WorldWideScience

Sample records for ph salinity pressure

  1. Salinity and pH effects on floating and emergent macrophytes in a constructed wetland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadad, H R; Mufarrege, M M; Di Luca, G A; Maine, M A

    2017-04-01

    Salvinia herzogii, Pistia stratiotes and Eichhornia crassipes (floating species) were the dominant macrophytes in a constructed wetland (CW) over the first years of operation. Later, the emergent Typha domingensis displaced the floating species, becoming dominant. The industrial effluent treated at this CW showed high pH and salinity. The aim of this work was to study the tolerance of floating species and T. domingensis exposed to different pH and salinity treatments. Treatments at pH 8, 9, 10 and 11 and salinities of 2,000; 3,000; 4,000; 6,000; and 8,000 mg L -1 were performed. Floating macrophytes were unable to tolerate the studied pH and salinity ranges, while T. domingensis tolerated higher pH and salinity values. Many industrial effluents commonly show high pH and salinity. T. domingensis demonstrated to be a suitable macrophyte to treat this type of effluents.

  2. Reduction of mercury (II) by humic substances-influence of pH, salinity of aquatic system

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chakraborty, P.; Vudamala, K.; Coulibaly, M.; Ramteke, D.; Chennuri, K.; Lean, D.

    60 80 pH 4.0 pH 7.0 pH 8.0 pH 9.0 Time (h-1) 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 0 10 20 30 40 pH 4.0 pH 5.0 pH 6.0 pH 7.0 pH 8.0 pH 9.0 Figure 5 a b c Pe rc en ta ge o f t he to ta l d is so lv ed H g re du ce d b y H S an d tr ap ed in o xi di... humic substances (wt %) 0.42 0.44 0.46 0.48 0.50 0.52 0.54 0.56 Fr ac tio n (p er ce nt ag e) o f t ot al H g re du ce d by H S 20 30 40 50 60 70 Salinity = 5 PSU Salinity = 10 PSU Salinity = 15 PSU Salinity = 20PSU Salinity = 30 PSU 0.42 0...

  3. Tolerance of photoperiod insensitive mutant of Sesbania rostrata to salinity and pH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramani, Saradha; Joshua, D.C.; Shaikh, M.S.; Athalye, V.V.

    1998-01-01

    The photoperiod insensitive mutant, TSR-1 of Sesbania rostrata was compared with the parent variety for its response to soil salinity and different levels of pH in hydroponics. The plant growth and stem nodulation were not significantly affected by salinity. However, salinity in soil without farmyard manure stimulated plant growth. Radiotracer studies showed that the translocation of Na to stem and leaves was much less compared to uptake in both parent and mutant. The growth of TSR-1 was comparable to or marginally better than that of the parent variety in the pH range of 3.5-8.0. Root nodulation was less with low pH. The nitrogen content was not adversely affected by pH, but it was reduced with 200 mM NaCl. This mutant in addition to being short-day insensitive, is tolerant to low to moderate salinity levels and pH like its parent. (author)

  4. Decalcification and survival of benthic foraminifera under the combined impacts of varying pH and salinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charrieau, Laurie M; Filipsson, Helena L; Nagai, Yukiko; Kawada, Sachiko; Ljung, Karl; Kritzberg, Emma; Toyofuku, Takashi

    2018-04-03

    Coastal areas display natural large environmental variability such as frequent changes in salinity, pH, and carbonate chemistry. Anthropogenic impacts - especially ocean acidification - increase this variability, which may affect the living conditions of coastal species, particularly, calcifiers. We performed culture experiments on living benthic foraminifera to study the combined effects of lowered pH and salinity on the calcification abilities and survival of the coastal, calcitic species Ammonia sp. and Elphidium crispum. We found that in open ocean conditions (salinity ∼35) and lower pH than usual values for these species, the specimens displayed resistance to shell (test) dissolution for a longer time than in brackish conditions (salinity ∼5 to 20). However, the response was species specific as Ammonia sp. specimens survived longer than E. crispum specimens when placed in the same conditions of salinity and pH. Living, decalcified juveniles of Ammonia sp. were observed and we show that desalination is one cause for the decalcification. Finally, we highlight the ability of foraminifera to survive under Ω calc  salinity and [Ca 2+ ] as building blocks are crucial for the foraminiferal calcification process. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Modeling carbon dioxide sequestration in saline aquifers: Significance of elevated pressures and salinities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, D.E.; Strazisar, B.R.; Soong, Y.; Hedges, S.W.

    2005-01-01

    The ultimate capacity of saline formations to sequester carbon dioxide by solubility and mineral trapping must be determined by simulating sequestration with geochemical models. These models, however, are only as reliable as the data and reaction scheme on which they are based. Several models have been used to make estimates of carbon dioxide solubility and mineral formation as a function of pressure and fluid composition. Intercomparison of modeling results indicates that failure to adjust all equilibrium constants to account for elevated carbon dioxide pressures results in significant errors in both solubility and mineral formation estimates. Absence of experimental data at high carbon dioxide pressures and high salinities make verification of model results difficult. Results indicate standalone solubility models that do not take mineral reactions into account will underestimate the total capacity of aquifers to sequester carbon dioxide in the long term through enhanced solubility and mineral trapping mechanisms. Overall, it is difficult to confidently predict the ultimate sequestration capacity of deep saline aquifers using geochemical models. (author)

  6. Short-Term Exposure of Mytilus coruscus to Decreased pH and Salinity Change Impacts Immune Parameters of Their Haemocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Fangli; Xie, Zhe; Lan, Yawen; Dupont, Sam; Sun, Meng; Cui, Shuaikang; Huang, Xizhi; Huang, Wei; Liu, Liping; Hu, Menghong; Lu, Weiqun; Wang, Youji

    2018-01-01

    With the release of large amounts of CO 2 , ocean acidification is intensifying and affecting aquatic organisms. In addition, salinity also plays an important role for marine organisms and fluctuates greatly in estuarine and coastal ecosystem, where ocean acidification frequently occurs. In present study, flow cytometry was used to investigate immune parameters of haemocytes in the thick shell mussel Mytilus coruscus exposed to different salinities (15, 25, and 35‰) and two pH levels (7.3 and 8.1). A 7-day in vivo and a 5-h in vitro experiments were performed. In both experiments, low pH had significant effects on all tested immune parameters. When exposed to decreased pH, total haemocyte count (THC), phagocytosis (Pha), esterase (Est), and lysosomal content (Lyso) were significantly decreased, whereas haemocyte mortality (HM) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) were increased. High salinity had no significant effects on the immune parameters of haemocytes as compared with low salinity. However, an interaction between pH and salinity was observed in both experiments for most tested haemocyte parameters. This study showed that high salinity, low salinity and low pH have negative and interactive effects on haemocytes of mussels. As a consequence, it can be expected that the combined effect of low pH and changed salinity will have more severe effects on mussel health than predicted by single exposure.

  7. Pressure pressure-balanced pH sensing system for high temperature and high pressure water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tachibana, Koji

    1995-01-01

    As for the pH measurement system for high temperature, high pressure water, there have been the circumstances that first the reference electrodes for monitoring corrosion potential were developed, and subsequently, it was developed for the purpose of maintaining the soundness of metallic materials in high temperature, high pressure water in nuclear power generation. In the process of developing the reference electrodes for high temperature water, it was clarified that the occurrence of stress corrosion cracking in BWRs is closely related to the corrosion potential determined by dissolved oxygen concentration. As the types of pH electrodes, there are metal-hydrogen electrodes, glass electrodes, ZrO 2 diaphragm electrodes and TiO 2 semiconductor electrodes. The principle of pH measurement using ZrO 2 diaphragms is explained. The pH measuring system is composed of YSZ element, pressure-balanced type external reference electrode, pressure balancer and compressed air vessel. The stability and pH response of YSZ elements are reported. (K.I.)

  8. Surface pH changes suggest a role for H+/OH- channels in salinity response of Chara australis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Absolonova, Marketa; Beilby, Mary J; Sommer, Aniela; Hoepflinger, Marion C; Foissner, Ilse

    2018-05-01

    To understand salt stress, the full impact of salinity on plant cell physiology has to be resolved. Electrical measurements suggest that salinity inhibits the proton pump and opens putative H + /OH - channels all over the cell surface of salt sensitive Chara australis (Beilby and Al Khazaaly 2009; Al Khazaaly and Beilby 2012). The channels open transiently at first, causing a characteristic noise in membrane potential difference (PD), and after longer exposure remain open with a typical current-voltage (I/V) profile, both abolished by the addition of 1 mM ZnCl 2 , the main known blocker of animal H + channels. The cells were imaged with confocal microscopy, using fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) coupled to dextran 70 to illuminate the pH changes outside the cell wall in artificial fresh water (AFW) and in saline medium. In the early saline exposure, we observed alkaline patches (bright fluorescent spots) appearing transiently in random spatial distribution. After longer exposure, some of the spots became fixed in space. Saline also abolished or diminished the pH banding pattern observed in the untreated control cells. ZnCl 2 suppressed the alkaline spot formation in saline and the pH banding pattern in AFW. The osmotic component of the saline stress did not produce transient bright spots or affect banding. The displacement of H + from the cell wall charges, the H + /OH - channel conductance/density, and self-organization are discussed. No homologies to animal H + channels were found. Salinity activation of the H + /OH - channels might contribute to saline response in roots of land plants and leaves of aquatic angiosperms.

  9. An improved film evaporation correlation for saline water at sub-atmospheric pressures

    KAUST Repository

    Shahzada, Muhammad Wakil; Ng, Kim Choon; Thu, Kyaw; Myat, Aung; Gee, Chun Won

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an investigation of heat transfer correlation in a falling-film evaporator working with saline water at sub-atmospheric pressures. The experiments are conducted at different salinity levels ranging from 15000 to 90000 ppm, and the pressures were maintained between 0.92 to 2.81 kPa (corresponds to saturation temperatures of 5.9 – 23 0C). The effect of salinity, saturation pressures and chilled water temperatures on the heat transfer coefficient are accounted in the modified film evaporation correlations. The results are fitted to the Han & Fletcher's and Chun & Seban's falling-film correlations which are used in desalination industry. We modify the said correlations by adding salinity and saturation temperature corrections with respective indices to give a better agreement to our measured data.

  10. An improved film evaporation correlation for saline water at sub-atmospheric pressures

    KAUST Repository

    Shahzada, Muhammad Wakil

    2011-10-03

    This paper presents an investigation of heat transfer correlation in a falling-film evaporator working with saline water at sub-atmospheric pressures. The experiments are conducted at different salinity levels ranging from 15000 to 90000 ppm, and the pressures were maintained between 0.92 to 2.81 kPa (corresponds to saturation temperatures of 5.9 – 23 0C). The effect of salinity, saturation pressures and chilled water temperatures on the heat transfer coefficient are accounted in the modified film evaporation correlations. The results are fitted to the Han & Fletcher\\'s and Chun & Seban\\'s falling-film correlations which are used in desalination industry. We modify the said correlations by adding salinity and saturation temperature corrections with respective indices to give a better agreement to our measured data.

  11. Influence of Microsprinkler Irrigation Amount on Water, Soil, and pH Profiles in a Coastal Saline Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linlin Chu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Microsprinkler irrigation is a potential method to alleviate soil salinization. After conducting a homogeneous, highly saline, clayey, and coastal soil from the Bohai Gulf in northern China in a column experiment, the results show that the depth of the wetting front increased as the water amount applied increased, low-salinity and low-SAR enlarged after irrigation and water redistribution, and the soil pH increased with an increase in irrigation amount. We concluded that a water amount of 207 mm could be used to reclaim the coastal saline soil in northern China.

  12. The effects of salinity, pH, and dissolved organic matter on acute copper toxicity to the rotifer, Brachionus plicatilis ("L" strain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, W R; Diamond, R L; Smith, D S

    2010-08-01

    This paper presents data from original research for use in the development of a marine biotic ligand model and, ultimately, copper criteria for the protection of estuarine and marine organisms and their uses. Ten 48-h static acute (unfed) copper toxicity tests using the euryhaline rotifer Brachionus plicatilis ("L" strain) were performed to assess the effects of salinity, pH, and dissolved organic matter (measured as dissolved organic carbon; DOC) on median lethal dissolved copper concentrations (LC50). Reconstituted and natural saltwater samples were tested at seven salinities (6, 11, 13, 15, 20, 24, and 29 g/L), over a pH range of 6.8-8.6 and a range of dissolved organic carbon of <0.5-4.1 mg C/L. Water chemistry analyses (alkalinity, calcium, chloride, DOC, hardness, magnesium, potassium, sodium, salinity, and temperature) are presented for input parameters to the biotic ligand model. In stepwise multiple regression analysis of experimental results where salinity, pH, and DOC concentrations varied, copper toxicity was significantly related only to the dissolved organic matter content (pH and salinity not statistically retained; alpha=0.05). The relationship of the 48-h dissolved copper LC50 values and dissolved organic carbon concentrations was LC50 (microg Cu/L)=27.1xDOC (mg C/L)1.25; r2=0.94.

  13. Pasteurization of fruit juices of different pH values by combined high hydrostatic pressure and carbon dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wang; Pan, Jian; Xie, Huiming; Yang, Yi; Zhou, Dianfei; Zhu, Zhaona

    2012-10-01

    The inactivation of the selected vegetative bacteria Escherichia coli, Listeria innocua, and Lactobacillus plantarum by high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) in physiological saline (PS) and in four fruit juices with pHs ranging from 3.4 to 6.3, with or without dissolved CO(2), was investigated. The inactivation effect of HHP on the bacteria was greatly enhanced by dissolved CO(2). Effective inactivation (>7 log) was achieved at 250 MPa for E. coli and 350 MPa for L. innocua and L. plantarum in the presence of 0.2 M CO(2) at room temperature for 15 min in PS, with additional inactivation of more than 4 log for all three bacteria species compared with the results with HHP treatment alone. The combined inactivation by HHP and CO(2) in tomato juice of pH 4.2 and carrot juice of pH 6.3 showed minor differences compared with that in PS. By comparison, the combined effect in orange juice of pH 3.8 was considerably promoted, while the HHP inactivation was enhanced only to a limited extent. In another orange juice with a pH of 3.4, all three strains lost their pressure resistance. HHP alone completely inactivated E. coli at relatively mild pressures of 200 MPa and L. innocua and L. plantarum at 300 MPa. Observations of the survival of the bacteria in treated juices also showed that the combined treatment caused more sublethal injury, which increased further inactivation at a relatively mild pH of 4.2 during storage. The results indicated that the combined treatment of HHP with dissolved CO(2) may provide an effective method for the preservation of low- or medium-acid fruit and vegetable juices at relatively low pressures. HHP alone inactivated bacteria effectively in high-acid fruit juice.

  14. Porewater salinity and the development of swelling pressure in bentonite-based buffer and backfill materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixon, D.A. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (Canada)

    2000-06-01

    At the depths proposed for a nuclear fuel waste repository, it is likely that saline groundwater conditions will be encountered in the granitic rocks of Finland and Canada. The potential for saline groundwater to influence of the ability of bentonite-based buffer and backfilling materials to swell and thereby generate swelling pressure has been reviewed. Based on the data collected from existing literature, it would appear that porewater salinities as high as 100 g/l will not compromise the ability of confined, bentonite-based materials to develop a swelling pressure of at least 100 kPa on its confinement, provided the effective clay dry density (ECDD), exceeds approximately 0.9 Mg/m{sup 3}. At densities less than approximately 0.9 Mg/m{sup 3} the swelling pressure of bentonite-based materials may be reduced and become sensitive to salt concentration. The influence of porewater salinity on swelling pressure can be compared on the basis of the ECDD required to develop 100 kPa of swelling pressure. In order to generate 100 kPa of swelling pressure an ECDD of approximately 0.7 Mg/m{sup 3} is required to be present under fresh water or brackish porewater conditions. This density would need to be increased to approximately 0.9 Mg/m{sup 3} where the groundwater conditions were saline. The impact that groundwater salinity will have on density specifications for buffer and backfilling materials are discussed with reference to the nuclear fuel waste disposal concepts of Finland and Canada. (orig.)

  15. The effect of drinking water salinity on blood pressure in young adults of coastal Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talukder, Mohammad Radwanur Rahman; Rutherford, Shannon; Phung, Dung; Islam, Mohammad Zahirul; Chu, Cordia

    2016-07-01

    More than 35 million people in coastal Bangladesh are vulnerable to increasing freshwater salinization. This will continue to affect more people and to a greater extent as climate change projections are realised in this area in the future. However the evidence for health effects of consuming high salinity water is limited. This research examined the association between drinking water salinity and blood pressure in young adults in coastal Bangladesh. We conducted a cross-sectional study during May-June 2014 in a rural coastal sub-district of Bangladesh. Data on blood pressure (BP) and salinity of potable water sources was collected from 253 participants aged 19-25 years. A linear regression method was used to examine the association between water salinity exposure categories and systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP) level. Sixty five percent of the study population were exposed to highly saline drinking water above the Bangladesh standard (600 mg/L and above). Multivariable linear regression analyses identified that compared to the low water salinity exposure category (water salinity category (>600 mg/L), had statistically significantly higher SBP (B 3.46, 95% CI 0.75, 6.17; p = 0.01) and DBP (B 2.77, 95% CI 0.31, 5.24; p = 0.03). Our research shows that elevated salinity in drinking water is associated with higher BP in young coastal populations. Blood pressure is an important risk factor of hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. Given the extent of salinization of freshwater in many low-lying countries including in Bangladesh, and the likely exacerbation related to climate change-induced sea level rise, implementation of preventative strategies through dietary interventions along with promotion of low saline drinking water must be a priority in these settings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Impact of temperature, pH, and salinity changes on the physico-chemical properties of model naphthenic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celsie, Alena; Parnis, J Mark; Mackay, Donald

    2016-03-01

    The effects of temperature, pH, and salinity change on naphthenic acids (NAs) present in oil-sands process wastewater were modeled for 55 representative NAs. COSMO-RS was used to estimate octanol-water (KOW) and octanol-air (KOA) partition ratios and Henry's law constants (H). Validation with experimental carboxylic acid data yielded log KOW and log H RMS errors of 0.45 and 0.55 respectively. Calculations of log KOW, (or log D, for pH-dependence), log KOA and log H (or log HD, for pH-dependence) were made for model NAs between -20 °C and 40 °C, pH between 0 and 14, and salinity between 0 and 3 g NaCl L(-1). Temperature increase by 60 °C resulted in 3-5 log unit increase in H and a similar magnitude decrease in KOA. pH increase above the NA pKa resulted in a dramatic decrease in both log D and log HD. Salinity increase over the 0-3 g NaCl L(-1) range resulted in a 0.3 log unit increase on average for KOW and H values. Log KOW values of the sodium salt and anion of the conjugate base were also estimated to examine their potential for contribution to the overall partitioning of NAs. Sodium salts and anions of naphthenic acids are predicted to have on average 4 log units and 6 log units lower log KOW values, respectively, with respect to the corresponding neutral NA. Partitioning properties are profoundly influenced by the by the relative prevailing pH and the substance's pKa at the relevant temperature. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The effect of drinking water salinity on blood pressure in young adults of coastal Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talukder, Mohammad Radwanur Rahman; Rutherford, Shannon; Phung, Dung; Islam, Mohammad Zahirul; Chu, Cordia

    2016-01-01

    More than 35 million people in coastal Bangladesh are vulnerable to increasing freshwater salinization. This will continue to affect more people and to a greater extent as climate change projections are realised in this area in the future. However the evidence for health effects of consuming high salinity water is limited. This research examined the association between drinking water salinity and blood pressure in young adults in coastal Bangladesh. We conducted a cross-sectional study during May-June 2014 in a rural coastal sub-district of Bangladesh. Data on blood pressure (BP) and salinity of potable water sources was collected from 253 participants aged 19–25 years. A linear regression method was used to examine the association between water salinity exposure categories and systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP) level. Sixty five percent of the study population were exposed to highly saline drinking water above the Bangladesh standard (600 mg/L and above). Multivariable linear regression analyses identified that compared to the low water salinity exposure category (<600 mg/L), those in the high water salinity category (>600 mg/L), had statistically significantly higher SBP (B 3.46, 95% CI 0.75, 6.17; p = 0.01) and DBP (B 2.77, 95% CI 0.31, 5.24; p = 0.03). Our research shows that elevated salinity in drinking water is associated with higher BP in young coastal populations. Blood pressure is an important risk factor of hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. Given the extent of salinization of freshwater in many low-lying countries including in Bangladesh, and the likely exacerbation related to climate change-induced sea level rise, implementation of preventative strategies through dietary interventions along with promotion of low saline drinking water must be a priority in these settings. - Highlights: • Freshwater salinization will affect more people and to a greater extent as climate projections are realised in low-lying regions of the world.

  18. Photobleaching of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) in the Yangtze River estuary: kinetics and effects of temperature, pH, and salinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Guisheng; Li, Yijie; Hu, Suzheng; Li, Guiju; Zhao, Ruihua; Sun, Xin; Xie, Huixiang

    2017-06-21

    The kinetics and temperature-, pH- and salinity-dependences of photobleaching of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) in the Yangtze River estuary (YRE) were evaluated using laboratory solar-simulated irradiation and compared to those of Suwannee River humic substances (SRHSs). Nearly all CDOM in water at the head of the estuary (headwater herein) was photobleachable in both summer and winter, while significant fractions of CDOM (13-29%) were resistant to photobleaching in saltier waters. The photobleaching rate constant in the headwater was 25% higher in summer than that in winter. The absorbed photon-based photobleaching efficiency (PE) increased with temperature following the linear Arrhenius equation. For a 20 °C increase in temperature, PE increased by ∼45% in the headwater and by 70-81% in the saltier waters. PE for YRE samples exhibited minima at pH from 6 to 7 and increased with both lower and higher pH values, contrasting the consistent increase in PE with pH shown by SRHSs. No consistent effect of salinity on PE was observed for both SRHSs and YRE samples. Photobleaching increased the spectral slope coefficient between 275 nm and 295 nm in summer, consistent with the behavior of SRHSs, but decreased it in winter, implying a difference in the molecular composition of chromophores between the two seasons. Temperature, salinity, and pH modified the photoalteration of the spectral shape but their effects varied spatially and seasonally. This study demonstrates that CDOM quality, temperature, and pH should be incorporated into models involving quantification of photobleaching.

  19. Vapor pressure lowering effects due to salinity and suction pressure in the depletion of vapor-dominated geothermal reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battistelli, A. [Aquater S.p.A., Pisa (Italy); Calore, C. [Istituto Internazionale per le Ricerche Geotermiche-CNR, Pisa (Italy); Pruess, K. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1995-03-01

    The equation-of-state module able to handle saline brines with non-condensible gas, developed for the TOUGH2 simulator, has been improved to include vapor pressure lowering (VPL) due to suction pressure as represented by Kelvin`s equation. In this equation the effects of salt are considered whereas those of non-condensible gas have currently been neglected. Numerical simulations of fluid production from tight matrix blocks have been performed to evaluate the impact of VPL effects due to salinity and suction pressure on the depletion behaviour of vapor-dominated geothermal reservoirs. Previous studies performed neglected VPL due to suction pressure showed that for initial NaCl mass fractions above threshold values, {open_quotes}sealing{close_quotes} of the block occurs and large amounts of liquid fluid may not be recovered. On the other hand, below the threshold value the matrix block dries out due to fluid production. The inclusion of VPL due to suction pressure does not allow complete vaporization of the liquid phase. As a result, the threshold NaCl concentration above which sealing of the matrix block occurs is increased. Above the {open_quotes}critical{close_quotes} NaCl concentration, block depletion behaviour with and without the VPL due to suction pressure is almost identical, as liquid phase saturation remains high even after long production times. As the VPL due to suction pressure depends mainly on capillary pressure, the shape of capillary pressure functions used in numerical simulations is important in determining VPL effects on block depletion.

  20. Controls on the pH of hyper-saline lakes - A lesson from the Dead Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golan, Rotem; Gavrieli, Ittai; Ganor, Jiwchar; Lazar, Boaz

    2016-01-01

    The pH of aqueous environments is determined by the dominant buffer systems of the water, defined operationally as total alkalinity (TA). The major buffer systems in the modern ocean are carbonic and boric acids of which the species bicarbonate, carbonate and borate make up about 77%, 19% and 4% of the TA, respectively. During the course of seawater evaporation (e.g. lagoons) the residual brine loses considerable portion of the dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and carbonate alkalinity (CA) already at the early stages of evaporation. DIC and CA decrease due to massive precipitation of CaCO3, while total boron (TB) increases conservatively, turning borate to the dominant alkalinity species in marine derived brines. In the present work we assess the apparent dissociation constant value of boric acid (KB‧) in saline and hypersaline waters, using the Dead Sea (DS) as a case study. We explain the DS low pH (∼6.3) and the effect of the boric and carbonic acid pK‧-s on the behavior of the brine's buffer system, including the pH increase that results from brine dilution. The KB‧ in DS was estimated from TB, TA, DIC and pH data measured in this study and early empirical data on artificial DS brines containing just carbonic acid. The KB‧ value was corroborated by Pitzer ion interaction model calculations using PHREEQC thermodynamic code applied to the chemical composition of the DS. Our results show that KB‧ increases considerably with the brine's ionic strength, reaching in the DS to a factor of 100 higher than in ;mean; seawater. Based on theoretical calculations and analyses of other natural brines it is suggested that brines' composition is a major factor in determining the KB‧ value and in turn the pH of such brines. We show that the higher the proportion of divalent cations in the brine the higher the dissociation constants of the weak acids (presumably due to formation of complexes). The low pH of the Dead Sea is accordingly explained by its extremely

  1. Influence of intramuscular granisetron on experimentally induced muscle pain by acidic saline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louca, S; Ernberg, M; Christidis, N

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether intramuscular administration of the 5-HT(3) receptor antagonist granisetron reduces experimental muscle pain induced by repeated intramuscular injections of acidic saline into the masseter muscles. Twenty-eight healthy and pain-free volunteers, fourteen women and fourteen men participated in this randomized, double-blind and placebo-controlled study. After a screening examination and registration of the baseline pressure-pain threshold (PPT), the first simultaneous bilateral injections of 0·5 mL acidic saline (9 mg mL(-1) , pH 3·3) into the masseter muscles were performed. Two days later, PPT and pain (VAS) were re-assessed. The masseter muscle was then pre-treated with 0·5 mL granisetron (Kytril(®) 1 mg mL(-1) pH 5·3) on one side and control substance (isotonic saline, 9 mg mL(-1) pH 6) on the contralateral side. Two minutes thereafter a bilateral simultaneous injection of 0·5 mL acidic saline followed. The evoked pain intensity, pain duration, pain area and PPT were assessed. The volunteers returned 1 week later to re-assess VAS and PPT. On the side pre-treated with granisetron, the induced pain had significantly lower intensity and shorter duration (P granisetron on pain duration was significant only in women (P granisetron has a pain-reducing effect on experimentally induced muscle pain by repeated acidic saline injection. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Unlocking High-Salinity Desalination with Cascading Osmotically Mediated Reverse Osmosis: Energy and Operating Pressure Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Yip, Ngai Yin

    2018-02-20

    Current practice of using thermally driven methods to treat hypersaline brines is highly energy-intensive and costly. While conventional reverse osmosis (RO) is the most efficient desalination technique, it is confined to purifying seawater and lower salinity sources. Hydraulic pressure restrictions and elevated energy demand render RO unsuitable for high-salinity streams. Here, we propose an innovative cascading osmotically mediated reverse osmosis (COMRO) technology to overcome the limitations of conventional RO. The innovation utilizes the novel design of bilateral countercurrent reverse osmosis stages to depress the hydraulic pressure needed by lessening the osmotic pressure difference across the membrane, and simultaneously achieve energy savings. Instead of the 137 bar required by conventional RO to desalinate 70 000 ppm TDS hypersaline feed, the highest operating pressure in COMRO is only 68.3 bar (-50%). Furthermore, up to ≈17% energy saving is attained by COMRO (3.16 kWh/m 3 , compared to 3.79 kWh/m 3 with conventional RO). When COMRO is employed to boost the recovery of seawater desalination to 70% from the typical 35-50%, energy savings of up to ≈33% is achieved (2.11 kWh/m 3 , compared to 3.16 kWh/m 3 with conventional RO). Again, COMRO can operate at a moderate hydraulic pressure of 80 bar (25% lower than 113 bar of conventional RO). This study highlights the encouraging potential of energy-efficient COMRO to access unprecedented high recovery rates and treat hypersaline brines at moderate hydraulic pressures, thus extending the capabilities of membrane-based technologies for high-salinity desalination.

  3. Nebulized hypertonic saline via positive expiratory pressure versus via jet nebulizer in patients with severe cystic fibrosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connell, Oisin J

    2011-06-01

    Nebulized hypertonic saline is a highly effective therapy for patients with cystic fibrosis (CF), yet 10% of patients are intolerant of hypertonic saline administered via jet nebulizer. Positive expiratory pressure (PEP) nebulizers splint open the airways and offers a more controlled rate of nebulization.

  4. Electrocapillary Phenomena at Edible Oil/Saline Interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Satoshi; Ohzono, Takuya; Shoji, Kohei; Yagihara, Shin; Hayashi, Masafumi; Tanaka, Hisao

    2017-03-01

    Interfacial tension between edible oil and saline was measured under applied electric fields to understand the electrocapillary phenomena at the edible oil/saline interfaces. The electric responses of saline droplets in edible oil were also observed microscopically to examine the relationship between the electrocapillary phenomena and interfacial polarization. When sodium oleate (SO) was added to edible oil (SO-oil), the interfacial tension between SO-oil and saline decreased. However, no decrease was observed for additive-free oil or oleic acid (OA)-added oil (OA-oil). Microscopic observations suggested that the magnitude of interfacial polarization increased in the order of additive-free oil oil oil. The difference in electrocapillary phenomena between OA- and SO-oils was closely related to the polarization magnitude. In the case of SO-oil, the decrease in interfacial tension was remarkably larger for saline (pH 5.4~5.6) than that for phosphate-buffered saline (PBS, pH 7.2~7.4). However, no difference was observed between the electric responses of PBS and saline droplets in SO-oil. The difference in electrocapillary phenomena for PBS and saline could not be simply explained in terms of polarization magnitude. The ratio of ionized and non-ionized OA at the interfaces changed with the saline pH, possibly leading to the above difference.

  5. Photolysis of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene in seawater and estuary water: Impact of pH, temperature, salinity, and dissolved organic matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luning Prak, Dianne J.; Breuer, James E.T.; Rios, Evelyn A.; Jedlicka, Erin E.; O'Sullivan, Daniel W.

    2017-01-01

    The influence of salinity, pH, temperature, and dissolved organic matter on the photolysis rate of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) in marine, estuary, and laboratory-prepared waters was studied using a Suntest CPS +® solar simulator equipped with optical filters. TNT degradation rates were determined using HPLC analysis, and products were identified using LC/MS. Minimal or no TNT photolysis occurred under a 395-nm long pass filter, but under a 295-nm filter, first-order TNT degradation rate constants and apparent quantum yields increased with increasing salinity in both natural and artificial seawater. TNT rate constants increased slightly with increasing temperature (10 to 32 °C) but did not change significantly with pH (6.4 to 8.1). The addition of dissolved organic matter (up to 5 mg/L) to ultrapure water, artificial seawater, and natural seawater increased the TNT photolysis rate constant. Products formed by TNT photolysis in natural seawater were determined to be 2,4,6-trinitrobenzaldehyde, 1,3,5-trinitrobenzene, 2,4,6-trinitrobenzoic acid, and 2-amino-4,6-dinitrobenzoic acid. - Highlights: • 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) was photolyzed in marine, estuary, & laboratory waters. • TNT photolysis rates increased with increasing salinity & dissolved organic matter. • Temperature and pH had minimal impact on TNT photolysis in marine waters. • In seawater, TNT photolysis produced 1,3,5-trinitrobenzene & trinitrobenzaldehyde. • Polar products were 2,4,6-trinobenzoic acid & 2-amino-4,6-dinitrobenzoic acid.

  6. A laboratory study of ikaite (CaCO3·6H2O) precipitation as a function of pH, salinity, temperature and phosphate concentration

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Yu-Bin; Wolf-Gladrow, Dieter A.; Dieckmann, Gerhard S.; Völker, Christoph; Nehrke, Gernot

    2014-01-01

    Ikaite (CaCO3·6H2O) has only recently been discovered in sea ice, in a study that also provided first direct evidence of CaCO3 precipitation in sea ice. However, little is as yet known about the impact of physico-chemical processes on ikaite precipitation in sea ice. Our study focused on how the changes in pH, salinity, temperature and phosphate (PO4) concentration affect the precipitation of ikaite. Experiments were set up at pH from 8.5 to 10.0, salinities from 0 to 105 (in both artificial ...

  7. Bacteriophage Infectivity Against Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Saline Conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Scarascia, Giantommaso

    2018-05-02

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a ubiquitous member of marine biofilm, and reduces thiosulfate to produce toxic hydrogen sulfide gas. In this study, lytic bacteriophages were isolated and applied to inhibit the growth of P. aeruginosa in planktonic mode at different temperature, pH, and salinity. Bacteriophages showed optimal infectivity at a multiplicity of infection of 10 in saline conditions, and demonstrated lytic abilities over all tested temperature (25, 30, 37, and 45°C) and pH 6–9. Planktonic P. aeruginosa exhibited significantly longer lag phase and lower specific growth rates upon exposure to bacteriophages. Bacteriophages were subsequently applied to P. aeruginosa-enriched biofilm and were determined to lower the relative abundance of Pseudomonas-related taxa from 0.17 to 5.58% in controls to 0.01–0.61% in treated microbial communities. The relative abundance of Alphaproteobacteria, Pseudoalteromonas, and Planococcaceae decreased, possibly due to the phage-induced disruption of the biofilm matrix. Lastly, when applied to mitigate biofouling of ultrafiltration membranes, bacteriophages were determined to reduce the transmembrane pressure increase by 18% when utilized alone, and by 49% when used in combination with citric acid. The combined treatment was more effective compared with the citric acid treatment alone, which reported ca. 30% transmembrane pressure reduction. Collectively, the findings demonstrated that bacteriophages can be used as a biocidal agent to mitigate undesirable P. aeruginosa-associated problems in seawater applications.

  8. Effects Of pH, Temperature And Salinity In Growth And Organic Acid Production Of Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated From Penaeid Shrimp Intestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subagiyo Subagiyo

    2015-12-01

    condition for growth are important to mass production and to determined parameters most suitable for growth. The effects of  temperature, pH and salinity on the growth and production of lactic acid from the three shrimp intestinal lactic acid bacteria isolates were conducted using bacth culture in a flask. These variables for growth were determined based on the growth curves and lactic acid production. Data from the flask batch experiment demonstrated that the best initial pH and temperature  for growth of isolat L12 ,L14 and L21 were found to be pH 6 and 30 OC.  Salinity (NaCl concentration 0,75% were the best for growth of isolat L12. Salnity  1,5 % were best for growth of isolat L14 and L21. Key words : growth, temperature, pH, salinity, lactic aid bacteria

  9. The Effect of pH and High-Pressure Homogenization on Droplet Size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ah Pis Yong

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study are to revisit the effect of high pressure on homogenization and the influence of pH on the emulsion droplet sizes. The high-pressure homogenization (HPH involves two stages of processing, where the first stage involves in blending the coarse emulsion by a blender, and the second stage requires disruption of the coarse emulsion into smaller droplets by a high-pressure homogenizer. The pressure range in this review is in between 10-500 MPa. The homogenised droplet sizes can be reduced by increasing the homogenization recirculation, and there is a threshold point beyond that by applying pressure only, the size cannot be further reduced. Normally, homogenised emulsions are classified by their degree of kinetic stability. Dispersed phase present in the form of droplets while continuous phase also known as suspended droplets. With a proper homogenization recirculation and pressure, a more kinetically stable emulsion can be produced. The side effects of increasing homogenization pressure are that it can cause overprocessing of the emulsion droplets where the droplet sizes become larger rather than the expected smaller size. This can cause kinetic instability in the emulsion. The droplet size is usually measured by dynamic light scattering or by laser light scattering technique. The type of samples used in this reviews are such as chocolate and vanilla based powders; mean droplet sizes samples; basil oil; tomato; lupin protein; oil; skim milk, soymilk; coconut milk; tomato homogenate; corn; egg-yolk, rapeseed and sunflower; Poly(4-vinylpyridine/silica; and Complex 1 until complex 4 approaches from author case study. A relationship is developed between emulsion size and pH. Results clearly show that lower pH offers smaller droplet of emulsion and the opposite occurs when the pH is increased.

  10. Bacteriophage Infectivity Against Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Saline Conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Scarascia, Giantommaso; Yap, Scott A.; Kaksonen, Anna H.; Hong, Pei-Ying

    2018-01-01

    at different temperature, pH, and salinity. Bacteriophages showed optimal infectivity at a multiplicity of infection of 10 in saline conditions, and demonstrated lytic abilities over all tested temperature (25, 30, 37, and 45°C) and pH 6–9. Planktonic P

  11. Drinking Water Sodium and Elevated Blood Pressure of Healthy Pregnant Women in Salinity-Affected Coastal Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheelbeek, Pauline F D; Khan, Aneire E; Mojumder, Sontosh; Elliott, Paul; Vineis, Paolo

    2016-08-01

    Coastal areas in Southeast Asia are experiencing high sodium concentrations in drinking water sources that are commonly consumed by local populations. Salinity problems caused by episodic cyclones and subsequent seawater inundations are likely (partly) related to climate change and further exacerbated by changes in upstream river flow and local land-use activities. Dietary (food) sodium plays an important role in the global burden of hypertensive disease. It remains unknown, however, if sodium in drinking water-rather than food-has similar effects on blood pressure and disease risk. In this study, we examined the effect of drinking water sodium on blood pressure of pregnant women: increases in blood pressure in this group could severely affect maternal and fetal health. Data on blood pressure, drinking water source, and personal, lifestyle, and environmental confounders was obtained from 701 normotensive pregnant women residing in coastal Bangladesh. Generalized linear mixed regression models were used to investigate association of systolic and diastolic blood pressure of these-otherwise healthy-women with their water source. After adjustment for confounders, drinkers of tube well and pond water (high saline sources) were found to have significantly higher average systolic (+4.85 and +3.62 mm Hg) and diastolic (+2.30 and +1.72 mm Hg) blood pressures than rainwater drinkers. Drinking water salinity problems are expected to exacerbate in the future, putting millions of coastal people-including pregnant women-at increased risk of hypertension and associated diseases. There is an urgent need to further explore the health risks associated to this understudied environmental health problem and feasibility of possible adaptation strategies. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  12. Structural adaptations of octaheme nitrite reductases from haloalkaliphilic Thioalkalivibrio bacteria to alkaline pH and high salinity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Popinako

    Full Text Available Bacteria Tv. nitratireducens and Tv. paradoxus from soda lakes grow optimally in sodium carbonate/NaCl brines at pH range from 9.5 to 10 and salinity from 0.5 to 1.5 M Na+. Octaheme nitrite reductases (ONRs from haloalkaliphilic bacteria of genus Thioalkalivibrio are stable and active in a wide range of pH (up to 11 and salinity (up to 1 M NaCl. To establish adaptation mechanisms of ONRs from haloalkaliphilic bacteria a comparative analysis of amino acid sequences and structures of ONRs from haloalkaliphilic bacteria and their homologues from non-halophilic neutrophilic bacteria was performed. The following adaptation strategies were observed: (1 strategies specific for halophilic and alkaliphilic proteins (an increase in the number of aspartate and glutamate residues and a decrease in the number of lysine residues on the protein surface, (2 strategies specific for halophilic proteins (an increase in the arginine content and a decrease in the number of hydrophobic residues on the solvent-accessible protein surface, (3 strategies specific for alkaliphilic proteins (an increase in the area of intersubunit hydrophobic contacts. Unique adaptation mechanism inherent in the ONRs from bacteria of genus Thioalkalivibrio was revealed (an increase in the core in the number of tryptophan and phenylalanine residues, and an increase in the number of small side chain residues, such as alanine and valine, in the core.

  13. Determining pH at elevated pressure and temperature using in situ ¹³C NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surface, J Andrew; Wang, Fei; Zhu, Yanzhe; Hayes, Sophia E; Giammar, Daniel E; Conradi, Mark S

    2015-02-03

    We have developed an approach for determining pH at elevated pressures and temperatures by using (13)C NMR measurements of inorganic carbon species together with a geochemical equilibrium model. The approach can determine in situ pH with precision better than 0.1 pH units at pressures, temperatures, and ionic strengths typical of geologic carbon sequestration systems. A custom-built high pressure NMR probe was used to collect (13)C NMR spectra of (13)C-labeled CO2 reactions with NaOH solutions and Mg(OH)2 suspensions at pressures up to 107 bar and temperatures of 80 °C. The quantitative nature of NMR spectroscopy allows the concentration ratio [CO2]/[HCO3(-)] to be experimentally determined. This ratio is then used with equilibrium constants calculated for the specific pressure and temperature conditions and appropriate activity coefficients for the solutes to calculate the in situ pH. The experimentally determined [CO2]/[HCO3(-)] ratios agree well with the predicted values for experiments performed with three different concentrations of NaOH and equilibration with multiple pressures of CO2. The approach was then applied to experiments with Mg(OH)2 slurries in which the change in pH could track the dissolution of CO2 into solution, rapid initial Mg(OH)2 dissolution, and onset of magnesium carbonate precipitation.

  14. Influence of pH, Salt and Temperature on Pressure Inactivation of Hepatitis A virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of pH (3-7), NaCl (0-6%), and temperature on pressure inactivation of hepatitis A virus (HAV) were determined. The HAV samples were treated at 400 MPa for 1 min at 5, 20, and 50C. Decreasing solution pH enhanced pressure inactivation of HAV. This enhanced inactivation effect was most e...

  15. Comparison of Outcomes for Normal Saline and an Antiseptic Solution for Negative-Pressure Wound Therapy with Instillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Paul J; Attinger, Christopher E; Oliver, Noah; Garwood, Caitlin; Evans, Karen K; Steinberg, John S; Lavery, Larry A

    2015-11-01

    Negative-pressure wound therapy with instillation is an adjunctive treatment that uses periodic instillation of a solution and negative pressure for a wide diversity of wounds. A variety of solutions have been reported, with topical antiseptics as the most frequently chosen option. The objective of this study was to compare the outcomes of normal saline versus an antiseptic solution for negative-pressure wound therapy with instillation for the adjunctive treatment of infected wounds. This was a prospective, randomized, effectiveness study comparing 0.9% normal saline versus 0.1% polyhexanide plus 0.1% betaine for the adjunctive treatment of infected wounds that required hospital admission and operative débridement. One hundred twenty-three patients were eligible, with 100 patients randomized for the intention-to-treat analysis and 83 patients for the per-protocol analysis. The surrogate outcomes measured were number of operative visits, length of hospital stay, time to final surgical procedure, proportion of closed or covered wounds, and proportion of wounds that remained closed or covered at the 30-day follow-up. There were no statistically significant differences in the demographic profiles in the two cohorts except for a larger proportion of male patients (p = 0.004). There was no statistically significant difference in the surrogate outcomes with the exception of the time to final surgical procedure favoring normal saline (p = 0.038). The authors' results suggest that 0.9% normal saline may be as effective as an antiseptic (0.1% polyhexanide plus 0.1% betaine) for negative-pressure wound therapy with instillation for the adjunctive inpatient management of infected wounds. Therapeutic, II.

  16. pH controls spermatozoa motility in the Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myrina Boulais

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Investigating the roles of chemical factors stimulating and inhibiting sperm motility is required to understand the mechanisms of spermatozoa movement. In this study, we described the composition of the seminal fluid (osmotic pressure, pH, and ions and investigated the roles of these factors and salinity in initiating spermatozoa movement in the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas. The acidic pH of the gonad (5.82±0.22 maintained sperm in the quiescent stage and initiation of flagellar movement was triggered by a sudden increase of spermatozoa external pH (pHe when released in seawater (SW. At pH 6.4, percentage of motile spermatozoa was three times higher when they were activated in SW containing 30 mM NH4Cl, which alkalinizes internal pH (pHi of spermatozoa, compared to NH4Cl-free SW, revealing the role of pHi in triggering sperm movement. Percentage of motile spermatozoa activated in Na+-free artificial seawater (ASW was highly reduced compared to ASW, suggesting that change of pHi triggering sperm motility was mediated by a Na+/H+ exchanger. Motility and swimming speed were highest in salinities between 33.8 and 42.7‰ (within a range of 0 to 50 ‰, and pH values above 7.5 (within a range of 4.5 to 9.5.

  17. Impact of Variable-Density Flow on the Value-of-Information from Pressure and Concentration Data for Saline Aquifer Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, S.; Williams, J. R.; Juanes, R.; Kang, P. K.

    2017-12-01

    Managed aquifer recharge (MAR) is becoming an important solution for ensuring sustainable water resources and mitigating saline water intrusion in coastal aquifers. Accurate estimates of hydrogeological parameters in subsurface flow and solute transport models are critical for making predictions and managing aquifer systems. In the presence of a density difference between the injected freshwater and ambient saline groundwater, the pressure field is coupled to the spatial distribution of salinity distribution, and therefore experiences transient changes. The variable-density effects can be quantified by a mixed convection ratio between two characteristic types of convection: free convection due to density contrast, and forced convection due to a hydraulic gradient. We analyze the variable-density effects on the value-of-information of pressure and concentration data for saline aquifer characterization. An ensemble Kalman filter is used to estimate permeability fields by assimilating the data, and the performance of the estimation is analyzed in terms of the accuracy and the uncertainty of estimated permeability fields and the predictability of arrival times of breakthrough curves in a realistic push-pull setting. This study demonstrates that: 1. Injecting fluids with the velocity that balances the two characteristic convections maximizes the value of data for saline aquifer characterization; 2. The variable-density effects on the value of data for the inverse estimation decrease as the permeability heterogeneity increases; 3. The advantage of joint inversion of pressure and concentration data decreases as the coupling effects between flow and transport increase.

  18. Evolução da salinidade e pH de solo sob cultivo de melão irrigado com água salina Evolution of salinity and pH of soil cultivated with melon irrigated with brackish water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco de Q. Porto Filho

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Com o presente trabalho objetivou-se estudar os efeitos da irrigação com águas salinas em um solo cultivado com melão a evolução da salinidade e reação do solo. O experimento foi conduzido na Fazenda Santa Júlia, município de Mossoró, RN, em dois plantios consecutivos, no período de 2001 a 2002. As plantas de melão (Cucumis melo L. cv. AF646 foram irrigadas com água de salinidade 0,6 (testemunha; 1,9; 3,2 e 4,5 dS m-1 durante todo o ciclo (70 dias e de forma incremental, em três fases de desenvolvimento do meloeiro (1-30, 31-50, 51-70 dias após a semeadura - DAS. O delineamento experimental adotado foi em blocos ao acaso, com 15 tratamentos e quatro repetições. A salinidade e o pH do solo foram medidos no início e aos 30, 50 e 70 DAS, em amostras de solo coletadas nas camadas de 0-15, 15-30 e 30-45 cm. Observou-se maior acúmulo de sais no solo na camada superficial (até 15 cm em todos os níveis de salinidade e que a utilização de águas de maior salinidade aumentou a salinidade média no perfil do solo. Os valores médios de pH estiveram dentro da faixa ótima de absorção de nutrientes requerida para a cultura do melão, com pequena variação entre os tratamentos estudados.This work aimed to study the effects of irrigation with saline waters in an area cultivated with melon on soil salinity and pH. The experiment was conducted in the Santa Julia Farm, Mossoró city, Rio Grande do Norte State, Brazil, during the years 2001 to 2002. Water with different salinity levels (0.6; 1.9; 3.2 and 4.5 dS m-1 was used throughout the cycle and in incremental way in three periods of melon development, forming 15 treatments, arranged in randomized blocks with four replications. The salinity was measured at 0, 30, 50 and 70 days after sowing in soil samples collected in layers of 0-15, 15-30 and 30-45 cm. There was greater accumulation of salts in the surface layer (up to 15 cm in all salinity levels and the use of more saline water

  19. Effect of salinity on hemolymph osmotic pressure, sodium concentration and Na+-K+-ATPase activity of gill of Chinese crab, Eriocheir sinensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongyu; Pan, Luqing; Fu, Lü

    2008-02-01

    The effects of salinity on hemolymph osmotic pressure, Na+ concentration and Na+-K+-ATPase activity of gill of Chinese crab Eriocheir sinensis were studied. The results showed that hemolymph osmotic pressure and Na+ concentration increased significantly ( P0.05); However, the protein concentration decreased gradually with the increase of salinity from 0.25 d to 1 d, and then tended to be stable from day 1 to day 15.

  20. Neutron reflectometry studies of aluminum–saline water interface under hydrostatic pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Junghans, A.; Chellappa, R.; Wang, P.; Majewski, J.; Luciano, G.; Marcelli, R.; Proietti, E.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We investigated corrosion of aluminum via neutron reflectometry. • The hypothesis of an effect on corrosion due to hydrostatic pressure is confirmed. • The speed of corrosion is lower in the early stage compared to results found in the literature. • Nature of the corrosion compounds is investigated. - Abstract: The structural stability of Al layers in contact with 3.5 wt.% NaCl water solution was investigated at a temperature of 25 °C and hydrostatic pressures from 1 to 600 atm using neutron reflectometry. A pressure–temperature (P–T) Neutron Reflectometry (NR) cell developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) was used to understand the behavior of thin (∼900 Å) aluminum layers in contact with saline liquid. Experimental results suggest that in the preliminary stages of corrosion the influence of pressure accelerates the mechanism of interactions of the oxide film with Cl − and H 2 O with lower speed compared to results found in the literature

  1. Freshwater salinization syndrome on a continental scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushal, Sujay S; Likens, Gene E; Pace, Michael L; Utz, Ryan M; Haq, Shahan; Gorman, Julia; Grese, Melissa

    2018-01-23

    Salt pollution and human-accelerated weathering are shifting the chemical composition of major ions in fresh water and increasing salinization and alkalinization across North America. We propose a concept, the freshwater salinization syndrome, which links salinization and alkalinization processes. This syndrome manifests as concurrent trends in specific conductance, pH, alkalinity, and base cations. Although individual trends can vary in strength, changes in salinization and alkalinization have affected 37% and 90%, respectively, of the drainage area of the contiguous United States over the past century. Across 232 United States Geological Survey (USGS) monitoring sites, 66% of stream and river sites showed a statistical increase in pH, which often began decades before acid rain regulations. The syndrome is most prominent in the densely populated eastern and midwestern United States, where salinity and alkalinity have increased most rapidly. The syndrome is caused by salt pollution (e.g., road deicers, irrigation runoff, sewage, potash), accelerated weathering and soil cation exchange, mining and resource extraction, and the presence of easily weathered minerals used in agriculture (lime) and urbanization (concrete). Increasing salts with strong bases and carbonates elevate acid neutralizing capacity and pH, and increasing sodium from salt pollution eventually displaces base cations on soil exchange sites, which further increases pH and alkalinization. Symptoms of the syndrome can include: infrastructure corrosion, contaminant mobilization, and variations in coastal ocean acidification caused by increasingly alkaline river inputs. Unless regulated and managed, the freshwater salinization syndrome can have significant impacts on ecosystem services such as safe drinking water, contaminant retention, and biodiversity. Copyright © 2018 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  2. Empirical algorithms to estimate water column pH in the Southern Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, N. L.; Juranek, L. W.; Johnson, K. S.; Feely, R. A.; Riser, S. C.; Talley, L. D.; Russell, J. L.; Sarmiento, J. L.; Wanninkhof, R.

    2016-04-01

    Empirical algorithms are developed using high-quality GO-SHIP hydrographic measurements of commonly measured parameters (temperature, salinity, pressure, nitrate, and oxygen) that estimate pH in the Pacific sector of the Southern Ocean. The coefficients of determination, R2, are 0.98 for pH from nitrate (pHN) and 0.97 for pH from oxygen (pHOx) with RMS errors of 0.010 and 0.008, respectively. These algorithms are applied to Southern Ocean Carbon and Climate Observations and Modeling (SOCCOM) biogeochemical profiling floats, which include novel sensors (pH, nitrate, oxygen, fluorescence, and backscatter). These algorithms are used to estimate pH on floats with no pH sensors and to validate and adjust pH sensor data from floats with pH sensors. The adjusted float data provide, for the first time, seasonal cycles in surface pH on weekly resolution that range from 0.05 to 0.08 on weekly resolution for the Pacific sector of the Southern Ocean.

  3. Phosphorus sorption-desorption and effects of temperature, pH and salinity on phosphorus sorption in marsh soils from coastal wetlands with different flooding conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Junhong; Ye, Xiaofei; Jia, Jia; Zhang, Guangliang; Zhao, Qingqing; Cui, Baoshan; Liu, Xinhui

    2017-12-01

    Wetland soils act as a sink or source of phosphorus (P) to the overlaying water due to phosphorus sorption-desorption processes. Litter information is available on sorption and desorption behaviors of phosphorus in coastal wetlands with different flooding conditions. Laboratory experiments were conducted to investigate phosphorus sorption-desorption processes, fractions of adsorbed phosphorus, and the effects of salinity, pH and temperature on phosphorus sorption on soils in tidal-flooding wetlands (TW), freshwater-flooding wetlands (FW) and seasonal-flooding wetlands (SW) in the Yellow River Delta. Our results showed that the freshly adsorbed phosphorus dominantly exists in Occluded-P and Fe/AlP and their percentages increased with increasing phosphorus adsorbed. Phosphorus sorption isotherms could be better described by the modified Langmuir model than by the modified Freundlich model. A binomial equation could be properly used to describe the effects of salinity, pH, and temperature on phosphorus sorption. Phosphorus sorption generally increased with increasing salinity, pH, and temperature at lower ranges, while decreased in excess of some threshold values. The maximum phosphorus sorption capacity (Q max ) was larger for FW soils (256 mg/kg) compared with TW (218 mg/kg) and SW soils (235 mg/kg) (p < 0.05). The percentage of phosphorus desorption (P des ) in the FW soils (7.5-63.5%) was much lower than those in TW (27.7-124.9%) and SW soils (19.2-108.5%). The initial soil organic matter, pH and the exchangeable Al, Fe and Cd contents were important factors influencing P sorption and desorption. The findings of this study indicate that freshwater restoration can contribute to controlling the eutrophication status of water bodies through increasing P sorption. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Measuring pH variability using an experimental sensor on an underwater glider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemming, Michael P.; Kaiser, Jan; Heywood, Karen J.; Bakker, Dorothee C. E.; Boutin, Jacqueline; Shitashima, Kiminori; Lee, Gareth; Legge, Oliver; Onken, Reiner

    2017-05-01

    Autonomous underwater gliders offer the capability of measuring oceanic parameters continuously at high resolution in both vertical and horizontal planes, with timescales that can extend to many months. An experimental ion-sensitive field-effect transistor (ISFET) sensor measuring pH on the total scale was attached to a glider during the REP14-MED experiment in June 2014 in the Sardinian Sea in the northwestern Mediterranean. During the deployment, pH was sampled at depths of up to 1000 m along an 80 km transect over a period of 12 days. Water samples were collected from a nearby ship and analysed for dissolved inorganic carbon concentration and total alkalinity to derive the pH for validating the ISFET sensor measurements. The vertical resolution of the pH sensor was good (1 to 2 m), but stability was poor and the sensor drifted in a non-monotonous fashion. In order to remove the sensor drift, a depth-constant time-varying offset was applied throughout the water column for each dive, reducing the spread of the data by approximately two-thirds. Furthermore, the ISFET sensor required temperature- and pressure-based corrections, which were achieved using linear regression. Correcting for this decreased the apparent sensor pH variability by a further 13 to 31 %. Sunlight caused an apparent sensor pH decrease of up to 0.1 in surface waters around local noon, highlighting the importance of shielding the sensor from light in future deployments. The corrected pH from the ISFET sensor is presented along with potential temperature, salinity, potential density anomalies (σθ), and dissolved oxygen concentrations (c(O2)) measured by the glider, providing insights into the physical and biogeochemical variability in the Sardinian Sea. The pH maxima were identified close to the depth of the summer chlorophyll maximum, where high c(O2) values were also found. Longitudinal pH variations at depth (σθ > 28. 8 kg m-3) highlighted the variability of water masses in the Sardinian

  5. Measuring pH variability using an experimental sensor on an underwater glider

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. P. Hemming

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Autonomous underwater gliders offer the capability of measuring oceanic parameters continuously at high resolution in both vertical and horizontal planes, with timescales that can extend to many months. An experimental ion-sensitive field-effect transistor (ISFET sensor measuring pH on the total scale was attached to a glider during the REP14-MED experiment in June 2014 in the Sardinian Sea in the northwestern Mediterranean. During the deployment, pH was sampled at depths of up to 1000 m along an 80 km transect over a period of 12 days. Water samples were collected from a nearby ship and analysed for dissolved inorganic carbon concentration and total alkalinity to derive the pH for validating the ISFET sensor measurements. The vertical resolution of the pH sensor was good (1 to 2 m, but stability was poor and the sensor drifted in a non-monotonous fashion. In order to remove the sensor drift, a depth-constant time-varying offset was applied throughout the water column for each dive, reducing the spread of the data by approximately two-thirds. Furthermore, the ISFET sensor required temperature- and pressure-based corrections, which were achieved using linear regression. Correcting for this decreased the apparent sensor pH variability by a further 13 to 31 %. Sunlight caused an apparent sensor pH decrease of up to 0.1 in surface waters around local noon, highlighting the importance of shielding the sensor from light in future deployments. The corrected pH from the ISFET sensor is presented along with potential temperature, salinity, potential density anomalies (σθ, and dissolved oxygen concentrations (c(O2 measured by the glider, providing insights into the physical and biogeochemical variability in the Sardinian Sea. The pH maxima were identified close to the depth of the summer chlorophyll maximum, where high c(O2 values were also found. Longitudinal pH variations at depth (σθ > 28. 8 kg m−3 highlighted the variability of

  6. Regional acidification trends in Florida shellfish estuaries: A 20+ year look at pH, oxygen, temperature, and salinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Lisa L.; Lisle, John T.

    2018-01-01

    Increasing global CO2 and local land use changes coupled with increased nutrient pollution are threatening estuaries worldwide. Local changes of estuarine chemistry have been documented, but regional associations and trends comparing multiple estuaries latitudinally have not been evaluated. Rapid climate change has impacted the annual and decadal chemical trends in estuaries, with local ecosystem processes enhancing or mitigating the responses. Here, we compare pH, dissolved oxygen, temperature, and salinity data from 10 Florida shellfish estuaries and hundreds of shellfish bed stations. Over 80,000 measurements, spanning from 1980 to 2008, taken on Atlantic Ocean and West Florida coast showed significant regional trends of consistent pH decreases in 8 out of the 10 estuaries, with an average rate of decrease on the Gulf of Mexico side estuaries of Florida of 7.3 × 10−4 pH units year−1, and average decrease on the Atlantic Coast estuaries of 5.0 × 10−4 pH units year−1. The rates are approximately 2–3.4 times slower than observed in pH decreases associated with ocean acidification in the Atlantic and Pacific. Other significant trends observed include decreasing dissolved oxygen in 9 out of the 10 estuaries, increasing salinity in 6 out of the 10, and temperature increases in 3 out of the 10 estuaries. The data provide a synoptic regional view of Florida estuary trends which reflect the complexity of changing climate and coastal ocean acidification superimposed on local conditions. These data provide context for understanding, and interpreting the past and predicting future of regional water quality health of shellfish and other organisms of commercial and ecological significance along Florida’s coasts.

  7. Regional acidification trends in Florida shellfish estuaries: A 20+ year look at pH, oxygen, temperature and salinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Lisa L.; Lisle, John T.

    2018-01-01

    Increasing global CO2 and local land use changes coupled with increased nutrient pollution are threatening estuaries worldwide. Local changes of estuarine chemistry have been documented, but regional associations and trends comparing multiple estuaries latitudinally have not been evaluated. Rapid climate change has impacted the annual and decadal chemical trends in estuaries, with local ecosystem processes enhancing or mitigating the responses. Here, we compare pH, dissolved oxygen, temperature, and salinity data from 10 Florida shellfish estuaries and hundreds of shellfish bed stations. Over 80,000 measurements, spanning from 1980 to 2008, taken on Atlantic Ocean and West Florida coast showed significant regional trends of consistent pH decreases in 8 out of the 10 estuaries, with an average rate of decrease on the Gulf of Mexico side estuaries of Florida of 7.3 × 10−4 pH units year−1, and average decrease on the Atlantic Coast estuaries of 5.0 × 10−4 pH units year−1. The rates are approximately 2–3.4 times slower than observed in pH decreases associated with ocean acidification in the Atlantic and Pacific. Other significant trends observed include decreasing dissolved oxygen in 9 out of the 10 estuaries, increasing salinity in 6 out of the 10, and temperature increases in 3 out of the 10 estuaries. The data provide a synoptic regional view of Florida estuary trends which reflect the complexity of changing climate and coastal ocean acidification superimposed on local conditions. These data provide context for understanding, and interpreting the past and predicting future of regional water quality health of shellfish and other organisms of commercial and ecological significance along Florida’s coasts.

