different computer phantoms are described. The first one consists of a number of point targets. It is used for studying the point spread function as a function...... of spatial position, and can give an indication of sidelobe levels and focusing abilities. The second phantom contains a number of cysts and point tagets along with a homogeneous speckle pattern. This is used for investigating image contrast, and the system's ability to detect low-contrast objects. The third...... phantom is for realistic clinical imaging. It contains the image of a 12 week old fetus, where the placenta and the upper body of the fetus is visible. This phantom gives an indication of the whole system's capability for real imaging. The current fetus phantom is only two-dimensional, as it is constant...

  18. Application of double-layered skin phantoms for optical flow imaging during laser tattoo treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byeong-il; Song, Woosub; Kim, Hyejin; Kang, Hyun Wook

    2016-05-01

    The feasible application of double-layered skin phantoms was evaluated to identify artificial blood flow with a Doppler optical coherence tomography (DOCT) system for laser tattoo treatments. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) was used to fabricate the artificial phantoms with flow channels embedded. A double-integrating sphere system with an inverse adding-doubling method quantified both the absorption and the reduced scattering coefficients for epidermis and dermis phantoms. Both OCT and caliper measurements confirmed the double-layered phantom structure (epidermis = 136 ± 17 µm vs. dermis = 3.0 ± 0.1 mm). The DOCT method demonstrated that high flow rates were associated with high image contrast, visualizing the position and the shape of the flow channel. Application of the channel-embedded skin phantoms in conjunction with DOCT can be a reliable technique to assess dynamic variations in the blood flow during and after laser tattoo treatments.

  19. Calculation of the flux attenuation and multiple scattering correction factors in time of flight technique for double differential cross section measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, G.; Coca, M.; Capote, R.

    1996-01-01

    Using Monte Carlo method technique , a computer code which simulates the time of flight experiment to measure double differential cross section was developed. The correction factor for flux attenuation and multiple scattering, that make a deformation to the measured spectrum, were calculated. The energy dependence of the correction factor was determined and a comparison with other works is shown. Calculations for Fe 56 at two different scattering angles were made. We also reproduce the experiment performed at the Nuclear Analysis Laboratory for C 12 at 25 celsius degree and the calculated correction factor for the is measured is shown. We found a linear relation between the scatter size and the correction factor for flux attenuation

  20. Non-negative Matrix Factorization for Self-calibration of Photometric Redshift Scatter in Weak-lensing Surveys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Le; Yu, Yu; Zhang, Pengjie, E-mail: lezhang@sjtu.edu.cn [Department of Astronomy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, 200240 (China)

    2017-10-10

    Photo- z error is one of the major sources of systematics degrading the accuracy of weak-lensing cosmological inferences. Zhang et al. proposed a self-calibration method combining galaxy–galaxy correlations and galaxy–shear correlations between different photo- z bins. Fisher matrix analysis shows that it can determine the rate of photo- z outliers at a level of 0.01%–1% merely using photometric data and do not rely on any prior knowledge. In this paper, we develop a new algorithm to implement this method by solving a constrained nonlinear optimization problem arising in the self-calibration process. Based on the techniques of fixed-point iteration and non-negative matrix factorization, the proposed algorithm can efficiently and robustly reconstruct the scattering probabilities between the true- z and photo- z bins. The algorithm has been tested extensively by applying it to mock data from simulated stage IV weak-lensing projects. We find that the algorithm provides a successful recovery of the scatter rates at the level of 0.01%–1%, and the true mean redshifts of photo- z bins at the level of 0.001, which may satisfy the requirements in future lensing surveys.

  1. A suitability study of the fission product phantom and the bottle manikin absorption phantom for calibration of in vivo bioassay equipment for the DOELAP accreditation testing program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, P.C.; Lynch, T.P.

    1991-08-01

    Pacific Northwest laboratory (PNL) conducted an intercomparison study of the Fission Product phantom and the bottle manikin absorption (BOMAB) phantom for the US Department of Energy (DOE) to determine the consistency of calibration response of the two phantoms and their suitability for certification and use under a planned bioassay laboratory accreditation program. The study was initiated to determine calibration factors for both types of phantoms and to evaluate the suitability of their use in DOE Laboratory Accreditation Program (DOELAP) round-robin testing. The BOMAB was found to be more appropriate for the DOELAP testing program. 9 refs., 9 figs., 9 tabs

  2. Mixing formula for tissue-mimicking silicone phantoms in the near infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böcklin, C.; Baumann, D.; Stuker, F.; Fröhlich, Jürg

    2015-03-01

    The knowledge of accurate optical parameters of materials is paramount in biomedical optics applications and numerical simulations of such systems. Phantom materials with variable but predefined parameters are needed to optimise these systems. An optimised integrating sphere measurement setup and reconstruction algorithm are presented in this work to determine the optical properties of silicone rubber based phantoms whose absorption and scattering properties are altered with TiO2 and carbon black particles. A mixing formula for all constituents is derived and allows to create phantoms with predefined optical properties.

  3. Near-infrared spectral tomography integrated with digital breast tomosynthesis: Effects of tissue scattering on optical data acquisition design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michaelsen, Kelly; Krishnaswamy, Venkat; Pogue, Brian W.; Poplack, Steven P.; Paulsen, Keith D. [Thayer School of Engineering, Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire 03755 (United States); Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Dartmouth Medical School, Lebanon, New Hampshire 03756 (United States); Thayer School of Engineering, Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire 03755 and Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Dartmouth Medical School, Lebanon, New Hampshire 03756 (United States)

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: Design optimization and phantom validation of an integrated digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) and near-infrared spectral tomography (NIRST) system targeting improvement in sensitivity and specificity of breast cancer detection is presented. Factors affecting instrumentation design include minimization of cost, complexity, and examination time while maintaining high fidelity NIRST measurements with sufficient information to recover accurate optical property maps. Methods: Reconstructed DBT slices from eight patients with abnormal mammograms provided anatomical information for the NIRST simulations. A limited frequency domain (FD) and extensive continuous wave (CW) NIRST system was modeled. The FD components provided tissue scattering estimations used in the reconstruction of the CW data. Scattering estimates were perturbed to study the effects on hemoglobin recovery. Breast mimicking agar phantoms with inclusions were imaged using the combined DBT/NIRST system for comparison with simulation results. Results: Patient simulations derived from DBT images show successful reconstruction of both normal and malignant lesions in the breast. They also demonstrate the importance of accurately quantifying tissue scattering. Specifically, 20% errors in optical scattering resulted in 22.6% or 35.1% error in quantification of total hemoglobin concentrations, depending on whether scattering was over- or underestimated, respectively. Limited frequency-domain optical signal sampling provided two regions scattering estimates (for fat and fibroglandular tissues) that led to hemoglobin concentrations that reduced the error in the tumor region by 31% relative to when a single estimate of optical scattering was used throughout the breast volume of interest. Acquiring frequency-domain data with six wavelengths instead of three did not significantly improve the hemoglobin concentration estimates. Simulation results were confirmed through experiments in two-region breast mimicking

  4. Near-infrared spectral tomography integrated with digital breast tomosynthesis: Effects of tissue scattering on optical data acquisition design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michaelsen, Kelly; Krishnaswamy, Venkat; Pogue, Brian W.; Poplack, Steven P.; Paulsen, Keith D.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Design optimization and phantom validation of an integrated digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) and near-infrared spectral tomography (NIRST) system targeting improvement in sensitivity and specificity of breast cancer detection is presented. Factors affecting instrumentation design include minimization of cost, complexity, and examination time while maintaining high fidelity NIRST measurements with sufficient information to recover accurate optical property maps. Methods: Reconstructed DBT slices from eight patients with abnormal mammograms provided anatomical information for the NIRST simulations. A limited frequency domain (FD) and extensive continuous wave (CW) NIRST system was modeled. The FD components provided tissue scattering estimations used in the reconstruction of the CW data. Scattering estimates were perturbed to study the effects on hemoglobin recovery. Breast mimicking agar phantoms with inclusions were imaged using the combined DBT/NIRST system for comparison with simulation results. Results: Patient simulations derived from DBT images show successful reconstruction of both normal and malignant lesions in the breast. They also demonstrate the importance of accurately quantifying tissue scattering. Specifically, 20% errors in optical scattering resulted in 22.6% or 35.1% error in quantification of total hemoglobin concentrations, depending on whether scattering was over- or underestimated, respectively. Limited frequency-domain optical signal sampling provided two regions scattering estimates (for fat and fibroglandular tissues) that led to hemoglobin concentrations that reduced the error in the tumor region by 31% relative to when a single estimate of optical scattering was used throughout the breast volume of interest. Acquiring frequency-domain data with six wavelengths instead of three did not significantly improve the hemoglobin concentration estimates. Simulation results were confirmed through experiments in two-region breast mimicking

  5. Scatter Correction with Combined Single-Scatter Simulation and Monte Carlo Simulation Scaling Improved the Visual Artifacts and Quantification in 3-Dimensional Brain PET/CT Imaging with 15O-Gas Inhalation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magota, Keiichi; Shiga, Tohru; Asano, Yukari; Shinyama, Daiki; Ye, Jinghan; Perkins, Amy E; Maniawski, Piotr J; Toyonaga, Takuya; Kobayashi, Kentaro; Hirata, Kenji; Katoh, Chietsugu; Hattori, Naoya; Tamaki, Nagara

    2017-12-01

    In 3-dimensional PET/CT imaging of the brain with 15 O-gas inhalation, high radioactivity in the face mask creates cold artifacts and affects the quantitative accuracy when scatter is corrected by conventional methods (e.g., single-scatter simulation [SSS] with tail-fitting scaling [TFS-SSS]). Here we examined the validity of a newly developed scatter-correction method that combines SSS with a scaling factor calculated by Monte Carlo simulation (MCS-SSS). Methods: We performed phantom experiments and patient studies. In the phantom experiments, a plastic bottle simulating a face mask was attached to a cylindric phantom simulating the brain. The cylindric phantom was filled with 18 F-FDG solution (3.8-7.0 kBq/mL). The bottle was filled with nonradioactive air or various levels of 18 F-FDG (0-170 kBq/mL). Images were corrected either by TFS-SSS or MCS-SSS using the CT data of the bottle filled with nonradioactive air. We compared the image activity concentration in the cylindric phantom with the true activity concentration. We also performed 15 O-gas brain PET based on the steady-state method on patients with cerebrovascular disease to obtain quantitative images of cerebral blood flow and oxygen metabolism. Results: In the phantom experiments, a cold artifact was observed immediately next to the bottle on TFS-SSS images, where the image activity concentrations in the cylindric phantom were underestimated by 18%, 36%, and 70% at the bottle radioactivity levels of 2.4, 5.1, and 9.7 kBq/mL, respectively. At higher bottle radioactivity, the image activity concentrations in the cylindric phantom were greater than 98% underestimated. For the MCS-SSS, in contrast, the error was within 5% at each bottle radioactivity level, although the image generated slight high-activity artifacts around the bottle when the bottle contained significantly high radioactivity. In the patient imaging with 15 O 2 and C 15 O 2 inhalation, cold artifacts were observed on TFS-SSS images, whereas

  6. Determination of strange form factors of nucleon by parity violation asymmetry by polarized electron-proton elastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jardillier, Johann

    1999-01-01

    In the quark model, the proton is described as a system of three quarks UUD. However, recent experiments (CERN, SLAC) have shown that the strange quarks may contribute in a significant way to the mass and the spin of the proton. The HAPPEX experiment gives one further knowledge about the question of the role the strange quarks play inside the proton. It measures parity violating asymmetry in the scattering of polarized electrons from a proton because the latter is sensitive to the contribution of the strange quarks to the electromagnetic form factors of the nucleon. The observed asymmetry is in the order of a few ppm (part per million). The main difficulty of the experiment is to identify, to estimate and to minimize, as much as possible, all the systematic effects which could give rise to false asymmetries. This thesis discusses the principle of the HAPPEX experiment, its implementation at the Jefferson Lab (JLab), the processing and the analysis of the data, the systematic errors, and finally presents the result of the first data taking (1999) and its present interpretation. The HAPPEX experiment has measured, at Q 2 = 0.5 (GeV/c) 2 , a strange quarks contribution of (1.0 ± 2.3)% to the electromagnetic form factors of the nucleon. The statistics and the systematic effects (measure of the electron beam polarization and knowledge of the neutron electric form factor) contribute equally to the error. (author)

  7. Transverse tomography by Compton scattering scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Askienazy, S.; Lumbroso, J.; Lacaille, J.M.; Fredy, D.; Constans, J.P.; Barritault, L.

    The technique of tomography by Compton-scattering was applied to the exploration of the brain. Studies were carried out on phantoms and on patients and the first results are considered highly encouraging. On a phantom skull, holes at a depth of 7 cm are visible even on analogue documents and whatever their position with regard to the bone. On patients the ventricle cavities were revealed and comparisons with gas encephalograpy showed good agreement between the two techniques. The studies on phantoms also testified to the very low dose received by the patient: about 300 mRem for 2 million counts per section [fr

  8. Characterization of Scattered X-Ray Photons in Dental Cone-Beam Computed Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ching-Ching

    2016-01-01

    Scatter is a very important artifact causing factor in dental cone-beam CT (CBCT), which has a major influence on the detectability of details within images. This work aimed to improve the image quality of dental CBCT through scatter correction. Scatter was estimated in the projection domain from the low frequency component of the difference between the raw CBCT projection and the projection obtained by extrapolating the model fitted to the raw projections acquired with 2 different sizes of axial field-of-view (FOV). The function for curve fitting was optimized by using Monte Carlo simulation. To validate the proposed method, an anthropomorphic phantom and a water-filled cylindrical phantom with rod inserts simulating different tissue materials were scanned using 120 kVp, 5 mA and 9-second scanning time covering an axial FOV of 4 cm and 13 cm. The detectability of the CT image was evaluated by calculating the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR). Beam hardening and cupping artifacts were observed in CBCT images without scatter correction, especially in those acquired with 13 cm FOV. These artifacts were reduced in CBCT images corrected by the proposed method, demonstrating its efficacy on scatter correction. After scatter correction, the image quality of CBCT was improved in terms of target detectability which was quantified as the CNR for rod inserts in the cylindrical phantom. Hopefully the calculations performed in this work can provide a route to reach a high level of diagnostic image quality for CBCT imaging used in oral and maxillofacial structures whilst ensuring patient dose as low as reasonably achievable, which may ultimately make CBCT scan a reliable and safe tool in clinical practice.

  9. Characterization of Scattered X-Ray Photons in Dental Cone-Beam Computed Tomography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Ching Yang

    Full Text Available Scatter is a very important artifact causing factor in dental cone-beam CT (CBCT, which has a major influence on the detectability of details within images. This work aimed to improve the image quality of dental CBCT through scatter correction.Scatter was estimated in the projection domain from the low frequency component of the difference between the raw CBCT projection and the projection obtained by extrapolating the model fitted to the raw projections acquired with 2 different sizes of axial field-of-view (FOV. The function for curve fitting was optimized by using Monte Carlo simulation. To validate the proposed method, an anthropomorphic phantom and a water-filled cylindrical phantom with rod inserts simulating different tissue materials were scanned using 120 kVp, 5 mA and 9-second scanning time covering an axial FOV of 4 cm and 13 cm. The detectability of the CT image was evaluated by calculating the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR.Beam hardening and cupping artifacts were observed in CBCT images without scatter correction, especially in those acquired with 13 cm FOV. These artifacts were reduced in CBCT images corrected by the proposed method, demonstrating its efficacy on scatter correction. After scatter correction, the image quality of CBCT was improved in terms of target detectability which was quantified as the CNR for rod inserts in the cylindrical phantom.Hopefully the calculations performed in this work can provide a route to reach a high level of diagnostic image quality for CBCT imaging used in oral and maxillofacial structures whilst ensuring patient dose as low as reasonably achievable, which may ultimately make CBCT scan a reliable and safe tool in clinical practice.

  10. Prevalent hallucinations during medical internships: phantom vibration and ringing syndromes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Hsuan Lin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Phantom vibration syndrome is a type of hallucination reported among mobile phone users in the general population. Another similar perception, phantom ringing syndrome, has not been previously described in the medical literature. METHODS: A prospective longitudinal study of 74 medical interns (46 males, 28 females; mean age, 24.8±1.2 years was conducted using repeated investigations of the prevalence and associated factors of phantom vibration and ringing. The accompanying symptoms of anxiety and depression were evaluated with the Beck Anxiety and Depression Inventories before the internship began, and again at the third, sixth, and twelfth internship months, and two weeks after the internship ended. RESULTS: The baseline prevalence of phantom vibration was 78.1%, which increased to 95.9% and 93.2% in the third and sixth internship months. The prevalence returned to 80.8% at the twelfth month and decreased to 50.0% 2 weeks after the internship ended. The baseline prevalence of phantom ringing was 27.4%, which increased to 84.9%, 87.7%, and 86.3% in the third, sixth, and twelfth internship months, respectively. This returned to 54.2% two weeks after the internship ended. The anxiety and depression scores also increased during the internship, and returned to baseline two weeks after the internship. There was no significant correlation between phantom vibration/ringing and symptoms of anxiety or depression. The incidence of both phantom vibration and ringing syndromes significantly increased during the internship, and subsequent recovery. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that phantom vibration and ringing might be entities that are independent of anxiety or depression during evaluation of stress-associated experiences during medical internships.

  11. Efficient simulation of voxelized phantom in GATE with embedded SimSET multiple photon history generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hsin-Hon; Chuang, Keh-Shih; Lin, Yi-Hsing; Ni, Yu-Ching; Wu, Jay; Jan, Meei-Ling

    2014-10-01

    spectra for energy below 50 keV due to the lack of x-ray simulation from 124I decay in the new code. The spatial resolution, scatter fraction and count rate performance are in good agreement between the two codes. For the case studies of 18F-NaF (124I-IAZG) using MOBY phantom with 1  ×  1 × 1 mm3 voxel sizes, the results show that GATE/MPHG can achieve acceleration factors of approximately 3.1 × (4.5 ×), 6.5 × (10.7 ×) and 9.5 × (31.0 ×) compared with GATE using the regular navigation method, the compressed voxel method and the parameterized tracking technique, respectively. In conclusion, the implementation of MPHG in GATE allows for improved efficiency of voxelized phantom simulations and is suitable for studying clinical and preclinical imaging.

  12. Detecting breast microcalcifications using super-resolution and wave-equation ultrasound imaging: a numerical phantom study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Lianjie [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Simonetti, Francesco [IMPERIAL COLLEGE LONDON; Huthwaite, Peter [IMPERIAL COLLEGE LONDON; Rosenberg, Robert [UNM; Williamson, Michael [UNM

    2010-01-01

    Ultrasound image resolution and quality need to be significantly improved for breast microcalcification detection. Super-resolution imaging with the factorization method has recently been developed as a promising tool to break through the resolution limit of conventional imaging. In addition, wave-equation reflection imaging has become an effective method to reduce image speckles by properly handling ultrasound scattering/diffraction from breast heterogeneities during image reconstruction. We explore the capabilities of a novel super-resolution ultrasound imaging method and a wave-equation reflection imaging scheme for detecting breast microcalcifications. Super-resolution imaging uses the singular value decomposition and a factorization scheme to achieve an image resolution that is not possible for conventional ultrasound imaging. Wave-equation reflection imaging employs a solution to the acoustic-wave equation in heterogeneous media to backpropagate ultrasound scattering/diffraction waves to scatters and form images of heterogeneities. We construct numerical breast phantoms using in vivo breast images, and use a finite-difference wave-equation scheme to generate ultrasound data scattered from inclusions that mimic microcalcifications. We demonstrate that microcalcifications can be detected at full spatial resolution using the super-resolution ultrasound imaging and wave-equation reflection imaging methods.

  13. Development of a practical image-based scatter correction method for brain perfusion SPECT: comparison with the TEW method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shidahara, Miho; Kato, Takashi; Kawatsu, Shoji; Yoshimura, Kumiko; Ito, Kengo; Watabe, Hiroshi; Kim, Kyeong Min; Iida, Hidehiro; Kato, Rikio

    2005-01-01

    An image-based scatter correction (IBSC) method was developed to convert scatter-uncorrected into scatter-corrected SPECT images. The purpose of this study was to validate this method by means of phantom simulations and human studies with 99m Tc-labeled tracers, based on comparison with the conventional triple energy window (TEW) method. The IBSC method corrects scatter on the reconstructed image I AC μb with Chang's attenuation correction factor. The scatter component image is estimated by convolving I AC μb with a scatter function followed by multiplication with an image-based scatter fraction function. The IBSC method was evaluated with Monte Carlo simulations and 99m Tc-ethyl cysteinate dimer SPECT human brain perfusion studies obtained from five volunteers. The image counts and contrast of the scatter-corrected images obtained by the IBSC and TEW methods were compared. Using data obtained from the simulations, the image counts and contrast of the scatter-corrected images obtained by the IBSC and TEW methods were found to be nearly identical for both gray and white matter. In human brain images, no significant differences in image contrast were observed between the IBSC and TEW methods. The IBSC method is a simple scatter correction technique feasible for use in clinical routine. (orig.)

  14. Development of a practical image-based scatter correction method for brain perfusion SPECT: comparison with the TEW method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shidahara, Miho; Kato, Takashi; Kawatsu, Shoji; Yoshimura, Kumiko; Ito, Kengo [National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology Research Institute, Department of Brain Science and Molecular Imaging, Obu, Aichi (Japan); Watabe, Hiroshi; Kim, Kyeong Min; Iida, Hidehiro [National Cardiovascular Center Research Institute, Department of Investigative Radiology, Suita (Japan); Kato, Rikio [National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology, Department of Radiology, Obu (Japan)

    2005-10-01

    An image-based scatter correction (IBSC) method was developed to convert scatter-uncorrected into scatter-corrected SPECT images. The purpose of this study was to validate this method by means of phantom simulations and human studies with {sup 99m}Tc-labeled tracers, based on comparison with the conventional triple energy window (TEW) method. The IBSC method corrects scatter on the reconstructed image I{sub AC}{sup {mu}}{sup b} with Chang's attenuation correction factor. The scatter component image is estimated by convolving I{sub AC}{sup {mu}}{sup b} with a scatter function followed by multiplication with an image-based scatter fraction function. The IBSC method was evaluated with Monte Carlo simulations and {sup 99m}Tc-ethyl cysteinate dimer SPECT human brain perfusion studies obtained from five volunteers. The image counts and contrast of the scatter-corrected images obtained by the IBSC and TEW methods were compared. Using data obtained from the simulations, the image counts and contrast of the scatter-corrected images obtained by the IBSC and TEW methods were found to be nearly identical for both gray and white matter. In human brain images, no significant differences in image contrast were observed between the IBSC and TEW methods. The IBSC method is a simple scatter correction technique feasible for use in clinical routine. (orig.)

  15. Development of a practical image-based scatter correction method for brain perfusion SPECT: comparison with the TEW method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shidahara, Miho; Watabe, Hiroshi; Kim, Kyeong Min; Kato, Takashi; Kawatsu, Shoji; Kato, Rikio; Yoshimura, Kumiko; Iida, Hidehiro; Ito, Kengo

    2005-10-01

    An image-based scatter correction (IBSC) method was developed to convert scatter-uncorrected into scatter-corrected SPECT images. The purpose of this study was to validate this method by means of phantom simulations and human studies with 99mTc-labeled tracers, based on comparison with the conventional triple energy window (TEW) method. The IBSC method corrects scatter on the reconstructed image I(mub)AC with Chang's attenuation correction factor. The scatter component image is estimated by convolving I(mub)AC with a scatter function followed by multiplication with an image-based scatter fraction function. The IBSC method was evaluated with Monte Carlo simulations and 99mTc-ethyl cysteinate dimer SPECT human brain perfusion studies obtained from five volunteers. The image counts and contrast of the scatter-corrected images obtained by the IBSC and TEW methods were compared. Using data obtained from the simulations, the image counts and contrast of the scatter-corrected images obtained by the IBSC and TEW methods were found to be nearly identical for both gray and white matter. In human brain images, no significant differences in image contrast were observed between the IBSC and TEW methods. The IBSC method is a simple scatter correction technique feasible for use in clinical routine.

  16. Construction of Chinese reference female phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheng Yinxiangzi; Liu Lixing; Xia Xiaobin

    2013-01-01

    In this study, a Voxel-based Chinese Reference female Phantom (VCRP-woman) is developed from an individual female phantom which was based on high resolution cross-sectional color photographs. An in-house C ++ program was developed to adjust the phantom. Finally, a reference female phantom with have the same height, weighte and similar organs masses with the Chinese reference adult female data. The adjusted phantom is then imported to MCNPX to calculate the organs absorbed dose and effective dose conversion coefficients. Results are compared between VCRP-woman and the ICRP adult reference female phantom. (authors)

  17. Quantitation of specific binding ratio in 123I-FP-CIT SPECT: accurate processing strategy for cerebral ventricular enlargement with use of 3D-striatal digital brain phantom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuta, Akihiro; Onishi, Hideo; Amijima, Hizuru

    2018-06-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of ventricular enlargement on the specific binding ratio (SBR) and to validate the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)-Mask algorithm for quantitative SBR assessment of 123 I-FP-CIT single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images with the use of a 3D-striatum digital brain (SDB) phantom. Ventricular enlargement was simulated by three-dimensional extensions in a 3D-SDB phantom comprising segments representing the striatum, ventricle, brain parenchyma, and skull bone. The Evans Index (EI) was measured in 3D-SDB phantom images of an enlarged ventricle. Projection data sets were generated from the 3D-SDB phantoms with blurring, scatter, and attenuation. Images were reconstructed using the ordered subset expectation maximization (OSEM) algorithm and corrected for attenuation, scatter, and resolution recovery. We bundled DaTView (Southampton method) with the CSF-Mask processing software for SBR. We assessed SBR with the use of various coefficients (f factor) of the CSF-Mask. Specific binding ratios of 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 corresponded to SDB phantom simulations with true values. Measured SBRs > 50% that were underestimated with EI increased compared with the true SBR and this trend was outstanding at low SBR. The CSF-Mask improved 20% underestimates and brought the measured SBR closer to the true values at an f factor of 1.0 despite an increase in EI. We connected the linear regression function (y = - 3.53x + 1.95; r = 0.95) with the EI and f factor using root-mean-square error. Processing with CSF-Mask generates accurate quantitative SBR from dopamine transporter SPECT images of patients with ventricular enlargement.

  18. Software correction of scatter coincidence in positron CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endo, M.; Iinuma, T.A.

    1984-01-01

    This paper describes a software correction of scatter coincidence in positron CT which is based on an estimation of scatter projections from true projections by an integral transform. Kernels for the integral transform are projected distributions of scatter coincidences for a line source at different positions in a water phantom and are calculated by Klein-Nishina's formula. True projections of any composite object can be determined from measured projections by iterative applications of the integral transform. The correction method was tested in computer simulations and phantom experiments with Positologica. The results showed that effects of scatter coincidence are not negligible in the quantitation of images, but the correction reduces them significantly. (orig.)

  19. New high statistics measurement of Ke4 decay form factors and ππ scattering phase shifts TH1"-->

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batley, J. R.; Culling, A. J.; Kalmus, G.; Lazzeroni, C.; Munday, D. J.; Slater, M. W.; Wotton, S. A.; Arcidiacono, R.; Bocquet, G.; Cabibbo, N.; Ceccucci, A.; Cundy, D.; Falaleev, V.; Fidecaro, M.; Gatignon, L.; Gonidec, A.; Kubischta, W.; Norton, A.; Maier, A.; Patel, M.; Peters, A.; Balev, S.; Frabetti, P. L.; Goudzovski, E.; Hristov, P.; Kekelidze, V.; Kozhuharov, V.; Litov, L.; Madigozhin, D.; Marinova, E.; Molokanova, N.; Polenkevich, I.; Potrebenikov, Y.; Stoynev, S.; Zinchenko, A.; Monnier, E.; Swallow, E.; Winston, R.; Rubin, P.; Walker, A.; Baldini, W.; Cotta Ramusino, A.; Dalpiaz, P.; Damiani, C.; Fiorini, M.; Gianoli, A.; Martini, M.; Petrucci, F.; Savrié, M.; Scarpa, M.; Wahl, H.; Bizzeti, A.; Calvetti, M.; Celeghini, E.; Iacopini, E.; Lenti, M.; Martelli, F.; Ruggiero, G.; Veltri, M.; Behler, M.; Eppard, K.; Kleinknecht, K.; Marouelli, P.; Masetti, L.; Moosbrugger, U.; Morales Morales, C.; Renk, B.; Wache, M.; Wanke, R.; Winhart, A.; Coward, D.; Dabrowski, A.; Fonseca Martin, T.; Shieh, M.; Szleper, M.; Velasco, M.; Wood, M. D.; Anzivino, G.; Cenci, P.; Imbergamo, E.; Nappi, A.; Pepe, M.; Petrucci, M. C.; Piccini, M.; Raggi, M.; Valdata-Nappi, M.; Cerri, C.; Collazuol, G.; Costantini, F.; Dilella, L.; Doble, N.; Fantechi, R.; Fiorini, L.; Giudici, S.; Lamanna, G.; Mannelli, I.; Michetti, A.; Pierazzini, G.; Sozzi, M.; Bloch-Devaux, B.; Cheshkov, C.; Chèze, J. B.; de Beer, M.; Derré, J.; Marel, G.; Mazzucato, E.; Peyaud, B.; Vallage, B.; Holder, M.; Ziolkowski, M.; Bifani, S.; Biino, C.; Cartiglia, N.; Clemencic, M.; Goy Lopez, S.; Marchetto, F.; Dibon, H.; Jeitler, M.; Markytan, M.; Mikulec, I.; Neuhofer, G.; Widhalm, L.

    2008-04-01

    We report results from a new measurement of the Ke4 decay K±→π+π-e±ν by the NA48/2 collaboration at the CERN SPS, based on a partial sample of more than 670 000 Ke4 decays in both charged modes collected in 2003. The form factors of the hadronic current (F,G,H) and ππ phase difference (δ=δs-δp) have been measured in ten independent bins of the ππ mass spectrum to investigate their variation. A sizeable acceptance at large ππ mass, a low background and a very good resolution contribute to an improved experimental accuracy, a factor two better than in the previous measurement, when extracting the ππ scattering lengths a0 0 and a0 2. Under the assumption of isospin symmetry and using numerical solutions of the Roy equations, the following values are obtained in the plane (a0 0,a0 2): a0 0=0.233±0.016stat±0.007syst,a0 2=-0.0471±0.011stat±0.004syst. The presence of potentially large isospin effects is also considered and will allow comparison with precise predictions from Chiral Perturbation Theory.

  20. Development of a unique phantom to assess dose error of metal artifact in head and neck cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Min Young; Kang, Sang Won; Suh, Tae Suk [Dept. of Biomedical Engineering, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jeong Woo [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Konkuk University Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Ji Yeon [Dept. of Pediatrics and Molecular Imaging Program at Stanford, Stanford University, Stanford (United States)

    2016-04-15

    The artifacts not only blur the CT images and lead to inaccuracies in diagnosis, but also make the delineation of anatomical structures intractable, which is important in image-guided intervention procedures. These artifacts obscure the underlying anatomy, leading to uncertainty in the delineation of the target volumes and compromising the integrity of the density representation that is crucial for accurate dose calculation. Because head and neck cancer patients tend to be over the age of 50 years, they constitute a group likely to have dental prostheses. This kind of side effects considerably disturbs the therapeutic procedure. Radiation scatter from high atomic number (Z) materials is established to cause both soft tissue and bony complications in the oral cavity, making scattered radiation an important factor in head and neck region radiotherapy planning. In this study, we carried out theoretical analysis of the metal artifact, that is, streak artifact and dark artifact, and also critical analysis of dosimetric effect which cause by dental implants in CT images of head and neck cancer patients with the genuine teeth and implants inserted humanoid phantom. The phantom provides a unique and useful tool in head and neck dosimetry research. It can be used in the development of new imaging instrumentation, image acquisition strategies, and image processing and reconstruction methods.

  1. A comparative study on patient specific absolute dosimetry using slab phantom, acrylic body phantom and goat head phantom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Om Prakash Gurjar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To compare the results of patient specific absolute dosimetry using slab phantom, acrylic body phantom and goat head phantom. Methods: Fifteen intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT plans already planned on treatment planning system (TPS for head-and-neck cancer patients were exported on all three kinds of phantoms viz. slab phantom, acrylic body phantom and goat head phantom, and dose was calculated using anisotropic analytic algorithm (AAA. All the gantry angles were set to zero in case of slab phantom while set to as it is in actual plan in case of other two phantoms. All the plans were delivered by linear accelerator (LA and dose for each plan was measured by 0.13 cc ion chamber. The percentage (% variations between planned and measured doses were calculated and analyzed. Results: The mean % variations between planned and measured doses of all IMRT quality assurance (QA plans were as 0.65 (Standard deviation (SD: 0.38 with confidence limit (CL 1.39, 1.16 (SD: 0.61 with CL 2.36 and 2.40 (SD: 0.86 with CL 4.09 for slab phantom, acrylic head phantom and goat head phantom respectively. Conclusion: Higher dose variations found in case of real tissue phantom compare to results in case of slab and acrylic body phantoms. The algorithm AAA does not calculate doses in heterogeneous medium as accurate as it calculates in homogeneous medium. Therefore the patient specific absolute dosimetry should be done using heterogeneous phantom mimicking density wise as well as design wise to the actual human body.  

  2. Measurements of computed tomography radiation scatter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Every, B.; Petty, R.J.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the measurement of scattered radiation from a computed tomography (CT) scanner in a clinical situation and compares the results with those obtained from a CT performance phantom and with data obtained from CT manufacturers. The results are presented as iso-dose contours. There are significant differences between the data obtained and that supplied by manufacturers, both in the shape of the iso-dose contours and in the nominal values. The observed scatter in a clinical situation (for an abdominal scan) varied between 3% and 430% of the manufacturers' stated values, with a marked reduction in scatter noted a the head and feet of the patient. These differences appear to be due to the fact that manufacturers use CT phantoms to obtain scatter data and these phantoms do not provide the same scatter absorption geometry as patients. CT scatter was observed to increase as scan field size and slice thickness increased, whilst there was little change in scatter with changes in gantry tilt and table slew. Using the iso-dose contours, the orientation of the CT scanner can be optimised with regard to the location and shielding requirements of doors and windows. Additionally, the positioning of staff who must remain in the room during scanning can be optimised to minimise their exposure. It is estimated that the data presented allows for realistic radiation protection assessments to be made. 13 refs., 5 tabs., 6 figs

  3. MO-F-CAMPUS-T-01: IROC Houston QA Center’s Anthropomorphic Proton Phantom Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lujano, C; Hernandez, N; Keith, T; Nguyen, T; Taylor, P; Molineu, A; Followill, D

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To describe the proton phantoms that IROC Houston uses to approve and credential proton institutions to participate in NCI-sponsored clinical trials. Methods: Photon phantoms cannot necessarily be used for proton measurements because protons react differently than photons in some plastics. As such plastics that are tissue equivalent for protons were identified. Another required alteration is to ensure that the film dosimeters are housed in the phantom with no air gap to avoid proton streaming. Proton-equivalent plastics/materials used include RMI Solid Water, Techron HPV, blue water, RANDO soft tissue material, balsa wood, compressed cork and polyethylene. Institutions wishing to be approved or credentialed request a phantom and are prioritized for delivery. At the institution, the phantom is imaged, a treatment plan is developed, positioned on the treatment couch and the treatment is delivered. The phantom is returned and the measured dose distributions are compared to the institution’s electronically submitted treatment plan dosimetry data. Results: IROC Houston has developed an extensive proton phantom approval/credentialing program consisting of five different phantoms designs: head, prostate, lung, liver and spine. The phantoms are made with proton equivalent plastics that have HU and relative stopping powers similar (within 5%) of human tissues. They also have imageable targets, avoidance structures, and heterogeneities. TLD and radiochromic film are contained in the target structures. There have been 13 head, 33 prostate, 18 lung, 2 liver and 16 spine irradiations with either passive scatter, or scanned proton beams. The pass rates have been: 100%, 69.7%, 72.2%, 50%, and 81.3%, respectively. Conclusion: IROC Houston has responded to the recent surge in proton facilities by developing a family of anthropomorphic phantoms that are able to be used for remote audits of proton beams. Work supported by PHS grant CA10953 and CA081647

  4. MO-F-CAMPUS-T-01: IROC Houston QA Center’s Anthropomorphic Proton Phantom Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lujano, C; Hernandez, N; Keith, T; Nguyen, T; Taylor, P; Molineu, A; Followill, D [UT MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To describe the proton phantoms that IROC Houston uses to approve and credential proton institutions to participate in NCI-sponsored clinical trials. Methods: Photon phantoms cannot necessarily be used for proton measurements because protons react differently than photons in some plastics. As such plastics that are tissue equivalent for protons were identified. Another required alteration is to ensure that the film dosimeters are housed in the phantom with no air gap to avoid proton streaming. Proton-equivalent plastics/materials used include RMI Solid Water, Techron HPV, blue water, RANDO soft tissue material, balsa wood, compressed cork and polyethylene. Institutions wishing to be approved or credentialed request a phantom and are prioritized for delivery. At the institution, the phantom is imaged, a treatment plan is developed, positioned on the treatment couch and the treatment is delivered. The phantom is returned and the measured dose distributions are compared to the institution’s electronically submitted treatment plan dosimetry data. Results: IROC Houston has developed an extensive proton phantom approval/credentialing program consisting of five different phantoms designs: head, prostate, lung, liver and spine. The phantoms are made with proton equivalent plastics that have HU and relative stopping powers similar (within 5%) of human tissues. They also have imageable targets, avoidance structures, and heterogeneities. TLD and radiochromic film are contained in the target structures. There have been 13 head, 33 prostate, 18 lung, 2 liver and 16 spine irradiations with either passive scatter, or scanned proton beams. The pass rates have been: 100%, 69.7%, 72.2%, 50%, and 81.3%, respectively. Conclusion: IROC Houston has responded to the recent surge in proton facilities by developing a family of anthropomorphic phantoms that are able to be used for remote audits of proton beams. Work supported by PHS grant CA10953 and CA081647.