  8. Biomass production of the marine microalga; chroomonas sp. in function of the pH, luminous intensity and salinity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bermudez, Jose Luis; Lodeiros, Cesar; Morales, Ever

    2002-01-01

    We report the characterization of a marine microalga of the genus Chroomonas, isolated from a salt lagoon located to the north of Maracaibo, Zulia State, Venezuela. We evaluated the growth and the pigment production in discontinuous culture at different salinities (5, 10, 35, 50, 70 y 100 ppm), light intensities (39,78,117 and 156 μmol quanta.m 2 . s 1 and pH (5.0, 5.5, 6.0, 7.0, 8.0 and 9.0). The highest cellular density, 117.99±2.62x10 6 fg.cel l , was reached at 35 ppm, 156 μmol quanta.m 2 . s 1 of light intensity and a ph between 6.0 and 8.0. The cellular content of total chlorophyll and carotenoids increased with the salinity up to 100 ppm, with amounts of 246.55 ± 61.8 y 69.79±18.19 fg.cel l , respectively. The cellular productivity 4.31x10 9 cel 1 d 1 was obtained when the microalga, was grown in semi-continuous culture, at a 2.01 volume and at a daily renewal rate of 30 % (v/v). The total amount of chlorophyll and carotenoids was 1.4 and 0.48 mg.l d , respectively. These results indicate that this planktonic microalga could be used as daily live food for larvae in aquaculture and for the production of micro algal biomass and/ or pigments

  9. Thermodynamic properties of pressurized PH3 superconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koka, S.; Rao, G. Venugopal

    2018-05-01

    The paper presents the superconducting thermodynamic functions determined for pressurized phosphorus trihydride (PH3). In particular, free energy difference ΔF, thermodynamic critical field Hc, specific heat etc. have been calculated using analytical expressions. The calculations were performed in the frame work of the strong-coupling formalism. The obtained dimensionless parameters: RΔ ≡ 2Δ(0)/kBTc, RC ≡ ΔC(Tc)/CN(Tc) and RH≡TcCN(Tc)/Hc2(0) are 4.05, 1.96 and 0.156 respectively, which significantly differ from the values arising from the BCS theory of superconductivity. The thermodynamic properties strongly depend on the depairing electron correlations and retardation effects.

  10. PH measurement under pressure and at high temperatures; Mesure du pH sous pression et a temperature elevee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fournie, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Le Peintre, M; Mahieu, C [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    1961-07-01

    In the first part the development and operation of a glass electrode under pressure at room temperature is described. The pressure equilibrium between the inside and outside of the glass membrane several centimetres thick is obtained instantaneously by means of a siphon. The use of a silicone oil as electrical insulator makes possible the working of the glass electrode with the siphon at high pressures (100 kg/cm{sup 2}). In the second part, we determined the pH of various buffer solutions up to 250 deg. C using a cell of our design having two hydrogen electrodes. The values thus obtained for the buffer solutions make it possible to verify and calibrate the pH electrodes independently of the oxido-reduction potential of the medium. In the third part we give the results obtained up to 200 deg. C with the glass electrodes developed in conjunction with the Societe St Gobain. (author) [French] Dans une premiere partie, nous exposons la mise au point et le fonctionnement d'une electrode en verre sous pression a la temperature ordinaire. L'equilibrage instantane de la pression a l'interieur et a l'exterieur de la membrane en verre de quelques diziemes de millimetres d'epaisseur s'effectue par l'intermediaire d'un siphon. L'emploi d'une huile de silicone comme isolant electrique a permis le fonctionnement de l'electrode en verre a siphon sous haute pression (1000 kg/cm{sup 2}). Dans une deuxieme partie, nous avons determine jusqu'a 250 deg. C les valeurs du pH des diverses solutions tampons avec une cellule de notre conception a deux electrodes d'hydrogene. Les valeurs des solutions tampons ainsi obtenues permettent de verifier et d'etalonner les electrodes a pH independantes du potentiel d'oxydo-reduction du milieu. Dans une troisieme partie, nous relatons les resultats obtenus jusqu'a 200 deg. C avec les electrodes en verre mis au point en collaboration avec la Societe Saint-Gobain. (auteur)

  11. Bubble-assisted film evaporation correlation for saline water at sub-atmospheric pressures in horizontal-tube evaporator

    KAUST Repository

    Shahzad, Muhammad Wakil; Myat, Aung; Chun, Won Gee; Ng, Kim Choon

    2013-01-01

    film boiling on horizontal tubes, but working at low pressures of 0.93-3.60 kPa (corresponding solution saturation temperatures of 279-300 K) as well as seawater salinity of 15,000 to 90,000 mg/l or ppm. Owing to a dearth of literature on film

  12. Temperature, salinity, oxygen, silicate, phosphate, nitrite, and pH data collected in Okhotsk Sea by multiple platforms from 1985-03-20 to 1989-09-07 (NODC Accession 0075740)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Historical temperature, salinity, oxygen, silicate, phosphate, nitrite, and pH data collected in the Okhotsk Sea by multiple Soviet Union platforms in March 1985 and...

  13. Deep-Sea DuraFET: A Pressure Tolerant pH Sensor Designed for Global Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kenneth S; Jannasch, Hans W; Coletti, Luke J; Elrod, Virginia A; Martz, Todd R; Takeshita, Yuichiro; Carlson, Robert J; Connery, James G

    2016-03-15

    Increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide is driving a long-term decrease in ocean pH which is superimposed on daily to seasonal variability. These changes impact ecosystem processes, and they serve as a record of ecosystem metabolism. However, the temporal variability in pH is observed at only a few locations in the ocean because a ship is required to support pH observations of sufficient precision and accuracy. This paper describes a pressure tolerant Ion Sensitive Field Effect Transistor pH sensor that is based on the Honeywell Durafet ISFET die. When combined with a AgCl pseudoreference sensor that is immersed directly in seawater, the system is capable of operating for years at a time on platforms that cycle from depths of several km to the surface. The paper also describes the calibration scheme developed to allow calibrated pH measurements to be derived from the activity of HCl reported by the sensor system over the range of ocean pressure and temperature. Deployments on vertical profiling platforms enable self-calibration in deep waters where pH values are stable. Measurements with the sensor indicate that it is capable of reporting pH with an accuracy of 0.01 or better on the total proton scale and a precision over multiyear periods of 0.005. This system enables a global ocean observing system for ocean pH.

  14. Contribution of pH, diprotonated phosphate and potassium for the reflex increase in blood pressure during handgrip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boushel, Robert Christopher; Madsen, P; Nielsen, H B

    1998-01-01

    The relative importance of pH, diprotonated phosphate (H2PO4-) and potassium (K+) for the reflex increase in mean arterial pressure (MAP) during exercise was evaluated in seven subjects during rhythmic handgrip at 15 and 30% maximal voluntary contraction (MVC), followed by post-exercise muscle...... to the exercise levels. Analysis of each variable as a predictor of blood pressure indicated that only the intracellular pH and diprotonated phosphate were linked to the reflex elevation of blood pressure during handgrip....

  15. Seffects of hydrogen ion concentration and salinity on the survival of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Experiments were conducted to determine the effects of the interactions of two environmental parameters, pH and salinity on the survival of juvenile Clarias gariepinus (4 – 12 g) under laboratory conditions. The pH values used were 3, 3.5, 4, 7 and 10 while salinity values varied thus: 0, 5 10 15 and 20 ppt ineach o the pH ...

  16. Thermodynamic and energy efficiency analysis of power generation from natural salinity gradients by pressure retarded osmosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, Ngai Yin; Elimelech, Menachem

    2012-05-01

    The Gibbs free energy of mixing dissipated when fresh river water flows into the sea can be harnessed for sustainable power generation. Pressure retarded osmosis (PRO) is one of the methods proposed to generate power from natural salinity gradients. In this study, we carry out a thermodynamic and energy efficiency analysis of PRO work extraction. First, we present a reversible thermodynamic model for PRO and verify that the theoretical maximum extractable work in a reversible PRO process is identical to the Gibbs free energy of mixing. Work extraction in an irreversible constant-pressure PRO process is then examined. We derive an expression for the maximum extractable work in a constant-pressure PRO process and show that it is less than the ideal work (i.e., Gibbs free energy of mixing) due to inefficiencies intrinsic to the process. These inherent inefficiencies are attributed to (i) frictional losses required to overcome hydraulic resistance and drive water permeation and (ii) unutilized energy due to the discontinuation of water permeation when the osmotic pressure difference becomes equal to the applied hydraulic pressure. The highest extractable work in constant-pressure PRO with a seawater draw solution and river water feed solution is 0.75 kWh/m(3) while the free energy of mixing is 0.81 kWh/m(3)-a thermodynamic extraction efficiency of 91.1%. Our analysis further reveals that the operational objective to achieve high power density in a practical PRO process is inconsistent with the goal of maximum energy extraction. This study demonstrates thermodynamic and energetic approaches for PRO and offers insights on actual energy accessible for utilization in PRO power generation through salinity gradients. © 2012 American Chemical Society

  17. Leakage of Intracellular UV Materials of High Hydrostatic Pressure-Injured Escherichia Coli O157:H7 Strains in Tomato Juice

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) treatment on inactivation, injury and recovery of Salmonella Enteritidis and Escherichia coli O157:H7 cocktail inoculated in tomato juice (pH 4.1) and phosphate buffer saline (PBS. pH 7.2) at 8.0 log CFU/ml and treated at 350, 400, 450 MPa for 20 min at ...

  18. Sustainable management of coastal saline soils in the Saloum river ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    conductivity, pH, water soluble cations and anions) were analysed to estimate the salinity level at each .... (floodplain, low terrace), saline soils are now .... Apart from having a high salt content, ..... permeability and thereby promotes continuous.

  19. Receding and advancing (CO_2 + brine + quartz) contact angles as a function of pressure, temperature, surface roughness, salt type and salinity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Yaseri, Ahmed Z.; Lebedev, Maxim; Barifcani, Ahmed; Iglauer, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • (Water + CO_2) contact angle on quartz increases substantially with pressure and salinity. • (Water + CO_2) contact angle on quartz increases slightly with temperature. • Surface roughness has only a minor influence on (water + CO_2 + quartz) contact angles. - Abstract: The wetting characteristics of CO_2 in rock are of vital importance in carbon geo-storage as they determine fluid dynamics and storage capacities. However, the current literature data has a high uncertainty, which translates into uncertain predictions in terms of containment security and economic project feasibility. We thus measured contact angles for the CO_2/water/quartz system at relevant reservoir conditions, and analysed the effects of pressure (0.1 to 20) MPa, temperature (296 to 343) K, surface roughness (56 to 1300) nm, salt type (NaCl, CaCl_2, and MgCl_2) and brine salinities (0 to 35) wt%. Water contact angles decreased with surface roughness, but increased with pressure, temperature, and brine salinity. Overall the contact angles were significantly increased at storage conditions (∼50°) when compared to ambient conditions (always 0°). Consequently quartz is weakly water-wet (not completely water-wet) at storage conditions, and structural and residual trapping capacities are reduced accordingly.

  20. Metabolic and hemodynamic effects of saline infusion to maintain volemia on temporary abdominal aortic occlusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Ferreira Amorim

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze hemodynamic and metabolic effects of saline solution infusion in the maintenance of blood volume in ischemia-reperfusion syndrome during temporary abdominal aortic occlusion in dogs. METHODS: We studied 20 dogs divided into 2 groups: the ischemia-reperfusion group (IRG, n=10 and the ischemia-reperfusion group with saline solution infusion aiming at maintaining mean pulmonary arterial wedge pressure between 10 and 20 mmHg (IRG-SS, n=10. All animals were anesthetized with sodium thiopental and maintained on spontaneous ventilation. Occlusion of the supraceliac aorta was obtained with inflation of a Fogarty catheter inserted through the femoral artery. After 60 minutes of ischemia, the balloon was deflated, and the animals were observed for another 60 minutes of reperfusion. RESULTS: IRG-SS dogs did not have hemodynamic instability after aortic unclamping, and the mean systemic blood pressure and heart rate were maintained. However, acidosis worsened, which was documented by a greater reduction of arterial pH that occurred especially due to the absence of a respiratory response to metabolic acidosis that was greater with the adoption of this procedure. CONCLUSION: Saline solution infusion to maintain blood volume avoided hemodynamic instability after aortic unclamping. This procedure, however, caused worsening in metabolic acidosis in this experimental model.

  1. Crystal Structure and Superconductivity of PH 3 at High Pressures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Hanyu [Geophysical; Department; Li, Yinwei [School; Gao, Guoying [State; Tse, John S. [Department; State; Naumov, Ivan I. [Geophysical

    2016-02-04

    We have performed a systematic structure search on solid PH3 at high pressures using the particle swarm optimization method. At 100–200 GPa, the search led to two structures which along with others have P–P bonds. These structures are structurally and chemically distinct from those predicted for the high-pressure superconducting H2S phase, which has a different topology (i.e., does not contain S–S bonds). Phonon and electron–phonon coupling calculations indicate that both structures are dynamically stable and superconducting. The pressure dependence and critical temperature for the monoclinic (C2/m) phase of 83 K at 200 GPa are in excellent agreement with a recent experimental report.

  2. Salinization and Saline Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vengosh, A.

    2003-12-01

    -arid zones. The increasing demand for water has created tremendous pressures on water resources that have resulted in lowering water level and increasing salinization. For example, in the Middle East salinity is the main factor that limits water utilization, and future prospects for water use in Israel, Palestinian Authority, and Jordan are overshadowed by the increasing salinization (Vengosh and Rosenthal, 1994; Salameh, 1996). The salinity problem has numerous grave economic, social, and political consequences, particularly in cross-boundary basins that are shared by different communities (e.g., Salinas Valley California; Vengosh et al., 2002a), friendly states (e.g., salinization of the Colorado River along Mexico-US border; Stanton et al., 2001), and hostile states (e.g., the Jordan River, Vengosh et al., 2001; Aral Basin, Weinthal, 2002; Euphrates River, Beaumont, 1996; and the Nile River, Ohlsson, 1995).Salinization of water resources also affects agricultural management. The type of irrigation water and its quality determine the salinity and fertility of the soil and eventually the quality of the underlying water resource. The use of treated wastewater or other marginal water (e.g., brackish water) depends on the salinity and the chemical composition of the water. Treated wastewater with high contents of chloride, sodium, and boron is suitable only for salt-tolerant crops and requires special treatment of the soil. Finally, high boron in irrigation water and consequently in soil water is also an important limiting factor for crops, as boron is an essential micronutrient for plants but becomes toxic at high levels (typically >0.75 mg L-1 in irrigation water).This chapter investigates the different mechanisms and geochemistry of salinization in different parts of the world. The role of the unsaturated zone in shaping the chemical composition of dryland salinization is discussed. Special emphasis is on the anthropogenic effects and to man-made fluids and reused water

  3. Temperature, salinity, oxygen, phosphate, silicate, nitrite, alkalinity, and pH data collected by multiple former Soviet Union institutions from Okhotsk Sea from 1981-09-23 to 1988-06-17 (NODC Accession 0081217)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Historical temperature, salinity, oxygen, phosphate, silicate, nitrite, alkalinity, and pH data collected by multiple former Soviet Union institutions from Okhotsk...

  4. Influence of pH, competing ions, and salinity on the sorption of strontium and cobalt onto biogenic hydroxyapatite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handley-Sidhu, Stephanie; Mullan, Thomas K.; Grail, Quentin; Albadarneh, Malek; Ohnuki, Toshihiko; Macaskie, Lynne E.

    2016-03-01

    Anthropogenic radionuclides contaminate a range of environments as a result of nuclear activities, for example, leakage from waste storage tanks/ponds (e.g. Hanford, USA or Sellafield sites, UK) or as a result of large scale nuclear accidents (e.g. Chernobyl, Ukraine or Fukushima, Japan). One of the most widely applied remediation techniques for contaminated waters is the use of sorbent materials (e.g. zeolites and apatites). However, a key problem at nuclear contaminated sites is the remediation of radionuclides from complex chemical environments. In this study, biogenic hydroxyapatite (BHAP) produced by Serratia sp. bacteria was investigated for its potential to remediate surrogate radionuclides (Sr2+ and Co2+) from environmentally relevant waters by varying pH, salinity and the type and concentration of cations present. The sorption capacity of the BHAP for both Sr2+ and Co2+ was higher than for a synthetically produced hydroxyapatite (HAP) in the solutions tested. BHAP also compared favorably against a natural zeolite (as used in industrial decontamination) for Sr2+ and Co2+ uptake from saline waters. Results confirm that hydroxyapatite minerals of high surface area and amorphous calcium phosphate content, typical for biogenic sources, are suitable restoration or reactive barrier materials for the remediation of complex contaminated environments or wastewaters.

  5. Saline catholytes as alternatives to phosphate buffers in microbial fuel cells

    KAUST Repository

    Ahn, Yongtae; Logan, Bruce E.

    2013-01-01

    Highly saline solutions were examined as alternatives to chemical buffers in microbial fuel cells (MFCs). The performance of two-chamber MFCs with different concentrations of saline solutions in the cathode chamber was compared to those with a buffered catholyte (50mM PBS). The use of a NaCl catholyte improved the CE to 43-60% (28% with no membrane) due to a reduction in oxygen transfer into the anolyte. The saline catholyte also reduced the membrane and solution resistance to 23Ω (41Ω without a membrane). The maximum power density of 491mW/m2 (240mM NaCl) was only 17% less than the MFC with 50mM PBS. The decrease in power output with highest salinity was due to reduced proton transfer due to the ion exchange membrane, and pH changes in the two solutions. These results show that MFC performance can be improved by using a saline catholyte without pH control. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Saline catholytes as alternatives to phosphate buffers in microbial fuel cells

    KAUST Repository

    Ahn, Yongtae

    2013-03-01

    Highly saline solutions were examined as alternatives to chemical buffers in microbial fuel cells (MFCs). The performance of two-chamber MFCs with different concentrations of saline solutions in the cathode chamber was compared to those with a buffered catholyte (50mM PBS). The use of a NaCl catholyte improved the CE to 43-60% (28% with no membrane) due to a reduction in oxygen transfer into the anolyte. The saline catholyte also reduced the membrane and solution resistance to 23Ω (41Ω without a membrane). The maximum power density of 491mW/m2 (240mM NaCl) was only 17% less than the MFC with 50mM PBS. The decrease in power output with highest salinity was due to reduced proton transfer due to the ion exchange membrane, and pH changes in the two solutions. These results show that MFC performance can be improved by using a saline catholyte without pH control. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Development of Hybrid pH sensor for long-term seawater pH monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Y.; Egashira, T.; Miwa, T.; Kimoto, H.

    2016-02-01

    We have been developing the in situ pH sensor (Hybrid pH sensor: HpHS) for the long-term seawater pH monitoring. We are planning to provide the HpHS for researchers and environmental consultants for observation of the CCS (Carbon dioxide Capture and Storage) monitoring system, the coastal environment monitoring system (e.g. Blue Carbon) and ocean acidification. The HpHS has two types of pH sensors (i.e. potentiometric pH sensor and spectrophotometric pH sensor). The spectrophotometric pH sensor can measure pH correctly and stably, however it needs large power consumption and a lot of reagents in a long period of observation. The pH sensor used m-cresol purple (mCP) as an indicator of pH (Clayton and Byrne, 1993 and Liu et al., 2011). We can choose both coefficients before deployment. On the other hand, although the potentiometric pH sensor is low power consumption and high-speed response (within 10 seconds), drifts in the pH of the potentiometric measurements may possibly occur for a long-term observation. The HpHS can measure in situ pH correctly and stably combining advantage of both pH sensors. The HpHS consists of an aluminum pressure housing with optical cell (main unit) and an aluminum silicon-oil filled, pressure-compensated vessel containing pumps and valves (diaphragm pump and valve unit) and pressure-compensated reagents bags (pH indicator, pure water and Tris buffer or certified reference material: CRM) with an ability to resist water pressure to 3000m depth. The main unit holds system control boards, pump drivers, data storage (micro SD card), LED right source, photodiode, optical cell and pressure proof windows. The HpHS also has an aluminum pressure housing that holds a rechargeable lithium-ion battery or a lithium battery for the power supply (DC 24 V). The HpHS is correcting the value of the potentiometric pH sensor (measuring frequently) by the value of the spectrophotometric pH sensor (measuring less frequently). It is possible to calibrate in

  8. Effects of respiratory rate, plateau pressure, and positive end-expiratory pressure on PaO2 oscillations after saline lavage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgardner, James E; Markstaller, Klaus; Pfeiffer, Birgit; Doebrich, Marcus; Otto, Cynthia M

    2002-12-15

    One of the proposed mechanisms of ventilator-associated lung injury is cyclic recruitment of atelectasis. Collapse of dependent lung regions with every breath should lead to large oscillations in PaO2 as shunt varies throughout the respiratory cycle. We placed a fluorescence-quenching PO2 probe in the brachiocephalic artery of six anesthetized rabbits after saline lavage. Using pressure-controlled ventilation with oxygen, ventilator settings were varied in random order over three levels of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP), respiratory rate (RR), and plateau pressure minus PEEP (Delta). Dependence of the amplitude of PaO2 oscillations on PEEP, RR, and Delta was modeled by multiple linear regression. Before lavage, arterial PO2 oscillations varied from 3 to 22 mm Hg. After lavage, arterial PO2 oscillations varied from 5 to 439 mm Hg. Response surfaces showed markedly nonlinear dependence of amplitude on PEEP, RR, and Delta. The large PaO2 oscillations observed provide evidence for cyclic recruitment in this model of lung injury. The important effect of RR on the magnitude of PaO2 oscillations suggests that the static behavior of atelectasis cannot be accurately extrapolated to predict dynamic behavior at realistic breathing frequencies.

  9. Temperature, Salinity, Oxygen, Phosphate, Silicate, Nitrite, pH and Alkalinity data collected in the Black Sea, Tyrrhenian Sea and Western Basin from R/Vs GORIZONT and OKEANOGRAF, 1960 - 1969 (NODC Accession 0074609)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature, Salinity, Oxygen, Phosphate, Silicate, Nitrite, pH and Alkalinity data collected in the Black Sea, Tyrrhenian Sea and Western Basin of the Mediterranean...

  10. Temperature, salinity, conductivity, pressure, transmissivity measurements collected using CTD from the Alpha Helix in the Chukchi Sea during 1996 (NODC Accession 0061042)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature, salinity, conductivity, pressure, and transmissivity data gathered by CTD from the Alpha Helix (cruise HX194), September 1996

  11. Linking water and carbon cycles through salinity observed from space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, X.; Liu, W. T.

    2017-12-01

    The association of ocean surface salinity in global hydrological cycle and climate change has been traditionally studied through the examination of its tendency and advection as manifestation of ocean's heat and water fluxes with the atmosphere. The variability of surface heat and water fluxes are linked to top of atmosphere radiation, whose imbalance is the main cause of global warming. Besides the link of salinity to greenhouse warming through water balance, this study will focus on the effect of changing salinity on carbon dioxide flux between the ocean and the atmosphere. We have built statistical models to estimate the partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2) and ocean acidification (in terms of total alkalinity and pH) using spacebased data. PCO2 is a critical parameter governing ocean as source and sink of the accumulated greenhouse gas in the atmosphere. The exchange also causes ocean acidification, which is detrimental to marine lives and ecology. Before we had sufficient spacebased salinity measurements coincident with in situ pCO2 measurement, we trained our statistical models to use satellite sea surface temperature and chlorophyll, with one model using salinity climatology and the other without. We found significant differences between the two models in regions of strong water input through river discharge and surface water flux. The pCO2 output follows the seasonal salinity advection of the Amazon outflow. The seasonal salinity advection between Bay of Bengal and Arabian Sea are followed by change of pCO2 and total alkalinity. At shorter time scales, the signatures of rain associated with intraseasonal organized convection of summer monsoon can be detected. We have observed distribution agreement of among pCO2, surface salinity, and surface water flux for variation from a few days to a few years under the Pacific ITCZ; the agreement varies slightly with season and longitudes and the reason is under study.

  12. Characterisation and deployment of an immobilised pH sensor spot towards surface ocean pH measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Jennifer S; Achterberg, Eric P; Rérolle, Victoire M C; Abi Kaed Bey, Samer; Floquet, Cedric F A; Mowlem, Matthew C

    2015-10-15

    The oceans are a major sink for anthropogenic atmospheric carbon dioxide, and the uptake causes changes to the marine carbonate system and has wide ranging effects on flora and fauna. It is crucial to develop analytical systems that allow us to follow the increase in oceanic pCO2 and corresponding reduction in pH. Miniaturised sensor systems using immobilised fluorescence indicator spots are attractive for this purpose because of their simple design and low power requirements. The technology is increasingly used for oceanic dissolved oxygen measurements. We present a detailed method on the use of immobilised fluorescence indicator spots to determine pH in ocean waters across the pH range 7.6-8.2. We characterised temperature (-0.046 pH/°C from 5 to 25 °C) and salinity dependences (-0.01 pH/psu over 5-35), and performed a preliminary investigation into the influence of chlorophyll on the pH measurement. The apparent pKa of the sensor spots was 6.93 at 20 °C. A drift of 0.00014 R (ca. 0.0004 pH, at 25 °C, salinity 35) was observed over a 3 day period in a laboratory based drift experiment. We achieved a precision of 0.0074 pH units, and observed a drift of 0.06 pH units during a test deployment of 5 week duration in the Southern Ocean as an underway surface ocean sensor, which was corrected for using certified reference materials. The temperature and salinity dependences were accounted for with the algorithm, R=0.00034-0.17·pH+0.15·S(2)+0.0067·T-0.0084·S·1.075. This study provides a first step towards a pH optode system suitable for autonomous deployment. The use of a short duration low power illumination (LED current 0.2 mA, 5 μs illumination time) improved the lifetime and precision of the spot. Further improvements to the pH indicator spot operations include regular application of certified reference materials for drift correction and cross-calibration against a spectrophotometric pH system. Desirable future developments should involve novel

  13. Impact of pH and Total Soluble Solids on Enzyme Inactivation Kinetics during High Pressure Processing of Mango (Mangifera indica) Pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushik, Neelima; Nadella, Tejaswi; Rao, P Srinivasa

    2015-11-01

    This study was undertaken with an aim to enhance the enzyme inactivation during high pressure processing (HPP) with pH and total soluble solids (TSS) as additional hurdles. Impact of mango pulp pH (3.5, 4.0, 4.5) and TSS (15, 20, 25 °Brix) variations on the inactivation of pectin methylesterase (PME), polyphenol oxidase (PPO), and peroxidase (POD) enzymes were studied during HPP at 400 to 600 MPa pressure (P), 40 to 70 °C temperature (T), and 6- to 20-min pressure-hold time (t). The enzyme inactivation (%) was modeled using second order polynomial equations with a good fit that revealed that all the enzymes were significantly affected by HPP. Response surface and contour models predicted the kinetic behavior of mango pulp enzymes adequately as indicated by the small error between predicted and experimental data. The predicted kinetics indicated that for a fixed P and T, higher pulse pressure effect and increased isobaric inactivation rates were possible at lower levels of pH and TSS. In contrast, at a fixed pH or TSS level, an increase in P or T led to enhanced inactivation rates, irrespective of the type of enzyme. PPO and POD were found to have similar barosensitivity, whereas PME was found to be most resistant to HPP. Furthermore, simultaneous variation in pH and TSS levels of mango pulp resulted in higher enzyme inactivation at lower pH and TSS during HPP, where the effect of pH was found to be predominant than TSS within the experimental domain. Exploration of additional hurdles such as pH, TSS, and temperature for enzyme inactivation during high pressure processing of fruits is useful from industrial point of view, as these parameters play key role in preservation process design. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  14. Five Year Field Evaluation of Prosopis alba Clones on pH 9–10 Soils in Argentina Selected for Growth in the Greenhouse at Seawater Salinities (45 dS m−1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Ewens

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Prosopis alba seedlings, that grew at the 45 dS m−1 salinity level in a previous study of growth and survival of Argentine and Peruvian Prosopis, were propagated by rooting cuttings and established in a seed orchard/long term evaluation trial on soils with low salinity (EC 5.1–7.5 dS m−1 but high pH (8.9 to 10.2. A pH gradient occurred in the field with values ranging from pH 9.4 in block 1 to pH 10.3 in block 5. After five years growth, almost all of the clones had a mean height greater than 4 m and one clone was more than 5 m. Ten of the 21 tested clones had significantly greater biomass growth than the three seed propagated check varieties. The broad-sense (i.e., clone mean heritability was estimated to be 0.45 for biomass, 0.53 for diameter and 0.59 for height indicating that strong genetic gains should be possible by selecting and vegetatively propagating the best genotypes. In the block with the highest pH values, two clones that appear to be P. alba × P. ruscifolia hybrids (i.e., P. vinallilo had the greatest biomass. Correlations between growth during the last two months in the high salinity hydroponic greenhouse selection system and growth in the field were significant (R2 = 0.262 and positive, although the relationship was negative for putative P. vinallilo clones (R2 = 0.938. The several fold increase in biomass of some of the clones over the three check varieties, suggests that the greenhouse screen was successful in identifying superior salt tolerant clones. Apparently whether the greenhouse seedlings had lesser (~1 cm to greater (~3 cm height growth was not as important as just having a healthy live apical meristem. The observed salt tolerance of the putative P. vinalillo clones may prove useful as rootstocks for recently described high pod producing P. alba clones.

  15. Ethanolamine properties and use for feedwater pH control: A pressurized water reactor case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keeling, D.L.; Polidoroff, C.T.; Cortese, S.; Cushner, M.C.

    1995-01-01

    Ethanolamine (ETA) as a feedwater pH control additive has been recently used to minimize corrosion of secondary water components in the nuclear power industry pressurized water reactors (PWRs). The use of ETA is compared with ammonia. Relative volatility effects on various parts of the system are analyzed and chemistry changes are presented. Materials of construction and the use of existing plant equipment for ETA service are discussed. Properties of ETA as well as safety, storage and handling issues are compared with ammonia. Health d aquatic toxicity are reviewed. warnings, safety, handling guidelines, biodegradability an Diablo Canyon Power Plant used ammonia for pH control from 1985 until a change over to ETA in 1993/1994. Full flow condensate polishers that are required to protect the plant from saltwater cooling incursions limit the amount of pH additive. Iron levels in the secondary water systems are compared before and after changing to ETA and replacement of corrosion-susceptible piping. Iron reduction benefits are assessed along with other effects on the feedwater nozzles, low pressure turbine, polisher resin capacity and polisher regeneration system

  16. Anomalous pH-Dependent Nanofluidic Salinity Gradient Power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Li-Hsien; Chen, Fu; Chiou, Yu-Ting; Su, Yen-Shao

    2017-12-01

    Previous studies on nanofluidic salinity gradient power (NSGP), where energy associated with the salinity gradient can be harvested with ion-selective nanopores, all suggest that nanofluidic devices having higher surface charge density should have higher performance, including osmotic power and conversion efficiency. In this manuscript, this viewpoint is challenged and anomalous counterintuitive pH-dependent NSGP behaviors are reported. For example, with equal pH deviation from its isoelectric point (IEP), the nanopore at pH IEP is shown to have smaller surface charge density but remarkably higher NSGP performance than that at pH > IEP. Moreover, for sufficiently low pH, the NSGP performance decreases with lowering pH (increasing nanopore charge density). As a result, a maximum osmotic power density as high as 5.85 kW m -2 can be generated along with a conversion efficiency of 26.3% achieved for a single alumina nanopore at pH 3.5 under a 1000-fold concentration ratio. Using the rigorous model with considering the surface equilibrium reactions on the pore wall, it is proved that these counterintuitive surface-charge-dependent NSGP behaviors result from the pH-dependent ion concentration polarization effect, which yields the degradation in effective concentration ratio across the nanopore. These findings provide significant insight for the design of next-generation, high-performance NSGP devices. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Influence of alkaline (PH 8.3-12.0) and saline solutions on chemical, mineralogical and physical properties of two different bentonites - batch experiments at 25 deg. C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heikola, Tiina; Vuorinen, Ulla; Kumpulainen, Sirpa; Kiviranta, Leena; Korkeakoski, Petri

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. Construction of a spent fuel repository deep in the bedrock will need supporting structures using cement materials. A part of them can be removed before closure but still it is estimated that about 1000 tonnes will remain in the host rock. Degradation of cementitious materials produces leachates of high pH. If such an alkaline plume reaches the bentonite buffer, it may induce mineralogical and chemical changes in bentonite over long term, and further affect the safety functions of the buffer. Laboratory experiments were done with the objective to gain data of possible alterations in mineralogical, chemical and physical properties of bentonites contacted with high-pH saline solutions. Two untreated, high grade, Na- and Ca-bentonites, were used in batch experiments, which were carried out in an anaerobic glove-box at 25±1 deg. C for 554 days. Each bentonite sample (20 g) was leached with approximately 3.8 L of leaching solution, which equals 190 mL/g of bentonite. The bentonites were leached with three types of simulated cement waters (pH 9.7, 11.3 and 12.0) and one saline groundwater simulate (pH 8.3) as a reference. The leaching solutions were 0.3 M, and contained NaCl and CaCl 2 , and trace amounts of SiO 2 , K, Br, Mg and SO 4 . Dissolved oxygen and carbon dioxide were removed from leaching solutions before mixing of bentonite in PC bottles. The samples were placed on a platform shaker in order to allow better contact between bentonite and the leaching solution. The evolution of pH in the samples was followed by measuring the pH-value of each sample in the solution phase approximately twice a week and the solution was renewed when values of two to three consecutive measurements did not change. On average, the leaching solution was renewed once a month. For each renewal of the leaching solution the phases were separated, the reacted solution withdrawn, and the chemical composition analysed. Before analysis the

  18. Ultra high pressure homogenization (UHPH) inactivation of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens spores in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) and milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Peng; Georget, Erika S.; Aganovic, Kemal; Heinz, Volker; Mathys, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Ultra high pressure homogenization (UHPH) opens up new areas for dynamic high pressure assisted thermal sterilization of liquids. Bacillus amyloliquefaciens spores are resistant to high isostatic pressure and temperature and were suggested as potential surrogate for high pressure thermal sterilization validation. B. amyloliquefaciens spores suspended in PBS buffer (0.01 M, pH 7.0), low fat milk (1.5%, pH 6.7), and whole milk (3.5%, pH 6.7) at initial concentration of ~106 CFU/mL were subjected to UHPH treatments at 200, 300, and 350 MPa with an inlet temperature at ~80°C. Thermal inactivation kinetics of B. amyloliquefaciens spores in PBS and milk were assessed with thin wall glass capillaries and modeled using first-order and Weibull models. The residence time during UHPH treatments was estimated to determine the contribution of temperature to spore inactivation by UHPH. No sublethal injury was detected after UHPH treatments using sodium chloride as selective component in the nutrient agar medium. The inactivation profiles of spores in PBS buffer and milk were compared and fat provided no clear protective effect for spores against treatments. Treatment at 200 MPa with valve temperatures lower than 125°C caused no reduction of spores. A reduction of 3.5 log10CFU/mL of B. amyloliquefaciens spores was achieved by treatment at 350 MPa with a valve temperature higher than 150°C. The modeled thermal inactivation and observed inactivation during UHPH treatments suggest that temperature could be the main lethal effect driving inactivation. PMID:26236296

  19. Impact of saline-alkali stress on the accumulation of solids in tomato fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jan, N.E.; Din, J.U.; Kawabata, S

    2014-01-01

    Growing of tomato plants in saline conditions, having high rhizospheric EC, is often reported with high solid content in fruits. However, saline-alkali stress conditions, having high rhizospheric pH as well as high EC, have never been studied to evaluate its impact on the solid content of tomato fruits. In this study, we investigated the impact of saline-alkali stress (0, 30, 60, 90, and 120 mM NaHCO/sub 3/) on the accumulation of solids in tomato fruits. Addition of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO/sub 3/) to plants highly increased pH as well as EC of the soil leachate in 90 and 120 mM NaHCO/sub 3/ treatments in comparison to control treatment. Saline-alkali stress treatments did not influence the fruit dry weight, nonetheless, the content of fruit dry matter was increased significantly from 6.5% at control to 8.5% at 90 and 120 mM treatments. The content of soluble sugar was increased to 3% in 90 mM treatment in comparison to control (2%), owing to significant accumulation of hexose as well as sucrose in ripe fruits. In addition to carbohydrates, saline-alkali stress influenced the accumulation of organic acids in fruits, as well. Citric acid, being the major acid, showed positive correlation with the salt concentration, and was significantly high at stress treatments of higher than 30 mM. These results suggested that saline-alkali stress conditions, in spite of high pH, can increase the contents of fruit solids in tomato, as is usually observed in saline stress conditions. (author)

  20. Etched FBG coated with polyimide for simultaneous detection the salinity and temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Dong; Ma, Jianxun; Ibrahim, Zainah; Ismail, Zubaidah

    2017-06-01

    In marine environment, concrete structures can corrode because of the PH alkalinity of concrete paste; and the salinity PH is heavily related with the concentration of salt in aqueous solutions. In this study, an optical fiber salinity sensor is proposed on the basis of an etched FBG (EFBG) coated with a layer of polyimide. Chemical etching is employed to reduce the diameter of FBG and to excite Cladding Mode Resonance Wavelengths (CMRWs). CMRW and Fundamental Mode Resonance Wavelength (FMRW) can be used to measure the Refractive index (RI) and temperature of salinity. The proposed sensor is then characterized with a matrix equation. Experimental results show that FMRW and 5th CMRW have the detection sensitivities of 15.407 and 125.92 nm/RIU for RI and 0.0312 and 0.0435 nm/°C for temperature, respectively. The proposed sensor can measure salinity and temperature simultaneously.

  1. Metrological challenges for measurements of key climatological observables: oceanic salinity and pH, and atmospheric humidity. Part 1: overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feistel, R.; Wielgosz, R.; Bell, S. A.; Camões, M. F.; Cooper, J. R.; Dexter, P.; Dickson, A. G.; Fisicaro, P.; Harvey, A. H.; Heinonen, M.; Hellmuth, O.; Kretzschmar, H.-J.; Lovell-Smith, J. W.; McDougall, T. J.; Pawlowicz, R.; Ridout, P.; Seitz, S.; Spitzer, P.; Stoica, D.; Wolf, H.

    2016-02-01

    Water in its three ambient phases plays the central thermodynamic role in the terrestrial climate system. Clouds control Earth’s radiation balance, atmospheric water vapour is the strongest ‘greenhouse’ gas, and non-equilibrium relative humidity at the air-sea interface drives evaporation and latent heat export from the ocean. On climatic time scales, melting ice caps and regional deviations of the hydrological cycle result in changes of seawater salinity, which in turn may modify the global circulation of the oceans and their ability to store heat and to buffer anthropogenically produced carbon dioxide. In this paper, together with three companion articles, we examine the climatologically relevant quantities ocean salinity, seawater pH and atmospheric relative humidity, noting fundamental deficiencies in the definitions of those key observables, and their lack of secure foundation on the International System of Units, the SI. The metrological histories of those three quantities are reviewed, problems with their current definitions and measurement practices are analysed, and options for future improvements are discussed in conjunction with the recent seawater standard TEOS-10. It is concluded that the International Bureau of Weights and Measures, BIPM, in cooperation with the International Association for the Properties of Water and Steam, IAPWS, along with other international organizations and institutions, can make significant contributions by developing and recommending state-of-the-art solutions for these long standing metrological problems in climatology.

  2. An Electrochemistry Study of Cryoelectrolysis in Frozen Physiological Saline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuel, Thomas J; Munnangi, Pujita; Rubinsky, Boris

    2017-07-01

    Cryoelectrolysis is a new minimally invasive tissue ablation surgical technique that combines the processes of electrolysis and solid/liquid phase transformation (freezing). This study investigated this new technique by measuring the pH front propagation and the changes in resistance in a tissue simulant made of physiological saline gel with a pH dye as a function of the sample temperature in the high subzero range above the eutectic. Results demonstrated that effective electrolysis can occur in a high subzero freezing milieu and that the propagation of the pH front is only weakly dependent on temperature. These observations are consistent with a mechanism involving ionic movement through the concentrated saline solution channels between ice crystals at subfreezing temperatures above the eutectic. Moreover, results suggest that Joule heating in these microchannels may cause local microscopic melting, the observed weak dependence of pH front propagation on temperature, and the large changes in resistance with time. A final insight provided by the results is that the pH front propagation from the anode is more rapid than from the cathode, a feature indicative of the electro-osmotic flow from the cathode to the anode. The findings in this paper may be critical for designing future cryoelectrolytic ablation surgery protocols.

  3. Sympathetic responses during saline infusion into the veins of an occluded limb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Jian; McQuillan, Patrick; Moradkhan, Raman; Pagana, Charles; Sinoway, Lawrence I

    2009-07-15

    Animal studies have shown that the increased intravenous pressure stimulates the group III and IV muscle afferent fibres, and in turn induce cardiovascular responses. However, this pathway of autonomic regulation has not been examined in humans. The aim of this study was to examine the hypothesis that infusion of saline into the venous circulation of an arterially occluded vascular bed evokes sympathetic activation in healthy individuals. Blood pressure, heart rate, and muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) responses were assessed in 19 young healthy subjects during local infusion of 40 ml saline into a forearm vein in the circulatory arrested condition. From baseline (11.8 +/- 1.2 bursts min(-1)), MSNA increased significantly during the saline infusion (22.5 +/- 2.6 bursts min(-1), P Blood pressure also increased significantly during the saline infusion. Three control trials were performed during separate visits. The results from the control trial show that the observed MSNA and blood pressure responses were not due to muscle ischaemia. The present data show that saline infusion into the venous circulation of an arterially occluded vascular bed induces sympathetic activation and an increase in blood pressure. We speculate that the infusion under such conditions stimulates the afferent endings near the vessels, and evokes the sympathetic activation.

  4. Atmospheric variables, nutrients, pH, salinity, and temperature collected by bottle and from meteorological stations in the Sea of Japan and the Yellow Sea from 01 July 1952 to 31 December 1998 (NODC Accession 0000032)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Atmospheric variables, nutrients, pH, salinity, and temperature data were collected using bottle casts in the Sea of Japan from 01 July 1952 to 31 December 1998....

  5. Intragastric pH and pressure profiles after intake of the high-caloric, high-fat meal as used for food effect studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koziolek, M; Schneider, F; Grimm, M; Modeβ, Chr; Seekamp, A; Roustom, T; Siegmund, W; Weitschies, W

    2015-12-28

    The intraluminal conditions of the fed stomach are critical for drug release from solid oral dosage forms and thus, often associated with the occurrence of food effects on oral bioavailability. In this study, intragastric pH and pressure profiles present after the ingestion of the high-caloric, high-fat (964 kcal) FDA standard breakfast were investigated in 19 healthy human subjects by using the telemetric SmartPill® capsule system (26 × 13 mm). Since the gastric emptying of such large non-digestible objects is typically accomplished by the migrating motor complex phase III activity, the time required for recurrence of fasted state motility determined the gastric emptying time (GET). Following the diet recommendations of the FDA guidance on food effect studies, the mean GET of the telemetric motility capsule was 15.3 ± 4.7 h. Thus, the high caloric value of the standard breakfast impeded gastric emptying before lunch in 18 out of 19 subjects. During its gastric transit, the capsule was exposed to highly dynamic conditions in terms of pH and pressure, which were mainly dependent on further meal and liquid intake, as well as the intragastric capsule deposition behavior. Maximum pH values in the stomach were measured immediately after capsule intake. The median pH value of the 5 min period after capsule ingestion ranged between pH 3.3 and 5.3. Subsequently, the pH decreased relatively constantly and reached minimum values of pH 0-1 after approximately 4 h. The maximum pressure within the stomach amounted to 293 ± 109 mbar and was clearly higher than the maximum pressure measured at the ileocaecal junction (60 ± 35 mbar). The physiological data on the intraluminal conditions within the fed stomach generated in this study will hopefully contribute to a better understanding of food effects on oral drug product performance.

  6. Radio elements / bottom salts separation by nano-filtration aided by complexation in a highly saline environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaubert, Eric

    1997-01-01

    This research thesis addresses the use of a membrane-based technique, nano-filtration, aided or not by complexation, for the processing of highly saline liquid effluents produced by radio-chemical decontamination. The objective is to separate non-radioactive elements (sodium nitrate) from radio-elements (caesium, strontium and actinides) in order to reduce the volume of wastes. Within the perspective of an industrial application, a system to concentrate the effluent is firstly defined. Different nano-filtration membranes are tested and reveal to be insufficient in highly saline environment. A stage of selective complexation of radio-elements is therefore considered before nano-filtration. The main factors affecting performance of nano-filtration-complexation (for a given membrane system) are identified: ionic force, pH, ligand content, trans-membrane pressure. Finally, a nano-filtration pilot is implemented to perform nano-filtration-complexation operations by remote handling on radioactive substances [fr

  7. Alteration of the cementitious material under the saline environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owada, H.; Asano, H.; Kuno, Y.; Sakamoto, H.; Shimoda, S.

    2006-01-01

    Leaching experiment of ordinary and fly ash mixed cement were carried out by using the artificial sea water and deionized water as leachates. The pH values of saline leachates were decreased at the lower solid/liquid ratio in comparison with the case of deionized leachates. Mg(OH) 2 and ettringite were observed only in the case of saline water. The results of the geochemical calculation with inputs of Mg(OH) 2 , ettringite and hydrotalcite well represented in the change of pH value and the mineral-composition with those of the experiment. However, in the latter stage of the fly ash mixed cement case, calculated concentrations of Si and Al of the leachate weren't consistent with the observed values. These results showed that substitution of Mg for Ca and influences of sulfate ion should be considered in the modeling of the cement alteration in the saline water case, and Al-substituted C-S-H might be considered in the alteration of fly ash mixed cement. (author)

  8. Furfural and its biochar improve the general properties of a saline soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Y.; Xu, G.; Shao, H. B.

    2014-07-01

    Organic materials (e.g., furfural residue) are generally believed to improve the physical and chemical properties of saline soils with low fertility. Recently, biochar has been received more attention as a possible measure to improve the carbon balance and improve soil quality in some degraded soils. However, little is known about their different amelioration of a sandy saline soil. In this study, 56 d incubation experiment was conducted to evaluate the influence of furfural and its biochar on the properties of saline soil. The results showed that both furfural and biochar greatly reduced pH, increased soil organic carbon (SOC) content and cation exchange capacity (CEC), and enhanced the available phosphorus (P) in the soil. Furfural is more efficient than biochar in reducing pH: 5% furfural lowered the soil pH by 0.5-0.8 (soil pH: 8.3-8.6), while 5% biochar decreased by 0.25-0.4 due to the loss of acidity in pyrolysis process. With respect to available P, furfural addition at a rate of 5% increased available P content by 4-6 times in comparison to 2-5 times with biochar application. In reducing soil exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP), biochar is slightly superior to furfural because soil ESP reduced by 51% and 43% with 5% furfural and 5% biochar at the end of incubation. In addition, no significant differences were observed between furfural and biochar about their capacity to retain N, P in leaching solution and to increase CEC in soil. These facts may be caused by the relatively short incubation time. In general, furfural and biochar exhibited a different effect depending on the property: furfural was more effective in decreasing pH and increasing available P, whereas biochar played a more important role in increasing SOC and reducing ESP of saline soil.

  9. Incomplete turgor adjustment in Cladophora rupestrisunder fluctuating salinity regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiencke, Christian; Gorham, John; Tomos, Deri; Davenport, John

    1992-04-01

    Turgor pressure fluctuates strongly in Cladophora rupestrissubjected to low salinities and shows only a small tendency to readjust to the normal value in full seawater (incomplete turgor adjustment). This was revealed by direct turgor pressure measurements and by chemical analyses of osmotic solutes after exposure of upper and lower shore Cladophorato the different salinity regimes occurring in the intertidal zone or representing steady state osmotic acclimation. The main internal osmotic solutes were K +, Cl -, amino acids, NO 3-and glycine betaine. Na +, SO 42-and PO 43-were of less importance. The sum of the charges on the cations was similar to that for the anions. K +, Cl -and, to a lesser extent, amino acids were responsible for limited turgor pressure adjustment which did occur. The concentrations of the major osmotic solutes were influenced not only by salinity but also by light: those of amino acids and NO 3-were increased while those of K +and Cl -were decreased under illumination. Cladophorapopulations from the upper and lower shore differed in their ability to restore internal K +and Cl -levels on transfer to full seawater after long term exposure to low salinity. This may indicate ecotypic variation.

  10. Carbon dioxide, temperature, salinity, and atmospheric pressure from surface underway survey in the North Pacific from January 1998 to January 2004 (NODC Accession 0045502)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Sea surface pCO2, sea surface temperature, sea surface salinity, and atmospheric pressure measurements collected in the North Pacific as part of the NOAA Office of...

  11. Relations between pH, oxygen partial pressure and growth in cultured cell spheroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson, J; Acker, H

    1988-11-15

    The pH gradients, oxygen partial-pressure gradients and growth curves were measured for 7 different types of spheroids. Growth curves were measured in liquid overlay culture and thereafter the spheroids were attached to cover glasses and transferred to a chamber for micro-electrode measurements. The spheroids were randomly divided for pH or pO2 measurements which then were made under conditions as identical as possible. The decreases in pO2 and pH, delta pO2 and delta pH were calculated as the difference between the values in the culture medium and the values 200 micron inside the spheroids. Each type of spheroid had a certain relation between delta pO2 and delta pH. The human colon carcinoma HT29, the mouse mammary carcinoma EMT6 and the hamster lung V79-379A spheroids had high values of the quotient delta pO2/delta pH. The human thyroid carcinoma HTh7 spheroids and the 3 types of human glioma spheroids had lower quotients. There was a tendency for fast-growing spheroids to have high quotients. Two extreme types of spheroids, HT29 (high quotient) and U-118 MG (low quotient) were analyzed for lactate production and oxygen consumption. The U-118 MG spheroids produced about 3 times more lactate and consumed about 3 times less oxygen than the HT29 spheroids. The differences in lactate production could not be explained by differences in the pyruvate Km values of lactate dehydrogenase. The results indicate that there are significant metabolic differences between the spheroid systems studied.

  12. Temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, phosphate, nitrite, pH, alkalinity, bottom depth, and meteorology data collected from Arctic Seas and North Western Pacific by various Soviet Union institutions from 1925-11-16 to 1989-05-18 (NODC Accession 0075099)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, phosphate, nitrite, pH, alkalinity, bottom depth, and meteorology data collected from Arctic Seas and North Western Pacific...

  13. The Effect of Intraoperative Restricted Normal Saline during Orthotopic Liver Transplantation on Amount of Administered Sodium Bicarbonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Sahmeddini

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Severe metabolic acidosis occurs during orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT particularly during the anhepatic phase. Although NaHCO3 is considered as the current standard therapy, there are numerous adverse effects. The aim of this study was to determine whether the restricted use of normal saline during anesthesia could reduce the need for NaHCO3. Methods: In this study we enrolled 75 patients with end-stage liver disease who underwent OLT from February 2010 until September 2010 at the Shiraz Organ Transplantation Center. Fluid management of two different transplant anesthetics were compared. The effect of restricted normal saline fluid was compared with non-restricted normal saline fluid on hemodynamic and acid-base parameters at three times during OLT: after the skin incision (T1, 15 min before reperfusion (T2, and 5 min after reperfusion (T3. Results: There were no significant differences in demographic characteristics of the donors and recipients (P>0.05. In the restricted normal saline group there was significantly lower central venous pressure (CVP than in the non-restricted normal saline group (P=0.002. No significant differences were noted in the other hemodynamic parameters between the two groups (P>0.05. In the non-restricted normal saline group arterial blood pH (P=0.01 and HCO3 (P=0.0001 were significantly less than the restricted normal saline group. The NaHCO3 requirement before reperfusion was significantly more than with the restricted normal saline group (P=0.001. Conclusion: Restricted normal saline administration during OLT reduced the severity of metabolic acidosis and the need for NaHCO3 during the anhepatic phase. Trial Registration Number: IRCT2013110711662N5

  14. COMPARATIVE EFFICACY OF HYPERTONIC SALINE AND NORMAL SALINE SOLUTIONS IN EXPERIMENTALLY INDUCED ENDOTOXIC SHOCK IN DOGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. ZAFAR, G. MUHAMMAD, M. H. HUSSAIN, T. AHMAD, A. YOUSAF AND I. SARFARAZ

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was contemplated to determine the comparative beneficial effects of hypertonic saline solution and sterile saline solution in induced endotoxic shock in dogs. For this purpose, 12 healthy Mongrel dogs were randomly divided into two equal groups (A and B. All the animals were induced endotoxaemia by slow intravenous administration of Escherichia coli endotoxins 0111:B4. Group A was treated with normal saline solution @ 90 ml/kg BW, while group B was given hypertonic saline solution @ 4 ml/kg BW, followed by normal saline solution @ 10 ml/kg BW. Different parameters were observed for evaluation of these fluids including clinical and haematological parameters, serum electrolytes, mean arterial pressure, and blood gases at different time intervals up to 24 hours post treatments. After infusion of respective fluids, all parameters returned to baseline values in both the groups but group B showed better results than group A except bicarbonates, which better recovered in group A. Thus, it was concluded that a small-volume of hypertonic saline solution could be effectively used in reversing the endotoxaemia. Moreover, it provides a rapid and inexpensive resuscitation from endotoxic shock.

  15. Ultra high pressure homogenization (UHPH inactivation of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens spores in phosphate buffered saline (PBS and milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng eDong

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Ultra high pressure homogenization (UHPH opens up new areas for dynamic high pressure assisted thermal sterilization of liquids. Bacillus amyloliquefaciens spores are resistant to high isostatic pressure and temperature and were suggested as potential surrogate for high pressure thermal sterilization validation. B. amyloliquefaciens spores suspended in PBS buffer (0.01 M, pH 7.0, low fat milk (1.5%, pH 6.7 and whole milk (3.5%, pH 6.7 at initial concentration of ~106 CFU/mL were subjected to UHPH treatments at 200, 300 and 350 MPa with an inlet temperature at ~80 °C. Thermal inactivation kinetics of B. amyloliquefaciens spores in PBS and milk were assessed with thin wall glass capillaries and modeled using mechanistic linear first order and Weibull models. The residence time during UHPH treatments was estimated to determine the contribution of temperature to spore inactivation by UHPH. No sublethal injury was detected after UHPH treatments using sodium chloride as selective component in the nutrient agar medium. The inactivation profiles of spores in PBS buffer and milk were compared and fat provided no clear protective effect for spores against treatments. Treatment at 200 MPa with valve temperatures lower than 125 °C caused no reduction of spores. A reduction of 3.5 log10 CFU/mL of B. amyloliquefaciens spores was achieved by treatment at 350 MPa with a valve temperature higher than 150 °C. The modeled thermal inactivation and observed inactivation during UHPH treatments suggest that temperature could be the main lethal effect driving inactivation.

  16. A simple protocol for the routine calibration of pH meters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. FEDERMAN NETO

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available

    A simplified laboratory protocol for the calibration of pH meters is described and tested. It is based on the use of two analytical primary buffer solutions, potassium hydrogen phthalate and Borax (sodium tetraborate decahydrate of precisely known concentrations and pH. The solutions may be stored at room temperature for long periods, without decomposition and used directly. The calibration of the meter can be checked with standard solutions of sodium dihydrogen phosphate, sodium carbonate, sodium benzoate, sodium salicylate or potassium oxalate. Methods for the purification of Borax and potassium chloride are also given, and a new method for the neutralization of 0.9% saline is suggested. Keywords: pH meters (calibration; saline (0.9%; pH standards; potassium biphthalate; Borax.

  17. Interactive effects of ocean acidification, elevated temperature, and reduced salinity on early-life stages of the pacific oyster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Ginger W K; Dineshram, R; Campanati, Camilla; Chan, Vera B S; Havenhand, Jon; Thiyagarajan, Vengatesen

    2014-09-02

    Ocean acidification (OA) effects on larvae are partially attributed for the rapidly declining oyster production in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States. This OA effect is a serious concern in SE Asia, which produces >80% of the world's oysters. Because climate-related stressors rarely act alone, we need to consider OA effects on oysters in combination with warming and reduced salinity. Here, the interactive effects of these three climate-related stressors on the larval growth of the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas, were examined. Larvae were cultured in combinations of temperature (24 and 30 °C), pH (8.1 and 7.4), and salinity (15 psu and 25 psu) for 58 days to the early juvenile stage. Decreased pH (pH 7.4), elevated temperature (30 °C), and reduced salinity (15 psu) significantly delayed pre- and post-settlement growth. Elevated temperature lowered the larval lipid index, a proxy for physiological quality, and negated the negative effects of decreased pH on attachment and metamorphosis only in a salinity of 25 psu. The negative effects of multiple stressors on larval metamorphosis were not due to reduced size or depleted lipid reserves at the time of metamorphosis. Our results supported the hypothesis that the C. gigas larvae are vulnerable to the interactions of OA with reduced salinity and warming in Yellow Sea coastal waters now and in the future.

  18. Effects of Hydrogen-Rich Saline on Hepatectomy-Induced Postoperative Cognitive Dysfunction in Old Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yue; Guo, Shanbin; Zhang, Yan; Xu, Ying; Zhao, Ping; Zhao, Xiaochun

    2017-05-01

    This study aims to investigate the protective effects and underlying mechanisms of hydrogen-rich saline on the cognitive functions of elder mice with partial hepatectomy-induced postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD). Ninety-six old male Kunming mice were randomly divided into 4 groups (n = 24 each): control group (group C), hydrogen-rich saline group (group H), POCD group (group P), and POCD + hydrogen-rich saline group (group PH). Cognitive function was subsequently assessed using Morris water-maze (MWM) test. TNF-α and IL-1β levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immunohistochemistry, along with NF-κB activity determined by ELISA. The morphology of hippocampal tissues were further observed by HE staining. Learning and memory abilities of mice were significantly impaired at day 10 and day 14 post-surgery, as partial hepatectomy significantly prolonged the escape latency, decreased time at the original platform quadrant and frequency of crossing in group P when compared to group C (p hydrogen-rich saline (group PH) partially rescued spatial memory and learning as it shortened escape latency and increased time and crossing frequency of original platform compared to group P (p hydrogen-rich saline. Hydrogen-rich saline can alleviate POCD via inhibiting NF-κB activity in the hippocampus and reducing inflammatory response.

  19. Drinking Water Salinity and Raised Blood Pressure: Evidence from a Cohort Study in Coastal Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheelbeek, Pauline FD; Chowdhury, Muhammad A H; Haines, Andy; Alam, Dewan S; Hoque, Mohammad A; Butler, Adrian P; Khan, Aneire E; Mojumder, Sontosh K; Blangiardo, Marta A G; Elliott, Paul; Vineis, Paolo

    2017-05-30

    Millions of coastal inhabitants in Southeast Asia have been experiencing increasing sodium concentrations in their drinking-water sources, likely partially due to climate change. High (dietary) sodium intake has convincingly been proven to increase risk of hypertension; it remains unknown, however, whether consumption of sodium in drinking water could have similar effects on health. We present the results of a cohort study in which we assessed the effects of drinking-water sodium (DWS) on blood pressure (BP) in coastal populations in Bangladesh. DWS, BP, and information on personal, lifestyle, and environmental factors were collected from 581 participants. We used generalized linear latent and mixed methods to model the effects of DWS on BP and assessed the associations between changes in DWS and BP when participants experienced changing sodium levels in water, switched from "conventional" ponds or tube wells to alternatives [managed aquifer recharge (MAR) and rainwater harvesting] that aimed to reduce sodium levels, or experienced a combination of these changes. DWS concentrations were highly associated with BP after adjustments for confounding factors. Furthermore, for each 100 mg/L reduction in sodium in drinking water, systolic/diastolic BP was lower on average by 0.95/0.57 mmHg, and odds of hypertension were lower by 14%. However, MAR did not consistently lower sodium levels. DWS is an important source of daily sodium intake in salinity-affected areas and is a risk factor for hypertension. Considering the likely increasing trend in coastal salinity, prompt action is required. Because MAR showed variable effects, alternative technologies for providing reliable, safe, low-sodium fresh water should be developed alongside improvements in MAR and evaluated in "real-life" salinity-affected settings. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP659.

  20. Drinking Water Salinity and Raised Blood Pressure: Evidence from a Cohort Study in Coastal Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Muhammad A.H.; Haines, Andy; Alam, Dewan S.; Hoque, Mohammad A.; Butler, Adrian P.; Khan, Aneire E.; Mojumder, Sontosh K.; Blangiardo, Marta A.G.; Elliott, Paul; Vineis, Paolo

    2017-01-01

    Background: Millions of coastal inhabitants in Southeast Asia have been experiencing increasing sodium concentrations in their drinking-water sources, likely partially due to climate change. High (dietary) sodium intake has convincingly been proven to increase risk of hypertension; it remains unknown, however, whether consumption of sodium in drinking water could have similar effects on health. Objectives: We present the results of a cohort study in which we assessed the effects of drinking-water sodium (DWS) on blood pressure (BP) in coastal populations in Bangladesh. Methods: DWS, BP, and information on personal, lifestyle, and environmental factors were collected from 581 participants. We used generalized linear latent and mixed methods to model the effects of DWS on BP and assessed the associations between changes in DWS and BP when participants experienced changing sodium levels in water, switched from “conventional” ponds or tube wells to alternatives [managed aquifer recharge (MAR) and rainwater harvesting] that aimed to reduce sodium levels, or experienced a combination of these changes. Results: DWS concentrations were highly associated with BP after adjustments for confounding factors. Furthermore, for each 100mg/L reduction in sodium in drinking water, systolic/diastolic BP was lower on average by 0.95/0.57mmHg, and odds of hypertension were lower by 14%. However, MAR did not consistently lower sodium levels. Conclusions: DWS is an important source of daily sodium intake in salinity-affected areas and is a risk factor for hypertension. Considering the likely increasing trend in coastal salinity, prompt action is required. Because MAR showed variable effects, alternative technologies for providing reliable, safe, low-sodium fresh water should be developed alongside improvements in MAR and evaluated in “real-life” salinity-affected settings. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP659 PMID:28599268

  1. pH and Organic Carbon Dose Rates Control Microbially Driven Bioremediation Efficacy in Alkaline Bauxite Residue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santini, Talitha C; Malcolm, Laura I; Tyson, Gene W; Warren, Lesley A

    2016-10-18

    Bioremediation of alkaline tailings, based on fermentative microbial metabolisms, is a novel strategy for achieving rapid pH neutralization and thus improving environmental outcomes associated with mining and refining activities. Laboratory-scale bioreactors containing bauxite residue (an alkaline, saline tailings material generated as a byproduct of alumina refining), to which a diverse microbial inoculum was added, were used in this study to identify key factors (pH, salinity, organic carbon supply) controlling the rates and extent of microbially driven pH neutralization (bioremediation) in alkaline tailings. Initial tailings pH and organic carbon dose rates both significantly affected bioremediation extent and efficiency with lower minimum pHs and higher extents of pH neutralization occurring under low initial pH or high organic carbon conditions. Rates of pH neutralization (up to 0.13 mM H + produced per day with pH decreasing from 9.5 to ≤6.5 in three days) were significantly higher in low initial pH treatments. Representatives of the Bacillaceae and Enterobacteriaceae, which contain many known facultative anaerobes and fermenters, were identified as key contributors to 2,3-butanediol and/or mixed acid fermentation as the major mechanism(s) of pH neutralization. Initial pH and salinity significantly influenced microbial community successional trajectories, and microbial community structure was significantly related to markers of fermentation activity. This study provides the first experimental demonstration of bioremediation in bauxite residue, identifying pH and organic carbon dose rates as key controls on bioremediation efficacy, and will enable future development of bioreactor technologies at full field scale.

  2. Double-pass Mach-Zehnder fiber interferometer pH sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tou, Zhi Qiang; Chan, Chi Chiu; Hong, Jesmond; Png, Shermaine; Eddie, Khay Ming Tan; Tan, Terence Aik Huang

    2014-04-01

    A biocompatible fiber-optic pH sensor based on a unique double-pass Mach-Zehnder interferometer is proposed. pH responsive poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate-co-2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate) hydrogel coating on the fiber swells/deswells in response to local pH, leading to refractive index changes that manifest as shifting of interference dips in the optical spectrum. The pH sensor is tested in spiked phosphate buffer saline and demonstrates high sensitivity of 1.71  nm/pH, pH 0.004 limit of detection with good responsiveness, repeatability, and stability. The proposed sensor has been successfully applied in monitoring the media pH in cell culture experiments to investigate the relationship between pH and cancer cell growth.

  3. Spectroscopic determination of pH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faanu, A.; Glover, E.T.; Bailey, E.; Rochelle, C.

    2009-01-01

    A technique of measuring pH at temperature range of 20 - 70 0 C and high pressure conditions of 1 - 200 atmospheres has been developed by relating the ratio of absorbance peaks of indicator solutions (basic and acidic) as a function of pH, using ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometer. The pH values of the buffer solutions measured at 20 0 C and 70 0 C indicated slight temperature dependence, while the pressure had no effect. The pH of the buffer solutions increased with temperature with relative standard deviations in the range 0.4 - 0.5 % at 95 % confidence interval. The possible causes of the temperature dependence were attributed to changes in pH values as the temperature changed. (au)

  4. Effect of salinity and sediment characteristics on the sorption and desorption of perfluorooctane sulfonate at sediment-water interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    You Chun; Jia Chengxia; Pan Gang

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of solution salinity, pH and the sediment characteristics on the sorption and desorption of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS). The results showed that the sorption of PFOS onto sediment increased by a factor of 3 as the CaCl 2 concentration increased from 0.005 to 0.5 mol L -1 at pH 7.0, and nearly 6 at pH 8.0. Desorption hysteresis occurred over all salinity. The thermodynamic index of irreversibility (TII) values increased with increasing concentration of CaCl 2 . Maximum irreversibility was found in the sorption systems with CaCl 2 in the concentration of 0.5 mol L -1 . The results suggested that PFOS can be largely removed from the water with increasing salinity, and get trapped onto sediments irreversibly. These phenomena could be explained by salting-out effect and Ca-bridging effect. Studies also suggested that the content of total organic carbon is the dominant psychochemical properties of sediment controlling the sorption of PFOS. - Salinity is an important environmental parameter affecting the transport and fate of PFOS in aquatic environment.

  5. The Effect of Salinity on the Release of Copper (Cu, Lead (Pb And Zinc (Zn from Tailing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apriani Sulu Parubak

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The effects of salinity on the release of copper (Cu, lead (Pb and zinc (Zn in tailing sediment have been studied by stripping voltammetry. The purpose of the research is to know the effect of salinity on the release of metals with certain pH, conductivity and variety of metals. Simultaneous determination of copper, lead and zinc in tailing was done by Differential Pulse Anodic Stripping Voltammetry (DPASV onto hanging mercury drop electrode (HMDE and nitric acid 65% as support electrolyte. The limit of detection for this method 0.60 µg/L, 0.150 µg/L and 0.238 µg/L for copper, lead and iMc respectively. The stripping solution of 300/00 salinity with pH= 7.85, conductivity= 46.62 mS/cm gives the amounts of released metals as follows :14.867 µg/L Cu, 0.976 µg/L Pb and 6.224 µg/L Zn. These results are higher as compared with the results from 15 0/00 salinity with pH= 7.66, conductivity= 23.22 mS/cm that give released metals of Cu= 7.988 µg/L, Pb= 0.311 µg/L and Zn= 4.699 µg/L. the results from ANOVA suggest that this is due to different in salinity of the solution. It also found that the conductivity does not give any effect. It can be concluded that the higher salinity will that give higher concentration or released metals.

  6. Additive influence of extracellular pH, oxygen tension, and pressure on invasiveness and survival of human osteosarcoma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takao eMatsubara

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND/PURPOSE:The effects of chemical and physical interactions in the microenvironment of solid tumors have not been fully elucidated. We hypothesized that acidosis, hypoxia, and elevated interstitial fluid pressure (eIFP have additive effects on tumor cell biology and lead to more aggressive behavior during tumor progression. We investigated this phenomenon using 3 human osteosarcoma cell lines and a novel in vitro cell culture apparatus. MATERIALS AND METHODS:U2OS, SaOS, and MG63 cell lines were cultured in media adjusted to various pH levels, oxygen tension (hypoxia 2% O2, normoxia 20% O2, and hydrostatic gauge pressure (0 or 50 mm Hg. Growth rate, apoptosis, cell cycle parameters, and expression of mRNA for proteins associated with invasiveness and tumor microenvironment (CA IX, VEGF-A, HIF-1A, MMP-9, and TIMP-2 were analyzed. Levels of CA IX, HIF-1α, and MMP-9 were measured using immunofluorescence. The effect of pH on invasiveness was evaluated in a Matrigel chamber assay.RESULTS: Within the acidic–hypoxic–pressurized conditions that simulate the microenvironment at a tumor’s center, invasive genes were upregulated, but the cell cycle was downregulated. The combined influence of acidosis, hypoxia, and IFP promoted invasiveness and angiogenesis to a greater extent than did pH, pO2, or eIFP individually. Significant cell death after brief exposure to acidic conditions occurred in each cell line during acclimation to acidic media, while prolonged exposure to acidic media resulted in reduced cell death. Furthermore, 48-hour exposure to acidic conditions promoted tumor invasiveness in the Matrigel assay. CONCLUSION: Our findings demonstrate that tumor microenvironmental parameters—particularly pH, pO2, and eIFP—additively influence tumor proliferation, invasion, metabolism, and viability to enhance cell survival.

  7. Features of acid-saline systems of Southern Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickson, Bruce L.; Giblin, Angela M.

    2009-01-01

    The discovery of layered, SO 4 -rich sediments on the Meridiani Planum on Mars has focused attention on understanding the formation of acid-saline lakes. Many salt lakes have formed in southern Australia where regional groundwaters are characterized by acidity and high salinity and show features that might be expected in the Meridiani sediments. Many (but not all) of the acid-saline Australian groundwaters are found where underlying Tertiary sediments are sulfide-rich. When waters from the formations come to the surface or interact with oxidised meteoric water, acid groundwaters result. In this paper examples of such waters around Lake Tyrrell, Victoria, and Lake Dey-Dey, South Australia, are reviewed. The acid-saline groundwaters typically have dissolved solids of 30-60 g/L and pH commonly 4 and MgSO 4 ) or differential separation of elements with differing solubility (K, Na, Ti, Cr). Thus, it is considered unlikely that groundwaters or evaporative salt-lake systems, as found on earth, were involved. Instead, these features point to a water-poor system with local alteration and very little mobilization of elements

  8. Zn(II, Mn(II and Sr(II Behavior in a Natural Carbonate Reservoir System. Part I: Impact of Salinity, Initial pH and Initial Zn(II Concentration in Atmospheric Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Auffray B.

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The sorption of inorganic elements on carbonate minerals is well known in strictly controlled conditions which limit the impact of other phenomena such as dissolution and/or precipitation. In this study, we evidence the behavior of Zn(II (initially in solution and two trace elements, Mn(II and Sr(II (released by carbonate dissolution in the context of a leakage from a CO2 storage site. The initial pH chosen are either equal to the pH of the water-CO2 equilibrium (~ 2.98 or equal to the pH of the water-CO2-calcite system (~ 4.8 in CO2 storage conditions. From this initial influx of liquid, saturated or not with respect to calcite, the batch experiments evolve freely to their equilibrium, as it would occur in a natural context after a perturbation. The batch experiments are carried out on two natural carbonates (from Lavoux and St-Emilion with PCO2 = 10−3.5 bar, with different initial conditions ([Zn(II]i from 10−4 to 10−6 M, either with pure water or 100 g/L NaCl brine. The equilibrium regarding calcite dissolution is confirmed in all experiments, while the zinc sorption evidenced does not always correspond to the two-step mechanism described in the literature. A preferential sorption of about 10% of the concentration is evidenced for Mn(II in aqueous experiments, while Sr(II is more sorbed in saline conditions. This study also shows that this preferential sorption, depending on the salinity, is independent of the natural carbonate considered. Then, the simulations carried out with PHREEQC show that experiments and simulations match well concerning the equilibrium of dissolution and the sole zinc sorption, with log KZn(II ~ 2 in pure water and close to 4 in high salinity conditions. When the simulations were possible, the log K values for Mn(II and Sr(II were much different from those in the literature obtained by sorption in controlled conditions. It is shown that a new conceptual model regarding multiple Trace Elements (TE sorption is

  9. Last Glacial Maximum Salinity Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homola, K.; Spivack, A. J.

    2016-12-01

    It has been previously demonstrated that salinity can be reconstructed from sediment porewater. The goal of our study is to reconstruct high precision salinity during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). Salinity is usually determined at high precision via conductivity, which requires a larger volume of water than can be extracted from a sediment core, or via chloride titration, which yields lower than ideal precision. It has been demonstrated for water column samples that high precision density measurements can be used to determine salinity at the precision of a conductivity measurement using the equation of state of seawater. However, water column seawater has a relatively constant composition, in contrast to porewater, where variations from standard seawater composition occur. These deviations, which affect the equation of state, must be corrected for through precise measurements of each ion's concentration and knowledge of apparent partial molar density in seawater. We have developed a density-based method for determining porewater salinity that requires only 5 mL of sample, achieving density precisions of 10-6 g/mL. We have applied this method to porewater samples extracted from long cores collected along a N-S transect across the western North Atlantic (R/V Knorr cruise KN223). Density was determined to a precision of 2.3x10-6 g/mL, which translates to salinity uncertainty of 0.002 gms/kg if the effect of differences in composition is well constrained. Concentrations of anions (Cl-, and SO4-2) and cations (Na+, Mg+, Ca+2, and K+) were measured. To correct salinities at the precision required to unravel LGM Meridional Overturning Circulation, our ion precisions must be better than 0.1% for SO4-/Cl- and Mg+/Na+, and 0.4% for Ca+/Na+, and K+/Na+. Alkalinity, pH and Dissolved Inorganic Carbon of the porewater were determined to precisions better than 4% when ratioed to Cl-, and used to calculate HCO3-, and CO3-2. Apparent partial molar densities in seawater were

  10. Effect of salinity and sediment characteristics on the sorption and desorption of perfluorooctane sulfonate at sediment-water interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    You Chun; Jia Chengxia [State Key Lab of Environmental Aquatic Chemistry, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 18 Shuangqing Road, Beijing 100085 (China); Pan Gang, E-mail: gpan@rcees.ac.c [State Key Lab of Environmental Aquatic Chemistry, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 18 Shuangqing Road, Beijing 100085 (China)

    2010-05-15

    This study investigated the influence of solution salinity, pH and the sediment characteristics on the sorption and desorption of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS). The results showed that the sorption of PFOS onto sediment increased by a factor of 3 as the CaCl{sub 2} concentration increased from 0.005 to 0.5 mol L{sup -1} at pH 7.0, and nearly 6 at pH 8.0. Desorption hysteresis occurred over all salinity. The thermodynamic index of irreversibility (TII) values increased with increasing concentration of CaCl{sub 2}. Maximum irreversibility was found in the sorption systems with CaCl{sub 2} in the concentration of 0.5 mol L{sup -1}. The results suggested that PFOS can be largely removed from the water with increasing salinity, and get trapped onto sediments irreversibly. These phenomena could be explained by salting-out effect and Ca-bridging effect. Studies also suggested that the content of total organic carbon is the dominant psychochemical properties of sediment controlling the sorption of PFOS. - Salinity is an important environmental parameter affecting the transport and fate of PFOS in aquatic environment.

  11. Mechanisms of Contrast-Induced Nephropathy Reduction for Saline (NaCl and Sodium Bicarbonate (NaHCO3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Patrick Burgess

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nephropathy following contrast media (CM exposure is reduced by administration before, during, and after the contrast procedure of either isotonic sodium chloride solution (Saline or isotonic sodium bicarbonate solution (IsoBicarb. The reasons for this reduction are not well established for either sodium salt; probable mechanisms are discussed in this paper. For Saline, the mechanism for the decrease in CIN is likely related primarily to the increased tubular flow rates produced by volume expansion and therefore a decreased concentration of the filtered CM during transit through the kidney tubules. Furthermore, increased tubular flow rates produce a slight increase in tubular pH resulting from a fixed acid excretion in an increased tubular volume. The mechanism for the decreased CIN associated with sodium bicarbonate includes the same mechanisms listed for Saline in addition to a renal pH effect. Increased filtered bicarbonate anion raises both tubular pH and tubular bicarbonate anion levels toward blood physiologic levels, thus providing increased buffer for reactive oxygen species (ROS formed in the tubules as a result of exposure to CM in renal tubular fluid.

  12. Using of pH as a tool to predict salinity of groundwater for irrigation purpose using artificial neural network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Nasr

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring of groundwater quality is one of the important tools to provide adequate information about water management. In the present study, artificial neural network (ANN with a feed-forward back-propagation was designed to predict groundwater salinity, expressed by total dissolved solids (TDS, using pH as an input parameter. Groundwater samples were collected from a 36 m depth well located in the experimental farm of the City of Scientific Researches and Technological Applications (SRTA City, New Borg El-Arab City, Alexandria, Egypt. The network structure was 1–5–3–1 and used the default Levenberg–Marquardt algorithm for training. It was observed that, the best validation performance, based on the mean square error, was 14819 at epoch 0, and no major problems or over-fitting occurred with the training step. The simulated output tracked the measured data with a correlation coefficient (R-value of 0.64, 0.67 and 0.90 for training, validation and test, respectively. In this case, the network response was acceptable, and simulation could be used for entering new inputs.

  13. Anditalea andensis ANESC-ST--An Alkaliphilic Halotolerant Bacterium Capable of Electricity Generation under Alkaline-Saline Conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Shi

    Full Text Available A great challenge in wastewater bioremediation is the sustained activity of viable microorganisms, which can contribute to the breakdown of waste contaminants, especially in alkaline pH conditions. Identification of extremophiles with bioremediation capability can improve the efficiency of wastewater treatment. Here, we report the discovery of an electrochemically active alkaliphilic halotolerant bacterium, Anditalea andensis ANESC-ST (=CICC10485T=NCCB 100412T, which is capable of generating bioelectricity in alkaline-saline conditions. A. andensis ANESC-ST was shown to grow in alkaline conditions between pH 7.0-11.0 and also under high salt condition (up to 4 wt% NaCl. Electrical output was further demonstrated in microbial fuel cells (MFCs with an average current density of ~0.5 µA/cm2, even under the harsh condition of 4 wt% NaCl and pH 9.0. Subsequent introduction of secreted extracellular metabolites into MFCs inoculated with Escherichia coli or Pseudomonas aeruginosa yielded enhanced electrical output. The ability of A. andensis ANESC-ST to generate energy under alkaline-saline conditions points towards a solution for bioelectricity recovery from alkaline-saline wastewater. This is the first report of A.andensis ANESC-ST producing bioelectricity at high salt concentration and pH.

  14. Effects of Salinity on Growth and Metabolism in Blue Tilapia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    adunet

    2013-05-08

    May 8, 2013 ... Water quality parameters [pH, temperature, electrical conductivity. (EC), total hardness, alkalinity, bicarbonate, calcium, magnesium, ammonia and nitrite] were measured and are given in Table 1. The osmolarity of each salinity treatment was measured by osmometer. (Model 3250 Advenced Instruments, ...

  15. Historical temperature, salinity, oxygen, pH, and meteorological data collected from Former Soviet Union platforms Lomonosov, Murmanets, and Akademik Shokalsky in 1933 - 1962 years from Arctic Ocean, Barents Sea, Bering Sea, Chukchi Sea, East Siberian Sea, Kara Sea, and Laptev Sea (NODC Accession 0108117)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Historical temperature, salinity, oxygen, pH, and meteorological data collected from Former Soviet Union platforms Lomonosov,Murmanets, and Akademik Shokalsky in...

  16. Characterization of saline groundwater across the coastal aquifer of Israel as resource for desalination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Shaked; Russak, Amos; Sivan, Orit; Yechieli, Yospeh; Oren, Yoram; Kasher, Roni

    2015-04-01

    In arid countries with access to marine water seawater desalination is becoming an important water source in order to deal with the water scarcity and population growth. Seawater reverse osmosis (RO) facilities use open seawater intake, which requires pretreatment processes to remove particles in order to avoid fouling of the RO membrane. In small and medium size desalination facilities, an alternative water source can be saline groundwater in coastal aquifers. Using saline groundwater from boreholes near the shore as feed water may have the advantage of natural filtration and low organic content. It will also reduce operation costs of pretreatment. Another advantage of using groundwater is its availability in highly populated areas, where planning of large RO desalination plants is difficult and expensive due to real-estate prices. Pumping saline groundwater underneath the freshwater-seawater interface (FSI) might shift the interface towards the sea, thus rehabilitating the fresh water reservoirs in the aquifer. In this research, we tested the potential use of saline groundwater in the coastal aquifer of Israel as feed water for desalination using field work and desalination experiments. Specifically, we sampled the groundwater from a pumping well 100 m from the shore of Tel-Aviv and sea water from the desalination plant in Ashqelon, Israel. We used an RO cross flow system in a pilot plant in order to compare between the two water types in terms of permeate flux, permeate flux decline, salt rejection of the membrane and the fouling on the membrane. The feed, brine and fresh desalinated water from the outlet of the desalination system were chemically analyzed and compared. Field measurements of dissolved oxygen, temperature, pH and salinity were also conducted in situ. Additionally, SDI (silt density index), which is an important index for desalination, and total organic carbon that has a key role in organic fouling and development of biofouling, were measured and

  17. Temperature, Salinity, Oxygen, Phosphate, pH and Alkalinity data collected in the North Atlantic Ocean, Baltic Sea, Barents Sea, Greenland Sea, North Sea, Norwegian Sea and White Sea from R/Vs Artemovsk, Atlantida, Okeanograf, Professor Rudovits, and ice observations, 1957 - 1995 (NODC Accession 0073674)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature, Salinity, Oxygen, Phosphate, pH and Alkalinity data collected in the North Atlantic Ocean, Baltic Sea, Barents Sea, Greenland Sea, North Sea, Norwegian...

  18. Transport of Astyanax altiparanae Garutti and Britski, 2000 in saline water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lúcia Salaro

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were performed. The first aimed to assess the tolerance of fingerlings Astyanax altiparanae to water salinity. Fish were exposed to salinity of 0, 3, 6, 9, 12 or 15 g NaCl L-1 for 96 hours. The fish mortality was 0%, in the levels of 0, 3 and 6 g L-1; 75% in the level of 9 g L-1and 100% at 12 and 15 g L-1 of common salt. The second experiment aimed to assess the parameters of water quality, mortality and blood glucose during transport. For this, A. altiparanae were stored in plastic bags at 22, 30 and 37 g of fish L-1 stocking densities and salinity of 0, 3, 6 and 9 g L-1, for. Fish showed similar mortality levels in the different salinities and stocking densities. The increase in fish density reduced the dissolved oxygen levels and salinity decreased the pH. The blood glucose levels were higher in those fish with 0 g L-1 salinity and higher stocking densities. The addition of salt to the water reduces the stress responses of A. altiparanae during transport.

  19. Europa's Compositional Evolution and Ocean Salinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vance, S.; Glein, C.; Bouquet, A.; Cammarano, F.; McKinnon, W. B.

    2017-12-01

    Europa's ocean depth and composition have likely evolved through time, in step with the temperature of its mantle, and in concert with the loss of water and hydrogen to space and accretion of water and other chemical species from comets, dust, and Io's volcanism. A key aspect to understanding the consequences of these processes is combining internal structure models with detailed calculations of ocean composition, which to date has not been done. This owes in part to the unavailability of suitable thermodynamic databases for aqueous chemistry above 0.5 GPa. Recent advances in high pressure aqueous chemistry and water-rock interactions allow us to compute the equilibrium ionic conditions and pH everywhere in Europa's interior. In this work, we develop radial structure and composition models for Europa that include self-consistent thermodynamics of all materials, developed using the PlanetProfile software. We will describe the potential hydration states and porosity of the rocky interior, and the partitioning of primordial sulfur between this layer, an underlying metallic core, and the ocean above. We will use these results to compute the ocean's salinity by extraction from the upper part of the rocky layer. In this context, we will also consider the fluxes of reductants from Europa's interior due to high-temperature hydrothermalism, serpentinization, and endogenic radiolysis.

  20. Geochemical characteristics of Tertiary saline lacustrine oils in the Western Qaidam Basin, northwest China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Yangming; Weng Huanxin; Su Aiguo; Liang Digang; Peng Dehua

    2005-01-01

    Based on the systematic analyses of light hydrocarbon, saturate, aromatic fractions and C isotopes of over 40 oil samples along with related Tertiary source rocks collected from the western Qaidam basin, the geochemical characteristics of the Tertiary saline lacustrine oils in this region was investigated. The oils are characterized by bimodal n-alkane distributions with odd-to-even (C 11 -C 17 ) and even-to-odd (C 18 -C 28 ) predominance, low Pr/Ph (mostly lower than 0.6), high concentration of gammacerane, C 35 hopane and methylated MTTCs, reflecting the high salinity and anoxic setting typical of a saline lacustrine depositional environment. Mango's K 1 values in the saline oils are highly variable (0.99-1.63), and could be associated with the facies-dependent parameters such as Pr/Ph and gammacerane indexes. Compared with other Tertiary oils, the studied Tertiary saline oils are marked by enhanced C 28 sterane abundance (30% or more of C 27 -C 29 homologues), possibly derived from halophilic algae. It is noted that the geochemical parameters of the oils in various oilfields exhibit regular spatial changes, which are consistent with the depositional phase variations of the source rocks. The oils have uncommon heavy C isotopic ratios (-24%o to -26%o) and a flat shape of the individual n-alkane isotope profile, and show isotopic characteristics similar to marine organic matter. The appearance of oleanane and high 24/(24 + 27)-norcholestane ratios (0.57-0.87) in the saline oils and source rocks confirm a Tertiary organic source

  1. Enhanced oil recovery by nitrogen and carbon dioxide injection followed by low salinity water flooding for tight carbonate reservoir: experimental approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georges Lwisa, Essa; Abdulkhalek, Ashrakat R.

    2018-03-01

    Enhanced Oil Recovery techniques are one of the top priorities of technology development in petroleum industries nowadays due to the increase in demand for oil and gas which cannot be equalized by the primary production or secondary production methods. The main function of EOR process is to displace oil to the production wells by the injection of different fluids to supplement the natural energy present in the reservoir. Moreover, these injecting fluids can also help in the alterations of the properties of the reservoir like lowering the IFTs, wettability alteration, a change in pH value, emulsion formation, clay migration and oil viscosity reduction. The objective of this experiment is to investigate the residual oil recovery by combining the effects of gas injection followed by low salinity water injection for low permeability reservoirs. This is done by a series of flooding tests on selected tight carbonate core samples taken from Zakuum oil field in Abu Dhabi by using firstly low salinity water as the base case and nitrogen & CO2injection followed by low salinity water flooding at reservoir conditions of pressure and temperature. The experimental results revealed that a significant improvement of the oil recovery is achieved by the nitrogen injection followed by the low salinity water flooding with a recovery factor of approximately 24% of the residual oil.

  2. Effect of pH and Pressure on Uranium Removal from Drinking Water Using NF/RO Membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte-Herbrüggen, Helfrid M A; Semião, Andrea J C; Chaurand, Perrine; Graham, Margaret C

    2016-06-07

    Groundwater is becoming an increasingly important drinking water source. However, the use of groundwater for potable purposes can lead to chronic human exposure to geogenic contaminants, for example, uranium. Nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO) processes are used for drinking water purification, and it is important to understand how contaminants interact with membranes since accumulation of contaminants to the membrane surface can lead to fouling, performance decline and possible breakthrough of contaminants. During the current study laboratory experiments were conducted using NF (TFC-SR2) and RO (BW30) membranes to establish the behavior of uranium across pH (3-10) and pressure (5-15 bar) ranges. The results showed that important determinants of uranium-membrane sorption interactions were (i) the uranium speciation (uranium species valence and size in relation to membrane surface charge and pore size) and (ii) concentration polarization, depending on the pH values. The results show that it is important to monitor sorption of uranium to membranes, which is controlled by pH and concentration polarization, and, if necessary, adjust those parameters controlling uranium sorption.

  3. The Effects of Biochar on Germination and Growth of Wheat in Different Saline-alkali Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guijun; WANG; Zhenwen; XU

    2013-01-01

    Saline alkali soil can cause physiological drought on crops,so only some salinity tolerant crops can grow in saline alkali soil.Biochar can increase the utilize efficiency of nutrient and the water retention of the soil,and affect the growth of the plant.In this research,four different proportion of biochar was added in five different levels of saline-alkali soil for pot culture experiment.The pH of the soil increases as the proportion of biochar increase in same saline-alkali level soil,while the EC decrease as the proportion of biochar increase.The germination rate of wheat seeds varies as the different of soil’s saline-alkali level.Notable among these results is the germination of wheat seeds in the serious saline-alkali soil without biochar added is 0,while in 45%biochar added in serious saline-alkali soil,the germination rate get to as high as 48.9%.Also,biochar improve the growth of wheat seedling,while for mild saline alkali soil and normal soil.Biochar had no obvious effect on the growth of wheat seedling.

  4. Salinity management in southern Italy irrigation areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Monteleone

    Full Text Available After a synthetic review of the most worrisome pressures applied over soils and waters, general criterions and normative principles that have to lead the technical intervention on soil and water protection are accounted, both with respect to farm activity and land planning. The salinity problem is faced, then, through the analysis of the nature and origin of saline soil and of the complex quantitative relationships able to interpret the accumulation and leaching of soil salts. Having specified the theoretical bases of salinity, the related technical features are then considered in order to define a proper management of soil and waters. Particular relevance is assigned to the irrigation and leaching techniques as well as, more briefly, to other agronomic interventions in order to guarantee the most effective salinity control. Another relevant technical facet of salinity control, although quite often neglected or retained of secondary importance in comparison to irrigation, is the drainage and disposal of leached water. The increased sensibility on the environmental impacts that the disposal of these waters can produce has raised today the level of attention on these procedures that are disciplined by norms of law and, therefore, require appropriate techniques of intervention. Finally, after the different scale orders involved in the management of salinity are defined (from the field and farm level up to the land and basin, the fundamental elements in order to work out a risk analysis and an action program are illustrated; some indications about the most up to date salinity monitoring and mapping methods are also provided, considering their great importance to continuously check the possible broadening of salinization and to carefully maintain its control.

  5. pH distribution in human tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thistlethwaite, A.J.; Leeper, D.B.; Moylan, D.J.; Nerlinger, R.E.

    1984-01-01

    pH distribution in human tumors is being determined to evaluate this parameter as a prognostic indicator of hyperthermia response. pH is measured by a modified glass pH electrode (21g, model MI 408, Microelectrodes, Inc., Londonderry, NH) inserted through an 18g open-ended Angiocath. Eight tumors have been evaluated to date; and of those, 3 were also assayed after the first heat treatment coincident with determination of blood flow. Tumors were between 2-5 cm, of various histologies, and of primary, recurrent, or metastatic origin. 2-4 measurements were made per tumor. Pretreatment readings were between 6.4 and 7.2 pH units. As tumor blood flow increased after 1 hr heating (41.5 - 43 0 ) pH rose 0.1 - 0.3 units. Normal rat muscle yields pH readings of 7.35 - 7.45. Although there was considerable heterogeneity of pH within tumors, accuracy and drift were not a problem. 5-15 min were required for pH stabilization after catheter insertion and <5 min after electrode insertion. A saline wheal was used for anesthesia to preclude modification of pH by anesthetics. Patient tolerance has not been a problems. This study suggests that human tumor tissue has a preponderance of areas more acidic than normal tissue. This may serve to sensitize tumor cells to hyperthermia and provide a prognostic indicator of tumor response

  6. Assessment of the effect of salinity on the early growth stage of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-03-18

    Mar 18, 2008 ... The results showed that plant growth decreased proportionally with increasing ... Therefore, agriculturalists can assess growth rate changes caused by salinity using remote .... pH of all solutions was adjusted to 6. De-ionized ...

  7. A New Desalination Pump Helps Define the pH of Ocean Worlds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levi, A.; Sasselov, D.

    2018-04-01

    We study ocean exoplanets, for which the global surface ocean is separated from the rocky interior by a high-pressure ice mantle. We describe a mechanism that can pump salts out of the ocean, resulting in oceans of very low salinity. Here we focus on the H2O–NaCl system, though we discuss the application of this pump to other salts as well. We find our ocean worlds to be acidic, with a pH in the range of 2–4. We discuss and compare between the conditions found within our studied oceans and the conditions in which polyextremophiles were discovered. This work focuses on exoplanets in the super-Earth mass range (∼2 M ⊕), with water composing at least a few percent of their mass. However, the principle of the desalination pump might extend beyond this mass range.

  8. Hypertonic Saline Suppresses NADPH Oxidase-Dependent Neutrophil Extracellular Trap Formation and Promotes Apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajantha Nadesalingam

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Tonicity of saline (NaCl is important in regulating cellular functions and homeostasis. Hypertonic saline is administered to treat many inflammatory diseases, including cystic fibrosis. Excess neutrophil extracellular trap (NET formation, or NETosis, is associated with many pathological conditions including chronic inflammation. Despite the known therapeutic benefits of hypertonic saline, its underlying mechanisms are not clearly understood. Therefore, we aimed to elucidate the effects of hypertonic saline in modulating NETosis. For this purpose, we purified human neutrophils and induced NETosis using agonists such as diacylglycerol mimetic phorbol myristate acetate (PMA, Gram-negative bacterial cell wall component lipopolysaccharide (LPS, calcium ionophores (A23187 and ionomycin from Streptomyces conglobatus, and bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. We then analyzed neutrophils and NETs using Sytox green assay, immunostaining of NET components and apoptosis markers, confocal microscopy, and pH sensing reagents. This study found that hypertonic NaCl suppresses nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase (NADPH2 or NOX2-dependent NETosis induced by agonists PMA, Escherichia coli LPS (0111:B4 and O128:B12, and P. aeruginosa. Hypertonic saline also suppresses LPS- and PMA- induced reactive oxygen species production. It was determined that supplementing H2O2 reverses the suppressive effect of hypertonic saline on NOX2-dependent NETosis. Many of the aforementioned suppressive effects were observed in the presence of equimolar concentrations of choline chloride and osmolytes (d-mannitol and d-sorbitol. This suggests that the mechanism by which hypertonic saline suppresses NOX2-dependent NETosis is via neutrophil dehydration. Hypertonic NaCl does not significantly alter the intracellular pH of neutrophils. We found that hypertonic NaCl induces apoptosis while suppressing NOX2-dependent NETosis. In contrast, hypertonic

  9. Association of Post-Saline Load Plasma Aldosterone Levels With Left Ventricular Hypertrophy in Primary Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catena, Cristiana; Verheyen, Nicolas D; Url-Michitsch, Marion; Kraigher-Krainer, Elisabeth; Colussi, GianLuca; Pilz, Stefan; Tomaschitz, Andreas; Pieske, Burkert; Sechi, Leonardo A

    2016-03-01

    Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity in hypertension. Current evidence suggests a contribution to LVH of plasma aldosterone levels that are inappropriately elevated for the salt status. The aim of this study was to investigate whether inappropriate modulation of aldosterone production by a saline load is associated with left ventricular (LV) mass in hypertensive patients. In 90 hypertensive patients free of clinically relevant cardiovascular complications in whom secondary forms of hypertension were ruled out, we performed a standard intravenous saline load (0.9% NaCl, 2 l in 4 hours) with measurement of plasma aldosterone and active renin at baseline and end of infusion. Bi-dimensional echocardiography was performed for the assessment of cardiac morphology and function. LVH was present in 19% of patients who had significantly worse renal function and higher body mass, blood pressure, and plasma aldosterone levels measured both at baseline and after the saline load than patients without LVH. LV mass was directly related to age, body mass, systolic blood pressure, duration of hypertension, baseline, and post-saline load plasma aldosterone levels and inversely to glomerular filtration. Multivariate regression analysis showed independent correlation of LV mass with body mass, systolic blood pressure, and plasma aldosterone levels measured after intravenous saline load, but not at baseline. In patients with hypertension, aldosterone levels measured after intravenous saline load are related to LV mass independent of age, body mass, and blood pressure, suggesting that limited ability of salt to modulate aldosterone production could contribute to LVH. © American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd 2015. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Investigation of pressure retarded osmosis power production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taousanidis Nikolaos

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A major source of energy exists where there is mixing between aqueous solutions of different salinities. This energy source is particularly concentrated where fresh water rivers flow on to the ocean. The power, represented by the osmotic pressure difference between fresh water and salt water, may be called salinity gradient power. In this study the pressure retarded osmosis method for the extraction of salinity gradients’ energy is investigated, main problems and difficulties are pointed out and finally the whole subject is justified with experimental results.

  11. The source of groundwater salinization in the Indus basin - an isotopic evidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sajjad, M.I.; Hussain, S.D.; Tasneem, M.A.; Ahmad, M.; Khan, I.H.; Akram, W.; Waheed, R.

    1991-09-01

    The isotopic and chemical studies were carried out in three regions of the Indus Basin to ascertain the source of salinity. Samples collected from the Faisalabad are in Rechna Doab, Chaj Doab and Mardan Valley, were analysed on mass spectrometer for D/H, 18O/16O and 34S/32S ratios. Electrical conductivities and pH measurements were made in situ while the analyses of various cations/anions were made in the laboratory. The isotopic results show that the salinity is mainly due to the dissolution of sediments salts by the infiltrating sweet water. The chemical data also support this conclusion. The rise in salinity is also partly due to the use of fertilizers and evaporation processes. (author)

  12. Experimental pain in human temporal muscle induced by hypertonic saline, potassium and acidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, K; Norup, M

    1992-01-01

    chloride (n = 12) induced significantly more pain than isotonic saline (ANOVA, p less than 0.0001). Compared to control injections, hypertonic saline and potassium chloride induced a significant reduction in pressure-pain threshold (ANOVA, p less than 0.0001 and p less than 0.05). Forty-eight percent...

  13. The Effects of High Salinity Groundwater on the Performance of Clay Barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savage, David

    2005-08-01

    Potential changes in groundwater chemistry during the operational or post-closure periods of the Swedish repository for spent fuel could affect the performance of both the bentonite buffer and repository backfill. For example, the up-coning of saline groundwater could lead to decreased swelling pressures in both the bentonite buffer and tunnel backfills, and could also induce 'piping'. SKB is considering these issues as part of its 'SR-Can' safety assessment. This report reviews evidence for the behaviour of swelling clays in groundwaters of varying salinity with special relevance to the SKB programme. Smectite clays can absorb water into clay inter-layers with the most important parameters being: the surface density of charge of the clay; the charge and solvation behaviour of the inter-layer ions; and the electrolyte concentration or activity of water. Two categories of swelling are generally observed: innercrystalline swelling caused by the hydration of the exchangeable cations in the dry clay; and osmotic swelling, resulting from concentration gradients in ion concentrations between clay surfaces and pore water. Several models exist to interpret and predict the swelling behaviour of clays. SKB currently prefer an interpretation of clay swelling pressure where clay particles are viewed as 'macro-ions' and the entire clay-water system can be considered as a 'polyelectrolyte'. SKB use the term 'Donnan exclusion' to estimate the amount of introduced ions into the clay and hence the amount of reduced swelling pressure due to contact with a saline solution. Donnan exclusion is the process whereby the migration of anions through the narrow aqueous film surrounding clay platelets is restricted due to the repulsion by the negative charge of the clay platelets. SKB's experimental work shows that: There is an exponential relation between swelling pressure and mean basal interlamellar spacing of the clay. Ions from the external electrolyte solution enter the clay volume

  14. The Effects of High Salinity Groundwater on the Performance of Clay Barriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savage, David [Quintessa Ltd., Nottingham (United Kingdom)

    2005-07-01

    Potential changes in groundwater chemistry during the operational or post-closure periods of the Swedish repository for spent fuel could affect the performance of both the bentonite buffer and repository backfill. For example, the up-coning of saline groundwater could lead to decreased swelling pressures in both the bentonite buffer and tunnel backfills, and could also induce 'piping'. SKB is considering these issues as part of its 'SR-Can' safety assessment. This report reviews evidence for the behaviour of swelling clays in groundwaters of varying salinity with special relevance to the SKB programme. Smectite clays can absorb water into clay inter-layers with the most important parameters being: the surface density of charge of the clay; the charge and solvation behaviour of the inter-layer ions; and the electrolyte concentration or activity of water. Two categories of swelling are generally observed: innercrystalline swelling caused by the hydration of the exchangeable cations in the dry clay; and osmotic swelling, resulting from concentration gradients in ion concentrations between clay surfaces and pore water. Several models exist to interpret and predict the swelling behaviour of clays. SKB currently prefer an interpretation of clay swelling pressure where clay particles are viewed as 'macro-ions' and the entire clay-water system can be considered as a 'polyelectrolyte'. SKB use the term 'Donnan exclusion' to estimate the amount of introduced ions into the clay and hence the amount of reduced swelling pressure due to contact with a saline solution. Donnan exclusion is the process whereby the migration of anions through the narrow aqueous film surrounding clay platelets is restricted due to the repulsion by the negative charge of the clay platelets. SKB's experimental work shows that: There is an exponential relation between swelling pressure and mean basal interlamellar spacing of the clay. Ions from the

  15. Cuticle hydrocarbons in saline aquatic beetles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Botella-Cruz

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Hydrocarbons are the principal component of insect cuticle and play an important role in maintaining water balance. Cuticular impermeability could be an adaptative response to salinity and desiccation in aquatic insects; however, cuticular hydrocarbons have been poorly explored in this group and there are no previous data on saline species. We characterized cuticular hydrocarbons of adults and larvae of two saline aquatic beetles, namely Nebrioporus baeticus (Dytiscidae and Enochrus jesusarribasi (Hydrophilidae, using a gas chromatograph coupled to a mass spectrometer. The CHC profile of adults of both species, characterized by a high abundance of branched alkanes and low of unsaturated alkenes, seems to be more similar to that of some terrestrial beetles (e.g., desert Tenebrionidae compared with other aquatic Coleoptera (freshwater Dytiscidae. Adults of E. jesusarribasi had longer chain compounds than N. baeticus, in agreement with their higher resistance to salinity and desiccation. The more permeable cuticle of larvae was characterized by a lower diversity in compounds, shorter carbon chain length and a higher proportion of unsaturated hydrocarbons compared with that of the adults. These results suggest that osmotic stress on aquatic insects could exert a selection pressure on CHC profile similar to aridity in terrestrial species.

  16. Snohomish Estuary nutrient enhanced coastal acidification pH time series and grab samples

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — High-resolution (15-minute frequency) monitoring of pH, dissolved oxygen, salinity, temperature, depth, and chlorophyll was conducted from July 15-October 1, 2015 in...

  17. A sensitive pressure sensor for diamond anvil cell experiments up to 2 GPa: FluoSpheres[reg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Picard, Aude; Oger, Phil M.; Daniel, Isabelle; Cardon, Herve; Montagnac, Gilles; Chervin, Jean-Claude

    2006-01-01

    We present an optical pressure sensor suitable for experiments in diamond anvil cell in the 0.1 MPa-2 GPa pressure range, for temperatures between ambient and 323 K. It is based on the pressure-dependent fluorescence spectrum of FluoSpheres[reg], which are commercially available fluorescent microspheres commonly used to measure blood flow in experimental biology. The fluorescence of microspheres is excited by the 514.5 nm line of an Ar + laser, and the resulting spectrum displays three very intense broad bands at 534, 558, and 598 nm, respectively. The reference wavelength and pressure gauge is that of the first inflection point of the spectrum, located at 525.6±0.2 nm at ambient pressure. It is characterized by an instantaneous and large linear pressure shift of 9.93(±0.08) nm/GPa. The fluorescence of the FluoSpheres[reg] has been investigated as a function of pressure (0.1-4 GPa), temperature (295-343 K), pH (3-12), salinity, and pressure transmitting medium. These measurements show that, for pressures comprised between 0.1 MPa and 2 GPa, at temperatures not exceeding 323 K, at any pH, in aqueous pressure transmitting media, pressure can be calculated from the wavelength shift of two to three beads, according to the relation P=0.100 (±0.001) Δλ i (P) with Δλ i (P)=λ i (P)-λ i (0) and λ i (P) as the wavelength of the first inflection point of the spectrum at the pressure P. This pressure sensor is approximately thirty times more sensitive than the ruby scale and responds instantaneously to pressure variations

  18. Methods of pH determination in Calcareous soils of Oman: The effect of Electrolyte and soil solution ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Busaidi, A.; Cookson, P.

    2002-01-01

    Determination of pH assists in understanding many reactions that occur in soil. Soil pH values are highly sensitive to the procedure used for determination. In this study, pH was measured in different electrolytes [distilled water (pHw), 0.01MCaCl2 (pHCa), 1MKCl (pHk), and 0.01MBaCl2 (pHba)] with different soil: electrolyte ratios (i.e. 1:1, 1:2.5 and 1:5). The objective was to determine the effect of each electrolyte and dilution ratio on pH of saline and non-saline soils from Oman. It was found that ph values varied significantly between electrolytes and with different dilution ratios. Linear regression equations were generated between electrolytes, dilution ratios and were mostly significant. Soil pH values determined in different electrolytes were significantly interrelated. Water appeared as a highly suitable solvent for soil pH measurements because it is simple and values familiar to soil users. However, alkaline errors and electrode instabilities due to liquid junction and soluble salt effects, affected soil pH measurements, especially in water, and resulted in alkaline errors during pH measurements. Errors were minimized when pH was measured in electrolytes rather than in water. (author)

  19. Sulfate reducing processes at extreme salinity and temperature. extending its application window

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vallero, M.V.G.

    2003-01-01

    The characteristics of various sulfate-rich wastewaters, such as temperature, pH and salinity, are determined by the (industrial) process from which they originate, and can be far from the physiological optima of the sulfur cycle microorganisms. The main goal of the research described in this thesis

  20. The motility and motion duration of jatimbulan tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) spermatozoa in different salinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triastuti, J.; Kintani, D.; Luqman, E. M.; Pujiastuti, D. Y.

    2018-04-01

    Tilapia hatchery is still conducted in freshwater and seeds are death simultaneousy when cultivated in high salinity due to the acclimatization process. An alternative method to implement hatchery at high salinity is required. This study aims to determine the salinity of activation medium that provides the best Jatimbulan Tilapia sperm motility and motion duration at high salinity. The study applies completely randomized design (CRD), which consists of 5 treatments (0 ppt, 4 ppt, 9 ppt, 14 ppt and 19 ppt) and 4 repetitions. The parameters consists of sperm motility, motion duration, fresh sperm data (volume, color, odor, pH, consistency, and the concentration of sperm) and sperm abnormalities. The results exhibited that salinity significantly (p < 0.05). Influeneed the sperm motility and motion duration. Motility reaches its best at 0 ppt and 4 ppt (93.4 % and 87.8 %). For motion duration, best condition was in 0 ppt and 4 ppt treatments, totaling 2128 seconds and 1961.5 seconds. Meanwhile, sperm did not move when treated in waters with 9 ppt, 14 ppt and 19 ppt salinities.

  1. FISH & CHIPS: Four Electrode Conductivity / Salinity Sensor on a Silicon Multi-sensor chip for Fisheries Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldgård, Anders; Olafsdottir, Iris; Olesen, M.

    2005-01-01

    The design and fabrication of a single chip silicon salinity, temperature, pressure and light multisensor is presented. The behavior 2- and 4-electrode conductivity microsensors are described and methods for precise determination of water conductivity are given......The design and fabrication of a single chip silicon salinity, temperature, pressure and light multisensor is presented. The behavior 2- and 4-electrode conductivity microsensors are described and methods for precise determination of water conductivity are given...

  2. Scintigraphy, pH measurement and radiography in the evaluation of gastroesophageal reflux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaul, B.; Petersen, H.; Grette, K.; Erichsen, H.; Myrvold, H.E.

    1985-01-01

    Scintigraphy as a diagnostic tool has been explored in 69 patients with gastroesophageal reflux (GER) symptoms and endoscopic esophagitis. In all subjects the presence of reflux was also evaluated by radiography and intraesophageal pH measurements (standard acid reflux test). The overall sensitivity of scintigraphy (85.5%) was significantly higher than those of radiography (27.5%) and pH measurements (69.5%). Scintigraphy was performed with normal saline and with acidified orange juice as the transport medium for the isotope 99mTc. The yield of positive scintigrams was higher (22.3 to 61.1%, depending on the grade of endoscopic esophagitis) with the latter variant. Moreover, demonstration of spontaneous reflux was greatly facilitated by the acid scintigraphy. This was particularly obvious in the grade I esophagitis, in which the freqency of spontaneous reflux with saline method was 3.4% and with acid medium 34/3%. Reflux (induced or spontaneous) was seen in 22 normal control subjects with the saline method, and in 1 subject only with the acid method. On the basis of these findings it is concluded that scintigraphy, especially the acid variant of the technique, is a valuable diagnostic procedure in GER disease

  3. Scintigraphy, pH measurement and radiography in the evaluation of gastroesophageal reflux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaul, B.; Petersen, H.; Grette, K.; Erichsen, H.; Myrvold, H.E.

    1985-01-01

    Scintigraphy as a diagnostic tool has been explored in 69 patients with gastroesophageal reflux (GER) symptoms and endoscopic esophagitis. In all subjects the presence of reflux was also evaluated by radiography and intraesophageal pH measurements (standard acid reflux test). The overall sensitivity of scintigraphy (85.5%) was significantly higher than those of radiography (27.5%) and pH measurements (69.5%). Scintigraphy was performed with normal saline and with acidified orange juice as the transport medium for the isotope 99mTc. The yield of positive scintigrams was higher (22.3 to 61.1%, depending on the grade of endoscopic esophagitis) with the latter variant. Moreover, demonstration of spontaneous reflux was greatly facilitated by the acid scintigraphy. This was particularly obvious in the grade I esophagitis, in which the freqency of spontaneous reflux with saline method was 3.4% and with acid medium 34/3%. Reflux (induced or spontaneous) was seen in 22 normal control subjects with the saline method, and in 1 subject only with the acid method. On the basis of these findings it is concluded that scintigraphy, especially the acid variant of the technique, is a valuable diagnostic procedure in GER disease.

  4. Thin-Film Composite Pressure Retarded Osmosis Membranes for Sustainable Power Generation from Salinity Gradients

    KAUST Repository

    Yip, Ngai Yin

    2011-05-15

    Pressure retarded osmosis has the potential to produce renewable energy from natural salinity gradients. This work presents the fabrication of thin-film composite membranes customized for high performance in pressure retarded osmosis. We also present the development of a theoretical model to predict the water flux in pressure retarded osmosis, from which we can predict the power density that can be achieved by a membrane. The model is the first to incorporate external concentration polarization, a performance limiting phenomenon that becomes significant for high-performance membranes. The fabricated membranes consist of a selective polyamide layer formed by interfacial polymerization on top of a polysulfone support layer made by phase separation. The highly porous support layer (structural parameter S = 349 μm), which minimizes internal concentration polarization, allows the transport properties of the active layer to be customized to enhance PRO performance. It is shown that a hand-cast membrane that balances permeability and selectivity (A = 5.81 L m-2 h-1 bar-1, B = 0.88 L m-2 h-1) is projected to achieve the highest potential peak power density of 10.0 W/m2 for a river water feed solution and seawater draw solution. The outstanding performance of this membrane is attributed to the high water permeability of the active layer, coupled with a moderate salt permeability and the ability of the support layer to suppress the undesirable accumulation of leaked salt in the porous support. Membranes with greater selectivity (i.e., lower salt permeability, B = 0.16 L m-2 h-1) suffered from a lower water permeability (A = 1.74 L m-2 h-1 bar-1) and would yield a lower peak power density of 6.1 W/m2, while membranes with a higher permeability and lower selectivity (A = 7.55 L m-2 h-1 bar-1, B = 5.45 L m-2 h-1) performed poorly due to severe reverse salt permeation, resulting in a similar projected peak power density of 6.1 W/m2. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  5. Characterization of soil salinization in typical estuarine area of the Jiaozhou Bay, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qifei; Xi, Min; Wang, Qinggai; Kong, Fanlong; Li, Yue

    2018-02-01

    In this study, the characteristics of soil salinization and the effects of main land use/land cover and other factors in typical estuarine area of the Jiaozhou Bay are investigated. Soil samples were collected in the parallel coastal zone, vertical coastal zone and longitudinal profile depth in the area to determine the soil salt content. The correlation analysis and principal component analysis are used to address the general characteristics of soil salinization in the study area. In the horizontal direction, there are moderate salinization, severe salinization and saline soil state. The farther from the sea (within 1.1 km), the lower the soil salinization degree. In the direction of longitudinal profile depth, there are severe salinization and saline soil state, and the soil salt content is accumulated in the surface and bottom. The Na+ and Cl- are the dominant cation and anion, respectively, the distributions of which are consistent with that of salt content. All the salinization indexes, except for soil pH, are of moderate/strong variability. The invasion of Spartina alterniflora results in the increase of soil salt content and salinization degree, the effects of which are mainly determined by the physiological characteristics and the growth years. The degree of soil salinization increased significantly in the aquaculture ponds, which is mainly caused by the use of chemicals. The correlation between soil salt content and Na+, Cl- is particularly significant. From the results of principal component analysis, Na+, Cl-, Ca2+, Mg2+ and SO42- could be used as main diagnostic factors for salinization in typical estuarine area of the Jiaozhou Bay. The effects of NaCl and sulfate on salt content further affect the degree of salinization in the estuarine area.

  6. Blood pressure reduction induced by low dose of epinephrine via different routes in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jing; Ji, Mu-Huo; Wang, Zhong-Yun; Zhu, Wei; Yang, Jian-Jun; Peng, Yong G

    2013-09-01

    Epinephrine was recently shown to induce a hypotension episode. Activation of β₂-adrenoceptors with smooth muscle relaxation may be the underlying mechanism. This study investigated the effects of ICI 118551, a β₂-adrenoceptors antagonist, on epinephrine-induced blood pressure reduction via different administration routes in rats. A total of 144 Sprague Dawley rats were equally randomized into 3 groups (intranasal, intravenous, and intra-arterial administration), each with 4 subgroups: saline + saline, ICI 118551 + saline, saline + epinephrine, and ICI 118551 + epinephrine. All rats were anesthetized while spontaneously breathing. Epinephrine was administered at doses of 5 μg/kg via nose, 0.25 μg/kg via femoral vein, and 0.1 μg/kg via aorta. Mean arterial pressure and heart rate were monitored. Mean arterial pressure decreased in all 3 saline + epinephrine subgroups after administration (P blood pressure reduction can be prevented by ICI 118551 in rats, suggesting that the activation of β₂-adrenoceptors contributes to blood pressure reduction.

  7. Model Prediction of Secondary Soil Salinization in the Keriya Oasis, Northwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jumeniyaz Seydehmet

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Significant anthropogenic and biophysical changes have caused fluctuations in the soil salinization area of the Keriya Oasis in China. The Driver-Pressure-State-Impact-Response (DPSIR sustainability framework and Bayesian networks (BNs were used to integrate information from anthropogenic and natural systems to model the trend of secondary soil salinization. The developed model predicted that light salinization (vegetation coverage of around 15–20%, soil salt 5–10 g/kg of the ecotone will increase in the near term but decelerate slightly in the future, and that farmland salinization will decrease in the near term. This trend is expected to accelerate in the future. Both trends are attributed to decreased water logging, increased groundwater exploitation, and decreased ratio of evaporation/precipitation. In contrast, severe salinization (vegetation coverage of around 2%, soil salt ≥20 g/kg of the ecotone will increase in the near term. This trend will accelerate in the future because decreased river flow will reduce the flushing of severely salinized soil crust. Anthropogenic factors have negative impacts and natural causes have positive impacts on light salinization of ecotones. In situations involving severe farmland salinization, anthropogenic factors have persistent negative impacts.

  8. Influence of temperature and salinity on hydrodynamic forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Escobar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to introduce an innovative approach to offshore engineering so as to take variations in sea temperature and salinity into account in the calculation of hydrodynamic forces. With this in mind, a thorough critical analysis of the influence of sea temperature and salinity on hydrodynamic forces on piles like those used nowadays in offshore wind farms will be carried out. This influence on hydrodynamic forces occurs through a change in water density and viscosity due to temperature and salinity variation. Therefore, the aim here is to observe whether models currently used to estimate wave forces on piles are valid for different ranges of sea temperature and salinity apart from observing the limit when diffraction or nonlinear effects arise combining both effects with the magnitude of the pile diameter. Hence, specific software has been developed to simulate equations in fluid mechanics taking into account nonlinear and diffraction effects. This software enables wave produced forces on a cylinder supported on the sea bed to be calculated. The study includes observations on the calculation model's sensitivity as to a variation in the cylinder's diameter, on the one hand and, on the other, as to temperature and salinity variation. This software will enable an iterative calculation to be made for finding out the shape the pressure wave caused when a wave passes over will have for different pile diameters and water with different temperature and salinity.

  9. Literature Review and Database of Relations Between Salinity and Aquatic Biota: Applications to Bowdoin National Wildlife Refuge, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleason, Robert A.; Tangen, Brian A.; Laubhan, Murray K.; Finocchiaro, Raymond G.; Stamm, John F.

    2009-01-01

    Long-term accumulation of salts in wetlands at Bowdoin National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), Mont., has raised concern among wetland managers that increasing salinity may threaten plant and invertebrate communities that provide important habitat and food resources for migratory waterfowl. Currently, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) is evaluating various water management strategies to help maintain suitable ranges of salinity to sustain plant and invertebrate resources of importance to wildlife. To support this evaluation, the USFWS requested that the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) provide information on salinity ranges of water and soil for common plants and invertebrates on Bowdoin NWR lands. To address this need, we conducted a search of the literature on occurrences of plants and invertebrates in relation to salinity and pH of the water and soil. The compiled literature was used to (1) provide a general overview of salinity concepts, (2) document published tolerances and adaptations of biota to salinity, (3) develop databases that the USFWS can use to summarize the range of reported salinity values associated with plant and invertebrate taxa, and (4) perform database summaries that describe reported salinity ranges associated with plants and invertebrates at Bowdoin NWR. The purpose of this report is to synthesize information to facilitate a better understanding of the ecological relations between salinity and flora and fauna when developing wetland management strategies. A primary focus of this report is to provide information to help evaluate and address salinity issues at Bowdoin NWR; however, the accompanying databases, as well as concepts and information discussed, are applicable to other areas or refuges. The accompanying databases include salinity values reported for 411 plant taxa and 330 invertebrate taxa. The databases are available in Microsoft Excel version 2007 (http://pubs.usgs.gov/sir/2009/5098/downloads/databases_21april2009.xls) and contain

  10. How Does Salinity Shape Bacterial and Fungal Microbiomes of Alnus glutinosa Roots?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiem, Dominika; Gołębiewski, Marcin; Hulisz, Piotr; Piernik, Agnieszka; Hrynkiewicz, Katarzyna

    2018-01-01

    Black alder (Alnus glutinosa Gaertn.) belongs to dual mycorrhizal trees, forming ectomycorrhizal (EM) and arbuscular (AM) root structures, as well as represents actinorrhizal plants that associate with nitrogen-fixing actinomycete Frankia sp. We hypothesized that the unique ternary structure of symbionts can influence community structure of other plant-associated microorganisms (bacterial and fungal endophytes), particularly under seasonally changing salinity in A. glutinosa roots. In our study we analyzed black alder root bacterial and fungal microbiome present at two forest test sites (saline and non-saline) in two different seasons (spring and fall). The dominant type of root microsymbionts of alder were ectomycorrhizal fungi, whose distribution depended on site (salinity): Tomentella, Lactarius, and Phialocephala were more abundant at the saline site. Mortierella and Naucoria (representatives of saprotrophs or endophytes) displayed the opposite tendency. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi belonged to Glomeromycota (orders Paraglomales and Glomales), however, they represented less than 1% of all identified fungi. Bacterial community structure depended on test site but not on season. Sequences affiliated with Rhodanobacter, Granulicella, and Sphingomonas dominated at the saline site, while Bradyrhizobium and Rhizobium were more abundant at the non-saline site. Moreover, genus Frankia was observed only at the saline site. In conclusion, bacterial and fungal community structure of alder root microsymbionts and endophytes depends on five soil chemical parameters: salinity, phosphorus, pH, saturation percentage (SP) as well as total organic carbon (TOC), and seasonality does not appear to be an important factor shaping microbial communities. Ectomycorrhizal fungi are the most abundant symbionts of mature alders growing in saline soils. However, specific distribution of nitrogen-fixing Frankia (forming root nodules) and association of arbuscular fungi at early stages of

  11. Soil salinization in the agricultural lands of Rhodope District, northeastern Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisinaras, V; Tsihrintzis, V A; Petalas, C; Ouzounis, K

    2010-07-01

    The objective of this study was to identify seasonal and spatial trends and soil salinization patterns in a part of Rhodope District irrigated land, northeastern Greece, located east of Vistonis Lagoon. The study area is irrigated from a coastal aquifer, where salt water intrusion occurs because of extensive groundwater withdrawals. Fourteen monitoring sites were established in harvest fields in the study area, where soil samples were collected. Electrical conductivity (ECe), pH, and ion concentrations were determined in the saturated paste extract of the soil samples in the laboratory using standard methods. A clear tendency was observed for ECe to increase from April to September, i.e., within the irrigation period, indicating the effect of saline groundwater to soil. In the last years, the change from moderately sensitive (e.g., corn) to moderately tolerant crops (e.g., cotton) in the south part of the study area indicates the impacts of soil salinity. The study proposes management methods to alleviate this problem.