  5. A phantom for assessing the personal dose equivalent, HP(10)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santoro, C.; Filho, J.A

    2013-01-01

    Characteristics of a phantom designed to evaluate the personal dose equivalent, H P (10), and appropriate for photographic dosimetry are presented. It is called HP(10) phantom due to cavities constructed to insert dosimetric films at a depth of 10 mm. The H P (10) phantom is irradiated with ionizing radiation energy, E, from 45 to 1250 keV, with doses ranging from 0.2 to 50 mSv. It is positioned in the direction α = 0 °, and the radiation field focusing perpendicular to its front surface. So, are established calibration curves of dosimeters in the position conventionally true and quantities H P (10). It made a comparison between the responses obtained with the H P (10) phantom and responses obtained when using the calibration procedure recommended by ISO dosimeters. The ISO recommends getting the air kerma, Ka, for photons at test point of the radiation field by an ionization chamber. And through conversion coefficients, h pK (10; E, α), becomes the air kerma for H P (10). The ISO 4037-3 recommendation has been studied by researchers to ensure that the low energy spectral differences occur in radiation fields which are generated by various X-ray equipment, and induce changes in the percentages of conversion coefficients on the order of 10% to 90% . On the basis of the recommendations ISO, this article develops phantom able to assess the dose to the influence of scattering and absorption of radiation, its implications with respect to dosimetry, providing improvement in the assessment of doses. (author)

  6. Studying the distribution of deep Raman spectroscopy signals using liquid tissue phantoms with varying optical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardaki, Martha Z; Gardner, Benjamin; Stone, Nicholas; Matousek, Pavel

    2015-08-07

    In this study we employed large volume liquid tissue phantoms, consisting of a scattering agent (Intralipid), an absorption agent (Indian ink) and a synthesized calcification powder (calcium hydroxyapatite (HAP)) similar to that found in cancerous tissues (e.g. breast and prostate), to simulate human tissues. We studied experimentally the magnitude and origin of Raman signals in a transmission Raman geometry as a function of optical properties of the medium and the location of calcifications within the phantom. The goal was to inform the development of future noninvasive cancer screening applications in vivo. The results provide insight into light propagation and Raman scattering distribution in deep Raman measurements, exploring also the effect of the variation of relative absorbance of laser and Raman photons within the phantoms. Most notably when modeling breast and prostate tissues it follows that maximum signals is obtained from the front and back faces of the tissue with the central region contributing less to the measured spectrum.

  7. A methodology for developing anisotropic AAA phantoms via additive manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz de Galarreta, Sergio; Antón, Raúl; Cazón, Aitor; Finol, Ender A

    2017-05-24

    An Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA) is a permanent focal dilatation of the abdominal aorta at least 1.5 times its normal diameter. The criterion of maximum diameter is still used in clinical practice, although numerical studies have demonstrated the importance of biomechanical factors for rupture risk assessment. AAA phantoms could be used for experimental validation of the numerical studies and for pre-intervention testing of endovascular grafts. We have applied multi-material 3D printing technology to manufacture idealized AAA phantoms with anisotropic mechanical behavior. Different composites were fabricated and the phantom specimens were characterized by biaxial tensile tests while using a constitutive model to fit the experimental data. One composite was chosen to manufacture the phantom based on having the same mechanical properties as those reported in the literature for human AAA tissue; the strain energy and anisotropic index were compared to make this choice. The materials for the matrix and fibers of the selected composite are, respectively, the digital materials FLX9940 and FLX9960 developed by Stratasys. The fiber proportion for the composite is equal to 0.15. The differences between the composite behavior and the AAA tissue are small, with a small difference in the strain energy (0.4%) and a maximum difference of 12.4% in the peak Green strain ratio. This work represents a step forward in the application of 3D printing technology for the manufacturing of AAA phantoms with anisotropic mechanical behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Dosimetric characteristics of water equivalent for two solid water phantoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jianhua; Wang Xun; Ren Jiangping

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the water equivalent of two solid water phantoms. Methods: The X-ray and electron beam depth-ion curves were measured in water and two solid water phantoms, RW3 and Virtual Water. The water-equivalency correction factors for the two solid water phantoms were compared. We measured and calculated the range sealing factors and the fluence correction factors for the two solid water phantoms in the case of electron beams. Results: The average difference between the measured ionization in solid water phantoms and water was 0.42% and 0.16% on 6 MV X-ray (t=-6.15, P=0.001 and t=-1.65, P=0.419) and 0.21% and 0.31% on 10 MV X-ray (t=1.728, P=0.135 and t=-2.296, P=0.061), with 17.4% and 14.5% on 6 MeV electron beams (t=-1.37, P=0.208 and t=-1.47, P=0.179) and 7.0% and 6.0% on 15 MeV electron beams (t=-0.58, P=0.581 and t=-0.90, P=0.395). The water-equivalency correction factors for the two solid water phantoms varied slightly largely, F=58.54, P=0.000 on 6 MV X-ray, F=0.211, P=0.662 on 10 MV X-ray, F=0.97, P=0.353 on 6 MeV electron beams, F=0.14, P=0.717 on 15 MeV electron beams. However, they were almost equal to 1 near the reference depths. The two solid water phantoms showed a similar tread of C pl increasing (F=26.40, P=0.014) and h pl decreasing (F=7.45, P=0.072) with increasing energy. Conclusion: The solid water phantom should undergo a quality control test before being clinical use. (authors)

  9. NMR-CT image and symbol phantoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hongo, Syozo; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Takeshita, Hiroshi

    1990-01-01

    We have developed Japanese phantoms in two procedures. One is described as a mathematical expression. Another is 'symbol phantoms' in 3 dimensional picture-elements, each of which symbolize an organ name. The concept and the algorithm of the symbol phantom enables us to make a phantom for a individual in terms of all his transversal section images. We got 85 transversal section images of head and trunk parts, and those of 40 legs parts by using NMR-CT. We have made the individual phantom for computation of organ doses. The transversal section images were not so clear to identify all organs needed to dose estimation that we had to do hand-editing the shapes of organs with viewing a typical section images: we could not yet make symbol phantom in a automatic editing. Symbols were coded to be visual cords as ASCII characters. After we got the symbol phantom of the first stage, we can edit it easily using a word-processor. Symbol phantom could describe more freely the shape of organs than mathematical phantom. Symbol phantom has several advantages to be an individual phantom, but the only difficult point is how to determine its end-point as a reference man when we apply the method to build the reference man. (author)

  10. Quantum theory for the dynamic structure factor in correlated two-component systems in nonequilibrium: Application to x-ray scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorberger, J.; Chapman, D. A.

    2018-01-01

    We present a quantum theory for the dynamic structure factors in nonequilibrium, correlated, two-component systems such as plasmas or warm dense matter. The polarization function, which is needed as the input for the calculation of the structure factors, is calculated in nonequilibrium based on a perturbation expansion in the interaction strength. To make our theory applicable for x-ray scattering, a generalized Chihara decomposition for the total electron structure factor in nonequilibrium is derived. Examples are given and the influence of correlations and exchange on the structure and the x-ray-scattering spectrum are discussed for a model nonequilibrium distribution, as often encountered during laser heating of materials, as well as for two-temperature systems.

  11. Quantum theory for the dynamic structure factor in correlated two-component systems in nonequilibrium: Application to x-ray scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorberger, J; Chapman, D A

    2018-01-01

    We present a quantum theory for the dynamic structure factors in nonequilibrium, correlated, two-component systems such as plasmas or warm dense matter. The polarization function, which is needed as the input for the calculation of the structure factors, is calculated in nonequilibrium based on a perturbation expansion in the interaction strength. To make our theory applicable for x-ray scattering, a generalized Chihara decomposition for the total electron structure factor in nonequilibrium is derived. Examples are given and the influence of correlations and exchange on the structure and the x-ray-scattering spectrum are discussed for a model nonequilibrium distribution, as often encountered during laser heating of materials, as well as for two-temperature systems.

  12. Compton radiography, 2. Clinical significance of Compton radiography of a chest phantom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okuyama, S; Sera, K; Fukuda, H; Shishido, F [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Research Inst. for Tuberculosis, Leprosy and Cancer; Mishina, H

    1977-09-01

    Compton radiography, a tomographic technic with Compton-scattered rays of a monochromatic gamma ray beam, was feasible of tomographing a chest phantom. The result suggested that the technic could be extended to imaging of the lung and the surrounding structures of the chest wall, mediastinum and liver in Compton tomographic mode.

  13. 3D Printing Openable Imaging Phantom Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Myoung Keun; Won, Jun Hyeok; Lee, Seung Wook

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to design an openable phantom that can replace the internal measurement bar used for contrast comparison in order to increase the efficiency of manufacturing imaging phantom used in the medical industry and to improve convenience using 3D printer. Phantom concept design, 3D printing, and Image reconstruction were defined as the scope of the thesis. Also, we study metal artifact reduction with openable phantom. We have designed a Openable phantom using 3D printing, and have investigated metal artifact reduction after inserting a metallic material inside the phantom. The openable phantom can be adjusted at any time to suit the user's experiment and can be easily replaced and useful.

  14. Determination of point isotropic buildup factors of gamma rays including incoherent and coherent scattering for aluminum, iron, lead, and water by discrete ordinates method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitsos, S.; Assad, A.; Diop, C.M.; Nimal, J.C.

    1994-01-01

    Exposure and energy absorption buildup factors for aluminum, iron, lead, and water are calculated by the SNID discrete ordinates code for an isotropic point source in a homogeneous medium. The calculation of the buildup factors takes into account the effects of both bound-electron Compton (incoherent) and coherent (Rayleigh) scattering. A comparison with buildup factors from the literature shows that these two effects greatly increase the buildup factors for energies below a few hundred kilo-electron-volts, and thus the new results are improved relative to the experiment. This greater accuracy is due to the increase in the linear attenuation coefficient, which leads to the calculation of the buildup factors for a mean free path with a smaller shield thickness. On the other hand, for the same shield thickness, exposure increases when only incoherent scattering is included and decreases when only coherent scattering is included, so that the exposure finally decreases when both effects are included. Great care must also be taken when checking the approximations for gamma-ray deep-penetration transport calculations, as well as for the cross-section treatment and origin

  15. Precise determination of low-Q nucleon electromagnetic form factors and their impact on parity-violating e-p elastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arrington, John; Sick, Ingo

    2007-01-01

    The extraction of the strangeness form factors from parity-violating elastic electron-proton scattering is sensitive to the electromagnetic form factors at low Q 2 . We provide parametrizations for the form factors and uncertainties, including the effects of two-photon exchange corrections to the extracted electromagnetic form factors. We study effect of the correlations between different form factors, in particular as they impact the parity-violating asymmetry and the extraction of the strangeness form factors. We provide a prescription to extract the strangeness form factors from the asymmetry that provides an excellent approximation of the full two-photon correction. The corrected form factors are also appropriate as input for other low-Q analyses, although the effects of correlations and two-photon exchange corrections may be different

  16. Quantification of breast density using dual-energy mammography with liquid phantom calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lam, Alfonso R; Ding, Huanjun; Molloi, Sabee

    2014-01-01

    Breast density is a widely recognized potential risk factor for breast cancer. However, accurate quantification of breast density is a challenging task in mammography. The current use of plastic breast-equivalent phantoms for calibration provides limited accuracy in dual-energy mammography due to the chemical composition of the phantom. We implemented a breast-equivalent liquid phantom for dual-energy calibration in order to improve the accuracy of breast density measurement. To design these phantoms, three liquid compounds were chosen: water, isopropyl alcohol, and glycerol. Chemical compositions of glandular and adipose tissues, obtained from NIST database, were used as reference materials. Dual-energy signal of the liquid phantom at different breast densities (0% to 100%) and thicknesses (1 to 8 cm) were simulated. Glandular and adipose tissue thicknesses were estimated from a higher order polynomial of the signals. Our results indicated that the linear attenuation coefficients of the breast-equivalent liquid phantoms match those of the target material. Comparison between measured and known breast density data shows a linear correlation with a slope close to 1 and a non-zero intercept of 7%, while plastic phantoms showed a slope of 0.6 and a non-zero intercept of 8%. Breast density results derived from the liquid calibration phantoms showed higher accuracy than those derived from the plastic phantoms for different breast thicknesses and various tube voltages. We performed experimental phantom studies using liquid phantoms and then compared the computed breast density with those obtained using a bovine tissue model. The experimental data and the known values were in good correlation with a slope close to 1 (∼1.1). In conclusion, our results indicate that liquid phantoms are a reliable alternative for calibration in dual-energy mammography and better reproduce the chemical properties of the target material. (paper)

  17. Multimodal, 3D pathology-mimicking bladder phantom for evaluation of cystoscopic technologies (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Gennifer T.; Lurie, Kristen L.; Zlatev, Dimitar V.; Liao, Joseph C.; Ellerbee, Audrey K.

    2016-02-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) and blue light cystoscopy (BLC) have shown significant potential as complementary technologies to traditional white light cystoscopy (WLC) for early bladder cancer detection. Three-dimensional (3D) organ-mimicking phantoms provide realistic imaging environments for testing new technology designs, the diagnostic potential of systems, and novel image processing algorithms prior to validation in real tissue. Importantly, the phantom should mimic features of healthy and diseased tissue as they appear under WLC, BLC, and OCT, which are sensitive to tissue color and structure, fluorescent contrast, and optical scattering of subsurface layers, respectively. We present a phantom posing the hollow shape of the bladder and fabricated using a combination of 3D-printing and spray-coating with Dragon Skin (DS) (Smooth-On Inc.), a highly elastic polymer to mimic the layered structure of the bladder. Optical scattering of DS was tuned by addition of titanium dioxide, resulting in scattering coefficients sufficient to cover the human bladder range (0.49 to 2.0 mm^-1). Mucosal vasculature and tissue coloration were mimicked with elastic cord and red dye, respectively. Urethral access was provided through a small hole excised from the base of the phantom. Inserted features of bladder pathology included altered tissue color (WLC), fluorescence emission (BLC), and variations in layered structure (OCT). The phantom surface and underlying material were assessed on the basis of elasticity, optical scattering, layer thicknesses, and qualitative image appearance. WLC, BLC, and OCT images of normal and cancerous features in the phantom qualitatively matched corresponding images from human bladders.

  18. [Development of a Striatal and Skull Phantom for Quantitative 123I-FP-CIT SPECT].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishiguro, Masanobu; Uno, Masaki; Miyazaki, Takuma; Kataoka, Yumi; Toyama, Hiroshi; Ichihara, Takashi

    123 Iodine-labelled N-(3-fluoropropyl) -2β-carbomethoxy-3β-(4-iodophenyl) nortropane ( 123 I-FP-CIT) single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) images are used for differential diagnosis such as Parkinson's disease (PD). Specific binding ratio (SBR) is affected by scattering and attenuation in SPECT imaging, because gender and age lead to changes in skull density. It is necessary to clarify and correct the influence of the phantom simulating the the skull. The purpose of this study was to develop phantoms that can evaluate scattering and attenuation correction. Skull phantoms were prepared based on the measuring the results of the average computed tomography (CT) value, average skull thickness of 12 males and 16 females. 123 I-FP-CIT SPECT imaging of striatal phantom was performed with these skull phantoms, which reproduced normal and PD. SPECT images, were reconstructed with scattering and attenuation correction. SBR with partial volume effect corrected (SBR act ) and conventional SBR (SBR Bolt ) were measured and compared. The striatum and the skull phantoms along with 123 I-FP-CIT were able to reproduce the normal accumulation and disease state of PD and further those reproduced the influence of skull density on SPECT imaging. The error rate with the true SBR, SBR act was much smaller than SBR Bolt . The effect on SBR could be corrected by scattering and attenuation correction even if the skull density changes with 123 I-FP-CIT on SPECT imaging. The combination of triple energy window method and CT-attenuation correction method would be the best correction method for SBR act .

  19. Dual Energy Tomosynthesis breast phantom imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koukou, V.; Martini, N.; Fountos, G.; Messaris, G.; Michail, C.; Kandarakis, I.; Nikiforidis, G.

    2017-12-01

    Dual energy (DE) imaging technique has been applied to many theoretical and experimental studies. The aim of the current study is to evaluate dual energy in breast tomosynthesis using commercial tomosynthesis system in terms of its potential to better visualize microcalcifications (μCs). The system uses a tungsten target X-ray tube and a selenium direct conversion detector. Low-energy (LE) images were acquired at different tube voltages (28, 30, 32 kV), while high-energy images at 49 kV. Fifteen projections, for the low- and high-energy respectively, were acquired without grid while tube scanned continuously. Log-subtraction algorithm was used in order to obtain the DE images with the weighting factor, w, derived empirically. The subtraction was applied to each pair of LE and HE slices after reconstruction. The TORMAM phantom was imaged with the different settings. Four regions-of-interest including μCs were identified in the inhomogeneous part of the phantom. The μCs in DE images were more clearly visible compared to the low-energy images. Initial results showed that DE tomosynthesis imaging is a promising modality, however more work is required.

  20. A novel composite material specifically developed for ultrasound bone phantoms: cortical, trabecular and skull

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wydra, A; Maev, R Gr

    2013-01-01

    In the various stages of developing diagnostic and therapeutic equipment, the use of phantoms can play a very important role in improving the process, help in implementation, testing and calibrations. Phantoms are especially useful in developing new applications and training new doctors in medical schools. However, devices that use different physical factors, such as MRI, Ultrasound, CT Scan, etc will require the phantom to be made of different physical properties. In this paper we introduce the properties of recently designed new materials for developing phantoms for ultrasonic human body investigation, which in today's market make up more than 30% in the world of phantoms. We developed a novel composite material which allows fabrication of various kinds of ultrasound bone phantoms to mimic most of the acoustical properties of human bones. In contrast to the ex vivo tissues, the proposed material can maintain the physical and acoustical properties unchanged for long periods of time; moreover, these properties can be custom designed and created to suit specific needs. As a result, we introduce three examples of ultrasound phantoms that we manufactured in our laboratory: cortical, trabecular and skull bone phantoms. The paper also presents the results of a comparison study between the acoustical and physical properties of actual human bones (reported in the referenced literatures) and the phantoms manufactured by us. (note)

  1. Effect of Graphite Concentration on Shear-Wave Speed in Gelatin-Based Tissue-Mimicking Phantoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Pamela G.; Rouze, Ned C.; Palmeri, Mark L.

    2011-01-01

    Elasticity-based imaging modalities are becoming popular diagnostic tools in clinical practice. Gelatin-based, tissue mimicking phantoms that contain graphite as the acoustic scattering material are commonly used in testing and validating elasticity-imaging methods to quantify tissue stiffness. The gelatin bloom strength and concentration are used to control phantom stiffness. While it is known that graphite concentration can be modulated to control acoustic attenuation, the impact of graphite concentrationon phantom elasticity has not been characterized in these gelatin phantoms. This work investigates the impact of graphite concentration on phantom shear stiffness as characterized by shear-wave speed measurements using impulsive acoustic-radiation-force excitations. Phantom shear-wave speed increased by 0.83 (m/s)/(dB/(cm MHz)) when increasing the attenuation coefficient slope of the phantom material through increasing graphite concentration. Therefore, gelatin-phantom stiffness can be affected by the conventional ways that attenuation is modulated through graphite concentration in these phantoms. PMID:21710828

  2. Assessment of uncertainties in the lung activity measurement of low-energy photon emitters using Monte Carlo simulation of ICRP male thorax voxel phantom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadar, M Y; Akar, D K; Rao, D D; Kulkarni, M S; Pradeepkumar, K S

    2015-12-01

    Assessment of intake due to long-lived actinides by inhalation pathway is carried out by lung monitoring of the radiation workers inside totally shielded steel room using sensitive detection systems such as Phoswich and an array of HPGe detectors. In this paper, uncertainties in the lung activity estimation due to positional errors, chest wall thickness (CWT) and detector background variation are evaluated. First, calibration factors (CFs) of Phoswich and an array of three HPGe detectors are estimated by incorporating ICRP male thorax voxel phantom and detectors in Monte Carlo code 'FLUKA'. CFs are estimated for the uniform source distribution in lungs of the phantom for various photon energies. The variation in the CFs for positional errors of ±0.5, 1 and 1.5 cm in horizontal and vertical direction along the chest are studied. The positional errors are also evaluated by resizing the voxel phantom. Combined uncertainties are estimated at different energies using the uncertainties due to CWT, detector positioning, detector background variation of an uncontaminated adult person and counting statistics in the form of scattering factors (SFs). SFs are found to decrease with increase in energy. With HPGe array, highest SF of 1.84 is found at 18 keV. It reduces to 1.36 at 238 keV. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Comparison of scatter doses from a multislice and a single slice CT scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burrage, J. W.; Causer, D. A.

    2006-01-01

    During shielding calculations for a new multislice CT (MSCT) scanner it was found that the manufacturer's data indicated significantly higher external scatter doses than would be generated for a single slice CT (SSCT). Even allowing for increased beam width, the manufacturer's data indicated that the scatter dose per scan was higher by a factor of about 3 to 4. The magnitude of the discrepancy was contrary to expectations and also contrary to a statement by the UK ImPACT group, which indicated that when beam width is taken into account, the scatter doses should be similar. The matter was investigated by comparing scatter doses from an SSCT and an MSCT. Scatter measurements were performed at three points using a standard perspex CTDI phantom, and CT dose indices were also measured to compare scanner output. MSCT measurements were performed with a 40 mm wide beam, SSCT measurements with a 10 mm wide beam. A film badge survey was also performed after the installation of the MSCT scanner to assess the adequacy of lead shielding in the room. It was found that the scatter doses from the MSCT were lower than indicated by the manufacturer's data. MSCT scatter doses were approximately 4 times higher than those from the SSCT, consistent with expectations due to beam width differences. The CT dose indices were similar, and the film badge survey indicated that the existing shielding, which had been adequate for the SSCT, was also adequate for the MSCT

  4. The difference in backscatter factors of diagnostic X-rays by the difference in the scattering medium and in the objective dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Hideki; Sakai, Keita; Uchiyama, Mizuki; Suzuki, Kentaro

    2016-01-01

    The diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) of the general X-ray radiography are defined by the absorbed dose of air at the entrance surface with backscattered radiation from a scattering medium. Generally, the entrance surface dose of the general X-ray radiography is calculated from measured air kerma of primary X-ray multiplied by a backscatter factor (BSF). However, the BSF data employed at present used water for scattering medium, and was calculated based on the water-absorbed dose by incident primary photons and backscattered photons from the scattering medium. In the calculation of air dose at the entrance surface defined in DRLs, there are no theoretical consistencies for using BSF based on water dose, and this may be a cause of calculation error. In this paper, we verified the difference in BSF by the difference in the scattering medium and by the difference in the objective dose by means of the Monte Carlo simulation. In this calculation, the scattering medium was set as water and the soft-tissue, and the objective dose was set as air dose, water dose, soft-tissue dose, and skin dose. The difference in BSF calculated by the respective combination was at most about 1.3% and was less than 1% in most cases. In conclusion, even if the entrance surface dose defined by DRLs of general X-ray radiography is calculated using BSF, which set both the scattering medium and the object substance of the absorbed dose as water, a so big error doesn't show. (author)

  5. Polarized X-ray excitation for scatter reduction in X-ray fluorescence computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernekohl, Don; Tzoumas, Stratis; Zhao, Wei; Xing, Lei

    2018-05-25

    X-ray fluorescence computer tomography (XFCT) is a new molecular imaging modality which uses X-ray excitation to stimulate the emission of fluorescent photons in high atomic number contrast agents. Scatter contamination is one of the main challenges in XFCT imaging which limits the molecular sensitivity. When polarized X-rays are used, it is possible to reduce the scatter contamination significantly by placing detectors perpendicular to the polarization direction. This study quantifies scatter contamination for polarized and unpolarized X-ray excitation and determines the advantages of scatter reduction. The amount of scatter in preclinical XFCT is quantified in Monte Carlo simulations. The fluorescent X-rays are emitted isotropically, while scattered X-rays propagate in polarization direction. The magnitude of scatter contamination is studied in XFCT simulations of a mouse phantom. In this study, the contrast agent gold is examined as an example but a scatter reduction from polarized excitation is also expected for other elements. The scatter reduction capability is examined for different polarization intensities with a monoenergetic X-ray excitation energy of 82 keV. The study evaluates two different geometrical shapes of CZT detectors which are modeled with an energy resolution of 1 keV FWHM at an X-ray energy of 80 keV. Benefits of a detector placement perpendicular to the polarization direction are shown in iterative and analytic image reconstruction including scatter correction. The contrast to noise ratio (CNR) and the normalized mean square error (NMSE) are analyzed and compared for the reconstructed images. A substantial scatter reduction for common detector sizes was achieved for 100% and 80% linear polarization while lower polarization intensities provide a decreased scatter reduction. By placing the detector perpendicular to the polarization direction, a scatter reduction by factor up to 5.5 can be achieved for common detector sizes. The image

  6. The von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor gene inhibits hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor-induced invasion and branching morphogenesis in renal carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koochekpour, S; Jeffers, M; Wang, P H; Gong, C; Taylor, G A; Roessler, L M; Stearman, R; Vasselli, J R; Stetler-Stevenson, W G; Kaelin, W G; Linehan, W M; Klausner, R D; Gnarra, J R; Vande Woude, G F

    1999-09-01

    Loss of function in the von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) tumor suppressor gene occurs in familial and most sporadic renal cell carcinomas (RCCs). VHL has been linked to the regulation of cell cycle cessation (G(0)) and to control of expression of various mRNAs such as for vascular endothelial growth factor. RCC cells express the Met receptor tyrosine kinase, and Met mediates invasion and branching morphogenesis in many cell types in response to hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor (HGF/SF). We examined the HGF/SF responsiveness of RCC cells containing endogenous mutated (mut) forms of the VHL protein (VHL-negative RCC) with that of isogenic cells expressing exogenous wild-type (wt) VHL (VHL-positive RCC). We found that VHL-negative 786-0 and UOK-101 RCC cells were highly invasive through growth factor-reduced (GFR) Matrigel-coated filters and exhibited an extensive branching morphogenesis phenotype in response to HGF/SF in the three-dimensional (3D) GFR Matrigel cultures. In contrast, the phenotypes of A498 VHL-negative RCC cells were weaker, and isogenic RCC cells ectopically expressing wt VHL did not respond at all. We found that all VHL-negative RCC cells expressed reduced levels of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 2 (TIMP-2) relative to the wt VHL-positive cells, implicating VHL in the regulation of this molecule. However, consistent with the more invasive phenotype of the 786-0 and UOK-101 VHL-negative RCC cells, the levels of TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 were reduced and levels of the matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9 were elevated compared to the noninvasive VHL-positive RCC cells. Moreover, recombinant TIMPs completely blocked HGF/SF-mediated branching morphogenesis, while neutralizing antibodies to the TIMPs stimulated HGF/SF-mediated invasion in vitro. Thus, the loss of the VHL tumor suppressor gene is central to changes that control tissue invasiveness, and a more invasive phenotype requires additional genetic changes seen in some but not all RCC lines. These

  7. Conversion of ICRP male reference phantom to polygon-surface phantom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeom, Yeon Soo; Han, Min Cheol; Kim, Chan Hyeong; Jeong, Jong Hwi

    2013-10-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) reference phantoms, developed based on computed tomography images of human bodies, provide much more realism of human anatomy than the previously used MIRD5 (Medical Internal Radiation Dose) mathematical phantoms. It has been, however, realized that the ICRP reference phantoms have some critical limitations showing a considerable amount of holes for the skin and wall organs mainly due to the nature of voxels of which the phantoms are made, especially due to their low voxel resolutions. To address this problem, we are planning to develop the polygon-surface version of ICRP reference phantoms by directly converting the ICRP reference phantoms (voxel phantoms) to polygon-surface phantoms. The objective of this preliminary study is to see if it is indeed possible to construct the high-quality polygon-surface phantoms based on the ICRP reference phantoms maintaining identical organ morphology and also to identify any potential issues, and technologies to address these issues, in advance. For this purpose, in the present study, the ICRP reference male phantom was roughly converted to a polygon-surface phantom. Then, the constructed phantom was implemented in Geant4, Monte Carlo particle transport code, for dose calculations, and the calculated dose values were compared with those of the original ICRP reference phantom to see how much the calculated dose values are sensitive to the accuracy of the conversion process. The results of the present study show that it is certainly possible to convert the ICRP reference phantoms to surface phantoms with enough accuracy. In spite of using relatively less resources (original ICRP reference phantoms, it is believed that the polygon-surface version of ICRP reference phantoms properly developed will not only provide the same or similar dose values (say, difference <5 or 10%) for highly penetrating radiations, but also provide correct dose values for the weakly penetrating

  8. Porous phantoms for PET and SPECT performance evaluation and quality assurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DiFilippo, Frank P.; Price, James P.; Kelsch, Daniel N.; Muzic, Raymond F. Jr.

    2004-01-01

    providing thorough tests of lesion detection and of attenuation and scatter correction accuracy. Because the local activity concentration is set by the relative volume of radionuclide solution in the porous core, the quantitative accuracy is limited mainly by mechanical tolerance, and strict quality control during manufacturing is essential. Nonetheless, the single-chamber design of the porous core phantoms is inherently more reproducible and more practical for routine use compared to conventional multi-chamber phantoms

  9. Design of a head phantom produced on a 3D rapid prototyping printer and comparison with a RANDO and 3M lucite head phantom in eye dosimetry applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homolka, Peter; Figl, Michael; Wartak, Andreas; Glanzer, Mathias; Dünkelmeyer, Martina; Hojreh, Azadeh; Hummel, Johann

    2017-04-21

    An anthropomorphic head phantom including eye inserts allowing placement of TLDs 3 mm below the cornea has been produced on a 3D printer using a photo-cured acrylic resin to best allow tissue equivalence. Thus H p (3) can be determined in radiological and interventional photon radiation fields. Eye doses and doses to the forehead have been compared to an Alderson RANDO head and a 3M Lucite skull phantom in terms of surface dose per incident air kerma for frontal irradiation since the commercial phantoms do not allow placement of TLDs 3 mm below the corneal surface. A comparison of dose reduction factors (DRFs) of a common lead glasses model has also been performed. Eye dose per incident air kerma were comparable between all three phantoms (printed phantom: 1.40, standard error (SE) 0.04; RANDO: 1.36, SE 0.03; 3M: 1.37, SE 0.03). Doses to the forehead were identical to eye surface doses for the printed phantom and the RANDO head (ratio 1.00 SE 0.04, and 0.99 SE 0.03, respectively). In the 3M Lucite skull phantom dose on the forehead was 15% lower than dose to the eyes attributable to phantom properties. DRF of a sport frame style leaded glasses model with 0.75 mm lead equivalence measured were 6.8 SE 0.5, 9.3 SE 0.4 and 10.5 SE 0.5 for the RANDO head, the printed phantom, and the 3M Lucite head phantom, respectively, for frontal irradiation. A comparison of doses measured in 3 mm depth and on the surface of the eyes in the printed phantom revealed no difference larger than standard errors from TLD dosimetry. 3D printing offers an interesting opportunity for phantom design with increasing potential as printers allowing combinations of tissue substitutes will become available. Variations between phantoms may provide a useful indication of uncertainty budgets when using phantom measurements to estimate individual personnel doses.

  10. Effect of phantom voxelization in CT simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goertzen, Andrew L.; Beekman, Freek J.; Cherry, Simon R.

    2002-01-01

    In computer simulations of x-ray CT systems one can either use continuous geometrical descriptions for phantoms or a voxelized representation. The voxelized approach allows arbitrary phantoms to be defined without being confined to geometrical shapes. The disadvantage of the voxelized approach is that inherent errors are introduced due to the phantom voxelization. To study effects of phantom discretization, analytical CT simulations were run for a fan-beam geometry with phantom voxel sizes ranging from 0.0625 to 2 times the reconstructed pixel size and noise levels corresponding to 10 3 -10 7 photons per detector pixel prior to attenuation. The number of rays traced per detector element was varied from 1 to 16. Differences in the filtered backprojection images caused by changing the phantom matrix sizes and number of rays traced were assessed by calculating the difference between reconstructions based on the finest matrix and coarser matrix simulations. In noise free simulations, all phantom matrix sizes produced a measurable difference in comparison with the finest phantom matrix used. When even a small amount of noise was added to the projection data, the differences due to the phantom discretization were masked by the noise, and in all cases there was almost no improvement by using a phantom matrix that was more than twice as fine as the reconstruction matrix. No substantial improvement was achieved by tracing more than 4 rays per detector pixel

  11. Calculation of neutron fluence-to-dose conversion factors for extremities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, R.D.; Harty, R.; McDonald, J.C.; Tanner, J.E.

    1993-04-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory is developing a standard for the performance testing of personnel extremity dosimeters for the US Department of Energy. Part of this effort requires the calculation of neutron fluence-to-dose conversion factors for finger and wrist extremities. This study focuses on conversion factors for two types of extremity models: namely the polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) phantom (as specified in the draft standard for performance testing of extremity dosimeters) and more realistic extremity models composed of tissue-and-bone. Calculations for each type of model are based on both bare and D 2 O-moderated 252 Cf sources. The results are then tabulated and compared with whole-body conversion factors. More appropriate energy-averaged quality factors for the extremity models have also been computed from the neutron fluence in 50 equally spaced energy bins with energies from 2.53 x 10 -8 to 15 MeV. Tabulated results show that conversion factors for both types of extremity phantom are 15 to 30% lower than the corresponcung whole-body phantom conversion factors for 252 Cf neutron sources. This difference in extremity and whole-body conversion factors is attributable to the proportionally smaller amount of back-scattering that occurs in the extremity phantoms compared with whole-body phantoms

  12. Sulfates as chromophores for multiwavelength photoacoustic imaging phantoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Martina; An, Lu; Beard, Paul; Cox, Ben

    2017-12-01

    As multiwavelength photoacoustic imaging becomes increasingly widely used to obtain quantitative estimates, the need for validation studies conducted on well-characterized experimental phantoms becomes ever more pressing. One challenge that such studies face is the design of stable, well-characterized phantoms and absorbers with properties in a physiologically realistic range. This paper performs a full experimental characterization of aqueous solutions of copper and nickel sulfate, whose properties make them close to ideal as chromophores in multiwavelength photoacoustic imaging phantoms. Their absorption varies linearly with concentration, and they mix linearly. The concentrations needed to yield absorption values within the physiological range are below the saturation limit. The shape of their absorption spectra makes them useful analogs for oxy- and deoxyhemoglobin. They display long-term photostability (no indication of bleaching) as well as resistance to transient effects (no saturable absorption phenomena), and are therefore suitable for exposure to typical pulsed photoacoustic light sources, even when exposed to the high number of pulses required in scanning photoacoustic imaging systems. In addition, solutions with tissue-realistic, predictable, and stable scattering can be prepared by mixing sulfates and Intralipid, as long as an appropriate emulsifier is used. Finally, the Grüneisen parameter of the sulfates was found to be larger than that of water and increased linearly with concentration.

  13. A new version of DWPI (inelastic pion-nucleus scattering) to incorporate microscopic form factors and differing proton and neutron radii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funsten, H.O.

    1979-01-01

    This is a modification of the Eisenstein-Miller program for calculation of collective inelastic pion-nucleus differential cross sections using free π-N scattering amplitudes. This revision permits the additional use of microscopic (shell model) proton and neutron form factors. It also incorporates separate proton and neutron radii for the nuclear density rho(r) generating the distorted wave optical potential. (Auth.)

  14. A summary of the low angle x-ray atomic scattering factors which have been measured by the critical voltage effect in High Energy Electron Diffraction (HEED)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, A.G.; Fisher, R.M.

    1987-08-01

    A tabulated summary of all the accurate (/approximately/0.1%) low-angle x-ray atomic scattering (form) factors which have been determined by the systematic critical voltage technique in HEED is presented. For low atomic number elements (Z/approx lt/40) the low angle form factors can be significantly different to best free atom values, and so the best band structure calculated and/or x-ray measured form factors consistent with the critical voltage measurements are also indicated. At intermediate atomic numbers Z≅40→50 only the very low-angle form factors appear to be different to the best free atom values, and even then only by a small amount. For heavy elements (Z/approx lt/70) the best free atom form factors appear to agree very closely with the critical voltage measured values and so, in this case, critical voltage measurements give very accurate measurements of Debye-Waller factors. 48 refs

  15. Phantom Limb Pain in Pediatric Oncology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick DeMoss

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Phantom limb pain (PLP is a prevalent problem for children and adolescents undergoing amputation due to cancer treatment. The symptoms are wide ranging from sharp to tingling. PLP in children typically lasts for a few minutes but can be almost constant and can be highly distressing. This focused review describes the characteristics, epidemiology, mechanisms, and evidence-based treatment of PLP in pediatric populations, focusing on pediatric cancer. In pediatric oncology, the administration of chemotherapy is a risk factor that potentially sensitizes the nervous system and predisposes pediatric cancer patients to develop PLP after amputation. Gabapentin, tricyclic antidepressants, opiates, nerve blocks, and epidural catheters have shown mixed success in adults and case reports document potential utility in pediatric patients. Non-pharmacologic treatments, such as mirror therapy, psychotherapy, and acupuncture have also been used in pediatric PLP with success. Prospective controlled trials are necessary to advance care for pediatric patients with PLP.

  16. Temporal analysis of reflected optical signals for short pulse laser interaction with nonhomogeneous tissue phantoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trivedi, Ashish; Basu, Soumyadipta; Mitra, Kunal

    2005-01-01

    The use of short pulse laser for minimally invasive detection scheme has become an indispensable tool in the technological arsenal of modern medicine and biomedical engineering. In this work, a time-resolved technique has been used to detect tumors/inhomogeneities in tissues by measuring transmitted and reflected scattered temporal optical signals when a short pulse laser source is incident on tissue phantoms. A parametric study involving different scattering and absorption coefficients of tissue phantoms and inhomogeneities, size of inhomogeneity as well as the detector position is performed. The experimental measurements are validated with a numerical solution of the transient radiative transport equation obtained by using discrete ordinates method. Thus, both simultaneous experimental and numerical studies are critical for predicting the optical properties of tissues and inhomogeneities from temporal scattered optical signal measurements

  17. Do you believe in phantoms?

    CERN Multimedia

    Rosaria Marraffino

    2015-01-01

    “Phantoms” are tools that simulate a therapy’s response by mimicking the conditions of the human body. They are required in hadron therapy in order to optimise and verify the therapy before performing it on the patient. The better the phantom, the more accurate the treatment plan and the more effective the therapy. In the framework of the EU-funded project ENTERVISION*, a team of CERN researchers has designed an innovative piece of equipment able to evaluate radiobiology-related parameters in a very accurate way.   The ENTERVISION phantom being tested at HIT. A key challenge in hadron therapy – i.e. the medical use of hadrons to treat cancer – is to evaluate the biological effect of the delivered radiation. This can be achieved by using accurate dosimetry techniques to study the biological response in terms of the dose deposited and other physical parameters of the beam, such as the Linear Energy Transfer (LET). The job of the “phan...