  12. Effect of salinity induced pH/alkalinity changes on benthic foraminifera: A laboratory culture experiment

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Saraswat, R.; Kouthanker, M.; Kurtarkar, S.R.; Nigam, R.; Naqvi, S.W.A.; Linshy, V.N.

    of adverse effect of such seasonal salinity changes on calcite secreting organisms is, however not clear. The seasonal fresh water influx from the estuaries also affects the pH and alkalinity of the coastal seawater. Therefore, to understand the effect...

  13. Effect of temperature and salinity on germination of Achillea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Achillea fragrantissima and Moringa peregrina are dominant plants in the mountainous desert of Saudi Arabia. The two species suffer from intensive anthropogenic pressures as they have important medicinal uses. This paper aimed to evaluate the effect of temperature and salinity on germination of A. fragrantissima and M.

  14. Influence of natural organic matter fouling and osmotic backwash on pressure retarded osmosis energy production from natural salinity gradients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, Ngai Yin; Elimelech, Menachem

    2013-01-01

    Pressure retarded osmosis (PRO) has the potential to produce clean, renewable energy from natural salinity gradients. However, membrane fouling can lead to diminished water flux productivity, thus reducing the extractable energy. This study investigates organic fouling and osmotic backwash cleaning in PRO and the resulting impact on projected power generation. Fabricated thin-film composite membranes were fouled with model river water containing natural organic matter. The water permeation carried foulants from the feed river water into the membrane porous support layer and caused severe water flux decline of ∼46%. Analysis of the water flux behavior revealed three phases in membrane support layer fouling. Initial foulants of the first fouling phase quickly adsorbed at the active-support layer interface and caused a significantly greater increase in hydraulic resistance than the subsequent second and third phase foulants. The water permeability of the fouled membranes was lowered by ∼39%, causing ∼26% decrease in projected power density. A brief, chemical-free osmotic backwash was demonstrated to be effective in removing foulants from the porous support layer, achieving ∼44% recovery in projected power density. The substantial performance recovery after cleaning was attributed to the partial restoration of the membrane water permeability. This study shows that membrane fouling detrimentally impacts energy production, and highlights the potential strategies to mitigate fouling in PRO power generation with natural salinity gradients.

  15. High salinity facilitates dolomite precipitation mediated by Haloferax volcanii DS52

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Xuan; Wang, Hongmei; Yao, Yanchen; Duan, Yong

    2017-08-01

    Although most modern dolomites occur in hypersaline environments, the effects of elevated salinity on the microbial mediation of dolomite precipitation have not been fully evaluated. Here we report results of dolomite precipitation in association with a batch culture of Haloferax volcanii DS52, a halophilic archaeon, under various salinities (from 120‰ to 360‰) and the impact of salinity on microbe-mediated dolomite formation. The mineral phases, morphology and atomic arrangement of the precipitates were analyzed by XRD, SEM and TEM, respectively. The amount of amino acids on the archaeal cell surface was quantified by HPLC/MS. The XRD analysis indicated that disordered dolomite formed successfully with the facilitation of cells harvested from cultures with relatively high salinities (200‰ and 280‰) but was not observed in association with cells harvested from cultures with lower salinity (120‰) or the lysates of cells harvested from extremely high salinity (360‰). The TEM analysis demonstrated that the crystals from cultures with a salinity of 200‰ closely matched that of dolomite. Importantly, we found that more carboxyl groups were presented on the cell surface under high salinity conditions to resist the high osmotic pressure, which may result in the subsequent promotion of dolomite formation. Our finding suggests a link between variations in the hydro-chemical conditions and the formation of dolomite via microbial metabolic activity and enhances our understanding about the mechanism of microbially mediated dolomite formation under high salinity conditions.

  16. Advances in measuring ocean salinity with an optical sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menn, M Le; De Bougrenet de la Tocnaye, J L; Grosso, P; Delauney, L; Podeur, C; Brault, P; Guillerme, O

    2011-01-01

    Absolute salinity measurement of seawater has become a key issue in thermodynamic models of the oceans. One of the most direct ways is to measure the seawater refractive index which is related to density and can therefore be related to the absolute salinity. Recent advances in high resolution position sensitive devices enable us to take advantage of small beam deviation measurements using refractometers. This paper assesses the advantages of such technology with respect to the current state-of-the-art technology. In particular, we present the resolution dependence on refractive index variations and derive the limits of such a solution for designing seawater sensors well suited for coastal and deep-sea applications. Particular attention has been paid to investigate the impact of environmental parameters, such as temperature and pressure, on an optical sensor, and ways to mitigate or compensate them have been suggested here. The sensor has been successfully tested in a pressure tank and in open oceans 2000 m deep

  17. Salinity/temperature ranges for application of seawater SA-T-P models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marion, G. M.; Millero, F. J.; Feistel, R.

    2009-01-01

    At the present time, little is known about how broad salinity and temperature ranges are for seawater thermodynamic models that are functions of absolute salinity (SA), temperature (T) and pressure (P). Such models rely on fixed compositional ratios of the major components (e.g. Na/Cl, Mg/Cl, Ca/Cl, SO4/Cl, etc.). As seawater evaporates or freezes, solid phases (e.g. CaCO3(s) or CaSO42H2O(s)) will eventually precipitate. This will change the compositional ratios, and these salinity models will no longer be applicable. A future complicating factor is the lowering of seawater pH as the atmospheric concentrations of CO2 increase. A geochemical model (FREZCHEM) was used to quantify the SA-T boundaries at P=0.1 MPa and the range of these boundaries for future atmospheric CO2 increases. An omega supersaturation model for CaCO3 minerals based on homogeneous nucleation was extended from 25-40°C to 3°C. CaCO3 minerals were the boundary defining minerals (first to precipitate) between 3°C (at SA=104 g kg-1 and 40°C (at SA=66 g kg-1. At 2.82°C, calcite(CaCO3) transitioned to ikaite(CaCO36H2O) as the dominant boundary defining mineral for colder temperatures, which culminated in a low temperature boundary of -4.93°C. Increasing atmospheric CO2 from 385 μatm (in Year 2008) to 550 μatm (in Year 2100) would increase the SA and t boundaries as much as 11 g kg-1 and 0.66°C, respectively. The model-calculated calcite-ikaite transition temperature of 2.82°C is in excellent agreement with ikaite formation in natural environments that occurs at temperatures of 3°C or lower. Furthermore, these results provide a quantitative theoretical explanation (FREZCHEM model calculations) for why ikaite is the solid phase CaCO3 mineral that precipitates during seawater freezing.

  18. A prospective, randomized clinical trial to assess the cost-effectiveness of a modern foam dressing versus a traditional saline gauze dressing in the treatment of stage II pressure ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Wyatt G; Posnett, John; Alvarez, Oscar; Brown-Etris, Marie; Jameson, Gayle; Wolcott, Randall; Dharma, Hussein; Hartwell, Samantha; Ochs, Diane

    2009-02-01

    Modern dressings such as hydrocolloids, gels, and foams are typically more expensive than traditional dressings such as gauze. However, if modern dressings require fewer changes, the overall cost of treatment may be lower despite the higher initial purchase price. If healing rates are comparable or better, modern dressings also may be cost-effective. A 4-week, prospective, randomized clinical trial to assess differences in treatment costs and cost-effectiveness between a modern foam dressing and saline-soaked gauze was conducted among 36 patients (22 men, 14 women, mean age 72.8 years) with a Stage II pressure ulcer (mean duration 35 weeks) at five centers in the United States. Participants were randomized to treatment with a self-adhesive polyurethane foam (n = 20) or saline-soaked gauze dressing (n = 16). No difference in time to wound closure was observed (P = 0.817). Patients in the foam group had less frequent dressing changes (P cost over the study period was lower by $466 per patient (P = 0.055) and spending on dressings was lower by $92 per patient in the foam group (P = 0.025). Cost per ulcer healed was lower by $1,517 and cost per ulcer-free day was lower by $80 for patients in the foam group. On the evidence of this study, the foam dressing is a more cost-effective treatment than saline-soaked gauze for the treatment of Stage II pressure ulcers.

  19. Interrelationships of Land Use/Cover Change and Topography with Soil Acidity and Salinity as Indicators of Land Degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramita Manandhar

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available As soil is the basis of all terrestrial ecosystems, degraded soil means lower fertility, reduced biodiversity and reduced human welfare. Therefore the focus of this paper is on elucidating the influence of land use and land cover (LULC change on two important soil quality indicators that are fundamental to effective measures for ameliorating soil degradation; namely soil acidity and soil salinity in the Lower Hunter Valley of New South Wales, Australia. First, Analysis of Variance was used to elucidate the effects of LULC categories on soil acidity and salinity. The results indicate that soils under Vineyard have significantly higher pH. In contrast there is no significant effect of LULC or its change on soil salinity. To further elucidate the complex interactions of these soil quality indicators with landscape attributes over 20 years and other terrain attributes, multivariate ordination techniques (correspondence analysis and canonical correspondence analysis were used. The results show that elevation exerted a more dominant influence on pH than the LULC types and their dynamics. In comparison, salinity of the soil appears to be higher in subsoil layers under woodland than under other LULC categories. The environmental implications of these interactions, as evidenced by this study, provide some insights for future land use planning in the region.

  20. Empirical Algorithms to Predict pH and Aragonite Saturation State on SOCCOM Biogeochemical Argo Floats in the Pacific Sector of the Southern Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, N. L.; Juranek, L. W.; Feely, R. A.; Johnson, K. S.; Russell, J. L.

    2016-02-01

    The Southern Ocean plays a major role in the global uptake, transport, and storage of both heat and carbon, yet it remains one of the least-sampled regions of the ocean. The Southern Ocean Carbon and Climate Observations and Modeling (SOCCOM) project aims to fill the observational gaps by deploying over 200 autonomous profiling floats in the Southern Ocean over the next several years. Initial float deployments have greatly expanded our observational capability to include wintertime measurements as well as under-ice measurements, and many of these floats include novel biogeochemical sensors (pH, nitrate, oxygen). Here we present empirical algorithms that can be used to predict pH and ΩAragonite from other float-measured parameters (temperature, salinity, pressure, nitrate, oxygen). These algorithms were trained using bottle measurements from high-quality repeat hydrographic GO-SHIP cruises. We obtained R2 values of 0.98 (pH) and 0.99 (ΩAragonite) and RMS errors of 0.007 (pH) and 0.052 (ΩAragonite) for data between 100-1500 m. These algorithms will allow us to both validate pH data from these sensors, as well as predict ΩAragonite and pH on floats that do not have pH sensors. Here we present estimated pH and ΩAragonite over 20 months of deployment for several SOCCOM floats in the Pacific Sector of the Southern Ocean. The results show seasonal ranges in surface pH and ΩAragonite of 0.05 and 0.1, respectively.

  1. Influence of salinity and water regime on tomato for processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vito Cantore

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The effects of salinity and watering regime on tomato crop are reported. The trials have been carried out over two years in Southern Italy on a deep loam soil. Three saline levels of irrigation water (with electrical conductivity of 0.5, 5 and 10 dS m-1, three watering regimes (at 20, 40 and 60% of available water depletion, and two cultivars (HLY19 and Perfectpeel were compared. The overall results related to the salinity tolerance are in agreement with those from the literature indicating that water salinity reduced marketable yield by 55% in respect to the control treatments. The irrigation regimes that provided higher total and marketable yield were at 40 and 60% of available water depletion (on average, 90.5 and 58.1 Mg ha-1 against 85.3 and 55.5 Mg ha-1 of the 20% available water depletion. Saline and irrigation treatments did not affect sunburned fruits, while affected incidence of fruits with blossom-end rot. The former disease appeared more dramatically in saline treatments (+28% in respect to the control, and occurred mainly in HLY19. The disease incidence was by 52% lower in W2 respect to the W1 and W3. Fruit firmness was higher in S0, whereas it was not affected by irrigation regimes. Total soluble solids and dry matter content of tomato fruits were increased by salinity, whereas it was not affected by irrigation regimes and cultivars. The pH and the titratable acidity remained unchanged between the years, the cultivar and the saline and irrigation treatments. Similarly to the last parameters, the fruit ascorbic acid content remained unchanged in relation to the treatments, but it was higher in HLY19. The recommended thresholds of easily available water to preserve total and marketable yield were at 40 and 60%, respectively. Watering more frequently, instead, on the soil type of the trial, probably caused water-logging and root hypoxia affecting negatively yield.

  2. The effect of feed salinity on the biofouling dynamics of seawater desalination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hui-Ling; Pan, Jill R; Huang, Chihpin; Lin, Justin Chun-Te

    2011-05-01

    A persistent cell labeling dye and a novel microbial counting method were used to explore the effects of salinity on a microbial population in a reverse osmosis (RO) desalination system, and these clearly distinguished microbial cell multiplication from cell adherence. The results indicated that microbial multiplication is more active at the front of a seawater RO pressure vessel, while adhesion dominates the back of the vessel. A severe reduction in RO permeate flux and total dissolved solid (TDS) rejection were detected at low salinity, attributed to marked cell multiplication and release of extracellular polymeric substances, whilst a relatively stable flux was observed at medium and high salinity. The results from PCR-DGGE revealed the variation in microbial species distribution on the membrane with salinity. The results imply the critical role of membrane modification in biofouling mitigation in the desalination process.

  3. Evidence of preorganization in quinonoid intermediate formation from L-Trp in H463F mutant Escherichia coli tryptophan indole-lyase from effects of pressure and pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Robert S; Kalu, Ukoha; Hay, Sam

    2012-08-21

    The effects of pH and hydrostatic pressure on the reaction of H463F tryptophan indole-lyase (TIL) have been evaluated. The mutant TIL shows very low activity for elimination of indole but is still competent to form a quinonoid intermediate from l-tryptophan [Phillips, R. S., Johnson, N., and Kamath, A. V. (2002) Biochemistry 41, 4012-4019]. Stopped-flow measurements show that the formation of the quinonoid intermediate at 505 nm is affected by pH, with a bell-shaped dependence for the forward rate constant, k(f), and dependence on a single basic group for the reverse rate constant, k(r), with the following values: pK(a1) = 8.14 ± 0.15, pK(a2) = 7.54 ± 0.15, k(f,min) = 18.1 ± 1.3 s(-1), k(f,max) = 179 ± 46.3 s(-1), k(r,min) = 11.4 ± 1.2 s(-1), and k(r,max) = 33 ± 1.6 s(-1). The pH effects may be due to ionization of Tyr74 as the base and Cys298 as the acid influencing the rate constant for deprotonation. High-pressure stopped-flow measurements were performed at pH 8, which is the optimum for the forward reaction. The rate constants show an increase with pressure up to 100 MPa and a subsequent decrease above 100 MPa. Fitting the pressure data gives the following values: k(f,0) = 15.4 ± 0.8 s(-1), ΔV(‡) = -29.4 ± 2.9 cm(3) mol(-1), and Δβ(‡) = -0.23 ± 0.03 cm(3) mol(-1) MPa(-1) for the forward reaction, and k(r,0) = 20.7 ± 0.8 s(-1), ΔV(‡) = -9.6 ± 2.3 cm(3) mol(-1), and Δβ(‡) = -0.05 ± 0.02 cm(3) mol(-1) MPa(-1) for the reverse reaction. The primary kinetic isotope effect on quinonoid intermediate formation at pH 8 is small (~2) and is not significantly pressure-dependent, suggesting that the effect of pressure on k(f) may be due to perturbation of an active site preorganization step. The negative activation volume is also consistent with preorganization of the ES complex prior to quinonoid intermediate formation, and the negative compressibility may be due to the effect of pressure on the enzyme conformation. These results support the

  4. Phagolysosomal pH and dissolution of cobalt oxide particles by alveolar macrophages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundborg, M.; Johansson, A.; Camner, P.; Falk, R.; Kreyling, W.

    1992-01-01

    We studied phagolysosomal pH in rabbit macrophages (AM) incubated with 0.-15 μM chloroquine. There was a dose-related increase in pH with chloroquine concentration. Electron microscopy showed that chloroquine increased lysosomal size. In a second experiment we studied dissolution of radiolabeled cobalt oxide particles by rabbit AM, phagolysosomal pH, and lysosomal size. The cells were incubated for 2 days with 0, 2, 5, and 10 μM chloroquine. Size and pH increased with chloroquine concentration. Dissolution of cobalt particles by the AM did not clearly change with pH. In a third experiment, dissolution in acetate buffer was faster than in the AM, and the dissolution appeared to decrease faster with increasing pH than in the AM. A simple model for dissolution of a particle in a phagolysosome was proposed. This model predicts the types of difference in dissolution between AM and buffered saline. 19 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs

  5. In vitro induction, isolation, and selection of potato mutants tolerant to salinity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Safadi, B.; Arabi, M. I. E.

    2008-01-01

    A mutation breeding program was conducted to improve potato (Solanum tuberosum) tolerance to salinity. In vitro cultured explants from potato cvs. Draga, Diamant, and Spunta were irradiated with gamma ray doses of 25, 30, and 35 Gy. Growing plantlets were subsequently propagated to obtain enough explants for in vitro selection of plants tolerant to salinity. Around 1300 MV 4 plantlets from the three cultivars were subjected to selection pressure. MV 4 explants were cultured on an MS medium supplemented with NaCl in varying concentrations ranging from 50 to 200 mM. Surviving plantlets were propagated and re-cultured on a similar medium to insure their tolerance to salinity. Salt tolerant plantlets were acclimatized and transferred to pots and grown under greenhouse conditions. Mutant and control plants were later subjected to a second selection pressure by irrigating them with water containing NaCl in concentrations ranging from 50 to 250 mM. Cultivar Spunta produced the highest number of tolerant plants. Four plants of Spunta appeared to be tolerant to salinity whereas only one plant from Diamant was tolerant and no plants from cultivar Draga were tolerant. The average number of produced minitubers per plant varied in the mutant plants from eight to 14. Also, weight of these minitubers varied from less than 1 to 31 grams. (author)

  6. Do laboratory salinity tolerances of freshwater animals correspond with their field salinity?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kefford, Ben J.; Papas, Phil J.; Metzeling, Leon; Nugegoda, Dayanthi

    2004-06-01

    The degree to which laboratory derived measures of salinity tolerance reflect the field distributions of freshwater biota is uncertain. In this paper we compare laboratory-derived acute salinity tolerance (LC{sub 50} values) of freshwater macroinvertebrates (range 5.5-76 mS/cm) and fish (range 2.7-82 mS/cm) from southeastern Australia with the salinity from which they have been collected in the field. Only 4% of the macroinvertebrates were collected at salinity levels substantially higher than their 72-h LC{sub 50} obtained from directly transferring animals from low salinity water to the water they were tested (direct transfer LC{sub 50}). This LC{sub 50} value was correlated with the maximum salinity at which a species had been collected. For common macroinvertebrates, the maximum field salinity was approximated by the direct transfer 72-h LC{sub 50}. For adult freshwater fish, 21% of species were collected at salinities substantially greater than their acute direct transfer LC{sub 50} and there was a weak relationship between these two variables. Although there was a weak correlation between the direct transfer LC{sub 50} of early life stages of freshwater fish and the maximum field salinity, 58% of the field distribution were in higher than their LC{sub 50} values. In contrast, LC{sub 50} determined from experiments that acclimated adult fish to higher salinity (slow acclimation) provided a better indication of the field distribution: with only one fish species (7%) being in conflict with their maximum field salinity and a strong positive relationship between these variables. This study shows that laboratory measures of acute salinity tolerance can reflect the maximum salinity that macroinvertebrate and fish species inhabit and are consistent with some anecdotal observations from other studies. - Acute laboratory salinity tolerances relate to maximum salinity where organisms occur in nature.

  7. Do laboratory salinity tolerances of freshwater animals correspond with their field salinity?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kefford, Ben J.; Papas, Phil J.; Metzeling, Leon; Nugegoda, Dayanthi

    2004-01-01

    The degree to which laboratory derived measures of salinity tolerance reflect the field distributions of freshwater biota is uncertain. In this paper we compare laboratory-derived acute salinity tolerance (LC 50 values) of freshwater macroinvertebrates (range 5.5-76 mS/cm) and fish (range 2.7-82 mS/cm) from southeastern Australia with the salinity from which they have been collected in the field. Only 4% of the macroinvertebrates were collected at salinity levels substantially higher than their 72-h LC 50 obtained from directly transferring animals from low salinity water to the water they were tested (direct transfer LC 50 ). This LC 50 value was correlated with the maximum salinity at which a species had been collected. For common macroinvertebrates, the maximum field salinity was approximated by the direct transfer 72-h LC 50 . For adult freshwater fish, 21% of species were collected at salinities substantially greater than their acute direct transfer LC 50 and there was a weak relationship between these two variables. Although there was a weak correlation between the direct transfer LC 50 of early life stages of freshwater fish and the maximum field salinity, 58% of the field distribution were in higher than their LC 50 values. In contrast, LC 50 determined from experiments that acclimated adult fish to higher salinity (slow acclimation) provided a better indication of the field distribution: with only one fish species (7%) being in conflict with their maximum field salinity and a strong positive relationship between these variables. This study shows that laboratory measures of acute salinity tolerance can reflect the maximum salinity that macroinvertebrate and fish species inhabit and are consistent with some anecdotal observations from other studies. - Acute laboratory salinity tolerances relate to maximum salinity where organisms occur in nature

  8. Difference flow measurements and hydraulic interference test in ONKALO at Olkiluoto drillholes ONK-PH16 and ONK-PH17

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komulainen, J.; Pekkanen, J. [Poyry Finland Oy, Espoo (Finland)

    2012-08-15

    The Posiva Flow Log, Difference Flow Method (PFL DIFF) uses a flowmeter that incorporates a flow guide and can be used for relatively quick determinations of hydraulic conductivity and hydraulic head in fractures/fractured zones in cored drillholes. This report presents the principles of the method as well as the results of the measurements carried out in the underground facilities of ONKALO. The measurements were conducted in pilot holes ONK-PH16 and ONK-PH17 between October 12 and December 29, 2010. The aim of the measurements was to detect water conducting fractures and hydraulic interference between pilot holes ONK-PH16 and ONK-PH17. The flow rate into a 0.5 m long test section was measured using 0.1 m point intervals. The flowing fractures in both pilot holes were obtained between 50 m - 80 m. For hydraulic interference test one drillhole was closed with packers to increase its pressure. Flow response to the increased pressure was measured in the other drillhole. The flow guide of the PFL DIFF probe encloses an electrode for single point resistance measurement, which was carried out with 0.01 m point intervals during the automatic flow measurements. The flow measurement and the single point resistance measurement were used to locate flowing fractures and evaluate their transmissivity. Electrical conductivity (EC) and temperature of water were registered during automatic flow logging. The conductivity values are temperature corrected to 25 deg C. The distance between the drillholes is about 14 m. Flow response in fractures of open ONK-PH16 could be detected when pressure was changed in ONK-PH17. (orig.)

  9. PH Sensitive Polymers for Improving Reservoir Sweep and Conformance Control in Chemical Flooring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukul Sharma; Steven Bryant; Chun Huh

    2008-03-31

    viscoelastic behavior as functions of pH; shear rate; polymer concentration; salinity, including divalent ion effects; polymer molecular weight; and degree of hydrolysis. A comprehensive rheological model was developed for HPAM solution rheology in terms of: shear rate; pH; polymer concentration; and salinity, so that the spatial and temporal changes in viscosity during the polymer flow in the reservoir can be accurately modeled. A series of acid coreflood experiments were conducted to understand the geochemical reactions relevant for both the near-wellbore injection profile control and for conformance control applications. These experiments showed that the use hydrochloric acid as a pre-flush is not viable because of the high reaction rate with the rock. The use of citric acid as a pre-flush was found to be quite effective. This weak acid has a slow rate of reaction with the rock and can buffer the pH to below 3.5 for extended periods of time. With the citric acid pre-flush the polymer could be efficiently propagated through the core in a low pH environment i.e. at a low viscosity. The transport of various HPAM solutions was studied in sandstones, in terms of permeability reduction, mobility reduction, adsorption and inaccessible pore volume with different process variables: injection pH, polymer concentration, polymer molecular weight, salinity, degree of hydrolysis, and flow rate. Measurements of polymer effluent profiles and tracer tests show that the polymer retention increases at the lower pH. A new simulation capability to model the deep-penetrating mobility control or conformance control using pH-sensitive polymer was developed. The core flood acid injection experiments were history matched to estimate geochemical reaction rates. Preliminary scale-up simulations employing linear and radial geometry floods in 2-layer reservoir models were conducted. It is clearly shown that the injection rate of pH-sensitive polymer solutions can be significantly increased by injecting

  10. Underway pressure, temperature, and salinity data from the MOANA WAVE from the Pacific warm pool in support of the Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Response Experiment (COARE) from 02 February 1993 to 21 February 1993 (NODC Accession 9600090)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Pressure, temperature, and salinity data were collected while underway from the MOANA WAVE from the Pacific warm pool. Data were collected in support of the Coupled...

  11. Phosphorus sorption capacity of biochars varies with biochar type and salinity level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugdug, Abdelhafid Ahmed; Chang, Scott X; Ok, Yong Sik; Rajapaksha, Anushka Upamali; Anyia, Anthony

    2018-02-10

    Biochar is recognized as an effective material for recovering excess nutrients, including phosphorus (P), from aqueous solutions. Practically, that benefits the environment through reducing P losses from biochar-amended soils; however, how salinity influences P sorption by biochar is poorly understood and there has been no direct comparison on P sorption capacity between biochars derived from different feedstock types under non-saline and saline conditions. In this study, biochars derived from wheat straw, hardwood, and willow wood were used to compare P sorption at three levels of electrical conductivity (EC) (0, 4, and 8 dS m -1 ) to represent a wide range of salinity conditions. Phosphorus sorption by wheat straw and hardwood biochars increased as aqueous solution P concentration increased, with willow wood biochar exhibiting an opposite trend for P sorption. However, the pattern for P sorption became the same as the other biochars after the willow wood biochar was de-ashed with 1 M HCl and 0.05 M HF. Willow wood biochar had the highest P sorption (1.93 mg g -1 ) followed by hardwood (1.20 mg g -1 ) and wheat straw biochars (1.06 mg g -1 ) in a 25 mg L -1 P solution. Although the pH in the equilibrium solution was higher with willow wood biochar (~ 9.5) than with the other two biochars (~ 6.5), solution pH had no or minor effects on P sorption by willow wood biochar. The high sorption rate of P by willow wood biochar could be attributed to the higher concentrations of salt and other elements (i.e., Ca and Mg) in the biochar in comparison to that in wheat straw and hardwood biochars; the EC values were 2.27, 0.53, and 0.27 dS m -1 for willow wood, wheat straw, and hardwood biochars, respectively. A portion of P desorbed from the willow wood biochar; and that desorption increased with the decreasing P concentration in the aqueous solution. Salinity in the aqueous solution influenced P sorption by hardwood and willow wood but not by wheat straw

  12. Analysis of Factors Influencing Soil Salinity, Acidity, and Arsenic Concentration in a Polder in Southwest Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayers, J. C.; Patton, B.; Fry, D. C.; Goodbred, S. L., Jr.

    2017-12-01

    Soil samples were collected on Polder 32 in the coastal zone of SW Bangladesh in wet (October) and dry (May) seasons from 2013-2017 and analyzed to characterize the problems of soil salinization and arsenic contamination and identify their causes. Soils are entisols formed from recently deposited, predominantly silt-sized sediments with low carbon concentrations typical of the local mangrove forests. Soluble (DI extract) arsenic concentrations were below the Government of Bangladesh limit of 50 ppb for drinking water. Soil acidity and extract arsenic concentrations exhibit spatial variation but no consistent trends. In October soil extract As is higher and S and pH are lower than in May. These observations suggest that wet season rainwater oxidizes pyrite, reducing soil S and releasing H+, causing pH to decrease. Released iron is oxidized to form Hydrous Ferric Oxyhydroxides (HFOs), which sorb As and increase extractable As in wet season soils. Changes in pH are small due to pH buffering by soil carbonates. Soil and rice paddy water salinities are consistently higher in May than October, reaching levels in May that reduce rice yields. Rice grown in paddies should be unaffected by salt concentrations in the wet season, while arsenic concentrations in soil may be high enough to cause unsafe As levels in produced rice.

  13. Episodic Salinization of Urban Rivers: Potential Impacts on Carbon, Cation, and Nutrient Fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haq, S.; Kaushal, S.

    2017-12-01

    Human dominated watersheds are subjected to an array of salt inputs (e.g. road salts), and in urban areas, infrastructure and impervious surfaces quickly drain applied road salts into the river channel. As a result, many streams experience episodic salinization over the course of hours to days following a snow event (e.g. road salt pulse), and long-term salinization over the course of seasons to decades. Salinization of streams can release contaminants (e.g. heavy metals), reduce biodiversity, and degrade drinking water quality. We investigated the water quality effects of episodic salinization in urban streams. Sediment and streamwater were incubated from twelve sites in the Baltimore-Washington Metropolitan Area under a range of sodium chloride treatments in a lab environment to mimic a vertical stream column with a sediment-water interface undergoing episodic salinization, and to characterize relationships between experimental salinization and nutrient/cation fluxes. Eight sites (Baltimore) exhibit a land use gradient and are routinely monitored within the Baltimore Ecosystem Study LTER project, and four sites (Washington DC) are suburban and offer a contrasting lithology and physiographic province. Our research suggests that salinization can mobilize total dissolved nitrogen, soluble reactive phosphorous, and base cations; potentially due to coupled biotic-abiotic processes, such as ion exchange, rapid nitrification, pH changes, and chloride-organic matter dispersal. The impact of salinization on dissolved inorganic and organic carbon varied between sites, potentially due to sediment composition, organic matter content, and ambient water quality. We contrasted the experimental results with measurements of salinization (specific conductance) and nutrients (nitrate) from real-time sensors operated by the US Geological Survey that encompass the same watersheds as our experimental sites. Sensor data was analyzed to provide insight on the timescales of salinity

  14. CO{sub 2} injection as pH regulator in refrigeration circuits; Inyeccion de CO{sub 2} como regulador de pH en circuitos de refrigeracion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belinchon, J.

    2009-07-01

    Water from rivers is not usually suitable for use in cooling circuits of industrial installations, normally because of its high fouling ability. this requires a treatment before use based on the use of fouling inhibitors, biocides and pH regulators. The most commonly used pH regulator is sulfuric acid, a very hazardous chemical product that also generates secondary saline contamination due to the sulfates. Since 2008, Iberdrola Generation, in collaboration with Air Liquid, has been carrying out a pilot project in Cofrentes Nuclear Power Plant focusing on the use of CO{sub 2} as an acidifier of the main condenser cooling system. (Author)

  15. Inorganic speciation of dissolved elements in seawater: the influence of pH on concentration ratios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byrne Robert H

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Assessments of inorganic elemental speciation in seawater span the past four decades. Experimentation, compilation and critical review of equilibrium data over the past forty years have, in particular, considerably improved our understanding of cation hydrolysis and the complexation of cations by carbonate ions in solution. Through experimental investigations and critical evaluation it is now known that more than forty elements have seawater speciation schemes that are strongly influenced by pH. In the present work, the speciation of the elements in seawater is summarized in a manner that highlights the significance of pH variations. For elements that have pH-dependent species concentration ratios, this work summarizes equilibrium data (S = 35, t = 25°C that can be used to assess regions of dominance and relative species concentrations. Concentration ratios of complex species are expressed in the form log[A]/[B] = pH - C where brackets denote species concentrations in solution, A and B are species important at higher (A and lower (B solution pH, and C is a constant dependent on salinity, temperature and pressure. In the case of equilibria involving complex oxy-anions (MOx(OHy or hydroxy complexes (M(OHn, C is written as pKn = -log Kn or pKn* = -log Kn* respectively, where Kn and Kn* are equilibrium constants. For equilibria involving carbonate complexation, the constant C is written as pQ = -log(K2lKn [HCO3-] where K2l is the HCO3 - dissociation constant, Kn is a cation complexation constant and [HCO3-] is approximated as 1.9 × 10-3 molar. Equilibrium data expressed in this manner clearly show dominant species transitions, ranges of dominance, and relative concentrations at any pH.

  16. Macroalgae contribute to nested mosaics of pH variability in a subarctic fjord

    KAUST Repository

    Krause-Jensen, D.; Duarte, Carlos M.; Hendriks, I. E.; Meire, L.; Blicher, M. E.; Marbà , N.; Sejr, M. K.

    2015-01-01

    The Arctic Ocean is considered the most vulnerable ecosystem to ocean acidification, and large-scale assessments of pH and the saturation state for aragonite (Ωarag) have led to the notion that the Arctic Ocean is already close to a corrosive state. In high-latitude coastal waters the regulation of pH and Ωarag is, however, far more complex than offshore because increased biological activity and input of glacial meltwater affect pH. Effects of ocean acidification on calcifiers and non-calcifying phototrophs occupying coastal habitats cannot be derived from extrapolation of current and forecasted offshore conditions, but they require an understanding of the regimes of pH and Ωarag in their coastal habitats. To increase knowledge of the natural variability in pH in the Arctic coastal zone and specifically to test the influence of benthic vegetated habitats, we quantified pH variability in a Greenland fjord in a nested-scale approach. A sensor array logging pH, O2, PAR, temperature and salinity was applied on spatial scales ranging from kilometre scale across the horizontal extension of the fjord; to 100 m scale vertically in the fjord, 10–100 m scale between subtidal habitats with and without kelp forests and between vegetated tidal pools and adjacent vegetated shores; and to centimetre to metre scale within kelp forests and millimetre scale across diffusive boundary layers of macrophyte tissue. In addition, we assessed the temporal variability in pH on diurnal and seasonal scales. Based on pH measurements combined with point samples of total alkalinity, dissolved inorganic carbon and relationships to salinity, we also estimated variability in Ωarag. Results show variability in pH and Ωarag of up to 0.2–0.3 units at several scales, i.e. along the horizontal and vertical extension of the fjord, between seasons and on a diel basis in benthic habitats and within 1 m3 of kelp forest. Vegetated intertidal pools exhibited extreme diel pH variability of > 1.5 units

  17. Macroalgae contribute to nested mosaics of pH variability in a subarctic fjord

    KAUST Repository

    Krause-Jensen, D.

    2015-08-19

    The Arctic Ocean is considered the most vulnerable ecosystem to ocean acidification, and large-scale assessments of pH and the saturation state for aragonite (Ωarag) have led to the notion that the Arctic Ocean is already close to a corrosive state. In high-latitude coastal waters the regulation of pH and Ωarag is, however, far more complex than offshore because increased biological activity and input of glacial meltwater affect pH. Effects of ocean acidification on calcifiers and non-calcifying phototrophs occupying coastal habitats cannot be derived from extrapolation of current and forecasted offshore conditions, but they require an understanding of the regimes of pH and Ωarag in their coastal habitats. To increase knowledge of the natural variability in pH in the Arctic coastal zone and specifically to test the influence of benthic vegetated habitats, we quantified pH variability in a Greenland fjord in a nested-scale approach. A sensor array logging pH, O2, PAR, temperature and salinity was applied on spatial scales ranging from kilometre scale across the horizontal extension of the fjord; to 100 m scale vertically in the fjord, 10–100 m scale between subtidal habitats with and without kelp forests and between vegetated tidal pools and adjacent vegetated shores; and to centimetre to metre scale within kelp forests and millimetre scale across diffusive boundary layers of macrophyte tissue. In addition, we assessed the temporal variability in pH on diurnal and seasonal scales. Based on pH measurements combined with point samples of total alkalinity, dissolved inorganic carbon and relationships to salinity, we also estimated variability in Ωarag. Results show variability in pH and Ωarag of up to 0.2–0.3 units at several scales, i.e. along the horizontal and vertical extension of the fjord, between seasons and on a diel basis in benthic habitats and within 1 m3 of kelp forest. Vegetated intertidal pools exhibited extreme diel pH variability of > 1.5 units

  18. Blood-brain barrier opening by isotonic saline infusion in normotensive and hypertensive animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rapoport, S I [Baltimore City Hospitals, MD (USA)

    1978-01-01

    The blood-brain barrier to intravascular Evans blue-albumin was opened in monkeys and rabbits by infusing isotonic saline for 15 s into the common carotid artery, when the external carotid was clamped temporarily and the lingual was catheterized for measuring pressure. Barrier opening correlated better with infusion pressure than with infusion rate, and occurred at carotid artery pressures above 170 mmHg. Systematic hypertension induced by Aramine increased barrier vulnerability by causing a higher net carotid artery pressure to be attained at a given infusion rate.

  19. Absolute Salinity, ''Density Salinity'' and the Reference-Composition Salinity Scale: present and future use in the seawater standard TEOS-10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, D. G.; Pawlowicz, R.; McDougall, T. J.; Feistel, R.; Marion, G. M.

    2011-01-01

    Salinity plays a key role in the determination of the thermodynamic properties of seawater and the new TEOS-101 standard provides a consistent and effective approach to dealing with relationships between salinity and these thermodynamic properties. However, there are a number of practical issues that arise in the application of TEOS-10, both in terms of accuracy and scope, including its use in the reduction of field data and in numerical models. First, in the TEOS-10 formulation for IAPSO Standard Seawater, the Gibbs function takes the Reference Salinity as its salinity argument, denoted SR, which provides a measure of the mass fraction of dissolved material in solution based on the Reference Composition approximation for Standard Seawater. We discuss uncertainties in both the Reference Composition and the Reference-Composition Salinity Scale on which Reference Salinity is reported. The Reference Composition provides a much-needed fixed benchmark but modified reference states will inevitably be required to improve the representation of Standard Seawater for some studies. However, the Reference-Composition Salinity Scale should remain unaltered to provide a stable representation of salinity for use with the TEOS-10 Gibbs function and in climate change detection studies. Second, when composition anomalies are present in seawater, no single salinity variable can fully represent the influence of dissolved material on the thermodynamic properties of seawater. We consider three distinct representations of salinity that have been used in previous studies and discuss the connections and distinctions between them. One of these variables provides the most accurate representation of density possible as well as improvements over Reference Salinity for the determination of other thermodynamic properties. It is referred to as "Density Salinity" and is represented by the symbol SAdens; it stands out as the most appropriate representation of salinity for use in dynamical physical

  20. Absolute Salinity, "Density Salinity" and the Reference-Composition Salinity Scale: present and future use in the seawater standard TEOS-10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, D. G.; Pawlowicz, R.; McDougall, T. J.; Feistel, R.; Marion, G. M.

    2010-08-01

    Salinity plays a key role in the determination of the thermodynamic properties of seawater and the new TEOS-101 standard provides a consistent and effective approach to dealing with relationships between salinity and these thermodynamic properties. However, there are a number of practical issues that arise in the application of TEOS-10, both in terms of accuracy and scope, including its use in the reduction of field data and in numerical models. First, in the TEOS-10 formulation for IAPSO Standard Seawater, the Gibbs function takes the Reference Salinity as its salinity argument, denoted SR, which provides a measure of the mass fraction of dissolved material in solution based on the Reference Composition approximation for Standard Seawater. We discuss uncertainties in both the Reference Composition and the Reference-Composition Salinity Scale on which Reference Salinity is reported. The Reference Composition provides a much-needed fixed benchmark but modified reference states will inevitably be required to improve the representation of Standard Seawater for some studies. The Reference-Composition Salinity Scale should remain unaltered to provide a stable representation of salinity for use with the TEOS-10 Gibbs function and in climate change detection studies. Second, when composition anomalies are present in seawater, no single salinity variable can fully represent the influence of dissolved material on the thermodynamic properties of seawater. We consider three distinct representations of salinity that have been used in previous studies and discuss the connections and distinctions between them. One of these variables provides the most accurate representation of density possible as well as improvements over Reference Salinity for the determination of other thermodynamic properties. It is referred to as "Density Salinity" and is represented by the symbol SAdens; it stands out as the most appropriate representation of salinity for use in dynamical physical

  1. Chemical, physical characterization and salinity distribution of the oilfield water in the Upper Sandstone Member of the Zubair reservoir at Rumaila North Oilfield, Southern Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salih Awadh

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The oilfield water in the Upper Sandstone Member of the Zubair reservoir (Barriemian-Hauterivian at Rumaila North Oil Field was investigated for the interpretation of salinity and geochemical evolution of brine compositions. The interaction of the oilfield water with reservoir rock resulted in a brine water derived from the marine water origin of partial mixing with meteoric water similar to the compositional ranges of formation water from Gulf of Mexico offshore/onshore Mesozoic reservoirs. The high TDS (207350- 230100; average 215625 mg/L is consistent with the electrical conductivity (340362-372762; average 351024μs, and predominantly represented by Cl (123679 mg/L as anions and (29200 and 14674 mg/L for Na and Ca as cations respectively. The contribution of cation (epm% are as Na (70.2, Ca (18.9, Mg (8.1 and K (1.7; and anion as Cl (99.7, SO4 (0.25, HCO3 (0.07 and CO3 (0.005. sodium (57550-60500mg/L is greater than of seawater six times, calcium and magnesium three times greater, and chloride 6.5 times greater, but Sulfate is depleted to six times less due to a sulfur release from sulphates and link with different hydrocarbon species, precipices as native sulphur and link with hydrogen forming H2S. The Zubair oilfield water is characterised by acidic pH (pH=5.2- 5.77 enhanced petrophysical properties, high specific gravity (1.228 predicts a high fluid pressure (4866 psi, hydrocarbon saturation (0.43%, water saturation (0.57% and porosity (12.7. The Mineral saturation model indicates that the Zubair oilfield water is an unsaturated water with respect to all suggested minerals at 5.45, but at simulated pH, brucite being an equilibrium at pH 9.12, but brucite and portlandite being supersaturated at pH 11.9. The mineral solubility responses to the changes in temperature, pressure, pH, Eh, and ionic strength, thereby formation damage is proportionally developed.

  2. Have We Overestimated Saline Aquifer CO2 Storage Capacities?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thibeau, S.; Mucha, V.

    2011-01-01

    During future, large scale CO 2 geological storage in saline aquifers, fluid pressure is expected to rise as a consequence of CO 2 injection, but the pressure build up will have to stay below specified values to ensure a safe and long term containment of the CO 2 in the storage site. The pressure build up is the result of two different effects. The first effect is a local overpressure around the injectors, which is due to the high CO 2 velocities around the injectors, and which can be mitigated by adding CO 2 injectors. The second effect is a regional scale pressure build up that will take place if the storage aquifer is closed or if the formation water that flows away from the pressurised area is not large enough to compensate volumetrically the CO 2 injection. This second effect cannot be mitigated by adding additional injectors. In the first section of this paper, we review some major global and regional assessments of CO 2 storage capacities in deep saline aquifers, in term of mass and storage efficiency. These storage capacities are primarily based on a volumetric approach: storage capacity is the volumetric sum of the CO 2 that can be stored through various trapping mechanisms. We then discuss in Section 2 storage efficiencies derived from a pressure build up approach, as stated in the CO2STORE final report (Chadwick A. et al. (eds) (2008) Best Practice for the Storage of CO 2 in Saline Aquifers, Observations and Guidelines from the SACS and CO2STORE Projects, Keyworth, Nottingham, BGS Occasional Publication No. 14) and detailed by Van der Meer and Egberts (van der Meer L.G.H., Egberts P.J.P. (2008) A General Method for Calculating Subsurface CO 2 Storage Capacity, OTC Paper 19309, presented at the OTC Conference held in Houston, Texas, USA, 5-8 May). A quantitative range of such storage efficiency is presented, based on a review of orders of magnitudes of pore and water compressibilities and allowable pressure increase. To illustrate the relevance of this

  3. Blood-brain barrier opening by isotonic saline infusion in normotensive and hypertensive animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapoport, S.I.

    1978-01-01

    The blood-brain barrier to intravascular Evans blue-albumin was opened in monkeys and rabbits by infusing isotonic saline for 15 s into the common carotid artery, when the external carotid was clamped temporarily and the lingual was catheterized for measuring pressure. Barrier opening correlated better with infusion pressure than with infusion rate, and occurred at carotid artery pressures above 170 mmHg. Systematic hypertension induced by Aramine increased barrier vulnerability by causing a higher net carotid artery pressure to be attained at a given infusion rate. (Auth.)

  4. Improvement of the respiration efficiency of Lactococcus lactis by decreasing the culture pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Weijia; Li, Yu; Gao, Xueling; Fu, Ruiyan

    2016-03-01

    The growth characteristics and intracellular hemin concentrations of Lactococcus lactis grown under different culture pH and aeration conditions were examined to investigate the effect of culture pH on the respiration efficiency of L. lactis NZ9000 (pZN8148). Cell biomass and biomass yield of L. lactis grown with 4 μg hemin/ml and O2 were higher than those without aeration when the culture pH was controlled at 5-6.5. The culture pH affected the respiratory efficiency in the following order of pH: 5 > 5.5 > 6 > 6.5; the lag phase increased as the culture pH decreased. Hemin accumulation was sensitive to culture pH. Among the four pH conditions, pH 5.5 was optimal for hemin accumulation in the cells. The highest intracellular hemin level in L. lactis resting cells incubated at different pH saline levels (5-6.5) was at pH 5.5. The respiration efficiency of L. lactis under respiration-permissive conditions increases markedly as the culture pH decreases. These results may help develop high cell-density L. lactis cultures. Thus, this microorganism may be used for industrial applications.

  5. Effect of acute salinity stress on ion homeostasis, Na+/K+-ATPase and histological structure in sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Chenfan; Tian, Yi; Shang, Yanpeng; Wang, Liqiang; Jiang, Yanan; Chang, Yaqing

    2016-01-01

    Sea cucumbers ( Apostichopus japonicus ) are an imperiled fauna exposed to a variety of environmental condition such as salinity and studies are urgently needed to assess their effects to guide aquaculture efforts. The effects of acute salinity stress on coelomic fluid osmotic pressure, ion concentrations, the activity of Na + /K + -ATPase in respiratory trees and the histological variations were measured to evaluate the salinity tolerance of sea cucumbers. Significant correlations in osmotic pressure were observed between coelomic fluid and ambient environmental salinity. In coelomic fluid, Na + concentration was observed fluctuated during salinity 18 psu and the inflection point presented at the 6 h. The Na + /K + -ATPase activity in respiratory trees indicated the "U-shaped" fluctuant change and the change trend was opposite with the Na + concentration. The ions (K + , Cl - ) concentration decreased and showed the same tendency at salinity 40 psu with salinity 18 psu. The total coelomocytes counts and phagocytosis of coelomic fluid Na + /K + -ATPase activity indicated fluctuating changes under different salinity stress. Histological variation revealed a negative relation between decreasing salt concentration and tissue integrity. Tissue damages were significantly observed in intestines, muscles and tube feet under low salinity environment (18, 23 and 27 psu). The connective tissue in intestines of A. japonicus exposed to 18 and 23 psu damaged and partly separated from the mucosal epithelium. The significant variations occurred in tube feet, which presented the swelling in connective tissue and a fracture in longitudinal muscles under low salinity (18 psu). The morphological change of tube feet showed the shrinkage of connective tissue under high salinity (40 psu). The amount of infusoria in the respiratory trees decreased or even disappeared in salinity treatment groups (18 and 23 psu). The results inferred that osmoconformity and ionoregulation were

  6. Lower limb intracast pressures generated by different types of immobilisation casts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhury, Salma; Hazlerigg, Alexandra; Vusirikala, Anuhya; Nguyen, Joseph; Matthews, Stuart

    2017-02-18

    To determine if complete, split casts and backslabs [plaster of Paris (POP) and fiberglass] generate different intracast pressures and pain. Increased swelling within casts was modeled by a closed water system attached to an expandable bag placed directly under different types of casts applied to a healthy lower limb. Complete fiberglass and POP casts, split casts and backslabs were applied. Twenty-five milliliter aliquots of saline were injected into the system and the generated intracast pressures were measured using a sphygmomanometer. The subject was blinded to the pressure scores to avoid bias. All casts were applied to the same right limb on the same subject to avoid the effects of variations in anatomy or physiology on intracast pressures. Pain levels were evaluated using the Visual Analogue Score after each sequential saline injection. Each type of cast was reapplied four times and the measurements were repeated on four separate occasions. Sample sizes were determined by a pre-study 90% power calculation to detect a 20% difference in intracast pressures between cast groups. A significant difference between the various types of casts was noted when the saline volume was greater than 100 mL ( P = 0.009). The greatest intracast pressure was generated by complete fiberglass casts, which were significantly higher than complete POP casts or backslabs ( P = 0.018 and P = 0.008 respectively) at intracast saline volumes of 100 mL and higher. Backslabs produced a significantly lower intracast pressure compared to complete POP only once the saline volume within casts exceeded 225 mL ( P = 0.009). Intracast pressures were significantly lower in split casts ( P = 0.003). Split POP and fiberglass casts produced the lowest intracast pressures, even compared to backslabs ( P = 0.009). Complete fiberglass casts generated the highest pain levels at manometer pressures of 75 mmHg and greater ( P = 0.001). Split fiberglass casts had significantly reduced pain levels ( P = 0

  7. Mapping Soil Salinity/Sodicity by using Landsat OLI Imagery and PLSR Algorithm over Semiarid West Jilin Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mingyue; Du, Baojia; Zhang, Bai

    2018-01-01

    Soil salinity and sodicity can significantly reduce the value and the productivity of affected lands, posing degradation, and threats to sustainable development of natural resources on earth. This research attempted to map soil salinity/sodicity via disentangling the relationships between Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) imagery and in-situ measurements (EC, pH) over the west Jilin of China. We established the retrieval models for soil salinity and sodicity using Partial Least Square Regression (PLSR). Spatial distribution of the soils that were subjected to hybridized salinity and sodicity (HSS) was obtained by overlay analysis using maps of soil salinity and sodicity in geographical information system (GIS) environment. We analyzed the severity and occurring sizes of soil salinity, sodicity, and HSS with regard to specified soil types and land cover. Results indicated that the models’ accuracy was improved by combining the reflectance bands and spectral indices that were mathematically transformed. Therefore, our results stipulated that the OLI imagery and PLSR method applied to mapping soil salinity and sodicity in the region. The mapping results revealed that the areas of soil salinity, sodicity, and HSS were 1.61 × 106 hm2, 1.46 × 106 hm2, and 1.36 × 106 hm2, respectively. Also, the occurring area of moderate and intensive sodicity was larger than that of salinity. This research may underpin efficiently mapping regional salinity/sodicity occurrences, understanding the linkages between spectral reflectance and ground measurements of soil salinity and sodicity, and provide tools for soil salinity monitoring and the sustainable utilization of land resources. PMID:29614727

  8. Structure and composition of oligohaline marsh plant communities exposed to salinity pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, R.J.; Mendelssohn, I.A.

    2000-01-01

    The response of two oligohaline marsh macrophyte communities to pulses of increased salinity was studied over a single growing season in a greenhouse experiment. The plant communities were allowed a recovery period in freshwater following the pulse events. The experimental treatments included: (1) salinity influx rate (rate of salinity increase from 0 to 12 gl-1); (2) duration of exposure to elevated salinity; and (3) water depth. The communities both included Sagittaria lancifolia L.; the codominant species were Eleocharis palustris (L.) Roemer and J.A. Schultes in community 1 and Schoenoplectus americanus (Pers.) Volk. ex Schinz and R. Keller in community 2. Effects of the treatments on sediment chemical characteristics (salinity, pH, redox potential, and sulfide and ammonium concentrations) and plant community attributes (aboveground and belowground biomass, stem density, leaf tissue nutrients, and species richness) were examined. The treatment effects often interacted to influence sediment and plant communities characteristics following recovery in fresh water. Salinity influx rate per se, however, had little effect on the abiotic or biotic response variables; significant influx effects were found when the 0 gl-1 (zero influx) treatment was compared to the 12 gl-1 treatments, regardless of the rate salinity was raised. A salinity level of 12 gl-1 had negative effects on plant community structure and composition; these effects were usually associated with 3 months of salinity exposure. Water depth often interacted with exposure duration, but increased water depth did independently decrease the values of some community response measures. Community 1 was affected more than community 2 in the most extreme salinity treatment (3 months exposure/15-cm water depth). Although species richness in both communities was reduced, structural changes were more dramatic in community 1. Biomass and stem density were reduced in community 1 overall and in both dominant species

  9. Absolute Salinity, ''Density Salinity'' and the Reference-Composition Salinity Scale: present and future use in the seawater standard TEOS-10

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. G. Wright

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Salinity plays a key role in the determination of the thermodynamic properties of seawater and the new TEOS-101 standard provides a consistent and effective approach to dealing with relationships between salinity and these thermodynamic properties. However, there are a number of practical issues that arise in the application of TEOS-10, both in terms of accuracy and scope, including its use in the reduction of field data and in numerical models.

    First, in the TEOS-10 formulation for IAPSO Standard Seawater, the Gibbs function takes the Reference Salinity as its salinity argument, denoted SR, which provides a measure of the mass fraction of dissolved material in solution based on the Reference Composition approximation for Standard Seawater. We discuss uncertainties in both the Reference Composition and the Reference-Composition Salinity Scale on which Reference Salinity is reported. The Reference Composition provides a much-needed fixed benchmark but modified reference states will inevitably be required to improve the representation of Standard Seawater for some studies. However, the Reference-Composition Salinity Scale should remain unaltered to provide a stable representation of salinity for use with the TEOS-10 Gibbs function and in climate change detection studies.

    Second, when composition anomalies are present in seawater, no single salinity variable can fully represent the influence of dissolved material on the thermodynamic properties of seawater. We consider three distinct representations of salinity that have been used in previous studies and discuss the connections and distinctions between them. One of these variables provides the most accurate representation of density possible as well as improvements over Reference Salinity for the determination of other thermodynamic properties. It is referred to as "Density Salinity" and is represented by the symbol

  10. Survival and inactivation of human norovirus surrogates in blueberry juice by high-pressure homogenization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horm, Katie Marie; Davidson, P Michael; Harte, Federico M; D'Souza, Doris Helen

    2012-11-01

    Human noroviruses (HNoV) have been implicated in gastrointestinal outbreaks associated with fresh produce, juices, and ready-to-eat foods. In order to determine the risk of HNoV transmission by contaminated blueberry juice, survival characteristics of cultivable HNoV surrogates (murine norovirus, MNV-1; feline calicivirus, FCV-F9; and bacteriophage MS2) in blueberry juice (pH = 2.77) after 0, 1, 2, 7, 14, and 21 days at refrigeration temperatures (4°C) were studied. High-pressure homogenization (HPH) was studied as a novel processing method for noroviral surrogate inactivation in blueberry juice. Blueberry juice or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS; pH 7.2 as control) was inoculated with each virus, stored over 21 days at 4°C or subjected to HPH, and plaque assayed. FCV-F9 (∼5 log(10) PFU/mL) was undetectable after 1 day in blueberry juice at 4°C. MNV-1 (∼4 log(10) PFU/ml) showed minimal reduction (1 log(10) PFU/mL) after 14 days, with greater reduction (1.95 log(10) PFU/mL; p PFU/mL) showed significant reduction (1.93 log(10) PFU/mL; p PFU/mL reduction), while MNV-1 and MS2 survived after 21 days (1.08 and 0.56 log(10) PFU/mL reduction, respectively). Intriguingly, FCV-F9 and bacteriophage MS2 showed reduction after minimal homogenization pressures in blueberry juice (pH = 2.77), possibly due to the combination of juice pH, juice components, and mechanical effects. MNV-1 in blueberry juice was only slightly reduced at 250 (0.33 log(10) PFU/mL) and 300 MPa (0.71 log(10) PFU/mL). Virus surrogate survival in blueberry juice at 4°C correlates well with the ease of HNoV transmission via juices. HPH for viral inactivation in juices is dependent on virus type, and higher homogenization pressures may be needed for MNV-1 inactivation.

  11. Case study on combined CO₂ sequestration and low-salinity water production potential in a shallow saline aquifer in Qatar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Tausif Khizar; Nasrabadi, Hadi

    2012-10-30

    CO₂ is one of the byproducts of natural gas production in Qatar. The high rate of natural gas production from Qatar's North Field (world's largest non-associated gas field) has led to the production of significant amounts of CO₂. The release of CO₂ into the atmosphere may be harmful from the perspective of global warming. In this work, we study the CO₂ sequestration potential in Qatar's Aruma aquifer. The Aruma aquifer is a saline aquifer in the southwest of Qatar. It occupies an area of approximately 1985 km₂ on land (16% of Qatar's total area). We have developed a compositional model for CO₂ sequestration in the Aruma aquifer on the basis of available log and flow test data. We suggest water production at some distance from the CO₂ injection wells as a possible way to control the pore pressure. This method increases the potential for safe sequestration of CO₂ in the aquifer without losing integrity of the caprock and without any CO₂ leakage. The water produced from this aquifer is considerably less saline than seawater and could be a good water source for the desalination process, which is currently the main source of water in Qatar. The outcome of the desalination process is water with higher salinity than the seawater that is currently discharged into the sea. This discharge can have negative long-term environmental effects. The water produced from the Aruma aquifer is considerably less saline than seawater and can be a partial solution to this problem. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Impact of Salinity on the Incubation Rate and the Performance during the Nursery Phase of Square Head Climbing Perch (Anabas testudineus Bloch, 1792

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le, DV.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Square head climbing perch (Anabas testudineus Bloch, 1792 is a high quality fish without small bones. It grows in a wide range of temperatures (10-42 oC, pH (3.5-9.5 and salinity (up to 16%. As regards climate change, this species may become important for aquaculture in the Tam Giang-Cau Hai lagoon near Hue city. To optimise the quality of fingerlings, we analyzed the effect of salinity levels on hatching and nursing in three subsequent experiments. Fertilization, hatching, survival and growth rates for 30 days were determined at salinity levels 0%, 5%, 7%, 13% and 15%. Water temperature and pH varied between 22-29.5 oC and 7.3-7.8, respectively. Between 0-5%, fertilization ratio was 77% to 83% and highest at 5%, but this dropped to 0% when salinity increased; hatching ratio was larger than 90%, but decreased to 0% at 13-15%. Between 0-11%, hatching time of fertilized eggs was not affected by salinity levels. The ratio of deformation gradually increased above 5%. After hatching at either 0 or 5%, survival ratios for square head climbing perch were above 13% up to 5%, but dropped to 0% at 9%. The growth after 30 days of nursing was higher at 5 and 7% compared with that of 0 and 3%.

  13. Study of the Effect of Clay Particles on Low Salinity Water Injection in Sandstone Reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sina Rezaei Gomari

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The need for optimal recovery of crude oil from sandstone and carbonate reservoirs around the world has never been greater for the petroleum industry. Water-flooding has been applied to the supplement primary depletion process or as a separate secondary recovery method. Low salinity water injection is a relatively new method that involves injecting low salinity brines at high pressure similar to conventional water-flooding techniques, in order to recover crude oil. The effectiveness of low salinity water injection in sandstone reservoirs depends on a number of parameters such as reservoir temperature, pressure, type of clay particle and salinity of injected brine. Clay particles present on reservoir rock surfaces adsorb polar components of oil and modify wettability of sandstone rocks to the oil-wet state, which is accountable for the reduced recovery rates by conventional water-flooding. The extent of wettability alteration caused by three low salinity brines on oil-wet sandstone samples containing varying clay content (15% or 30% and type of clay (kaolinite/montmorillonite were analyzed in the laboratory experiment. Contact angles of mica powder and clay mixture (kaolinite/montmorillonite modified with crude oil were measured before and after injection with three low salinity sodium chloride brines. The effect of temperature was also analyzed for each sample. The results of the experiment indicate that samples with kaolinite clay tend to produce higher contact angles than samples with montmorillonite clay when modified with crude oil. The highest degree or extent of wettability alteration from oil-wet to intermediate-wet state upon injection with low salinity brines was observed for samples injected with brine having salinity concentration of 2000 ppm. The increase in temperature tends to produce contact angles values lying in the higher end of the intermediate-wet range (75°–115° for samples treated at 50 °C, while their corresponding

  14. High pressure effect on the color of minced cured restructured ham at different levels of drying, pH, and NaCl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bak, Kathrine Holmgaard; Lindahl, Gunilla; Karlsson, Anders H; Lloret, Elsa; Ferrini, Gabriele; Arnau, Jacint; Orlien, Vibeke

    2012-03-01

    Color changes of minced cured restructured ham was studied considering the effects of high pressure (HP) treatment (600MPa, 13°C, 5min), raw meat pH(24) (low, normal, high), salt content (15, 30g/kg), and drying (20%, 50% weight loss). Raw hams were selected based on pH(24) in Semimembranosus, mixed with additives, frozen, sliced, and dried using the Quick-Dry-Slice® process. Meat color (CIE 1976 L*a*b*) and reflectance spectra were measured before and after HP treatment. HP significantly increased L*, decreased a*, and decreased b* for restructured ham dried to 20% weight loss, regardless of salt content and pH(24). L* and a* were best preserved in high pH/high salt restructured ham. HP had no effect on the color of restructured ham dried to 50% weight loss. HP had no effect on the shape of reflectance curves, indicating that the pigment responsible for minced cured restructured ham color did not change due to HP. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Groundwater salinity in coastal aquifer of Karachi, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mashiatullah, A.; Qureshi, R.M.; Ahmad, E.; Tasneem, M.A.; Sajjad, M.I.; Khan, H.A.

    2002-01-01

    Potable groundwater salinity has become a problem of great concern in the Karachi Metropolis, which is not only the most populous and biggest industrial base but also the largest coastal dwelling of Pakistan. Stable isotope techniques [O/sup 18/ content of Oxygen in the water molecular and C/sup 13/ content of the Total Dissolved Inorganic Carbon (TDIC)] have been used, in conjunction with physiochemical tools (temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, redox electrical conductivity, salinity), to examine the quality of potable water and the source of salinity. Surface water samples (12 No.) were collected from polluted streams, namely: Layeri River, Malir River; Hub River/Hub Lake and the Indus River. Shallow groundwater samples (7 No. ) were collected from operating dug wells. Relatively deep groundwater samples (12 No.) were collected from operating dug wells, relatively deep groundwater samples (12 No.) were collected from pumping wells/tube-wells. Physicochemical analysis of water samples was completed in the field. In the laboratory, water samples were analyzed for O/sup 18/ content of oxygen in the water molecule and C/sup 13/ content of the TDIC, using specific gas extraction systems and a modified GD-150 gas source mass spectrometer. It is concluded from this preliminary investigation that the potable aquifer system in coastal Karachi hosts a mixture of precipitation (rainwater only) from hinterlands, trapped seawater in relatively deep aquifer system, as well as intruded seawater under natural infiltration conditions and/or induced recharge conditions (in shallow aquifers). (author)

  16. Ph3CCOOSnPh3.Ph3PO AND Ph3CCOOSnPh3.Ph3AsO: SYNTHESIS AND INFRARED STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ABDOU MBAYE

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The mixture of ethanolic solutions of Ph3CCOOSnPh3 and Ph3PO or Ph3AsO gives Ph3CCOOSnPh3.Ph3PO and Ph3CCOOSnPh3.Ph3AsO adducts which have been characterized by infrared spectroscopy. A discrete structure is suggested for both, the environment around the tin centre being trigonal bipyramidal, the triphenylacetate anion behaving as a mondentate ligand.

  17. Status and Causes of Soil Salinization of Irrigated Agricultural Lands in Southern Baja California,Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endo, T.; Yamamoto, S.; Fujiyama, H.; Honna, T.; Larrinaga, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    Selected farmlands in southern Baja California, Mexico, were surveyed to determine the levels and the causes of salinization/sodication in irrigated agricultural soil. The salt dynamics observed in profiles differed from farm to farm. Low EC and high ph levels were observed in the profiles of sandy fields, because the salt composition of these soils can easily change when salts are leached by irrigation water that contains carbonates of sodium. On the other hand, high levels of salinity and sodicity were observed in the soils of clayey fields. Soil salinization/sodication is complexly interrelated with soil characteristics, the amount and composition of salts in the soil, the quantity and quality of irrigation water applied, and the irrigation methods used. Our findings indicate that irrigation water in Baja California should be supplied at a rate that is sufficient to meet crop requirements without exacerbating salt accumulation.

  18. Therapeutic effects of compound hypertonic saline on rats with sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Dong

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Sepsis is one of the major causes of death and is the biggest obstacle preventing improvement of the success rate in curing critical illnesses. Currently, isotonic solutions are used in fluid resuscitation technique. Several studies have shown that hypertonic saline applied in hemorrhagic shock can rapidly increase the plasma osmotic pressure, facilitate the rapid return of interstitial fluid into the blood vessels, and restore the effective circulating blood volume. Here, we established a rat model of sepsis by using the cecal ligation and puncture approach. We found that intravenous injection of hypertonic saline dextran (7.5% NaCl/6% dextran after cecal ligation and puncture can improve circulatory failure at the onset of sepsis. We found that the levels of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, interleukin-6 and intracellular adhesion molecule 1 levels in the lung tissue of cecal ligation and puncture rats treated with hypertonic saline dextran were significantly lower than the corresponding levels in the control group. We inferred that hypertonic saline dextran has a positive immunoregulatory effect and inhibits the overexpression of the inflammatory response in the treatment of sepsis. The percentage of neutrophils, lung myeloperoxidase activity, wet to dry weight ratio of lung tissues, histopathological changes in lung tissues, and indicators of arterial blood gas analysis was significantly better in the hypertonic saline dextran-treated group than in the other groups in this study. Hypertonic saline dextran-treated rats had significantly improved survival rates at 9 and 18 h compared to the control group. Our results suggest that hypertonic saline dextran plays a protective role in acute lung injury caused after cecal ligation and puncture. In conclusion, hypertonic/hyperoncotic solutions have beneficial therapeutic effects in the treatment of an animal model of sepsis.

  19. The effects of temperature, salinity, and the carbonate system on Mg/Ca in Globigerinoides ruber (white): A global sediment trap calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, William R.; Weldeab, Syee; Lea, David W.; Rosenthal, Yair; Gruber, Nicolas; Donner, Barbara; Fischer, Gerhard

    2018-01-01

    The Mg/Ca of planktic foraminifera Globigerinoides ruber (white) is a widely applied proxy for tropical and sub-tropical sea-surface temperature. The accuracy with which temperature can be reconstructed depends on how accurately relationships between Mg/Ca and temperature and the multiple secondary controls on Mg/Ca are known; however, these relationships remain poorly quantified under oceanic conditions. Here, we present new calibrations based on 440 sediment trap/plankton tow samples from the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian Oceans, including 130 new samples from the Bay of Bengal/Arabian Sea and the tropical Atlantic Ocean. Our results indicate temperature, salinity and the carbonate system all significantly influence Mg/Ca in G. ruber (white). We propose two calibration models: The first model assumes pH is the controlling carbonate system parameter. In this model, Mg/Ca has a temperature sensitivity of 6.0 ± 0.8%/°C (2σ), a salinity sensitivity of 3.3 ± 2.2%/PSU and a pH sensitivity of - 8.3 ± 7.7%/0.1 pH units; The second model assumes carbonate ion concentration ([3 2-CO]) is the controlling carbonate system parameter. In this model, Mg/Ca has a temperature sensitivity of 6.7 ± 0.8%/°C, a salinity sensitivity of 5.0 ± 3.0%/PSU and a [3 2-CO] sensitivity of - 0.24 ± 0.11%/μmol kg-1. In both models, the temperature sensitivity is significantly lower than the widely-applied sensitivity of 9.0 ± 0.6%/°C. Application of our new calibrations to down-core data from the Last Glacial Maximum, considering whole ocean changes in salinity and carbonate chemistry, indicate a cooling of 2.4 ± 1.6°C in the tropical oceans if pH is the controlling parameter and 1.5 ± 1.4°C if [3 2-CO] is the controlling parameter.

  20. Determination of the intracellular pH of intact erythrocytes by 1H NMR spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabenstein, D.L.; Isab, A.A.

    1982-01-01

    A method is described for determining the intracellular pH of intact erythrocytes by 1 H NMR. The determination is based on the pH dependence of the chemical shifts of resonances for carbon-bounded protons of an indicator molecule (imidazole) in intact cells. The imidazole is introduced into the erythrocytes by incubation in an isotonic saline solution of the indicator. The pH dependence of the chemical shifts of the imidazole resonances is calibrated from 1 H NMR spectra of the imidazole-containing red cell lysates whose pH is varied by the addition of acid or base and measured directly with a pH electrode. To reduce in intensity or eliminate the much more intense envelope of resonances from the hemoglobin, the 1 H NMR measurements are made by either the spin-echo Fourier transform technique or by the transfer-or-saturation by cross-relaxation method

  1. Development of a pH sensor using nanoporous nanostructures of NiO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibupoto, Z H; Khun, K; Willander, M

    2014-09-01

    Glass is the conventional material used in pH electrodes to monitor pH in various applications. However, the glass-based pH electrode has some limitations for particular applications. The glass sensor is limited in the use of in vivo biomedical, clinical or food applications because of the brittleness of glass, its large size, the difficulty in measuring small volumes and the absence of deformation (inflexibility). Nanostructure-based pH sensors are very sensitive, reliable, fast and applicable towards in vivo measurements. In this study, nanoporous NiO nanostructures are synthesized on a gold-coated glass substrate by a hydrothermal route using poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) as a stabilizer. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques were used for the morphological and crystalline studies. The grown NiO nanostructures are uniform and dense, and they possess good crystallinity. A pH sensor based on these NiO nanostructures was developed by testing the different pH values from 2-12 of phosphate buffered saline solution. The proposed pH sensor showed robust sensitivity of -43.74 ± 0.80 mV/pH and a quick response time of less than 10 s. Moreover, the repeatability, reproducibility and stability of the presented pH sensor were also studied.

  2. An updated pH calculation tool for new challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crolet, J.L. [Consultant, 36 Chemin Mirassou, 64140 Lons (France)

    2004-07-01

    The time evolution of the in-situ pH concept is summarised, as well as the past and present challenges of pH calculations. Since the beginning of such calculations on spread sheets, the tremendous progress in the computer technology has progressively removed all its past limitations. On the other hand, the development of artificial acetate buffering in standardized and non-standardized corrosion testing has raised quite a few new questions. Especially, a straightforward precautionary principle now requires to limit all what is artificial to situations where this is really necessary and, consequently, seriously consider the possibility of periodic pH readjustment as an alternative to useless or excessive artificial buffering, including in the case of an over-acidification at ambient pressure through HCl addition only (e.g. SSC testing of martensitic stainless steels). These new challenges require a genuine 'pH engineering' for the design of corrosion testing protocols under CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S partial pressures, at ambient pressure or in autoclave. In this aim, not only a great many detailed pH data shall be automatically delivered to unskilled users, but this shall be done in an experimental context which is most often new and much more complicated than before: e.g. pH adjustment of artificial buffers before saturation in the test gas and further pH evolution under acid gas pressure (pH shift before test beginning), anticipation of the pH readjustment frequency from just a volume / surface ratio and an expected corrosion rate (pH drift during the test). Furthermore, in order to be really useful and reliable, such numerous pH data have also to be well understood. Therefore, their origin, significance and parametric sensitivity are backed up and explained through three self-understanding graphical illustrations: 1. an 'anion - pH' nomogram shows the pH dependence of all the variable ions, H{sup +}, HCO{sub 3}{sup -}, HS{sup -}, Ac{sup -} (and

  3. Carbon dioxide enrichment: a technique to mitigate the negative effects of salinity on the productivity of high value tomatoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sánchez-González, M. J.; Sánchez-Guerrero, M.C.; Medrano, E.; Porras, M.E.; Baeza, E.J.; Lorenzo, P.

    2016-11-01

    The present study was conducted to determine the mitigating influence of greenhouse CO2 enrichment on the negative effects of salinity in Mediterranean conditions. Hybrid Raf (cv. Delizia) tomato plants were exposed to two salinity levels of the nutrient solution (5 and 7 dS/m) obtained by adding NaCl, and two CO2 concentrations (350 and 800 μmol/mol) in which CO2 enrichment was applied during the daytime according to a strategy linked to ventilation. Increasing water salinity negatively affected the leaf area index (LAI), the specific leaf area (SLA), the water use efficiency (WUE), the radiation use efficiency (RUE) and dry weight (DW) accumulation resulting in lower marketable yield. The high salinity treatment (7 dS/m) increased fruit firmness (N), total soluble solids content (SSC) and titratable acidity (TA), whereas pH was reduced in the three ripening stages: mature green/breaker (G), turning (T), and pink/light red (P). Also, the increase in electrical conductivity of the nutrient solution led to a general change in intensity of the sensory characteristics of tomato fruits. On the other hand, CO2 enrichment did not affect LAI although SLA was reduced. RUE and DW accumulation were increased resulting in higher marketable yield, through positive effects on fruit number and their average weight. WUE was enhanced by CO2 supply mainly through increased growth and yield. Physical-chemical quality parameters such as fruit firmness, TA and pH were not affected by CO2 enrichment whereas SSC was enhanced. Greenhouse CO2 enrichment did mitigate the negative effect of saline conditions on productivity without compromising organoleptic and sensory fruit quality. (Author)

  4. Evaluating management-induced soil salinization in golf courses in semi-arid landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, J.; Udeigwe, T. K.; Weindorf, D. C.; Kandakji, T.; Gautam, P.; Mahmoud, M. A.

    2015-04-01

    Site-specific information on land management practices are often desired to make better assessments of their environmental impacts. A study was conducted in Lubbock, Texas, in the Southern High Plains of the United States, an area characterized by semi-arid climatic conditions, to (1) examine the potential management-induced alterations in soil salinity indicators in golf course facilities and (2) develop predictive relationships for a more rapid soil salinity examination within these urban landscape soils using findings from a portable X-ray fluorescence (PXRF) spectrometer. Soil samples were collected from managed (well irrigated) and non-managed (non-irrigated) areas of seven golf course facilities at 0-10, 10-20, and 20-30 cm depths and analyzed for a suite of chemical properties. Among the extractable cations, sodium (Na) was significantly (p golf facilities. Soil electrical conductivity (EC), exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP), and sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), parameters often used in characterizing soil salinity and sodicity, were for the most part significantly (p < 0.05) higher in the managed areas. Water quality reports collected over a 22-year period (1991-2013, all years not available) indicated a gradual increase in pH, EC, SAR, total alkalinity, and extractable ions, thus supporting the former findings. Findings from the PXRF suggested possible differences in chemical species and sources that contribute to salinity between the managed and non-managed zones. PXRF-quantified Cl and S, and to a lesser extent Ca, individually and collectively explained 23-85% of the variability associated with soil salinity at these facilities.

  5. PHYSIOLOGICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL MARKERS OF SALINITY TOLERANCE IN PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa YILDIZ

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Salt stress limits plant productivity in arid and semi arid regions. Salt stress causes decrease in plant growth by adversely affecting physiological processes, especially photosynthesis. Salinity tolerance is defined as the ability of plant to maintain normal rowth and development under salt conditions. Salt stress results in accumulation of low molecular weight compounds, termed compatible solutes, which do not interfere with the normal biochemical reactions. These compatible solutes such as carbohydrates, polyols, amino acids and amides, quaternary ammonium compounds, polyamines andsoluble proteins may play a crucial role in osmotic adjustment, protection of macromolecules, maintenance of cellular pH and detoxification of free radicals. On the other hand, plants subjected to environmental stresses such as salinity produce reactive oxygen species (ROS and these ROS are efficiently eliminated by antioxidant enzyme systems. In plant breeding studies, the use of some physiological and biochemical markers for improving the salt tolerance in plants is crucial. In this review, the possibility of using some physiological and biochemical markers as selection criteria for salt tolerance is discussed.

  6. Substantial effect of acute hydration on blood pressure in patients with autonomic failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehlsen, J; Boesen, F

    1987-01-01

    fraction were measured in the supine position. Measurements were repeated after rapid infusion of 11 of isotonic saline. Acute hydration resulted in increased supine mean blood pressure levels (P less than 0.01) despite normal plasma volumes in all patients. The postural reductions in mean blood pressure......The effect of acute hydration on arterial blood pressure levels was investigated in ten patients with severe postural hypotension due to autonomic failure. Blood pressure and heart rate were determined in the supine and 60-degree head-up tilted position. Plasma volume and left ventricular ejection...... were reduced from 40 mmHg before to 20 mmHg after saline (median values, P less than 0.01). The results indicate that normal plasma volumes do not ensure optimal circulatory status in patients with autonomic failure. Acute hydration with isotonic saline may be used for immediate corrections of blood...

  7. Identification of differentially expressed genes in flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) under saline-alkaline stress by digital gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ying; Huang, Wengong; Chen, Hongyu; Wu, Guangwen; Yuan, Hongmei; Song, Xixia; Kang, Qinghua; Zhao, Dongsheng; Jiang, Weidong; Liu, Yan; Wu, Jianzhong; Cheng, Lili; Yao, Yubo; Guan, Fengzhi

    2014-10-01

    The salinization and alkalization of soil are widespread environmental problems, and alkaline salt stress is more destructive than neutral salt stress. Therefore, understanding the mechanism of plant tolerance to saline-alkaline stress has become a major challenge. However, little attention has been paid to the mechanism of plant alkaline salt tolerance. In this study, gene expression profiling of flax was analyzed under alkaline-salt stress (AS2), neutral salt stress (NSS) and alkaline stress (AS) by digital gene expression. Three-week-old flax seedlings were placed in 25 mM Na2CO3 (pH11.6) (AS2), 50mM NaCl (NSS) and NaOH (pH11.6) (AS) for 18 h. There were 7736, 1566 and 454 differentially expressed genes in AS2, NSS and AS compared to CK, respectively. The GO category gene enrichment analysis revealed that photosynthesis was particularly affected in AS2, carbohydrate metabolism was particularly affected in NSS, and the response to biotic stimulus was particularly affected in AS. We also analyzed the expression pattern of five categories of genes including transcription factors, signaling transduction proteins, phytohormones, reactive oxygen species proteins and transporters under these three stresses. Some key regulatory gene families involved in abiotic stress, such as WRKY, MAPKKK, ABA, PrxR and ion channels, were differentially expressed. Compared with NSS and AS, AS2 triggered more differentially expressed genes and special pathways, indicating that the mechanism of AS2 was more complex than NSS and AS. To the best of our knowledge, this was the first transcriptome analysis of flax in response to saline-alkaline stress. These data indicate that common and diverse features of saline-alkaline stress provide novel insights into the molecular mechanisms of plant saline-alkaline tolerance and offer a number of candidate genes as potential markers of tolerance to saline-alkaline stress. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Kinetic model for predicting the concentrations of active halogen species in chlorinated saline cooling waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lietzke, M.H.; Haag, W.R.

    1979-01-01

    A kinetic model for predicting the composition of chlorinated water discharged from power plants using fresh water for cooling was previously reported. The model has now been extended to be applicable to power plants located on estuaries or on the seacoast where saline water is used for cooling purposes. When chloride is added to seawater to prevent biofouling in cooling systems, bromine is liberated. Since this reaction proceeds at a finite rate there is a competition between the bromine (i.e., hypobromous acid) and the added chlorine (i.e., hypochlorous acid) for halogenation of any amine species present in the water. Hence not only chloramines but also bromamines and bromochloramines will be formed, with the relative concentrations a function of the pH, temperature, and salinity of the water. The kinetic model takes into account the chemical reactions leading to the formation and disappearance of the more important halamines and hypohalous acids likely to be encountered in chlorinated saline water

  9. Influence of saline solution on hydration behavior of β-dicalcium silicate in comparison with biphasic calcium phosphate/hydroxyapatite bio-ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radwan, M.M., E-mail: mmahmoudradwan@yahoo.com [Ceramics Dept, National Research Centre, Cairo (Egypt); Abd El-Hamid, H.K. [Ceramics Dept, National Research Centre, Cairo (Egypt); Mohamed, A.F. [The Holding Company for Production of Vaccines, Sera and Drugs (EGYVAC) (Egypt)

    2015-12-01

    The influence of using saline solution as mixing and curing liquid on some characteristics of β-dicalcium silicate (β-C{sub 2}S) and biphasic compound tri-calcium phosphate/hydroxyapatite (TCP/HAp) bio-ceramics was investigated. β-C{sub 2}S (27–30 nm) was prepared by solid state reaction at 1450 °C, while biphasic compound TCP/HAp (7–15 nm) was synthesized from an aqueous solution of Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}·4H{sub 2}O and (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}HPO{sub 4}·12H{sub 2}O by chemical precipitation method. Setting times, compressive strength, pH values, X-ray diffraction analysis, infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were investigated. The evaluation of cytotoxicity of both calcium silicate and biphasic compounds to human gingival fibroblasts was carried out. The use of saline solution as mixing and immersing liquid shortened the setting time for the two bio-cements. TCP/HAp did not show any mechanical strength but β-C{sub 2}S showed good strength values. Both synthesized compounds showed a moderate cytotoxicity and both materials were effective in a no significant way. - Highlights: • The dissolution and hydration of β-C{sub 2}S and TCP/HAp in distilled water and saline solution were studied. • TCP/HAp did not show mechanical strength, while β-C{sub 2}S showed good mechanical strength. • The use of saline solution did enhances the dissolution & hydration rate. • An increase in pH values was detected when using saline solution. • Both materials showed a moderate cytotoxicity in no significant way.

  10. Effects of high salinity from desalination brine on growth, photosynthesis, water relations and osmolyte concentrations of seagrass Posidonia australis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cambridge, M L; Zavala-Perez, A; Cawthray, G R; Mondon, J; Kendrick, G A

    2017-01-01

    Highly saline brines from desalination plants expose seagrass communities to salt stress. We examined effects of raised salinity (46 and 54 psu) compared with seawater controls (37 psu) over 6 weeks on the seagrass, Posidonia australis, growing in tanks with the aim of separating effects of salinity from other potentially deleterious components of brine and determining appropriate bioindicators. Plants survived exposures of 2–4 weeks at 54 psu, the maximum salinity of brine released from a nearby desalination plant. Salinity significantly reduced maximum quantum yield of PSII (chlorophyll a fluorescence emissions). Leaf water potential (Ψ w ) and osmotic potential (Ψ π ) were more negative at increased salinity, while turgor pressure (Ψ p ) was unaffected. Leaf concentrations of K + and Ca 2+ decreased, whereas concentrations of sugars (mainly sucrose) and amino acids increased. We recommend leaf osmolarity, ion, sugar and amino acid concentrations as bioindicators for salinity effects, associated with brine released in desalination plant outfalls. - Highlights: • We separated salt effects of desalination brine from other deleterious components. • Sublethal salinity stress depended on both salinity increase and exposure time. • Very effective osmoregulation led to tolerance of short intervals of high salinity.

  11. Effects of high salinity from desalination brine on growth, photosynthesis, water relations and osmolyte concentrations of seagrass Posidonia australis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambridge, M L; Zavala-Perez, A; Cawthray, G R; Mondon, J; Kendrick, G A

    2017-02-15

    Highly saline brines from desalination plants expose seagrass communities to salt stress. We examined effects of raised salinity (46 and 54psu) compared with seawater controls (37psu) over 6weeks on the seagrass, Posidonia australis, growing in tanks with the aim of separating effects of salinity from other potentially deleterious components of brine and determining appropriate bioindicators. Plants survived exposures of 2-4weeks at 54psu, the maximum salinity of brine released from a nearby desalination plant. Salinity significantly reduced maximum quantum yield of PSII (chlorophyll a fluorescence emissions). Leaf water potential (Ψ w ) and osmotic potential (Ψ π ) were more negative at increased salinity, while turgor pressure (Ψ p ) was unaffected. Leaf concentrations of K + and Ca 2+ decreased, whereas concentrations of sugars (mainly sucrose) and amino acids increased. We recommend leaf osmolarity, ion, sugar and amino acid concentrations as bioindicators for salinity effects, associated with brine released in desalination plant outfalls. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Saline groundwater in crystalline bedrock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lampen, P.

    1992-11-01

    The State-of-art report describes research made on deep saline groundwaters and brines found in crystalline bedrock, mainly in site studies for nuclear waste disposal. The occurrence, definitions and classifications of saline groundwaters are reviewed with a special emphasis on the different theories concerning the origins of saline groundwaters. Studies of the saline groundwaters in Finland and Sweden have been reviewed more thoroughly. Also the mixing of different bodies of groundwaters, observations of the contact of saline groundwaters and permafrost, and the geochemical modelling of saline groundwaters as well as the future trends of research have been discussed. (orig.)

  13. Salinity variations and chemical compositions of waters in the Frio Formation, Texas Gulf Coast. Annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morton, R.A.; Garrett, C.M. Jr.; Posey, J.S.; Han, J.H.; Jirik, L.A.

    1981-11-01

    Waters produced from sandstone reservoirs of the deep Frio Formation exhibit spatial variations in chemical composition that roughly coincide with the major tectonic elements (Houston and Rio Grande Embayments, San Marcos Arch) and corresponding depositional systems (Houston and Norias deltas, Greta-Carancahua barrier/strandplain system) that were respectively active along the upper, lower, and middle Texas Coast during Frio deposition. Within an area, salinities are usually depth dependent, and primary trends closely correspond to pore pressure gradients and thermal gradients. Where data are available (mainly in Brazoria County) the increases in TDS and calcium with depth coincide with the zone of albitization, smectite-illite transition, and calcite decrease in shales. Waters have fairly uniform salinities when produced from the same sandstone reservoir within a fault block or adjacent fault blocks with minor displacement. In contrast, stratigraphically equivalent sandstones separated by faults with large displacement usually yield waters with substantially different salinities owing to the markedly different thermal and pressure gradients across the faults that act as barriers to fluid movement.

  14. Optical tool for salinity detection by remote sensing spectroscopy: application on Oran watershed, Algeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdellatif, Dehni; Mourad, Lounis

    2017-07-01

    Soil salinity is a complex problem that affects groundwater aquifers and agricultural lands in the semiarid regions. Remote sensing and spectroscopy database systems provide accuracy for salinity autodetection and dynamical delineation. Salinity detection techniques using polychromatic wavebands by field geocomputation and experimental data are time consuming and expensive. This paper presents an automated spectral detection and identification of salt minerals using a monochromatic waveband concept from multispectral bands-Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) and Thermal InfraRed Sensor (TIRS) and spectroscopy United States Geological Survey database. For detecting mineral salts related to electrolytes, such as electronical and vibrational transitions, an integrated approach of salinity detection related to the optical monochromatic concept has been addressed. The purpose of this paper is to discriminate waveband intrinsic spectral similarity using the Beer-Lambert and Van 't Hoff laws for spectral curve extraction such as transmittance, reflectance, absorbance, land surface temperature, molar concentration, and osmotic pressure. These parameters are primordial for hydrodynamic salinity modeling and continuity identification using chemical and physical approaches. The established regression fitted models have been addressed for salt spectroscopy validation for suitable calibration and validation. Furthermore, our analytical tool is conducted for better decision interface using spectral salinity detection and identification in the Oran watershed, Algeria.

  15. Iridium oxide pH sensor for biomedical applications. Case urea-urease in real urine samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prats-Alfonso, Elisabet; Abad, Llibertat; Casañ-Pastor, Nieves; Gonzalo-Ruiz, Javier; Baldrich, Eva

    2013-01-15

    This work demonstrates the implementation of iridium oxide films (IROF) grown on silicon-based thin-film platinum microelectrodes, their utilization as a pH sensor, and their successful formatting into a urea pH sensor. In this context, Pt electrodes were fabricated on Silicon by using standard photolithography and lift-off procedures and IROF thin films were growth by a dynamic oxidation electrodeposition method (AEIROF). The AEIROF pH sensor reported showed a super-Nerstian (72.9±0.9mV/pH) response between pH 3 and 11, with residual standard deviation of both repeatability and reproducibility below 5%, and resolution of 0.03 pH units. For their application as urea pH sensors, AEIROF electrodes were reversibly modified with urease-coated magnetic microparticles (MP) using a magnet. The urea pH sensor provided fast detection of urea between 78μM and 20mM in saline solution, in sample volumes of just 50μL. The applicability to urea determination in real urine samples is discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Inactivation of B. Pumilus spores by combination hydrostatic pressure-radiation treatment of parenteral solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wills, P.A.

    1975-01-01

    Bacterial spores are inactivated by moderate hydrostatic pressures. The radiation dose required to sterilize radiation sensitive pharmaceuticals can be considerably reduced using a combination hydrostatic pressure-radiation treatment. This paper describes a combination pressure-radiation sterilization process using Bacillus pumilus spores suspended in water, 0.9% saline, and 5% dextrose solutions. The optimum temperatures for spore inactivation at 35 MPa and the degree of inactivation at 35, 70 and 105 MPa applied for times up to 100 min have been determined. Inactivation was greatest in saline and least in dextrose. Spores in dextrose were only slightly less radiation resistant than in saline or water. It was calculated that the radiation dose required for sterilization could be halved with appropriate compression treatment. Examples of combinations of pressure-radiation suitable for sterilization are given. One combination is compression at 105 MPa for 18 min for a dose of 1.25 Mrad. (author)

  17. Simplified conversions between specific conductance and salinity units for use with data from monitoring stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schemel, Laurence E.

    2001-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, Bureau of Reclamation, and the California Department of Water Resources maintain a large number of monitoring stations that record specific conductance, often referred to as “electrical conductivity,” in San Francisco Bay Estuary and the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta. Specific conductance units that have been normalized to a standard temperature are useful in fresh waters, but conversion to salinity units has some considerable advantages in brackish waters of the estuary and Delta. For example, salinity is linearly related to the mixing ratio of freshwater and seawater, which is not the case for specific conductance, even when values are normalized to a standard temperature. The Practical Salinity Scale 1978 is based on specific conductance, temperature, and pressure measurements of seawater and freshwater mixtures (Lewis 1980 and references therein). Equations and data that define the scale make possible conversions between specific conductance and salinity values.

  18. Salting-out assisted liquid-liquid extraction combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for the determination of pyrethroid insecticides in high salinity and biological samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Zongliang; Yu, Chunwei; He, Xiaowen; Zhang, Jun; Wen, Yingying

    2017-09-05

    A salting-out assisted liquid-liquid extraction (SALLE) combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method was developed for the determination of four pyrethroid insecticides (PYRs) in high salinity and biological samples. Several parameters including sample pH, salting-out solution volume and salting-out solution pH influencing the extraction efficiency were systematically investigated with the aid of orthogonal design. The optimal extraction conditions of SALLE were: 4mL of salting-out solution with pH=4 and the sample pH=3. Under the optimum extraction and determination conditions, good responses for four PYRs were obtained in a range of 5-5000ng/mL, with linear coefficients greater than 0.998. The recoveries of the four PYRs ranged from 74% to 110%, with standard deviations ranging from 1.8% to 9.8%. The limits of detection based on a signal-to-noise ratio of 3 were between 1.5-60.6ng/mL. The method was applied to the determination of PYRs in urine, seawater and wastewater samples with a satisfactory result. The results demonstrated that this SALLE-GC-MS method was successfully applied to determine PYRs in high salinity and biological samples. SALLE avoided the need for the elimination of salinity and protein in the sample matrix, as well as clean-up of the extractant. Most of all, no centrifugation or any special apparatus are required, make this a promising method for rapid sample preparation procedure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. The effect of vapour pressure deficit on stomatal conductance, sap pH and leaf-specific hydraulic conductance in Eucalyptus globulus clones grown under two watering regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Maria Jose; Montes, Fernando; Ruiz, Federico; Lopez, Gustavo; Pita, Pilar

    2016-05-01

    Stomatal conductance has long been considered of key interest in the study of plant adaptation to water stress. The expected increase in extreme meteorological events under a climate change scenario may compromise survival in Eucalyptus globulus plantations established in south-western Spain. We investigated to what extent changes in stomatal conductance in response to high vapour pressure deficits and water shortage are mediated by hydraulic and chemical signals in greenhouse-grown E. globulus clones. Rooted cuttings were grown in pots and submitted to two watering regimes. Stomatal conductance, shoot water potential, sap pH and hydraulic conductance were measured consecutively in each plant over 4 weeks under vapour pressure deficits ranging 0·42 to 2·25 kPa. Evapotranspiration, growth in leaf area and shoot biomass were also determined. There was a significant effect of both clone and watering regime in stomatal conductance and leaf-specific hydraulic conductance, but not in sap pH. Sap pH decreased as water potential and stomatal conductance decreased under increasing vapour pressure deficit. There was no significant relationship between stomatal conductance and leaf-specific hydraulic conductance. Stomata closure precluded shoot water potential from falling below -1·8 MPa. The percentage loss of hydraulic conductance ranged from 40 to 85 %. The highest and lowest leaf-specific hydraulic conductances were measured in clones from the same half-sib families. Water shortage reduced growth and evapotranspiration, decreases in evapotranspiration ranging from 14 to 32 % in the five clones tested. Changes in sap pH seemed to be a response to changes in atmospheric conditions rather than soil water in the species. Stomata closed after a considerable amount of hydraulic conductance was lost, although intraspecific differences in leaf-specific hydraulic conductance suggest the possibility of selection for improved productivity under water-limiting conditions

  20. Geochemical effects of CO2 sequestration in sandstones under simulated in situ conditions of deep saline aquifers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wigand, M.; Carey, J.W.; Schuett, H.; Spangenberg, E.; Erzinger, J.

    2008-01-01

    The geochemical effects of brine and supercritical CO 2 (SCCO 2 ) on reservoir rocks from deep (1500-2000 m) saline aquifers were examined via experimental simulation at in situ conditions. Dry sandstone samples were mounted in a triaxial cell and autoclave system, evacuated, and saturated with 1 M NaCl solution. The brine-rock system was allowed to react at 30 MPa confining pressure, 15 MPa pore fluid pressure, and 60 deg. C while SCCO 2 was injected at a pressure gradient of 1-2 MPa. The experiment was conducted for a period of 1496 h, during which fluids were periodically sampled and analyzed. The pH measured in partially degassed fluid samples at 25 deg. C decreased from a starting value of 7.0-4.3 (9 days) and finally 5.1 after saturation with SCCO 2 . Fluid analyses indicate that most of the major (e.g. Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn) and trace elements (e.g. Sr, Ba, Pb) of the sandstone increase in concentration during the reaction with brine and SCCO 2 . These results are supported by scanning electron microscopy which indicates dissolution of dolomite cement, K-feldspar, and albite. In addition to dissolution reactions the formation of montmorillonite was observed. By adjusting surface area and reaction rates of dissolution and precipitation, geochemical modeling of the experiments could reproduce long-term trends in solution chemistry and indicated limited rates of dissolution as the system remained strongly undersaturated with most minerals, including carbonates. The geochemical models could not account for decreases in concentration of some elements, changes in solution composition resulting from changes in imposed pressure gradient, and the observed Ca/Mg and Si/Al ratios in solution

  1. Atmospheric forcing of salinity in the overflow of Denmark Strait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Holfort

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The temporal evolution of the characteristics of Denmark Strait Overflow Water (DSOW is reconstructed using hydrographic data and compared with possible atmospheric forcing mechanisms. It is concluded that the main factor influencing the DSOW characteristics at a time scale of one to several years is the difference in mean sea level pressure across Denmark Strait or, in other words, the wind along Denmark Strait. At these time scales upstream changes in the characteristics of the different water masses involved in the formation of DSOW are only of minor importance. The main process responsible for the observed salinity changes in the DSOW is mixing in Denmark Strait. Triggered by the wind, different water masses contribute with changing amounts to the formation of DSOW, leading to the observed changes in the salinity of DSOW.

  2. Meta-Cresol Purple Reference Material® (RM) for Seawater pH Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easley, R. A.; Waters, J. F.; Place, B. J.; Pratt, K. W.

    2016-02-01

    The pH of seawater is a fundamental quantity that governs the carbon dioxide - carbonate system in the world's oceans. High quality pH measurements for long-term monitoring, shipboard studies, and shorter-term biological studies (mesocosm and field experiments) can be ensured through a reference material (RM) that is compatible with existing procedures and which is traceable to primary pH measurement metrology. High-precision spectrophotometric measurements of seawater pH using an indicator dye such as meta-cresol purple (mCP) are well established. However, traceability of these measurements to the International System of Units (SI) additionally requires characterizing the spectrophotometric pH response of the dye in multiple artificial seawater buffers that themselves are benchmarked via primary pH (Harned cell) measurements at a range of pH, salinity, and temperature. NIST is currently developing such a mCP pH RM using this approach. This material will also incorporate new procedures developed at NIST for assessing the purity and homogeneity of the mCP reagent itself. The resulting mCP will provide long-term (years) stability and ease of shipment compared to artificial seawater pH buffers. These efforts will provide the oceanographic user community with a NIST issued mCP (RM), characterized as to its molar absorptivity values and acid dissociation constants (pKa), with uncertainties that comply with the Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement (GUM).

  3. Mantle wedge infiltrated with saline fluids from dehydration and decarbonation of subducting slab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamoto, Tatsuhiko; Yoshikawa, Masako; Kumagai, Yoshitaka; Mirabueno, Ma Hannah T; Okuno, Mitsuru; Kobayashi, Tetsuo

    2013-06-11

    Slab-derived fluids play an important role in heat and material transfer in subduction zones. Dehydration and decarbonation reactions of minerals in the subducting slab have been investigated using phase equilibria and modeling of fluid flow. Nevertheless, direct observations of the fluid chemistry and pressure-temperature conditions of fluids are few. This report describes CO2-bearing saline fluid inclusions in spinel-harzburgite xenoliths collected from the 1991 Pinatubo pumice deposits. The fluid inclusions are filled with saline solutions with 5.1 ± 1.0% (wt) NaCl-equivalent magnesite crystals, CO2-bearing vapor bubbles, and a talc and/or chrysotile layer on the walls. The xenoliths contain tremolite amphibole, which is stable in temperatures lower than 830 °C at the uppermost mantle. The Pinatubo volcano is located at the volcanic front of the Luzon arc associated with subduction of warm oceanic plate. The present observation suggests hydration of forearc mantle and the uppermost mantle by slab-derived CO2-bearing saline fluids. Dehydration and decarbonation take place, and seawater-like saline fluids migrate from the subducting slab to the mantle wedge. The presence of saline fluids is important because they can dissolve more metals than pure H2O and affect the chemical evolution of the mantle wedge.

  4. Extending the applicability of pressurized hot water extraction to compounds exhibiting limited water solubility by pH control: curcumin from the turmeric rhizome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Euterpio, Maria Anna; Cavaliere, Chiara; Capriotti, Anna Laura; Crescenzi, Carlo

    2011-11-01

    Pressurized hot water extraction (PHWE, also known as subcritical water extraction) is commonly considered to be an environmentally friendly extraction technique that could potentially replace traditional methods that use organic solvents. Unfortunately, the applicability of this technique is often limited by the very low water solubility of the target compounds, even at high temperatures. In this paper, the scope for broadening the applicability of PHWE by adjusting the pH of the water used in the extraction is demonstrated in the extraction of curcumin (which exhibits very limited water solubility) from untreated turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) rhizomes. Although poor extraction yields were obtained, even at high temperatures when using degassed water or neutral phosphate buffer as the extraction medium, yields exceeding those obtained by Soxhlet extraction were achieved using highly acidic pH buffers due to curcumin protonation. The influence of the temperature, pH, and buffer concentration on the extraction yield were investigated in detail by means of a series of designed experiments. Optimized conditions for the extraction of curcumin from turmeric by PHWE were estimated at 197 °C using 62 g/L buffer concentration at pH 1.6. The relationships between these variables were subjected to statistical analysis using response surface methodology.

  5. Interactive effects of chemical and biological controls on food-web composition in saline prairie lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Ryan N; Wissel, Björn

    2012-11-27

    Salinity is restricting habitatability for many biota in prairie lakes due to limited physiological abilities to cope with increasing osmotic stress. Yet, it remains unclear how salinity effects vary among major taxonomic groups and what role other environmental parameters play in shaping food-web composition. To answer these questions, we sampled fish, zooplankton and littoral macroinvertebrates in 20 prairie lakes (Saskatchewan, Canada) characterized by large gradients in water chemistry and lake morphometry. We showed that salinity thresholds differed among major taxonomic groups, as most fishes were absent above salinities of 2 g L-1, while littoral macroinvertebrates were ubiquitous. Zooplankton occurred over the whole salinity range, but changed taxonomic composition as salinity increased. Subsequently, the complexity of fish community (diversity) was associated with large changes in invertebrate communities. The directional changes in invertebrate communities to smaller taxa indicated that complex fish assemblages resulted in higher predation pressure. Most likely, as the complexity of fish community decreased, controls of invertebrate assemblages shifted from predation to competition and ultimately to productivity in hypersaline lakes. Surprisingly, invertebrate predators did not thrive in the absence of fishes in these systems. Furthermore, the here identified salinity threshold for fishes was too low to be a result of osmotic stress. Hence, winterkill was likely an important factor eliminating fishes in low salinity lakes that had high productivity and shallow water depth. Ultimately, while salinity was crucial, intricate combinations of chemical and biological mechanisms also played a major role in controlling the assemblages of major taxonomic groups in prairie lakes.

  6. Effect of Different Alternate Irrigation Strategies using Saline and Non-Saline Water on Corn Yield, Salinity and Moisture Distribution in Soil Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Reza Kiani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Lack of water and deterioration in the quality of soil and water resources are considered to be the prime cause of reduced crop yield in arid and semi-arid regions ‘More crop per drop’ by trickle irrigation, deficit irrigation, and uncommon water are the best strategies for mitigating water crises. Different irrigation management strategies are needed to increase production in different areas. In areas where sufficient water is available, a full irrigation strategy could be a suitable option, while in areas where water is limited, deficit irrigation would be an appropriate method, and finally in areas where water resources are saline, management strategies for achieving sustainable production as well as economic yields would be suitable. Maize is the third most important grain crop in the world following wheat and rice and it is the main source of nutrition for humans and animals. Because of the importance of maize in the world, increasing maize production under environmental stresses is a big challenge for agricultural scientists. Different methods of irrigation and the use of saline water that had satisfactory results for increasing agricultural production have been studied by several investigators . The main objective of this study was to establish an efficient use of limited water resources as well as to explore the possibility of replacing saline water with fresh water using different management techniques. Materials and Methods: A field experiment was conducted over two maize cropping seasons (2012–2013 in northern Iran (Gorgan Agricultural Research Station to compare different alternate irrigation scenarios using saline water on corn yield, salinity and soil moisture distribution in a randomized complete block design with three replications. Treatments were: T1 and T2 = 100 and 50 % of crop water requirement with non-saline water, respectively; T3 and T4 = variable and fixed full irrigation with saline and non-saline

  7. Chemical, temperature, pressure, and salinity data from bottle and CTD casts in the Arabian Sea as part of the Joint Global Ocean Flux Study / Arabian Sea Process Studies (JGOFS/Arabian) project, from 1995-07-17 to 1995-09-15 (NODC Accession 9800037)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, temperature, pressure, and salinity data were collected using bottle and CTD casts from the R/V Thomas G. Thompson in the Arabian Sea. Data were collected...

  8. A flowing liquid test system for assessing the linearity and time-response of rapid fibre optic oxygen partial pressure sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, R; Hahn, C E W; Farmery, A D

    2012-08-15

    The development of a methodology for testing the time response, linearity and performance characteristics of ultra fast fibre optic oxygen sensors in the liquid phase is presented. Two standard medical paediatric oxygenators are arranged to provide two independent extracorporeal circuits. Flow from either circuit can be diverted over the sensor under test by means of a system of rapid cross-over solenoid valves exposing the sensor to an abrupt change in oxygen partial pressure, P O2. The system is also capable of testing the oxygen sensor responses to changes in temperature, carbon dioxide partial pressure P CO2 and pH in situ. Results are presented for a miniature fibre optic oxygen sensor constructed in-house with a response time ≈ 50 ms and a commercial fibre optic sensor (Ocean Optics Foxy), when tested in flowing saline and stored blood. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Acidic pH facilitates peripheral αβmeATP-mediated nociception in rats: differential roles of P2X, P2Y, ASIC and TRPV1 receptors in ATP-induced mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Hyoung-Sig; Roh, Dae-Hyun; Kwon, Soon-Gu; Yoon, Seo-Yeon; Kang, Suk-Yun; Moon, Ji-Young; Choi, Sheu-Ran; Beitz, Alvin J; Lee, Jang-Hern

    2011-03-01

    Peripheral ischemia is commonly associated with an increase in tissue ATP concentration and a decrease in tissue pH. Although in vitro data suggest that low tissue pH can affect ATP-binding affinities to P2 receptors, the mechanistic relationship between ATP and low pH on peripheral nociception has not been fully examined. This study was designed to investigate the potential role of an acidified environment on intraplantar αβmeATP-induced peripheral pain responses in rats. The mechanical allodynia (MA) produced by injection of αβmeATP was significantly increased in animals that received the drug diluted in pH 4.0 saline compared to those that received the drug diluted in pH 7.0 saline. Moreover, animals injected with αβmeATP (100 nmol) in pH 4.0 saline developed thermal hyperalgesia (TH), which did not occur in animals treated with αβmeATP diluted in pH 7.0 saline. To elucidate which receptors were involved in this pH-related facilitation of αβmeATP-induced MA and TH, rats were pretreated with PPADS (P2 antagonist), TNP-ATP (P2X antagonist), MRS2179 (P2Y1 antagonist), AMG9810 (TRPV1 antagonist) or amiloride (ASIC blocker). Both PPADS and TNP-ATP dose-dependently blocked pH-facilitated MA, while TH was significantly reduced by pre-treatment with MRS2179 or AMG9810. Moreover, amiloride injection significantly reduced low pH-induced facilitation of αβmeATP-mediated MA, but not TH. These results demonstrate that low tissue pH facilitates ATP-mediated MA via the activation of P2X receptors and ASICs, whereas TH induced by ATP under low pH conditions is mediated by the P2Y1 receptor and TRPV1, but not ASIC. Thus distinct mechanisms are responsible for the development of MA and TH under conditions of tissue acidosis and increased ATP. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Infiltration with lidocaine and adrenaline instead of normal saline does not improve the septoplasty procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gungor, Volkan; Baklaci, Deniz; Kum, Rauf Oguzhan; Yilmaz, Yavuz Fuat; Ozcan, Muge; Unal, Adnan

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether infiltration of local anesthetics with adrenaline improved septoplasty procedure when compared to normal saline. Eight-two patients undergoing septoplasty were randomized into two groups. In group 1, septal mucoperichondrium was infiltrated with lidocaine with adrenaline, and normal saline was used in group 2. Presence of intra-operative septal mucosal injuries, the amount of bleeding, arterial blood pressure, operation time as well as the quality of the surgical field and the convenience of finding the correct surgical plane as determined by the surgeon using a 5-point scale were compared between two groups. There were no significant differences for the amount of blood loss, mean arterial pressure, operation time, or scores for convenience of finding the correct surgical plane between the two groups. There was no significant difference for intra-operative simple (P = 0.631) and total (simple+severe) (P = 0.649) septal mucoperichondrial injuries between groups 1 and 2, either. However, severe mucoperichondrial injury rate was higher in the patients infiltrated with lidocaine and adrenaline (P = 0.026), and the quality of the surgical field was worse in the patients injected with normal saline (P = 0.0179). Infiltration of septal mucoperichondrium with lidocaine and adrenaline instead of normal saline was not advantageous in terms of objective parameters tested, including bleeding amount and duration of surgery as well as the of the total mucosal injury rate in septoplasty procedure.

  11. Prevention of Oral Candidiasis After Free Flap Surgery: Role of 3% Sodium Bicarbonate Saline in Oral Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yue; Zhang, Fang; Lyu, Xin; Yan, Zhimin; Hua, Hong; Peng, Xin

    2017-03-01

    Relevant reports about oral candidiasis status and prevention measures after free flap surgery for the oral and maxillofacial region are limited. The present study explored oral candidiasis status after free flap surgery and its prevention through a prospective comparative study. One hundred four patients were randomized to a control group (n = 54) and an experimental group (n = 50). Compared with the control group, the experimental group was provided an additional 3% sodium bicarbonate saline solution for oral care after free flap surgery. The incidence of oral candidiasis was evaluated by objective examination (saliva culture and salivary pH measurement) and subjective evaluation (clinical signs of oral candidiasis) at admission and from postoperative days 1 to 14. The salivary pH values of the 2 groups were lower than the normal salivary pH, and postoperative salivary pH values were always lower than the active range of oral lysozymes in the control group. The salivary pH values of the experimental group were higher than those of the control group from postoperative days 6 to 14 (P < .05). The incidence of oral candidiasis was 13.0% in the control group, which was higher than that in the experimental group (2.0%; P < .05). In addition, advanced age, use of a free flap for the simultaneous repair of intraoral and paraoral defects, and a combination of 2 antibiotic types were risk factors for oral candidiasis. Oral candidiasis was common in patients after free flap reconstruction surgery, and the use of 3% sodium bicarbonate saline solution for oral care effectively prevented it. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Growth limitation of three Arctic sea-ice algae species: effects of salinitty, pH and inorganic carbon availability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Dorte Haubjerg; Hansen, Per Juel; Rysgaard, Søren

    2011-01-01

    The effect of salinity, pH, and dissolved inorganic carbon (TCO(2)) on growth and survival of three Arctic sea ice algal species, two diatoms (Fragilariopsis nana and Fragilariopsis sp.), and one species of chlorophyte (Chlamydomonas sp.) was assessed in controlled laboratory experiments. Our res...

  13. Acute extracellular fluid volume changes increase ileocolonic resistance to saline flow in anesthetized dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Jr. A.T.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available We determined the effect of acute extracellular fluid volume changes on saline flow through 4 gut segments (ileocolonic, ileal, ileocolonic sphincter and proximal colon, perfused at constant pressure in anesthetized dogs. Two different experimental protocols were used: hypervolemia (iv saline infusion, 0.9% NaCl, 20 ml/min, volume up to 5% body weight and controlled hemorrhage (up to a 50% drop in mean arterial pressure. Mean ileocolonic flow (N = 6 was gradually and significantly decreased during the expansion (17.1%, P<0.05 and expanded (44.9%, P<0.05 periods while mean ileal flow (N = 7 was significantly decreased only during the expanded period (38%, P<0.05. Mean colonic flow (N = 7 was decreased during expansion (12%, P<0.05 but returned to control levels during the expanded period. Mean ileocolonic sphincter flow (N = 6 was not significantly modified. Mean ileocolonic flow (N = 10 was also decreased after hemorrhage (retracted period by 17% (P<0.05, but saline flow was not modified in the other separate circuits (N = 6, 5 and 4 for ileal, ileocolonic sphincter and colonic groups, respectively. The expansion effect was blocked by atropine (0.5 mg/kg, iv both on the ileocolonic (N = 6 and ileal (N = 5 circuits. Acute extracellular fluid volume retraction and expansion increased the lower gastrointestinal resistances to saline flow. These effects, which could physiologically decrease the liquid volume being supplied to the colon, are possible mechanisms activated to acutely balance liquid volume deficit and excess.

  14. Potential of the Moringa oleifera saline extract for the treatment of dairy wastewater: application of the response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formentini-Schmitt, Dalila Maria; Fagundes-Klen, Márcia Regina; Veit, Márcia Teresinha; Palácio, Soraya Moreno; Trigueros, Daniela Estelita Goes; Bergamasco, Rosangela; Mateus, Gustavo Affonso Pisano

    2018-03-02

    In this work, the coagulation/flocculation/sedimentation treatment of dairy wastewater samples was investigated through serial factorial designs utilizing the saline extract obtained from Moringa oleifera (Moringa) as a coagulant. The sedimentation time (ST), pH, Moringa coagulant (MC) dose and concentration of CaCl 2 have been evaluated through the response surface methodology in order to obtain the ideal turbidity removal (TR) conditions. The empirical quadratic model, in conjunction with the desirability function, demonstrated that it is possible to obtain TRs of 98.35% using a coagulant dose, concentration of CaCl 2 and pH of 280 mg L -1 , 0.8 mol L -1 and 9, respectively. The saline extract from Moringa presented its best efficiency at an alkaline pH, which influenced the reduction of the ST to a value of 25 min. It was verified that the increase in the solubility of the proteins in the Moringa stimulated the reduction of the coagulant content in the reaction medium, and it is related to the use of calcium chloride as an extracting agent of these proteins. The MC proved to be an excellent alternative for the dairy wastewater treatment, compared to the traditional coagulants.

  15. Capillary Electrophoresis Analysis of Organic Amines and Amino Acids in Saline and Acidic Samples Using the Mars Organic Analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockton, Amanda M.; Chiesl, Thomas N.; Lowenstein, Tim K.; Amashukeli, Xenia; Grunthaner, Frank; Mathies, Richard A.

    2009-11-01

    The Mars Organic Analyzer (MOA) has enabled the sensitive detection of amino acid and amine biomarkers in laboratory standards and in a variety of field sample tests. However, the MOA is challenged when samples are extremely acidic and saline or contain polyvalent cations. Here, we have optimized the MOA analysis, sample labeling, and sample dilution buffers to handle such challenging samples more robustly. Higher ionic strength buffer systems with pKa values near pH 9 were developed to provide better buffering capacity and salt tolerance. The addition of ethylaminediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) ameliorates the negative effects of multivalent cations. The optimized protocol utilizes a 75 mM borate buffer (pH 9.5) for Pacific Blue labeling of amines and amino acids. After labeling, 50 mM (final concentration) EDTA is added to samples containing divalent cations to ameliorate their effects. This optimized protocol was used to successfully analyze amino acids in a saturated brine sample from Saline Valley, California, and a subcritical water extract of a highly acidic sample from the Río Tinto, Spain. This work expands the analytical capabilities of the MOA and increases its sensitivity and robustness for samples from extraterrestrial environments that may exhibit pH and salt extremes as well as metal ions.

  16. Jerusalem artichoke decreased salt content and increased diversity of bacterial communities in the rhizosphere soil in the coastal saline zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Tianyun; Li, Niu; Cheng, Yongwen; Long, Xiaohua; Shao, Hongbo; Zed, Rengel

    2017-04-01

    Soil salinity is one of the main environmental constraints that restrict plant growth and agricultural productivity; however, utilization of salt-affected land can bring substantial benefits. This study used an in-situ remediation method by planting Jerusalem artichoke in naturally occurring saline alkali soils with different salinity (high salinity (H, >4.0 g•salt kg-1 soil), moderate salinity (M, 2.0-4.0 g•salt kg-1 soil) and low salinity (L, 1.0-2.0 g•salt kg-1 soil) in the coastal saline zone in southeast China in comparison with the respective controls without Jerusalem artichoke planting (undisturbed soil). Soil pH and salinity increased sequentially from the rhizosphere to the bulk soil and the unplanted controls. The activity of neutral phosphatase and invertase decreased in the order L > M > H, whereas that of catalase was reverse. The minimum content of calcite, muscovite and quartz, and maximum content of chlorite and albite, were found in the control soils. Planting of Jerusalem artichoke enhanced bacterial microflora in saline alkali soil. Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes were the dominant phyla in all samples, accounting for more than 80% of the reads. The number of Operational Taxonomic Units (OTU) in the rhizosphere soil was, respectively, 1.27, 1.02 and 1.25 times higher compared with the bulk soil, suggesting that Jerusalem artichoke played a significant role in increasing abundance and diversity of soil microbial populations. The study showed that Jerusalem artichoke could be used to improve saline alkali soil by enriching bacterial communities, enhancing the activity of phosphatase and invertase, and decreasing soil salinity.

  17. [Variations of soil microbial community composition and enzyme activities with different salinities on Yuyao coast, Zhejiang, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hui; Zhang, Jian Feng; Xu, Hua Sen; Chen, Guang Cai; Wang, Li Ping

    2016-10-01

    In October 2015, soil samples with different salinity were collected in a coast area in Yuyao, Zhejiang, and soil microbial community composition, soil catalase, urease activities, as well as soil physical and chemical properties were studied. The results showed that Nitrospira took absolute advantage in the bacterial community, and showed good correlations to total potassium. Cladosporium and Fusarium were predominant in the fungal community. Meanwhile, Cladosporium was related to soil urease and total nitrogen, and same correlation was found between Fusarium and soil urease. Catalase activity ranged from 3.52 to 4.56 mL·g -1 , 3.08 to 4.61 mL·g -1 and 5.81 to 6.91 mL·g -1 for soils with heavy, medium and weak salinity, respectively. Catalase activity increased with the soil layer deepening, which was directly related to soil total potassium, and indirectly related to pH, organic matter, total nitrogen and total phosphorus through total potassium. Soil urease activity ranged among 0.04 to 0.52 mg·g -1 , 0.08 to 1.07 mg·g -1 and 0.27 to 8.21 mg·g -1 for each saline soil, respectively. Urease activity decreased with soil layer deepening which was directly related to soil total nitrogen, and was indirectly related to pH, organic matter and total potassium through total nitrogen. The total phosphorus was the largest effect factor on the bacterial community CCA ordination, and the urease was on fungal community.

  18. Kaolinite and Silica Dispersions in Low-Salinity Environments: Impact on a Water-in-Crude Oil Emulsion Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Alvarado

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This research aims at providing evidence of particle suspension contributions to emulsion stability, which has been cited as a contributing factor in crude oil recovery by low-salinity waterflooding. Kaolinite and silica particle dispersions were characterized as functions of brine salinity. A reference aqueous phase, representing reservoir brine, was used and then diluted with distilled water to obtain brines at 10 and 100 times lower Total Dissolved Solid (TDS. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM and X-ray Diffraction (XRD were used to examine at the morphology and composition of clays. The zeta potential and particle size distribution were also measured. Emulsions were prepared by mixing a crude oil with brine, with and without dispersed particles to investigate emulsion stability. The clay zeta potential as a function of pH was used to investigate the effect of particle charge on emulsion stability. The stability was determined through bottle tests and optical microscopy. Results show that both kaolinite and silica promote emulsion stability. Also, kaolinite, roughly 1 mm in size, stabilizes emulsions better than larger clay particles. Silica particles of larger size (5 µm yielded more stable emulsions than smaller silica particles do. Test results show that clay particles with zero point of charge (ZPC at low pH become less effective at stabilizing emulsions, while silica stabilizes emulsions better at ZPC. These result shed light on emulsion stabilization in low-salinity waterflooding.

  19. Algal and cyanobacterial saline biofilms of the Grande Coastal Lagoon, Lima, Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Montoya, Haydee

    2009-01-01

    Tropical coastal wetland ecosystems are widely distributed in arid regions. The Grande coastal lagoon in Peru's central plain is shallow, eutrophic and alkaline, exposed to the annual hydrological regime with flooding and desiccation periods, when a salt crust is formed. The brackish to hypersaline habitats showed salinity gradients from 2-90 ppt (NaCl) to saturation, pH values from 7.0 to 10.5, temperatures from 18 to 31 C, phosphate concentrations from 0.5 to 50 mg 1-1. Dominance of halophi...

  20. A randomized controlled trial comparing parenteral normal saline with and without 5% dextrose on the course of labor in nulliparous women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Chanderdeep; Kalra, Jasvinder; Bagga, Rashmi; Kumar, Praveen

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this study was to compare intravenous normal saline with and without 5% dextrose on the course of labor in nulliparous women in active phase of spontaneous labor. In a randomized controlled trial, term, nulliparous women with singleton pregnancy in active labor were randomized into one of two groups receiving either normal saline or normal saline alternating with 5% dextrose at rate of 175 ml/h. The primary outcome was total length of labor from onset of study fluid in vaginally delivered women. Maternal and neonatal outcomes were also analyzed. Of 250 women enrolled, in vaginally delivered subjects, there was significant difference in the duration of labor (p=0.0) and prolonged labor (p=0.01), with favorable results for women in 5% dextrose alternating with normal saline. No statistically significant differences were observed in the cesarean section rates between the groups. The cord pH was significantly higher in neonates born to women in 5% dextrose alternating with normal saline infusion as compared to normal saline alone (p=0.01), however, no neonate in the study had acidemia. Administration of a 5% dextrose solution alternating with normal saline is a better parenteral fluid for significantly decreasing duration of labor in term vaginally delivered nulliparous women in spontaneous active labor as compared to normal saline alone.

  1. ATHLET calculations of the pressurizer surge line break (PH-SLB test) at the PMK-2 test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krepper, E.; Schaefer, F.