  18. Transorbital therapy delivery: phantom testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, Martha-Conley; Atuegwu, Nkiruka; Mawn, Louise; Galloway, Robert L.

    2011-03-01

    We have developed a combined image-guided and minimally invasive system for the delivery of therapy to the back of the eye. It is composed of a short 4.5 mm diameter endoscope with a magnetic tracker embedded in the tip. In previous work we have defined an optimized fiducial placement for accurate guidance to the back of the eye and are now moving to system testing. The fundamental difficulty in testing performance is establishing a target in a manner which closely mimics the physiological task. We have to have a penetrable material which obscures line of sight, similar to the orbital fat. In addition we need to have some independent measure of knowing when a target has been reached to compare to the ideal performance. Lastly, the target cannot be rigidly attached to the skull phantom since the optic nerve lies buried in the orbital fat. We have developed a skull phantom with white cloth stellate balls supporting a correctly sized globe. Placed in the white balls are red, blue, orange and yellow balls. One of the colored balls has been soaked in barium to make it bright on CT. The user guides the tracked endoscope to the target as defined by the images and tells us its color. We record task accuracy and time to target. We have tested this with 28 residents, fellows and attending physicians. Each physician performs the task twice guided and twice unguided. Results will be presented.

  19. A Topographically and anatomically unified phantom model for organ dose determination in radiation hygiene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Servomaa, A.; Rannikko, S.; Ermakov, I.; Masarskyi, L.; Saltukova, L.

    1989-08-01

    The effective dose equivalent is used as a risk-related factor for assessing radiation impact on patients. In order to assess the effective dose equivalent, data on organ doses in several organs are needed. For calculation of the collective effective dose equivalent, data on the sex and size distribution of the exposed population are also needed. A realistic phantom model based on the Alderson-Rando anatomical phantom has been developed for these purposes. The phantom model includes 22 organs and takes into account the deflections due to sex, height, weight and other anatomical features. Coordinates of the outer contours of inner organs are given in different slabs of the phantom. The images of cross sections of different slabs realistically depict the distribution of the organs in the phantom. Statistics about height and weight distribution as a function of the age of the Finnish population are also given. (orig.)

  20. Efficient scatter distribution estimation and correction in CBCT using concurrent Monte Carlo fitting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bootsma, G. J., E-mail: Gregory.Bootsma@rmp.uhn.on.ca [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2M9 (Canada); Verhaegen, F. [Department of Radiation Oncology - MAASTRO, GROW—School for Oncology and Developmental Biology, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht 6201 BN (Netherlands); Medical Physics Unit, Department of Oncology, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec H3G 1A4 (Canada); Jaffray, D. A. [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2M9 (Canada); Ontario Cancer Institute, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2M9 (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2M9 (Canada)

    2015-01-15

    suitable GOF metric with strong correlation with the actual error of the scatter fit, S{sub F}. Fitting the scatter distribution to a limited sum of sine and cosine functions using a low-pass filtered fast Fourier transform provided a computationally efficient and accurate fit. The CMCF algorithm reduces the number of photon histories required by over four orders of magnitude. The simulated experiments showed that using a compensator reduced the computational time by a factor between 1.5 and 1.75. The scatter estimates for the simulated and measured data were computed between 35–93 s and 114–122 s, respectively, using 16 Intel Xeon cores (3.0 GHz). The CMCF scatter correction improved the contrast-to-noise ratio by 10%–50% and reduced the reconstruction error to under 3% for the simulated phantoms. Conclusions: The novel CMCF algorithm significantly reduces the computation time required to estimate the scatter distribution by reducing the statistical noise in the MC scatter estimate and limiting the number of projection angles that must be simulated. Using the scatter estimate provided by the CMCF algorithm to correct both simulated and real projection data showed improved reconstruction image quality.

  1. Investigating the effect and photon scattering correction in isotopic scanning with gamma and SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Movafeghi, Amir

    1997-01-01

    Nowdays medical imaging systems has been become a very important tool in medicine, both in diagnosis and treatment. With the fast improvement in the computer sciences in the last three decades, three dimensional imaging systems or topographic systems has been developed for the daily applications. Among the different methods, for now X-ray Computerized tomography scanning, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Single Photon Emission Computerized Tomography and Positron Emission tomography have been found many clinical application. SPECT and PET imaging systems are working with the use of emitting photons from special radioisotopes. In these two systems, image is reconstructed from a distribution of radioisotope in the human body's organs. In SPECT accuracy of data quantification for image reconstruction has influenced from photon attenuation, photon scattering, statistical noises and variation in detector response due to distance. Except scattering other three factors could be modeled and compensated with relatively simple models. Photon scattering is a complex process and usually semiemperical methods is used for its modeling. The effect of scattering photons on images was considered. This survey was done in both lab and clinical cases. Radioisotopes were 192 Ir and 99m Tc. 192 Ir is a solid source with the half-life of 73 days and is used at industrial radiography application. At the beginning, models and methods, were established by the help of 192 Ir. Then at the final stage, they were developed to use for 99m Tc. There are different methods for the error correction of scattered photons. A method from the 'window subtraction' group has been developed for lab cases. Generally, in this method with the use of adjacent window of the photopeak window, scattered photons are subtracted from the original count. A Monte Carlo simulation is used for better evaluation of results. In the clinical section , a dual head SPECT system was (ADAC system of Shariati hospital at Tehran). The

  2. Characterisation of an anthropomorphic chest phantom for dose measurements in radiology beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriques, L. M. S.; Cerqueira, R. A. D.; Santos, W. S.; Pereira, A. J. S.; Rodrigues, T. M. A.; Carvalho Júnior, A. B.; Maia, A. F.

    2014-02-01

    The objective of this study was to characterise an anthropomorphic chest phantom for dosimetric measurements of conventional radiology beams. This phantom was developed by a previous research project at the Federal University of Sergipe for image quality control tests. As the phantom consists of tissue-equivalent material, it is possible to characterise it for dosimetric studies. For comparison, a geometric chest phantom, consisting of PMMA (polymethylmethacrylate) with dimensions of 30×30×15 cm³ was used. Measurements of incident air kerma (Ki) and entrance surface dose (ESD) were performed using ionisation chambers. From the results, backscatter factors (BSFs) of the two phantoms were determined and compared with values estimated by CALDose_X software, based on a Monte Carlo simulation. For the technical parameters evaluated in this study, the ESD and BSF values obtained experimentally showed a good similarity between the two phantoms, with minimum and maximum difference of 0.2% and 7.0%, respectively, and showed good agreement with the results published in the literature. Organ doses and effective doses for the anthropomorphic phantom were also estimated by the determination of conversion coefficients (CCs) using the visual Monte Carlo (VMC) code. Therefore, the results of this study prove that the anthropomorphic thorax phantom proposed is a good tool to use in dosimetry and can be used for risk evaluation of X-ray diagnostic procedures.

  3. Whole-Body Single-Bed Time-of-Flight RPC-PET: Simulation of Axial and Planar Sensitivities With NEMA and Anthropomorphic Phantoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo, Paulo; Reis, João; Couceiro, Miguel; Blanco, Alberto; Ferreira, Nuno C.; Marques, Rui Ferreira; Martins, Paulo; Fonte, Paulo

    2012-06-01

    A single-bed, whole-body positron emission tomograph based on resistive plate chambers has been proposed (RPC-PET). An RPC-PET system with an axial field-of-view (AFOV) of 2.4 m has been shown in simulation to have higher system sensitivity using the NEMA NU2-1994 protocol than commercial PET scanners. However, that protocol does not correlate directly with lesion detectability. The latter is better correlated with the planar (slice) sensitivity, obtained with a NEMA NU2-2001 line-source phantom. After validation with published data for the GE Advance, Siemens TruePoint and TrueV, we study by simulation their axial sensitivity profiles, comparing results with RPC-PET. Planar sensitivities indicate that RPC-PET is expected to outperform 16-cm (22-cm) AFOV scanners by a factor 5.8 (3.0) for 70-cm-long scans. For 1.5-m scans (head to mid-legs), the sensitivity gain increases to 11.7 (6.7). Yet, PET systems with large AFOV provide larger coverage but also larger attenuation in the object. We studied these competing effects with both spherical- and line-sources immersed in a 27-cm-diameter water cylinder. For 1.5-m-long scans, the planar sensitivity drops one order of magnitude in all scanners, with RPC-PET outperforming 16-cm (22-cm) AFOV scanners by a factor 9.2 (5.3) without considering the TOF benefit. A gain in the effective sensitivity is expected with TOF iterative reconstruction. Finally, object scatter in an anthropomorphic phantom is similar for RPC-PET and modern, scintillator-based scanners, although RPC-PET benefits further if its TOF information is utilized to exclude scatter events occurring outside the anthropomorphic phantom.

  4. Improvement of gamma-ray Sn transport calculations including coherent and incoherent scatterings and secondary sources of bremsstrahlung and fluorescence: Determination of gamma-ray buildup factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitsos, S.; Diop, C.M.; Assad, A.; Nimal, J.C.; Ridoux, P.

    1996-01-01

    Improvements of gamma-ray transport calculations in S n codes aim at taking into account the bound-electron effect of Compton scattering (incoherent), coherent scattering (Rayleigh), and secondary sources of bremsstrahlung and fluorescence. A computation scheme was developed to take into account these phenomena by modifying the angular and energy transfer matrices, and no modification in the transport code has been made. The incoherent and coherent scatterings as well as the fluorescence sources can be strictly treated by the transfer matrix change. For bremsstrahlung sources, this is possible if one can neglect the charged particles path as they pass through the matter (electrons and positrons) and is applicable for the energy range of interest for us (below 10 MeV). These improvements have been reported on the kernel attenuation codes by the calculation of new buildup factors. The gamma-ray buildup factors have been carried out for 25 natural elements up to 30 mean free paths in the energy range between 15 keV and 10 MeV

  5. Multilayered phantoms with tunable optical properties for a better understanding of light/tissue interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roig, Blandine; Koenig, Anne; Perraut, François; Piot, Olivier; Vignoud, Séverine; Lavaud, Jonathan; Manfait, Michel; Dinten, Jean-Marc

    2015-03-01

    Light/tissue interactions, like diffuse reflectance, endogenous fluorescence and Raman scattering, are a powerful means for providing skin diagnosis. Instrument calibration is an important step. We thus developed multilayered phantoms for calibration of optical systems. These phantoms mimic the optical properties of biological tissues such as skin. Our final objective is to better understand light/tissue interactions especially in the case of confocal Raman spectroscopy. The phantom preparation procedure is described, including the employed method to obtain a stratified object. PDMS was chosen as the bulk material. TiO2 was used as light scattering agent. Dye and ink were adopted to mimic, respectively, oxy-hemoglobin and melanin absorption spectra. By varying the amount of the incorporated components, we created a material with tunable optical properties. Monolayer and multilayered phantoms were designed to allow several characterization methods. Among them, we can name: X-ray tomography for structural information; Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy (DRS) with a homemade fibered bundle system for optical characterization; and Raman depth profiling with a commercial confocal Raman microscope for structural information and for our final objective. For each technique, the obtained results are presented and correlated when possible. A few words are said on our final objective. Raman depth profiles of the multilayered phantoms are distorted by elastic scattering. The signal attenuation through each single layer is directly dependent on its own scattering property. Therefore, determining the optical properties, obtained here with DRS, is crucial to properly correct Raman depth profiles. Thus, it would be permitted to consider quantitative studies on skin for drug permeation follow-up or hydration assessment, for instance.

  6. Determination of the unilamellar dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine vesicle structure from the small-angle scattering data in the framework of a model of separated form-factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zemlyanaya, E.V.; Kiselev, M.A.

    2002-01-01

    On the basis of the model of separated form-factors, a code for fitting of small-angle neutron scattering spectra of the polydispersed vesicle population has been developed with corrections to the resolution function of the YuMO spectrometer. Vesicle and membrane bilayer parameters have been analyzed for various hierarchical models of the neutron scattering length density across the membrane. It was shown that hydration of vesicle can be described by the linear distribution function of water molecules. For the first time from the small-angle experiment, without additional methods, the average radius and polydispersity of the vesicle population, thickness of the membrane bilayer, thickness of hydrophobic and hydrophilic parts of bilayer, water distribution function and number of water molecules in the hydrophilic part have been calculated. (author)

  7. Calibration of clinical dosemeters in the IAEA water phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldas, L.V.E.; Albuquerque, M.P.P.

    1994-01-01

    The procedures recommended by the IAEA Code of Practice were applied at the Calibration Laboratory of Sao Paulo in order to provide in the future the clinical dosemeters users with absorbed dose to water calibration factors for Cobalt 60 radiation beams. In this work the clinical dosemeters were calibrated free in air and in water, and the results were compared, using conversion factors. The several tested clinical dosemeters of different manufacturers and models belong to the laboratory and to hospitals. For the measurements in water the IAEA cubic water phantom was used. The dosemeters were all calibrated free in air in terms of air kerma, and the calibration factors in terms of absorbed dose to water were obtained through conversion factors. the same dosemeters were also calibrated into the water phantom. Good agreement was found between the two methods, the differences were always less than 0.5%. The data obtained during this work show that when the dosemeters are used only in Cobalt 60 radiation and the users apply in the hospital routine work the IAEA Code of Practice, the calibration can be performed directly in the water phantom. This procedure provides the useful calibration factors in terms of absorbed dose to water

  8. Whole-body voxel phantoms of paediatric patients—UF Series B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Choonik; Lee, Choonsik; Williams, Jonathan L.; Bolch, Wesley E.

    2006-09-01

    Following the previous development of the head and torso voxel phantoms of paediatric patients for use in medical radiation protection (UF Series A), a set of whole-body voxel phantoms of paediatric patients (9-month male, 4-year female, 8-year female, 11-year male and 14-year male) has been developed through the attachment of arms and legs from segmented CT images of a healthy Korean adult (UF Series B). Even though partial-body phantoms (head-torso) may be used in a variety of medical dose reconstruction studies where the extremities are out-of-field or receive only very low levels of scatter radiation, whole-body phantoms play important roles in general radiation protection and in nuclear medicine dosimetry. Inclusion of the arms and legs is critical for dosimetry studies of paediatric patients due to the presence of active bone marrow within the extremities of children. While the UF Series A phantoms preserved the body dimensions and organ masses as seen in the original patients who were scanned, comprehensive adjustments were made for the Series B phantoms to better match International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) age-interpolated reference body masses, body heights, sitting heights and internal organ masses. The CT images of arms and legs of a Korean adult were digitally rescaled and attached to each phantom of the UF series. After completion, the resolutions of the phantoms for the 9-month, 4-year, 8-year, 11-year and 14-year were set at 0.86 mm × 0.86 mm × 3.0 mm, 0.90 mm × 0.90 mm × 5.0 mm, 1.16 mm × 1.16 mm × 6.0 mm, 0.94 mm × 0.94 mm × 6.00 mm and 1.18 mm × 1.18 mm × 6.72 mm, respectively.

  9. Analytical expression for the phantom generated bremsstrahlung background in high energy electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorcini, B.B.; Hyoedynmaa, S; Brahme, A.

    1995-01-01

    Qualification of the bremsstrahlung photon background generated by an electron beam in a phantom is important for accurate high energy electron beam dosimetry in radiation therapy. An analytical expression has been derived for the background of phantom generated bremsstrahlung photons in plane parallel electron beams normally incident on phantoms of any atomic number between 4 and 92 (Be, C, H 2 O, Al, Cu, Ag, Pb and U). The expression can be used with fairly good accuracy in the energy range between 1 and 50 MeV. The expression is globally based on known scattering power and radiation and collision stopping power data for the phantom material at the mean energy of the incident electrons. The depth dose distribution due to the bremsstrahlung generated in the phantom is derived by folding the bremsstrahlung energy fluence with a simple analytical one-dimensional photon energy deposition kernel. The energy loss of the primary electrons and the generation, attenuation and absorption of bremsstrahlung photons are taken into account in the analytical formula. The photon energy deposition kernel is used to account for the bremsstrahlung produced at one depth that will contribute to the down stream dose. A simple analytical expression for photon energy deposition kernel is consistent with the classical analytical relation describing the photon depth dose distribution. From the surface to the practical range the photon dose increases almost linearly due to accumulation and buildup of the photon produced at different phantom layers. At depths beyond the practical range a simple exponential function can be use to describe the bremsstrahlung attenuation in the phantom. For comparison Monte Carlo calculated distributions using ITS3 Monte Carlo Code were used. Good agreement is found between the analytical expression and Monte Carlo calculation. Deviations of 5% from Monte Carlo calculated bremmstrahlung background are observed for high atomic number materials. The method can

  10. Real-time scatter measurement and correction in film radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, C.G.

    1987-01-01

    A technique for real-time scatter measurement and correction in scanning film radiography is described. With this technique, collimated x-ray fan beams are used to partially reject scattered radiation. Photodiodes are attached to the aft-collimator for sampled scatter measurement. Such measurement allows the scatter distribution to be reconstructed and subtracted from digitized film image data for accurate transmission measurement. In this presentation the authors discuss the physical and technical considerations of this scatter correction technique. Examples are shown that demonstrate the feasibility of the technique. Improved x-ray transmission measurement and dual-energy subtraction imaging are demonstrated with phantoms

  11. The Japanese adult, child and infant phantoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cristy, Mark; Egbert, Stephen D.

    1987-01-01

    The mathematical phantom for adult Japanese atomic-bomb survivors is a modification of the 57-kg ORNL (Oak Ridge National Laboratory) phantom for Western 15-year-old males and adult females. For younger Japanese survivors mathematical phantoms were similarly modified from the 18 and 9 kg ORNL phantoms for Western 5- and 1-year-olds, respectively. To make the phantom correspond more closely with dimensions and organ sizes recommended for Japanese adults by Maruyama and coworkers (cf E184), changes were made in the size of the lungs, the pancreas, the thyroid, and the testes and in the length of the legs. Also, the head-and-neck region was modified to improve the dose estimates for the thyroid from external radiation, after the ideas of Nagarajan et al. The arms were separated from the trunk to represent more accurately the shielding by the phantom in external exposures. Furthermore, provisions were made to provide a phantom in a kneeling posture. The elemental composition of the tissues was changed to that given by Kerr. The resulting phantom is slightly smaller in mass (55 kg). Details of these changes are given

  12. Enceladus' 101 Geysers: Phantoms? Hardly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porco, C.; Nimmo, F.; DiNino, D.

    2015-12-01

    The discovery by the Cassini mission of present-day geysering activity capping the southern hemisphere of Saturn's moon Enceladus (eg, Porco, C. C. et al. Science 311, 1393, 2006) and sourced within a subsurface body of liquid water (eg, Postberg, F. et al. Nature 459, 1098, 2009; Porco, C.C. et al. AJ 148, 45, 2014, hereafter PEA], laced with organic compounds (eg, Waite, J.H. et al. Science 311, 1419, 2006), has been a significant one, with far-reaching astrobiological implications. In an extensive Cassini imaging survey of the moon's south polar terrain (SPT), PEA identified 101 distinct, narrow jets of small icy particles erupting, with varying strengths, from the four major fractures crossing the SPT. A sufficient spread in stereo angles of the 107 images used in that work allowed (in some cases, many) pair-wise triangulations to be computed; precise surface locations were derived for 98 jets. Recently, it has been claimed (Spitale, J.N. et al. Nature 521, 57, 2015) that the majority of the geysers are not true discrete jets, but are "phantoms" that appear in shallow-angle views of a dense continuous curtain of material with acute bends in it. These authors also concluded that the majority of the eruptive material is not in the form of jets but in the form of fissure-style 'curtain' eruptions. We argue below the contrary, that because almost all the moon's geysers were identified by PEA using multiple images with favorable viewing geometries, the vast majority of them, and likely all, are discrete jets. Specifically, out of 98 jets, no fewer than 90 to 95 were identified with viewing geometries that preclude the appearance of phantoms. How the erupting solids (i.e., icy particles) that are seen in Cassini images are partitioned between jets and inter-jet curtains is still an open question.

  13. A Measurement of the neutron electric form factor at very large momentum transfer using polaried electrions scattering from a polarized helium-3 target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelleher, Aidan [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States)

    2010-02-01

    Knowledge of the electric and magnetic elastic form factors of the nucleon is essential for an understanding of nucleon structure. Of the form factors, the electric form factor of the neutron has been measured over the smallest range in Q2 and with the lowest precision. Jefferson Lab experiment 02-013 used a novel new polarized 3 He target to nearly double the range of momentum transfer in which the neutron form factor has been studied and to measure it with much higher precision. Polarized electrons were scattered off this target, and both the scattered electron and neutron were detected. Gn E was measured to be 0.0242 ± 0.0020(stat) ± 0.0061(sys) and 0.0247 ± 0.0029(stat) ± 0.0031(sys) at Q2 = 1.7 and 2.5 GeV2 , respectively.

  14. SU-E-T-59: Calculations of Collimator Scatter Factors (Sc) with and Without Custom-Made Build-Up Caps for CyberKnife

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wokoma, S; Yoon, J; Jung, J [East Carolina University, Greenville, NC (United States); Lee, S [Rhode Island Hospital / Warren Alpert Medical, Providence, RI (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To investigate the impact of custom-made build-up caps for a diode detector in robotic radiosurgery radiation fields with variable collimator (IRIS) for collimator scatter factor (Sc) calculation. Methods: An acrylic cap was custom-made to fit our SFD (IBA Dosimetry, Germany) diode detector. The cap has thickness of 5 cm, corresponding to a depth beyond electron contamination. IAEA phase space data was used for beam modeling and DOSRZnrc code was used to model the detector. The detector was positioned at 80 cm source-to-detector distance. Calculations were performed with the SFD, with and without the build-up cap, for clinical IRIS settings ranging from 7.5 to 60 mm. Results: The collimator scatter factors were calculated with and without 5 cm build-up cap. They were agreed within 3% difference except 15 mm cone. The Sc factor for 15 mm cone without buildup was 13.2% lower than that with buildup. Conclusion: Sc data is a critical component in advanced algorithms for treatment planning in order to calculate the dose accurately. After incorporating build-up cap, we discovered differences of up to 13.2 % in Sc factors in the SFD detector, when compared against in-air measurements without build-up caps.

  15. A phantom for quality control in mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gambaccini, M.; Rimondi, O.; Marziani, M.; Toti, A.

    1989-01-01

    A phantom for evaluating image quality in mammography has been designed and will be used in the Italian national programme ''Dose and Quality in Mammography''. The characteristics of the phantom are (a) about the same X-ray transmission as a 5 cm 50% fat and 50% water breast for energies between 15 and 50 keV and (b) optimum energies for imaging of the test objects (included in the phantom) in very close agreement with the optimum energies for imaging of calcifications and tumours in a 5 cm 50% fat and 50% water breast. An experimental comparison between the prototype and some commercial phantoms was carried out. Measurements are in progress to test the phantom's ability to evaluate the performances of mammographic systems quantitatively. (author)

  16. Are phantoms useful for predicting the potential of dose reduction in full-field digital mammography?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gennaro, Gisella; Katz, Luc; Souchay, Henri; Alberelli, Claudio; Maggio, Cosimo di

    2005-01-01

    A phantom study was performed in full-field digital mammography to investigate the opportunity and the magnitude of a possible dose reduction that would leave the image quality above the accepted thresholds associated with some classical phantoms. This preliminary work is intended to lay the groundwork for a future clinical study on the impact of dose reduction on clinical results. Three different mammography phantoms (ACR RMI 156, CIRS 11A and CDMAM 3.4) were imaged by a full-field digital mammography unit (GE Senographe 2000D) at different dose levels. Images were rated by three observers with softcopy reading and scoring methods specific to each phantom. Different types of data analysis were applied to the ACR (American College of Radiology) and the other two phantoms, respectively. With reference to the minimum acceptance score in screen/film accreditation programmes, the ACR phantom showed that about 45% dose reduction could be applied, while keeping the phantom scores above that threshold. A relative comparison was done for CIRS and CDMAM, for which no threshold is defined. CIRS scoring remained close to the reference level down to 40% dose reduction, the inter- and intra-observer variability being the main source of uncertainty. Contrast-detail curves provided by CDMAM overlapped down to 50% dose reduction, at least for object contrast values ranging between 30% and 3%. This multi-phantom study shows the potential of further reducing the dose in full-field digital mammography beyond the current values. A common dose reduction factor around 50% seems acceptable for all phantoms. However, caution is required before extrapolating the results for clinical use, given the limitations of these widely used phantoms, mainly related to their limited dynamic range and uniform background

  17. Effect of static scatterers in laser speckle contrast imaging: an experimental study on correlation and contrast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz, Pedro G.; Humeau-Heurtier, Anne; Figueiras, Edite; Correia, Carlos; Cardoso, João

    2018-01-01

    Laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI) is a non-invasive microvascular blood flow assessment technique with good temporal and spatial resolution. Most LSCI systems, including commercial devices, can perform only qualitative blood flow evaluation, which is a major limitation of this technique. There are several factors that prevent the utilization of LSCI as a quantitative technique. Among these factors, we can highlight the effect of static scatterers. The goal of this work was to study the influence of differences in static and dynamic scatterer concentration on laser speckle correlation and contrast. In order to achieve this, a laser speckle prototype was developed and tested using an optical phantom with various concentrations of static and dynamic scatterers. It was found that the laser speckle correlation could be used to estimate the relative concentration of static/dynamic scatterers within a sample. Moreover, the speckle correlation proved to be independent of the dynamic scatterer velocity, which is a fundamental characteristic to be used in contrast correction.

  18. Experimental determination of the back scattering factor in X-ray microanalysis; Determination experimentale du facteur de retro-diffusion en microanalyse par emission X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derian, J C [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1966-06-01

    This paper describes the first experimental method which has fixed the relative value of the X-ray loss by electron back scattering. Measurements have been performed, using gold, copper and aluminium specimens and accelerating voltages from 10 to 30 kV. Our experimental results, although higher than back scattering factor values calculated before, agree fairly well with those obtained by a Monte-Carlo calculation, using recent experimental measurement on thin films. The higher values obtained here, show that the compensation between deceleration and back scattering effects is better: the discrepancy from a linearity law is then probably weaker than it has been generally shown previously. (author) [French] Le memoire decrit la premiere methode experimentale ayant permis de determiner l'importance relative de la fraction du rayonnement X perdue par retrodiffusion des electrons. Les mesures ont porte sur l'or, le cuivre et l'aluminium entre 10 et 30 kV. Les resultats, sensiblement superieurs aux estimations anterieures, sont en bon accord avec ceux deduits, par la methode de Monte-Carlo, des recentes mesures sur les lames minces. Les valeurs plus elevees du facteur de retrodiffusion mises ainsi en evidence, conduisent a une meilleure compensation entre les effets de ralentissement et de retrodiffusion: l'ecart a une simple loi de proportionnalite par effet de difference de nombre atomique est ainsi probablement plus faible qu'on ne le pensait generalement jusqu'ici. (auteur)

  19. A software-based x-ray scatter correction method for breast tomosynthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Jia Feng, Steve Si; Sechopoulos, Ioannis

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a software-based scatter correction method for digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) imaging and investigate its impact on the image quality of tomosynthesis reconstructions of both phantoms and patients.

  20. Dynamic tissue phantoms and their use in assessment of a noninvasive optical plethysmography imaging device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thatcher, Jeffrey E.; Plant, Kevin D.; King, Darlene R.; Block, Kenneth L.; Fan, Wensheng; DiMaio, J. Michael

    2014-05-01

    Non-contact photoplethysmography (PPG) has been studied as a method to provide low-cost and non-invasive medical imaging for a variety of near-surface pathologies and two dimensional blood oxygenation measurements. Dynamic tissue phantoms were developed to evaluate this technology in a laboratory setting. The purpose of these phantoms was to generate a tissue model with tunable parameters including: blood vessel volume change; pulse wave frequency; and optical scattering and absorption parameters. A non-contact PPG imaging system was evaluated on this model and compared against laser Doppler imaging (LDI) and a traditional pulse oximeter. Results indicate non-contact PPG accurately identifies pulse frequency and appears to identify signals from optically dense phantoms with significantly higher detection thresholds than LDI.

  1. A statistically defined anthropomorphic software breast phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lau, Beverly A.; Reiser, Ingrid; Nishikawa, Robert M.; Bakic, Predrag R.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Digital anthropomorphic breast phantoms have emerged in the past decade because of recent advances in 3D breast x-ray imaging techniques. Computer phantoms in the literature have incorporated power-law noise to represent glandular tissue and branching structures to represent linear components such as ducts. When power-law noise is added to those phantoms in one piece, the simulated fibroglandular tissue is distributed randomly throughout the breast, resulting in dense tissue placement that may not be observed in a real breast. The authors describe a method for enhancing an existing digital anthropomorphic breast phantom by adding binarized power-law noise to a limited area of the breast. Methods: Phantoms with (0.5 mm) 3 voxel size were generated using software developed by Bakic et al. Between 0% and 40% of adipose compartments in each phantom were replaced with binarized power-law noise (β = 3.0) ranging from 0.1 to 0.6 volumetric glandular fraction. The phantoms were compressed to 7.5 cm thickness, then blurred using a 3 × 3 boxcar kernel and up-sampled to (0.1 mm) 3 voxel size using trilinear interpolation. Following interpolation, the phantoms were adjusted for volumetric glandular fraction using global thresholding. Monoenergetic phantom projections were created, including quantum noise and simulated detector blur. Texture was quantified in the simulated projections using power-spectrum analysis to estimate the power-law exponent β from 25.6 × 25.6 mm 2 regions of interest. Results: Phantoms were generated with total volumetric glandular fraction ranging from 3% to 24%. Values for β (averaged per projection view) were found to be between 2.67 and 3.73. Thus, the range of textures of the simulated breasts covers the textures observed in clinical images. Conclusions: Using these new techniques, digital anthropomorphic breast phantoms can be generated with a variety of glandular fractions and patterns. β values for this new phantom are comparable

  2. X-ray scatter data for diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dick, C.E.; Soares, C.G.; Motz, J.W.

    1978-01-01

    The ratio of the scattered to the total X-ray fluence (scatter fraction) at the centre of the image plane for X-rays transmitted through polystyrene phantoms has been measured for X-ray energies of 32 and 69 keV, X-ray beam diameters from 4 to 40 cm, phantom thicknesses from 5 to 30 cm and phantom-to-image-plane separations from 0.3 to 40 cm. The experimental values for this ratio have less than a 10% variation for these two X-ray energies and the experimental data show good agreement with Monte Carlo calculations and available experimental results for low atomic number materials. Based on these results, simple curves are generated which give estimates (+ - 10%) of the scatter fraction for all combinations of the geometric parameters encountered in diagnostic radiology. (author)

  3. DiSCaMB: a software library for aspherical atom model X-ray scattering factor calculations with CPUs and GPUs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chodkiewicz, Michał L; Migacz, Szymon; Rudnicki, Witold; Makal, Anna; Kalinowski, Jarosław A; Moriarty, Nigel W; Grosse-Kunstleve, Ralf W; Afonine, Pavel V; Adams, Paul D; Dominiak, Paulina Maria

    2018-02-01

    It has been recently established that the accuracy of structural parameters from X-ray refinement of crystal structures can be improved by using a bank of aspherical pseudoatoms instead of the classical spherical model of atomic form factors. This comes, however, at the cost of increased complexity of the underlying calculations. In order to facilitate the adoption of this more advanced electron density model by the broader community of crystallographers, a new software implementation called DiSCaMB , 'densities in structural chemistry and molecular biology', has been developed. It addresses the challenge of providing for high performance on modern computing architectures. With parallelization options for both multi-core processors and graphics processing units (using CUDA), the library features calculation of X-ray scattering factors and their derivatives with respect to structural parameters, gives access to intermediate steps of the scattering factor calculations (thus allowing for experimentation with modifications of the underlying electron density model), and provides tools for basic structural crystallographic operations. Permissively (MIT) licensed, DiSCaMB is an open-source C++ library that can be embedded in both academic and commercial tools for X-ray structure refinement.

  4. Applying the reciprocal dose principle to heterogeneous phantoms: practical experience from Monte Carlo studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cristy, M.; Williams, L.R.

    1983-01-01

    The reciprocity theorem states that for any pair of regions in a uniform isotropic or uniform scatterless model, the specific fraction (PHI) is independent of which region is designated source and which is designated target. Although the conditions of these models are not met by phantoms heterogeneous in tissue composition and density, calculations with a Monte Carlo radiation transport code show that in many cases the reciprocal PHIs from photon radiation are approximately equal. This 'reciprocity principle' is valid within a factor of 2(Snyder) or about 20% (Mayneord and Clarke), except when one of the organs in the pair considered is the skeleton, where the reciprocal PHIs may differ by as much as a factor of 4. The principle holds within at least 10% when both organs are of near-unit-density. When one of the organs is near the tissue-vacuum boundary (skin, breasts, or testes), reciprocal PHIs may differ by as much as 10% or so at energies where scattering is marked. When one of the organs is the lungs or the whole body, a comparable error may occur at some energies. (author)

  5. An evaluation of three simple phantoms used in quality assurance of automatic exposure control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynolds, S.E.; Rofe, S.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: Different attenuators are used to assess the performance of x-ray systems with automatic exposure control (AEC). Three attenuators, copper, water and hardboard, were compared in this assessment. The Health Physics Service (HPS), which is part of the Department of Medical Physics and Bioengineering at Christchurch Hospital, New Zealand, has chosen to use hardboard as its patient equivalent phantom when testing x-ray equipment simply because it is generally easier to handle compared to water phantoms. Tests were conducted on the hardboard phantom in order to evaluate its effect on radiation in terms of attenuation equivalence, production of scatter and sensitivity to different kilovoltages compared to water or copper. Entrance and exit dose comparison tests were conducted using the AEC on a Philips Optimus 50 x-ray machine. A Keithley Triad Field Service Kit Model 10100A was used to record doses. The first set of tests were designed to ascertain the thickness of water and copper required to produce a similar mAs to the particular thickness of hardboard being examined. The tests were repeated with a film in a cassette which was placed in the bucky tray. Film optical densities were then measured. The hardboard phantom shows a very similar response to radiation as water and hence the human body and is therefore a suitable material for use in the construction of phantoms. Copper produces a very different radiation spectrum and its scattering effects are quite different to water or hardboard. For these reasons we consider copper to be unsuitable for use as a phantom when programming AECs. Copyright (2000) Australasian College of Physical Scientists and Engineers in Medicine

  6. TU-H-206-02: Novel Linearly-Filled Derenzo PET Phantom Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graves, S; Cox, B; Valdovinos, H; Jeffery, J; Eliceiri, K; Barnhart, T; Nickles, R; Farhoud, M

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To design a linearly-filled Derenzo positron emission tomography (PET) phantom, eliminating the extraneous radioisotope volumes in a conventional reservoir-type design. This activity reduction combined with the elimination of bubbles in smaller phantom channels would significantly reduce personnel dose, radioisotope cost, and would improve image quality by reducing out-of-slice activity scatter. Methods: A computer-aided design (CAD) was created of a modular Derenzo phantom consisting of three phantom layers with gaskets between the layers. The central piece contains the active pattern volume and channels connecting adjacent rods in a serpentine pattern. The two end-pieces contained an inlet and an outlet for filling purposes. Phantom prototypes were 3D printed on a Viper Si2 stereolithography machine. The two gaskets were fabricated from silicon sheets using a PLS 6.75 laser cutter. Phantoms were held together by pass-through glass-filled nylon bolts and nuts. Phantoms were filled with "5"2Mn, "6"4Cu, "7"4Br, and "1"2"4I for testing, and were imaged on a Siemens Inveon MicroPET scanner. Results: Four phantom prototypes were constructed using male Leur Lock fittings for inlet/outlet ports. 3D printed layers were sanded to ensure proper coupling to the silicon gaskets. The filling volume for each prototype was approximately 2.4 mL. The filling process was found to be rapid, leak-tight, and with minimal back-pressure. PET images were reconstructed by OSEM3D, and axial slices along the phantom pattern length were averaged to provide final images. Image distortion was isotope dependent with "5"2Mn and "6"4Cu having the least distortion and "1"2"4I having the most distortion. Conclusion: These results indicate that the linearlyfilled Derenzo design improves on conventional reservoir-type designs by eliminating potential bubbles in small channels and by reducing activity level, radioisotope volume, radioisotope cost, personnel dose, filling time, and out

  7. Tissue-mimicking bladder wall phantoms for evaluating acoustic radiation force-optical coherence elastography systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejofodomi, O'tega A; Zderic, Vesna; Zara, Jason M

    2010-04-01

    Acoustic radiation force-optical coherence elastography (ARF-OCE) systems are novel imaging systems that have the potential to simultaneously quantify and characterize the optical and mechanical properties of in vivo tissues. This article presents the construction of bladder wall phantoms for use in ARF-OCE systems. Mechanical, acoustic, and optical properties are reported and compared to published values for the urinary bladder. The phantom consisted of 0.2000 +/- 0.0089 and 6.0000 +/- 0.2830 microm polystyrene microspheres (Polysciences Inc., Warrington, PA, Catalog Nos. 07304 and 07312), 7.5 +/- 1.5 microm copolymer microspheres composed of acrylonitrile and vinylidene chloride, (Expancel, Duluth, GA, Catalog No. 461 DU 20), and bovine serum albumin within a gelatin matrix. Young's modulus was measured by successive compression of the phantom and obtaining the slope of the resulting force-displacement data. Acoustic measurements were performed using the transmission method. The phantoms were submerged in a water bath and placed between transmitting and receiving 13 mm diameter unfocused transducers operating at a frequency of 3.5 MHz. A MATLAB algorithm to extract the optical scattering coefficient from optical coherence tomography (OCT) images of the phantom was used. The phantoms possess a Young's modulus of 17.12 +/- 2.72 kPa, a mass density of 1.05 +/- 0.02 g/cm3, an acoustic attenuation coefficient of 0.66 +/- 0.08 dB/cm/MHz, a speed of sound of 1591 +/- 8.76 m/s, and an optical scattering coefficient of 1.80 +/- 0.23 mm(-1). Ultrasound and OCT images of the bladder wall phantom are presented. A material that mimics the mechanical, optical, and acoustic properties of healthy bladder wall has been developed. This tissue-mimicking bladder wall phantom was developed as a control tool to investigate the feasibility of using ARF-OCE to detect the mechanical and optical changes that may be indicative of the onset or development of cancer in the urinary bladder

  8. SU-E-T-124: Anthropomorphic Phantoms for Confirmation of Linear Accelerator Based Small Animal Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perks, J; Benedict, S [UC Davis Cancer Center, Sacramento, CA (United States); Lucero, S [UC Davis, Davis, CA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To document the support of radiobiological small animal research by a modern radiation oncology facility. This study confirms that a standard, human use linear accelerator can cover the range of experiments called for by researchers performing animal irradiation. A number of representative, anthropomorphic murine phantoms were made. The phantoms confirmed the small field photon and electron beams dosimetry validated the use of the linear accelerator for rodents. Methods: Laser scanning a model, CAD design and 3D printing produced the phantoms. The phantoms were weighed and CT scanned to judge their compatibility to real animals. Phantoms were produced to specifically mimic lung, gut, brain, and othotopic lesion irradiations. Each phantom was irradiated with the same protocol as prescribed to the live animals. Delivered dose was measured with small field ion chambers, MOS/FETs or TLDs. Results: The density of the phantom material compared to density range across the real mice showed that the printed material would yield sufficiently accurate measurements when irradiated. The whole body, lung and gut irradiations were measured within 2% of prescribed doses with A1SL ion chamber. MOSFET measurements of electron irradiations for the orthotopic lesions allowed refinement of the measured small field output factor to better than 2% and validated the immunology experiment of irradiating one lesion and sparing another. Conclusion: Linacs are still useful tools in small animal bio-radiation research. This work demonstrated a strong role for the clinical accelerator in small animal research, facilitating standard whole body dosing as well as conformal treatments down to 1cm field. The accuracy of measured dose, was always within 5%. The electron irradiations of the phantom brain and flank tumors needed adjustment; the anthropomorphic phantoms allowed refinement of the initial output factor measurements for these fields which were made in a large block of solid water.