    2000-01-01

    At the Hungarian integral test facility PMK-2 a pressurizer surge line break experiment (PH-SLB test) was carried out with the PHARE 4.2.6b project. The primary objective of the test was to provide experimental data for a surge line break transient at VVER-440 reactors with reduced injection from the emergency core cooling systems (ECC). At the Institute of Safety Research calculations of the experiment were performed with the thermohydraulic computer code ATHLET, which was developed by GRS (Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit) mbH. In the context of the PHARE 4.2.6b project the Institute of Safety Research has also supplied the void fraction measurement system for the PMK-2 test facility and was involved in the evaluation of the experimental results. (orig.)

  2. Finding a solution: Heparinised saline versus normal saline in the maintenance of invasive arterial lines in intensive care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everson, Matthew; Webber, Lucy; Penfold, Chris; Shah, Sanjoy; Freshwater-Turner, Dan

    2016-11-01

    We assessed the impact of heparinised saline versus 0.9% normal saline on arterial line patency. Maintaining the patency of arterial lines is essential for obtaining accurate physiological measurements, enabling blood sampling and minimising line replacement. Use of heparinised saline is associated with risks such as thrombocytopenia, haemorrhage and mis-selection. Historical studies draw variable conclusions but suggest that normal saline is at least as effective at maintaining line patency, although recent evidence has questioned this. We conducted a prospective analysis of the use of heparinised saline versus normal saline on unselected patients in the intensive care of our hospital. Data concerning duration of 471 lines insertion and reason for removal was collected. We found a higher risk of blockage for lines flushed with normal saline compared with heparinised saline (RR = 2.15, 95% CI 1.392-3.32, p  ≤ 0.001). Of the 56 lines which blocked initially (19 heparinised saline and 37 normal saline lines), 16 were replaced with new lines; 5 heparinised saline lines and 11 normal saline lines were reinserted; 5 of these lines subsequently blocked again, 3 of which were flushed with normal saline. Our study demonstrates a clinically important reduction in arterial line longevity due to blockages when flushed with normal saline compared to heparinised saline. We have determined that these excess blockages have a significant clinical impact with further lines being inserted after blockage, resulting in increased risks to patients, wasted time and cost of resources. Our findings suggest that the current UK guidance favouring normal saline flushes should be reviewed.

  3. Prediction of Optimal Salinities for Surfactant Formulations Using a Quantitative Structure-Property Relationships Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muller, C.; Maldonado, A.G.; Varnek, A.; Creton, B.

    2015-01-01

    Each oil reservoir could be characterized by a set of parameters such as temperature, pressure, oil composition, and brine salinity, etc. In the context of the chemical enhanced oil recovery (EOR), the selection of high performance surfactants is a challenging and time-consuming task since this

  4. An inorganic CO2 diffusion and dissolution process explains negative CO2 fluxes in saline/alkaline soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jie; Wang, Zhong-Yuan; Stevenson, Bryan A.; Zheng, Xin-Jun; Li, Yan

    2013-01-01

    An ‘anomalous' negative flux, in which carbon dioxide (CO2) enters rather than is released from the ground, was studied in a saline/alkaline soil. Soil sterilization disclosed an inorganic process of CO2 dissolution into (during the night) and out of (during the day) the soil solution, driven by variation in soil temperature. Experimental and modeling analysis revealed that pH and soil moisture were the most important determinants of the magnitude of this inorganic CO2 flux. In the extreme cases of air-dried saline/alkaline soils, this inorganic process was predominant. While the diurnal flux measured was zero sum, leaching of the dissolved inorganic carbon in the soil solution could potentially effect net carbon ecosystem exchange. This finding implies that an inorganic module should be incorporated when dealing with the CO2 flux of saline/alkaline land. Neglecting this inorganic flux may induce erroneous or misleading conclusions in interpreting CO2 fluxes of these ecosystems. PMID:23778238

  5. Negative-Pressure Hydrocephalus: A Case Report on Successful Treatment Under Intracranial Pressure Monitoring with Bilateral Ventriculoperitoneal Shunts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Sajan; Jin, Yi; Gao, Liang; Zhou, Cheng Cheng; Cui, Da Ming

    2017-03-01

    Negative-pressure hydrocephalus (NegPH), a very rare condition of unknown etiology and optimal treatment, usually presents postneurosurgery with clinical and imaging features of hydrocephalus, but with negative cerebrospinal fluid pressure. We describe a NegPH case of -3 mm Hg intracranial pressure that was successfully treated to achieve 5 mm Hg under continuous intracranial pressure monitoring with horizontal positioning, head down and legs elevated to 10°-15°, neck wrapping for controlled venous drainage, chest and abdomen bandages, infusion of 5% dextrose fluid to lower plasma osmolarity (Na + , 130-135 mmol/L), daily cerebrospinal fluid drainage >200 mL, and arterial blood gas partial pressure of carbon dioxide >40 mm Hg. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The efficacy of normal saline irrigation to prevent surgical site infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashraf, V.; Awan, A.S.

    2015-01-01

    The efficacy of normal saline irrigation to prevent surgical site Infection The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of normal saline irrigations to prevent surgical site infection (SSI). Study Design: A comparative study. Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted at surgery and gynecology Dept CMH Chunian from 1st Jan 2012 to 1st Nov 2012. Patients and Methods: Two hundred clean surgical and gynecological cases were included in the study. Hundred cases which were randomly selected had their wound washed with warm normal saline for 60 sec and then mopped dry with clean swabs. Subcuticular Stitches were applied to all the 200 cases. The surgical wounds were examined on 3rd post operative day and then finally on 15th post operative day. Patients with wound infection developed pain at the operation site and fever on third post operative day. Wounds were examined for swelling, redness, discharge and stitch abscess. Routine investigations were done as per protocol. Wound swabs were taken for culture and sensitivity. Results: The study was carried out on 200 clean cases (general and gynecological). They were 130 females and 70 males. The 100 cases whose wounds were washed with normal saline only 1 patient developed wound infection while in the other group who did not had saline irrigations 8 patients out of 100 developed wound infection. The commonest infective organisms were staphylococcus aureus and the other organisms were streptococcus pyogenes, proteus, Klaebsiella, E coli and pseudomonas. No MRSA was detected. Conclusion: In our study washing the wound with warm normal saline for 60 seconds resulted in the wound being infection free. Wound infection is associated with delayed wound healing, prolonged hospital stay and increased economic pressure on the patient and on the state. (author)

  7. Resuscitation from severe hemorrhagic shock after traumatic brain injury using saline, shed blood, or a blood substitute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Jeffrey B; Maxwell, Robert A; Schweitzer, John B; Fabian, Timothy C; Proctor, Kenneth G

    2002-03-01

    The original purpose of this study was to compare initial resuscitation of hemorrhagic hypotension after traumatic brain injury (TBI) with saline and shed blood. Based on those results, the protocol was modified and saline was compared to a blood substitute, diaspirin cross-linked hemoglobin (DCLHb). Two series of experiments were performed in anesthetized and mechanically ventilated (FiO2 = 0.4) pigs (35-45 kg). In Series 1, fluid percussion TBI (6-8 ATM) was followed by a 30% hemorrhage. At 120 min post-TBI, initial resuscitation consisted of either shed blood (n = 7) or a bolus of 3x shed blood volume as saline (n = 13). Saline supplements were then administered to all pigs to maintain a systolic arterial blood pressure (SAP) of >100 mmHg and a heart rate (HR) of 100 mmHg and a HR of CO2 reactivity was preserved with blood vs. saline (all P CO2 reactivity were improved, and ScvO2 was lower with DCLHb vs. saline (P effective than saline for resuscitation of TBI, whereas DCLHb was no more, and according to many variables, less effective than saline resuscitation. These experimental results are comparable to those in a recent multicenter trial using DCLHb for the treatment of severe traumatic shock. Further investigations in similar experimental models might provide some plausible explanations why DCLHb unexpectedly increased mortality in patients.

  8. Comparison of trans-perineal ultrasound-guided pressure augmented saline colostomy distension study and conventional contrast radiographic colostography in children with anorectal malformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekwunife, Okechukwu Hyginus; Umeh, Eric Okechukwu; Ugwu, Jideofor Okechukwu; Ebubedike, Uzoamaka Rufina; Okoli, Chinedu Christian; Modekwe, Victor Ifeanyichukwu; Elendu, Kelechi Collins

    2016-01-01

    In children with high and intermediate anorectal malformation, distal colostography is an important investigation done to determine the relationship between the position of the rectal pouch and the probable site of the neo-anus as well as the presence or absence of a fistula. Conventionally, this is done using contrast with fluoroscopy or still X-ray imaging. This, however, has the challenges of irradiation, availability and affordability, especially in developing countries. This study compared the accuracy of trans-perineal ultrasound-guided pressure augmented saline colostomy distension study (SCDS) with conventional contrast distal colostography (CCDC) in the determination of the precise location of the distal rectal pouch and in detecting the presence and site of fistulous communication between the rectum and the urogenital tract was studied. Trans-perineal ultrasound-guided pressure augmented SCDS, CCDC and intra-operative measurements were done sequentially for qualified infants with anorectal malformation and colostomy. Pouch skin distance and presence or absence of recto urinary or genital fistula was measured prospectively in each case. Statistical significance was inferred at P-value of 0.01. On its ability to detect presence or absence of a fistula: SCDS had a sensitivity of 50.0%, specificity of 100.0%, accuracy of 69.2%, negative predictive value of fistulas of 55.6% and a positive predictive value of fistulas of 100.0%. Ultrasound-guided pressure augmented SCDS can safely and reliably be used to assess the distal colonic anatomy and the presence of fistula in infants with Anorectal malformation who are on colostomy.

  9. Saline agriculture: A technology for economic utilization and improvement of saline environments (abstract)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aslam, Z.; Malik, K.A.; Khurshid, S.J.; Awan, A.R.; Akram, M.; Hashmi, Z.; Ali, Y.; Gulnaz, A.; Hussain, M.; Hussain, F.

    2005-01-01

    The salinity problem is one of the severe constraints for agriculture in Pakistan. In a socio-economic and salinity and drainage survey over an area of about 25000 acres of salt-affected land recently, crop production is found to be very low. Livestock is underfed and malnourished. Pakistan has spent and allocated over one billion US dollars on Salinity Control and Reclamation Projects (SCARP), of course, with dubious results. Over the years, a Saline Agriculture Technology has been developed as a cheap alternative at NIAB for comfortably living with salinity and to profitably utilize saline land rather than its reclamation. The soil improvement is a fringe benefit in this approach. The Saline Agriculture Technology has been tested at laboratory level, at field stations and at farms of some progressive farmers. Now we are sharing this technology with farming communities through a 'Saline Agriculture Farmer Participatory Development Project in Pakistan', with assistance from the National Rural Support Programme. The new project has been launched simultaneously in all four provinces of Pakistan on 25000 acres of salt-affected land. Under this project seeds of salt tolerant crop varieties wheat, cotton, rice, castor, brassica and barley and saplings of trees/shrubs, e.g. Acacia ampliceps, A. nilotica, Casuarina glauca, ber, jaman, etc selected for development work in various institutions of Pakistan are being provided to farmers. Know-how on new irrigation techniques like bed-and-corrugation and bed-and-furrow, agronomic practices like laser land leveling, planting on beds and in auger holes and soil/water amendment practices (use of gypsum and mineral acids) are being shared with farmers. These interventions are quite efficient, save water up to 40% and enable farmers to utilize bad quality water. In general, farmers are being familiarized with prevalent animal diseases, nutritional problems and prophylactic techniques. They are being helped in developing Saline

  10. Surface activity evaluation of an arabinose ester as water/oil demulsifier at severe conditions of temperature, salinity and pH; Avaliacao da atividade superficial de um ester de arabinose, como desemulsificante agua/oleo, em condicoes severas de temperatura, salinidade e pH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borges, Mauricio Rodrigues; Garcia, Rosangela Balaban; Santos, Jaciara Alves dos; Vieira, Mariane; Silva, Luciana Carvalho; Campos, Viviane de Oliveira; Silva, Rayane Araujo da; Santos, Telma Pitanga dos [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This work had for objective to compare the superficial properties of an arabinose ester, no-ionic, nontoxic, biodegradable, with two commercial products: the first one based on sodium dodecyl sulfate and the second one based on poly-oxy alkylene phenol formaldehyde. The arabinose ester was synthesized on the Petroleum Research Laboratory - UFRN, through enzymatic catalysis by protease from Bacillus subtilis, using arabinose and vegetable oil, in organic medium. In previous work [1], this sugar ester was evaluated as a possible water/oil demulsifier and the results were compared with the results of the commercial product based on poly-oxy alkylene phenol formaldehyde, showing that, for certain reaction conditions, the sugar ester presented better acting (71%) that the commercial product (33%) as demulsifier. In this work, the stability of this arabinose ester was evaluated in severe conditions of temperature, salinity and pH, through superficial tests in a tensiometer, using Wilhelmy plate method and the results were compared with the results obtained for two commercial products above mentioned. (author)

  11. Seed Germination and Physiological Response of Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. Cultivars under Saline Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen BEINSAN

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the experiment was to highlight the germination of sunflower seeds affected by the presence of saline stress and the identification of tolerant genotypes. The biological material was represented by sunflower cvs. (Helianthus annuus L.: Coril, Select, Santiago and Fundulea-206. To simulate the saline conditions, germination solutions of sodium chloride (NaCl were used with concentrations corresponding to the osmotic pressures -6 and -10 atm and the control seed hydration was performed with distilled water. Determination of seed germination, growth of seedling, percentage of plumules dry matter, chlorophyll content and free proline were performed. The experimental data obtained suppose the existence in the assimilation apparatus of sunflowers seedling subjected to stress a competitive chlorophyll/free proline biosynthesis processes. The experimental results regarding the effect of salinity on seed germination and seedling growth revealed important differences between genotypes. The radicle growth in the germination process were strongly affected by saline excess, with significant differences between cultivars. Saline stress results in significant reductions in the amount of chlorophyll, and high levels of free proline. It can be observed that with the increase of the stress level the percentage of the dry matter increases, indicating an accentuated water deficit.

  12. Effect of salicylic acid on physiological and biochemical characterization of maize grown in saline area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fahad, S.; Bano, A.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to determine the effect of exogenously applied salicylic acid (SA) on physiology of maize (Zea mays L.) hybrid cv. 3025 grown in saline field (pH 8.4 and EC 4.2 ds/m) as well as on the nutrient status of saline soil. The salicylic acid (10/sup -5/M) was applied as foliar spray, 40 days after sowing (DAS) at vegetative stage of maize plants. The salinity significantly increased sugar contents, protein, proline and superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APOX) activities but the chlorophyll, carotenoid contents, osmotic potential and membrane stability index (MSI) were lower than the control. Foliar application of salicylic acid (SA) to salt stressed plants further augmented the sugar, protein, proline, superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD) ascorbate peroxidase (APOX) activities, endogenous abscisic acid (ABA) , indole acetic acid (IAA) content, and root length, fresh and dry weights of roots whereas, the chlorophyll a/b and ABA/IAA ratio were decreased. The exogenous application of SA significantly decreased the Na/sup +/, Ni/sup +3/, Pb/sup +4/, Zn/sup +2/, and Na/sup +//K/sup +/ content of soil and roots while increased the Co/sup +3/, Mn/sup +2/, Cu/sup +3/, Fe/sup +2/, K/sup +/ and Mg/sup +2/ content under salinity stress. It can be inferred that exogenous application of SA (10/sup -5/M) was effective in ameliorating the adverse effects of salinity on nutrient status of soil. SA (10/sup -5/M) can be implicated to mitigate the adverse effects of salinity on maize plants. (author)

  13. Improvement of potato tolerance to salinity using tissue culture techniques and irradiation with in vitro selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Safadi, B.; Arabi, M. I. E.

    2005-06-01

    A mutation breeding program was conducted to improve potato (Solanum tuberosum) tolerance to salinity. In vitro cultured explants from potato cvs. Draga, Diamant, Spunta were irradiated with gamma doses 25, 30, and 35 Gy.Growing shoots were cut and re-cultured every 2 weeks until the 4th generation (MV 4 ) to make sure no chimeral tissues still existed in the mutant material. Plantlets were subsequently propagated to obtain enough explants for in vitro selection pressure. Around 3000 plantlets from the three cultivars were subjected to selection pressure. MV 4 explants were cultured on MS medium supplemented with the NaCl in varying concentrations ranging between 50 to 200 mM. Surviving plantlets were propagated and re-cultured on a similar medium to insure their tolerance to salinity. Tolerant plantlets were acclimatized and transferred to pots and grown under glasshouse conditions. Plants were later subjected to another selection pressure, by irrigating them using water containing NaCl in concentrations ranging between 50-250 mM in addition to controls irrigated with normal water. Cultivar Spunta produced the highest number of tolerant plants. Four plants of Spunta appeared to be tolerant to salinity whereas only one plant from Diamant and was tolerant and no plants from cultivar Draga were tolerant. Mutant plants varied in number of produced minitubers from 8 - 14. Also, weight of these minitubers varied from less than 1 to 31 grams. (author)

  14. Temperature, salinity, transmissivity, pressure, plankton, oxygen, nutrients, chlorophyll, and primary productivity data collected using CTD, bottle, and plankton net from the R/V Italica in the Ross Sea and Magellan Strait during 10th Italian Antarctic Expedition from 1994-11-13 to 1995-04-02 (NCEI Accession 0068289)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature, salinity, transmissivity, pressure, plankton, oxygen, nutrients, chlorophyll, and primary productivity data collected using CTD, bottle, and plankton...

  15. Dextrose saline compared with normal saline rehydration of hyperemesis gravidarum: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Peng Chiong; Norazilah, Mat Jin; Omar, Siti Zawiah

    2013-02-01

    To compare 5% dextrose-0.9% saline against 0.9% saline solution in the intravenous rehydration of hyperemesis gravidarum. Women at their first hospitalization for hyperemesis gravidarum were enrolled on admission to the ward and randomly assigned to receive either 5% dextrose-0.9% saline or 0.9% saline by intravenous infusion at a rate 125 mL/h over 24 hours in a double-blind trial. All participants also received thiamine and an antiemetic intravenously. Oral intake was allowed as tolerated. Primary outcomes were resolution of ketonuria and well-being (by 10-point visual numerical rating scale) at 24 hours. Nausea visual numerical rating scale scores were obtained every 8 hours for 24 hours. Persistent ketonuria rates after the 24-hour study period were 10 of 101 (9.9%) compared with 11 of 101 (10.9%) (P>.99; relative risk 0.9, 95% confidence interval 0.4-2.2) and median (interquartile range) well-being scores at 24 hours were 9 (8-10) compared with 9 (8-9.5) (P=.73) in the 5% dextrose-0.9% saline and 0.9% saline arms, respectively. Repeated measures analysis of variance of the nausea visual numerical rating scale score as assessed every 8 hours during the 24-hour study period showed a significant difference in favor of the 5% dextrose-0.9% saline arm (P=.046) with the superiority apparent at 8 and 16 hours, but the advantage had dissipated by 24 hours. Secondary outcomes of vomiting, resolution of hyponatremia, hypochloremia and hypokalemia, length of hospitalization, duration of intravenous antiemetic, and rehydration were not different. Intravenous rehydration with 5% dextrose-0.9% saline or 0.9% saline solution in women hospitalized for hyperemesis gravidarum produced similar outcomes. ISRCTN Register, www.controlled-trials.com/isrctn, ISRCTN65014409. I.

  16. Investigation of Lake Water Salinity by Using Four-Band Salinity Algorithm on WorldView-2 Satellite Image for a Saline Industrial Lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budakoǧlu, Murat; Karaman, Muhittin; Damla Uça Avcı, Z.; Kumral, Mustafa; Geredeli (Yılmaz), Serpil

    2014-05-01

    Salinity of a lake is an important characteristic since, these are potentially industrial lakes and the degree of salinity can significantly be used for determination of mineral resources and for the production management. In the literature, there are many studies of using satellite data for salinity related lake studies such as determination of salinity distribution and detection of potential freshwater sources in less salt concentrated regions. As the study area Lake Acigol, located in Denizli (Turkey) was selected. With it's saline environment, it's the major sodium sulphate production resource of Turkey. In this study, remote sensing data and data from a field study was used and correlated. Remote sensing is an efficient tool to monitor and analyze lake properties by using it complementary to field data. Worldview-2 satellite data was used in this study which consists of 8 bands. At the same time with the satellite data acquisition, a field study was conducted to collect the salinity values in 17 points of the laker with using YSI 556 Multiparametre for measurements. The values were measured as salinity amount in grams per kilogram solution and obtained as ppt unit. It was observed that the values vary from 34 ppt - 40.1 ppt and the average is 38.056 ppt. In Thalassic serie, the lake was in mixoeuhaline state in the time of issue. As a first step, ATCOR correction was performed on satellite image for atmospheric correction. There were some clouds on the lake field, hence it was decided to continue the study by using the 12 sampling points which were clear on the image. Then, for each sampling point, a spectral value was obtained by calculating the average at a 11*11 neighborhood. The relation between the spectral reflectance values and the salinity was investigated. The 4-band algorithm, which was used for determination of chlorophyll-a distribution in highly turbid coastal environment by Wei (2012) was applied. Salinity α (Λi-1 / Λj-1) * (Λk-1 / Λm-1) (i

  17. Determination of iron in highly-saline matrices by FIA-ICP-MS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens Enevold Thaulov

    Analysis of iron by inductively-coupled-plasma mass-spectrometry (ICP-MS) may be significantly improved by applying a protocol of flow-injection analysis. The iron species of the sample was preconcentrated by an ammonia buffer at pH = 9.2 on a filterless nylon-knotted reactor, and the adsorbed...... species were subsequently eluted by hydrochloric acid and analysed by ICP-MS. During the FIA step of preconcentration, a high degree of salinity did not influence the adsorption mechanism of iron, which may be related to formation of iron-hydroxide complexes at the sites of amide moieties of the nylon...

  18. Control of pH of retained water in the coastal waste disposal site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hem Ramrav

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available After landfilling of wastes is completed, the stabilization of landfilled ground requires much time and cost. Therefore, this study aimed to control the pH of retained water in the coastal waste disposal sites during landfilling process, by conducting field surveys and laboratory experiments. In field surveys, we investigated the changes of retained water quality such as pH, salinity, and dissolved oxygen. The results show the pH of retained water has risen to about 10 when the volume of landfilled wastes reached about 25% of landfill capacity. In lowing the pH, we considered a low-cost method by pumping seawater from the adjacent sea into the landfill. The mechanism in this method is that, H+ dissociated from HCO3- in the fresh seawater react with OH- eluted from wastes would result in pH decrease. The laboratory experiments were conducted to verify the effect on pH change by adding fresh seawater to alkalized seawater. As a result, the effect of injecting fresh seawater into alkalized seawater with pH higher than 9 was confirmed. Therefore, this treatment method is suggested to enable the disposal sites to be used promptly after landfilling is completed, by adding fresh seawater to purify the retained water and waste at low cost during landfilling process.

  19. Growth and nutrient concentrations of maize in pressmud treated saline-sodic soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Muhammad

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available n open-air pot experiment was conducted to investigate effects of pressmud (PM on saline-sodic soil reclamation, mitigating the adverse effects of saline irrigation and increase of maize (Zea mays L. growth. Pressmud was added at the rate of 0, 5, 10 and 20 Mg ha-1 to pots containing 6.8 kg air dried surface (0-20 cm soil collected from two sites. The increasing levels of PM enhanced maize plant height, shoots and roots biomass in both soils. However, the Soil 2, with initial EC and SAR of 5.43 dS m-1 and 18.67(m mol L-11/2, respectively, produced comparatively more biomass at all PM levels than Soil 1 [silty-clay loam, EC = 6.22 dS m-1, SAR = 20.72 (m mol L- 1 1/2]. The [P] in shoots was maximum at the highest PM in both the soils but the [K] increased with PM levels in Soil 1 and decreased in Soil 2 due to the dilution effect. The Soil 1 maintained several folds more [Na] in shoots and consequently lower K:Na ratio than Soil 2. The post harvest soil pH, Na, Ca+Mg and SAR in saturation extracts decreased with increasing levels of PM as compared to control. Soil 2 released more volume of leachate as compared to Soil 1 but the leachate EC and [Na] were comparable while [Ca+Mg] were relatively higher in Soil 2. The higher removal of total salts from Soil 2 resulted in lower soil pH, EC and SAR in this soil as compared to Soil 1. The increases in crop growth with each increment of PM up to 20 Mg ha-1 in the present study proved the benefits of PM in increasing crop yields and suggested that doses higher than 20 Mg PM ha-1 could be applied to the saline-sodic soils ofthe area to get maximum possible crop yields depending on soil and water quality

  20. A comparison of detomidine in combination with saline, morphine or methadone in horses submitted to experimental oral stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Costa Guilhen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to compare the sedative and cardiopulmonary effects of detomidine in combination with saline, morphine or methadone and to determine whether the addition of these opioids increases the degree of sedation in horses submitted to experimental oral stimuli. In a blinded, randomized, experimental study, six adult mares were evaluated using a crossover design with at least 15 days between trials: 10?g/kg detomidine in combination with saline (D/SAL, 0.1mg/kg morphine (D/ MORPH or 0.1mg/kg methadone (D/METH. The degree of sedation, response to oral stimuli and cardiopulmonary parameters were monitored for 120 minutes. Parametric data were analyzed using the ANOVA and Tukey’s tests, and non- parametric data were analyzed with the Kruskal-Wallis and Friedman’s tests with the post-Dunn test (P<0.05. The degree of sedation was significantly greater for the D/SAL than for the D/MORPH and D/METH treatments at 30 min. The horses´ responses to the oral stimuli decreased significantly following all treatments at 5 and 30 min from baseline values. The heart rate, respiratory rate, arterial pH and blood gas variables were all similar among the treatment groups. Mean arterial blood pressure was significantly higher in the D/MORPH group when compared with the D/SAL group between 75 and 120 min. It was concluded that all treatments provided sedative effects with mild cardiopulmonary changes. However the addition of morphine or methadone to detomidine did not improve the degree of sedation in horses submitted to experimental oral stimuli.

  1. The distribution and origins of extremely acidic saline groundwaters in the south of Western Australia - Groundwater and digital mapping datasets provide new insights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillicrap, Adam M.; Biermann, Vera; George, Richard J.; Gray, David J.; Oldham, Carolyn E.

    2018-01-01

    Some of the largest extents of naturally occurring acidic waters are found across southern Australia. The origins of these systems remain poorly understood with many hypotheses for their genesis. Australian government agency groundwater datasets and mapping data (vegetation, geology, regolith and soils) for south-western Australia, unavailable to previous researchers, were statistically analysed to better understand the origins of acidic groundwater and guide additional fieldwork to study the origins of acidic saline groundwater. The groundwater data showed a distinct bimodal distribution in pH; the 'acid' population had a median pH of 3.5 and the larger 'non-acid' population had a median pH of 6.6. Acidic groundwater became progressively more common further from the coast towards the drier internally drained regions. Acidic groundwater was mostly confined to the lower slopes and valley floors with localised controls on distribution. Paradoxically, subsoil alkalinity within the internally drained inland regions had the strongest correlation with acidic groundwater (r2 = 0.85). Vegetation was also a strong predictor of acidic groundwater. Acidic groundwater had the highest occurrence under Eucalyptus woodlands and shrublands that grew on alkaline calcareous soils. Pre-clearing soil data in areas with acidic saline groundwater showed that the upper 1 m of the unsaturated zone had a pH around 8 while the pH at depths greater than 5 m decreased to calcium is sourced from the deeper profile where the root biota exchanges calcium for hydrogen ions to maintain charge balance. Iron is mobilised from the upper soil profile and concentrates lower in the profile at depths >1.5 m. There, the iron is reduced around roots and the alkalinity generated by microbial iron reduction is removed by biogenic calcification processes. The iron moves in solution further down the profile following roots where it comes in contact with the oxygenated unsaturated zone matrix and is oxidised

  2. Salinity Trends in the Upper Colorado River Basin Upstream From the Grand Valley Salinity Control Unit, Colorado, 1986-2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leib, Kenneth J.; Bauch, Nancy J.

    2008-01-01

    In 1974, the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act was passed into law. This law was enacted to address concerns regarding the salinity content of the Colorado River. The law authorized various construction projects in selected areas or 'units' of the Colorado River Basin intended to reduce the salinity load in the Colorado River. One such area was the Grand Valley Salinity Control Unit in western Colorado. The U. S. Geological Survey has done extensive studies and research in the Grand Valley Salinity Control Unit that provide information to aid the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation and the Natural Resources Conservation Service in determining where salinity-control work may provide the best results, and to what extent salinity-control work was effective in reducing salinity concentrations and loads in the Colorado River. Previous studies have indicated that salinity concentrations and loads have been decreasing downstream from the Grand Valley Salinity Control Unit, and that the decreases are likely the result of salinity control work in these areas. Several of these reports; however, also document decreasing salinity loads upstream from the Grand Valley Salinity Control Unit. This finding was important because only a small amount of salinity-control work was being done in areas upstream from the Grand Valley Salinity Control Unit at the time the findings were reported (late 1990?s). As a result of those previous findings, the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation entered into a cooperative agreement with the U.S. Geological Survey to investigate salinity trends in selected areas bracketing the Grand Valley Salinity Control Unit and regions upstream from the Grand Valley Salinity Control Unit. The results of the study indicate that salinity loads were decreasing upstream from the Grand Valley Salinity Control Unit from 1986 through 2003, but the rates of decrease have slowed during the last 10 years. The average rate of decrease in salinity load upstream from the Grand Valley

  3. Calcium-Phosphate-Osteopontin Particles Reduce Biofilm Formation and pH Drops in in situ-Grown Dental Biofilms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlafer, Sebastian; Ibsen, Casper Jon Steenberg; Birkedal, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    This 2-period crossover study investigated the effect of calcium-phosphate-osteopontin particles on biofilm formation and pH in 48-h biofilms grown in situ. Bovine milk osteopontin is a highly phosphorylated glycoprotein that has been shown to interfere with bacterial adhesion to salivary......-coated surfaces. Calcium-phosphate-osteopontin particles have been shown to reduce biofilm formation and pH drops in a 5-species laboratory model of dental biofilm without affecting bacterial viability. Here, smooth surface biofilms from 10 individuals were treated ex vivo 6 times/day for 30 min with either...... calcium-phosphate-osteopontin particles or sterile saline. After growth, the amount of biofilm formed was determined by confocal microscopy, and pH drops upon exposure to glucose were monitored using confocal-microscopy-based pH ratiometry. A total of 160 biofilms were analysed. No adverse effects...

  4. Saline agriculture in Mediterranean environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albino Maggio

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Salinization is increasingly affecting world's agricultural land causing serious yield loss and soil degradation. Understanding how we could improve crop productivity in salinized environments is therefore critical to meet the challenging goal of feeding 9.3 billion people by 2050. Our comprehension of fundamental physiological mechanisms in plant salt stress adaptation has greatly advanced over the last decades. However, many of these mechanisms have been linked to salt tolerance in simplified experimental systems whereas they have been rarely functionally proven in real agricultural contexts. In-depth analyses of specific crop-salinity interactions could reveal important aspects of plant salt stress adaptation as well as novel physiological/agronomic targets to improve salinity tolerance. These include the developmental role of root vs. shoot systems respect to water-ion homeostasis, morphological vs. metabolic contributions to stress adaptation, developmental processes vs. seasonal soil salinity evolution, residual effects of saline irrigation in non-irrigated crops, critical parameters of salt tolerance in soil-less systems and controlled environments, response to multiple stresses. Finally, beneficial effects of salinization on qualitative parameters such as stress-induced accumulation of high nutritional value secondary metabolites should be considered, also. In this short review we attempted to highlight the multifaceted nature of salinity in Mediterranean agricultural systems by summarizing most experimental activity carried out at the Department of Agricultural Engineering and Agronomy of University of Naples Federico II in the last few years.

  5. Origin of salinity in produced waters from the Palm Valley gas field, Northern Territory, Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrew, Anita S.; Whitford, David J.; Berry, Martin D.; Barclay, Stuart A.; Giblin, Angela M.

    2005-01-01

    The chemical composition and evolution of produced waters associated with gas production in the Palm Valley gas field, Northern Territory, has important implications for issues such as gas reserve calculations, reservoir management and saline water disposal. The occurrence of saline formation water in the Palm Valley field has been the subject of considerable debate. There were no occurrences of mobile water early in the development of the field and only after gas production had reduced the reservoir pressure, was saline formation water produced. Initially this was in small quantities but has increased dramatically with time, particularly after the initiation of compression in November 1996. The produced waters range from highly saline (up to 300,000 mg/L TDS), with unusual enrichments in Ca, Ba and Sr, to low salinity fluids that may represent condensate waters. The Sr isotopic compositions of the waters ( 87 Sr/ 86 Sr = 0.7041-0.7172) are also variable but do not correlate closely with major and trace element abundances. Although the extreme salinity suggests possible involvement of evaporite deposits lower in the stratigraphic sequence, the Sr isotopic composition of the high salinity waters suggests a more complex evolutionary history. The formation waters are chemically and isotopically heterogeneous and are not well mixed. The high salinity brines have Sr isotopic compositions and other geochemical characteristics more consistent with long-term residence within the reservoir rocks than with present-day derivation from a more distal pool of brines associated with evaporites. If the high salinity brines entered the reservoir during the Devonian uplift and were displaced by the reservoir gas into a stagnant pool, which has remained near the reservoir for the last 300-400 Ma, then the size of the brine pool is limited. At a minimum, it might be equivalent to the volume displaced by the reservoired gas

  6. Role of pressure in angiotensin II-induced renal injury: chronic servo-control of renal perfusion pressure in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Takefumi; Cowley, Allen W

    2004-04-01

    Renal perfusion pressure was servo-controlled chronically in rats to quantify the relative contribution of elevated arterial pressure versus angiotensin II (Ang II) on the induction of renal injury in Ang II-induced hypertension. Sprague-Dawley rats fed a 4% salt diet were administered Ang II for 14 days (25 ng/kg per minute IV; saline only for sham rats), and the renal perfusion pressure to the left kidney was continuously servo-controlled to maintain a normal pressure in that kidney throughout the period of hypertension. An aortic occluder was implanted around the aorta between the two renal arteries and carotid and femoral arterial pressure were measured continuously throughout the experiment to determine uncontrolled and controlled renal perfusion pressure, respectively. Renal perfusion pressure of uncontrolled, controlled, and sham kidneys over the period of Ang II or saline infusion averaged 152.6+/-7.0, 117.4+/-3.5, and 110.7+/-2.2 mm Hg, respectively. The high-pressure uncontrolled kidneys exhibited tubular necrosis and interstitial fibrosis, especially prominent in the outer medullary region. Regional glomerular sclerosis and interlobular artery injury were also pronounced. Controlled kidneys were significantly protected from interlobular artery injury, juxtamedullary glomeruli injury, tubular necrosis, and interstitial fibrosis as determined by comparing the level of injury. Glomerular injury was not prevented in the outer cortex. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta and active NF-kappaB proteins determined by immunohistochemistry were colocalized in the uncontrolled kidney in regions of interstitial fibrosis. We conclude that the preferential juxtamedullary injury found in Ang II hypertension is largely induced by pressure and is probably mediated through the TGF-beta and NF-kappaB pathway.

  7. Average rainwater pH, concepts of atmospheric acidity, and buffering in open systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liljestrand, H.M.

    1985-01-01

    The system of water equilibrated with a constant partial pressure of CO/sub 2/, as a reference point for pH acidity-alkalinity relationships, has nonvolatile acidity and alkalinity components as conservative quantities, but not (H/sup +/). Simple algorithms are presented for the determination of the average pH for combinations of samples both above and below pH 5.6. Averaging the nonconservative quantity (H/sup +/) yields erroneously low mean pH values. To extend the open CO/sub 2/ system to include other volatile atmospheric acids and bases distributed among the gas, liquid and particulate matter phases, a theoretical framework for atmospheric acidity is presented. Within certain oxidation-reduction limitations, the total atmospheric acidity (but not free acidity) is a conservative quantity. The concept of atmospheric acidity is applied to air-water systems approximating aerosols, fogwater, cloudwater and rainwater. The buffer intensity in hydrometers is described as a function of net strong acidity, partial pressures of acid and base gases and the water to air ratio. For high liquid to air volume ratios, the equilibrium partial pressures of trace acid and base gases are set by the pH or net acidity controlled by the nonvolatile acid and base concentrations. For low water to air volume ratios as well as stationary state systems such as precipitation scavenging with continuous emissions, the partial pressures of trace gases (NH/sub 3/, HCl, NHO/sub 3/, SO/sub 2/, and CH/sub 3/COOH) appear to be of greater or equal importance as carbonate species as buffers in the aqueous phase.

  8. Average rainwater pH, concepts of atmospheric acidity, and buffering in open systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liljestrand, Howard M.

    The system of water equilibrated with a constant partial pressure of CO 2, as a reference point for pH acidity-alkalinity relationships, has nonvolatile acidity and alkalinity components as conservative quantities, but not [H +]. Simple algorithms are presented for the determination of the average pH for combinations of samples both above and below pH 5.6. Averaging the nonconservative quantity [H +] yields erroneously low mean pH values. To extend the open CO 2 system to include other volatile atmospheric acids and bases distributed among the gas, liquid and particulate matter phases, a theoretical framework for atmospheric acidity is presented. Within certain oxidation-reduction limitations, the total atmospheric acidity (but not free acidity) is a conservative quantity. The concept of atmospheric acidity is applied to air-water systems approximating aerosols, fogwater, cloudwater and rainwater. The buffer intensity in hydrometeors is described as a function of net strong acidity, partial pressures of acid and base gases and the water to air ratio. For high liquid to air volume ratios, the equilibrium partial pressures of trace acid and base gases are set by the pH or net acidity controlled by the nonvolatile acid and base concentrations. For low water to air volume ratios as well as stationary state systems such as precipitation scavenging with continuous emissions, the partial pressures of trace gases (NH 3, HCl, HNO 3, SO 2 and CH 3COOH) appear to be of greater or equal importance as carbonate species as buffers in the aqueous phase.

  9. N2-fixation in fababean (vicia faba l.) grown in saline and non saline conditions using 15N tracer technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalifa, Kh.; Kurdali, F.

    2002-09-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to study the performance of growing fababean and barley under saline conditions, in terms of, dry matter yield, total nitrogen and, percentages and amount of N derived from soil, fertilizer and atmosphere using 15 N isotope dilution method. Three saline treatments were performed: First, plants were grown in saline soil and irrigated with saline water (Ws Ss), Second, Plants were grown in saline soil and irrigated with saline water (Ws Ss); and Third, Plants grown in non saline soil and irrigated with saline water (Ws Sn). Furthermore, a control treatment was performed by using non-saline soil and non-saline water (Wn Sn). The different salinity treatments reduced plant growth and the reduction was more pronounced in fababean than in barley. However, under conditions of either saline soil-soft irrigation water or non saline soil-salty irrigation water, the relative growth reduction did not exceed 50% of the control; whereas, a significant negative effect was obtained when plants were grown under completely saline conditions of both soil and irrigation water. Percentage of N 2 -fixed (% Ndfa) was not negatively affected by saline conditions. However, our results clearly demonstrated that the effect of salinity in fababean was more evident on plant growth than on N 2 -fixing activity. Further studies are needed to obtain more salt tolerant faba bean genotypes in terms of growth and yield. This could be simultaneously improve yield and N 2 -fixation under sever saline conditions. (author)

  10. Reduced injection pressures using a compressed air injection technique (CAIT): an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsui, Ban C H; Knezevich, Mark P; Pillay, Jennifer J

    2008-01-01

    High injection pressures have been associated with intraneural injection and persistent neurological injury in animals. Our objective was to test whether a reported simple compressed air injection technique (CAIT) would limit the generation of injection pressures to below a suggested 1,034 mm Hg limit in an in vitro model. After ethics board approval, 30 consenting anesthesiologists injected saline into a semiclosed system. Injection pressures using 30 mL syringes connected to a 22 gauge needle and containing 20 mL of saline were measured for 60 seconds using: (1) a typical "syringe feel" method, and (2) CAIT, thereby drawing 10 mL of air above the saline and compressing this to 5 mL prior to and during injections. All anesthesiologists performed the syringe feel method before introduction and demonstration of CAIT. Using CAIT, no anesthesiologist generated pressures above 1,034 mm Hg, while 29 of 30 produced pressures above this limit at some time using the syringe feel method. The mean pressure using CAIT was lower (636 +/- 71 vs. 1378 +/- 194 mm Hg, P = .025), and the syringe feel method resulted in higher peak pressures (1,875 +/- 206 vs. 715 +/- 104 mm Hg, P = .000). This study demonstrated that CAIT can effectively keep injection pressures under 1,034 mm Hg in this in vitro model. Animal and clinical studies will be needed to determine whether CAIT will allow objective, real-time pressure monitoring. If high pressure injections are proven to contribute to nerve injury in humans, this technique may have the potential to improve the safety of peripheral nerve blocks.

  11. CO2 dissolution and its impact on reservoir pressure behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, E.; Egberts, P.J.P.; Loeve, D.; Hofstee, C.

    2015-01-01

    Geological storage of CO2 in large, saline aquifers needs to be monitored for safety purposes. In particular the observation of the pressure behavior of a storage site is relevant for the indication of CO2 leakage. However, interpretation of observed pressure is not straightforward in these systems,

  12. The Emissions of Carbon Dioxide, Methane, and Nitrous Oxide during Winter without Cultivation in Local Saline-Alkali Rice and Maize Fields in Northeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Zhang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural ecosystems are important contributors to atmospheric greenhouse gasses (GHGs; however, in situ winter emission data in saline-alkali fields are scarce. Gas samples were collected during different periods, from three rice (R1–R3 and three maize (M1–M3 fields with different soil pH levels and salinity conditions. Carbon dioxide (CO2 emissions in the rice and maize fields decreased with decreasing temperature during the freezing period and increased with the rising temperature during the thawing period, with the majority of winter CO2 emissions occurring during these two periods. Peaks in methane (CH4 emissions were observed during the freezing period in the rice fields and during the snow-melting period in the rice and maize fields. CH4 emissions in the rice fields and CH4 uptake rates in the maize fields were significantly (P < 0.05 related to surface soil temperature. Nitrous oxide (N2O emissions remained relatively low, except for during the peaks observed during the snow-melting period in both the rice and maize fields, leading to the high GHG contribution of the snow-melting period throughout the winter. Higher pH and salinity conditions consistently resulted in lower CO2, CH4, and N2O emissions, CH4 uptake, and lower global warming potential (GWP. These results can contribute to the assessment of the GWP during winter in saline-alkali regions.

  13. Ocean acidification alters temperature and salinity preferences in larval fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pistevos, Jennifer C A; Nagelkerken, Ivan; Rossi, Tullio; Connell, Sean D

    2017-02-01

    Ocean acidification alters the way in which animals perceive and respond to their world by affecting a variety of senses such as audition, olfaction, vision and pH sensing. Marine species rely on other senses as well, but we know little of how these might be affected by ocean acidification. We tested whether ocean acidification can alter the preference for physicochemical cues used for dispersal between ocean and estuarine environments. We experimentally assessed the behavioural response of a larval fish (Lates calcarifer) to elevated temperature and reduced salinity, including estuarine water of multiple cues for detecting settlement habitat. Larval fish raised under elevated CO 2 concentrations were attracted by warmer water, but temperature had no effect on fish raised in contemporary CO 2 concentrations. In contrast, contemporary larvae were deterred by lower salinity water, where CO 2 -treated fish showed no such response. Natural estuarine water-of higher temperature, lower salinity, and containing estuarine olfactory cues-was only preferred by fish treated under forecasted high CO 2 conditions. We show for the first time that attraction by larval fish towards physicochemical cues can be altered by ocean acidification. Such alterations to perception and evaluation of environmental cues during the critical process of dispersal can potentially have implications for ensuing recruitment and population replenishment. Our study not only shows that freshwater species that spend part of their life cycle in the ocean might also be affected by ocean acidification, but that behavioural responses towards key physicochemical cues can also be negated through elevated CO 2 from human emissions.

  14. The pressure effects on two-phase anaerobic digestion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Yuling; Rößler, Benjamin; Zielonka, Simon; Lemmer, Andreas; Wonneberger, Anna-Maria; Jungbluth, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The pressure effect on anaerobic digestion up to 9 bar was examined. • Increasing pressure decreased pH value in the anaerobic filter. • Increasing pressure increased methane content. • Increasing pressure decreased specific methane yield slightly. • The pressurized methane reactor was very stable and performed well. - Abstract: Two-phase pressurized anaerobic digestion is a novel process aimed at facilitating injection of the produced biogas into the natural gas grid by integrating the fermentative biogas production and upgrading it to substitute natural gas. In order to understand the mechanisms, knowledge of pressure effects on anaerobic digestion is required. To examine the effects of pressure on the anaerobic digestion process, a two-phase anaerobic digestion system was built up in laboratory scale, including three acidogenesis-leach-bed-reactors and one pressure-resistant anaerobic filter. Four different pressure levels (the absolute pressure of 1 bar, 3 bar, 6 bar and 9 bar) were applied to the methane reactor in sequence, with the organic loading rate maintained at approximately 5.1 kgCOD m −3 d −1 . Gas production, gas quality, pH value, volatile fatty acids, alcohol, ammonium-nitrogen, chemical oxygen demand (COD) and alkaline buffer capacity were analyzed. No additional caustic chemicals were added for pH adjustment throughout the experiment. With the pressure increasing from 1.07 bar to 8.91 bar, the pH value decreased from 7.2 to 6.5, the methane content increased from 66% to 75%, and the specific methane yield was slightly reduced from 0.33 l N g −1 COD to 0.31 l N g −1 COD. There was almost no acid-accumulation during the entire experiment. The average COD-degradation grade was always more than 93%, and the average alkaline buffering capacity (VFA/TIC ratio) did not exceed 0.2 at any pressure level. The anaerobic filter showed a very stable performance, regardless of the pressure variation

  15. Multi-Stream Saline-Jet Dissection Using a Simple Irrigation System Defines Difficult Tissue Planes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Philip CH

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Single-stream hydro-jet dissection is increasingly used in various laparoscopic procedures, but its use requires special equipment. We describe a simple method for using an irrigation system for saline-jet tissue dissection as a useful adjunct prior to adhesiolysis. Material and Methods: Intraabdominal adhesions prolong laparoscopic procedures, because tissue planes are difficult to identify. We performed multi-jet saline dissection (MSSJ) between 2000 and 2009 in more than 500 patients during laparoscopy involving hernias, gallbladders, appendices, and intestinal obstructions. We use a standard suction irrigation probe, which is attached to a 1-liter saline bag with an inflatable cuff around to create a pressure of 250mm Hg to 300mm Hg. In effect, this is the standard setup generally used for irrigation. After using saline dissection, tissue planes can be better defined and the structures can then be separated. Result and Discussion: Using this method, we have successfully identified tissue planes in spite of dense adhesions, and our conversion rates to open have been reduced dramatically. This method is relatively safer than other modalities of tissue dissection, such as diathermy, ultrasonic, blunt or sharp dissection. The disadvantage is that with tissues saturated with saline it becomes more difficult to use diathermy hemostasis. Care has to be exercised in monitoring the temperature and volume of the fluid used. PMID:20529528

  16. Intravenous hypertonic saline solution (7.5%) and oral electrolytes to treat of calves with noninfectious diarrhea and metabolic acidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, M L R; Fialho, S S; Cyrillo, F C; Bertagnon, H G; Ortolani, E L; Benesi, F J

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of treating osmotic diarrhea and dehydration in calves with hypertonic saline solution (HSS) IV, isotonic electrolyte solution (IES) PO, and a combination of these 2 solutions (HSS + IES). Eighteen male calves 8-30 days of age were used to evaluate the efficacy of 3 methods of fluid therapy after induction of osmotic diarrhea and dehydration. The diarrhea and dehydration were induced by administration of saccharose, spironolactone, and hydrochlorothiazide for 48 hours. The animals were randomly divided into 3 experimental groups: Group 1: 7.2% hypertonic saline solution-HSS (5 mL/kg IV); Group 2: oral isotonic electrolyte solution IES (60 mL/kg PO); or Group 3: HSS+IES. Clinical signs and laboratory finding observed 48 hours post-induction (Time 0) included diarrhea, dehydration, lethargy, and metabolic acidosis. Calves treated with HSS + IES experienced decreases in hematocrit, total protein concentration, albumin concentration, urea nitrogen concentration, and plasma volume as well as increases in blood pH, blood bicarbonate concentration, and central venous pressure between 1 and 3 hours post-treatment. These findings also were observed in animals treated with IES, however, at a slower rate than in the HSS + IES-treated animals. Animals treated with HSS continued to display signs of dehydration, lethargy, and metabolic acidosis 24 hours post-treatment. Treatment with a combination of HSS and IES produced rapid and sustainable correction of hypovolemia and metabolic acidosis in calves with noninfections diarrhea and dehydration. Copyright © 2012 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  17. Geophysical, geochemical and hydrological analyses of water-resource vulnerability to salinization: case of the Uburu-Okposi salt lakes and environs, southeast Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukpai, S. N.; Okogbue, C. O.

    2017-11-01

    Until this study, the location and depth of the saline units in Uburu-Okposi salt lake areas and environs have been unknown. This study aimed at delineating the saline lithofacies and dispersal configurations to water bodies, using electrical geophysical methods such as constant separation traversing (CST) and vertical electrical sounding (VES). Results showed weathered zones that represent aquifers mostly at the fourth geoelectric layer: between upper layered aquitards and underlying aquitards at depths 30-140 m. Lateral distribution of resistivity variance was defined by the CST, whereas the VES tool, targeted at low-resistivity zones, detected isolated saline units with less than 10 ohm-m at depths generally >78 m. The saline lithofacies were suspected to link freshwater zones via shear zones, which steer saline water towards the salt lakes and influence the vulnerability of groundwater to salinization. The level of salinization was verified by water sampling and analysis, and results showed general alkaline water type with a mean pH of 7.66. Water pollution was indicated: mean total dissolved solids (TDS) 550 mg/l, electrical conductivity (EC) 510 μS/cm, salinity 1.1‰, Cl- 200 mg/l, N03 -35.5 mg/l, Na+ 19.6 mg/l and Ca2+ 79.3 mg/l. The salinity is controlled by NaCl salt, as deduced from correlation analysis using the software package Statistical Product for Service Solutions (SPSS). Generally, concentrations of dissolved ions in the water of the area are enhanced via mechanisms such as evaporation, dissociation of salts, precipitation run off and leaching of dissolved rock minerals.

  18. Agricultural Soil Alkalinity and Salinity Modeling in the Cropping Season in a Spectral Endmember Space of TM in Temperate Drylands, Minqin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danfeng Sun

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the potential of the four-image spectral endmember (EM space comprising sand (SL, green vegetation (GV, saline land (SA, and dark materials (DA, unmixed from Landsat TM/ETM+ to map dryland agricultural soil alkalinity and salinity (i.e., soil alkalinity (pH and soil electrical conductivity (EC in the shallow root zone (0–20 cm using partial least squares regression (PLSR and an artificial neural network (ANN. The results reveal that SA, SL, and GV fractions at the subpixel level, and land surface temperature (LST are necessary independent variables for soil EC modeling in Minqin Oasis, a temperate-arid system in China. The R2 (coefficient of determination of the optimized parameters with the ANN model was 0.79, the root mean squared error (RMSE was 0.13, and the ratio of prediction to deviation (RPD was 1.95 when evaluated against all sampled data. In addition to the aforementioned four variables, the DA fraction and the recent historical SA fraction (SAH in the spring dry season in 2008 were also helpful for soil pH modeling. The model performance is R2 = 0.76, RMSE = 0.24, and RPD = 1.96 for all sampled data. In summary, the stable EMs and LST space of TM imagery with an ANN approach can generate near-real-time regional soil alkalinity and salinity estimations in the cropping period. This is the case even in the critical agronomic range (EC of 0–20 dS·m−1 and pH of 7–9 at which researchers and policy-makers require near-real-time crop management information.

  19. Low pH immobilizes and kills human leukocytes and prevents transmission of cell-associated HIV in a mouse model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markham Richard B

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Both cell-associated and cell-free HIV virions are present in semen and cervical secretions of HIV-infected individuals. Thus, topical microbicides may need to inactivate both cell-associated and cell-free HIV to prevent sexual transmission of HIV/AIDS. To determine if the mild acidity of the healthy vagina and acid buffering microbicides would prevent transmission by HIV-infected leukocytes, we measured the effect of pH on leukocyte motility, viability and intracellular pH and tested the ability of an acidic buffering microbicide (BufferGel® to prevent the transmission of cell-associated HIV in a HuPBL-SCID mouse model. Methods Human lymphocyte, monocyte, and macrophage motilities were measured as a function of time and pH using various acidifying agents. Lymphocyte and macrophage motilities were measured using video microscopy. Monocyte motility was measured using video microscopy and chemotactic chambers. Peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC viability and intracellular pH were determined as a function of time and pH using fluorescent dyes. HuPBL-SCID mice were pretreated with BufferGel, saline, or a control gel and challenged with HIV-1-infected human PBMCs. Results Progressive motility was completely abolished in all cell types between pH 5.5 and 6.0. Concomitantly, at and below pH 5.5, the intracellular pH of PBMCs dropped precipitously to match the extracellular medium and did not recover. After acidification with hydrochloric acid to pH 4.5 for 60 min, although completely immotile, 58% of PBMCs excluded ethidium homodimer-1 (dead-cell dye. In contrast, when acidified to this pH with BufferGel, a microbicide designed to maintain vaginal acidity in the presence of semen, only 4% excluded dye at 10 min and none excluded dye after 30 min. BufferGel significantly reduced transmission of HIV-1 in HuPBL-SCID mice (1 of 12 infected compared to saline (12 of 12 infected and a control gel (5 of 7 infected. Conclusion These

  20. Efficacy of nebulised L-adrenaline with 3% hypertonic saline versus normal saline in bronchiolitis

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    Shabnam Sharmin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bronchiolitis is one of the most common respiratory diseases requiring hospitalization. Nebulized epineph­rine and salbutamol therapy has been used in different centres with varying results. Objective: The objective of the study was to compare the efficacy of nebulised adrenaline diluted with 3% hypertonic saline with nebulised adrenaline diluted with normal saline in bronchiolitis. Methods: Fifty three infants and young children with bronchiolitis, age ranging from 2 months to 2 years, presenting in the emergency department of Manikganj Sadar Hospital were enrolled in the study. After initial evaluation, patients were randomized to receive either nebulized adrenaline I .5 ml ( 1.5 mg diluted with 2 ml of3% hypertonic saline (group I ornebulised adrenaline 1.5 ml (1.5 mg diluted with 2 ml of normal saline (group II. Patients were evaluated again 30 minutes after nebulization. Results: Twenty eight patients in the group I (hypertonic saline and twenty five in groupII (normal saline were included in the study. After nebulization, mean respiratory rate decreased from 63.7 to 48.1 (p<.01, mean clinical severity score decreased from 8.5 to 3.5 (p<.01 and mean oxygen satw·ation increased 94.7% to 96.9% (p<.01 in group I. In group II, mean respiratory rate decreased from 62.4 to 47.4 (p<.01, mean clinical severity score decreased from 7.2 to 4.1 (p<.01 and mean oxygen saturation increased from 94. 7% to 96. 7% (p<.01. Mean respiratory rate decreased by 16 in group I versus 14.8 (p>.05 in group 11, mean clinical severity score decreased by 4.6 in group versus 3 (p<.05 in group, and mean oxygen saturation increased by 2.2% and 1.9% in group and group respectively. Difference in reduction in clinical severity score was statistically significant , though the changes in respiratory rate and oxygen saturation were not statistically significant. Conclusion: The study concluded that both nebulised adrenaline diluted with 3% hypertonic saline and

  1. Changes in methane oxidation activity and methanotrophic community composition in saline alkaline soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano-Silva, Nancy; Valenzuela-Encinas, César; Marsch, Rodolfo; Dendooven, Luc; Alcántara-Hernández, Rocio J

    2014-05-01

    The soil of the former Lake Texcoco is a saline alkaline environment where anthropogenic drainage in some areas has reduced salt content and pH. Potential methane (CH4) consumption rates were measured in three soils of the former Lake Texcoco with different electrolytic conductivity (EC) and pH, i.e. Tex-S1 a >18 years drained soil (EC 0.7 dS m(-1), pH 8.5), Tex-S2 drained for ~10 years (EC 9.0 dS m(-1), pH 10.3) and the undrained Tex-S3 (EC 84.8 dS m(-1), pH 10.3). An arable soil from Alcholoya (EC 0.7 dS m(-1), pH 6.7), located nearby Lake Texcoco was used as control. Methane oxidation in the soil Tex-S1 (lowest EC and pH) was similar to that in the arable soil from Alcholoya (32.5 and 34.7 mg CH4 kg(-1) dry soil day(-1), respectively). Meanwhile, in soils Tex-S2 and Tex-S3, the potential CH4 oxidation rates were only 15.0 and 12.8 mg CH4 kg(-1) dry soil day(-1), respectively. Differences in CH4 oxidation were also related to changes in the methane-oxidizing communities in these soils. Sequence analysis of pmoA gene showed that soils differed in the identity and number of methanotrophic phylotypes. The Alcholoya soil and Tex-S1 contained phylotypes grouped within the upland soil cluster gamma and the Jasper Ridge, California JR-2 clade. In soil Tex-S3, a phylotype related to Methylomicrobium alcaliphilum was detected.

  2. Antiepileptic drug use and the occurrence of pressure ulcers among bedridden institutionalized elderly patients: a retrospective chart review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arinzon, Zeev; Zeilig, Gabriel; Berner, Yitshal N; Adunsky, Abraham

    2005-09-01

    Phenytoin (PH) is indicated primarily for the control of grand mal and psychomotor seizures. However, topical PH has been used for the treatment of various types of ulcers, including pressure ulcers. The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of a relationship between the use of oral PH and the prevalence of pressure ulcers among bedridden institutionalized elderly patients. This retrospective chart review was conducted in a state-run urban geriatric medical center in Israel and involved long-term bedridden institutionalized patients who were receiving chronic antiepileptic medication during the 7-year period between January 1996 and December 2003. The prevalence of pressure ulcers in patients who received treatment with PH alone or in combination with other antiepileptic drugs was compared with that in patients who received antiepileptic agents other than PH. The study analyzed data from the medical charts of 153 patients, 72 of whom received PH alone or in combination with other antiepileptic drugs, and 81 of whom received antiepileptic agents other than PH. Patients' mean (SD) age was 78.5 (7.2) years; 106 (69.3%) were women. All patients were totally dependent with respect to activities of daily living (mean Katz score, 2.0 [2.0]) and had severe cognitive decline (mean Mini-Mental State Examination score, 3.5 [3.3]). Pressure ulcers occurred in 9.7% of PH recipients and 27.2% of non-PH recipients (P = 0.006; chi2 = 7.55). In PH recipients, 85.7% of pressure ulcers were of mild to moderate severity (stage I or II), compared with 59.1% of ulcers in non-PH recipients; the difference between groups was not statistically significant. Four (18.2%) non-PH recipients and no PH recipients had stage IV pressure ulcers. In the PH group, 71.4% of patients had a pressure ulcer in only 1 anatomic location, compared with 22.7% of the non-PH group (P = 0.023; chi2 = 5.13); 28.6% of PH recipients and 63.6% of non-PH recipients had pressure ulcers in 2 or 3

  3. A global algorithm for estimating Absolute Salinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, T. J.; Jackett, D. R.; Millero, F. J.; Pawlowicz, R.; Barker, P. M.

    2012-12-01

    The International Thermodynamic Equation of Seawater - 2010 has defined the thermodynamic properties of seawater in terms of a new salinity variable, Absolute Salinity, which takes into account the spatial variation of the composition of seawater. Absolute Salinity more accurately reflects the effects of the dissolved material in seawater on the thermodynamic properties (particularly density) than does Practical Salinity. When a seawater sample has standard composition (i.e. the ratios of the constituents of sea salt are the same as those of surface water of the North Atlantic), Practical Salinity can be used to accurately evaluate the thermodynamic properties of seawater. When seawater is not of standard composition, Practical Salinity alone is not sufficient and the Absolute Salinity Anomaly needs to be estimated; this anomaly is as large as 0.025 g kg-1 in the northernmost North Pacific. Here we provide an algorithm for estimating Absolute Salinity Anomaly for any location (x, y, p) in the world ocean. To develop this algorithm, we used the Absolute Salinity Anomaly that is found by comparing the density calculated from Practical Salinity to the density measured in the laboratory. These estimates of Absolute Salinity Anomaly however are limited to the number of available observations (namely 811). In order to provide a practical method that can be used at any location in the world ocean, we take advantage of approximate relationships between Absolute Salinity Anomaly and silicate concentrations (which are available globally).

  4. Feasibility of electrochemical oxidation process for treatment of saline wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavoos Dindarloo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: High concentration of salt makes biological treatment impossible due to bacterial plasmolysis. The present research studies the process of electrochemical oxidation efficiency and optimal levels as important factors affecting pH, salt concentration, reaction time and applied voltage. Methods: The sample included graphite electrodes with specifications of 2.5 cm diameter and 15 cm height using a reactor with an optimum capacity of 1 L. Sixty samples were obtained with the aid of the experiments carried out in triplicates for each factor at 5 different levels. The entire experiments were performed based on standard methods for water and waste water treatments. Results: Analysis of variance carried out on effect of pH, salt concentration, reaction time and flow intensity in elimination of chemical oxygen demand (COD showed that they are significant factors affecting this process and reduce COD with a coefficient interval of 95% and test power of 80%. Scheffe test showed that at optimal level, a reaction time of 1 hour, 10 g/L concentration, pH = 9 and 15 V electrical potential difference were obtained. Conclusion: Waste waters containing salt may contribute to the electro-oxidation process due to its cations and anions. Therefore, the process of electrochemical oxidation with graphite electrodes could be a proper strategy for the treatment of saline wastewater where biological treatment is not possible.

  5. Isolation of a halophilic bacterium, Bacillus sp. strain NY-6 for organic contaminants removal in saline wastewater on ship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jie; Yu, Zhenjiang; Zhang, Xiaohui; Zhao, Dan; Zhao, Fangbo

    2013-06-01

    The objective of this research was to examine if certain strains of Bacillus bacteria, could survive in dry powder products and if so, could the bacteria degrade organic contaminants in saline wastewater on a ship. As part of the study, we isolated 7 domesticated strains named NY1, NY2,..., and NY7, the strain NY6 showed to have the best performance for organic matter degradation and could survive in dry powder more than 3 months. NY6 was identified as Bacillus aerius, based on the morphological and physic-chemical properties. Its optimal growth conditions were as follows: salinity was 2%; temperature was 37°C; pH was in 6.5-7.0; best ratio of C: N: P was 100:5:1. The capability of its dry powder for Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) removal was 800mg COD/g in synthesized marine wastewater with 2% salinity. The spores in the dry powder were 1.972×108 g -1.

  6. Osmotic stress confers enhanced cell integrity to hydrostatic pressure but impairs growth in Alcanivorax borkumensis SK2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto eScoma

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Alcanivorax is a hydrocarbonoclastic genus dominating oil spills worldwide. While its presence has been detected in oil-polluted seawaters, marine sediment and salt marshes under ambient pressure, its presence in deep-sea contaminated environments is negligible. Recent laboratory evidences highlighted the piezosensitive nature of some Alcanivorax species, whose growth yields are highly impacted by mild hydrostatic pressures (HPs. In the present study, osmotic stress was used as a tool to increase HP resistance in the type strain A. borkumensis SK2. Control cultures grown under standard conditions of salinity and osmotic pressure with respect to seawater (35.6 ppt or 1136 mOsm kg-1, respectively were compared with cultures subjected to hypo- and hyperosmosis (330 and 1720 mOsm kg-1, or 18 and 62 ppt in salinity, equivalent to brackish and brine waters, respectively, under atmospheric or increased HP (0.1 and 10MPa. Osmotic stress had a remarkably positive impact on cell metabolic activity in terms of CO2 production (thus, oil bioremediation and O2 respiration under hyperosmosis, as acclimation to high salinity enhanced cell activity under 10MPa by a factor of 10. Both osmotic shocks significantly enhanced cell protection by reducing membrane damage under HP, with cell integrities close to 100% under hyposmosis. The latter was likely due to intracellular water-reclamation as no trace of the piezolyte ectoine was found, contrary to hyperosmosis. Notably, ectoine production was equivalent at 0.1MPa in hyperosmosis-acclimated cells and at 10MPa under isosmotic conditions, supporting the hypothesis that ectoine synthesis may be primarily triggered by HP rather than osmotic stress. While stimulating cell metabolism and enhancing cell integrity, osmotic stress had always a negative impact on culture growth and performance. No net growth was observed during 4-day incubation tests, and CO2:O2 ratios and pH values indicated that culture performance in

  7. EFFECT OF INTRACUFF MEDIA-ALKALINISED LIGNOCAINE, SALINE, AND AIR ON ENDOTRACHEAL TUBE INDUCED EMERGENCE PHENOMENA: A RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indu S

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT Emergence from general anaesthesia is associated with post extubation cough, hoarseness, sore throat, and dysphagia, which may affect the smoothness of extubation. Prophylactic interventions have been studied to reduce these tracheal morbidities with varying results. AIMS To compare the efficacy of air, alkalinised lignocaine and saline in maintaining intracuff pressure and reducing postoperative cough (PEC and sore throat (POST. SETTINGS AND DESIGN A randomised controlled study conducted in a teaching hospital. METHODS AND MATERIALS 105 patients scheduled for elective surgeries were randomly allocated into groups of 35 each. The endotracheal tube (ETT cuffs were inflated with air, alkalinised lignocaine, or saline. The intracuff pressure (ICP was initially set to 25-30 cm of H2O; measured every 30 minutes and before extubation; the minimum volume for occlusion (MOV noted. The incidence PEC and POST were monitored. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS Data analysed using Chi-square test, Fisher’s exact test; Bonferroni method allowed multiple comparisons. A p value <0.05 was considered significant. RESULTS Pre-lubricated ETT cuff inflation with liquid media maintained an acceptable ICP. Saline and alkalinised lignocaine were effective in reducing PEC and POST. Alkalinised lignocaine provided smoother extubation and fared better in the early postoperative period. CONCLUSIONS Pre-lubricated ETT cuffs with liquid media reduced PEC and POST. Alkalinised lignocaine showed better profile than saline. Optimum ICP reduces tracheal morbidity.

  8. Simulations of pressure and salinity fields at Aespoe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loefman, J. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1997-04-01

    The primary objective of this study was to examine whether the geochemical field data from Aespoe could be interpreted and understood by means of numerical simulations for flow and transport. A site-specific simulation model for groundwater flow and salt transport was developed on the basis of the field investigations. Both steady-state and transient simulations of flow and transport were performed. In the transient simulations, land uplift and the effect of diffusion into/from the matrix blocks with stagnant water were taken into account. The computational results were evaluated on the basis of the experimental values for the pressure and salt concentration.

  9. Simulations of pressure and salinity fields at Aespoe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loefman, J.

    1997-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to examine whether the geochemical field data from Aespoe could be interpreted and understood by means of numerical simulations for flow and transport. A site-specific simulation model for groundwater flow and salt transport was developed on the basis of the field investigations. Both steady-state and transient simulations of flow and transport were performed. In the transient simulations, land uplift and the effect of diffusion into/from the matrix blocks with stagnant water were taken into account. The computational results were evaluated on the basis of the experimental values for the pressure and salt concentration

  10. Effect of Salinity on Germination and Its Relationship with Vegetative growth in Bromus danthoniae Genotypes from Saline and Non-Saline Areas of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rezaei

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Bromus danthoniae Trin. is an annual grass species that is well adapted to harsh climates and could be considered as an important genetic resources for tolerance to environmental stresses such as salinity. In this study, 24 genotypes collected from Ilam, Kurdistan, Kermanshah (non-saline areas and West Azerbaijan (saline area: shores of Uremia Salt Lake provinces of Iran were investigated at the germination stage under salt treatments with concentrations of 0, 60, 120, 180, 240 and 300 mM sodium chloride. Germination percentage, germination rate index, seed vigor, root length, shoot length and seedling fresh and dry weights were measured. In addition, the relationship between the percentage of germination in 300 mM sodium chloride and the survival rate (% after four weeks in 350 mM sodium chloride at the vegetative stage was evaluated. The results of analysis of variance showed that salinity treatments caused significant reductions in all the studied traits. Genotypic variation and the interaction of genotype × salt treatments were also significant. Genotypes USLN3 and KER4 were found to be the most tolerant and sensitive genotypes to salinity stress, with 13% and 98% reduction in germination percentage at 300 mM NaCl, respectively. Cluster analysis divided the genotypes into three groups, with one group containing only tolerant genotypes from Uremia Salt Lake, another one comprising only sensitive genotypes from non-saline regions, and the third one containing genotypes from both regions. The correlation between the germination percentage and the survival rate at the vegetative stage was not significant, indicating that different mechanisms are, perhaps, responsible for salinity tolerance at the germination and vegetative stages in B. danthoniae.

  11. CO{sub 2} storage in saline aquifers; Stockage du CO{sub 2} dans les aquiferes salins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bentham, M.; Kirby, G. [British Geological Survey (BGS), Kingsley Dunham Centre, Keyworth, Nottingham (United Kingdom)

    2005-06-01

    Saline aquifers represent a promising way for CO{sub 2} sequestration. Storage capacities of saline aquifers are very important around the world. The Sleipner site in the North Sea is currently the single case world-wide of CO{sub 2} storage in a saline aquifer. A general review is given on the specific risks for CO{sub 2} storage in saline aquifer. The regional distribution of CO{sub 2} storage potential is presented. Finally, the knowledge gaps and the future research in this field are defined. (authors)

  12. Soil Fertility, Salinity and Nematode Diversity Influenced by Tamarix ramosissima in Different Habitats in an Arid Desert Oasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong-zhong, Su; Xue-fen, Wang; Rong, Yang; Xiao, Yang; Wen-jie, Liu

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this paper was to assess the influence of tamarisk shrubs on soil fertility, salinity and nematode communities in various habitats located in an arid desert-oasis region in northwest China. Three habitats were studied: sand dune, riparian zone and saline meadow, where tamarisk shrubs have been established in recent decades in order to vegetation restoration used as desertification control and saline land rehabilitation projects and become the dominant plant community. The parameters measured include soil organic carbon (SOC), total nitrogen, available phosphorus (P) and potassium (K), pH, salt component, and nematode community characteristics. Enrichment ratios (a comparison of the soil measurements between soils under canopy and in the open interspaces) for soil nutrients and salinity were used to evaluate fertility and salinity islands underneath the tamarisk shrubs. The soil nematode community was used as a biological indicator of soil condition. SOC and available P and K were higher beneath the plant canopy than in the open interspaces outside that canopy. The enrichment ratios for SOC and nutrients were highest for the sand dune habitat and tamarisk shrubs clearly created islands of greater salinity under the canopies. Nematode abundance per 100 g dry soil varied considerably between the locations and habitats, with the highest abundance found in sand dune and the lowest in saline meadow. A significantly higher nematode abundance and a lower trophic diversity were found in soils under the canopy compared to the soils in the open interspaces. With the exception of saline meadow, the abundance of bacterivores increased and fungivores decreased under the canopy relative to the open interspaces, and bacterivores dominated under the canopies in the sand dune and riparian habitats. The enrichment ratios for salinity were higher than for fertility, suggesting that improved soil fertility can not limit the impact of salinization beneath tamarisk shrubs. The

  13. Bubble-assisted film evaporation correlation for saline water at sub-atmospheric pressures in horizontal-tube evaporator

    KAUST Repository

    Shahzad, Muhammad Wakil

    2013-01-01

    In falling film evaporators, the overall heat transfer coefficient is controlled by film thickness, velocity, liquid properties and the temperature differential across the film layer. This article presents the heat transfer behavior for evaporative film boiling on horizontal tubes, but working at low pressures of 0.93-3.60 kPa (corresponding solution saturation temperatures of 279-300 K) as well as seawater salinity of 15,000 to 90,000 mg/l or ppm. Owing to a dearth of literature on film-boiling at these conditions, the article is motivated by the importance of evaporative film boiling in the desalination processes such as the multi-effect distillation (MED) or multi-stage flashing (MSF): It is observed that in addition to the above-mentioned parameters, evaporative heat transfer of seawater is affected by the emergence of micro-bubbles within the thin film layer, particularly when the liquid saturation temperatures drop below 298 K (3.1 kPa). Such micro bubbles are generated near to the tube wall surfaces and they enhanced the heat transfer by two or more folds when compared with the predictions of conventional evaporative film boiling. The appearance of micro-bubbles is attributed to the rapid increase in the specific volume of vapor, i.e., dv/dT, at low saturation temperature conditions. A new correlation is thus proposed in this article and it shows good agreement to the measured data with an experimental uncertainty of 8% and regression RMSE of 3.5%. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A global algorithm for estimating Absolute Salinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. J. McDougall

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The International Thermodynamic Equation of Seawater – 2010 has defined the thermodynamic properties of seawater in terms of a new salinity variable, Absolute Salinity, which takes into account the spatial variation of the composition of seawater. Absolute Salinity more accurately reflects the effects of the dissolved material in seawater on the thermodynamic properties (particularly density than does Practical Salinity.

    When a seawater sample has standard composition (i.e. the ratios of the constituents of sea salt are the same as those of surface water of the North Atlantic, Practical Salinity can be used to accurately evaluate the thermodynamic properties of seawater. When seawater is not of standard composition, Practical Salinity alone is not sufficient and the Absolute Salinity Anomaly needs to be estimated; this anomaly is as large as 0.025 g kg−1 in the northernmost North Pacific. Here we provide an algorithm for estimating Absolute Salinity Anomaly for any location (x, y, p in the world ocean.

    To develop this algorithm, we used the Absolute Salinity Anomaly that is found by comparing the density calculated from Practical Salinity to the density measured in the laboratory. These estimates of Absolute Salinity Anomaly however are limited to the number of available observations (namely 811. In order to provide a practical method that can be used at any location in the world ocean, we take advantage of approximate relationships between Absolute Salinity Anomaly and silicate concentrations (which are available globally.

  15. Competitive outcome of Daphnia-Simocephalus experimental microcosms: salinity versus priority effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Loureiro

    Full Text Available Competition is a major driving force in freshwaters, especially given the cyclic nature and dynamics of pelagic food webs. Competition is especially important in the initial species assortment during colonization and re-colonization events, which depends strongly on the environmental context. Subtle changes, such as saline intrusion, may disrupt competitive relationships and, thus, influence community composition. Bearing this in mind, our objective was to assess whether low salinity levels (using NaCl as a proxy alter the competitive outcome (measured as the rate of population biomass increase of Daphnia-Simocephalus experimental microcosms, taking into account interactions with priority effects (sequential species arrival order. With this approach, we aimed to experimentally demonstrate a putative mechanism of differential species sorting in brackish environments or in freshwaters facing secondary salinization. Experiments considered three salinity levels, regarding NaCl added (0.00, 0.75 and 1.50 g L(-1, crossed with three competition scenarios (no priority, priority of Daphnia over Simocephalus, and vice-versa. At lower NaCl concentrations (0.00 and 0.75 g L(-1, Daphnia was a significantly superior competitor, irrespective of the species inoculation order, suggesting negligible priority effects. However, the strong decrease in Daphnia population growth at 1.50 g L(-1 alleviated the competitive pressure on Simocephalus, causing an inversion of the competitive outcome in favour of Simocephalus. The intensity of this inversion depended on the competition scenario. This salinity-mediated disruption of the competitive outcome demonstrates that subtle environmental changes produce indirect effects in key ecological mechanisms, thus altering community composition, which may lead to serious implications in terms of ecosystem functioning (e.g. lake regime shifts due to reduced grazing and biodiversity.

  16. The effect of high pressure and residual oxygen on the color stability of minced cured restructured ham at different levels of drying, pH, and NaCl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bak, Kathrine Holmgaard; Lindahl, Gunilla; Karlsson, Anders H; Lloret, Elsa; Gou, Pere; Arnau, Jacint; Orlien, Vibeke

    2013-10-01

    Color stability of minced cured restructured ham was studied by considering the effects of high pressure (HP) (600 MPa, 13°C, 5 min), raw meat pH24 (low, normal, high), salt content (15, 30 g/kg), drying (20%, 50% weight loss), and residual oxygen level (0.02%-0.30%). Raw hams were selected by pH24 in Semimembranosus, mixed with additives, frozen, sliced, and dried by the Quick-Dry-Slice® (QDS) process followed by HP treatment or not (control). Packaging and storage simulated industrial packaging: modified atmosphere containing 80% N2, 20% CO2, and residual O2 in one of three intervals: hams, while the stabilizing effect on 50% QDS hams was smaller, concluding that water has the dominating role. Raw meat pH24, salt content, and residual oxygen level had varying effects on the stability of the red color. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Microbial communities associated with the anthropogenic, highly alkaline environment of a saline soda lime, Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Kalwasi?ska, Agnieszka; Felf?ldi, Tam?s; Szab?, Attila; Deja-Sikora, Edyta; Kosobucki, Przemys?aw; Walczak, Maciej

    2017-01-01

    Soda lime is a by-product of the Solvay soda process for the production of sodium carbonate from limestone and sodium chloride. Due to a high salt concentration and alkaline pH, the lime is considered as a potential habitat of haloalkaliphilic and haloalkalitolerant microbial communities. This artificial and unique environment is nutrient-poor and devoid of vegetation, due in part to semi-arid, saline and alkaline conditions. Samples taken from the surface layer of the lime and from the depth...

  18. Saline-induced natriuresis and renal blood flow in conscious dogs: effects of sodium infusion rate and concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandgaard, N C F; Andersen, J L; Holstein-Rathlou, N-H

    2005-01-01

    AIM: This study focused on static and dynamic changes in total renal blood flow (RBF) during volume expansion and tested whether a change in RBF characteristics is a necessary effector mechanism in saline-induced natriuresis. METHODS: The aortic flow subtraction technique was used to measure RBF...... continuously. Identical amounts of NaCl (2.4 mmol kg(-1)) were given as slow isotonic (Iso, 120 min), slow hypertonic (Hyper, 120 min), and rapid isotonic loads (IsoRapid, 30 min). RESULTS: During Iso and IsoRapid, arterial blood pressure increased slightly (6-7 mmHg), and during Hyper it remained unchanged...... saline loading simulating daily sodium intake, the rate of sodium excretion may increase 10-20-fold without any change in mean arterial blood pressure or in RBF. Regulatory responses to changes in total body NaCl levels appears, therefore, to be mediated primarily by neurohumoral mechanisms and may occur...

  19. Scales and sources of pH and dissolved oxygen variability in a shallow, upwelling-driven ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, C. A.; Martz, T.; Levin, L. A.

    2011-12-01

    In the coastal zone extreme variability in carbonate chemistry and oxygen is driven by fluctuations in temperature, salinity, air-sea gas exchange, mixing processes, and biology. This variability appears to be magnified in upwelling-driven ecosystems where low oxygen and low pH waters intrude into shallow depths. The oxygen and carbon chemistry signal can be further confounded by highly productive ecosystems such as kelp beds where photosynthesis and respiration consume and release significant amounts of dissolved inorganic carbon and oxygen. This variability poses a challenge for scientists assessing the impacts of climate change on nearshore ecosystems. We deployed physical & biogeochemical sensors in order to observe these processes in situ. The "SeapHOx" instruments used in this study consist of a modified Honeywell Durafet° ISFET pH sensor, an Aanderra Optode Oxygen sensor, and a SBE-37 conductivity, temperature, pressure sensor. The instruments were deployed on and around the La Jolla Kelp Forest at a variety of depths. Our goals were to (a) characterize the link between pH and oxygen and identify the magnitude of pH and oxygen variability over a range of intra-annual time scales and (b) investigate spatial patterns of pH and oxygen variability associated with depth, proximity to shore, and presence of kelp. Results thus far reveal a strong relationship between oxygen and pH. Temporal variability is greatest at the semidiurnal frequency where pH (at 7 m) can range up to 0.3 units and oxygen can change 50% over 6 h. Diurnal variability is a combination of the diurnal tidal component and diel cycles of production and respiration. Event-scale dynamics associated with upwelling can maintain pH and oxygen below 7.8 units and 200 μmol kg-1, respectively, for multiple days. Frequent current reversals drive changes in the observed oxygen and pH variability. When alongshore currents are flowing southward, driven by upwelling-favorable winds, the magnitude of

  20. Salinity as the main factor structuring small-bodied fish assemblages in hydrologically altered Mediterranean coastal lagoons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sílvia Rodríguez-Climent

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In the Ebro Delta coastal lagoons, one of the main anthropogenic pressures is the artificial freshwater input. Each coastal lagoon has different water management schemes causing profound changes in its physicochemical characteristics. The main objective of this water management is to favour some bird species with interest either for conservation or hunting activities. The present study assesses the influence of hydrological alteration on the fish assemblages of three coastal lagoons in the Ebro Delta. The small-bodied fish fauna was mainly composed of five families: Gobiidae, Poecilidae, Cyprinodontidae, Atherinidae and Mugilidae. Salinity was found to be the main factor structuring fish community in the lagoons. The dominant species was the common goby (Pomatochistus microps when the lagoons reached higher salinity values, whereas the invasive eastern mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki dominated during the period of higher freshwater inputs. The juveniles of the family Mugilidae showed low catch per unit effort, especially during the period of lower salinity. This same pattern was found for the endangered Spanish toothcarp (Aphanius iberus. Overall, introduced species were favoured by low salinity, which highlights the importance of changing the present water management by reducing the freshwater inputs in order to maintain suitable levels of salinity to favour native species that are important for both commercial and conservation purposes.

  1. [Prevention of pressure ulcers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negishi, Kenichi

    2009-12-01

    Even though they have not been diagnosed with a recognized disease, many people have or are at risk of contracting debilitating conditions. They can be referred to as being in the "ill-health zone." For example, many bedridden elderly develop pressure ulcers. The prevention and treatment of pressure ulcers should focus on two main factors: the role of pressure in the development of circulatory disorders; and increased dermal pH. In preventing the development of circulatory disorders resulting in pressure ulcers, using an air or polyurethane mattress is helpful. However, changing the mattress has little effect if the position of the bedridden person is not also changed regularly. To avoid an increase in dermal pH, caregivers should apply moisture-repellent cream and/or oil to the sacral region after careful cleansing. It is important that such preventive measures and treatment be performed daily, and caregivers should be educated on this need and subsequently monitored. Pharmacists have a role in caring for those in the ill-health zone.

  2. Links between seawater flooding, soil ammonia oxidiser communities and their response to changes in salinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nacke, Heiko; Schöning, Ingo; Schindler, Malte; Schrumpf, Marion; Daniel, Rolf; Nicol, Graeme W; Prosser, James I

    2017-11-01

    Coastal areas worldwide are challenged by climate change-associated increases in sea level and storm surge quantities that potentially lead to more frequent flooding of soil ecosystems. Currently, little is known of the effects of inundation events on microorganisms controlling nitrification in these ecosystems. The goal of this study was to investigate the impact of seawater flooding on the abundance, community composition and salinity tolerance of soil ammonia oxidisers. Topsoil was sampled from three islands flooded at different frequencies by the Wadden Sea. Archaeal ammonia oxidiser amoA genes were more abundant than their betaproteobacterial counterparts, and the distribution of archaeal and bacterial ammonia oxidiser amoA and 16S rRNA gene sequences significantly differed between the islands. The findings indicate selection of ammonia oxidiser phylotypes with greater tolerance to high salinity and slightly alkaline pH (e.g. Nitrosopumilus representatives) in frequently flooded soils. A cluster phylogenetically related to gammaproteobacterial ammonia oxidisers was detected in all samples analysed in this survey. Nevertheless, no gammaprotebacterial amoA genes could be amplified via PCR and only betaproteobacterial ammonia oxidisers were detected in enrichment cultures. A slurry-based experiment demonstrated the tolerance of both bacterial and archaeal ammonia oxidisers to a wide range of salinities (e.g. Wadden Sea water salinity) in soil naturally exposed to seawater at a high frequency. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Pressure Relief Behaviors and Weight-Shifting Activities to Prevent Pressure Ulcers in Persons with SCI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Pressure ulcers (PU) are the most costly secondary complication following an SCI. In addition to the medical costs ...Introduction Pressure ulcers (PU) are the most costly secondary complication following an SCI. In addition to the medical costs , the development of a...Prevent Pressure Ulcers in Persons with SCI PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Stephen Sprigle, PhD CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: Georgia Tech Research

  4. Millennial changes of the Baltic Sea salinity. Studies of the sensitivity of the salinity to climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustafsson, Bo G.

    2004-05-01

    An important question for safety assessments of nuclear waste repositories is the salinity of the Baltic Sea under different conditions. The salinity affects the potential recipient ecosystems, the water turnover along the coast and the hydrology as well as the groundwater chemistry. In this report a model that enables computation of the Baltic Sea salinity for different sea level positions and freshwater supplies is presented. The model is used to compute the salinities in Baltic proper, Bothnian Sea and Bothnian Bay for all combinations of global sea level changes from -10 m to 10 m and freshwater supplies from 0 to 60,000 m 3 /s. The results are presented in a series of graphs that enables the reader to make an assessment of the impact of a given climatic change. The model is also used to compute the decrease of the salinity in Bothnian Sea and Bothnian Bay during the next few millennia due to the postglacial uplift. The results show that modest changes in global sea level, say ±1 m, give a salinity change of the order of 1 psu in southern Baltic proper. Changing the freshwater supply with about 2,000 m 3 /s (approximately 10%) gives a similar salinity change. Further, a sea level drop of about 5 m or an increase of the freshwater supply by a factor of 3 is needed to reduce the salinity in southern Baltic proper below 1 psu. In this limit large parts of the Baltic would be limnic. A 50% decrease of the freshwater supply increase the salinity in the southern Baltic proper by a factor of 2 to some 15 psu, but the effect is even more drastic in Bothnian Sea and Bothnian Bay where the salinity increase to 13 and 10 psu, respectively. A less windy climate might have a significant effect in lowering the Baltic salinity due to a combined effect of lowered mixing in Kattegat and lowered exchange between Kattegat and the Baltic. A windier climate will not have such strong effect since increased mixing does not affect the Baltic as much. Most probably the shoreline

  5. Millennial changes of the Baltic Sea salinity. Studies of the sensitivity of the salinity to climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustafsson, Bo G. [Oceanus Havsundersoekningar, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2004-05-01

    An important question for safety assessments of nuclear waste repositories is the salinity of the Baltic Sea under different conditions. The salinity affects the potential recipient ecosystems, the water turnover along the coast and the hydrology as well as the groundwater chemistry. In this report a model that enables computation of the Baltic Sea salinity for different sea level positions and freshwater supplies is presented. The model is used to compute the salinities in Baltic proper, Bothnian Sea and Bothnian Bay for all combinations of global sea level changes from -10 m to 10 m and freshwater supplies from 0 to 60,000 m{sup 3}/s. The results are presented in a series of graphs that enables the reader to make an assessment of the impact of a given climatic change. The model is also used to compute the decrease of the salinity in Bothnian Sea and Bothnian Bay during the next few millennia due to the postglacial uplift. The results show that modest changes in global sea level, say {+-}1 m, give a salinity change of the order of 1 psu in southern Baltic proper. Changing the freshwater supply with about 2,000 m{sup 3}/s (approximately 10%) gives a similar salinity change. Further, a sea level drop of about 5 m or an increase of the freshwater supply by a factor of 3 is needed to reduce the salinity in southern Baltic proper below 1 psu. In this limit large parts of the Baltic would be limnic. A 50% decrease of the freshwater supply increase the salinity in the southern Baltic proper by a factor of 2 to some 15 psu, but the effect is even more drastic in Bothnian Sea and Bothnian Bay where the salinity increase to 13 and 10 psu, respectively. A less windy climate might have a significant effect in lowering the Baltic salinity due to a combined effect of lowered mixing in Kattegat and lowered exchange between Kattegat and the Baltic. A windier climate will not have such strong effect since increased mixing does not affect the Baltic as much. Most probably the

  6. Diversity in transcripts and translational pattern of stress proteins in marine extremophiles

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nath, I.V.A.; LokaBharathi, P.A.

    of marine microbes. The cellular machinery of such extreme-lovers could be highly flexible to cope with such harsh environments. Extreme conditions of temperature, pressure, salinity, pH, oxidative stress, radiation, etc., above the physiological tolerance...

  7. Saline water irrigation for crop production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, A R [Directorate of Water Management Research, Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR), Walmi Complex, P.O. - Phulwari Sharif, Patna (India); [Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste (Italy); Singh, S S; Singh, S R [Directorate of Water Management Research, Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR), Walmi Complex, P.O. - Phulwari Sharif, Patna (India)

    2001-05-01

    Salinity is one of agriculture's most complex production problems. Excessive salts from irrigation water or high water tables can severely limit crop production. Years of saline water irrigation on poorly drained soils can eventually make economic crop production impossible. About 10% of all land are affected by salinity problems. They occur in every continent in different proportions, more frequently in arid and semi-arid areas. This paper discusses a range of problems related to use of saline water for crop irrigation.

  8. Saline water irrigation for crop production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.R.; Singh, S.S.; Singh, S.R.

    2001-05-01

    Salinity is one of agriculture's most complex production problems. Excessive salts from irrigation water or high water tables can severely limit crop production. Years of saline water irrigation on poorly drained soils can eventually make economic crop production impossible. About 10% of all land are affected by salinity problems. They occur in every continent in different proportions, more frequently in arid and semi-arid areas. This paper discusses a range of problems related to use of saline water for crop irrigation

  9. 40 CFR 230.25 - Salinity gradients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Salinity gradients. 230.25 Section 230.25 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING SECTION 404(b... Physical and Chemical Characteristics of the Aquatic Ecosystem § 230.25 Salinity gradients. (a) Salinity...

  10. The relationship between mantle pH and the deep nitrogen cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhail, Sami; Barry, Peter H.; Sverjensky, Dimitri A.

    2017-07-01

    Nitrogen is distributed throughout all terrestrial geological reservoirs (i.e., the crust, mantle, and core), which are in a constant state of disequilibrium due to metabolic factors at Earth's surface, chemical weathering, diffusion, and deep N fluxes imposed by plate tectonics. However, the behavior of nitrogen during subduction is the subject of ongoing debate. There is a general consensus that during the crystallization of minerals from melts, monatomic nitrogen behaves like argon (highly incompatible) and ammonium behaves like potassium and rubidium (which are relatively less incompatible). Therefore, the behavior of nitrogen is fundamentally underpinned by its chemical speciation. In aqueous fluids, the controlling factor which determines if nitrogen is molecular (N2) or ammonic (inclusive of both NH4+ and NH30) is oxygen fugacity, whereas pH designates if ammonic nitrogen is NH4+ or NH30. Therefore, to address the speciation of nitrogen at high pressures and temperatures, one must also consider pH at the respective pressure-temperature conditions. To accomplish this goal we have used the Deep Earth Water Model (DEW) to calculate the activities of aqueous nitrogen from 1-5 GPa and 600-1000 °C in equilibrium with a model eclogite-facies mineral assemblage of jadeite + kyanite + quartz/coesite (metasediment), jadeite + pyrope + talc + quartz/coesite (metamorphosed mafic rocks), and carbonaceous eclogite (metamorphosed mafic rocks + elemental carbon). We then compare these data with previously published data for the speciation of aqueous nitrogen across these respective P-T conditions in equilibrium with a model peridotite mineral assemblage (Mikhail and Sverjensky, 2014). In addition, we have carried out full aqueous speciation and solubility calculations for the more complex fluids in equilibrium with jadeite + pyrope + kyanite + diamond, and for fluids in equilibrium with forsterite + enstatite + pyrope + diamond. Our results show that the pH of the fluid is

  11. Distribution of total alkalinity and pH in the Ross Sea (Antarctica waters during austral summer 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Rivaro

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of total alkalinity (AT and pH were made in the Ross Sea in January–February 2008 in order to characterize the carbonate system in the Ross Sea and to evaluate the variability associated with different water masses. The main water masses of the Ross Sea, Antarctic Surface Water, High Salinity Shelf Water (HSSW, Deep Ice Shelf Water, Circumpolar Deep Water (CDW and Antarctic Bottom Water, were identified on the basis of the physical and chemical data. In particular, the AT ranged between 2275 and 2374 µmol kg−1 with the lowest values in the surface waters (2275–2346 µmol kg−1, where the influence of the sea-ice melting and of the variability of the physical properties was significant. In the deep layers of the water column, the AT maxima were measured in correspondence to the preferential pathways of the spreading HSSW. The pH had variable values in the surface layer (7.890–8.033 with the highest values in Terra Nova Bay and Ross Sea polynyas. A low pH (7.969±0.025 traced the intrusion of the CDW in the Ross Sea shelf area. All samples revealed waters that were oversaturated with respect to both calcite and aragonite, but near corrosive levels of aragonite saturation state (Ω ca. 1.1–1.2 were associated with the entrainment of CDW over the slope. Aragonite undersaturation is of particular concern for the zooplankton species comprising to calcifying organisms such as pteropods. The partial pressure of CO2 at the sea surface was undersaturated with respect to the atmospheric value, particularly in Terra Nova Bay and the Ross Sea polynyas, but a large variability in the sea–air CO2 fluxes was observed associated with different responses in the strength of the biological and physical processes.

  12. Ice-Tethered Profiler observations: Vertical profiles of temperature, salinity, oxygen, and ocean velocity from an Ice-Tethered Profiler buoy system

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This collection contains repeated vertical profiles of ocean temperature and salinity versus pressure, as well as oxygen and velocity for some instruments. Data were...

  13. Impact of salinity and pH on phytoplankton communities in a tropical freshwater system: An investigation with pigment analysis by HPLC

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chakraborty, P.; Acharyya, T.; Babu, P.V.R.; Bandyopadhyay, D.

    towards the fluctuating pH. These findings are environmentally relevant to understand the likely impact of salt water intrusion and pH variation on phytoplankton communities in a tropical freshwater system....

  14. [Amelioration of secondary bare alkali-saline patches in Songnen Plain through inserting cornstalk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Nianpeng; Wu, Ling; Jiang, Shicheng; Zhou, Daowei

    2004-06-01

    Based on the field experiment on Songnen grassland, a new method was established to ameliorate the secondary bare alkali-saline patches (SAP) through inserting cornstalk. The experiment was rested on the assumption that through inserting cornstalk in the secondary bare alkali-saline patches (SAP) to retain seeds moving over its surface, the necessary seed source could be gained; and these seeds should be able to germinate and survive successfully on the cornstalk itself or in its neighborhood, where should be more fit to grow than other sites in SAP, due to the decomposition of cornstalk and its special role, so that, the aim to restore vegetation of SAP could be achieved at a pretty low cost and rapid speed. The results showed that the seed bank in soil was increased significantly, owing to the inserted cornstalk and its operating processes. The seed number in ameliorated soil was 4020.0 +/- 1773.6 seeds x m(-2), while that in the secondary bare alkali-saline patches (SAP) was only 10.0 +/- 31.6 seeds x m(-2). Although the soil chemical and physical characters in ameliorated zone were improved to some extent, the overall situation of soil was still bad for plant growth, as the pH, soluble saline ion and organic matter were concerned. Most of Chloris virgata grew around or on the cornstalk, the plants around each cornstalk being 3.9 +/- 2.2, and the total being 48.64 +/- 38.72 g x m(-2). Therefore, this method demanded a few resources, and needed simple technology and low cost, which is potentially deserved to popularize.

  15. Advanced Biotelemetry Systems for Space Life Sciences: PH Telemetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, John W.; Somps, Chris; Ricks, Robert; Kim, Lynn; Connolly, John P. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    The SENSORS 2000! (S2K!) program at NASA's Ames Research Center is currently developing a biotelemetry system for monitoring pH and temperature in unrestrained subjects. This activity is part of a broader scope effort to provide an Advanced Biotelemetry System (ABTS) for use in future space life sciences research. Many anticipated research endeavors will require biomedical and biochemical sensors and related instrumentation to make continuous inflight measurements in a variable-gravity environment. Since crew time is limited, automated data acquisition, data processing, data storage, and subject health monitoring are required. An automated biochemical and physiological data acquisition system based on non invasive or implantable biotelemetry technology will meet these requirements. The ABTS will ultimately acquire a variety of physiological measurands including temperature, biopotentials (e.g. ECG, EEG, EMG, EOG), blood pressure, flow and dimensions, as well as chemical and biological parameters including pH. Development activities are planned in evolutionary, leveraged steps. Near-term activities include 1) development of a dual channel pH/temperature telemetry system, and 2) development of a low bandwidth, 4-channel telemetry system, that measures temperature, heart rate, pressure, and pH. This abstract describes the pH/temperature telemeter.

  16. New equations for density, entropy, heat capacity, and potential temperature of a saline thermal fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hongbing; Feistel, Rainer; Koch, Manfred; Markoe, Andrew

    2008-10-01

    A set of fitted polynomial equations for calculating the physical variables density, entropy, heat capacity and potential temperature of a thermal saline fluid for a temperature range of 0-374 °C, pressure range of 0.1-100 MPa and absolute salinity range of 0-40 g/kg is established. The freshwater components of the equations are extracted from the recently released tabulated data of freshwater properties of Wagner and Pruß [2002. The IAPWS formulation 1995 for the thermodynamic properties of ordinary water substance for general and scientific use. Journal of Physical and Chemical Reference Data 31, 387-535]. The salt water component of the equation is based on the near-linear relationship between density, salinity and specific heat capacity and is extracted from the data sets of Feistel [2003. A new extended Gibbs thermodynamic potential of seawater. Progress in Oceanography 58, 43-114], Bromley et al. [1970. Heat capacities and enthalpies of sea salt solutions to 200 °C. Journal of Chemical and Engineering Data 15, 246-253] and Grunberg [1970. Properties of sea water concentrates. In: Third International Symposium on Fresh Water from the Sea, vol. 1, pp. 31-39] in a temperature range 0-200 °C, practical salinity range 0-40, and varying pressure and is also calibrated by the data set of Millero et al. [1981. Summary of data treatment for the international high pressure equation of state for seawater. UNESCO Technical Papers in Marine Science 38, 99-192]. The freshwater and salt water components are combined to establish a workable multi-polynomial equation, whose coefficients were computed through standard linear regression analysis. The results obtained in this way for density, entropy and potential temperature are comparable with those of existing models, except that our new equations cover a wider temperature—(0-374 °C) than the traditional (0-40 °C) temperature range. One can apply these newly established equations to the calculation of in-situ or

  17. Salinity Gradient Energy from Expansion and Contraction of Poly(allylamine hydrochloride) Hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Tri Quang; Cao, Vinh Duy; Do, Nu Bich Duyen; Christoffersen, Trine Eker; Wang, Wei; Kjøniksen, Anna-Lena

    2018-06-22

    Salinity gradients exhibit a great potential for production of renewable energy. Several techniques such as pressure-retarded osmosis and reverse electrodialysis have been employed to extract this energy. Unfortunately, these techniques are restricted by the high costs of membranes and problems with membrane fouling. However, the expansion and contraction of hydrogels can be a new and cheaper way to harvest energy from salinity gradients since the hydrogels swell in freshwater and shrink in saltwater. We have examined the effect of cross-linker concentration and different external loads on the energy recovered for this type of energy-producing systems. Poly(allylamine hydrochloride) hydrogels were cross-linked with glutaraldehyde to produce hydrogels with excellent expansion and contraction properties. Increasing the cross-linker concentration markedly improved the energy that could be recovered from the hydrogels, especially at high external loads. A swollen hydrogel of 60 g could recover more than 1800 mJ when utilizing a high cross-linker concentration, and the maximum amount of energy produced per gram of polymer was 3.4 J/g. Although more energy is recovered at high cross-linking densities, the maximum amount of energy produced per gram of polymer is highest at an intermediate cross-linking concentration. Energy recovery was reduced when the salt concentration was increased for the low-concentration saline solution. The results illustrate that hydrogels are promising for salinity gradient energy recovery, and that optimizing the systems significantly increases the amount of energy that can be recovered.

  18. Groundwater salinity at Olkiluoto and its effects on a spent fuel repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieno, T. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    2000-06-01

    significantly decrease the swelling pressure and increase the hydraulic conductivity of such a backfill. The most promising alternative backfill options are natural mixed-layer clay (Friedland clay) and crushed rock backfill combined with special sealing structures. It is recommended that for a repository to be constructed at the depth of about 500 metres at Olkiluoto, all engineered barriers should be designed to perform properly at groundwater salinities ranging from fresh water to 35 g/l. Geochemistry and salinity of groundwater will be a key area in the further characterisation of Olkiluoto, in supporting research, as well as in performance assessment. Posiva will participate in studies and large-scale experiments on the performance of bentonite-based as well as alternative backfill and buffer materials in the projects to be launched within the 5th Framework Programme of the European Commission and in the Prototype Repository in the Hard Rock Laboratory at Aespoe. (orig.)

  19. Assessing the Effect of Salinity on an Irrigated Land at Kofai, Ardo-Kola Local Government Area, Taraba State - Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buba Apagu ANKIDAWA

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A study of the effect of salinity on an irrigated land was carried out at Kofai, Ardo-Kola Local Government of Taraba State. The study area was divided into four (4 units designated as A, B, C and D, each unit was subdivided into five (5 parts, designated as A1, A2, A3, A4, A5, B1, B2, B3, B4, B5, C1, C2, C3, C4, C5, D1, D2, D3, D4, and D5, respectively, made up of twenty (20 soil samples that were collected within the irrigated land for the laboratory analysis of salinity. The parameters analyzed were pH, Electrical Conductivity (EC, Magnesium, Sodium, Potassium, Calcium, Hydrogen and Aluminum concentration. The results of the soil sample analysis shows that the mean value of pH is 5.99 which indicates that the soil is slightly acidic, the mean value of electrical conductivity (EC is 0.76 ds/m, Calcium, Magnesium, Aluminum and Hydrogen concentration were obtained to be 11.29, 7.89, 7.98 and 16.88 mg/l respectively, while Sodium and Potassium concentration were obtained to be 0.90 and 0.67 mg/l respectively with Sodium Absorption Ratio (SAR of 0.25 mEq/l. From the analysis it indicates that the soil is low in salinity. Similarly for water sample analysis the pH is 7.7 which indicate that the water is slightly alkaline, EC is 0.8 ds/m, calcium and magnesium concentration were 0.48 and 0.35 mg/l, while sodium and potassium were 0.57 and 0.71 mg/l respectively, with Sodium Absorption Ratio (SAR of 0.89 meq/l, which shows that the water sample were found within the safe limit for irrigation. It can be recommended that application of good quality water, choice of salt tolerant crops and gypsum be adopted in the study area.

  20. RNS60, a charge-stabilized nanostructure saline alters Xenopus Laevis oocyte biophysical membrane properties by enhancing mitochondrial ATP production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Soonwook; Yu, Eunah; Kim, Duk-Soo; Sugimori, Mutsuyuki; Llinás, Rodolfo R

    2015-01-01

    We have examined the effects of RNS60, a 0.9% saline containing charge-stabilized oxygen nanobubble-based structures. RNS60 is generated by subjecting normal saline to Taylor–Couette–Poiseuille (TCP) flow under elevated oxygen pressure. This study, implemented in Xenopus laevis oocytes, addresses both the electrophysiological membrane properties and parallel biological processes in the cytoplasm. Intracellular recordings from defolliculated X. laevis oocytes were implemented in: (1) air oxygenated standard Ringer's solution, (2) RNS60-based Ringer's solution, (3) RNS10.3 (TCP-modified saline without excess oxygen)-based Ringer's, and (4) ONS60 (saline containing high pressure oxygen without TCP modification)-based Ringer's. RNS60-based Ringer's solution induced membrane hyperpolarization from the resting membrane potential. This effect was prevented by: (1) ouabain (a blocker of the sodium/potassium ATPase), (2) rotenone (a mitochondrial electron transfer chain inhibitor preventing usable ATP synthesis), and (3) oligomycin A (an inhibitor of ATP synthase) indicating that RNS60 effects intracellular ATP levels. Increased intracellular ATP levels following RNS60 treatment were directly demonstrated using luciferin/luciferase photon emission. These results indicate that RNS60 alters intrinsic the electrophysiological properties of the X. laevis oocyte membrane by increasing mitochondrial-based ATP synthesis. Ultrastructural analysis of the oocyte cytoplasm demonstrated increased mitochondrial length in the presence of RNS60-based Ringer's solution. It is concluded that the biological properties of RNS60 relate to its ability to optimize ATP synthesis. PMID:25742953

  1. Pressure Retarded Osmosis (PRO): Past experiences, current developments, and future prospects

    KAUST Repository

    Sarp, S.; Li, Z.; Saththasivam, J.

    2016-01-01

    Pressure Retarded Osmosis (PRO) has attracted worldwide attention with respect to its salinity gradient energy production potential, and low energy desalination applications. PRO processes, which use Seawater Reverse Osmosis (SWRO) brine as draw solutions, have a higher potential of being applied to any new, and existing membrane based seawater desalination systems, as an energy production and/or conservation process. Hydraulic pressure is applied on a high salinity draw solution, and the hydraulic pressure of the high salinity draw solution can be kept relatively constant during operation, even though the volumetric flow rate is to be increased. Therefore, the draw side of the PRO process can be considered near-isobaric, in most cases. The harvested Gibbs free energy of mixing, and the volumetric expansion can explain this near-isobaric behavior of the draw side in the PRO process. Thus, PRO can be used to multiply the internal energy of the draw solution with respect to the ratio of the permeated water flux. Even though PRO has very high theoretical potential for energy production and/or recovery, there are several shortcomings, which should be answered before the realization of the scale up applications, such as; thermodynamic process optimization, high power density membranes, and high efficiency hydraulic pressure conversion and recovery systems. This review gives detailed information about the PRO process including; (1) theoretical background, (2) membranes for PRO, (3) experimental and large scale applications, and (4) economic feasibility of PRO applications.

  2. Pressure Retarded Osmosis (PRO): Past experiences, current developments, and future prospects

    KAUST Repository

    Sarp, S.

    2016-01-16

    Pressure Retarded Osmosis (PRO) has attracted worldwide attention with respect to its salinity gradient energy production potential, and low energy desalination applications. PRO processes, which use Seawater Reverse Osmosis (SWRO) brine as draw solutions, have a higher potential of being applied to any new, and existing membrane based seawater desalination systems, as an energy production and/or conservation process. Hydraulic pressure is applied on a high salinity draw solution, and the hydraulic pressure of the high salinity draw solution can be kept relatively constant during operation, even though the volumetric flow rate is to be increased. Therefore, the draw side of the PRO process can be considered near-isobaric, in most cases. The harvested Gibbs free energy of mixing, and the volumetric expansion can explain this near-isobaric behavior of the draw side in the PRO process. Thus, PRO can be used to multiply the internal energy of the draw solution with respect to the ratio of the permeated water flux. Even though PRO has very high theoretical potential for energy production and/or recovery, there are several shortcomings, which should be answered before the realization of the scale up applications, such as; thermodynamic process optimization, high power density membranes, and high efficiency hydraulic pressure conversion and recovery systems. This review gives detailed information about the PRO process including; (1) theoretical background, (2) membranes for PRO, (3) experimental and large scale applications, and (4) economic feasibility of PRO applications.

  3. La influencia del pH y de la salinidad en el crecimiento de Avicennia Germinans (L. L. en cultivo hidropónico La influencia del pH y de la salinidad en el crecimiento de Avicennia Germinans (L. L. en cultivo hidropónico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schnetter Marie Luise

    1986-12-01

    Full Text Available Por sus características llamativas interpretadas como adaptación a las condiciones del medio ambiente bajo las cuales crecen en las costas tropicales, los mangles sirven como objeto de estudios botánicos desde hace mucho tiempo.Con frecuencia es importante cultivar las plantas bajo condiciones controladaspara experimentos de esta índole. Distintos autores investigaron elcrecimiento de plantas jóvenes de Auicennui marina (Forssk Vierh. ensolución nutritiva (CONNOR 1969, CLARKE & HANNON 1970, DOWNTON 1982,CLOUGH 1984. En todos estos casos figura como objetivo principal de lasinvestigaciones determinar la influencia de la salinidad del medio de cultivoen el desarrollo de las plantas.Ensayos de la autora para cultivar plantas de Auicennia qerminans en Ciesserr/ Alemania (SCHNETTER 1985 indicaron que pDr 10 visto tambien el pH del medio nutritivo tiene cierta influencia sobre el crecimiento, Para una mejor aclaración de este asunto se realizó una serie de experimentos cultivando plántulas de Asncennia qerminans en soluciones nutritivas a diferente pH y salinidad. Seedlings of Avicennia qerminans, collected at Turbo and Cartagena on the Caribbean Coast of Colombia were hydroponically grown during 28 weeks. The pH of nutrient solution containing 0.1 M NaCl ranged from 5.7 to 8.7. Additionally, one culture medium without NaCl (pH 7.7 and another containing 0.35 M NaCl (pH 8.2 were used. Biomass production depended both on salinity and pH. Highest values of dry matter were obtained for plants of both collection sites in weak basic nutrient solution containing O. 1 M NaCI. But different answers to pH conditions could be observed. Growth optimum of the plants from Cartagena occurred at pH 8, while those from Turbo remained already small at the same pH. They showed better growth in culture medium containing 0.35 M NaCl at pH 8.2 than at pH 8 and 0.1 M NaCl. Increasing salinity resulted in a higher percentage of root biomass.  General differences

  4. Geochemical Modeling of Trivalent Chromium Migration in Saline-Sodic Soil during Lasagna Process: Impact on Soil Physicochemical Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukhari, Alaadin; Al-Malack, Muhammad H.; Mu'azu, Nuhu D.; Essa, Mohammed H.

    2014-01-01

    Trivalent Cr is one of the heavy metals that are difficult to be removed from soil using electrokinetic study because of its geochemical properties. High buffering capacity soil is expected to reduce the mobility of the trivalent Cr and subsequently reduce the remedial efficiency thereby complicating the remediation process. In this study, geochemical modeling and migration of trivalent Cr in saline-sodic soil (high buffering capacity and alkaline) during integrated electrokinetics-adsorption remediation, called the Lasagna process, were investigated. The remedial efficiency of trivalent Cr in addition to the impacts of the Lasagna process on the physicochemical properties of the soil was studied. Box-Behnken design was used to study the interaction effects of voltage gradient, initial contaminant concentration, and polarity reversal rate on the soil pH, electroosmotic volume, soil electrical conductivity, current, and remedial efficiency of trivalent Cr in saline-sodic soil that was artificially spiked with Cr, Cu, Cd, Pb, Hg, phenol, and kerosene. Overall desirability of 0.715 was attained at the following optimal conditions: voltage gradient 0.36 V/cm; polarity reversal rate 17.63 hr; soil pH 10.0. Under these conditions, the expected trivalent Cr remedial efficiency is 64.75 %. PMID:25152905

  5. Strategies for safe exploitation of fresh water through multi-strainer skimming wells in saline groundwater areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alam, M.M.; Jaffery, H.M.; Hanif, M.

    2005-01-01

    Due to growing population of Pakistan, there is a tremendous pressure on our agriculture sector to increase its production to meet the food and fiber requirement. Water is a basic need to increase the agriculture production and to bring more areas under cultivation. The exploitation of groundwater resources is increasing because of limited surface water availability. Statistics indicated that number of public and private tube-wells have increased to more than 5 lacs. Over exploitations of groundwater caused a number of environmental problems including salt water intrusion and increase in the soil and groundwater salinity. A large number of fresh water tube-wells have started pumping saline groundwater in various parts of Pakistan indicating up-coning of saline groundwater in the relatively fresh water aquifers. Use of poor quality groundwater for irrigation is considered as one of the major causes of salinity in the areas of irrigated agriculture. Indiscriminate pumping of the groundwater of marginal quality through skimming fresh water overlain by saline groundwater can not be helpful in the long run. It can add to the root zone salinity and ultimately reduction of crops yield. Mona Reclamation Experimental Project (MREP) is conducting a collaborative research study on 'Root Zone Salinity Management using Fractional Skimming Wells with Pressurized Irrigation' under a research and studies portfolio of the country wide National Drainage Programme (NDP) MREP, IWMI Pakistan and Water Resources Research Institute of PARC are collaborators in this joint research effort. MREP is responsible to specifically address the objective of the study to identify and test a limited number of promising skimming well techniques in the shallow fresh water aquifers which could control the saline water up-coning phenomenon as a consequence of groundwater pumping. Detailed investigations have been done at various locations in the north-central part of Chaj Doab (Sargodha Region) in the

  6. Diastolic Pressure Difference to Classify Pulmonary Hypertension in the Assessment of Heart Transplant Candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Stephen P; Moayedi, Yasbanoo; Foroutan, Farid; Agarwal, Suhail; Paradero, Geraldine; Alba, Ana C; Baumwol, Jay; Mak, Susanna

    2017-09-01

    The diastolic pressure difference (DPD) is recommended to differentiate between isolated postcapillary and combined pre-/postcapillary pulmonary hypertension (Cpc-PH) in left heart disease (PH-LHD). However, in usual practice, negative DPD values are commonly calculated, potentially related to the use of mean pulmonary artery wedge pressure (PAWP). We used the ECG to gate late-diastolic PAWP measurements. We examined the method's impact on calculated DPD, PH-LHD subclassification, hemodynamic profiles, and mortality. We studied patients with advanced heart failure undergoing right heart catheterization to assess cardiac transplantation candidacy (N=141). Pressure tracings were analyzed offline over 8 to 10 beat intervals. Diastolic pulmonary artery pressure and mean PAWP were measured to calculate the DPD as per usual practice (diastolic pulmonary artery pressure-mean PAWP). Within the same intervals, PAWP was measured gated to the ECG QRS complex to calculate the QRS-gated DPD (diastolic pulmonary artery pressure-QRS-gated PAWP). Outcomes occurring within 1 year were collected retrospectively from chart review. Overall, 72 of 141 cases demonstrated PH-LHD. Within PH-LHD, the QRS-gated DPD yielded higher calculated DPD values (3 [-1 to 6] versus 0 [-4 to 3] mm Hg; P pulmonary hypertension ( P pulmonary hypertension. The QRS-gated DPD reclassifies a subset of PH-LHD patients from isolated postcapillary pulmonary hypertension to Cpc-PH, which is characterized by an adverse hemodynamic profile. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  7. Modeling hydraulic conductivity and swelling pressure of several kinds of bentonites affected by concentration of saline water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Yukihisa; Hasegawa, Takuma; Nakamura, Kunihiko

    2007-01-01

    In case of construction of repository for radioactive waste near the coastal area, the effect of brine on hydraulic conductivity of bentonite as an engineering barrier should be considered because it is known that the hydraulic conductivity of bentonite increases with increasing in salt concentration of water. Thus, the effect of salinity of water on hydraulic conductivity of bentonite has been conducted experimentally. However, it is necessary to elucidate and to model the mechanism of the phenomenon because various kinds of bentonites may possibly be placed in various salinity of salt water. In this study, a model for evaluating permeability of compacted bentonite is proposed considering a) increase in number of sheets of montomorillonite crystal because of cohesion, b) decrease in viscosity of water in interlayer between sheets of montmorillonite crystal. Quantitative evaluation method for permeability of several kinds of bentonite under brine is proposed based on the model mentioned above. (author)

  8. Influence of oxygen, albumin and pH on copper dissolution in a simulated uterine fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastidas, D M; Cano, E; Mora, E M

    2005-06-01

    The aim of this paper is to study the influence of albumin content, from 5 to 45 g/L, on copper dissolution and compounds composition in a simulated uterine solution. Experiments were performed in atmospheric pressure conditions and with an additional oxygen pressure of 0.2 atmospheres, at 6.3 and 8.0 pH values, and at a temperature of 37 +/- 0.1 degrees C for 1, 3, 7, and 30 days experimentation time. The copper dissolution rate has been determined using absorbance measurements, finding the highest value for pH 8.0, 35 g/L albumin, and with an additional oxygen pressure of 0.2 atmospheres: 674 microg/day for 1 day, and 301 microg/day for 30 days. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) results show copper(II) as the main copper oxidation state at pH 8.0; and copper(I) and metallic copper at pH 6.3. The presence of albumin up to 35 g/L, accelerates copper dissolution. For high albumin content a stabilisation on the copper dissolution takes place. Corrosion product layer morphology is poorly protective, showing paths through which copper ions can release.

  9. Enhanced hydrogen generation using a saline catholyte in a two chamber microbial electrolysis cell

    KAUST Repository

    Nam, Joo-Youn

    2011-11-01

    High rates of hydrogen gas production were achieved in a two chamber microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) without a catholyte phosphate buffer by using a saline catholyte solution and a cathode constructed around a stainless steel mesh current collector. Using the non-buffered salt solution (68 mM NaCl) produced the highest current density of 131 ± 12 A/m3, hydrogen yield of 3.2 ± 0.3 mol H2/mol acetate, and gas production rate of 1.6 ± 0.2 m3 H2/m 3·d, compared to MECs with catholytes externally sparged with CO2 or containing a phosphate buffer. The salinity of the catholyte achieved a high solution conductivity, and therefore the electrode spacing did not appreciably affect performance. The coulombic efficiency with the cathode placed near the membrane separating the chambers was 83 ± 4%, similar to that obtained with the cathode placed more distant from the membrane (84 ± 4%). Using a carbon cloth cathode instead of the stainless steel mesh cathode did not significantly affect performance, with all reactor configurations producing similar performance in terms of total gas volume, COD removal, rcat and overall energy recovery. These results show MEC performance can be improved by using a saline catholyte without pH control. © 2011, Hydrogen Energy Publications, LLC. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Evaluating physiological responses of plants to salinity stress

    KAUST Repository

    Negrão, Sónia

    2016-10-06

    Background Because soil salinity is a major abiotic constraint affecting crop yield, much research has been conducted to develop plants with improved salinity tolerance. Salinity stress impacts many aspects of a plant’s physiology, making it difficult to study in toto. Instead, it is more tractable to dissect the plant’s response into traits that are hypothesized to be involved in the overall tolerance of the plant to salinity. Scope and conclusions We discuss how to quantify the impact of salinity on different traits, such as relative growth rate, water relations, transpiration, transpiration use efficiency, ionic relations, photosynthesis, senescence, yield and yield components. We also suggest some guidelines to assist with the selection of appropriate experimental systems, imposition of salinity stress, and obtaining and analysing relevant physiological data using appropriate indices. We illustrate how these indices can be used to identify relationships amongst the proposed traits to identify which traits are the most important contributors to salinity tolerance. Salinity tolerance is complex and involves many genes, but progress has been made in studying the mechanisms underlying a plant’s response to salinity. Nevertheless, several previous studies on salinity tolerance could have benefited from improved experimental design. We hope that this paper will provide pertinent information to researchers on performing proficient assays and interpreting results from salinity tolerance experiments.

  11. Influence of water temperature and salinity on seasonal occurrences of Vibrio cholerae and enteric bacteria in oyster-producing areas of Veracruz, México.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castañeda Chávez, Maria del Refugio; Pardio Sedas, Violeta; Orrantia Borunda, Erasmo; Lango Reynoso, Fabiola

    2005-12-01

    The influence of temperature and salinity on the occurrence of Vibrio cholerae, Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. associated with water and oyster samples was investigated in two lagoons on the Atlantic Coast of Veracruz, Mexico over a 1-year period. The results indicated that seasonal salinity variability and warm temperatures, as well as nutrient influx, may influence the occurrence of V. cholera. non-O1 and O1. The conditions found in the Alvarado (31.12 degrees C, 6.27 per thousand, pH=8.74) and La Mancha lagoons (31.38 degrees C, 24.18 per thousand, pH=9.15) during the rainy season 2002 favored the occurrence of V. cholera O1 Inaba enterotoxin positive traced in oysters. Vibrio alginolyticus was detected in Alvarado lagoon water samples during the winter season. E. coli and Salmonella spp. were isolated from water samples from the La Mancha (90-96.7% and 86.7-96.7%) and Alvarado (88.6-97.1% and 88.6-100%) lagoons. Occurrence of bacteria may be due to effluents from urban, agricultural and industrial areas.

  12. Microstrip Patch Sensor for Salinity Determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kibae; Hassan, Arshad; Lee, Chong Hyun; Bae, Jinho

    2017-12-18

    In this paper, a compact microstrip feed inset patch sensor is proposed for measuring the salinities in seawater. The working principle of the proposed sensor depends on the fact that different salinities in liquid have different relative permittivities and cause different resonance frequencies. The proposed sensor can obtain better sensitivity to salinity changes than common sensors using conductivity change, since the relative permittivity change to salinity is 2.5 times more sensitive than the conductivity change. The patch and ground plane of the proposed sensor are fabricated by conductive copper spray coating on the masks made by 3D printer. The fabricated patch and the ground plane are bonded to a commercial silicon substrate and then attached to 5 mm-high chamber made by 3D printer so that it contains only 1 mL seawater. For easy fabrication and testing, the maximum resonance frequency was selected under 3 GHz and to cover salinities in real seawater, it was assumed that the salinity changes from 20 to 35 ppt. The sensor was designed by the finite element method-based ANSYS high-frequency structure simulator (HFSS), and it can detect the salinity with 0.01 ppt resolution. The designed sensor has a resonance frequency separation of 37.9 kHz and reflection coefficients under -20 dB at the resonant frequencies. The fabricated sensor showed better performance with average frequency separation of 48 kHz and maximum reflection coefficient of -35 dB. By comparing with the existing sensors, the proposed compact and low-cost sensor showed a better detection capability. Therefore, the proposed patch sensor can be utilized in radio frequency (RF) tunable sensors for salinity determination.