  9. Results From the Imaging and Radiation Oncology Core Houston's Anthropomorphic Phantoms Used for Proton Therapy Clinical Trial Credentialing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Paige A., E-mail: pataylor@mdanderson.org; Kry, Stephen F.; Alvarez, Paola; Keith, Tyler; Lujano, Carrie; Hernandez, Nadia; Followill, David S.

    2016-05-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to summarize the findings of anthropomorphic proton phantom irradiations analyzed by the Imaging and Radiation Oncology Core Houston QA Center (IROC Houston). Methods and Materials: A total of 103 phantoms were irradiated by proton therapy centers participating in clinical trials. The anthropomorphic phantoms simulated heterogeneous anatomy of a head, liver, lung, prostate, and spine. Treatment plans included those for scattered, uniform scanning, and pencil beam scanning beam delivery modalities using 5 different treatment planning systems. For every phantom irradiation, point doses and planar doses were measured using thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD) and film, respectively. Differences between measured and planned doses were studied as a function of phantom, beam delivery modality, motion, repeat attempt, treatment planning system, and date of irradiation. Results: The phantom pass rate (overall, 79%) was high for simple phantoms and lower for phantoms that introduced higher levels of difficulty, such as motion, multiple targets, or increased heterogeneity. All treatment planning systems overestimated dose to the target, compared to TLD measurements. Errors in range calculation resulted in several failed phantoms. There was no correlation between treatment planning system and pass rate. The pass rates for each individual phantom are not improving over time, but when individual institutions received feedback about failed phantom irradiations, pass rates did improve. Conclusions: The proton phantom pass rates are not as high as desired and emphasize potential deficiencies in proton therapy planning and/or delivery. There are many areas for improvement with the proton phantom irradiations, such as treatment planning system dose agreement, range calculations, accounting for motion, and irradiation of multiple targets.

  10. Characterization of MOSFET Dosimeter Angular Response Using a Spherical Phantom for Fluoroscopic Dosimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chu; Hill, Kevin; Yoshizumi, Terry

    2016-01-01

    Metal-Oxide Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistor (MOSFET) dosimeters, placed in anthropomorphic phantoms, are a standard method for organ dosimetry in medical x-ray imaging applications. However, many x-ray applications, particularly fluoroscopy procedures, use variable projection angles. During dosimetry, the MOSFET detector active area may not always be perpendicular to the x-ray beam. The goal of this study was to characterize the dosimeter's angular response in the fluoroscopic irradiation involved in pediatric cardiac catheterization procedures, during which a considerable amount of fluoroscopic x-ray irradiation is often applied from various projection angles. A biological x-ray irradiator was used to simulate the beam quality of a biplane fluoroscopy imaging system. A custom-designed acrylic spherical scatter phantom was fabricated to measure dosimeter response (in mV) in two rotational axes, axial (ψ) and normal-to-axial (θ), in 30° increments, as well as four common oblique angles used in cardiac catheterization: a) 90° Left Anterior Oblique (LAO); b) 70° LAO/ 20° Cranial; c) 20° LAO/ 15° Cranial; and d) 30° Right Anterior Oblique (RAO). All results were normalized to the angle where the dosimeter epoxy is perpendicular to the beam or the Posterior-Anterior projection angle in the clinical setup. The relative response in the axial rotation was isotropic (within ± 10% deviation); that in the normal-to-axial rotation was isotropic in all angles except the ψ = 270° angle, where the relative response was 83 ± 9%. No significant deviation in detector response was observed in the four common oblique angles, with their relative responses being: a) 102 ± 3%; b) 90 ± 3%; c) 92 ± 3%; and d) 95 ± 3%, respectively. These angular correction factors will be used in future dosimetry studies for fluoroscopy. The spherical phantom may be useful for other applications, as it allows the measurement of dosimeter response in virtually all angles in the 3

  11. Quasiresonant scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hategan, Cornel; Comisel, Horia; Ionescu, Remus A.

    2004-01-01

    The quasiresonant scattering consists from a single channel resonance coupled by direct interaction transitions to some competing reaction channels. A description of quasiresonant Scattering, in terms of generalized reduced K-, R- and S- Matrix, is developed in this work. The quasiresonance's decay width is, due to channels coupling, smaller than the width of the ancestral single channel resonance (resonance's direct compression). (author)

  12. Thomson Scattering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donne, A. J. H.

    1994-01-01

    Thomson scattering is a very powerful diagnostic which is applied at nearly every magnetic confinement device. Depending on the experimental conditions different plasma parameters can be diagnosed. When the wave vector is much larger than the plasma Debye length, the total scattered power is

  13. Charged black holes in phantom cosmology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamil, Mubasher; Qadir, Asghar; Rashid, Muneer Ahmad [National University of Sciences and Technology, Center for Advanced Mathematics and Physics, Rawalpindi (Pakistan)

    2008-11-15

    In the classical relativistic regime, the accretion of phantom-like dark energy onto a stationary black hole reduces the mass of the black hole. We have investigated the accretion of phantom energy onto a stationary charged black hole and have determined the condition under which this accretion is possible. This condition restricts the mass-to-charge ratio in a narrow range. This condition also challenges the validity of the cosmic-censorship conjecture since a naked singularity is eventually produced due to accretion of phantom energy onto black hole. (orig.)

  14. Tissue Cancellation in Dual Energy Mammography Using a Calibration Phantom Customized for Direct Mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Seokmin; Kang, Dong-Goo

    2014-01-01

    An easily implementable tissue cancellation method for dual energy mammography is proposed to reduce anatomical noise and enhance lesion visibility. For dual energy calibration, the images of an imaging object are directly mapped onto the images of a customized calibration phantom. Each pixel pair of the low and high energy images of the imaging object was compared to pixel pairs of the low and high energy images of the calibration phantom. The correspondence was measured by absolute difference between the pixel values of imaged object and those of the calibration phantom. Then the closest pixel pair of the calibration phantom images is marked and selected. After the calibration using direct mapping, the regions with lesion yielded different thickness from the background tissues. Taking advantage of the different thickness, the visibility of cancerous lesions was enhanced with increased contrast-to-noise ratio, depending on the size of lesion and breast thickness. However, some tissues near the edge of imaged object still remained after tissue cancellation. These remaining residuals seem to occur due to the heel effect, scattering, nonparallel X-ray beam geometry and Poisson distribution of photons. To improve its performance further, scattering and the heel effect should be compensated.

  15. Versatile application of indirect Fourier transformation to structure factor analysis: from X-ray diffraction of molecular liquids to small angle scattering of protein solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukasawa, Toshiko; Sato, Takaaki

    2011-02-28

    We highlight versatile applicability of a structure-factor indirect Fourier transformation (IFT) technique, hereafter called SQ-IFT. The original IFT aims at the pair distance distribution function, p(r), of colloidal particles from small angle scattering of X-rays (SAXS) and neutrons (SANS), allowing the conversion of the experimental form factor, P(q), into a more intuitive real-space spatial autocorrelation function. Instead, SQ-IFT is an interaction potential model-free approach to the 'effective' or 'experimental' structure factor to yield the pair correlation functions (PCFs), g(r), of colloidal dispersions like globular protein solutions for small-angle scattering data as well as the radial distribution functions (RDFs) of molecular liquids in liquid diffraction (LD) experiments. We show that SQ-IFT yields accurate RDFs of liquid H(2)O and monohydric alcohol reflecting their local intermolecular structures, in which q-weighted structure function, qH(q), conventionally utilized in many LD studies out of necessity of performing direct Fourier transformation, is no longer required. We also show that SQ-IFT applied to theoretically calculated structure factors for uncharged and charged colloidal dispersions almost perfectly reproduces g(r) obtained as a solution of the Ornstein-Zernike (OZ) equation. We further demonstrate the relevance of SQ-IFT in its practical applications, using SANS effective structure factors of lysozyme solutions reported in recent literatures which revealed the equilibrium cluster formation due to coexisting long range electrostatic repulsion and short range attraction between the proteins. Finally, we present SAXS experiments on human serum albumin (HSA) at different ionic strength and protein concentration, in which we discuss the real space picture of spatial distributions of the proteins via the interaction potential model-free route.

  16. Experimental research on specific activity of 24Na using Chinese reference man phantom irradiated by 252Cf neutrons source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yuexing; Yang Yifang; Lu Yongjie; Zhang Jianguo; Xing Hongchuan

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the specific activity of '2 4 Na per unit neutron fluence, A B/Φ ,in blood produced for Chinese reference man irradiated by 252 Cf neutron source,and to analyze the effects of scattering neutrons from ground,wall,and ceiling in irradiation site on it.Methods: A 252 Cf neutron source of 3×10 8 n/s and the anthropomorphic phantom were used for experiments. The phantom was made from 4 mm thick of outer covering by perspex and the liquid tissue-equivalent substitute in it. The data of phantom dimensions fit into Chinese reference man.The weight ratios of H, N, O and C in substitute equal from source to long axis of phantom were 1.1, 2.1, 3.1 and 4.1 m, respectively. Both the neutron source and the position of xiphisternum of the phantom were 1.6 m above the floor. Results: The average specific activity of 24 Na per unit neutron fluence was related to the irradiation-distances, d, and its maximum value, A B/ΦM , deduced by experimental data was about 1.85×10 -7 Bq·cm 2 ·g -1 . Conclusions: The A B/ΦM corresponds to that of phantom irradiated by plane-parallel beams, and the value is about more 3% than that by BOMAB phantom reported in literature. It has shown that floor-(wall-)scattered neutrons in irradiation site have significant contribution to the specific activity of 24 Na, but they contributed relatively little to the induced neutron doses. Consequently,using the specific activity of 24 Na for assessing accidental neutron doses received by an individual, the contribution of scattered neutrons in accident site will lead dose to be overestimated, and need to be correct. (authors)

  17. Development and application of a pediatric head phantom for dosimetry in computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, Elaine Wirney

    2016-01-01

    To determine the exposure levels and the absorbed dose in patients undergoing CT scans, is necessary to calculate the CT dose index in measurements with a PMMA or water phantom. The phantom must be enough to simulate the attenuation and scattering characteristics of a human body or parts in a radiation field. The CT specific quantities : CT air kerma index (Ca,100) , weighted CT air kerma index (CW ), a total volume CT air kerma index (Cvol) and the CT air kerma-length product (PKL) must be determined and compared to literature reference levels. In this work a head pediatric phantom was developed, considering that the Brazilian published Diagnostic Reference Levels (DRL) are based on adult phantom measurements. This developed phantom shows a construction innovation using materials to simulate the skullcap, cortical bone (aluminum) and cancellous bone (PVC), and it was filled with distilled water. The phantom dimension follows the recommendations of the World Health Organization and the International Commission on Radiation Units for children from 0 to 5 years old head size: diameter of 160 mm and height of 155 mm. The skullcap has 4 mm of thickness and 111.9 mm of internal diameter. In order to evaluate its behavior, tests were carried out in calibration laboratories and in clinical beams. The results showed attenuation up to 23% when different materials are used as skullcap, demonstrating that the DRLs adopted could be overestimating the dose received by pediatric patients. It is observed that the dose received by CT skull scans presents different distribution, due to the skullcap partially attenuation and/or backscattering which is not considered when the PMMA phantom is used.

  18. Observational constraints on phantom power-law cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaeonikhom, Chakkrit; Gumjudpai, Burin; Saridakis, Emmanuel N.

    2011-01-01

    We investigate phantom cosmology in which the scale factor is a power law, and we use cosmological observations from Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB), Baryon Acoustic Oscillations (BAO) and observational Hubble data, in order to impose complete constraints on the model parameters. We find that the power-law exponent is β∼-6.51 -0.25 +0.24 , while the Big Rip is realized at t s ∼104.5 -2.0 +1.9 Gyr, in 1σ confidence level. Providing late-time asymptotic expressions, we find that the dark-energy equation-of-state parameter at the Big Rip remains finite and equal to w DE ∼-1.153, with the dark-energy density and pressure diverging. Finally, we reconstruct the phantom potential.

  19. Application of a sitting MIRD phantom for effective dose calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsher, R. H.; Van Riper, K. A.

    2005-01-01

    In typical realistic scenarios, dose factors due to 60 Co contaminated steel, used in consumer products, cannot be approximated by standard exposure geometries. It is then necessary to calculate the effective dose using an appropriate anthropomorphic phantom. MCNP calculations were performed using a MIRD human model in two settings. In the first, a male office worker is sitting in a chair containing contaminated steel, surrounded by contaminated furniture. In the second, a male driver is seated inside an automobile, the steel of which is uniformly contaminated. To accurately calculate the dose to lower body organs, especially the gonads, it was essential to modify the MIRD model to simulate two sitting postures: chair and driving position. The phantom modifications are described, and the results of the calculations are presented. In the case of the automobile scenarios, results are compared to those obtained using an isotropic fluence-to-dose conversion function. (authors)

  20. Dual matrix ordered subsets reconstruction for accelerated 3D scatter compensation in single-photon emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamphuis, C.; Beekman, F.J.; Van Rijk, P.P.; Viergever, M.A.

    1998-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) iterative maximum likelihood expectation maximization (ML-EM) algorithms for single-photon emission tomography (SPET) are capable of correcting image-degrading effects of non-uniform attenuation, distance-dependent camera response and patient shape-dependent scatter. However, the resulting improvements in quantitation, resolution and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) are obtained at the cost of a huge computational burden. This paper presents a new acceleration method for ML-EM: dual matrix ordered subsets (DM-OS). DM-OS combines two acceleration methods: (a) different matrices for projection and back-projection and (b) ordered subsets of projections. DM-OS was compared with ML-EM on simulated data and on physical thorax phantom data, for both 180 and 360 orbits. Contrast, normalized standard deviation and mean squared error were calculated for the digital phantom experiment. DM-OS resulted in similar image quality to ML-EM, even for speed-up factors of 200 compared to ML-EM in the case of 120 projections. The thorax phantom data could be reconstructed 50 times faster (60 projections) using DM-OS with preservation of image quality. ML-EM and DM-OS with scatter compensation showed significant improvement of SNR compared to ML-EM without scatter compensation. Furthermore, inclusion of complex image formation models in the computer code is simplified in the case of DM-OS. It is thus shown that DM-OS is a fast and relatively simple algorithm for 3D iterative scatter compensation, with similar results to conventional ML-EM, for both 180 and 360 acquired data. (orig.)

  1. Phantom cosmology without Big Rip singularity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Astashenok, Artyom V. [Baltic Federal University of I. Kant, Department of Theoretical Physics, 236041, 14, Nevsky st., Kaliningrad (Russian Federation); Nojiri, Shin' ichi, E-mail: nojiri@phys.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Kobayashi-Maskawa Institute for the Origin of Particles and the Universe, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Odintsov, Sergei D. [Department of Physics, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Institucio Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avancats - ICREA and Institut de Ciencies de l' Espai (IEEC-CSIC), Campus UAB, Facultat de Ciencies, Torre C5-Par-2a pl, E-08193 Bellaterra (Barcelona) (Spain); Tomsk State Pedagogical University, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Yurov, Artyom V. [Baltic Federal University of I. Kant, Department of Theoretical Physics, 236041, 14, Nevsky st., Kaliningrad (Russian Federation)

    2012-03-23

    We construct phantom energy models with the equation of state parameter w which is less than -1, w<-1, but finite-time future singularity does not occur. Such models can be divided into two classes: (i) energy density increases with time ('phantom energy' without 'Big Rip' singularity) and (ii) energy density tends to constant value with time ('cosmological constant' with asymptotically de Sitter evolution). The disintegration of bound structure is confirmed in Little Rip cosmology. Surprisingly, we find that such disintegration (on example of Sun-Earth system) may occur even in asymptotically de Sitter phantom universe consistent with observational data. We also demonstrate that non-singular phantom models admit wormhole solutions as well as possibility of Big Trip via wormholes.

  2. Phantom inflation and the 'Big Trip'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez-Diaz, Pedro F.; Jimenez-Madrid, Jose A.

    2004-01-01

    Primordial inflation is regarded to be driven by a phantom field which is here implemented as a scalar field satisfying an equation of state p=ωρ, with ω-1. Being even aggravated by the weird properties of phantom energy, this will pose a serious problem with the exit from the inflationary phase. We argue, however, in favor of the speculation that a smooth exit from the phantom inflationary phase can still be tentatively recovered by considering a multiverse scenario where the primordial phantom universe would travel in time toward a future universe filled with usual radiation, before reaching the big rip. We call this transition the 'Big Trip' and assume it to take place with the help of some form of anthropic principle which chooses our current universe as being the final destination of the time transition

  3. Phantom cosmology without Big Rip singularity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Astashenok, Artyom V.; Nojiri, Shin'ichi; Odintsov, Sergei D.; Yurov, Artyom V.

    2012-01-01

    We construct phantom energy models with the equation of state parameter w which is less than -1, w<-1, but finite-time future singularity does not occur. Such models can be divided into two classes: (i) energy density increases with time (“phantom energy” without “Big Rip” singularity) and (ii) energy density tends to constant value with time (“cosmological constant” with asymptotically de Sitter evolution). The disintegration of bound structure is confirmed in Little Rip cosmology. Surprisingly, we find that such disintegration (on example of Sun-Earth system) may occur even in asymptotically de Sitter phantom universe consistent with observational data. We also demonstrate that non-singular phantom models admit wormhole solutions as well as possibility of Big Trip via wormholes.

  4. Background studies for the measurement of the strangeness vector form factor of the proton by parity-violating electron scattering under backward angles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capozza, Luigi

    2010-01-01

    Within the A4 experiment the contributions of the strange quark to the electromagnetic form factors of the proton are measured. These see-quark effects in low energy observables are very important for the understanding of hadron structure, because they are a direct manifestation of QCD degrees of freedom in the non-perturbative regime. Linear combinations of the strangeness vector form factors of the proton (G E s and G M s ) are accessible experimentally by measuring the parity violating asymmetry in the cross section of the elastic scattering of longitudinal polarised electrons off unpolarised nucleons. Two such measurements were published by the A4 collaboration before this work. Both of them were forward angle measurements at the Q 2 values of 0.23 and 0.10 (GeV/c) 2 , respectively. A measurement at backward angle with a beam energy of 315 MeV was performed for separating G E s and G M s at the higher of these Q 2 values. In the A4 experiment a longitudinally polarised electron beam scatters on a liquid hydrogen target. Single scattered electrons are counted with a Cherenkov calorimeter. The separation of elastic from inelastic events is achieved by means of calorimetric energy measurement. For the backward angle measurement a plastic scintillator was installed as electron tagger for suppressing the γ background coming from the decay of π 0 mesons. In order to make the data analysis possible the energy spectra needed to be studied thoroughly. This was done in this work using detailed simulations of both the scattering processes suffered by beam electrons and of the response of the detectors. A method for handling the remaining background due to γ conversion before the scintillator has been also developed. The simulation results agree with the measured spectra at the 5% level and the strategy for handling the background was shown to be feasible. The asymmetry value obtained by handling the background as proposed in this work was combined with the previous A4

  5. Pediatric phantoms for use in dosimetric calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoup, R.L.; Hwang, J.L.; Poston, J.W.; Warner, G.G.

    1976-01-01

    Estimating absorbed doses to children from external and internal radiation sources has become important to the nuclear industry and pediatric nuclear medicine. The Medical Physics and Internal Dosimetry Section at ORNL has recently completed the design of mathematical representations of children of ages newborn, 1 year, and 5 years old. These mathematical representations will be referred to as pediatric phantoms. Using these phantoms, relevant energy deposition data have been developed which establish a meaningful model for use in estimating radiation dose to children

  6. Monte Carlo evaluation of scattering correction methods in 131I studies using pinhole collimator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    López Díaz, Adlin; San Pedro, Aley Palau; Martín Escuela, Juan Miguel; Rodríguez Pérez, Sunay; Díaz García, Angelina

    2017-01-01

    Scattering is quite important for image activity quantification. In order to study the scattering factors and the efficacy of 3 multiple window energy scatter correction methods during 131 I thyroid studies with a pinhole collimator (5 mm hole) a Monte Carlo simulation (MC) was developed. The GAMOS MC code was used to model the gamma camera and the thyroid source geometry. First, to validate the MC gamma camera pinhole-source model, sensibility in air and water of the simulated and measured thyroid phantom geometries were compared. Next, simulations to investigate scattering and the result of triple energy (TEW), Double energy (DW) and Reduced double (RDW) energy windows correction methods were performed for different thyroid sizes and depth thicknesses. The relative discrepancies to MC real event were evaluated. Results: The accuracy of the GAMOS MC model was verified and validated. The image’s scattering contribution was significant, between 27-40 %. The discrepancies between 3 multiple window energy correction method results were significant (between 9-86 %). The Reduce Double Window methods (15%) provide discrepancies of 9-16 %. Conclusions: For the simulated thyroid geometry with pinhole, the RDW (15 %) was the most effective. (author)

  7. Scattering theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sitenko, A.

    1991-01-01

    This book emerged out of graduate lectures given by the author at the University of Kiev and is intended as a graduate text. The fundamentals of non-relativistic quantum scattering theory are covered, including some topics, such as the phase-function formalism, separable potentials, and inverse scattering, which are not always coverded in textbooks on scattering theory. Criticisms of the text are minor, but the reviewer feels an inadequate index is provided and the citing of references in the Russian language is a hindrance in a graduate text

  8. Fast analytical scatter estimation using graphics processing units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingleby, Harry; Lippuner, Jonas; Rickey, Daniel W; Li, Yue; Elbakri, Idris

    2015-01-01

    To develop a fast patient-specific analytical estimator of first-order Compton and Rayleigh scatter in cone-beam computed tomography, implemented using graphics processing units. The authors developed an analytical estimator for first-order Compton and Rayleigh scatter in a cone-beam computed tomography geometry. The estimator was coded using NVIDIA's CUDA environment for execution on an NVIDIA graphics processing unit. Performance of the analytical estimator was validated by comparison with high-count Monte Carlo simulations for two different numerical phantoms. Monoenergetic analytical simulations were compared with monoenergetic and polyenergetic Monte Carlo simulations. Analytical and Monte Carlo scatter estimates were compared both qualitatively, from visual inspection of images and profiles, and quantitatively, using a scaled root-mean-square difference metric. Reconstruction of simulated cone-beam projection data of an anthropomorphic breast phantom illustrated the potential of this method as a component of a scatter correction algorithm. The monoenergetic analytical and Monte Carlo scatter estimates showed very good agreement. The monoenergetic analytical estimates showed good agreement for Compton single scatter and reasonable agreement for Rayleigh single scatter when compared with polyenergetic Monte Carlo estimates. For a voxelized phantom with dimensions 128 × 128 × 128 voxels and a detector with 256 × 256 pixels, the analytical estimator required 669 seconds for a single projection, using a single NVIDIA 9800 GX2 video card. Accounting for first order scatter in cone-beam image reconstruction improves the contrast to noise ratio of the reconstructed images. The analytical scatter estimator, implemented using graphics processing units, provides rapid and accurate estimates of single scatter and with further acceleration and a method to account for multiple scatter may be useful for practical scatter correction schemes.

  9. Development of realistic physical breast phantoms matched to virtual breast phantoms based on human subject data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiarashi, Nooshin; Nolte, Adam C.; Sturgeon, Gregory M.; Ghate, Sujata V.; Segars, William P.; Nolte, Loren W.; Samei, Ehsan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Physical phantoms are essential for the development, optimization, and evaluation of x-ray breast imaging systems. Recognizing the major effect of anatomy on image quality and clinical performance, such phantoms should ideally reflect the three-dimensional structure of the human breast. Currently, there is no commercially available three-dimensional physical breast phantom that is anthropomorphic. The authors present the development of a new suite of physical breast phantoms based on human data. Methods: The phantoms were designed to match the extended cardiac-torso virtual breast phantoms that were based on dedicated breast computed tomography images of human subjects. The phantoms were fabricated by high-resolution multimaterial additive manufacturing (3D printing) technology. The glandular equivalency of the photopolymer materials was measured relative to breast tissue-equivalent plastic materials. Based on the current state-of-the-art in the technology and available materials, two variations were fabricated. The first was a dual-material phantom, the Doublet. Fibroglandular tissue and skin were represented by the most radiographically dense material available; adipose tissue was represented by the least radiographically dense material. The second variation, the Singlet, was fabricated with a single material to represent fibroglandular tissue and skin. It was subsequently filled with adipose-equivalent materials including oil, beeswax, and permanent urethane-based polymer. Simulated microcalcification clusters were further included in the phantoms via crushed eggshells. The phantoms were imaged and characterized visually and quantitatively. Results: The mammographic projections and tomosynthesis reconstructed images of the fabricated phantoms yielded realistic breast background. The mammograms of the phantoms demonstrated close correlation with simulated mammographic projection images of the corresponding virtual phantoms. Furthermore, power

  10. Development of realistic physical breast phantoms matched to virtual breast phantoms based on human subject data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiarashi, Nooshin [Carl E. Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710 and Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Nolte, Adam C. [Carl E. Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710 and Department of Biomedical Engineering, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Sturgeon, Gregory M.; Ghate, Sujata V. [Carl E. Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710 (United States); Segars, William P. [Carl E. Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710 and Medical Physics Graduate Program, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Nolte, Loren W. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 and Department of Biomedical Engineering, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Samei, Ehsan [Carl E. Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710 (United States); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Department of Biomedical Engineering, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Medical Physics Graduate Program, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Department of Physics, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); and others

    2015-07-15

    Purpose: Physical phantoms are essential for the development, optimization, and evaluation of x-ray breast imaging systems. Recognizing the major effect of anatomy on image quality and clinical performance, such phantoms should ideally reflect the three-dimensional structure of the human breast. Currently, there is no commercially available three-dimensional physical breast phantom that is anthropomorphic. The authors present the development of a new suite of physical breast phantoms based on human data. Methods: The phantoms were designed to match the extended cardiac-torso virtual breast phantoms that were based on dedicated breast computed tomography images of human subjects. The phantoms were fabricated by high-resolution multimaterial additive manufacturing (3D printing) technology. The glandular equivalency of the photopolymer materials was measured relative to breast tissue-equivalent plastic materials. Based on the current state-of-the-art in the technology and available materials, two variations were fabricated. The first was a dual-material phantom, the Doublet. Fibroglandular tissue and skin were represented by the most radiographically dense material available; adipose tissue was represented by the least radiographically dense material. The second variation, the Singlet, was fabricated with a single material to represent fibroglandular tissue and skin. It was subsequently filled with adipose-equivalent materials including oil, beeswax, and permanent urethane-based polymer. Simulated microcalcification clusters were further included in the phantoms via crushed eggshells. The phantoms were imaged and characterized visually and quantitatively. Results: The mammographic projections and tomosynthesis reconstructed images of the fabricated phantoms yielded realistic breast background. The mammograms of the phantoms demonstrated close correlation with simulated mammographic projection images of the corresponding virtual phantoms. Furthermore, power

  11. Compton scatter tomography in TOF-PET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmati, Hamidreza; Kamali-Asl, Alireza; Ay, Mohammadreza; Ghafarian, Pardis

    2017-10-01

    Scatter coincidences contain hidden information about the activity distribution on the positron emission tomography (PET) imaging system. However, in conventional reconstruction, the scattered data cause the blurring of images and thus are estimated and subtracted from detected coincidences. List mode format provides a new aspect to use time of flight (TOF) and energy information of each coincidence in the reconstruction process. In this study, a novel approach is proposed to reconstruct activity distribution using the scattered data in the PET system. For each single scattering coincidence, a scattering angle can be determined by the recorded energy of the detected photons, and then possible locations of scattering can be calculated based on the scattering angle. Geometry equations show that these sites lie on two arcs in 2D mode or the surface of a prolate spheroid in 3D mode, passing through the pair of detector elements. The proposed method uses a novel and flexible technique to estimate source origin locations from the possible scattering locations, using the TOF information. Evaluations were based on a Monte-Carlo simulation of uniform and non-uniform phantoms at different resolutions of time and detector energy. The results show that although the energy uncertainties deteriorate the image spatial resolution in the proposed method, the time resolution has more impact on image quality than the energy resolution. With progress of the TOF system, the reconstruction using the scattered data can be used in a complementary manner, or to improve image quality in the next generation of PET systems.

  12. The effect of Compton scattering on quantitative SPECT imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, J.W.; Jaszczak, R.J.; Starmer, C.F.

    1982-01-01

    A Monte Carlo code has been developed to simulate the response of a SPECT system. The accuracy of the code has been verified and has been used in this research to study and illustrate the effects of Compton scatter on quantitative SPECT measurements. The effects of Compton scattered radiation on gamma camera response have been discussed by several authors, and will be extended to rotating gamma camera SPECT systems. The unique feature of this research includes the pictorial illustration of the Compton scattered and the unscattered components of the photopeak data on SPECT imaging by simulating phantom studies with and without Compton scatter

  13. Critical scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stirling, W.G.; Perry, S.C.

    1996-01-01

    We outline the theoretical and experimental background to neutron scattering studies of critical phenomena at magnetic and structural phase transitions. The displacive phase transition of SrTiO 3 is discussed, along with examples from recent work on magnetic materials from the rare-earth (Ho, Dy) and actinide (NpAs, NpSb, USb) classes. The impact of synchrotron X-ray scattering is discussed in conclusion. (author) 13 figs., 18 refs

  14. High Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) Amplification Factor Obtained with Silver Printed Circuit Boards and the Influence of Phenolic Resins for the Characterization of the Pesticide Thiram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva de Almeida, Francylaine; Bussler, Larissa; Marcio Lima, Sandro; Fiorucci, Antonio Rogério; da Cunha Andrade, Luis Humberto

    2016-07-01

    In this work, low-cost substrates with rough silver surfaces were prepared from commercial copper foil-covered phenolic board (CPB) and an aqueous solution of AgNO3, and were used for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) and surface-enhanced resonance Raman scattering (SERRS) measurements. A maximum SERS amplification factor of 1.2 × 10(7) was obtained for Rhodamine 6G (R6G), and use of the CPB resulted in a detection limit for Thiram pesticide of 0.5 µmol L(-1) The minimum detection level was limited by residual traces of phenolic groups that originated from the substrate resin, which became solubilized in the aqueous Ag(+) solution. It was found that the bands corresponding to the impurities had less influence in the Thiram analysis, which could be explained by the high affinity of sulfur for Ag surfaces. The influence of impurities in the SERS analyses therefore depended on the linkage between the rough silver surface and the analyte. The findings demonstrated the ease and effectiveness of using CPB to prepare a nanostructured surface for SERS. © The Author(s) 2016.

  15. A dynamic phantom for radionuclide renography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heikkinen, J.O.

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the study was to develop and test a dynamic phantom simulating radionuclide renography. The phantom consisted of five partly lead covered plastic containers simulating kidneys, heart, bladder and background (soft tissues, liver and spleen). Dynamics were performed with multiple movable steel plates between containers and a gamma camera. Control of the plates is performed manually with a stopwatch following exact time schedules. The containers were filled with activities ( 99m Tc) which produce count rates close to clinical situations. Count rates produced by the phantom were compared with ten clinical renography cases: five 99m Tc MAG3 and five 99m Tc DTPA examinations. Two phantom simulations were repeated three times with separate fillings, acquisitions and analyses. Precision errors as a coefficient of variation (CV) of repeated measurements were calculated and theoretical values were compared with the corresponding measured ones. A multicentre comparison was made between 19 nuclear medicine laboratories and three clinical cases were simulated with the phantom. Correlations between count rates produced by the phantom and clinical studies were r=0.964 for 99m Tc MAG3 (p 99m Tc DTPA (p max was 4.0±1.6%. Images and curves of the scanned phantom were close to a real patient in all 19 laboratories but calculated parameters varied: the difference between theoretical and measured values for T max was 6.8±6.2%. The difference between laboratories is most probably due to variations in acquisition protocols and analysis programs: 19 laboratories with 18 different protocols and 8 different programs. The dynamics were found to be repeatable and suitable for calibration purposes for radionuclide renography programs and protocols as well as for multicentre comparisons. (author)

  16. TH-CD-207A-08: Simulated Real-Time Image Guidance for Lung SBRT Patients Using Scatter Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redler, G; Cifter, G; Templeton, A; Lee, C; Bernard, D; Liao, Y; Zhen, H; Turian, J; Chu, J [Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To develop a comprehensive Monte Carlo-based model for the acquisition of scatter images of patient anatomy in real-time, during lung SBRT treatment. Methods: During SBRT treatment, images of patient anatomy can be acquired from scattered radiation. To rigorously examine the utility of scatter images for image guidance, a model is developed using MCNP code to simulate scatter images of phantoms and lung cancer patients. The model is validated by comparing experimental and simulated images of phantoms of different complexity. The differentiation between tissue types is investigated by imaging objects of known compositions (water, lung, and bone equivalent). A lung tumor phantom, simulating materials and geometry encountered during lung SBRT treatments, is used to investigate image noise properties for various quantities of delivered radiation (monitor units(MU)). Patient scatter images are simulated using the validated simulation model. 4DCT patient data is converted to an MCNP input geometry accounting for different tissue composition and densities. Lung tumor phantom images acquired with decreasing imaging time (decreasing MU) are used to model the expected noise amplitude in patient scatter images, producing realistic simulated patient scatter images with varying temporal resolution. Results: Image intensity in simulated and experimental scatter images of tissue equivalent objects (water, lung, bone) match within the uncertainty (∼3%). Lung tumor phantom images agree as well. Specifically, tumor-to-lung contrast matches within the uncertainty. The addition of random noise approximating quantum noise in experimental images to simulated patient images shows that scatter images of lung tumors can provide images in as fast as 0.5 seconds with CNR∼2.7. Conclusions: A scatter imaging simulation model is developed and validated using experimental phantom scatter images. Following validation, lung cancer patient scatter images are simulated. These simulated

  17. TH-CD-207A-08: Simulated Real-Time Image Guidance for Lung SBRT Patients Using Scatter Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redler, G; Cifter, G; Templeton, A; Lee, C; Bernard, D; Liao, Y; Zhen, H; Turian, J; Chu, J

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a comprehensive Monte Carlo-based model for the acquisition of scatter images of patient anatomy in real-time, during lung SBRT treatment. Methods: During SBRT treatment, images of patient anatomy can be acquired from scattered radiation. To rigorously examine the utility of scatter images for image guidance, a model is developed using MCNP code to simulate scatter images of phantoms and lung cancer patients. The model is validated by comparing experimental and simulated images of phantoms of different complexity. The differentiation between tissue types is investigated by imaging objects of known compositions (water, lung, and bone equivalent). A lung tumor phantom, simulating materials and geometry encountered during lung SBRT treatments, is used to investigate image noise properties for various quantities of delivered radiation (monitor units(MU)). Patient scatter images are simulated using the validated simulation model. 4DCT patient data is converted to an MCNP input geometry accounting for different tissue composition and densities. Lung tumor phantom images acquired with decreasing imaging time (decreasing MU) are used to model the expected noise amplitude in patient scatter images, producing realistic simulated patient scatter images with varying temporal resolution. Results: Image intensity in simulated and experimental scatter images of tissue equivalent objects (water, lung, bone) match within the uncertainty (∼3%). Lung tumor phantom images agree as well. Specifically, tumor-to-lung contrast matches within the uncertainty. The addition of random noise approximating quantum noise in experimental images to simulated patient images shows that scatter images of lung tumors can provide images in as fast as 0.5 seconds with CNR∼2.7. Conclusions: A scatter imaging simulation model is developed and validated using experimental phantom scatter images. Following validation, lung cancer patient scatter images are simulated. These simulated

  18. Individual virtual phantom reconstruction for organ dosimetry based on standard available phantoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babapour Mofrad, F.; Aghaeizadeh Zoroofi, R.; Abbaspour Tehran Fard, A.; Akhlaghpoor, Sh.; Chen, Y. W.; Sato, Y.

    2010-01-01

    In nuclear medicine application often it is required to use computational methods for evaluation of organ absorbed dose. Monte Carlo Simulation and phantoms have been used in many works before. The shape, size and volume In organs are varied, and this variation will produce error in dose calculation if no correction is applied. Materials and Methods: A computational framework for constructing individual phantom for dosimetry was performed on five liver CT scan data sets of Japanese normal individuals. The Zubal phantom was used as an original phantom to be adjusted by each individual data set. This registration was done by Spherical Harmonics and Thin-Plate Spline methods. Hausdorff distance was calculated for each case. Results: Result of Hausdorff distance for five lndividual phantoms showed that before registration ranged from 140.9 to 192.1, and after registration it changed to 52.5 to 76.7. This was caused by Index similarity ranged from %56.4 to %70.3. Conclusion: A new and automatic three-dimensional (3D) phantom construction approach was-suggested for individual internal dosimetry simulation via Spherical Harmonics and Thin-Plate Spline methods. The results showed that the Individual comparable phantom can be calculated with acceptable accuracy using geometric registration. This method could be used for race-specific statistical phantom modeling with major application in nuclear medicine for absorbed dose calculation.

  19. Dose distribution in organs: patient-specific phantoms versus reference phantoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacerda, I.V.B., E-mail: isabelle.lacerda@ufpe.br [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife (Brazil); Vieira, J.W. [Instituto Federal de Pernambuco (IFPE), Recife (Brazil); Oliveira, M.L.; Lima, F.R.A. [Centro Regional de Ciências Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PB), Recife (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Discrepancies between ICRP phantoms and real patients lead to disparities on patient-dose estimations. This paper aims to compare distribution of dose in organs of male/female specific-phantoms and ICRP reference phantoms. The absorbed dose estimation was performed using the EGSnrc Monte Carlo code and a parallel source algorithm. In this work were used a patient-specific phantom for a man (1.73m/70.3kg) and another for a woman (1.63m/60.3kg) and the male and female ICRP reference phantoms. The comparison of the absorbed dose from each phantom gender was performed using the relative error. The results were expressed in terms of conversion coefficients to brain, lungs, liver and kidneys. The greatest absolute relative error between the organs of the patient-specific phantom and the reference phantom was 22.92% in the liver and 62.84% in the kidneys, respectively for man and woman. There are errors that cannot be disregarded. This paper shows the need for a specific study for each patient or for the population of each country, since there are different body types, which affects the distribution of the organ doses. (author)

  20. Dose distribution in organs: patient-specific phantoms versus reference phantoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacerda, I.V.B.; Vieira, J.W.; Oliveira, M.L.; Lima, F.R.A.

    2017-01-01

    Discrepancies between ICRP phantoms and real patients lead to disparities on patient-dose estimations. This paper aims to compare distribution of dose in organs of male/female specific-phantoms and ICRP reference phantoms. The absorbed dose estimation was performed using the EGSnrc Monte Carlo code and a parallel source algorithm. In this work were used a patient-specific phantom for a man (1.73m/70.3kg) and another for a woman (1.63m/60.3kg) and the male and female ICRP reference phantoms. The comparison of the absorbed dose from each phantom gender was performed using the relative error. The results were expressed in terms of conversion coefficients to brain, lungs, liver and kidneys. The greatest absolute relative error between the organs of the patient-specific phantom and the reference phantom was 22.92% in the liver and 62.84% in the kidneys, respectively for man and woman. There are errors that cannot be disregarded. This paper shows the need for a specific study for each patient or for the population of each country, since there are different body types, which affects the distribution of the organ doses. (author)

  1. The role of phantom and treatment head generated bremsstrahlung in high-energy electron beam dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorcini, B.B.; Hyoedynmaa, S.; Brahme, A.

    1996-01-01

    An analytical expression has been derived for the phantom generated bremsstrahlung photons in plane-parallel monoenergetic electron beams normally incident on material of any atomic number (Be, H 2 O, Al, Cu and U). The expression is suitable for the energy range from 1 to 50 MeV and it is solely based on known scattering power and radiative and collision stopping power data for the material at the incident electron energy. The depth dose distribution due to the bremsstrahlung generated by the electrons in the phantom is derived by convolving the bremsstrahlung energy fluence produced in the phantom with a simple analytical energy deposition kernel. The kernel accounts for both electrons and photons set in motion by the bremsstrahlung photons. The energy loss by the primary electrons, the build-up of the electron fluence and the generation, attenuation and absorption of bremsstrahlung photons are all taken into account in the analytical formula. The longitudinal energy deposition kernel is derived analytically and it is consistent with both the classical biexponential relation describing the photon depth dose distribution and the exponential attenuation of the primary photons. For comparison Monte Carlo calculated energy deposition distributions using ITS3 code were used. Good agreement was found between the results with the analytical expression and the Monte Carlo calculation. For tissue equivalent materials, the maximum total energy deposition differs by less than 0.2% from Monte Carlo calculated dose distributions. The result can be used to estimate the depth dependence of phantom generated bremsstrahlung in different materials in therapeutic electron beams and the bremsstrahlung production in different electron absorbers such as scattering foils, transmission monitors and photon and electron collimators. By subtracting the phantom generated bremsstrahlung from the total bremsstrahlung background the photon contamination generated in the treatment head can be

  2. Evaluation of quantitative imaging methods for organ activity and residence time estimation using a population of phantoms having realistic variations in anatomy and uptake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Bin; Du Yong; Segars, W. Paul; Wahl, Richard L.; Sgouros, George; Jacene, Heather; Frey, Eric C.

    2009-01-01

    Estimating organ residence times is an essential part of patient-specific dosimetry for radioimmunotherapy (RIT). Quantitative imaging methods for RIT are often evaluated using a single physical or simulated phantom but are intended to be applied clinically where there is variability in patient anatomy, biodistribution, and biokinetics. To provide a more relevant evaluation, the authors have thus developed a population of phantoms with realistic variations in these factors and applied it to the evaluation of quantitative imaging methods both to find the best method and to demonstrate the effects of these variations. Using whole body scans and SPECT/CT images, organ shapes and time-activity curves of 111In ibritumomab tiuxetan were measured in dosimetrically important organs in seven patients undergoing a high dose therapy regimen. Based on these measurements, we created a 3D NURBS-based cardiac-torso (NCAT)-based phantom population. SPECT and planar data at realistic count levels were then simulated using previously validated Monte Carlo simulation tools. The projections from the population were used to evaluate the accuracy and variation in accuracy of residence time estimation methods that used a time series of SPECT and planar scans. Quantitative SPECT (QSPECT) reconstruction methods were used that compensated for attenuation, scatter, and the collimator-detector response. Planar images were processed with a conventional (CPlanar) method that used geometric mean attenuation and triple-energy window scatter compensation and a quantitative planar (QPlanar) processing method that used model-based compensation for image degrading effects. Residence times were estimated from activity estimates made at each of five time points. The authors also evaluated hybrid methods that used CPlanar or QPlanar time-activity curves rescaled to the activity estimated from a single QSPECT image. The methods were evaluated in terms of mean relative error and standard deviation of the

  3. Influence of the PMMA and the ISO slab phantom for calibrating personal dosemeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginjaume, M.; Ortega, X.; Barbosa, A.

    2000-01-01

    Wide agreement has been achieved among the main Bodies and Organisations involved in standardisation of radiation protection, related to the operational quantities for personal dosimetry. Since their definition in 1985, several reports have been published to clarify and define the experimental set up to be used for the calibration of dosemeters in terms of the above-mentioned quantities. Among these lines, ICRU 47 has listed five different phantoms that are used for calibration and whose results were accurate, within accepted uncertainties. However, to achieve uniformity in calibration procedures, the 30 cm x 30 cm x 15 cm PMMA slab phantom was recommended. The secondary calibration Laboratory from the Institut de Techniques Energetiques at the Technical University of Catalonia (UPC) agreed with the Spanish Nacional Laboratory to adopt the recommended PMMA phantom but to improve the accuracy of the calibration procedure, by introducing a correction factor for backscatter differences in a PMMA and an ICRU slab phantom. Such corrections were of the order of 8% for the low-energy X-ray qualities. Recently, ISO in ISO 4037-3, has proposed the ISO water slab phantom which consists of a 30 cm x 30 cm x 15 cm water phantom with PMMA walls (front wall 2.5 mm thick). This new phantom could be substituted by the above mentioned PMMA phantom for radiation qualities with mean energy equal or above that of 137 Cs. The aim of this work is to compare the influence of both phantoms when calibrating personal dosemeters with photons. A set of four TL personal dosemeters that are used in the UPC personal dosimetry Service and an electronic personal dosemeter (SIEMENS EPD-2) were calibrated in terms of H p (10) and H p (0.07) using the two proposed phantoms. Calibration factors for ISO X-ray narrow spectra, 137 Cs and 60 Co were experimentally obtained for each phantom and compared. In the TL measurements, differences were found to be within TL statistical uncertainty, provided that a

  4. Inelastic electron scattering form factors involving the second excited 2+ levels in the nuclei 48Ti and 50Cr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukherjee, G.; Sharma, S.K.

    1984-03-01

    A microscopic description of the recent data on the Coulomb form factors for the Osub(gnd) + →2 2 + transitions in the nuclei 48 Ti and 50 Cr is attempted in terms of the prolate and oblate intrinsic states resulting from realistic effective interactions operating in the 2p-1f shell. The results for the higher momentum-transfer region show dramatic improvements compared to the form factor estimates obtained in some recent shell model calculations involving the fsub(7/2)sup(n)+fsub(7/2)sup(n-1)psub(3/2) configurations. (author)

  5. SU-G-TeP3-02: Determination of Geometry-Specific Backscatter Factors for Radiobiology Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viscariello, N; Culberson, W; Lawless, M; Kunugi, K; DeWerd, L [School of Medicine and Public Health, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Radiation biology research relies on an accurate radiation dose delivered to the biological target. Large field irradiations in a cabinet irradiator may use the AAPM TG-61 protocol. This relies on an air-kerma measurement and conversion to absorbed dose to water (Dw) on the surface of a water phantom using provided backscatter factors. Cell or small animal studies differ significantly from this reference geometry. This study aims to determine the impact of the lack of full scatter conditions in four representative geometries that may be used in radiobiology studies. Methods: MCNP6 was used to model the Dw on the surface of a full scatter phantom in a validated orthovoltage x-ray reference beam. Dw in a cylindrical mouse, 100 mm Petri dish, 6-well and 96-well cell culture dishes was simulated and compared to this full scatter geometry. A reference dose rate was measured using the TG-61 protocol in a cabinet irradiator. This nominal dose rate was used to irradiate TLDs in each phantom to a given dose. Doses were obtained based on TLDs calibrated in a NIST-traceable beam. Results: Compared to the full scattering conditions, the simulated dose to water in the representative geometries were found to be underestimated by 12-26%. The discrepancy was smallest with the cylindrical mouse geometry, which most closely approximates adequate lateral- and backscatter. TLDs irradiated in the mouse and petri dish phantoms using the TG-61 determined dose rate showed similarly lower values of Dw. When corrected for this discrepancy, they agreed with the predicted Dw within 5%. Conclusion: Using the TG-61 in-air protocol and given backscatter factors to determine a reference dose rate in a biological irradiator may not be appropriate given the difference in scattering conditions between irradiation and calibration. Without accounting for this, the dose rate is overestimated and is dependent on irradiation geometry.

  6. Monte Carlo simulations in CT for the study of the surface air kerma and energy imparted to phantoms of varying size and position

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avilés Lucas, P.; Dance, D. R.; Castellano, I. A.; Vañó, E.

    2004-04-01

    A Monte Carlo computational model of CT has been developed and used to investigate the effect of various physical factors on the surface air kerma length product, the peak surface air kerma, the air kerma length product within a phantom and the energy imparted. The factors investigated were the bow-tie filter and the size, shape and position of a phantom which simulates the patient. The calculations show that the surface air kerma length product and the maximum surface air kerma are mainly dependent on phantom position and decrease along the vertical axis of the CT plane as the phantom surface moves away from the isocentre along this axis. As a result, measurements using standard body dosimetry phantoms may underestimate the skin dose for real patients. This result is specially important for CT fluoroscopic procedures: for an adult patient the peak skin dose can be 37% higher than that estimated with a standard measurement on the body AAPM (American Association of Physicists in Medicine) phantom. The results also show that the energy imparted to a phantom is mainly influenced by phantom size and is nearly independent of phantom position (within 3%) and shape (up to 5% variation). However, variations of up to 30% were found for the air kerma to regions within the AAPM body phantom when it is moved vertically. This highlights the importance of calculating doses to organs taking into account their size and position within the gantry.

  7. A comparison of methods to evaluate gray scale response of tomosynthesis systems using a software breast phantom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Maria A. Z.; Bakic, Predrag R.; Schiabel, Homero; Maidment, Andrew D. A.

    2017-03-01

    Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) has been shown to be an effective imaging tool for breast cancer diagnosis as it provides three-dimensional images of the breast with minimal tissue overlap. The quality of the reconstructed image depends on many factors that can be assessed using uniform or realistic phantoms. In this paper, we created four models of phantoms using an anthropomorphic software breast phantom and compared four methods to evaluate the gray scale response in terms of the contrast, noise and detectability of adipose and glandular tissues binarized according to phantom ground truth. For each method, circular regions of interest (ROIs) were selected with various sizes, quantity and positions inside a square area in the phantom. We also estimated the percent density of the simulated breast and the capability of distinguishing both tissues by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Results shows a sensitivity of the methods to the ROI size, placement and to the slices considered.

  8. Construction of boundary-surface-based Chinese female astronaut computational phantom and proton dose estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Wenjuan; Xie Tianwu; Liu Qian; Jia Xianghong; Xu Feng

    2013-01-01

    With the rapid development of China's space industry, the importance of radiation protection is increasingly prominent. To provide relevant dose data, we first developed the Visible Chinese Human adult Female (VCH-F) phantom, and performed further modifications to generate the VCH-F Astronaut (VCH-FA) phantom, incorporating statistical body characteristics data from the first batch of Chinese female astronauts as well as reference organ mass data from the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP; both within 1% relative error). Based on cryosection images, the original phantom was constructed via Non-Uniform Rational B-Spline (NURBS) boundary surfaces to strengthen the deformability for fitting the body parameters of Chinese female astronauts. The VCH-FA phantom was voxelized at a resolution of 2 x 2 x 4 mm 3 for radioactive particle transport simulations from isotropic protons with energies of 5000 - 10 000 MeV in Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended (MCNPX) code. To investigate discrepancies caused by anatomical variations and other factors, the obtained doses were compared with corresponding values from other phantoms and sex-averaged doses. Dose differences were observed among phantom calculation results, especially for effective dose with low-energy protons. Local skin thickness shifts the breast dose curve toward high energy, but has little impact on inner organs. Under a shielding layer, organ dose reduction is greater for skin than for other organs. The calculated skin dose per day closely approximates measurement data obtained in low-Earth orbit (LEO). (author)

  9. In vivo diagnosis of skin cancer using polarized and multiple scattered light spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Matthew Allen

    This thesis research presents the development of a non-invasive diagnostic technique for distinguishing between skin cancer, moles, and normal skin using polarized and multiple scattered light spectroscopy. Polarized light incident on the skin is single scattered by the epidermal layer and multiple scattered by the dermal layer. The epidermal light maintains its initial polarization while the light from the dermal layer becomes randomized and multiple scattered. Mie theory was used to model the epidermal light as the scattering from the intercellular organelles. The dermal signal was modeled as the diffusion of light through a localized semi-homogeneous volume. These models were confirmed using skin phantom experiments, studied with in vitro cell cultures, and applied to human skin for in vivo testing. A CCD-based spectroscopy system was developed to perform all these experiments. The probe and the theory were tested on skin phantoms of latex spheres on top of a solid phantom. We next extended our phantom study to include in vitro cells on top of the solid phantom. Optical fluorescent microscope images revealed at least four distinct scatterers including mitochondria, nucleoli, nuclei, and cell membranes. Single scattering measurements on the mammalian cells consistently produced PSD's in the size range of the mitochondria. The clinical portion of the study consisted of in vivo measurements on cancer, mole, and normal skin spots. The clinical study combined the single scattering model from the phantom and in vitro cell studies with the diffusion model for multiple scattered light. When parameters from both layers were combined, we found that a sensitivity of 100% and 77% can be obtained for detecting cancers and moles, respectively, given the number of lesions examined.

  10. Neutron Scattering from 36Ar and 4He Films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carneiro, K.

    1977-01-01

    Scale factors for neutron diffraction and neutron inelastic scattering are presented for common adsorbates, and the feasibility of experiments is discussed together with the information gained by each type of experiment. Diffraction, coherent inelastic scattering, and incoherent scattering are tr...

  11. Mathematical development of a 10 years old child phantom for use in internal dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deus, S.F.; Poston, J.W.; Watanabe, S.

    1989-08-01

    The main objectives of this work are: 1) to develop a project of a mathematical phantom representing as far as possible a child of 10 years old and 2)to use this phantom as a base for the specific absorbed fractions (SAF) calculations in the internal organs and skeleton due to the radioisotopes most used in nuclear medicine. This phantom was similar in shape to the Fisher and Snyder one, but several changes were introduced to make the phantom more realistic. Those changes included the addition of a neck region, puting the arms outside the trunk region, changes in the trunk, head and genitalia regions shapes. Several modifications were also done in the skeleton. For instance, the head bones, rib cage, pelvis, vertebral column, scapula, clavicles and the arms and legs bones were made very close to the real anatomic shapes. Some internal organs as the brain, lungs, liver, small and large intestines were also changed as a consenquence of the above modifications. In all those cases, the changes were made not only in the shapes but also in the organs and bones position in such a way to be more representative of the 10 years old anatomic age. Estimates of the SAF obtained by the use of this phantom, resulted, as expected, significantly different from those obtained by the use of a simpler model. In other words, the ratio between the SAF in the organs of the phantom developed in this project and the SAF in the organs of the phantom similar to the adult (obtained by reducing each region of the adult phantom by the use of appropriate factor) vary from 0.37 to 5. Those differences and their meaning are also discussed. (author) [pt

  12. Design of a digital phantom population for myocardial perfusion SPECT imaging research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghaly, Michael; Du, Yong; Fung, George S K; Tsui, Benjamin M W; Frey, Eric; Links, Jonathan M

    2014-01-01

    Digital phantoms and Monte Carlo (MC) simulations have become important tools for optimizing and evaluating instrumentation, acquisition and processing methods for myocardial perfusion SPECT (MPS). In this work, we designed a new adult digital phantom population and generated corresponding Tc-99m and Tl-201 projections for use in MPS research. The population is based on the three-dimensional XCAT phantom with organ parameters sampled from the Emory PET Torso Model Database. Phantoms included three variations each in body size, heart size, and subcutaneous adipose tissue level, for a total of 27 phantoms of each gender. The SimSET MC code and angular response functions were used to model interactions in the body and the collimator-detector system, respectively. We divided each phantom into seven organs, each simulated separately, allowing use of post-simulation summing to efficiently model uptake variations. Also, we adapted and used a criterion based on the relative Poisson effective count level to determine the required number of simulated photons for each simulated organ. This technique provided a quantitative estimate of the true noise in the simulated projection data, including residual MC simulation noise. Projections were generated in 1 keV wide energy windows from 48–184 keV assuming perfect energy resolution to permit study of the effects of window width, energy resolution, and crosstalk in the context of dual isotope MPS. We have developed a comprehensive method for efficiently simulating realistic projections for a realistic population of phantoms in the context of MPS imaging. The new phantom population and realistic database of simulated projections will be useful in performing mathematical and human observer studies to evaluate various acquisition and processing methods such as optimizing the energy window width, investigating the effect of energy resolution on image quality and evaluating compensation methods for degrading factors such as

  13. Compton scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botto, D.J.; Pratt, R.H.

    1979-05-01

    The current status of Compton scattering, both experimental observations and the theoretical predictions, is examined. Classes of experiments are distinguished and the results obtained are summarized. The validity of the incoherent scattering function approximation and the impulse approximation is discussed. These simple theoretical approaches are compared with predictions of the nonrelativistic dipole formula of Gavrila and with the relativistic results of Whittingham. It is noted that the A -2 based approximations fail to predict resonances and an infrared divergence, both of which have been observed. It appears that at present the various available theoretical approaches differ significantly in their predictions and that further and more systematic work is required

  14. Compton scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Botto, D.J.; Pratt, R.H.

    1979-05-01

    The current status of Compton scattering, both experimental observations and the theoretical predictions, is examined. Classes of experiments are distinguished and the results obtained are summarized. The validity of the incoherent scattering function approximation and the impulse approximation is discussed. These simple theoretical approaches are compared with predictions of the nonrelativistic dipole formula of Gavrila and with the relativistic results of Whittingham. It is noted that the A/sup -2/ based approximations fail to predict resonances and an infrared divergence, both of which have been observed. It appears that at present the various available theoretical approaches differ significantly in their predictions and that further and more systematic work is required.

  15. Electron Scattering on deuterium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Platchkov, S.

    1987-01-01

    Selected electron scattering experiments on the deuteron system are discussed. The main advantages of the electromagnetic probe are recalled. The deuteron A(q 2 ) structure function is analyzed and found to be very sensitive to the neutron electric form factor. Electrodisintegration of the deuteron near threshold is presented as evidence for the importance of meson exchange currents in nuclei [fr

  16. Multienergy anomalous diffuse scattering

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kopecký, Miloš; Fábry, Jan; Kub, Jiří; Lausi, A.; Busetto, E.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 100, č. 19 (2008), 195504/1-195504/4 ISSN 0031-9007 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100100529 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100523 Keywords : diffuse scattering * x-rays * structure determination Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 7.180, year: 2008

  17. Scattering amplitudes and static atomic correction factors for the composition-sensitive 002 reflection in sphalerite ternary III-V and II-VI semiconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schowalter, M; Müller, K; Rosenauer, A

    2012-01-01

    Modified atomic scattering amplitudes (MASAs), taking into account the redistribution of charge due to bonds, and the respective correction factors considering the effect of static atomic displacements were computed for the chemically sensitive 002 reflection for ternary III-V and II-VI semiconductors. MASAs were derived from computations within the density functional theory formalism. Binary eight-atom unit cells were strained according to each strain state s (thin, intermediate, thick and fully relaxed electron microscopic specimen) and each concentration (x = 0, …, 1 in 0.01 steps), where the lattice parameters for composition x in strain state s were calculated using continuum elasticity theory. The concentration dependence was derived by computing MASAs for each of these binary cells. Correction factors for static atomic displacements were computed from relaxed atom positions by generating 50 × 50 × 50 supercells using the lattice parameter of the eight-atom unit cells. Atoms were randomly distributed according to the required composition. Polynomials were fitted to the composition dependence of the MASAs and the correction factors for the different strain states. Fit parameters are given in the paper.

  18. Cosmological perturbations in transient phantom inflation scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richarte, Martin G. [Universidade Federal do Parana, Departamento de Fisica, Caixa Postal 19044, Curitiba (Brazil); Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria 1428, Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Kremer, Gilberto M. [Universidade Federal do Parana, Departamento de Fisica, Caixa Postal 19044, Curitiba (Brazil)

    2017-01-15

    We present a model of inflation where the inflaton is accommodated as a phantom field which exhibits an initial transient pole behavior and then decays into a quintessence field which is responsible for a radiation era. We must stress that the present unified model only deals with a single field and that the transition between the two eras is achieved in a smooth way, so the model does not suffer from the eternal inflation issue. We explore the conditions for the crossing of the phantom divide line within the inflationary era along with the structural stability of several critical points. We study the behavior of the phantom field within the slow-climb approximation along with the necessary conditions to have sufficient inflation. We also examine the model at the level of classical perturbations within the Newtonian gauge and determine the behavior of the gravitational potential, contrast density and perturbed field near the inflation stage and the subsequent radiation era. (orig.)

  19. Designing a compact MRI motion phantom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmiedel Max

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Even today, dealing with motion artifacts in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI is a challenging task. Image corruption due to spontaneous body motion complicates diagnosis. In this work, an MRI phantom for rigid motion is presented. It is used to generate motion-corrupted data, which can serve for evaluation of blind motion compensation algorithms. In contrast to commercially available MRI motion phantoms, the presented setup works on small animal MRI systems. Furthermore, retrospective gating is performed on the data, which can be used as a reference for novel motion compensation approaches. The motion of the signal source can be reconstructed using motor trigger signals and be utilized as the ground truth for motion estimation. The proposed setup results in motion corrected images. Moreover, the importance of preprocessing the MRI raw data, e.g. phase-drift correction, is demonstrated. The gained knowledge can be used to design an MRI phantom for elastic motion.

  20. Application of multiple scattering theory in electron dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, M.J.G.S. de.

    1984-01-01

    A theoretical model, based on the Fermi-Eyges scattering theory, which takes into account the different heterogeneous media, is proposed. Heterogeneous phantoms were built in order to obtain curves of distribution of the absorbed dose. The agreement between the theoretical and experimental data prove that presented theory model is useful to describe the absorbed dose in homogeneous media. (M.A.C.) [pt

  1. Improved Margins Detection of Regions Enriched with Gold Nanoparticles inside Biological Phantom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yossef Danan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Utilizing the surface plasmon resonance (SPR effect of gold nanoparticles (GNPs enables their use as contrast agents in a variety of biomedical applications for diagnostics and treatment. These applications use both the very strong scattering and absorption properties of the GNPs due to their SPR effects. Most imaging methods use the light-scattering properties of the GNPs. However, the illumination source is in the same wavelength of the GNPs’ scattering wavelength, leading to background noise caused by light scattering from the tissue. In this paper we present a method to improve border detection of regions enriched with GNPs aiming for the real-time application of complete tumor resection by utilizing the absorption of specially targeted GNPs using photothermal imaging. Phantoms containing different concentrations of GNPs were irradiated with a continuous-wave laser and measured with a thermal imaging camera which detected the temperature field of the irradiated phantoms. By modulating the laser illumination, and use of a simple post processing, the border location was identified at an accuracy of better than 0.5 mm even when the surrounding area got heated. This work is a continuation of our previous research.

  2. New mechanism to cross the phantom divide

    OpenAIRE

    Du, Yunshuang; Zhang, Hongsheng; Li, Xin-Zhou

    2010-01-01

    Recently, type Ia supernovae data appear to support a dark energy whose equation of state $w$ crosses -1, which is a much more amazing problem than the acceleration of the universe. We show that it is possible for the equation of state to cross the phantom divide by a scalar field in the gravity with an additional inverse power-law term of Ricci scalar in the Lagrangian. The necessary and sufficient condition for a universe in which the dark energy can cross the phantom divide is obtained. So...

  3. Nuclear Compton scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christillin, P.

    1986-01-01

    The theory of nuclear Compton scattering is reformulated with explicit consideration of both virtual and real pionic degrees of freedom. The effects due to low-lying nuclear states, to seagull terms, to pion condensation and to the Δ dynamics in the nucleus and their interplay in the different energy regions are examined. It is shown that all corrections to the one-body terms, of diffractive behaviour determined by the nuclear form factor, have an effective two-body character. The possibility of using Compton scattering as a complementary source of information about nuclear dynamics is restressed. (author)

  4. Structure factor of blends of solvent-free nanoparticle–organic hybrid materials: density-functional theory and small angle X-ray scattering

    KAUST Repository

    Yu, Hsiu-Yu

    2014-09-15

    © the Partner Organisations 2014. We investigate the static structure factor S(q) of solvent-free nanoparticle-organic hybrid materials consisting of silica nanocores and space-filling polyethylene glycol coronas using a density-functional theory and small angle X-ray scattering measurements. The theory considers a bidisperse suspension of hard spheres with different radii and tethered bead-spring oligomers with different grafting densities to approximate the polydispersity effects in experiments. The experimental systems studied include pure samples with different silica core volume fractions and the associated mean corona grafting densities, and blends with different mixing ratios of the pure samples, in order to introduce varying polydispersity of corona grafting density. Our scattering experiments and theory show that, compared to the hard-sphere suspension with the same core volume fraction, S(q) for pure samples exhibit both substantially smaller values at small q and stronger particle correlations corresponding to a larger effective hard core at large q, indicating that the tethered incompressible oligomers enforce a more uniform particle distribution, and the densely grafted brush gives rise to an additional exclusionary effect between the nanoparticles. According to the theory, polydispersity in the oligomer grafting density controls the deviation of S(q) from the monodisperse system at smaller q, and the interplay of the enhanced effective core size and the entropic attraction among the particles is responsible for complex variations in the particle correlations at larger q. The successful comparison between the predictions and the measurements for the blends further suggests that S(q) can be used to assess the uniformity of grafting density in polymer-grafted nanoparticle materials. This journal is

  5. Structure factor of blends of solvent-free nanoparticle-organic hybrid materials: density-functional theory and small angle X-ray scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hsiu-Yu; Srivastava, Samanvaya; Archer, Lynden A; Koch, Donald L

    2014-12-07

    We investigate the static structure factor S(q) of solvent-free nanoparticle-organic hybrid materials consisting of silica nanocores and space-filling polyethylene glycol coronas using a density-functional theory and small angle X-ray scattering measurements. The theory considers a bidisperse suspension of hard spheres with different radii and tethered bead-spring oligomers with different grafting densities to approximate the polydispersity effects in experiments. The experimental systems studied include pure samples with different silica core volume fractions and the associated mean corona grafting densities, and blends with different mixing ratios of the pure samples, in order to introduce varying polydispersity of corona grafting density. Our scattering experiments and theory show that, compared to the hard-sphere suspension with the same core volume fraction, S(q) for pure samples exhibit both substantially smaller values at small q and stronger particle correlations corresponding to a larger effective hard core at large q, indicating that the tethered incompressible oligomers enforce a more uniform particle distribution, and the densely grafted brush gives rise to an additional exclusionary effect between the nanoparticles. According to the theory, polydispersity in the oligomer grafting density controls the deviation of S(q) from the monodisperse system at smaller q, and the interplay of the enhanced effective core size and the entropic attraction among the particles is responsible for complex variations in the particle correlations at larger q. The successful comparison between the predictions and the measurements for the blends further suggests that S(q) can be used to assess the uniformity of grafting density in polymer-grafted nanoparticle materials.

  6. The energy spectrum of 662 keV photons in a water equivalent phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akar Tarim, U.; Gurler, O.; Ozmutlu, E.N.; Yalcin, S.; Gundogdu, O.; Sharaf, J.M.; Bradley, D.A.

    2012-01-01

    Investigation is made on the energy spectrum of photons originating from interactions of 662 keV primary gamma-ray photons emitted by a point source positioned at the centre of a water equivalent solid phantom of dimensions 19 cm×19 cm×24 cm. Peaks resulting from total energy loss (photopeak) and multiple and back scattering have been observed using a 51 mm×51 mm NaI(Tl) detector; good agreement being found between the measured and simulated response functions. The energy spectrum of the gamma photons obtained through the Monte Carlo simulation reveals local maxima at about 100 keV and 210 keV, being also observed in the experimental response function. Such spectra can be used as a method of testing the water equivalence of solid phantom media before their use for dosimetry measurements. - Highlights: ► Peaks resulting from total energy loss (photopeak) and multiple and back scattering were observed. ► Energy distribution of γ-ray photons from a point source at the centre of a water equivalent solid phantom. ► The method can be applied to various detector geometries.

  7. Influence of Ceiling Suspended Screen Positioning to the Scatter Radiation Levels in Interventional Cardiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arandjic, D.; Bozovic, P.; Ciraj-Bjelac, O.; Antic, V.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to identify the effects of the ceiling suspended screen position to the scatter radiation levels in the interventional cardiology. The scatter radiation in terms of ambient dose equivalent H * (10) was measured for various positions of protective screen in the positions of the first operator, nurse and radiographer, at elevations 100-190 cm and in four different angulations of the x-ray tube. To assess the effectiveness of the protective screen, the scattered dose was also measured in the absence of any protection in all four angulations and elevations. To simulate real clinical situation the measurements were performed in the presence of 30 cm PMMA phantom using standard clinical protocol. The utility of protective screen varied for different positions and angulations. Scatter radiation levels varied in the range 70 - 3400 μSv/h for the first operator, 140 - 3200 μSv/h for the nurse and 50 - 560 μSv/h for radiographer. Ceiling suspended screens can provide a substantial level of protection (up to factor 18) in interventional cardiology, but they have to be properly managed and positioned to achieve sufficient level of protection. The guidance for optimal protection is provided in the paper.(author)

  8. Experimental validation of a multi-energy x-ray adapted scatter separation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sossin, A.; Rebuffel, V.; Tabary, J.; Létang, J. M.; Freud, N.; Verger, L.

    2016-12-01

    Both in radiography and computed tomography (CT), recently emerged energy-resolved x-ray photon counting detectors enable the identification and quantification of individual materials comprising the inspected object. However, the approaches used for these operations require highly accurate x-ray images. The accuracy of the images is severely compromised by the presence of scattered radiation, which leads to a loss of spatial contrast and, more importantly, a bias in radiographic material imaging and artefacts in CT. The aim of the present study was to experimentally evaluate a recently introduced partial attenuation spectral scatter separation approach (PASSSA) adapted for multi-energy imaging. For this purpose, a prototype x-ray system was used. Several radiographic acquisitions of an anthropomorphic thorax phantom were performed. Reference primary images were obtained via the beam-stop (BS) approach. The attenuation images acquired from PASSSA-corrected data showed a substantial increase in local contrast and internal structure contour visibility when compared to uncorrected images. A substantial reduction of scatter induced bias was also achieved. Quantitatively, the developed method proved to be in relatively good agreement with the BS data. The application of the proposed scatter correction technique lowered the initial normalized root-mean-square error (NRMSE) of 45% between the uncorrected total and the reference primary spectral images by a factor of 9, thus reducing it to around 5%.

  9. Detection and quantification of coronary calcium from dual energy chest x-rays: Phantom feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Bo; Wen, Di; Nye, Katelyn; Gilkeson, Robert C; Eck, Brendan; Jordan, David; Wilson, David L

    2017-10-01

    We have demonstrated the ability to identify coronary calcium, a reliable biomarker of coronary artery disease, using nongated, 2-shot, dual energy (DE) chest x-ray imaging. Here we will use digital simulations, backed up by measurements, to characterize DE calcium signals and the role of potential confounds such as beam hardening, x-ray scatter, cardiac motion, and pulmonary artery pulsation. For the DE calcium signal, we will consider quantification, as compared to CT calcium score, and visualization. We created stylized and anatomical digital 3D phantoms including heart, lung, coronary calcium, spine, ribs, pulmonary artery, and adipose. We simulated high and low kVp x-ray acquisitions with x-ray spectra, energy dependent attenuation, scatter, ideal detector, and automatic exposure control (AEC). Phantoms allowed us to vary adipose thickness, cardiac motion, etc. We used specialized dual energy coronary calcium (DECC) processing that includes corrections for scatter and beam hardening. Beam hardening over a wide range of adipose thickness (0-30 cm) reduced the change in intensity of a coronary artery calcification (ΔI CAC ) by calcium signal (ΔI CAC ) in DECC images ±9%. If a simulated pulmonary artery fills with blood between exposures, it can give rise to a residual signal in DECC images, explaining pulmonary artery visibility in some clinical images. Residual misregistration can be mostly compensated by integrating signals in an enlarged region encompassing registration artifacts. DECC calcium score compared favorably to CT mass and volume scores over a number of phantom perturbations. Simulations indicate that proper DECC processing can faithfully recover coronary calcium signals. Beam hardening, errors in scatter estimation, cardiac motion, calcium residual misregistration etc., are all manageable. Simulations are valuable as we continue to optimize DE coronary calcium image processing and quantitative analysis. © 2017 American Association of Physicists

  10. Basic studies of radiation image diagnosis in veterinary medicine, 1: Comparison of the resolution of computed tomography, scanography and conventional radiography in an equine thoracic phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shida, T.; Suganuma, T.; Hashizume, T.

    1984-01-01

    In radiography of the thorax and abdomen of a large animal, the extreme thickness of the body causes a large amount of scattered radiation, which makes it difficult to obtain sharp images. The image resolutions of radiographs obtained by applying conventional radiography, scanography and computed tomography [CT] on an equine thoracic phantom were compared. Tubes of various inside diameters, used to simulate the pulmonary vessels were placed in an equine thoracic phantom and radiographed by CT, scanography and conventional radiography so as to compare the various degrees of resolution of the images of the tubes obtained by these methods. CT and scanography both gave a higher resolution index than conventional radiography, and both provided recognizable images of tubes < 2 mm in diameter, which conventional radiography failed to do. Scanography and CT can be used to obtain high-quality images of the thorax and abdomen of large animals. The image quality was compared using the resolution index (RI). The RI would be a wholly practical and comprehensive index for resolution because it includes 3 factors, contrast, sharpness and magnification, and yet is easy to calculate

  11. Planar imaging quantification using 3D attenuation correction data and Monte Carlo simulated buildup factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, C.; Filipow, L.; Jackson, S.; Riauka, T.

    1996-01-01

    A new method to correct for attenuation and the buildup of scatter in planar imaging quantification is presented. The method is based on the combined use of 3D density information provided by computed tomography to correct for attenuation and the application of Monte Carlo simulated buildup factors to correct for buildup in the projection pixels. CT and nuclear medicine images were obtained for a purpose-built nonhomogeneous phantom that models the human anatomy in the thoracic and abdominal regions. The CT transverse slices of the phantom were converted to a set of consecutive density maps. An algorithm was developed that projects the 3D information contained in the set of density maps to create opposing pairs of accurate 2D correction maps that were subsequently applied to planar images acquired from a dual-head gamma camera. A comparison of results obtained by the new method and the geometric mean approach based on published techniques is presented for some of the source arrangements used. Excellent results were obtained for various source - phantom configurations used to evaluate the method. Activity quantification of a line source at most locations in the nonhomogeneous phantom produced errors of less than 2%. Additionally, knowledge of the actual source depth is not required for accurate activity quantification. Quantification of volume sources placed in foam, Perspex and aluminium produced errors of less than 7% for the abdominal and thoracic configurations of the phantom. (author)

  12. The salient features of charge density distributions of medium and heavy even-even nuclei determined from a systematic analysis of elastic electron scattering from factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedrich, J.; Voegler, N.

    1982-01-01

    All available information on charge distributions of even-even nuclei is analysed systematically. For medium and heavy nuclei five general features of p(r) are investigated: (i) The extension for which we discuss several different definitions. The measured extension together with experimental binding energies allows a determination of nuclear compressibility within the framework of the droplet model, the resulting value being K = 165 +- 10 MeV. (ii) The surface thickness. Here too, several definitions are discussed. A close relationship between the surface thickness and binding energies is demonstrated. (iii) The average slope in the inner part of the nucleus. A method is formulated to separate this slope from the oscillations observed. All nuclei show a positive slope of comparable size. (iv) The oscillations on p(r). They are related to an abrupt breakdown in the form factor around q = 2.25 fm -1 . This effect seems to be closely related to the fact that p(r) is built up out of single particles, details however being unimportant. (v) The high-q components of the form factor are indicative for a scattering mechanism involving pairs of nucleons. (orig.)

  13. Computational anthropomorphic phantoms for radiation protection dosimetry: evolution and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Choonsik; Lee, Jaiki

    2006-01-01

    Computational anthropomorphic phantoms are computer models of human anatomy used in the calculation of radiation dose distribution in the human body upon exposure to a radiation source. Depending on the manner to represent human anatomy, they are categorized into two classes: stylized and tomographic phantoms. Stylized phantoms, which have mainly been developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), describe human anatomy by using simple mathematical equations of analytical geometry. Several improved stylized phantoms such as male and female adults, pediatric series, and enhanced organ models have been developed following the first hermaphrodite adult stylized phantom, Medical Internal Radiation Dose (MIRD)-5 phantom. Although stylized phantoms have significantly contributed to dosimetry calculation, they provide only approximations of the true anatomical features of the human body and the resulting organ dose distribution. An alternative class of computational phantom, the tomographic phantom, is based upon three-dimensional imaging techniques such as Magnetic Resonance (MR) imaging and Computed Tomography (CT). The tomographic phantoms represent the human anatomy with a large number of voxels that are assigned tissue type and organ identity. To date, a total of around 30 tomographic phantoms including male and female adults, pediatric phantoms, and even a pregnant female, have been developed and utilized for realistic radiation dosimetry calculation. They are based on MRI/CT images or sectional color photos from patients, volunteers or cadavers. Several investigators have compared tomographic phantoms with stylized phantoms, and demonstrated the superiority of tomographic phantoms in terms of realistic anatomy and dosimetry calculation. This paper summarizes the history and current status of both stylized and tomographic phantoms, including Korean computational phantoms. Advantages, limitations, and future prospects are also discussed

  14. Ultrasonographic Quantification of Fat Content in Fatty Liver Phantoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Il Young; Kim, Pyo Nyun; Joo, Gyung Soo; Kim, Ho Jung; Kim, Young Beom; Lee, Byoung Ho

    1995-01-01

    Assuming that the fat content of certain tissue might be quantified by measurirrg the ultrasound echo level, we analyzed the ultrasound histograms obtained from the fatty liver phantoms that contained various amount of fat. Various amount of margarine(Mazola. Cliff wood. USA) was mixed with 2% of agarin solution state to produce fatty liver phantoms that contained 5, 10, 20, 30 and 40% of fat. We obtained ultrasound histogram from each fatty liver phantom in gel state. We used 2% agar gel as a control. The ultrasound histograms from the control phantom showed gradual increase in echo level as the depth from the surface increased. The echo level from the phantom that contained 5% of fat showed gradual increase and subsequent decrease with the peak echo level at the depth of 3cm. The echo levels from the phantoms that contained more in 5% of fat gradually decreased as the depth from the surface increased; the change becoming more pronounced as the fat content of the phantom increased. The echo levels measured at the depth of 1cm were 9.3(control), 29.6(5%phantom), 3l.3 (10% phantom), 26.3 (20% phantom), l8.8 (30% phantom), and l6dB (40% phantom). Fat content of fatty phantoms can not be quantified by measuring only echo level. Simultaneous measurement of attenuation of ultrasound, which is not easy to do and not done in this study, is prerequisite to quantify fat content

  15. Compton-scatter tissue densitometry: calculation of single and multiple scatter photon fluences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battista, J.J.; Bronskill, M.J.

    1978-01-01

    The accurate measurement of in vivo electron densities by the Compton-scatter method is limited by attenuations and multiple scattering in the patient. Using analytic and Monte Carlo calculation methods, the Clarke tissue density scanner has been modelled for incident monoenergetic photon energies from 300 to 2000 keV and for mean scattering angles of 30 to 130 degrees. For a single detector focussed to a central position in a uniform water phantom (25 x 25 x 25 cm 3 ) it has been demonstrated that: (1) Multiple scatter contamination is an inherent limitation of the Compton-scatter method of densitometry which can be minimised, but not eliminated, by improving the energy resolution of the scattered radiation detector. (2) The choice of the incident photon energy is a compromise between the permissible radiation dose to the patient and the tolerable level of multiple scatter contamination. For a mean scattering angle of 40 degrees, the intrinsic multiple-single scatter ratio decreases from 64 to 35%, and the radiation dose (per measurement) increases from 1.0 to 4.1 rad, as the incident photon energy increases from 300 to 2000 keV. These doses apply to a sampled volume of approximately 0.3 cm 3 and an electron density precision of 0.5%. (3) The forward scatter densitometer configuration is optimum, minimising both the dose and the multiple scatter contamination. For an incident photon energy of 1250 keV, the intrinsic multiple-single scatter ratio reduces from 122 to 27%, and the dose reduces from 14.3 to 1.2 rad, as the mean scattering angle decreases from 130 to 30 degrees. These calculations have been confirmed by experimental measurements. (author)

  16. An externally and internally deformable, programmable lung motion phantom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheung, Yam; Sawant, Amit, E-mail: amit.sawant@utsouthwestern.edu [UT Southwestern Medical Center, University of Texas, Dallas, Texas 75390 (United States)

    2015-05-15

    .25 mm RMS error. The motion trajectories of internal and external radio-opaque markers as measured by fluoroscopy were found to be highly correlated (R > 0.95). Using the phantom, it was demonstrated that the motion trajectories of regions-of-interest on the surface as measured by VisionRT are highly consistent with corresponding fluoroscopically acquired surface marker trajectories, with RMS errors within 0.26 mm. Furthermore, it was shown that the trajectories of external and internal marker trajectories derived from NiftyReg deformation vector fields were within 1 mm root mean square errors comparing to trajectories obtained by segmenting markers from individual fluoro frames. Finally, it was shown that while 4DCT can be used to localize internal markers for sinusoidal motion with reasonable accuracy, the localization error increases significantly (by a factor of ∼2) in the presence of cycle-to-cycle variations that are observed in patient-derived respiratory motion. Conclusions: The authors have developed a realistic externally and internally deformable, programmable lung phantom that will serve as a valuable tool for clinical and investigational motion management studies in thoracic and abdominal radiation therapies.

  17. Evaluation of water-mimicking solid phantom materials for use in HDR and LDR brachytherapy dosimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenfeld, Andreas A.; Thieben, Maike; Harder, Dietrich; Poppe, Björn; Chofor, Ndimofor

    2017-12-01

    In modern HDR or LDR brachytherapy with photon emitters, fast checks of the dose profiles generated in water or a water-equivalent phantom have to be available in the interest of patient safety. However, the commercially available brachytherapy photon sources cover a wide range of photon emission spectra, and the range of the in-phantom photon spectrum is further widened by Compton scattering, so that the achievement of water-mimicking properties of such phantoms involves high requirements on their atomic composition. In order to classify the degree of water equivalence of the numerous commercially available solid water-mimicking phantom materials and the energy ranges of their applicability, the radial profiles of the absorbed dose to water, D w, have been calculated using Monte Carlo simulations in these materials and in water phantoms of the same dimensions. This study includes the HDR therapy sources Nucletron Flexisource Co-60 HDR (60Co), Eckert und Ziegler BEBIG GmbH CSM-11 (137Cs), Implant Sciences Corporation HDR Yb-169 Source 4140 (169Yb) as well as the LDR therapy sources IsoRay Inc. Proxcelan CS-1 (131Cs), IsoAid Advantage I-125 IAI-125A (125I), and IsoAid Advantage Pd-103 IAPd-103A (103Pd). Thereby our previous comparison between phantom materials and water surrounding a Varian GammaMed Plus HDR therapy 192Ir source (Schoenfeld et al 2015) has been complemented. Simulations were performed in cylindrical phantoms consisting of either water or the materials RW1, RW3, Solid Water, HE Solid Water, Virtual Water, Plastic Water DT, Plastic Water LR, Original Plastic Water (2015), Plastic Water (1995), Blue Water, polyethylene, polystyrene and PMMA. While for 192Ir, 137Cs and 60Co most phantom materials can be regarded as water equivalent, for 169Yb the materials Plastic Water LR, Plastic Water DT and RW1 appear as water equivalent. For the low-energy sources 106Pd, 131Cs and 125I, only Plastic Water LR can be classified as water equivalent.

  18. Small angle neutron scattering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cousin Fabrice

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Small Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS is a technique that enables to probe the 3-D structure of materials on a typical size range lying from ∼ 1 nm up to ∼ a few 100 nm, the obtained information being statistically averaged on a sample whose volume is ∼ 1 cm3. This very rich technique enables to make a full structural characterization of a given object of nanometric dimensions (radius of gyration, shape, volume or mass, fractal dimension, specific area… through the determination of the form factor as well as the determination of the way objects are organized within in a continuous media, and therefore to describe interactions between them, through the determination of the structure factor. The specific properties of neutrons (possibility of tuning the scattering intensity by using the isotopic substitution, sensitivity to magnetism, negligible absorption, low energy of the incident neutrons make it particularly interesting in the fields of soft matter, biophysics, magnetic materials and metallurgy. In particular, the contrast variation methods allow to extract some informations that cannot be obtained by any other experimental techniques. This course is divided in two parts. The first one is devoted to the description of the principle of SANS: basics (formalism, coherent scattering/incoherent scattering, notion of elementary scatterer, form factor analysis (I(q→0, Guinier regime, intermediate regime, Porod regime, polydisperse system, structure factor analysis (2nd Virial coefficient, integral equations, characterization of aggregates, and contrast variation methods (how to create contrast in an homogeneous system, matching in ternary systems, extrapolation to zero concentration, Zero Averaged Contrast. It is illustrated by some representative examples. The second one describes the experimental aspects of SANS to guide user in its future experiments: description of SANS spectrometer, resolution of the spectrometer, optimization of

  19. Tissue quantification for development of pediatric phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, A.F.F.; Miranda, J.R.A.; Pina, D.R.

    2013-01-01

    The optimization of the risk- benefit ratio is a major concern in the pediatric radiology, due to the greater vulnerability of children to the late somatic effects and genetic effects of exposure to radiation compared to adults. In Brazil, it is estimated that the causes of death from head trauma are 18 % for the age group between 1-5 years and the radiograph is the primary diagnostic test for the detection of skull fracture . Knowing that the image quality is essential to ensure the identification of structures anatomical and minimizing errors diagnostic interpretation, this paper proposed the development and construction of homogeneous phantoms skull, for the age group 1-5 years. The construction of the phantoms homogeneous was performed using the classification and quantification of tissue present in the skull of pediatric patients. In this procedure computational algorithms were used, using Matlab, to quantify distinct biological tissues present in the anatomical regions studied , using pictures retrospective CT scans. Preliminary data obtained from measurements show that between the ages of 1-5 years, assuming an average anteroposterior diameter of the pediatric skull region of the 145.73 ± 2.97 mm, can be represented by 92.34 mm ± 5.22 of lucite and 1.75 ± 0:21 mm of aluminum plates of a provision of PEP (Pacient equivalent phantom). After its construction, the phantoms will be used for image and dose optimization in pediatric protocols process to examinations of computerized radiography

  20. PHANTOM: Smoothed particle hydrodynamics and magnetohydrodynamics code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Daniel J.; Wurster, James; Nixon, Chris; Tricco, Terrence S.; Toupin, Stéven; Pettitt, Alex; Chan, Conrad; Laibe, Guillaume; Glover, Simon; Dobbs, Clare; Nealon, Rebecca; Liptai, David; Worpel, Hauke; Bonnerot, Clément; Dipierro, Giovanni; Ragusa, Enrico; Federrath, Christoph; Iaconi, Roberto; Reichardt, Thomas; Forgan, Duncan; Hutchison, Mark; Constantino, Thomas; Ayliffe, Ben; Mentiplay, Daniel; Hirsh, Kieran; Lodato, Giuseppe

    2017-09-01

    Phantom is a smoothed particle hydrodynamics and magnetohydrodynamics code focused on stellar, galactic, planetary, and high energy astrophysics. It is modular, and handles sink particles, self-gravity, two fluid and one fluid dust, ISM chemistry and cooling, physical viscosity, non-ideal MHD, and more. Its modular structure makes it easy to add new physics to the code.

  1. Homemade ultrasound phantom for simulation of hydronephrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Karine Brandao Novaes

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this article, we describe the development of a simple and inexpensive simulation phantom as a surrogate of human hydronephrosis for the identification of urinary tract obstruction at bedside to be used in undergraduate training of medical students.

  2. The "Phantom Costs" of Florida's Citrus Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Muraro, Ronald P.; Roka, Fritz M.; Spreen, Thomas H.

    2006-01-01

    Regulatory compliance, the "phantom costs of production," is an increasingly "fact-of-life" for U.S. agriculture. A survey was developed and implemented to enumerate regulatory compliance costs for Florida's 748,500 acres citrus industry. Complying with 61 production related regulations, 643,757 hours were expended at a total annual cost of over $24.3 million.

  3. IMRT delivery verification using a spiral phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, Susan L.; Tome, Wolfgang A.; Orton, Nigel P.; McNutt, Todd R.; Paliwal, Bhudatt R.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we report on the testing and verification of a system for IMRT delivery quality assurance that uses a cylindrical solid water phantom with a spiral trajectory for radiographic film placement. This spiral film technique provides more complete dosimetric verification of the entire IMRT treatment than perpendicular film methods, since it samples a three-dimensional dose subspace rather than using measurements at only one or two depths. As an example, the complete analysis of the predicted and measured spiral films is described for an intracranial IMRT treatment case. The results of this analysis are compared to those of a single field perpendicular film technique that is typically used for IMRT QA. The comparison demonstrates that both methods result in a dosimetric error within a clinical tolerance of 5%, however the spiral phantom QA technique provides a more complete dosimetric verification while being less time consuming. To independently verify the dosimetry obtained with the spiral film, the same IMRT treatment was delivered to a similar phantom in which LiF thermoluminescent dosimeters were arranged along the spiral trajectory. The maximum difference between the predicted and measured TLD data for the 1.8 Gy fraction was 0.06 Gy for a TLD located in a high dose gradient region. This further validates the ability of the spiral phantom QA process to accurately verify delivery of an IMRT plan

  4. SU-E-T-454: Impact of Air Gap On PDDs of 6 MV Photon Beam for Various Field Sizes in Inhomogeneous Phantoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oyewale, S [Cancer Centers of Southwest Oklahoma, Lawton, OK (United States); Pokharel [21st Century Oncology, Estero, FL (United States); Singh, H [Procure Proton Therapy Center, Oklahoma City, OK (United States); Islam, M [University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma (United States); Rana, S [ProCure Proton Therapy Center, Oklahoma City, OK (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate how the shape of air gap and its size will impact the percent depth doses (PDDs) of a 6MV photon beam for various field sizes. Methods: Two in-house phantoms were manufactured containing rectangular (phantom A) and circular (phantom B) air gaps. Both phantoms A and B were composed of same top layer (solid-water; 30×30cm{sup 2},5cm thickness) and bottom layer (solid-water; 30×30cm {sup 2},8cm thickness), but middle layer was varied to observe air gap effects and scatter contribution to the measurement point. In phantom A, a rectangular shaped air gap (30×30cm{sup 2},7cm thickness) was created by placing Styrofoam blocks between top and bottom layers of the phantom. In phantom B, middle layer was replaced by “inhomogenous block”, composed of acrylic plate (30×30cm{sup 2}, 4cm thickness) followed by PVC(30×30cm{sup 2},3cm thickness). Additionally, circular air gap was created by drilling a hole (diameter=2.8cm, length=7cm) at the center of “inhomogenous block”. In both phantoms, measurement readings were obtained at 13cm depth (i.e., 1cm after air gap) and depth of maximum dose(6MV energy; 100 MUs; field sizes ranged from 3×3cm{sup 2} to 10×10cm{sup 2}). The PDDs at 13cm depth were compared in both phantoms. Results: The measurements in both phantoms A and B showed an almost linear increase in PDDs with increasing field size, especially for smaller field sizes (from 3×3 to 7×7cm{sup 2}). For each field size, the PDD in phantom A was smaller compared to the one in phantom B. The difference in PDDs between two phantoms decreased with an increase in field size as the PDD difference decreased from 9.0% to 6.4%. Conclusion: The shape and size of air gap affect the PDD measurements in secondary build-up region as 6 MV primary beam traverses through the center of air gap. The scatter contribution due to increase in field size was more noticeable for field sizes ≤7×7cm{sup 2}.

  5. Abstract ID: 176 Geant4 implementation of inter-atomic interference effect in small-angle coherent X-ray scattering for materials of medical interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paternò, Gianfranco; Cardarelli, Paolo; Contillo, Adriano; Gambaccini, Mauro; Taibi, Angelo

    2018-01-01

    Advanced applications of digital mammography such as dual-energy and tomosynthesis require multiple exposures and thus deliver higher dose compared to standard mammograms. A straightforward manner to reduce patient dose without affecting image quality would be removal of the anti-scatter grid, provided that the involved reconstruction algorithms are able to take the scatter figure into account [1]. Monte Carlo simulations are very well suited for the calculation of X-ray scatter distribution and can be used to integrate such information within the reconstruction software. Geant4 is an open source C++ particle tracking code widely used in several physical fields, including medical physics [2,3]. However, the coherent scattering cross section used by the standard Geant4 code does not take into account the influence of molecular interference. According to the independent atomic scattering approximation (the so-called free-atom model), coherent radiation is indistinguishable from primary radiation because its angular distribution is peaked in the forward direction. Since interference effects occur between x-rays scattered by neighbouring atoms in matter, it was shown experimentally that the scatter distribution is affected by the molecular structure of the target, even in amorphous materials. The most important consequence is that the coherent scatter distribution is not peaked in the forward direction, and the position of the maximum is strongly material-dependent [4]. In this contribution, we present the implementation of a method to take into account inter-atomic interference in small-angle coherent scattering in Geant4, including a dedicated data set of suitable molecular form factor values for several materials of clinical interest. Furthermore, we present scatter images of simple geometric phantoms in which the Rayleigh contribution is rigorously evaluated. Copyright © 2017.

  6. Deep brain stimulation for phantom limb pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittar, Richard G; Otero, Sofia; Carter, Helen; Aziz, Tipu Z

    2005-05-01

    Phantom limb pain is an often severe and debilitating phenomenon that has been reported in up to 85% of amputees. Its pathophysiology is poorly understood. Peripheral and spinal mechanisms are thought to play a role in pain modulation in affected individuals; however central mechanisms are also likely to be of importance. The neuromatrix theory postulates a genetically determined representation of body image, which is modified by sensory input to create a neurosignature. Persistence of the neurosignature may be responsible for painless phantom limb sensations, whereas phantom limb pain may be due to abnormal reorganisation within the neuromatrix. This study assessed the clinical outcome of deep brain stimulation of the periventricular grey matter and somatosensory thalamus for the relief of chronic neuropathic pain associated with phantom limb in three patients. These patients were assessed preoperatively and at 3 month intervals postoperatively. Self-rated visual analogue scale pain scores assessed pain intensity, and the McGill Pain Questionnaire assessed the quality of the pain. Quality of life was assessed using the EUROQOL EQ-5D scale. Periventricular gray stimulation alone was optimal in two patients, whilst a combination of periventricular gray and thalamic stimulation produced the greatest degree of relief in one patient. At follow-up (mean 13.3 months) the intensity of pain was reduced by 62% (range 55-70%). In all three patients, the burning component of the pain was completely alleviated. Opiate intake was reduced in the two patients requiring morphine sulphate pre-operatively. Quality of life measures indicated a statistically significant improvement. This data supports the role for deep brain stimulation in patients with phantom limb pain. The medical literature relating to the epidemiology, pathogenesis, and treatment of this clinical entity is reviewed in detail.

  7. Image fusion tool: Validation by phantom measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zander, A.; Geworski, L.; Richter, M.; Ivancevic, V.; Munz, D.L.; Muehler, M.; Ditt, H.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: Validation of a new image fusion tool with regard to handling, application in a clinical environment and fusion precision under different acquisition and registration settings. Methods: The image fusion tool investigated allows fusion of imaging modalities such as PET, CT, MRI. In order to investigate fusion precision, PET and MRI measurements were performed using a cylinder and a body contour-shaped phantom. The cylinder phantom (diameter and length 20 cm each) contained spheres (10 to 40 mm in diameter) which represented 'cold' or 'hot' lesions in PET measurements. The body contour-shaped phantom was equipped with a heart model containing two 'cold' lesions. Measurements were done with and without four external markers placed on the phantoms. The markers were made of plexiglass (2 cm diameter and 1 cm thickness) and contained a Ga-Ge-68 core for PET and Vitamin E for MRI measurements. Comparison of fusion results with and without markers was done visually and by computer assistance. This algorithm was applied to the different fusion parameters and phantoms. Results: Image fusion of PET and MRI data without external markers yielded a measured error of 0 resulting in a shift at the matrix border of 1.5 mm. Conclusion: The image fusion tool investigated allows a precise fusion of PET and MRI data with a translation error acceptable for clinical use. The error is further minimized by using external markers, especially in the case of missing anatomical orientation. Using PET the registration error depends almost only on the low resolution of the data

  8. Reconstruction of voxel phantoms for skin dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antunes, Paula Cristina Guimaraes

    2010-01-01

    Radiotherapy is a therapeutic modality that utilizes ionizing radiation for the destruction of neoplastic human cells. One of the requirements for this treatment methodology success lays on the appropriate use of planning systems, which performs, among other information, the patient's dose distribution estimate. Nowadays, transport codes have been providing huge subsidies to these planning systems, once it enables specific and accurate patient organ and tissue dosimetry. The model utilized by these codes to describe the human anatomy in a realistic way is known as voxel phantoms, which are represented by discrete volume elements (voxels) directly associated to tomographic data. Nowadays, voxel phantoms doable of being inserted and processed by the transport code MCNP (Monte Carlo N-Particle) presents a 3-4 mm image resolution; however, such resolution limits some thin body structure discrimination, such as skin. In this context, this work proposes a calculus routine that discriminates this region with thickness and localization in the voxel phantoms similar to the real, leading to an accurate dosimetric skin dose assessment by the MCNP code. Moreover, this methodology consists in manipulating the voxel phantoms volume elements by segmenting and subdividing it in different skin thickness. In addition to validate the skin dose calculated data, a set of experimental evaluations with thermoluminescent dosimeters were performed in an anthropomorphic phantom. Due to significant differences observed on the dose distribution of several skin representations, it was found that is important to discriminate the skin thickness similar to the real. The presented methodology is useful to obtain an accurate skin dosimetric evaluation for several radiotherapy procedures, with particular interest on the electron beam radiotherapy, in which highlights the whole body irradiation therapy (TSET), a procedure under implementation at the Hospital das Clinicas da Faculdade de Medicina da

  9. Phantom Sensations, Supernumerary Phantom Limbs and Apotemnophilia: Three Body Representation Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatu, Laurent; Bogousslavsky, Julien

    2018-01-01

    Body representation disorders continue to be mysterious and involve the anatomical substrate that underlies the mental representation of the body. These disorders sit on the boundaries of neurological and psychiatric diseases. We present the main characteristics of 3 examples of body representation disorders: phantom sensations, supernumerary phantom limb, and apotemnophilia. The dysfunction of anatomical circuits that regulate body representation can sometimes have paradoxical features. In the case of phantom sensations, the patient feels the painful subjective sensation of the existence of the lost part of the body after amputation, surgery or trauma. In case of apotemnophilia, now named body integrity identity disorder, the subject wishes for the disappearance of the existing and normal limb, which can occasionally lead to self-amputation. More rarely, a brain-damaged patient with 4 existing limbs can report the existence of a supernumerary phantom limb. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Scattering by two spheres: Theory and experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnø, Irina; Jensen, Leif Bjørnø

    1998-01-01

    of suspended sediments. The scattering properties of single regular-shaped particles have been studied in depth by several authors in the past. However, single particle scattering cannot explain all features of scattering by suspended sediment. When the concentration of particles exceeds a certain limit...... on three issues: (1) to develop a simplified theory for scattering by two elastical spheres; (2) to measure the scattering by two spheres in a water tank, and (3) to compare the theoretical/numerical results with the measured data. A number of factors influencing multiple scattering, including...

  11. Elastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leader, Elliot

    1991-01-01

    With very few unexplained results to challenge conventional ideas, physicists have to look hard to search for gaps in understanding. An area of physics which offers a lot more than meets the eye is elastic and diffractive scattering where particles either 'bounce' off each other, emerging unscathed, or just graze past, emerging relatively unscathed. The 'Blois' workshops provide a regular focus for this unspectacular, but compelling physics, attracting highly motivated devotees

  12. Neutron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-02-01

    The annual report on hand gives an overview of the research work carried out in the Laboratory for Neutron Scattering (LNS) of the ETH Zuerich in 1990. Using the method of neutron scattering, it is possible to examine in detail the static and dynamic properties of the condensed material. In accordance with the multidisciplined character of the method, the LNS has for years maintained a system of intensive co-operation with numerous institutes in the areas of biology, chemistry, solid-state physics, crystallography and materials research. In 1990 over 100 scientists from more than 40 research groups both at home and abroad took part in the experiments. It was again a pleasure to see the number of graduate students present, who were studying for a doctorate and who could be introduced into the neutron scattering during their stay at the LNS and thus were in the position to touch on central ways of looking at a problem in their dissertation using this modern experimental method of solid-state research. In addition to the numerous and interesting ways of formulating the questions to explain the structure, nowadays the scientific programme increasingly includes particularly topical studies in connection with high temperature-supraconductors and materials research

  13. Scattering theory

    CERN Document Server

    Friedrich, Harald

    2016-01-01

    This corrected and updated second edition of "Scattering Theory" presents a concise and modern coverage of the subject. In the present treatment, special attention is given to the role played by the long-range behaviour of the projectile-target interaction, and a theory is developed, which is well suited to describe near-threshold bound and continuum states in realistic binary systems such as diatomic molecules or molecular ions. It is motivated by the fact that experimental advances have shifted and broadened the scope of applications where concepts from scattering theory are used, e.g. to the field of ultracold atoms and molecules, which has been experiencing enormous growth in recent years, largely triggered by the successful realization of Bose-Einstein condensates of dilute atomic gases in 1995. The book contains sections on special topics such as near-threshold quantization, quantum reflection, Feshbach resonances and the quantum description of scattering in two dimensions. The level of abstraction is k...

  14. Design and Fabrication of Kidney Phantoms for Internal Radiation Dosimetry Using 3D Printing Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran-Gia, Johannes; Schlögl, Susanne; Lassmann, Michael

    2016-12-01

    Currently, the validation of multimodal quantitative imaging and absorbed dose measurements is impeded by the lack of suitable, commercially available anthropomorphic phantoms of variable sizes and shapes. To demonstrate the potential of 3-dimensional (3D) printing techniques for quantitative SPECT/CT imaging, a set of kidney dosimetry phantoms and their spherical counterparts was designed and manufactured with a fused-deposition-modeling 3D printer. Nuclide-dependent SPECT/CT calibration factors were determined to assess the accuracy of quantitative imaging for internal renal dosimetry. A set of 4 single-compartment kidney phantoms with filling volumes between 8 and 123 mL was designed on the basis of the outer kidney dimensions provided by MIRD pamphlet 19. After the phantoms had been printed, SPECT/CT acquisitions of 3 radionuclides ( 99m Tc, 177 Lu, and 131 I) were obtained and calibration constants determined for each radionuclide-volume combination. A set of additionally manufactured spheres matching the kidney volumes was also examined to assess the influence of phantom shape and size on the calibration constants. A set of refillable, waterproof, and chemically stable kidneys and spheres was successfully manufactured. Average calibration factors for 99m Tc, 177 Lu, and 131 I were obtained in a large source measured in air. For the largest phantom (122.9 mL), the volumes of interest had to be enlarged by 1.2 mm for 99m Tc, 2.5 mm for 177 Lu, and 4.9 mm for 131 I in all directions to obtain calibration factors comparable to the reference. Although partial-volume effects were observed for decreasing phantom volumes (percentage difference of up to 9.8% for the smallest volume [8.6 mL]), the difference between corresponding sphere-kidney pairs was small (3D printing is a promising prototyping technique for geometry-specific calibration of SPECT/CT systems. Although the underlying radionuclide and the related collimator have a major influence on the calibration

  15. Phantom energy accretion onto black holes in a cyclic universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Chengyi

    2008-01-01

    Black holes pose a serious problem in cyclic or oscillating cosmology. It is speculated that, in the cyclic universe with phantom turnarounds, black holes will be torn apart by phantom energy prior to turnaround before they can create any problems. In this paper, using the mechanism of phantom accretion onto black holes, we find that black holes do not disappear before phantom turnaround. But the remanent black holes will not cause any problems due to Hawking evaporation.

  16. External Auditing on Absorbed Dose Using a Solid Water Phantom for Domestic Radiotherapy Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Chang Heon; Kim, Jung In; Park, Jong Min; Park, Yang Kyun; Ye, Sung Joon [Medical Research Center, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Kun Woo; Cho, Woon Kap [Radiation Research, Korean Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Chun Il [Korea Food and Drug Administration, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-11-15

    We report the results of an external audit on the absorbed dose of radiotherapy beams independently performed by third parties. For this effort, we developed a method to measure the absorbed dose to water in an easy and convenient setup of solid water phantom. In 2008, 12 radiotherapy centers voluntarily participated in the external auditing program and 47 beams of X-ray and electron were independently calibrated by the third party's American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) task group (TG)-51 protocol. Even though the AAPM TG-51 protocol recommended the use of water, water as a phantom has a few disadvantages, especially in a busy clinic. Instead, we used solid water phantom due to its reproducibility and convenience in terms of setup and transport. Dose conversion factors between solid water and water were determined for photon and electron beams of various energies by using a scaling method and experimental measurements. Most of the beams (74%) were within {+-}2% of the deviation from the third party's protocol. However, two of 20 X-ray beams and three of 27 electron beams were out of the tolerance ({+-}3%), including two beams with a >10% deviation. X-ray beams of higher than 6 MV had no conversion factors, while a 6 MV absorbed dose to a solid water phantom was 0.4% less than the dose to water. The electron dose conversion factors between the solid water phantom and water were determined: The higher the electron energy, the less is the conversion factor. The total uncertainty of the TG-51 protocol measurement using a solid water phantom was determined to be {+-}1.5%. The developed method was successfully applied for the external auditing program, which could be evolved into a credential program of multi-institutional clinical trials. This dosimetry saved time for measuring doses as well as decreased the uncertainty of measurement possibly resulting from the reference setup in water.

  17. Hybrid pregnant reference phantom series based on adult female ICRP reference phantom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafat-Motavalli, Laleh; Miri-Hakimabad, Hashem; Hoseinian-Azghadi, Elie

    2018-03-01

    This paper presents boundary representation (BREP) models of pregnant female and her fetus at the end of each trimester. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) female reference voxel phantom was used as a base template in development process of the pregnant hybrid phantom series. The differences in shape and location of the displaced maternal organs caused by enlarging uterus were also taken into account. The CT and MR images of fetus specimens and pregnant patients of various ages were used to replace the maternal abdominal pelvic organs of template phantom and insert the fetus inside the gravid uterus. Each fetal model contains 21 different organs and tissues. The skeletal model of the fetus also includes age-dependent cartilaginous and ossified skeletal components. The replaced maternal organ models were converted to NURBS surfaces and then modified to conform to reference values of ICRP Publication 89. The particular feature of current series compared to the previously developed pregnant phantoms is being constructed upon the basis of ICRP reference phantom. The maternal replaced organ models are NURBS surfaces. With this great potential, they might have the feasibility of being converted to high quality polygon mesh phantoms.

  18. ICRU activity in the field of phantoms in diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wambersie, A.

    1992-01-01

    The ICRU Report on 'Phantoms and Computational Models in Radiation Therapy, Diagnosis and Protection' is presented. Different types of phantoms may be defined. They may be broadly categorized according to their primary function: dosimetry, calibration and imaging. Within each functional category, there are 3 types or designs of phantoms: body phantoms (anthropomorphic), standard phantoms and reference phantoms (used in the definition and specification of certain radiation quantities). In radiological imaging, anthropomorphic body phantoms are used for measuring the absorbed dose distribution resulting from imaging procedures. Standard phantoms have simple reproducible geometry and are used for comparing measurements under standard conditions of exposure. Imaging phantoms are useful for evaluating a given imaging system; they contain different types of test pieces. The report contains a major section on human anatomy, from fetus to adult with the variations due to ethnic origin. Tolerance levels for the phantoms (composition, dimensions) are proposed and quality assurance programs are outlined. The report contains extensive appendices; human anatomical data and full specification of over 80 phantoms and computational models. ICRU Report 46 on 'Photon, electron, proton and neutron interaction data for body tissues' is closely related to the field of phantoms. It is a logical continuation on ICRU Report 44 (1989) on 'Tissue substitutes in radiation dosimetry and measurements' and contains the interaction data for more than 100 tissues, from fetal to adult, including some diseased tissues

  19. The threshold contrast thickness evaluated with different CDMAM phantoms and software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiszewska Ewa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The image quality in digital mammography is described by specifying the thickness and diameter of disks with threshold visibility. The European Commission recommends the CDMAM phantom as a tool to evaluate threshold contrast visibility in digital mammography [1, 2]. Inaccuracy of the manufacturing process of CDMAM 3.4 phantoms (Artinis Medical System BV, as well as differences between software used to analyze the images, may lead to discrepancies in the evaluation of threshold contrast visibility. The authors of this work used three CDMAM 3.4 phantoms with serial numbers 1669, 1840, and 1841 and two mammography systems of the same manufacturer with an identical types of detectors. The images were analyzed with EUREF software (version 1.5.5 with CDCOM 1.6. exe file and Artinis software (version 1.2 with CDCOM 1.6. exe file. The differences between the observed thicknesses of the threshold contrast structures, which were caused by differences between the CDMAM 3.4 phantoms, were not reproduced in the same way on two mammography units of the same type. The thickness reported by the Artinis software (version 1.2 with CDCOM 1.6. exe file was generally greater than the one determined by the EUREF software (version 1.5.5 with CDCOM 1.6. exe file, but the ratio of the results depended on the phantom and diameter of the structure. It was not possible to establish correction factors, which would allow correction of the differences between the results obtained for different CDMAM 3.4 phantoms, or to correct the differences between software. Great care must be taken when results of the tests performed with different CDMAM 3.4 phantoms and with different software application are interpreted.

  20. Experimental study on representation of flow on the bifurcated carotid arterial phantoms using magnetic resonance angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Tae Sub; Rhim, Yoon Chul; Kim, Kyung Oh; Suh, Sang Ho; Jin, En Hao

    1995-01-01

    A common finding of carotid artery on magnetic resonance angiograms(MRAs) is a signal dropout along the posterior wall of carotid bulb due to reverse flow. The purpose of this study is to evaluate variable flow patterns on bifurcated carotid arterial phantoms using steady-state flow. We designed phantoms of a bifurcated carotid artery with acrylic materials. Flow patterns were evaluated with axial and coronal imaging of MRA(2D-TOF, 3D-TOF), color Doppler imaging, and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) within the phantoms constructed of an automated closed-type circulatory system filled with 4% sugar solution. These findings were compared with findings obtained from normal volunteers. Axial 3D-TOF MRA images exhibited closer resemblance to the contour of the inner wall of phantoms when compared to coronal 2D-TOF MRA imaging. However, 2D-TOF MRA showed good contrast difference of signal intensities between forward flow area and reverse flow area. Dark zones with reduced signal intensities due to reversed flow were separated from the outer wall of the internal and external carotid arteries by a thin layer of forward flow along the wall on the source slice image of MRA. The general hemodynamics of the phantoms on MRA were identical to hemodynamics on color Doppler imaging and CFD. The results obtained with the phantoms matched the findings on normal volunteers. Although representations of bifurcated carotid arterial phantoms on axial 3D-TOF MRA were excellent if ideally designed, the zone of reversed flow could be a significant factor in creating distorted image when the zone of reversed flow contacted directly with curved or deformed arterial wall

  1. Effects of exposure equalization on image signal-to-noise ratios in digital mammography: A simulation study with an anthropomorphic breast phantom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Xinming; Lai Chaojen; Whitman, Gary J.; Geiser, William R.; Shen Youtao; Yi Ying; Shaw, Chris C. [Department of Imaging Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030-4009 (United States); Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030-4009 (United States); Department of Imaging Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030-4009 (United States)

    2011-12-15

    Purpose: The scan equalization digital mammography (SEDM) technique combines slot scanning and exposure equalization to improve low-contrast performance of digital mammography in dense tissue areas. In this study, full-field digital mammography (FFDM) images of an anthropomorphic breast phantom acquired with an anti-scatter grid at various exposure levels were superimposed to simulate SEDM images and investigate the improvement of low-contrast performance as quantified by primary signal-to-noise ratios (PSNRs). Methods: We imaged an anthropomorphic breast phantom (Gammex 169 ''Rachel,'' Gammex RMI, Middleton, WI) at various exposure levels using a FFDM system (Senographe 2000D, GE Medical Systems, Milwaukee, WI). The exposure equalization factors were computed based on a standard FFDM image acquired in the automatic exposure control (AEC) mode. The equalized image was simulated and constructed by superimposing a selected set of FFDM images acquired at 2, 1, 1/2, 1/4, 1/8, 1/16, and 1/32 times of exposure levels to the standard AEC timed technique (125 mAs) using the equalization factors computed for each region. Finally, the equalized image was renormalized regionally with the exposure equalization factors to result in an appearance similar to that with standard digital mammography. Two sets of FFDM images were acquired to allow for two identically, but independently, formed equalized images to be subtracted from each other to estimate the noise levels. Similarly, two identically but independently acquired standard FFDM images were subtracted to estimate the noise levels. Corrections were applied to remove the excess system noise accumulated during image superimposition in forming the equalized image. PSNRs over the compressed area of breast phantom were computed and used to quantitatively study the effects of exposure equalization on low-contrast performance in digital mammography. Results: We found that the highest achievable PSNR improvement

  2. Effects of exposure equalization on image signal-to-noise ratios in digital mammography: A simulation study with an anthropomorphic breast phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xinming; Lai Chaojen; Whitman, Gary J.; Geiser, William R.; Shen Youtao; Yi Ying; Shaw, Chris C.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The scan equalization digital mammography (SEDM) technique combines slot scanning and exposure equalization to improve low-contrast performance of digital mammography in dense tissue areas. In this study, full-field digital mammography (FFDM) images of an anthropomorphic breast phantom acquired with an anti-scatter grid at various exposure levels were superimposed to simulate SEDM images and investigate the improvement of low-contrast performance as quantified by primary signal-to-noise ratios (PSNRs). Methods: We imaged an anthropomorphic breast phantom (Gammex 169 ''Rachel,'' Gammex RMI, Middleton, WI) at various exposure levels using a FFDM system (Senographe 2000D, GE Medical Systems, Milwaukee, WI). The exposure equalization factors were computed based on a standard FFDM image acquired in the automatic exposure control (AEC) mode. The equalized image was simulated and constructed by superimposing a selected set of FFDM images acquired at 2, 1, 1/2, 1/4, 1/8, 1/16, and 1/32 times of exposure levels to the standard AEC timed technique (125 mAs) using the equalization factors computed for each region. Finally, the equalized image was renormalized regionally with the exposure equalization factors to result in an appearance similar to that with standard digital mammography. Two sets of FFDM images were acquired to allow for two identically, but independently, formed equalized images to be subtracted from each other to estimate the noise levels. Similarly, two identically but independently acquired standard FFDM images were subtracted to estimate the noise levels. Corrections were applied to remove the excess system noise accumulated during image superimposition in forming the equalized image. PSNRs over the compressed area of breast phantom were computed and used to quantitatively study the effects of exposure equalization on low-contrast performance in digital mammography. Results: We found that the highest achievable PSNR improvement factor was 1.89 for

  3. Magnetic navigation in a coronary phantom: experimental results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-García, Héctor M; Tsuchida, Keiichi; Meulenbrug, Hans; Ong, Andrew T L; Van der Giessen, Willem J; Serruys, Patrick W

    2005-11-01

    The objective was to investigate the efficacy of a magnetic navigation system (MNS) in a coronary phantom. The number of coronary interventional procedures performed is steadily increasing with the availability of new devices to treat more complex lesions. Vessel tortuosity remains an important limiting factor in percutaneous coronary intervention. The MNS can orient the tip of magnetized wire. The coronary phantom is a representation of the coronary tree. Two operators using both a magnetic wire and a standard wire, measured the procedural time (PT), the fluoroscopic time (FT) and the radiation exposure/area product (DAP) required to navigate through to fourteen segments. Ten wire advancements were performed per segment. In all but two segments, the PT was significantly longer using magnetic navigation than using manual navigation. The median FT in the left main artery (LMA) - first septal segment was 7 seconds vs. 18 seconds, with magnetic and manual navigation respectively, (p=0.05); in the LMA - obtuse marginal segment the median FT was 15 seconds with magnetic navigation vs. 29.5 seconds with manual navigation, (p=0.01); in the segment from proximal right coronary artery (RCA1) to the acute marginal branch, the median FT was 8 seconds with magnetic vs. 11 seconds with manual navigation, (p=0.05); and in the RCA1 -posterior descending segment the median FT was 9.5 seconds with magnetic vs. 15 seconds with manual navigation, (p=0.006). The MNS facilitates wire access to distal segments in a coronary phantom, with a reduction in FT and radiation exposure using magnetic navigation in tortuous segments.

  4. Influence of phantom and tube voltage in fluoroscopy on image intensifier (I.I.) incident dose rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seguchi, Shigenobu; Ishikawa, Yoshinobu; Kuwahara, Kazuyoshi; Morita, Miki; Mizuno, Shouta; Nakamura, Akio

    1999-01-01

    We examined the influence of phantoms and tube voltage in fluoroscopy on the image intensifier (I.I.) conversion factor. We used 20-cm-thick acrylic resin, 20 mm aluminum, and 1.5 mm copper, which are generally used as phantoms in the measurement of I.I. incident dose rate. We measured I.I. incident dose rate and conversion factor under conditions in which the range of tube voltage was from 60 kV to 120 kV. The result showed that the conversion factor is influenced by the type of phantom, with copper showing the highest value, aluminum second, and acrylic the smallest under the same condition of aluminum at half value layer. It was determined that conversion factor depends on tube voltage and has peaks from 80-100 kV. The location and height of the peak are influenced by the type of phantom. Therefore, I.I. incident dose rate is influenced by both the type of phantom and tube voltage under automatic brightness control fluoroscopy. Unification of phantoms and tube voltage is necessary for long-term evaluation of I.I. incident dose rate. (author)

  5. Signature of protein adaptation to warm deep sea environments: the case of Initiation Factor 6 studied by molecular simulation and neutron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calligari, Paolo

    2008-01-01

    The protein Initiation Factor 6 (IF6) takes part in the protein synthesis regulation of several organisms. It was also found in archeaebacteria such as Methanococcus jannaschii which lives in deep-seas near hydrothermal vents where temperature reaches 80 C and pressure is between 250 bar and 500 bar. The aim of this work was to study for the first time dynamical and structural properties of IF6 produced by M. jannaschii and comparing them with those of the IF6 homologue present in Saccharomyces cerevisiae which lives at 'normal' environmental conditions (27 C and 1 bar). Molecular simulation gave here new insights into the adaptation of these two proteins to their respective physiological conditions and showed that the latter induced similar dynamical and structural properties: in their respective 'natural' conditions, IF6s show very similar structural fluctuations and the characteristic relaxation times which define their dynamical properties shows similar changes when comparing unfavorable conditions to physiological ones. The creation of these corresponding states between the two homologues has been interpreted by the fractional Brownian dynamics model and by a novel method for the characterization of protein secondary structures. The latter is presented here in detail together with some examples of other applications. Experimental data obtained from quasi-elastic neutron scattering seemed to support the results obtained by molecular simulations. (author) [fr

  6. Measuring the surface-enhanced Raman scattering enhancement factors of hot spots formed between an individual Ag nanowire and a single Ag nanocube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camargo, Pedro H C; Cobley, Claire M; Rycenga, Matthew; Xia Younan

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a systematic study of the surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) activity of hot spots formed between a Ag nanowire and a Ag nanocube with sharp corners. We investigated two distinct dimer structures: (i) a nanocube having one side face nearly touching the side face of a nanowire, and (ii) a nanocube having one edge nearly touching the side face of a nanowire. The field enhancements for the dimers displayed a strong dependence on laser polarization, and the strongest SERS intensities were observed for polarization along the hot-spot axis. Moreover, the detected SERS intensities were dependent on the hot-spot structure, i.e., the relative orientation of the Ag nanocube with respect to the nanowire's side face. When the dimer had a face-to-face configuration, the enhancement factor EF dimer was 1.4 x 10 7 . This corresponds to 22-fold and 24-fold increases compared to those for individual Ag nanowires and nanocubes, respectively. Conversely, when the dimer had an edge-to-face configuration, EF dimer was 4.3 x 10 6 . These results demonstrated that the number of probe molecules adsorbed at the hot spot played an important role in determining the detected SERS intensities. EF dimer was maximized when the dimer configuration allowed for a larger number of probe molecules to be trapped within the hot-spot region.

  7. Initial quality performance results using a phantom to simulate chest computed radiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhogora Wilbroad

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to develop a homemade phantom for quantitative quality control in chest computed radiography (CR. The phantom was constructed from copper, aluminium, and polymenthylmethacrylate (PMMA plates as well as Styrofoam materials. Depending on combinations, the literature suggests that these materials can simulate the attenuation and scattering characteristics of lung, heart, and mediastinum. The lung, heart, and mediastinum regions were simulated by 10 mm x 10 mm x 0.5 mm, 10 mm x 10 mm x 0.5 mm and 10 mm x 10 mm x 1 mm copper plates, respectively. A test object of 100 mm x 100 mm and 0.2 mm thick copper was positioned to each region for CNR measurements. The phantom was exposed to x-rays generated by different tube potentials that covered settings in clinical use: 110-120 kVp (HVL=4.26-4.66 mm Al at a source image distance (SID of 180 cm. An approach similar to the recommended method in digital mammography was applied to determine the CNR values of phantom images produced by a Kodak CR 850A system with post-processing turned off. Subjective contrast-detail studies were also carried out by using images of Leeds TOR CDR test object acquired under similar exposure conditions as during CNR measurements. For clinical kVp conditions relevant to chest radiography, the CNR was highest over 90-100 kVp range. The CNR data correlated with the results of contrast detail observations. The values of clinical tube potentials at which CNR is the highest are regarded to be optimal kVp settings. The simplicity in phantom construction can offer easy implementation of related quality control program.

  8. Characterizing the behavior of scattered radiation in multi-energy x-ray imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sossin, Artur, E-mail: artur.sossin@gmail.com [CEA-LETI MINATEC Grenoble, F-38054 Grenoble (France); Rebuffel, V.; Tabary, J. [CEA-LETI MINATEC Grenoble, F-38054 Grenoble (France); Létang, J.M.; Freud, N. [Univ Lyon, INSA-Lyon, Université Lyon 1, UJM-Saint Etienne, CNRS, Inserm, Centre Léon Bérard, CREATIS UMR 5220 U1206, F-69373 Lyon (France); Verger, L. [CEA-LETI MINATEC Grenoble, F-38054 Grenoble (France)

    2017-04-01

    Scattered radiation results in various undesirable effects in medical diagnostics, non-destructive testing (NDT) and security x-ray imaging. Despite numerous studies characterizing this phenomenon and its effects, the knowledge of its behavior in the energy domain remains limited. The present study aims at summarizing some key insights on scattered radiation originating from the inspected object. In addition, various simulations and experiments with limited collimation on both simplified and realistic phantoms were conducted in order to study scatter behavior in multi-energy x-ray imaging. Results showed that the spectrum shape of the scatter component can be considered preserved in the first approximation across the image plane for various acquisition geometries and phantoms. The variations exhibited by the scatter spectrum were below 10% for most examined cases. Furthermore, the corresponding spectrum shape proved to be also relatively invariant for different experimental angular projections of one of the examined phantoms. The observed property of scattered radiation can potentially lead to the decoupling of spatial and energy scatter components, which can in turn enable speed ups in scatter simulations and reduce the complexity of scatter correction.

  9. A software-based x-ray scatter correction method for breast tomosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia Feng, Steve Si; Sechopoulos, Ioannis

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a software-based scatter correction method for digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) imaging and investigate its impact on the image quality of tomosynthesis reconstructions of both phantoms and patients. Methods: A Monte Carlo (MC) simulation of x-ray scatter, with geometry matching that of the cranio-caudal (CC) view of a DBT clinical prototype, was developed using the Geant4 toolkit and used to generate maps of the scatter-to-primary ratio (SPR) of a number of homogeneous standard-shaped breasts of varying sizes. Dimension-matched SPR maps were then deformed and registered to DBT acquisition projections, allowing for the estimation of the primary x-ray signal acquired by the imaging system. Noise filtering of the estimated projections was then performed to reduce the impact of the quantum noise of the x-ray scatter. Three dimensional (3D) reconstruction was then performed using the maximum likelihood-expectation maximization (MLEM) method. This process was tested on acquisitions of a heterogeneous 50/50 adipose/glandular tomosynthesis phantom with embedded masses, fibers, and microcalcifications and on acquisitions of patients. The image quality of the reconstructions of the scatter-corrected and uncorrected projections was analyzed by studying the signal-difference-to-noise ratio (SDNR), the integral of the signal in each mass lesion (integrated mass signal, IMS), and the modulation transfer function (MTF). Results: The reconstructions of the scatter-corrected projections demonstrated superior image quality. The SDNR of masses embedded in a 5 cm thick tomosynthesis phantom improved 60%-66%, while the SDNR of the smallest mass in an 8 cm thick phantom improved by 59% (p < 0.01). The IMS of the masses in the 5 cm thick phantom also improved by 15%-29%, while the IMS of the masses in the 8 cm thick phantom improved by 26%-62% (p < 0.01). Some embedded microcalcifications in the tomosynthesis phantoms were visible only in the scatter

  10. Evaluation of a scatter correlation technique for single photon transmission measurements in PET by means of Monte Carlo simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wegmann, K.; Brix, G.

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: Single photon transmission (SPT) measurements offer a new approach for the determination of attenuation correction factors (ACF) in PET. It was the aim of the present work, to evaluate a scatter correction alogrithm proposed by C. Watson by means of Monte Carlo simulations. Methods: SPT measurements with a Cs-137 point source were simulated for a whole-body PET scanner (ECAT EXACT HR + ) in both the 2D and 3D mode. To examine the scatter fraction (SF) in the transmission data, the detected photons were classified as unscattered or scattered. The simulated data were used to determine (i) the spatial distribution of the SFs, (ii) an ACF sinogram from all detected events (ACF tot ) and (iii) from the unscattered events only (ACF unscattered ), and (iv) an ACF cor =(ACF tot ) 1+Κ sinogram corrected according to the Watson algorithm. In addition, density images were reconstructed in order to quantitatively evaluate linear attenuation coefficients. Results: A high correlation was found between the SF and the ACF tot sinograms. For the cylinder and the EEC phantom, similar correction factors Κ were estimated. The determined values resulted in an accurate scatter correction in both the 2D and 3D mode. (orig.) [de

  11. Construction of Korean adult voxel phantoms for radiation dosimetry and their applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Choon Sik

    2002-08-15

    Although contribution of the MIRD-type mathematical anthropomorphic phantoms to computational radiation dosimetry, especially in determining the effective dose to the exposed personnel, is very significant, there remain some questions on possible deviation in the resulting dosimetric quantities from the true values. This is particularly the case for those organ or tissues having complicated geometry difficult to model with simple geometrical body elements. As an alternative approach to resolve the problem, there have been efforts to use voxel phantoms, which can very precisely describe both the external shape and the internal organs by virtue of fast advances in medical imaging technology as well as in computing power. In this study, Korean adult male and female voxel phantoms were constructed by processing whole-body MR images of healthy volunteers who belong to middle group of Korean in height and weight. Organs and tissues on tomographic images were manually segmented and indexed using the graphic software PL-400 . Due to limited resolution of the raw MR images, voxels of rather large size, 2 mmx2 mmx8 mm for the woman and 2mmx2mmx10mm for the man, were used. The resulting male and female voxel phantoms were named KRMAN and KRWOMAN, respectively. To assess utility of the voxel phatoms, calculations were carried out with the Monte Carlo code MCNP4B for two illustrative problems. A program VOXELMAKER1.0 was developed to convert the voxel phantom data into MCNP geometry input format. In the first example, organ equivalent doses and effective doses were evaluated for phantoms in broad parallel photon fields of different energies and directions and were compared to corresponding values given in ICRP 74 which were derived with the MIRD-type phantoms. No significant deviations between MIRD and voxel phantoms were found in the effective doses. Significant differences up to around factor of 2, however, were observed in organ equivalent doses for some organs including

  12. Comparative evaluation of scatter correction techniques in 3D positron emission tomography

    CERN Document Server

    Zaidi, H

    2000-01-01

    Much research and development has been concentrated on the scatter compensation required for quantitative 3D PET. Increasingly sophisticated scatter correction procedures are under investigation, particularly those based on accurate scatter models, and iterative reconstruction-based scatter compensation approaches. The main difference among the correction methods is the way in which the scatter component in the selected energy window is estimated. Monte Carlo methods give further insight and might in themselves offer a possible correction procedure. Methods: Five scatter correction methods are compared in this paper where applicable. The dual-energy window (DEW) technique, the convolution-subtraction (CVS) method, two variants of the Monte Carlo-based scatter correction technique (MCBSC1 and MCBSC2) and our newly developed statistical reconstruction-based scatter correction (SRBSC) method. These scatter correction techniques are evaluated using Monte Carlo simulation studies, experimental phantom measurements...

  13. Diffractive scattering

    CERN Document Server

    De Wolf, E.A.

    2002-01-01

    We discuss basic concepts and properties of diffractive phenomena in soft hadron collisions and in deep-inelastic scattering at low Bjorken-x. The paper is not a review of the rapidly developing field but presents an attempt to show in simple terms the close inter-relationship between the dynamics of high-energy hadronic and deep-inelastic diffraction. Using the saturation model of Golec-Biernat and Wusthoff as an example, a simple explanation of geometrical scaling is presented. The relation between the QCD anomalous multiplicity dimension and the Pomeron intercept is discussed.

  14. Diffractive Scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, E.A. de

    2002-01-01

    We discuss basic concepts and properties of diffractive phenomena in soft hadron collisions and in deep-inelastic scattering at low Bjorken - x. The paper is not a review of the rapidly developing field but presents an attempt to show in simple terms the close inter-relationship between the dynamics of high-energy hadronic and deep-inelastic diffraction. Using the saturation model of Golec-Biernat and Wuesthoff as an example, a simple explanation of geometrical scaling is presented. The relation between the QCD anomalous multiplicity dimension and the Pomeron intercept is discussed. (author)

  15. Application of a simple phantom in assessing the effects of dose reduction on image quality in chest radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egbe, N.O.; Heaton, B.; Sharp, P.F.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Firstly, to evaluate a commercial chest phantom incorporating a quasi anthropomorphic insert by comparing exposure measurements on the phantom with those of actual patients and, secondly, to assess the value of the phantom for image quality and dose optimisation. Methods: In the first part of the study entrance surface doses (ESD), Beam transmission (BT), and optical density (OD) were obtained for 77 chest radiography patients and compared with measurements made from exposures of the phantom using the respective patient exposure factors from chest examination. Differences were assessed with a student t-test, while the Pearson's linear correlation coefficient was used to test for any linear relationship. The second part assessed the applicability of the phantom to image quality studies by investigating the effect, on the clarity and detectability of lung lesions made from gelatine, of reducing patient dose below current dose levels. Clarity of linear objects of different dimensions was also studied. Lesion detectability and clarity was assessed by four observers. The possibility of extending dose reduction below current dose levels (D ref ) was assessed from comparison of doses that produced statistically significant differences in image quality from D ref . Results: Results show that, with the exception of entrance doses and beam transmission through the diaphragm (P > 0.05), differences in OD and beam transmission between patients and phantom were statistically significant (P ref produced significant changes in both clarity and detectability. Conclusion: Within limits posed by the observed differences, the phantom can be applied to image quality studies in diagnostic radiology.

  16. Monte Carlo simulation of response of a phoswich detector to 241Am in the lungs of a mathematical phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhati, Sharda

    2009-01-01

    To simulate photon transport in the thorax region of the MIRD phantom for a given uniform source distribution of 241 Am in the lungs of the phantom and to compute the pulse height response of a 20 cm dia phoswich detector located right above the lungs on the thorax surface. The total peak counts in the simulated pulse height spectrum of 241 Am can be used to compute the calibration factors of the phoswich for estimation of the lung burdens of 241 Am

  17. The subresolution DaTSCAN phantom: a cost-effective, flexible alternative to traditional phantom technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Jonathan C; Vennart, Nicholas; Negus, Ian; Holmes, Robin; Bandmann, Oliver; Lo, Christine; Fenner, John

    2018-03-01

    The Alderson striatal phantom is frequently used to assess I-FP-CIT (Ioflupane) image quality and to test semi-quantification software. However, its design is associated with a number of limitations, in particular: unrealistic image appearances and inflexibility. A new physical phantom approach is proposed on the basis of subresolution phantom technology. The design incorporates thin slabs of attenuating material generated through additive manufacturing, and paper sheets with radioactive ink patterns printed on their surface, created with a conventional inkjet printer. The paper sheets and attenuating slabs are interleaved before scanning. Use of thin layers ensures that they cannot be individually resolved on reconstructed images. An investigation was carried out to demonstrate the performance of such a phantom in producing simplified I-FP-CIT uptake patterns. Single photon emission computed tomography imaging was carried out on an assembled phantom designed to mimic a healthy patient. Striatal binding ratio results and linear striatal dimensions were calculated from the reconstructed data and compared with that of 22 clinical patients without evidence of Parkinsonian syndrome, determined from clinical follow-up. Striatal binding ratio results for the fully assembled phantom were: 3.1, 3.3, 2.9 and 2.6 for the right caudate, left caudate, right putamen and right caudate, respectively. All were within two SDs of results derived from a cohort of clinical patients. Medial-lateral and anterior-posterior dimensions of the simulated striata were also within the range of values seen in clinical data. This work provides the foundation for the generation of a range of more clinically realistic, physical phantoms.

  18. Photoacoustic microscopy of bilirubin in tissue phantoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yong; Zhang, Chi; Yao, Da-Kang; Wang, Lihong V.

    2012-12-01

    Determining both bilirubin's concentration and its spatial distribution are important in disease diagnosis. Here, for the first time, we applied quantitative multiwavelength photoacoustic microscopy (PAM) to detect bilirubin concentration and distribution simultaneously. By measuring tissue-mimicking phantoms with different bilirubin concentrations, we showed that the root-mean-square error of prediction has reached 0.52 and 0.83 mg/dL for pure bilirubin and for blood-mixed bilirubin detection (with 100% oxygen saturation), respectively. We further demonstrated the capability of the PAM system to image bilirubin distribution both with and without blood. Finally, by underlaying bilirubin phantoms with mouse skins, we showed that bilirubin can be imaged with consistent accuracy down to >400 μm in depth. Our results show that PAM has potential for noninvasive bilirubin monitoring in vivo, as well as for further clinical applications.

  19. New mechanism to cross the phantom divide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, Yunshuang; Zhang, Hongsheng; Li, Xin-Zhou

    2011-01-01

    Recently, type Ia supernova data appear to support a dark energy whose equation of state w crosses -1, which is a much more amazing problem than the acceleration of the universe. We show that it is possible for the equation of state to cross the phantom divide by a scalar field in gravity with an additional inverse power-law term of the Ricci scalar in the Lagrangian. The necessary and sufficient condition for a universe in which the dark energy can cross the phantom divide is obtained. Some analytical solutions with w -1 are obtained. A minimally coupled scalar with different potentials, including quadratic, cubic, quantic, exponential and logarithmic potentials are investigated via numerical methods, respectively. All these potentials lead to the crossing behavior. We show that it is a robust result which is hardly dependent on the concrete form of the potential of the scalar. (orig.)

  20. OEDIPE: a new graphical user interface for fast construction of numerical phantoms and MCNP calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franck, D; de Carlan, L; Pierrat, N; Broggio, D; Lamart, S

    2007-01-01

    Although great efforts have been made to improve the physical phantoms used to calibrate in vivo measurement systems, these phantoms represent a single average counting geometry and usually contain a uniform distribution of the radionuclide over the tissue substitute. As a matter of fact, significant corrections must be made to phantom-based calibration factors in order to obtain absolute calibration efficiencies applicable to a given individual. The importance of these corrections is particularly crucial when considering in vivo measurements of low energy photons emitted by radionuclides deposited in the lung such as actinides. Thus, it was desirable to develop a method for calibrating in vivo measurement systems that is more sensitive to these types of variability. Previous works have demonstrated the possibility of such a calibration using the Monte Carlo technique. Our research programme extended such investigations to the reconstruction of numerical anthropomorphic phantoms based on personal physiological data obtained by computed tomography. New procedures based on a new graphical user interface (GUI) for development of computational phantoms for Monte Carlo calculations and data analysis are being developed to take advantage of recent progress in image-processing codes. This paper presents the principal features of this new GUI. Results of calculations and comparison with experimental data are also presented and discussed in this work.

  1. Application of average adult Japanese voxel phantoms to evaluation of photon specific absorbed fractions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Kaoru; Manabe, Kentaro; Endo, Akira

    2012-01-01

    Average adult Japanese male (JM-103) and female (JF-103) voxel (volume pixel) phantoms newly constructed at the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) have average characteristics of body sizes and organ masses in adult Japanese. In JM-103 and JF-103, several organs and tissues were newly modeled for dose assessments based on tissue weighting factors of the 2007 Recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection(ICRP). In this study, SAFs for thyroid, stomach, lungs and lymphatic nodes of JM-103 and JF-103 phantoms were calculated, and were compared with those of other adult Japanese phantoms based on individual medical images. In most cases, differences in SAFs between JM-103, JF-103 and other phantoms were about several tens percent, and was mainly attributed to mass differences of organs, tissues and contents. Therefore, it was concluded that SAFs of JM-103 and JF-103 represent those of average adult Japanese and that the two phantoms are applied to dose assessment for average adult Japanese on the basis of the 2007 Recommendations. (author)

  2. Fabrication and characterization of a 3-D non-homogeneous tissue-like mouse phantom for optical imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avtzi, Stella; Zacharopoulos, Athanasios; Psycharakis, Stylianos; Zacharakis, Giannis

    2013-11-01

    In vivo optical imaging of biological tissue not only requires the development of new theoretical models and experimental procedures, but also the design and construction of realistic tissue-mimicking phantoms. However, most of the phantoms available currently in literature or the market, have either simple geometrical shapes (cubes, slabs, cylinders) or when realistic in shape they use homogeneous approximations of the tissue or animal under investigation. The goal of this study is to develop a non-homogeneous realistic phantom that matches the anatomical geometry and optical characteristics of the mouse head in the visible and near-infrared spectral range. The fabrication of the phantom consisted of three stages. Initially, anatomical information extracted from either mouse head atlases or structural imaging modalities (MRI, XCT) was used to design a digital phantom comprising of the three main layers of the mouse head; the brain, skull and skin. Based on that, initial prototypes were manufactured by using accurate 3D printing, allowing complex objects to be built layer by layer with sub-millimeter resolution. During the second stage the fabrication of individual molds was performed by embedding the prototypes into a rubber-like silicone mixture. In the final stage the detailed phantom was constructed by loading the molds with epoxy resin of controlled optical properties. The optical properties of the resin were regulated by using appropriate quantities of India ink and intralipid. The final phantom consisted of 3 layers, each one with different absorption and scattering coefficient (μa,μs) to simulate the region of the mouse brain, skull and skin.

  3. Comparison of Ultrasound Attenuation and Backscatter Estimates in Layered Tissue-Mimicking Phantoms among Three Clinical Scanners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Kibo; Rosado-Mendez, Ivan M.; Wirtzfeld, Lauren A.; Ghoshal, Goutam; Pawlicki, Alexander D.; Madsen, Ernest L.; Lavarello, Roberto J.; Oelze, Michael L.; Zagzebski, James A.; O’Brien, William D.; Hall, Timothy J.

    2013-01-01

    Backscatter and attenuation coefficient estimates are needed in many quantitative ultrasound strategies. In clinical applications, these parameters may not be easily obtained because of variations in scattering by tissues overlying a region of interest (ROI). The goal of this study is to assess the accuracy of backscatter and attenuation estimates for regions distal to nonuniform layers of tissue-mimicking materials. In addition, this work compares results of these estimates for “layered” phantoms scanned using different clinical ultrasound machines. Two tissue-mimicking phantoms were constructed, each exhibiting depth-dependent variations in attenuation or backscatter. The phantoms were scanned with three ultrasound imaging systems, acquiring radio frequency echo data for offline analysis. The attenuation coefficient and the backscatter coefficient (BSC) for sections of the phantoms were estimated using the reference phantom method. Properties of each layer were also measured with laboratory techniques on test samples manufactured during the construction of the phantom. Estimates of the attenuation coefficient versus frequency slope, α0, using backscatter data from the different systems agreed to within 0.24 dB/cm-MHz. Bias in the α0 estimates varied with the location of the ROI. BSC estimates for phantom sections whose locations ranged from 0 to 7 cm from the transducer agreed among the different systems and with theoretical predictions, with a mean bias error of 1.01 dB over the used bandwidths. This study demonstrates that attenuation and BSCs can be accurately estimated in layered inhomogeneous media using pulse-echo data from clinical imaging systems. PMID:23160474

  4. Phantoms for Radiation Measurements of Mobile Phones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Gert Frølund

    2001-01-01

    Measurements of radiation efficiency for a handheld phone equipped with a patch and a helical antenna operated near the human user have been performed. Both measurements include a simple head plus hand phantom and live persons are considered. The position of the hand on the phone is found...... to be the main reason for the large variation in radiation efficiency among persons. The tilt angle of the phone and the distance between the head and phone only play a minor role...

  5. Intercomparison of JAERI Torso Phantom lung sets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, Gary H.; Hauck, Barry M.

    2000-01-01

    During the course of an IAEA sponsored In Vivo intercomparison using the JAERI phantom the Human Monitoring Laboratory was able to intercompare thirteen lung sets made by three suppliers. One set consisted of sliced lungs with planar inserts containing different radionuclides. The others consisted of whole lung sets with the activity homogeneously distributed throughout the tissue substitute material. Radionuclides in the study were: natural uranium, 3% enriched uranium, 241 Am, 238 Pu, 239 Pu, 152 Eu, and 232 Th Except for the 241 Am (59.5 keV) and occasionally one of the 232 Th (209 keV) photopeaks, the lung sets that had radioactivity homogeneously distributed throughout the tissue equivalent lung tissue material showed good agreement. The 241 Am lung set gave a counting efficiency that appeared 25% too high for all overlay plate configurations. This was observed by other participants. It exemplifies that the manufacture of tissue substitute lung sets is still something of a black art. Despite all precautions, this lung set is either inhomogeneous or has had the wrong activity added. Heterogeneity can lead to an error in the activity estimate of a factor of three if the activity was severely localised due to improper mixing. A factor of 1.25, which appears to be the discrepancy, could easily be explained in this way. It will not be known for some time, however, what the true reason is as the participants are still waiting for the destructive analysis of this lung set to determine the 'true' activity. The sliced lungs ( 241 Am, 152 Eu, and U-nat) manufactured by the Human Monitoring Laboratory are in excellent agreement with the other lung sets. The advantages of sliced lung sets and planar sources are manifold. Activity can be distributed in a known and reproducible manner to mimic either a homogeneous or heterogeneous distribution in the lung. Short lived radionuclides can be used. Cost is much less than purchasing or manufacturing lung sets that have the

  6. Development of phantom periapical for control quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendes, J.M.S.; Sales Junior, E.S.; Ferreira, F.C.L.; Paschoal, C.M.M.

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to develop a dental phantom with cysts for evaluation of periapical radiographs that was tested in private dental offices in the city of Maraba, northern Brazil. Through some tests with the object simulator (phantom) were obtained 12 periapical radiographs (one in each of the offices visited) that waking up to the standards of Ordinance No. 453 were visually evaluated by observing the physical parameters of exposure (kVp and mA), time revelation of the radiographic film, later the other radiographs were visually compared with C6 ray set as the default. Among the results, it was found that only two of the twelve rays cysts could not be viewed and, therefore, these two images were deemed unsuitable for accurate diagnosis in the 10 images the cysts could be displayed, however according the images have different qualities comparisons. In addition, it can be concluded that the performance of the phantom was highly satisfactory showing to be efficient for use in quality control testing of dental X-rays, the quality control of radiographs and continuing education of dental professionals for a price much more accessible. (authors)

  7. Patient specific 3D printed phantom for IMRT quality assurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehler, Eric D; Higgins, Patrick D; Dusenbery, Kathryn E; Barney, Brett M

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the feasibility of a patient specific phantom for patient specific dosimetric verification. Using the head and neck region of an anthropomorphic phantom as a substitute for an actual patient, a soft-tissue equivalent model was constructed with the use of a 3D printer. Calculated and measured dose in the anthropomorphic phantom and the 3D printed phantom was compared for a parallel-opposed head and neck field geometry to establish tissue equivalence. A nine-field IMRT plan was constructed and dose verification measurements were performed for the 3D printed phantom as well as traditional standard phantoms. The maximum difference in calculated dose was 1.8% for the parallel-opposed configuration. Passing rates of various dosimetric parameters were compared for the IMRT plan measurements; the 3D printed phantom results showed greater disagreement at superficial depths than other methods. A custom phantom was created using a 3D printer. It was determined that the use of patient specific phantoms to perform dosimetric verification and estimate the dose in the patient is feasible. In addition, end-to-end testing on a per-patient basis was possible with the 3D printed phantom. Further refinement of the phantom construction process is needed for routine use. (paper)

  8. Toxicology Analysis of Tissue-Mimicking Phantom Made From Gelatin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolbashid, A. S.; Hamzah, N.; Zaman, W. S. W. K.; Mokhtar, M. S.

    2017-06-01

    Skin phantom mimics the biological skin tissues as it have the ability to respond to changes in its environment. The development of tissue-mimicking phantom could contributes towards the reduce usage of animal in cosmetics and pharmacokinetics. In this study, the skin phantoms made from gelatin were tested with four different commonly available cosmetic products to determine the toxicity of each substance. The four substances used were; mercury-based whitening face cream, carcinogenic liquid make-up foundation, paraben-based acne cleanser, and organic lip balm. Toxicity test were performed on all of the phantoms. For toxicity testing, topographical and electrophysiological changes of the phantoms were evaluated. The ability of each respective phantom to react with mild toxic substances and its electrical resistance were analysed in to determine the toxicity of all the phantom models. Four-electrode method along with custom made electrical impedance analyser was used to differentiate electrical resistance between intoxicated phantom and non-intoxicated phantom in this study. Electrical resistance values obtained from the phantom models were significantly higher than the control group. The result obtained suggests the phantom as a promising candidate to be used as alternative for toxicology testing in the future.

  9. Composition of MRI phantom equivalent to human tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Hirokazu; Kuroda, Masahiro; Yoshimura, Koichi; Yoshida, Atsushi; Hanamoto, Katsumi; Kawasaki, Shoji; Shibuya, Koichi; Kanazawa, Susumu

    2005-01-01

    We previously developed two new MRI phantoms (called the CAG phantom and the CAGN phantom), with T1 and T2 relaxation times equivalent to those of any human tissue at 1.5 T. The conductivity of the CAGN phantom is equivalent to that of most types of human tissue in the frequency range of 1 to 130 MHz. In this paper, the relaxation times of human tissues are summarized, and the composition of the corresponding phantoms are provided in table form. The ingredients of these phantoms are carrageenan as the gelling agent, GdCl 3 as a T1 modifier, agarose as a T2 modifier, NaCl (CAGN phantom only) as a conductivity modifier, NaN 3 as an antiseptic, and distilled water. The phantoms have T1 values of 202-1904 ms and T2 values of 38-423 ms when the concentrations of GdCl 3 and agarose are varied from 0-140 μmol/kg, and 0%-1.6%, respectively, and the CAGN phantom has a conductivity of 0.27-1.26 S/m when the NaCl concentration is varied from 0%-0.7%. These phantoms have sufficient strength to replicate a torso without the use of reinforcing agents, and can be cut by a knife into any shape. We anticipate the CAGN phantom to be highly useful and practical for MRI and hyperthermia-related research

  10. Dosimetric characterization of the PTW Seven29 dosimeter and Octavius Phantom for IMRT quality control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncalves, Leandro R.; Habitzreuter, Angela B.; Santos, Gabriela R.; Watanabe, Erica Y.; Silva, Marco A.; Menegussi, Gisela; Rodrigues, Laura N.; Furnari, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Techniques like IMRT, VMAT and tomotherapy has been used to improve dose conformity in the target, while sparing adjacent normal tissues. The complexity of this techniques challenge to correctly verify the dose delivery, in an independent way. Matrix detectors have been used for this purpose. Although, to exactly understand the dosimeter response and to identify his limitations, characterization measurements need to be performed. These dosimeters, for instance, can present angular dependence. Phantoms has been designed to, when used together the detector, eliminate this angular dependence. The aim of this work was to characterize PTW Seven 29 dosimeter and also his use with Octavius Phantom (PTW). The dosimeter showed reproducible with 0.25% the biggest standard deviation, good dose linearity and dose rate independence. Differences for output factors were obtained (<6%), but a clinical case measurement showed that the set can be used for IMRT verification. When used with Octavius Phantom the dosimeter showed low angular dependence. (author)

  11. A study on properties of water substitute solid phantom using EGS code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saitoh, H.; Myojoyama, A.; Tomaru, T.; Fukuda, K.; Fujisaki, T.; Abe, S.

    2003-01-01

    To reduce the uncertainty in the calibration of radiation beams, absorbed dose to water for high energy electrons is recommended as the standards and reference absorbed dose by AAPM Report no.51, IAEA Technical Reports no.398 and JSMP Standard dosimetry for radiotherapy 2001. In these recommendations, water is defined as the reference medium, however, the water substitute solid phantoms are discouraged. Nevertheless, when accurate chamber positioning in water is not possible, or when no waterproof chamber is available, their use is permitted at beam qualities R 50 2 (E 0 pl and fluence-scaling factors h pl of several commercially available water substitute solid phantoms were determined using EGS Monte Carlo simulation. Furthermore, the electron dosimetry using these scaling method was evaluated. As a result, it is obviously that dose-distribution in solid phantom can be converted to appropriate dose-distribution in water by means of IAEA depth-scaling. (author)

  12. A software to edit voxel phantoms and to calculate conversion coefficients for radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieira, J.W.; Stosic, B.; Lima, F.R.A.; Kramer, R.; Santos, A.M.; Lima, V.J.M.

    2005-01-01

    The MAX and FAX phantoms have been developed based on a male and female, respectively, adult body from ICRP and coupled to the Monte Carlo code (EGS4). These phantoms permit the calculating of the equivalent dose in organs and tissues of the human body for the radiation protection purposes . In the constructing of these anthropomorphic models, the software developed called FANTOMAS, which performs tasks as file format conversion, filtering 2D and 3D images, exchange of identifying numbers of organs, body mass adjustments based in volume, resampling of 2D and 3D images, resize images, preview consecutive slices of the phantom, running computational models of exposure FANTOMA/EGS4 and viewing graphics of conversion factors between equivalent dose and a measurable dosimetric quantity. This paper presents the main abilities of FANTOMAS and uses the MAX and/or FAX to exemplify some procedures

  13. The four-dimensional mouse whole-body phantoms and its application in medical imaging research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Chongguo; Wu Dake

    2012-01-01

    Medical imaging simulation is a powerful tool for characterizing,evaluating,and optimizing medical imaging devices and techniques. A vital aspect of simulation is to have a realistic phantom or model of the subject's anatomy. Four-dimensional mouse whole-body phantoms provide realistic models of the mouse anatomy and physiology for imaging studies. When combined with accurate models for the imaging process,are capable of providing a wealth of realistic imaging data from subjects with various anatomies and motions (cardiac and respiratory) in health and disease. With this ability, the four-dimensional mouse whole-body phantoms have enormous potential to study the effects of anatomical, physiological and physical factors on medical and small animal imaging and to research new instrumentation, image acquisition strategies, image processing, reconstruction methods, image visualization and interpretation techniques. (authors)

  14. Deeply Virtual Neutrino Scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ales Psaker

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the extension of the deeply virtual Compton scattering process into the weak interaction sector. Standard electromagnetic Compton scattering provides a unique tool for studying hadrons, which is one of the most fascinating frontiers of modern science. In this process the relevant Compton scattering amplitude probes the hadron structure by means of two quark electromagnetic currents. We argue that replacing one of the currents with the weak interaction current can promise a new insight. The paper is organized as follows. In Sec. II we briefly discuss the features of the handbag factorization scheme. We introduce a new set of phenomenological functions, known as generalized parton distributions (GPDs) [1-6], and discuss some of their basic properties in Sec. III. An application of the GPD formalism to the neutrino-induced deeply virtual Compton scattering in the kinematics relevant to future high-intensity neutrino experiments is given in Sec. IV. The cross section results are presented in Sec. V. Finally, in Sec. VI we draw some conclusions and discuss future prospects. Some of the formal results in this paper have appeared in preliminary reports in Refs. [7] and [8], whereas a comprehensive analysis of the weak neutral and weak charged current DVCS reactions in collaboration with W. Melnitchouk and A. Radyushkin has been presented in Ref. [9

  15. A computer-simulated liver phantom (virtual liver phantom) for multidetector computed tomography evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Funama, Yoshinori [Kumamoto University, Department of Radiological Sciences, School of Health Sciences, Kumamoto (Japan); Awai, Kazuo; Nakayama, Yoshiharu; Liu, Da; Yamashita, Yasuyuki [Kumamoto University, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kumamoto (Japan); Miyazaki, Osamu; Goto, Taiga [Hitachi Medical Corporation, Tokyo (Japan); Hori, Shinichi [Gate Tower Institute of Image Guided Therapy, Osaka (Japan)

    2006-04-15

    The purpose of study was to develop a computer-simulated liver phantom for hepatic CT studies. A computer-simulated liver phantom was mathematically constructed on a computer workstation. The computer-simulated phantom was calibrated using real CT images acquired by an actual four-detector CT. We added an inhomogeneous texture to the simulated liver by referring to CT images of chronically damaged human livers. The mean CT number of the simulated liver was 60 HU and we added numerous 5-to 10-mm structures with 60{+-}10 HU/mm. To mimic liver tumors we added nodules measuring 8, 10, and 12 mm in diameter with CT numbers of 60{+-}10, 60{+-}15, and 60{+-}20 HU. Five radiologists visually evaluated similarity of the texture of the computer-simulated liver phantom and a real human liver to confirm the appropriateness of the virtual liver images using a five-point scale. The total score was 44 in two radiologists, and 42, 41, and 39 in one radiologist each. They evaluated that the textures of virtual liver were comparable to those of human liver. Our computer-simulated liver phantom is a promising tool for the evaluation of the image quality and diagnostic performance of hepatic CT imaging. (orig.)

  16. Dose distribution in lungs and thyroid from scatter photons of x-ray mammography imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faghihi, R.; Mehdizadeh, S.

    2006-01-01

    The contribution of scatter photons in dose of mammography image in thyroid and lungs are studied. Thyroid and in the form of distribution function and total delivered dose studied by direct measurement with Thermoluminescence dosimeter. The results of measurements compared to other published measurements and the total dose compared to our modelling with Monte Carlo method.. Our phantoms for direct measurement of Dose are a compressed breast phantom placed on a female RANDO phantom. The results of modelling and measurement are in agreement for the total delivered dose to thyroid and lungs and comparable to doses reported by the other researcher

  17. Electron beam dosimetry in heterogeneous phantoms using a MAGIC normoxic polymer gel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghahraman Asl, R.; Nedaie, H.; Bolouri, B.; Arbabi, A.

    2010-01-01

    Nowadays radiosensitive polymer gels are used as a reliable dosimetry tool for verification of 3D dose distributions. Special characteristics of these dosimeters have made them useful for verification of complex dose distributions in clinical situations. The aim of this work was to evaluate the capability of a normoxic polymer gel to determine electron dose distributions in different slab phantoms in presence of small heterogeneities. Materials and Methods: Different cylindrical phantoms consisting gel were used under slab phantoms during each irradiation. MR images of irradiated gel phantoms were obtained to determine their R2 relaxation maps. 1D and 2D lateral dose profiles were acquired at depths of 1 cm for an 8 MeV beam and 1 and 4 cm for the 15 MeV energy, and then compared with the lateral dose profiles measured using a diode detector. In addition, 3D dose distributions around these heterogeneities for the same energies and depths were measured using a gel dosimeter. Results: Dose resolution for MR gel images at the range of 0-10 Gy was less than 1.55 Gy. Mean dose difference and distance to agreement for dose profiles were 2.6% and 2.2 mm, respectively. The results of the MAGIC-type polymer gel for bone heterogeneity at 8 MeV showed a reduction in dose of approximately 50%, and 30% and 10% at depths 1 and 4 cm at 15 MeV. However, for air heterogeneity increases in dose of approximately 50% at depth 1 cm under the heterogeneity at 8 MeV and 20% and 45% respectively at 15 MeV were observed. Discussion and Conclusion: Generally, electron beam distributions are significantly altered in the presence of tissue inhomogeneities such as bone and air cavities, this being related to mass stopping and mass scattering powers of heterogeneous materials. At the same time, hot and cold scatter lobes under heterogeneity regions due to scatter edge effects were also seen. However, these effects (increased dose, reduced dose, hot and cold spots) at deeper depths, are

  18. Development of a physical 3D anthropomorphic breast phantom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carton, Ann-Katherine; Bakic, Predrag; Ullberg, Christer; Derand, Helen; Maidment, Andrew D. A. [Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania, 1 Silverstein Building, 3400 Spruce Street, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104-4206 (United States); XCounter AB, Svaerdvaegen 11, SE-182 33 Danderyd (Sweden); Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania, 1 Silverstein Building, 3400 Spruce Street, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104-4206 (United States)

    2011-02-15

    Purpose: Develop a technique to fabricate a 3D anthropomorphic breast phantom with known ground truth for image quality assessment of 2D and 3D breast x-ray imaging systems. Methods: The phantom design is based on an existing computer model that can generate breast voxel phantoms of varying composition, size, and shape. The physical phantom is produced in two steps. First, the portion of the voxel phantom consisting of the glandular tissue, skin, and Cooper's ligaments is separated into sections. These sections are then fabricated by high-resolution rapid prototyping using a single material with 50% glandular equivalence. The remaining adipose compartments are then filled using an epoxy-based resin (EBR) with 100% adipose equivalence. The phantom sections are stacked to form the physical anthropomorphic phantom. Results: The authors fabricated a prototype phantom corresponding to a 450 ml breast with 45% dense tissue, deformed to a 5 cm compressed thickness. Both the rapid prototype (RP) and EBR phantom materials are radiographically uniform. The coefficient of variation (CoV) of the relative attenuation between RP and EBR phantom samples was <1% and the CoV of the signal intensity within RP and EBR phantom samples was <1.5% on average. Digital mammography and reconstructed digital breast tomosynthesis images of the authors' phantom were reviewed by two radiologists; they reported that the images are similar in appearance to clinical images, noting there are still artifacts from air bubbles in the EBR. Conclusions: The authors have developed a technique to produce 3D anthropomorphic breast phantoms with known ground truth, yielding highly realistic x-ray images. Such phantoms may serve both qualitative and quantitative performance assessments for 2D and 3D breast x-ray imaging systems.

  19. TU-F-18C-03: X-Ray Scatter Correction in Breast CT: Advances and Patient Testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramamurthy, S; Sechopoulos, I

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To further develop and perform patient testing of an x-ray scatter correction algorithm for dedicated breast computed tomography (BCT). Methods: A previously proposed algorithm for x-ray scatter signal reduction in BCT imaging was modified and tested with a phantom and on patients. A wireless electronic positioner system was designed and added to the BCT system that positions a tungsten plate in and out of the x-ray beam. The interpolation used by the algorithm was replaced with a radial basis function-based algorithm, with automated exclusion of non-valid sampled points due to patient motion or other factors. A 3D adaptive noise reduction filter was also introduced to reduce the impact of scatter quantum noise post-reconstruction. The impact on image quality of the improved algorithm was evaluated using a breast phantom and seven patient breasts, using quantitative metrics such signal difference (SD) and signal difference-to-noise ratios (SDNR) and qualitatively using image profiles. Results: The improvements in the algorithm resulted in a more robust interpolation step, with no introduction of image artifacts, especially at the imaged object boundaries, which was an issue in the previous implementation. Qualitative evaluation of the reconstructed slices and corresponding profiles show excellent homogeneity of both the background and the higher density features throughout the whole imaged object, as well as increased accuracy in the Hounsfield Units (HU) values of the tissues. Profiles also demonstrate substantial increase in both SD and SDNR between glandular and adipose regions compared to both the uncorrected and system-corrected images. Conclusion: The improved scatter correction algorithm can be reliably used during patient BCT acquisitions with no introduction of artifacts, resulting in substantial improvement in image quality. Its impact on actual clinical performance needs to be evaluated in the future. Research Agreement, Koning Corp., Hologic

  20. Quality assessment of ultrasonographic equipment using an ATS-539 multipurpose phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Pyo Nyun; Lim, Joo Won; Kim, Hyun Cheol; Yoon, Young Cheol; Sung, Deuk Je; Moon, Min Hoan; Kim, Jeong Sook; Kim, Jong Chan

    2008-01-01

    To determine the rate of congruence and to standardize assessment of US (ultrasound) phantom images with the use of an ATS-539 multipurpose phantom for US equipment currently utilized in Korea. US phantom images were scanned with a 3.0-5.0 MHz convex transducer and were digitized by use of an analogue-digital converter. Members of a committee with consent evaluated the US phantom images from 108 types of ultrasound equipment. The dead zone, vertical and horizontal measurement, axial/lateral resolution, focal zone, sensitivity, functional resolution and gray scale/dynamic range were evaluated. Congruence or incongruence of ultrasound equipment was determined based on the results of dead zone, axial/lateral resolution and gray scale/dynamic range measurements. Other factors were evaluated for the possibility as criteria with the use of the Mann-Whitney U test and receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. The dead zone, axial/lateral resolution and gray scale/dynamic range were 91.7%, 94.4% and 76.9%, respectively, for suitable US equipment. Considering all three factors, 78 types of ultrasound equipment were passed. The congruence rate of focal zone and functional resolution were 62.4% and 69.3% of the US equipment, respectively. Of the US equipment, 72.2% of the equipment was acceptable based on the dead zone, axial/lateral resolution, and gray scale/dynamic range measurement as determined with the use of an ATS-539 phantom. Focal zone and 8 mm-functional resolution can be useful as a standard in the assessment of a US phantom image

  1. Development of an Arm Phantom for Testing Non-Invasive Blood Pressure Monitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson-Jackson, LaTecia D.

    Approximately one in every three adults age 20 older are diagnosed with high blood pressure or hypertension. It is estimated that hypertension affects 78 million people in the United States, is equally prevalent in both men and woman (Crabtree, Stuart-Shor, & McAllister, 2013). In the United States, around 78% of people suffering from hypertension are aware of their condition, with only 68% using hypertensive medications to control their blood pressure (Writing Group et al., 2010). Clinically, blood pressure measurements may lack accuracy, which can be attributed to various factors, including device limitations, cuff mis-sizing and misplacement, white-coat effect, masked hypertension, and lifestyle factors. The development of an arm phantom to simulate physiologic properties of a human arm and arterial BP waveforms may allow us to better assess the accuracy of non-invasive blood pressure (NIBP) monitors. The objective of this study are to: (1) Develop an arm phantom to replicate physiological properties of the human arm, and (2) Incorporate the arm phantom into a mock circulatory flow loop to simulate different physiological blood pressure readings on the bench. A tissue mimicking material, styrene-ethylene-butylene-styrene (SEBS), a co-block polymer was used to develop the arm phantom for in-vitro testing. To determine the optimal mechanical properties for the arm phantom, individual arm components were isolated and tested. A protocol was developed to evaluate various components for optimal arm phantom development. Mechanical testing was conducted on 10%, 15%, and 20% SEBS gel samples for modulus of elasticity measurements in order to simulate physiological properties of the human arm. As a result of the SEBS polymer being a new material for this application, this investigation will contribute to resolving the limitations that occurred during experimentation. In this study, we demonstrated that although SEBS polymer may be an ideal material to use for simulating

  2. Characterization of Materials for Use as Optical Phantoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rascon, E. Ortiz; Bruce, N. C.; Flores Flores, J. O.; Berru, R. Sato

    2010-01-01

    We present the results of optical characterization of silicon dioxide nanoparticle solutions. These are spherical particles with a controlled diameter between 100 nm and 600 nm. The importance of this work lies in using these solutions to develop a phantom with optical properties that closely match those of human breast tissue at near-IR wavelengths. Characterization involves illuminating the solution with a laser beam transmitted through a recipient of known width containing the solution. Resulting intensity profiles from the light spot are measured as function of the detector position. The experiments were realized using light with wavelengths 633 nm and 820 nm. Measured intensity profiles were fitted to the calculated profiles obtained from diffusion theory, using the method of images. Fitting results give us the absorption and transport scatter coefficients. These coefficients can be modified by changing the particle concentration of the solution. We found that these coefficients are the same order of magnitude as those of human tissue reported in published studies.

  3. Hybrid computational phantoms of the 15-year male and female adolescent: Applications to CT organ dosimetry for patients of variable morphometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Choonsik; Lodwick, Daniel; Williams, Jonathan L.; Bolch, Wesley E.

    2008-01-01

    female phantoms were further developed from the 50th percentile phantoms through adjustments in the body contour to match the total body masses given in CDC pediatric growth curves. The resulting six NURBS phantoms, male and female phantoms representing their 10th, 50th, and 90th weight percentiles, were used to investigate the influence of body fat distributions on internal organ doses following CT imaging. The phantoms were exposed to multislice chest and abdomen helical CT scans, and in-field organ absorbed doses were calculated. The results demonstrated that the use of traditional stylized phantoms yielded organ dose estimates that deviate from those given by the UF reference hybrid phantoms by up to a factor of 2. The study also showed that use of reference, or 50th percentile, phantoms to assess organ doses in underweight 15-year-old children would not lead to significant organ dose errors (typically less than 10%). However, more significant errors were noted (up to ∼30%) when reference phantoms are used to represent overweight children in CT imaging dosimetry. These errors are expected to only further increase as one considers CT organ doses in overweight and obese individuals of the adult patient population, thus emphasizing the advantages of patient-sculptable phantom technology

  4. Calculation of the Scattered Radiation Profile in 64 Slice CT Scanners Using Experimental Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afshin Akbarzadeh

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: One of the most important parameters in x-ray CT imaging is the noise induced by detected scattered radiation. The detected scattered radiation is completely dependent on the scanner geometry as well as size, shape and material of the scanned object. The magnitude and spatial distribution of the scattered radiation in x-ray CT should be quantified for development of robust scatter correction techniques. Empirical methods based on blocking the primary photons in a small region are not able to extract scatter in all elements of the detector array while the scatter profile is required for a scatter correction procedure. In this study, we measured scatter profiles in 64 slice CT scanners using a new experimental measurement. Material and Methods: To measure the scatter profile, a lead block array was inserted under the collimator and the phantom was exposed at the isocenter. The raw data file, which contained detector array readouts, was transferred to a PC and was read using a dedicated GUI running under MatLab 7.5. The scatter profile was extracted by interpolating the shadowed area. Results: The scatter and SPR profiles were measured. Increasing the tube voltage from 80 to 140 kVp resulted in an 80% fall off in SPR for a water phantom (d=210 mm and 86% for a polypropylene phantom (d = 350 mm. Increasing the air gap to 20.9 cm caused a 30% decrease in SPR. Conclusion: In this study, we presented a novel approach for measurement of scattered radiation distribution and SPR in a CT scanner with 64-slice capability using a lead block array. The method can also be used on other multi-slice CT scanners. The proposed technique can accurately estimate scatter profiles. It is relatively straightforward, easy to use, and can be used for any related measurement.

  5. Experimental phantom verification studies for simulations of light interactions with skin: liquid phantoms

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Karsten, A

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Karsten_2010_P.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 5080 Content-Encoding UTF-8 stream_name Karsten_2010_P.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 Experimental phantom verification... studies for simulations of light interactions with skin: Solid Phantoms Aletta E Karsten, A Singh Presented by: J E Smit National Laser Center CSIR South Africa akarsten@csir.co.za Slide 2 © CSIR 2009 www.csir.co.za Where...

  6. Mathematical human phantoms and their application to radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Yasuhiro

    1998-01-01

    This review described the characteristics of mathematical phantoms, their history over 30 years and their application. Mathematical phantoms are classified into two models of formula and voxel types. In the former, human body and organs are described by 2- and/or 3-D mathematical formula and can be seen as a combination of solid bodies like spheres, cubes and ovals. The phantom is composed from three tissue components (bone, lung and soft tissue) and made on data on Reference Man in ICRP Publ. 23. The latter voxel (volume pixel) phantom consists from a number of small cubes based on CT and MRI images of a certain man. For instance, the phantom CHILD, 1.54 x 1.54 x 8.00 mm 3 in size, is based on a 7-year old child, which consisting from about one million voxels. The mathematical phantom was first made in Oak Ridge National Laboratory in the middle of the nineteen-sixties, which have undergone various improvements to reach MIRD-5 phantom. Thereafter, many similitude phantoms have been made as a variation of MIRD-5, depending on age and sex (e.g., ADAM and EVA). Voxel phantom was made in the middle of nineteen-eighties and have undergone improvements which are continued even currently in Japan, U.S. etc. The mathematical phantoms are used for calculation of radiation transport program by Monte Carlo method in the field of radiation protection. Also in the field of medicine, the phantom is used for calculation of internal and external exposure doses, of correction constants of externally measuring instruments, of doses for neutron capture therapy and of A-bomb exposure doses in Hiroshima and Nagasaki for reevaluation. Recently, the development of phantom is in the current from formula phantom to voxel one due to the purpose of precision and standardization. (K.H.)

  7. Influence of Manufacturing Processes on the Performance of Phantom Lungs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traub, Richard J.

    2008-01-01

    Chest counting is an important tool for estimating the radiation dose to individuals who have inhaled radioactive materials. Chest counting systems are calibrated by counting the activity in the lungs of phantoms where the activity in the phantom lungs is known. In the United States a commonly used calibration phantom was developed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and is referred to as the Livermore Torso Phantom. An important feature of this phantom is that the phantom lungs can be interchanged so that the counting system can be challenged by different combinations of radionuclides and activity. Phantom lungs are made from lung tissue substitutes whose constituents are foaming plastics and various adjuvants selected to make the lung tissue substitute similar to normal healthy lung tissue. Some of the properties of phantom lungs cannot be readily controlled by phantom lung manufacturers. Some, such as density, are a complex function of the manufacturing process, while others, such as elemental composition of the bulk plastic are controlled by the plastics manufacturer without input, or knowledge of the phantom manufacturer. Despite the fact that some of these items cannot be controlled, they can be measured and accounted for. This report describes how manufacturing processes can influence the performance of phantom lungs. It is proposed that a metric that describes the brightness of the lung be employed by the phantom lung manufacturer to determine how well the phantom lung approximates the characteristics of a human lung. For many purposes, the linear attenuation of the lung tissue substitute is an appropriate surrogate for the brightness

  8. Pattern of scattered exposure from portable radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    North, D.

    1985-01-01

    Concern periodically arises among the nursing and medical staffs of the institution's intensive care unit regarding their occupational exposure to radiation from the many radiographs taken in the unit. The patients are located in open areas or within individual cubicles whose walls are relatively thin and not shielded. To form a data base for educating the nursing/medical staffs and the technologists, the intensity and distribution of scattered exposure from actual radiographs of patients were measured. Comparison was also made with a simple phantom experiment in which the variables could be more precisely controlled

  9. Evaluation of scatter correction using a single isotope for simultaneous emission and transmission data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, J.; Kuikka, J.T.; Vanninen, E.; Laensimies, E. [Kuopio Univ. Hospital (Finland). Dept. of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine; Kauppinen, T.; Patomaeki, L. [Kuopio Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Applied Physics

    1999-05-01

    Photon scatter is one of the most important factors degrading the quantitative accuracy of SPECT images. Many scatter correction methods have been proposed. The single isotope method was proposed by us. Aim: We evaluate the scatter correction method of improving the quality of images by acquiring emission and transmission data simultaneously with single isotope scan. Method: To evaluate the proposed scatter correction method, a contrast and linearity phantom was studied. Four female patients with fibromyalgia (FM) syndrome and four with chronic back pain (BP) were imaged. Grey-to-cerebellum (G/C) and grey-to-white matter (G/W) ratios were determined by one skilled operator for 12 regions of interest (ROIs) in each subject. Results: The linearity of activity response was improved after the scatter correction (r=0.999). The y-intercept value of the regression line was 0.036 (p<0.0001) after scatter correction and the slope was 0.954. Pairwise correlation indicated the agreement between nonscatter corrected and scatter corrected images. Reconstructed slices before and after scatter correction demonstrate a good correlation in the quantitative accuracy of radionuclide concentration. G/C values have significant correlation coefficients between original and corrected data. Conclusion: The transaxial images of human brain studies show that the scatter correction using single isotope in simultaneous transmission and emission tomography provides a good scatter compensation. The contrasts were increased on all 12 ROIs. The scatter compensation enhanced details of physiological lesions. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Photonenstreuung gehoert zu den wichtigsten Faktoren, die die quantitative Genauigkeit von SPECT-Bildern vermindern. Es wurde eine ganze Reihe von Methoden zur Streuungskorrektur vorgeschlagen. Von uns wurde die Einzelisotopen-Methode empfohlen. Ziel: Wir untersuchten die Streuungskorrektur-Methode zur Verbesserung der Bildqualitaet durch simultane Gewinnung von Emissions

  10. Neutron scattering. Lectures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brueckel, Thomas; Heger, Gernot; Richter, Dieter; Roth, Georg; Zorn, Reiner

    2012-01-01

    The following topics are dealt with: Neutron scattering in contemporary research, neutron sources, symmetry of crystals, diffraction, nanostructures investigated by small-angle neutron scattering, the structure of macromolecules, spin dependent and magnetic scattering, structural analysis, neutron reflectometry, magnetic nanostructures, inelastic scattering, strongly correlated electrons, dynamics of macromolecules, applications of neutron scattering. (HSI)

  11. A scatter-corrected list-mode reconstruction and a practical scatter/random approximation technique for dynamic PET imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, J-C; Rahmim, Arman; Blinder, Stephan; Camborde, Marie-Laure; Raywood, Kelvin; Sossi, Vesna

    2007-01-01

    We describe an ordinary Poisson list-mode expectation maximization (OP-LMEM) algorithm with a sinogram-based scatter correction method based on the single scatter simulation (SSS) technique and a random correction method based on the variance-reduced delayed-coincidence technique. We also describe a practical approximate scatter and random-estimation approach for dynamic PET studies based on a time-averaged scatter and random estimate followed by scaling according to the global numbers of true coincidences and randoms for each temporal frame. The quantitative accuracy achieved using OP-LMEM was compared to that obtained using the histogram-mode 3D ordinary Poisson ordered subset expectation maximization (3D-OP) algorithm with similar scatter and random correction methods, and they showed excellent agreement. The accuracy of the approximated scatter and random estimates was tested by comparing time activity curves (TACs) as well as the spatial scatter distribution from dynamic non-human primate studies obtained from the conventional (frame-based) approach and those obtained from the approximate approach. An excellent agreement was found, and the time required for the calculation of scatter and random estimates in the dynamic studies became much less dependent on the number of frames (we achieved a nearly four times faster performance on the scatter and random estimates by applying the proposed method). The precision of the scatter fraction was also demonstrated for the conventional and the approximate approach using phantom studies

  12. Deep inelastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakharov, V.I.

    1977-01-01

    The present status of the quark-parton-gluon picture of deep inelastic scattering is reviewed. The general framework is mostly theoretical and covers investigations since 1970. Predictions of the parton model and of the asymptotically free field theories are compared with experimental data available. The valence quark approximation is concluded to be valid in most cases, but fails to account for the data on the total momentum transfer. On the basis of gluon corrections introduced to the parton model certain predictions concerning both the deep inelastic structure functions and form factors are made. The contributions of gluon exchanges and gluon bremsstrahlung are highlighted. Asymptotic freedom is concluded to be very attractive and provide qualitative explanation to some experimental observations (scaling violations, breaking of the Drell-Yan-West type relations). Lepton-nuclear scattering is pointed out to be helpful in probing the nature of nuclear forces and studying the space-time picture of the parton model

  13. [Gamma scattering in condensed matter with high intensity Moessbauer radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This report discusses: quasielastic scattering studies on glycerol; gamma-ray scattering from alkali halides; lattice dynamics in metals; Moessbauer neutron scattering, x-ray diffraction, and macroscopic studies of high T c superconductors containing tungsten; NiAl scattering studies; and atomic interference factors and nuclear Casimir effect

  14. Evaluation of some water - equivalent plastics as phantom materials for electron dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihailescu, D.; Borcia, C.

    2005-01-01

    In the International Code of Practice for Dosimetry TRS-398 published by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), water is recommended as the reference medium for the determination of absorbed dose for high-energy electron beams. Plastic phantoms may be used under certain circumstances (electron energy below 10 MeV, R 50 2 ) for electron beam dosimetry. In this case, a depth-scaling factor is required for the conversion of depth in solid phantoms to depth in water. A fluence-scaling factor is also necessary for converting ionization chamber readings in plastic phantom to readings in water. The aim of this paper is to calculate, using Monte Carlo simulations, the depth-scaling factors c pl and fluence-scaling factors h pl of some commercially available water substitute solid phantoms in order to evaluate their water equivalency. Two sets of calculations were performed: one for electron pencil beams and another for 10 x 10 cm 2 parallel beams, both of which are normally incident on water and solid phantoms. We used only mono-energetic beams of 6, 9, 12, 15, and 18 MeV. The results were compared with TRS-398 recommended values. In the case of pencil beams, we found that by applying the TRS-398 protocol, unacceptable uncertainties (up to 10%) were introduced in the dose distribution calculations. By contrast, TRS-398 can safely be used for 10 x 10 cm 2 beams (reference beams). In this case, uncertainties lower than 1% were obtained, what was in agreement with other published data. (authors)

  15. Phantom development for radiographic image optimization of chest, skull and pelvis examination for nonstandard patient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pina, D.R.; Duarte, S.B.; Ghilardi Netto, T.; Morceli, J.

    2009-01-01

    The construction of the adapted patient equivalent phantom (APEP) to simulate the X-ray scattering and absorption by chest, skull and pelvis of nonstandard patient in conventional radiographic equipment is presented. This APEP system is associated to the pre-existing realistic-analytic phantom (RAP) [Pina, D.R., Duarte, S.B., Ghilardi Netto, T., Trad, C. S., Brochi, M.A.C., Oliveira, S.C. de, 2004. Optimization of standard patient radiographic images for chest, skull and pelvis exams in conventional X-ray equipment. Phys. Med. Biol. 49, N215-N226] forming the coupled phantom (RAP-APEP), which is used to establish an optimization process of radiographic images of chest, skull and pelvis for nonstandard patients. A chart of the optimized radiographic technique is established covering a wide range of nonstandard patient thickness, and offering a dose reduction in comparison with those techniques currently used. Different validation processes were applied to confirm the improving of the radiographic image quality when techniques of the established chart are used

  16. Enhanced diagnostic of skin conditions by polarized laser speckles: phantom studies and computer modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchvialeva, Lioudmila; Lee, Tim K.; Markhvida, Igor; Zeng, Haishan; Doronin, Alexander; Meglinski, Igor

    2014-03-01

    The incidence of the skin melanoma, the most commonly fatal form of skin cancer, is increasing faster than any other potentially preventable cancer. Clinical practice is currently hampered by the lack of the ability to rapidly screen the functional and morphological properties of tissues. In our previous study we show that the quantification of scattered laser light polarization provides a useful metrics for diagnostics of the malignant melanoma. In this study we exploit whether the image speckle could improve skin cancer diagnostic in comparison with the previously used free-space speckle. The study includes skin phantom measurements and computer modeling. To characterize the depolarization of light we measure the spatial distribution of speckle patterns and analyse their depolarization ratio taken into account radial symmetry. We examine the dependences of depolarization ratio vs. roughness for phantoms which optical properties are of the order of skin lesions. We demonstrate that the variation in bulk optical properties initiates the assessable changes in the depolarization ratio. We show that image speckle differentiates phantoms significantly better than free-space speckle. The results of experimental measurements are compared with the results of Monte Carlo simulation.

  17. Technique charts for EC film: direct optical measurements to account for the effects of X-ray scatter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munro, Peter; Jordan, Kevin; Lewis, Craig; Heerema, Tim

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a method of measuring technique charts for enhanced contrast (EC) film, to demonstrate how X-ray scatter changes the response of EC film, and to generate technique charts for general use. Methods and Materials: We have developed a 'digital cassette' - consisting of a metal plate/phosphor screen, a light guide, a photodiode sensor, and an electrometer - that can be used to measure the light generated in the phosphor screen of the film cassette. In turn, these measurements can be used to generate technique charts for EC film. The digital cassette has been used to measure technique charts for 4-MV and 6-MV X-ray beams for a variety of different phantom thicknesses, field sizes, and phantom-to-cassette air gaps. Results and Discussion: We have observed that the signals generated in an ionization chamber located 9.4 cm behind a 30-cm-thick water-equivalent phantom increase by a factor of 1.9 when the field size is increased from 4x4 cm 2 to 40x40 cm 2 when irradiated by a 6-MV X-ray beam. However, the change in EC film response is a factor of 3.5 under the same conditions. Irradiations to optimally expose the EC film predicted by the digital cassette differ by up to 82% compared to those predicted by ion chamber measurements. Nevertheless, the technique charts measured using the digital cassette predict the response of the EC film to ±0.2 optical density. The overresponse of the EC film is most likely due to low-energy scattered photons, which interact with the high atomic number (Z=64) phosphor screen of the enhanced contrast localization cassette. Therefore, simple solutions, such as placing a high atomic number material above the enhanced contrast localization cassette, can reduce this contribution by scattered photons to the signal generated in the cassettes. Conclusions: We have developed a digital cassette that can make more accurate measurements of the technique charts for EC films. Our measurements show that under some conditions, X

  18. Evaluation of the distribution of absorbed dose in child phantoms exposed to diagnostic medical x rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, W.L.

    1977-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine, by theoretical calculation and experimental measurement, the absorbed dose distributions in two heterogeneous phantoms representing one-year- and five-year-old children from typical radiographic examinations for those ages. Theoretical work included the modification of an existing internal dose code which used Monte Carlo methods to determine doses within the Snyder-Fisher mathematical phantom. A Ge(Li) detector and a pinhole collimator were used to measure x-ray spectra which served as input (i.e., the source routine) to the modified Monte Carlo codes which were used to calculate organ doses in children. Experimental work included the fabrication of child phantoms to match the existing mathematical models. These phantoms were constructed of molded lucite shells filled with differing materials to simulate lung, skeletal, and soft-tissue regions. The skeleton regions of phantoms offered the opportunity to perform meaningful measurements of absorbed dose to bone marrow and bone. Thirteen to fourteen sites in various bones of the skeleton were chosen for placement of TLDs. These sites represented important regions in which active bone marrow is located. Sixteen typical radiographic examinations were performed representing common pediatric diagnostic procedures. The calculated and measured tissue-air values were compared for a number of organs. For most organs, the results of the calculated absorbed doses agreed with the measured absorbed doses within twice the coefficient of variation of the calculated value. The absorbed dose to specific organs for several selected radiological examinations are given for one-year-old, five-year-old, and adult phantoms. For selected radiological exposures, the risk factors of leukemia, thyroid cancer, and genetic death are estimated for one-year- and five-year-old children

  19. Construction of boundary-surface-based Chinese female astronaut computational phantom and proton dose estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wenjuan; JIA, Xianghong; XIE, Tianwu; XU, Feng; LIU, Qian

    2013-01-01

    With the rapid development of China's space industry, the importance of radiation protection is increasingly prominent. To provide relevant dose data, we first developed the Visible Chinese Human adult Female (VCH-F) phantom, and performed further modifications to generate the VCH-F Astronaut (VCH-FA) phantom, incorporating statistical body characteristics data from the first batch of Chinese female astronauts as well as reference organ mass data from the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP; both within 1% relative error). Based on cryosection images, the original phantom was constructed via Non-Uniform Rational B-Spline (NURBS) boundary surfaces to strengthen the deformability for fitting the body parameters of Chinese female astronauts. The VCH-FA phantom was voxelized at a resolution of 2 × 2 × 4 mm3for radioactive particle transport simulations from isotropic protons with energies of 5000–10 000 MeV in Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended (MCNPX) code. To investigate discrepancies caused by anatomical variations and other factors, the obtained doses were compared with corresponding values from other phantoms and sex-averaged doses. Dose differences were observed among phantom calculation results, especially for effective dose with low-energy protons. Local skin thickness shifts the breast dose curve toward high energy, but has little impact on inner organs. Under a shielding layer, organ dose reduction is greater for skin than for other organs. The calculated skin dose per day closely approximates measurement data obtained in low-Earth orbit (LEO). PMID:23135158

  20. Phantom models for neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storr, G.J.

    1990-08-01

    The development of a two-dimensional phantom model using the neutron and photon transport code DOT-IV is detailed. The effects of varying basic parameters such as aperture width, neutron source energy and tissue composition have been studied. One important conclusion from the study is that narrow beam apertures will give little or no advantage for tumour dose over tissue dose even in the 'ideal beam' range of 2-7 keV. The model may be used for future filter and beam studies with confidence. 10 refs., 7 tabs., 13 figs

  1. Getting started with PhantomJS

    CERN Document Server

    Beltran, Aries

    2013-01-01

    The book will follow aA standard tutorial approach, and will beas a complete guide detailing the major aspects of PhantomJS with particular focus on Website website Testingtesting.This book is written forIf you are a JavaScript developers who are is interested in developing applications that interact with various web services, and doing that using a headless browser, then this book is ideal for you. This book iswill also be good for you if you are planning to create a headless browser testing for your web application. Basic understanding of JavaScript is assumed.

  2. Dynamics of coupled phantom and tachyon fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shahalam, M. [Zhejiang University of Technology, Institute for Advanced Physics and Mathematics, Hangzhou (China); Pathak, S.D.; Li, Shiyuan [Shandong University, School of Physics, Jinan (China); Myrzakulov, R. [Eurasian National University, Department of General and Theoretical Physics, Eurasian International Center for Theoretical Physics, Astana (Kazakhstan); Wang, Anzhong [Zhejiang University of Technology, Institute for Advanced Physics and Mathematics, Hangzhou (China); Baylor University, Department of Physics, GCAP-CASPER, Waco, TX (United States)

    2017-10-15

    In this paper, we apply the dynamical analysis to a coupled phantom field with scaling potential taking particular forms of the coupling (linear and combination of linear), and present phase space analysis. We investigate if there exists a late time accelerated scaling attractor that has the ratio of dark energy and dark matter densities of the order one. We observe that the scrutinized couplings cannot alleviate the coincidence problem, however, they acquire stable late time accelerated solutions. We also discuss a coupled tachyon field with inverse square potential assuming linear coupling. (orig.)

  3. Digital luminescence radiography using a chest phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyttkens, K.; Kehler, M.; Andersson, B.; Carlsen, S.; Ebbesen, A.; Hochbergs, P.; Stroembaeck, A.

    1993-01-01

    With the introduction of picture and archiving communicating systems an alternative image display for the wards might be a personal computer (PC). The intention with this study was to evaluate the diagnostic image quality of the monitor of a PC compared to that of a workstation. Eighty-five digital radiographs of a chest phantom with simulated tumors in the mediastinum and right lung were saved on optical discs. The examinations were reviewed by 4 radiologists on a monitor at a workstation and at a PC, and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were constructed. No significant difference was found between performance of the PC and the workstation. (orig.)

  4. Dynamics of coupled phantom and tachyon fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahalam, M.; Pathak, S.D.; Li, Shiyuan; Myrzakulov, R.; Wang, Anzhong

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we apply the dynamical analysis to a coupled phantom field with scaling potential taking particular forms of the coupling (linear and combination of linear), and present phase space analysis. We investigate if there exists a late time accelerated scaling attractor that has the ratio of dark energy and dark matter densities of the order one. We observe that the scrutinized couplings cannot alleviate the coincidence problem, however, they acquire stable late time accelerated solutions. We also discuss a coupled tachyon field with inverse square potential assuming linear coupling. (orig.)

  5. Scattering of high energy electrons on deuteron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grossetete, B.

    1964-12-01

    The aim of this work is to obtain information on the neutron form factor from the study of the scattering of electrons on deuterium. The first part is dedicated to the theoretical study of the elastic and inelastic scattering. We introduce different form factors: Sachs form factor, the Pauli and Dirac form factors, they appear in the analytic expression of the scattering cross-section. We show how the deuteron form factors can be deduced from neutron's and proton's form factors. In the case of the inelastic scattering we show how the cross section can be broken into components associated to partial waves and we obtain different formulas for the inelastic cross-section based on the Breit formula or the Durand formalism. The second part is dedicated to the experiment setting of electron scattering on deuterium. The elastic scattering experiment has been made on solid or liquid CD 2 targets while inelastic scattering has been studied on a liquid target. We have used an electron beam produced by the Orsay linear accelerator and the scattered electrons have been analysed by a magnetic spectrometer and a Cerenkov detector. The results give a very low value (slightly positive)for the charge form factor of the neutron and a magnetic form factor for the neutron slightly below that of the proton [fr

  6. Monte Carlo and experimental evaluation of accuracy and noise properties of two scatter correction methods for SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narita, Y.; Eberl, S.; Bautovich, G.; Iida, H.; Hutton, B.F.; Braun, M.; Nakamura, T.

    1996-01-01

    Scatter correction is a prerequisite for quantitative SPECT, but potentially increases noise. Monte Carlo simulations (EGS4) and physical phantom measurements were used to compare accuracy and noise properties of two scatter correction techniques: the triple-energy window (TEW), and the transmission dependent convolution subtraction (TDCS) techniques. Two scatter functions were investigated for TDCS: (i) the originally proposed mono-exponential function (TDCS mono ) and (ii) an exponential plus Gaussian scatter function (TDCS Gauss ) demonstrated to be superior from our Monte Carlo simulations. Signal to noise ratio (S/N) and accuracy were investigated in cylindrical phantoms and a chest phantom. Results from each method were compared to the true primary counts (simulations), or known activity concentrations (phantom studies). 99m Tc was used in all cases. The optimized TDCS Gauss method overall performed best, with an accuracy of better than 4% for all simulations and physical phantom studies. Maximum errors for TEW and TDCS mono of -30 and -22%, respectively, were observed in the heart chamber of the simulated chest phantom. TEW had the worst S/N ratio of the three techniques. The S/N ratios of the two TDCS methods were similar and only slightly lower than those of simulated true primary data. Thus, accurate quantitation can be obtained with TDCS Gauss , with a relatively small reduction in S/N ratio. (author)

  7. X-ray scatter removal by deconvolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seibert, J.A.; Boone, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    The distribution of scattered x rays detected in a two-dimensional projection radiograph at diagnostic x-ray energies is measured as a function of field size and object thickness at a fixed x-ray potential and air gap. An image intensifier-TV based imaging system is used for image acquisition, manipulation, and analysis. A scatter point spread function (PSF) with an assumed linear, spatiall