  13. Effects of salinity, P H and temperature on CMC polymer and X C polymer performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghassem Alaskari, M. K.; Nickdel Teymoori, Reza

    2007-01-01

    The rheological and filtration properties of drilling mud under down-hole conditions may be very different from those measured at ambient pressures and temperatures at the surface. This paper presents the results of an experimental investigation into the temperature and salinity and p H effects on drilling mud rheological and filtration properties. Results are given from tests on water base mud containing CMC polymer and X C polymer. Drilling fluid was investigated at three different temperatures (21.1 d eg C , 48.9 d eg C , 80 d eg C ) containing 8.165 kg/b bl bentonite. The drilling mud salinities in this study were fresh water (Ahwaz water: ppm: 400, Hardness: 120). 2000 ppm, 4000 ppm, 8000 ppm and 40000 ppm. It was found that p H of drilling mud should be kept at range of 8-10, because increasing p H of drilling mud will increase its rheological properties. The salinity and temperature effects show that as the salinity and temperature of drilling mud are increased the effectiveness of polymers in drilling mud will decreased. Moreover, they have a negative effect on filtration properties of drilling mud. In suspensions of sodium montmorillonite that are well dispersed and have low gel strength, both plastic viscosity and yield point decrease with increasing temperature

  14. Hurricane-induced failure of low salinity wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howes, Nick C.; FitzGerald, Duncan M.; Hughes, Zoe J.; Georgiou, Ioannis Y.; Kulp, Mark A.; Miner, Michael D.; Smith, Jane M.; Barras, John A.

    2010-01-01

    During the 2005 hurricane season, the storm surge and wave field associated with Hurricanes Katrina and Rita eroded 527 km2 of wetlands within the Louisiana coastal plain. Low salinity wetlands were preferentially eroded, while higher salinity wetlands remained robust and largely unchanged. Here we highlight geotechnical differences between the soil profiles of high and low salinity regimes, which are controlled by vegetation and result in differential erosion. In low salinity wetlands, a weak zone (shear strength 500–1450 Pa) was observed ∼30 cm below the marsh surface, coinciding with the base of rooting. High salinity wetlands had no such zone (shear strengths > 4500 Pa) and contained deeper rooting. Storm waves during Hurricane Katrina produced shear stresses between 425–3600 Pa, sufficient to cause widespread erosion of the low salinity wetlands. Vegetation in low salinity marshes is subject to shallower rooting and is susceptible to erosion during large magnitude storms; these conditions may be exacerbated by low inorganic sediment content and high nutrient inputs. The dramatic difference in resiliency of fresh versus more saline marshes suggests that the introduction of freshwater to marshes as part of restoration efforts may therefore weaken existing wetlands rendering them vulnerable to hurricanes. PMID:20660777

  15. Genetic diversity and community structure of rhizobia nodulating Sesbania cannabina in saline-alkaline soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Li, Xiangyue; Liu, Yajing; Wang, En Tao; Ren, Chenggang; Liu, Wei; Xu, Hualing; Wu, Hailong; Jiang, Nan; Li, Yunzhao; Zhang, Xiaoli; Xie, Zhihong

    2016-05-01

    Sesbania cannabina is a plant that grows naturally along the seashores in Rudong County, China (RDC) and it has been introduced into the Yellow River Delta (YRD) as a pioneer plant to improve the saline-alkaline soils. In order to investigate the diversity of S. cannabina rhizobia in these soils, a total of 198 rhizobial isolates were characterized and phylogenetic trees were constructed based on data from multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) of the housekeeping genes recA, atpD and glnII, as well as 16S rRNA. Symbiotic features were also studied by establishing the phylogeny of the symbiotic genes nodA and nifH, and by performing nodulation assays. The isolates had highly conserved symbiotic genes and were classified into nine genospecies belonging to the genera Ensifer, Agrobacterium, Neorhizobium and Rhizobium. A unique community structure was detected in the rhizobia associated with S. cannabina in the saline-alkaline soils that was characterized by five novel genospecies and four defined species. In addition, Ensifer sp. I was the predominant rhizobia in YRD, whereas Ensifer meliloti and Neorhizobium huautlense were the dominant species in RDC. Therefore, the study demonstrated for the first time that this plant strongly selected the symbiotic gene background but not the genomic background of its microsymbionts. In addition, biogeographic patterns existed in the rhizobial populations associated with S. cannabina, which were mainly correlated with pH and salinity, as well as the mineral nutrient contents. This study provided novel information concerning the interaction between soil conditions, host plant and rhizobia, in addition to revealing the diversity of S. cannabina rhizobia in saline-alkaline soils. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. Soil and plant responses from land application of saline-sodic waters: Implications of management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vance, G.F.; King, L.A.; Ganjegunte, G.K. [University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States). Department for Renewable Resources

    2008-09-15

    Land application of co-produced waters from coalbed natural gas (CBNG) wells is one management option used in the Powder River Basin (PRB) of Wyoming and Montana. Unfortunately the co-produced CBNG waters may be saline and/or sodic. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of irrigation with CBNG waters on soils and plants in the PRB. Soil properties and vegetation responses resulting from 1 to 4 yr of saline sodic water (electrical conductivity (EC) 1.6-4.8 dS m{sup -1} sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), 17-57 mmol L- applications were studied during 2003 and 2004 field seasons on sites (Ustic Torriorthent Haplocambid, Haplargid and Paleargid) representing native range grasslands seeded grass hayfields and alfalfa hayfields. Parameters measured from each irrigated site were compared directly with representative non-irrigated sites. Soil chemical and physical parameters including pH, EC, SAR, exchangeable sodium percent, texture, bulk density, infiltration and Darcy flux rates, were measured at various depth intervals to 120 cm. Mulitple-year applications of saline sodic water produced consistent trends of increased soil EC AND SAR values to depths of 30 cm reduced surface infiltration rates and lowered Darcy flux rates to 120 cm. Significant differences (p {le} 0.05) were determined between irrigated and non-irrigated areas for EC, SAR infiltration rates and Darcy flux (p {le} 0.10) at most sites. Saline sodic CBNG water applications significantly increased native perennial grass biomass production and cover on irrigated as compared with non-irrigated sites; however overall species evenness decreased. Biological effects were variable and complex reflecting site-specific conditions and water and soil management strategies.

  17. Parylene-on-oil packaging for long-term implantable pressure sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapero, Aubrey M; Liu, Yang; Tai, Yu-Chong

    2016-08-01

    This paper reports and analyzes the feasibility study of a parylene-on-oil encapsulation packaging method of pressure sensors targeted for long-term implantation. Commercial barometric digital-output pressure sensors are enclosed in silicone oil and then encapsulated in situ with parylene-C or -D (PA-C, PA-D) chemical vapor deposition. Experimentally, sensors encapsulated with 30,000 cSt silicone oil and 27 μm PA-D show good performance for 6 weeks in 77 °C saline with >99 % of original sensitivity, corresponding to an extrapolated lifetime of around 21 months in 37 °C saline. This work shows that, with proper designs, such a packaging method can preserve the original pressure sensor sensitivity without offset, validated throughout accelerated lifetime tests. In experiments, wires on the prototypes are used for external electronics but it is found that they contributed to early failures, which would be absent in real wireless versions, indicating a potential for even longer lifetimes. Finally, a verified model is presented to predict the pressure sensor sensitivity of parylene-on-oil packaging with and without the presence of a bubble in the oil.

  18. Raman spectroscopy of gold chloro-hydroxy speciation in fluids at ambient temperature and pressure: a re-evaluation of the effects of pH and chloride concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, P. J.; LaGrange, M. S.

    1998-11-01

    Previous work on gold chloride and hydroxide speciation in fluids has shown differences in opinion as to the relative importance of gold (I) and gold (III) species, as well as for the Raman peak assignments for the various species. In addition, previous experimental work has not been consistent with theoretical predictions either of the number or of the frequencies of the peaks in the Raman spectrum. In order to re-evaluate the effect of pH on Raman spectra and speciation, solutions containing gold (III) chloride were analysed by Raman spectroscopy at ambient temperature and pressure, over a range of pH from 1 to 11. Total gold concentrations were from 0.001 to 0.02 M, with total chloride concentrations of 0.004-0.5 M. The spectra obtained are consistent with the hydrolysis sequence of square-planar Au(III) complex ions [AuCl x(OH) 4-x] -, where x = 0-4. The Au-Cl stretching peaks obtained were 348/325 Rcm -1 for [AuCl 4] -, 348/335/325 Rcm -1 for [AuCl 3(OH)] -, 337/355 Rcm -1 for [AuCl 2(OH) 2] -, and 355 Rcm -1 for [AuCl(OH) 3] -. [Au(OH) 4] - probably occurred, alongside [AuCl(OH) 3] - at pH values above 11. A dark purplish-grey precipitate (Au(I)OH) formed at high pH values. No evidence for Au(I) species was found. The spectra are more consistent with theory than previous data and show the predicted number of peaks for Au-Cl and Au-OH stretches for each species. However, the peak frequencies do not fit precisely with the predictions of Tossell (1996), particularly for Au-OH stretches. Hydrolysis of the simple chloride species occurs at lower pH values than found previously, and both gold and chloride concentration were found to affect the pH ranges of stability for the various chloro-hydroxy species. Decreasing gold concentration resulted in hydrolysis occurring at lower pH values. This is especially important in the absence of excess chloride (ΣCl = 4ΣAu). Substantial hydrolysis occurred below pH = 4 for 0.02 M Au /0.08 M Cl -, and below pH = 2 for 0.001 M

  19. Is salinity tolerance related to osmolytes accumulation in Lygeum spartum L. seedlings?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bouzid Nedjimi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Lygeum spartum L. (Poaceae is a plant of commercial relevance used as raw material for manufacturing paper. This species is a newly found salt tolerant species, but its physiological responses to salinity are poorly understood. The effect of salt stress (50 and 100 mM NaCl on growth, leaf water relations, soluble sugars and free amino acids in L. spartum has been investigated. Fresh and dry weights were reduced significantly above 50 mM NaCl. Transpiration, water potential (Ψω and osmotic potential (Ψπ decreased with elevated NaCl. No change was observed in the turgor potential (Ψτ. Subsequently, the composition of free amino acids estimated by high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC indicated a significant increase in free amino acid content. It appears that valine was the main amino acid accumulated significantly by the plants for both NaCl treatments. However, tyrosine levels decrease by salt treatment compared to control. Contents of Na+ and Cl− increased with an increase in salinity. The concentration of Na+ of salinized plants (100 mM NaCl was ∼70-fold greater than that measured in control plants, and this was associated with significant reductions in leaf K+ and Ca2+ concentrations. In addition, a significant accumulation of soluble sugars, probably associated with osmotic adjustment and protection of membrane stability, occurred in roots of salinized plants. Based upon these results, a possible physiological role of soluble sugars and free amino acids was suggested in L. spartum to maintain turgor.

  20. A PhD is a PhD is a PhD

    OpenAIRE

    Ostrow, Deborah Anne

    2017-01-01

    A PhD is a PhD is a PhD is a practice-based project that interrogates the process of an artist undertaking PhD research under established criteria. It consists of an exegesis, an original screenplay, and a digital film made for online viewing, with images drawn from a range of documentaries and films found on YouTube. They have been dissected, re-assembled and then re-embedded to YouTube. The source material covers topics such as medicalization of madness, the conspicuous appropriation of uni...

  1. Physico-chemical changes of ZnO nanoparticles with different size and surface chemistry under physiological pH conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwak, Gyeong-Hyeon; Lee, Won-Jae; Paek, Seung-Min; Oh, Jae-Min

    2015-03-01

    We studied the physico-chemical properties of ZnO nanoparticles under physiological pH conditions (gastric, intestinal and plasma) as functions of their size (20 and 70 nm) and surface chemistry (pristine, L-serine, or citrate coating). ZnO nanoparticles were dispersed in phosphate buffered saline under physiological pH conditions and aliquots were collected at specific time points (0.5, 1, 4, 10 and 24 h) for further characterization. The pH values of the aqueous ZnO colloids at each condition were in the neutral to slightly basic range and showed different patterns depending on the original size and surface chemistry of the ZnO nanoparticles. The gastric pH condition was found to significantly dissolve ZnO nanoparticles up to 18-30 wt%, while the intestinal or plasma pH conditions resulted in much lower dissolution amounts than expected. Based on the X-ray diffraction patterns and X-ray absorption spectra, we identified partial phase transition of the ZnO nanoparticles from wurtzite to Zn(OH)2 under the intestinal and plasma pH conditions. Using scanning electron microscopy, we verified that the overall particle size and morphology of all ZnO nanoparticles were maintained regardless of the pH. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The Baltic Sea natural long-term variability of salinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimanke, Semjon; Markus Meier, H. E.

    2015-04-01

    The Baltic Sea is one of the largest brackish sea areas of the world. The sensitive state of the Baltic Sea is sustained by a fresh-water surplus by river discharge and precipitation on one hand as well as inflows of highly saline and oxygen-rich water masses from the North Sea on the other. Major inflows which are crucial for the renewal of the deep water occur very intermittent with a mean frequency of approximately one per year. Stagnation periods (periods without major inflows) lead for instance to a reduction of oxygen concentration in the deep Baltic Sea spreading hypoxic conditions. Depending on the amount of salt water inflow and fresh-water supply the deep water salinity of the Baltic Sea varies between 11 to 14 PSU on the decadal scale. The goal of this study is to understand the contribution of different driving factors for the decadal to multi-decadal variability of salinity in the Baltic Sea. Continuous measurement series of salinity exist from the 1950 but are not sufficiently long for the investigation of long-term fluctuations. Therefore, a climate simulation of more than 800 years has been carried out with the Rossby Center Ocean model (RCO). RCO is a biogeochemical regional climate model which covers the entire Baltic Sea. It is driven with atmospheric data dynamical downscaled from a GCM mimicking natural climate variability. The analysis focus on the role of variations in river discharge and precipitation, changes in wind speed and direction, fluctuations in temperature and shifts in large scale pressure patterns (e.g. NAO). Hereby, the length of the simulation will allow to identify mechanisms working on decadal to multi-decadal time scales. Moreover, it will be discussed how likely long stagnation periods are under natural climate variability and if the observed exceptional long stagnation period between 1983-1993 might be related to beginning climate change.

  3. On the Balancing of the SMOS Ocean Salinity Retrieval Cost Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabia, R.; Camps, A.; Portabella, M.; Talone, M.; Ballabrera, J.; Gourrion, J.; Gabarró, C.; Aretxabaleta, A. L.; Font, J.

    2009-04-01

    (10), 2196-2205, 2004. [2] Zine, S., J. Boutin, J. Font, N. Reul, P. Waldteufel, C. Gabarró, J. Tenerelli, F. Petitcolin, J.L. Vergely, M. Talone, and S. Delwart, Overview of the SMOS Sea Surface Salinity Prototype Processor, IEEE Trans. Geosc. Remote Sens, 46 (3), 621-645, 2008. [3] Gabarró, C., M. Portabella, M. Talone and J. Font, Analysis of the SMOS Ocean Salinity Inversion Algorithm, Proceedings of the International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium (IGARSS), Barcelona, Spain, 971-974, 2007. [4] Sabia, R, Sea Surface Salinity Retrieval Error Budget within the ESA Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity Mission, Ph.D. Dissertation, Barcelona, Spain, October 2008. [5] Talone, M., A. Camps, C. Gabarró, R. Sabia, J. Gourrion, M. Vall•llossera, B. Mourre, and J. Font, Contributions to the Improvement of the SMOS Level 2 Retrieval Algorithm: Optimization of the Cost Function, Proceedings of the International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium (IGARSS), Boston, Massachusetts USA, 2008.

  4. Estuarine turbidity, flushing, salinity, and circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, D. W.

    1972-01-01

    The effects of estuarine turbidity, flushing, salinity, and circulation on the ecology of the Chesapeake Bay are discussed. The sources of fresh water, the variations in salinity, and the circulation patterns created by temperature and salinity changes are analyzed. The application of remote sensors for long term observation of water temperatures is described. The sources of sediment and the biological effects resulting from increased sediments and siltation are identified.

  5. Microstrip Patch Sensor for Salinity Determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kibae Lee

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a compact microstrip feed inset patch sensor is proposed for measuring the salinities in seawater. The working principle of the proposed sensor depends on the fact that different salinities in liquid have different relative permittivities and cause different resonance frequencies. The proposed sensor can obtain better sensitivity to salinity changes than common sensors using conductivity change, since the relative permittivity change to salinity is 2.5 times more sensitive than the conductivity change. The patch and ground plane of the proposed sensor are fabricated by conductive copper spray coating on the masks made by 3D printer. The fabricated patch and the ground plane are bonded to a commercial silicon substrate and then attached to 5 mm-high chamber made by 3D printer so that it contains only 1 mL seawater. For easy fabrication and testing, the maximum resonance frequency was selected under 3 GHz and to cover salinities in real seawater, it was assumed that the salinity changes from 20 to 35 ppt. The sensor was designed by the finite element method-based ANSYS high-frequency structure simulator (HFSS, and it can detect the salinity with 0.01 ppt resolution. The designed sensor has a resonance frequency separation of 37.9 kHz and reflection coefficients under −20 dB at the resonant frequencies. The fabricated sensor showed better performance with average frequency separation of 48 kHz and maximum reflection coefficient of −35 dB. By comparing with the existing sensors, the proposed compact and low-cost sensor showed a better detection capability. Therefore, the proposed patch sensor can be utilized in radio frequency (RF tunable sensors for salinity determination.

  6. Salinity tolerance of the South African endemic amphipod ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Salinities were prepared using natural seawater and synthetic sea salt. Grandidierella lignorum tolerated all salinities, but showed highest survival at salinities of 7–42. Salinity tolerance was modified by temperature, with highest survival occurring between 10 and 25 °C. These represent the range of conditions at which ...

  7. CNS sites activated by renal pelvic epithelial sodium channels (ENaCs) in response to hypertonic saline in awake rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwill, Vanessa S; Terrill, Christopher; Hopewood, Ian; Loewy, Arthur D; Knuepfer, Mark M

    2017-05-01

    In some patients, renal nerve denervation has been reported to be an effective treatment for essential hypertension. Considerable evidence suggests that afferent renal nerves (ARN) and sodium balance play important roles in the development and maintenance of high blood pressure. ARN are sensitive to sodium concentrations in the renal pelvis. To better understand the role of ARN, we infused isotonic or hypertonic NaCl (308 or 500mOsm) into the left renal pelvis of conscious rats for two 2hours while recording arterial pressure and heart rate. Subsequently, brain tissue was analyzed for immunohistochemical detection of the protein Fos, a marker for neuronal activation. Fos-immunoreactive neurons were identified in numerous sites in the forebrain and brainstem. These areas included the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS), the lateral parabrachial nucleus, the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVH) and the supraoptic nucleus (SON). The most effective stimulus was 500mOsm NaCl. Activation of these sites was attenuated or prevented by administration of benzamil (1μM) or amiloride (10μM) into the renal pelvis concomitantly with hypertonic saline. In anesthetized rats, infusion of hypertonic saline but not isotonic saline into the renal pelvis elevated ARN activity and this increase was attenuated by simultaneous infusion of benzamil or amiloride. We propose that renal pelvic epithelial sodium channels (ENaCs) play a role in activation of ARN and, via central visceral afferent circuits, this system modulates fluid volume and peripheral blood pressure. These pathways may contribute to the development of hypertension. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Three dimensional graphene transistor for ultra-sensitive pH sensing directly in biological media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameri, Shideh Kabiri; Singh, Pramod K; Sonkusale, Sameer R

    2016-08-31

    In this work, pH sensing directly in biological media using three dimensional liquid gated graphene transistors is presented. The sensor is made of suspended network of graphene coated all around with thin layer of hafnium oxide (HfO2), showing high sensitivity and sensing beyond the Debye-screening limit. The performance of the pH sensor is validated by measuring the pH of isotonic buffered, Dulbecco's phosphate buffered saline (DPBS) solution, and of blood serum derived from Sprague-Dawley rat. The pH sensor shows high sensitivity of 71 ± 7 mV/pH even in high ionic strength media with molarities as high as 289 ± 1 mM. High sensitivity of this device is owing to suspension of three dimensional graphene in electrolyte which provides all around liquid gating of graphene, leading to higher electrostatic coupling efficiency of electrolyte to the channel and higher gating control of transistor channel by ions in the electrolyte. Coating graphene with hafnium oxide film (HfO2) provides binding sites for hydrogen ions, which results in higher sensitivity and sensing beyond the Debye-screening limit. The 3D graphene transistor offers the possibility of real-time pH measurement in biological media without the need for desaltation or sample preparation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. NOAA Average Annual Salinity (3-Zone)

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — The 3-Zone Average Annual Salinity Digital Geography is a digital spatial framework developed using geographic information system (GIS) technology. These salinity...

  10. Biocompatibility Research of a Novel pH Sensitive Ion Exchange Resin Microsphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongfei; Shi, Shuangshuang; Pan, Weisan; Sun, Changshan; Zou, Xiaomian; Fu, Min; Feng, Yingshu; Ding, Hui

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to investigate biocompatibility and provide in-vivo pharmacological and toxicological evidence for further investigation of the possibility of pH sensitive ion exchange resin microsphere for clinical utilizations. Acute toxicity study and general pharmacological studies were conducted on the pH sensitive ion exchange resin microsphere we prepared. The general pharmacological studies consist of the effects of the pH sensitive ion exchange resin microsphere on the nervous system of mice, the functional coordination of mice, the hypnosis of mice treated with nembutal at subliminal dose, the autonomic activities of tested mice, and the heart rate, blood pressure, ECG and breathing of the anesthetic cats. The LD50 of pH sensitive ion exchange resin microsphere after oral administration was more than 18.84 g·Kg(-1). Mice were orally administered with 16 mg·Kg(-1), 32 mg·Kg(-1) and 64 mg·Kg(-1) of pH sensitive ion exchange resin microsphere and there was no significant influence on mice nervous system, general behavior, function coordination, hypnotic effect treated with nembutal at subliminal dose and frequency of autonomic activities. Within the 90 min after 5 mg·Kg(-1), 10 mg·Kg(-1), 20 mg·Kg(-1) pH sensitive ion exchange resin microsphere was injected to cat duodenum, the heart rate, blood pressure, breathing and ECG of the cats didn't make significant changes in each experimental group compared with the control group. The desirable pharmacological and toxicological behaviors of the pH sensitive ion exchange resin microsphere exhibited that it has safe biocompatibility and is possible for clinical use.

  11. Development of high temperature and pressure zirconia-based pH sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danielson, M.J.; Koski, O.H.; Myers, J.

    1985-01-01

    Yttria-stabilized zirconia pH sensors are suitable for use from 100-300 0 C. A new Pt internal half cell is discussed which results in a considerable simplification in their calibration. A degradation process takes place after prolonged exposure to 300 0 C conditions and is manifested by a loss of full Nerstian response at temperature ≤ 200 0 C. A hypothesis for the degradation process is discussed

  12. Salinity: Electrical conductivity and total dissolved solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    The measurement of soil salinity is a quantification of the total salts present in the liquid portion of the soil. Soil salinity is important in agriculture because salinity reduces crop yields by reducing the osmotic potential making it more difficult for the plant to extract water, by causing spe...

  13. Reconstructing sea surface temperature, sea surface salinity and partial pressure of carbon dioxide in atmosphere in the Okinawa Trough during the Holocene and their paleoclimatic implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENGXianwei; LIUYanguang; LlUZhenxia; DUDewen; HUANGQiyu; Y.Saito

    2003-01-01

    The sediment core DGKS9603 collected from the Okinawa Trough was used as research target. By use of unsaturated index U37k of long-chain alkenone, δ13C of POC and of planktonic foraminifera (G sacculifer), the evolutions of sea surface temperature and partial pressure of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere during the Holocene were reconstructed in the Okinawa Trough. And in combination of δ18O of planktonic foraminifera, the relative difference of sea surface salinity during the Holocene was also reconstructed.Consequently, three cooling events (E1-E3) were identified,each of which occurred at 1.7-1.6, 5.1-4.8 and 8.1-7.4kaBP (cal), respectively. Of the three events, E2 and E3 are globally comparable, their occurrence mechanism would be that the main stream of the Kuroshio Current shifted eastward due to the enhanced circulation of the northeastern Pacific Ocean, which was driven in turn by amplified intensity of sunshine and subsequent enhancement of subtropical high pressure; E1 corresponds to the Small Ice-Age Event occurring between 1550 and 1850AD in China. In the Okinawa Trough, E1 might be also related to the eastward shift of main stream of the Kuroshio current driven by powerful Asia winter monsoon.

  14. SALINE WATER RESOURCES IN CLUJ-NAPOCA SURROUNDINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. CZELLECZ

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Saline waters are usually researched in those places where it is used for balneotherapy or other industrial purposes. The aim of this study is to describe the saline water sources from less known areas, as they are an important natural mineral water resource. Twenty nine water samples were analyzed from Cojocna-Pata-Sopor region, thirteen of them can be considered saline waters. The visited locations are 21, 15 and 3 km far from Cluj-Napoca. Highly concentrated springs are to be found in the old mine area from Pata village and in the slough from Cojocna. Beside the well known saline lakes from Cojocna, five other saline lakes were identified; most of them are having artificial origin.

  15. Pressure retarded osmosis from hypersaline sources - A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bajraktari, Niada; Hélix-Nielsen, Claus; Madsen, Henrik T.

    2017-01-01

    for commercialization. The scope of this paper is to review the existing knowledge on the use of hypersaline waters in the salinity gradient process, pressure retarded osmosis. Although only few papers have had the specific aim of investigating hypersaline waters, concentrated solutions have been used in many papers...

  16. Soil salinity decreases global soil organic carbon stocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setia, Raj; Gottschalk, Pia; Smith, Pete; Marschner, Petra; Baldock, Jeff; Setia, Deepika; Smith, Jo

    2013-11-01

    Saline soils cover 3.1% (397 million hectare) of the total land area of the world. The stock of soil organic carbon (SOC) reflects the balance between carbon (C) inputs from plants, and losses through decomposition, leaching and erosion. Soil salinity decreases plant productivity and hence C inputs to the soil, but also microbial activity and therefore SOC decomposition rates. Using a modified Rothamsted Carbon model (RothC) with a newly introduced salinity decomposition rate modifier and a plant input modifier we estimate that, historically, world soils that are currently saline have lost an average of 3.47 tSOC ha(-1) since they became saline. With the extent of saline soils predicted to increase in the future, our modelling suggests that world soils may lose 6.8 Pg SOC due to salinity by the year 2100. Our findings suggest that current models overestimate future global SOC stocks and underestimate net CO2 emissions from the soil-plant system by not taking salinity effects into account. From the perspective of enhancing soil C stocks, however, given the lower SOC decomposition rate in saline soils, salt tolerant plants could be used to sequester C in salt-affected areas. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Monitoring and Modelling of Salinity Behaviour in Drinking Water Ponds in Southern Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoque, M. A.; Williams, A.; Mathewson, E.; Rahman, A. K. M. M.; Ahmed, K. M.; Scheelbeek, P. F. D.; Vineis, P.; Butler, A. P.

    2015-12-01

    Drinking water in southern Bangladesh is provided by a variety of sources including constructed storage ponds, seasonal rainwater and, ubiquitously saline, shallow groundwater. The ponds, the communal reservoirs for harvested rainwater, also tend to be saline, some as high as 2 g/l. Drinking water salinity has several health impacts including high blood pressure associated major risk factor for several cardio-vascular diseases. Two representative drinking water ponds in Dacope Upazila of Khulna District in southwest Bangladesh were monitored over two years for rainfall, evaporation, pond and groundwater level, abstraction, and solute concentration, to better understand the controls on drinking water salinity. Water level monitoring at both ponds shows groundwater levels predominantly below the pond level throughout the year implying a downward gradient. The grain size analysis of the underlying sediments gives an estimated hydraulic conductivity of 3E-8 m/s allowing limited seepage loss. Water balance modelling indicates that the seepage has a relatively minor effect on the pond level and that the bulk of the losses come from the combination of evaporation and abstraction particularly in dry season when precipitation, the only inflow to the pond, is close to zero. Seasonal variation in salinity (electrical conductivities, EC, ranged between 1500 to 3000 μS/cm) has been observed, and are primarily due to dilution from rainfall and concentration from evaporation, except on one occasion when EC reached 16,000 μS/cm due to a breach in the pond levee. This event was analogous to the episodic inundation that occurs from tropical cyclone storm surges and appears to indicate that such events are important for explaining the widespread salinisation of surface water and shallow groundwater bodies in coastal areas. A variety of adaptations (either from practical protection measures) or novel alternative drinking sources (such as aquifer storage and recovery) can be applied

  18. Primary Coolant pH Control for Soluble Boron-Free PWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheon, Yang Ho; Lee, Nam Yeong; Park, Byeong Ho; Park, Seong Chan; Kim, Eun Kee

    2015-01-01

    These should be considered when evaluating and designing the operating pH program for nuclear power plants. This paper discusses the advanced water chemistry strategies to keep pace with the recent global trends related to pH control in the primary water system for soluble boron pressurized water reactor (PWR) plants. Finally, the objective of this work is to study primary coolant pH control for soluble boron-free PWR plants. This paper reviewed the advanced water chemistry strategies to keep pace with the recent global trends related to pH control in the primary water chemistry system for soluble boron PWR plants. The new chemistry trend for the primary coolant is towards adaption of the constant and elevated chemistry. Finally, this work studied primary coolant pH control for soluble boron-free PWR plants. The ammonia-based water chemistry related to pH control for boron-free PWR plants was discussed. The ammonia-based water chemistry is not recommended to avoid fluctuation of the pH value by ammonia radiolysis and to reduce C-14 production in reactor coolant from reaction with dissolved nitrogen. Also, the potassium-based water chemistry related to pH control for boron-free PWR plants was discussed. KOH has a potential as an alternative pH control agent for soluble boron-free PWR plants. The potassium-based water chemistry related to pH control is recommended for boron-free operation as follows

  19. [Characteristics of 'salt island' and 'fertile island' for Tamarix chinensis and soil carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus ecological stoichiometry in saline-alkali land].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li-hua; Chen, Xiao-bing

    2015-03-01

    To clarify the nutrient characteristics of 'salt island' and 'fertile island' effects in saline-alkali soil, the native Tamarix chinensis of the Yellow River Delta (YRD) was selected to measure its soil pH, electrical conductivity (EC), organic carbon (SOC), total nitrogen (N), total phosphorus (P) and their stoichiometry characteristics at different soil depths. The results showed that soil pH and EC increased with the increasing soil depth. Soil EC and P in the 0-20 cm layer decreased and increased from canopied area to interspace, respectively. SOC, N, N/P and C/P in the 20-40 cm soil layer decreased, and C/N increased from the shrub center to interspace. SOC and N contents between island and interspace both decreased but P content decreased firstly and then increased with the increasing soil depth. Soil pH correlated positively with EC. In addition, pH and EC correlated negatively with C, N, P contents and their ecological stoichiometry.

  20. Physico-chemical conditions for plankton in Lake Timsah, a saline lake on the Suez Canal

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Serehy, H. A. H.; Sleigh, M. A.

    1992-02-01

    Lake Timsah receives high salinity water from the Suez Canal, mainly from the south, and freshwater from a Nile canal and other sources, producing a salinity stratification with surface salinities of 20-40‰ and over 40‰ in deeper water. Water temperature at a depth of 50-70 cm fell to below 20 °C in winter and rose to above 30 °C in summer; oxygen concentration at the same depth ranged between 6-10 mg l -1 and the pH was 8·1-8·3, and at mid-day this water was supersaturated with oxygen through 6-8 months of the year. The main chemical nutrients reached their highest levels in winter (December-February) and their lowest levels in summer (May-August), silicate varying between 1-7 μ M, phosphate between 0·1 and 0·8 μ M and nitrate between 4-10 μ M; nitrite varied in a more complex manner, usually between 0·25 and 0·4 μ M. The atomic ratio of N/P was generally well above the Redfield ratio level, except for a few months in midwinter. These nutrient concentrations are high in comparison with those of unpolluted seas of the region, but are typical of the more eutrophic coastal waters in most parts of the world.

  1. [Influence of reverse osmosis concentrate on physicochemical parameters of Sini decoction material system and their relevance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Tang-Hui; Zhang, Liu-Hong; Zhu, Hua-Xu; Guo, Li-Wei; Li, Bo; Lu, Ming-Ming

    2014-04-01

    By studying the process of reverse osmosis system for traditional Chinese medicine materials physicochemical parameters affecting the osmotic pressure of its relevance, new compound system reverse osmosis process design methods were explored. Three concentrations materials for high, middle and low were dubbed with Sini decoction as a model drug, and pretreated by 50 thousand relative molecular weight cut-off ultrafiltration membrane. The viscosity, turbidity, conductivity, salinity, TDS, pH value and osmotic pressure of each sample were determined after the reverse osmosis to study the physical and chemical parameters between their respective correlations with the osmotic pressure, and characterized by HPLC chromatograms showing changes before and after the main chemical composition of samples of reverse osmosis. Conductivity-osmotic pressure, salinity-osmotic pressure of the linear correlation coefficient, TDS-osmotic pressure between the three sets of parameters were 0.963 8, 0.932 7, 0.973 7, respectively. Reverse osmosis concentrate and its characteristic spectrum ultrafiltrate HPLC similarity were up to 0. 968 or more, except the low concentrations. There is a significant correlation between the three physicochemical parameters (conductivity, salinity, TDS) and osmotic pressure of each sample system, and there is also significant linear correlation between salinity, conductivity, TDS. The original chemical composition of Sini decoction material concentrate was completely remained after the process of reverse osmosis.

  2. Energy Recovery from Solutions with Different Salinities Based on Swelling and Shrinking of Hydrogels

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Xiuping

    2014-06-17

    Several technologies, including pressure-retarded osmosis (PRO), reverse electrodialysis (RED), and capacitive mixing (CapMix), are being developed to recover energy from salinity gradients. Here, we present a new approach to capture salinity gradient energy based on the expansion and contraction properties of poly(acrylic acid) hydrogels. These materials swell in fresh water and shrink in salt water, and thus the expansion can be used to capture energy through mechanical processes. In tests with 0.36 g of hydrogel particles 300 to 600 μm in diameter, 124 mJ of energy was recovered in 1 h (salinity ratio of 100, external load of 210 g, water flow rate of 1 mL/min). Although these energy recovery rates were relatively lower than those typically obtained using PRO, RED, or CapMix, the costs of hydrogels are much lower than those of membranes used in PRO and RED. In addition, fouling might be more easily controlled as the particles can be easily removed from the reactor for cleaning. Further development of the technology and testing of a wider range of conditions should lead to improved energy recoveries and performance. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  3. Energy Recovery from Solutions with Different Salinities Based on Swelling and Shrinking of Hydrogels

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Xiuping; Yang, Wulin; Hatzell, Marta C.; Logan, Bruce E.

    2014-01-01

    Several technologies, including pressure-retarded osmosis (PRO), reverse electrodialysis (RED), and capacitive mixing (CapMix), are being developed to recover energy from salinity gradients. Here, we present a new approach to capture salinity gradient energy based on the expansion and contraction properties of poly(acrylic acid) hydrogels. These materials swell in fresh water and shrink in salt water, and thus the expansion can be used to capture energy through mechanical processes. In tests with 0.36 g of hydrogel particles 300 to 600 μm in diameter, 124 mJ of energy was recovered in 1 h (salinity ratio of 100, external load of 210 g, water flow rate of 1 mL/min). Although these energy recovery rates were relatively lower than those typically obtained using PRO, RED, or CapMix, the costs of hydrogels are much lower than those of membranes used in PRO and RED. In addition, fouling might be more easily controlled as the particles can be easily removed from the reactor for cleaning. Further development of the technology and testing of a wider range of conditions should lead to improved energy recoveries and performance. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  4. Changes of hypertonic saline-induced masseter muscle pain characteristics, by an infusion of the serotonin receptor type 3 antagonist granisetron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christidis, Nikolaos; Ioannidou, Kiriaki; Milosevic, Milena; Segerdahl, Märta; Ernberg, Malin

    2008-10-01

    This study aimed to investigate whether granisetron reduces masseter muscle pain and allodynia induced by hypertonic saline. Fifteen healthy women and 15 age-matched healthy men participated in this randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded study. They first received bilateral injections of hypertonic saline into the masseter muscles (internal control). The evoked pain intensity and the pressure-pain threshold (PPT) were recorded during 30 minutes. Granisetron was then injected on one side and placebo (normal saline) on the contralateral side. Two minutes thereafter, the hypertonic saline injections were repeated. Pain and PPT were again recorded. The first injection of hypertonic saline induced pain of similar intensity, duration, and pain area on both sides, but with larger pain area in the women (P = .017). The PPT did not change significantly. The second injection of hypertonic saline induced considerably less pain (62.5%), of shorter duration (44.1%), and of smaller area (77.4%) on the side pretreated with granisetron (P = .005). The PPT was increased on the granisetron side in the men (P = .002). The results of this study show that local injection of a single dose of granisetron attenuates masseter muscle pain induced by hypertonic saline. This article presents the changes of hypertonic saline-induced masseter muscle pain characteristics by infusion of granisetron. It appears that the pain-inducing effect in this experimental pain model is partly due to activation of 5-HT3-receptors. Hence, the results indicate that granisetron might offer a new treatment approach for localized myofascial pain.

  5. PhD supervisor-student relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FILIPE PRAZERES

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between the PhD supervisor and the PhD student is a complex one. When this relationship is neither effective nor efficient, it may yield negative consequences, such as academic failure (1. The intricacy of the supervisor-student relationship may be in part comparable to the one between the physician and his/her patient [see, for example (2]. Both interactions develop over several years and the players involved in each relationship – PhD supervisor-student on the one side and physician-patient on the other side – may at some point of the journey develop different expectations of one another [see, for example (3, 4] and experience emotional distress (5. In both relationships, the perceived satisfaction with the interaction will contribute to the success or failure of the treatment in one case, and in the other, the writing of a thesis. To improve the mentioned satisfaction, not only there is a need to invest time (6, as does the physician to his/ her patients, but also both the supervisor and the PhD student must be willing to negotiate a research path to follow that would be practical and achievable. The communication between the physician and patient is of paramount importance for the provision of health care (7, and so is the communication between the supervisor and PhD student which encourages the progression of both the research and the doctoral study (8. As to a smooth transition to the postgraduate life, supervisors should start thinking about providing the same kind of positive reinforcement that every student is used to experience in the undergraduate course. The recognition for a job well done will mean a lot for a PhD student, as it does for a patient. One good example is the increase in medication compliance by patients with high blood pressure who receive positive reinforcement from their physicians (9. Supervisors can organize regular meetings for (and with PhD students in order to not only discuss their projects

  6. Non‐diluted seawater enhances nasal ciliary beat frequency and wound repair speed compared to diluted seawater and normal saline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnomet, Arnaud; Luczka, Emilie; Coraux, Christelle

    2016-01-01

    Background The regulation of mucociliary clearance is a key part of the defense mechanisms developed by the airway epithelium. If a high aggregate quality of evidence shows the clinical effectiveness of nasal irrigation, there is a lack of studies showing the intrinsic role of the different irrigation solutions allowing such results. This study investigated the impact of solutions with different pH and ionic compositions, eg, normal saline, non‐diluted seawater and diluted seawater, on nasal mucosa functional parameters. Methods For this randomized, controlled, blinded, in vitro study, we used airway epithelial cells obtained from 13 nasal polyps explants to measure ciliary beat frequency (CBF) and epithelial wound repair speed (WRS) in response to 3 isotonic nasal irrigation solutions: (1) normal saline 0.9%; (2) non‐diluted seawater (Physiomer®); and (3) 30% diluted seawater (Stérimar). The results were compared to control (cell culture medium). Results Non‐diluted seawater enhanced the CBF and the WRS when compared to diluted seawater and to normal saline. When compared to the control, it significantly enhanced CBF and slightly, though nonsignificantly, improved the WRS. Interestingly, normal saline markedly reduced the number of epithelial cells and ciliated cells when compared to the control condition. Conclusion Our results suggest that the physicochemical features of the nasal wash solution is important because it determines the optimal conditions to enhance CBF and epithelial WRS thus preserving the respiratory mucosa in pathological conditions. Non‐diluted seawater obtains the best results on CBF and WRS vs normal saline showing a deleterious effect on epithelial cell function. PMID:27101776

  7. Sensitivity of Clay Suspension Rheological Properties to pH, Temperature, Salinity, and Smectite-Quartz Ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kameda, Jun; Morisaki, Tomonori

    2017-10-01

    Understanding the rheological properties of clay suspensions is critical to assessing the behavior of sediment gravity flows such as debris flow or turbidity current. We conducted rheological measurements of composite smectite-quartz suspensions at a temperature of 7°C and a salt concentration of 0.6 M. This is representative of smectite-bearing sediments under conditions on the seafloor. The flow curves obtained were fitted by the Bingham fluid model, from which we determined the Bingham yield stress and dynamic viscosity of each suspension. At a constant smectite-quartz mixing ratio, the yield stress and the dynamic viscosity tend to increase as the solid/water ratio of the suspension is increased. In the case of a constant solid/water ratio, these values increase with increasing smectite content in the smectite-quartz mixture. Additional experiments exploring differing physicochemical conditions (pH 1.0-9.0; temperature 2-30°C; and electrolyte (NaCl) concentration 0.2-0.6 M) revealed that the influence of temperature is negligible, while pH moderately affects the rheology of the suspension. More significantly, the electrolyte concentration greatly affects the flow behavior. These variations can be explained by direct and/or indirect (double-layer) interactions between smectite-smectite particles as well as between smectite-quartz particles in the suspension. Although smectite is known as a frictionally weak material, our experimental results suggest that its occurrence can reduce the likelihood that slope failure initiates. Furthermore, smectite can effectively suppress the spreading distance once the slope has failed.

  8. Comparative Effects of Salt Stress and Extreme pH Stress Combined on Glycinebetaine Accumulation, Photosynthetic Abilities and Growth Characters of Two Rice Genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suriyan CHA-UM

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Glycinebetaine (Glybet accumulation, photosynthetic efficiency and growth performance in indica rice cultivated under salt stress and extreme pH stress were investigated. Betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH activity and Glybet accumulation in the seedlings of salt-tolerant and salt-sensitive rice varieties grown under saline and acidic conditions peaked after treatment for 72 h and 96 h, respectively, and were higher than those grown under neutral pH and alkaline salt stress. A positive correlation was found between BADH activity and Glybet content in both salt-tolerant (r2 = 0.71 and salt-sensitive (r2 = 0.86 genotypes. The chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, total chlorophyll and total carotenoids contents in the stressed seedlings significantly decreased under both acidic and alkaline stresses, especially in the salt-sensitive genotype. Similarly, the maximum quantum yield of PSII (Fv/Fm, photon yield of PSII (ΦPSII, non-photochemical quenching (NPQ and net photosynthetic rate (Pn in the stressed seedlings were inhibited, leading to overall growth reduction. The positive correlations between chlorophyll a content and Fv/Fm, total chlorophyll content and ΦPSII, ΦPSII and Pn as well as Pn and leaf area in both salt-tolerant and salt-sensitive genotypes were found. Saline acidic and saline alkaline soils may play a key role affecting vegetative growth prior to the reproductive stage in rice plants.

  9. Biochar mitigates salinity stress in potato

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saleem Akhtar, Saqib; Andersen, M.N.; Liu, Fulai

    2015-01-01

    capability of biochar. Results indicated that biochar was capable to ameliorate salinity stress by adsorbing Na+. Increasing salinity level resulted in significant reductions of shoot biomass, root length and volume, tuber yield, photosynthetic rate (An), stomatal conductance (gs), midday leaf water......A pot experiment was conducted in a climate-controlled greenhouse to investigate the growth, physiology and yield of potato in response to salinity stress under biochar amendment. It was hypothesized that addition of biochar may improve plant growth and yield by mitigating the negative effect...... potential, but increased abscisic acid (ABA) concentration in both leaf and xylem sap. At each salinity level, incorporation of biochar increased shoot biomass, root length and volume, tuber yield, An, gs, midday leaf water potential, and decreased ABA concentration in the leaf and xylem sap as compared...

  10. Oxygen consumption remains stable while ammonia excretion is reduced upon short time exposure to high salinity in Macrobrachium acanthurus (Caridae: Palaemonidae, a recent freshwater colonizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina A. Freire

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Palaemonid shrimps occur in the tropical and temperate regions of South America and the Indo-Pacific, in brackish/freshwater habitats, and marine coastal areas. They form a clade that recently (i.e., ~30 mya invaded freshwater, and one included genus, Macrobrachium Bate, 1868, is especially successful in limnic habitats. Adult Macrobrachium acanthurus (Wiegmann, 1836 dwell in coastal freshwaters, have diadromous habit, and need brackish water to develop. Thus, they are widely recognized as euryhaline. Here we test how this species responds to a short-term exposure to increased salinity. We hypothesized that abrupt exposure to high salinity would result in reduced gill ventilation/perfusion and decreased oxygen consumption. Shrimps were subjected to control (0 psu and experimental salinities (10, 20, 30 psu, for four and eight hours (n = 8 in each group. The water in the experimental containers was saturated with oxygen before the beginning of the experiment; aeration was interrupted before placing the shrimp in the experimental container. Dissolved oxygen (DO, ammonia concentration, and pH were measured from the aquaria water, at the start and end of each experiment. After exposure, the shrimp’s hemolymph was sampled for lactate and osmolality assays. Muscle tissue was sampled for hydration content (Muscle Water Content, MWC. Oxygen consumption was not reduced and hemolymph lactate did not increase with increased salinity. The pH of the water decreased with time, under all conditions. Ammonia excretion decreased with increased salinity. Hemolymph osmolality and MWC remained stable at 10 and 20 psu, but osmolality increased (~50% and MWC decreased (~4% at 30 psu. The expected reduction in oxygen consumption was not observed. This shrimp is able to tolerate significant changes in water salt concentrations for a few hours by keeping its metabolism in aerobic mode, and putatively shutting down branchial salt uptake to avoid massive salt

  11. Investigation of Soil Salinity to Distinguish Boundary Line between ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    Investigation of Soil Salinity to Distinguish Boundary Line between Saline and ... Setting 4 dSm-1 as the limit between saline and non-saline soils in kriging algorithms resulted in a .... number of sample points within the search window,.

  12. High-pressure effects on cooking loss and histological structure of beef muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Anjun; Zhan, Hu; Zheng, Jie; Liu, Dongyue; Jia, Peiqi

    2010-12-01

    In this study, we investigate the effects of high pressures (up to 600 MPa) applied at room temperature for 10 min on beef cooking loss and structure. The data on cooking loss, pH and protein solubility, as well as the electron microscopy, illustrate the changes in cooking loss and structure with high pressure processing (HPP). There is a significant reduction in cooking loss of beef with HPP. When the beef sample is imposed upon by 300 or 400 MPa, the cooking loss reduction is about 12%. Further, the pH of beef is dramatically increased as the pressure increases, and the pH increases by about 5% when imposed upon by 500 MPa. When a high pressure was applied at room temperature, the structure of the beef tissue apparently changed. Muscle fiber fragments gradually became slender and sarcomeres became lengthened. Our data indicated that high-pressure treatment on beef leads to stretching of the muscle fiber and an increase in the water-holding capacity.

  13. Assessment of the suitability of Durafet-based sensors for pH measurement in dynamic estuarine environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonski, Stephen F.; Cai, Wei-Jun; Ullman, William J.; Joesoef, Andrew; Main, Christopher R.; Pettay, D. Tye; Martz, Todd R.

    2018-01-01

    The suitability of the Honeywell Durafet to the measurement of pH in productive, high-fouling, and highly-turbid estuarine environments was investigated at the confluence of the Murderkill Estuary and Delaware Bay (Delaware, USA). Three different flow configurations of the SeapHOx sensor equipped with a Honeywell Durafet and its integrated internal (Ag/AgCl reference electrode containing a 4.5 M KCl gel liquid junction) and external (solid-state chloride ion selective electrode, Cl-ISE) reference electrodes were deployed for four periods between April 2015 and September 2016. In this environment, the Honeywell Durafet proved capable of making high-resolution and high-frequency pH measurements on the total scale between pH 6.8 and 8.4. Natural pH fluctuations of >1 pH unit were routinely captured over a range of timescales. The sensor pH collected between May and August 2016 using the most refined SeapHOx configuration exhibited good agreement with multiple sets of independently measured reference pH values. When deployed in conjunction with rigorous discrete sampling and calibration schemes, the sensor pH had a root-mean squared error ranging between 0.011 and 0.036 pH units across a wide range of salinity relative to both pHT calculated from measured dissolved inorganic carbon and total alkalinity and pHNBS measured with a glass electrode corrected to pHT at in situ conditions. The present work demonstrates the viability of the Honeywell Durafet to the measurement of pH to within the weather-level precision defined by the Global Ocean Acidification Observing Network (GOA-ON, ≤ 0.02 pH units) as a part of future estuarine CO2 chemistry studies undertaken in dynamic environments.

  14. Evaluating physiological responses of plants to salinity stress

    KAUST Repository

    Negrã o, Só nia; Schmö ckel, S. M.; Tester, Mark A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Because soil salinity is a major abiotic constraint affecting crop yield, much research has been conducted to develop plants with improved salinity tolerance. Salinity stress impacts many aspects of a plant’s physiology, making

  15. Salinity-gradient power: Evaluation of pressure-retarded osmosis and reverse electrodialysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Post, J.W.; Veerman, J.; Hamelers, H.V.M.; Euverink, G.J.W.; Metz, S.J.; Nymeijer, K.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2007-01-01

    A huge potential to obtain clean energy exists from mixing water streams with different salt concentrations. Two membrane-based energy conversion techniques are evaluated: pressure-retarded osmosis and reverse electrodialysis. From the literature, a comparison is not possible since the reported

  16. Influence of salinity and water content on soil microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Yan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Salinization is one of the most serious land degradation problems facing world. Salinity results in poor plant growth and low soil microbial activity due to osmotic stress and toxic ions. Soil microorganisms play a pivotal role in soils through mineralization of organic matter into plant available nutrients. Therefore it is important to maintain high microbial activity in soils. Salinity tolerant soil microbes counteract osmotic stress by synthesizing osmolytes which allows them to maintain their cell turgor and metabolism. Osmotic potential is a function of the salt concentration in the soil solution and therefore affected by both salinity (measured as electrical conductivity at a certain water content and soil water content. Soil salinity and water content vary in time and space. Understanding the effect of changes in salinity and water content on soil microorganisms is important for crop production, sustainable land use and rehabilitation of saline soils. In this review, the effects of soil salinity and water content on microbes are discussed to guide future research into management of saline soils.

  17. ( Phaseolus vulgaris L. ) seedlings to salinity stress

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of salinity stress on five cultivars of common bean: Bassbeer, Beladi, Giza 3, HRS 516 and RO21 were evaluated on a sand/peat medium with different salinity levels (0, 50 and 100 mM NaCl) applied 3 weeks after germination for duration of 10 days. Salinity had adverse effects not only on the biomass yield and ...

  18. The Interplay Between Saline Fluid Flow and Dynamic Permeability in Magmatic-Hydrothermal Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weis, P.

    2014-12-01

    Magmatic-hydrothermal ore deposits document the interplay between saline fluid flow and rock permeability. Numerical simulations of multi-phase flow of variably miscible, compressible H20-NaCl fluids in concert with a dynamic permeability model can reproduce characteristics of porphyry copper and epithermal gold systems. This dynamic permeability model incorporates depth-dependent permeability profiles characteristic for tectonically active crust as well as pressure- and temperature-dependent relationships describing hydraulic fracturing and the transition from brittle to ductile rock behavior. In response to focused expulsion of magmatic fluids from a crystallizing upper crustal magma chamber, the hydrothermal system self-organizes into a hydrological divide, separating an inner part dominated by ascending magmatic fluids under near-lithostatic pressures from a surrounding outer part dominated by convection of colder meteoric fluids under near-hydrostatic pressures. This hydrological divide also provides a mechanism to transport magmatic salt through the crust, and prevents the hydrothermal system to become "clogged" by precipitation of solid halite due to depressurization of saline, high-temperature magmatic fluids. The same physical processes at similar permeability ranges, crustal depths and flow rates are relevant for a number of active systems, including geothermal resources and excess degassing at volcanos. The simulations further suggest that the described mechanism can separate the base of free convection in high-enthalpy geothermal systems from the magma chamber as a driving heat source by several kilometers in the vertical direction in tectonic settings with hydrous magmatism. This hydrology would be in contrast to settings with anhydrous magmatism, where the base of the geothermal systems may be closer to the magma chamber.

  19. Measuring interstitial pH and pO2 in mouse tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Rakesh K; Munn, Lance L; Fukumura, Dai

    2013-07-01

    This protocol outlines methods to measure two extravascular parameters, interstitial pH and partial pressure of oxygen (pO2), in mouse tumors. The method for measuring interstitial pH uses fluorescence ratio imaging microscopy (FRIM) of the pH-sensitive fluorescent dye 2',7'-bis-(2-carboxyethyl)-5,6-carboxyfluorescein (BCECF). The method for measuring interstitial pO2 is based on the oxygen-dependent quenching of the phosphorescence of albumin-bound palladium meso-tetra(4-carboxyphenyl)porphyrin, and can be used to measure microvascular as well as interstitial pO2. In addition, the two methods can be used sequentially to measure both pH and pO2 in the same tissues.

  20. Origin of the pressure-dependent Tc valley in superconducting simple cubic phosphorus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xianxin; Jeschke, Harald O.; Di Sante, Domenico; von Rohr, Fabian O.; Cava, Robert J.; Thomale, Ronny

    2018-03-01

    Motivated by recent experiments, we investigate the pressure-dependent electronic structure and electron-phonon (e-ph) coupling for simple cubic phosphorus by performing first-principles calculations within the full potential linearized augmented plane-wave method. As a function of increasing pressure, our calculations show a valley feature in Tc, followed by an eventual decrease for higher pressures. We demonstrate that this Tc valley at low pressures is due to two nearby Lifshitz transitions, as we analyze the band-resolved contributions to the e-ph coupling. Below the first Lifshitz transition, the phonon hardening and shrinking of the γ Fermi surface with s -orbital character results in a decreased Tc with increasing pressure. After the second Lifshitz transition, the appearance of δ Fermi surfaces with 3 d -orbital character generate strong e-ph interband couplings in α δ and β δ channels, and hence lead to an increase of Tc. For higher pressures, the phonon hardening finally dominates, and Tc decreases again. Our study reveals that the intriguing Tc valley discovered in experiment can be attributed to Lifshitz transitions, while the plateau of Tc detected at intermediate pressures appears to be beyond the scope of our analysis. This strongly suggests that aside from e-ph coupling, electronic correlations along with plasmonic contributions may be relevant for simple cubic phosphorus. Our findings hint at the notion that increasing pressure can shift the low-energy orbital weight towards d character, and as such even trigger an enhanced importance of orbital-selective electronic correlations despite an increase of the overall bandwidth.

  1. Larval tolerance to salinity in three species of Australian anuran: an indication of saline specialisation in Litoria aurea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian D Kearney

    Full Text Available Recent anthropogenic influences on freshwater habitats are forcing anuran populations to rapidly adapt to high magnitude changes in environmental conditions or face local extinction. We examined the effects of ecologically relevant elevated salinity levels on larval growth, metamorphosis and survival of three species of Australian anuran; the spotted marsh frog (Limnodynastes tasmaniensis, the painted burrowing frog (Neobatrachus sudelli and the green and golden bell frog (Litoria aurea, in order to better understand the responses of these animals to environmental change. Elevated salinity (16% seawater negatively impacted on the survival of L. tasmaniensis (35% survival and N sudelli (0% survival, while reduced salinity had a negative impact on L. aurea. (16% seawater: 85% survival; 0.4% seawater: 35% survival. L. aurea tadpoles survived in salinities much higher than previously reported for this species, indicating the potential for inter-populations differences in salinity tolerance. In L. tasmaniensis and L. aurea, development to metamorphosis was fastest in low and high salinity treatments suggesting it is advantageous for tadpoles to invest energy in development in both highly favourable and developmentally challenging environments. We propose that this response might either maximise potential lifetime fecundity when tadpoles experience favourable environments, or, facilitate a more rapid escape from pond environments where there is a reduced probability of survival.

  2. Reconstructing sea surface temperature, sea surface salinity and partial pressure of carbon dioxide in atmos- phere in the Okinawa Trough during the Holocene and their paleoclimatic implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The sediment core DGKS9603 collected from the Okinawa Trough was used as research target. By use of unsaturated index of long-chain alkenone, δ13C of POC and of planktonic foraminifera (G. Sacculifer), the evolutions of sea surface temperature and partial pressure of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere during the Holocene were reconstructed in the Okinawa Trough. And in combination of δ18O of planktonic foraminifera, the relative difference of sea surface salinity during the Holocene was also reconstructed. Consequently, three cooling events (E1-E3) were identified, each of which occurred at 1.7-1.6, 5.1-4.8 and 8.1-7.4 kaBP (cal), respectively. Of the three events, E2 and E3 are globally comparable, their occurrence mechanism would be that the main stream of the Kuroshio Current shifted eastward due to the enhanced circulation of the northeastern Pacific Ocean, which was driven in turn by amplified intensity of sunshine and subsequent enhancement of subtropical high pressure; E1 corresponds to the Small Ice-Age Event occurring between 1550 and 1850AD in China. In the Okinawa Trough, E1 might be also related to the eastward shift of main stream of the Kuroshio current driven by powerful Asia winter monsoon.

  3. Effect of increasing salinity on biogas production in waste landfills with leachate recirculation: A lab-scale model study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuka Ogata

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The effects of salinity on anaerobic waste degradation and microbial communities were investigated, in order to propose an appropriate leachate recirculation process in a waste landfill in a tropical region. A salt concentration of 21 mS cm−1 of electrical conductivity (EC did not affect waste degradation, but a salt concentration of 35 mS cm−1 of EC inhibited CH4 generation. A higher salt concentration of 80 mS cm−1 of EC inhibited not only CH4 and CO2 generation, but also degradation of organic compounds. The bacterial and archaeal community compositions were affected by high salinity. High salinity can exert selective pressure on bacterial communities, resulting in a change in bacterial community structure. Ammonium caused strong, dominant inhibition of biogas production in the salt concentration range of this study. Quality control, especially of ammonium levels, will be essential for the promotion of waste biodegradation in landfills with leachate recirculation.

  4. Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus in fish by-products is inactivated with inorganic acid (pH 1) and base (pH 12).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myrmel, M; Modahl, I; Nygaard, H; Lie, K M

    2014-04-01

    The aquaculture industry needs a simple, inexpensive and safe method for the treatment of fish waste without heat. Microbial inactivation by inorganic acid (HCl) or base (KOH) was determined using infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) as a model organism for fish pathogens. Salmonella and spores of Clostridium perfringens were general hygiene indicators in supplementary examinations. IPNV, which is considered to be among the most chemical- and heat-resistant fish pathogens, was reduced by more than 3 log in 4 h at pH 1.0 and pH 12.0. Salmonella was rapidly inactivated by the same treatment, whereas spores of C. perfringens were hardly affected. The results indicate that low and high pH treatment could be particularly suitable for fish waste destined for biogas production. pH treatment at aquaculture production sites could reduce the spread of fish pathogens during storage and transportation without disturbing the anaerobic digestion process. The treatment could also be an alternative to the current energy-intensive steam pressure sterilization of fish waste to be used by the bioenergy, fertilizer and soil improver industries. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Effects of salinity and pH on the activity and oxygen consumption of Brachionus plicatilis (rotatoria)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Epp, R.W.; Winston, P.W.

    1978-01-01

    Activity and respiratory rates of the rotifer, Brachionus plicatilis, were determined following exposure to pH values of 6.5, 7.5 and 8.5 and to concentrations of 10, 50 and 100 mosm. Changes in the hydrogen-ion concentration had no detectable effect on either activity or metabolism. Acute reduction in osmolarity of the medium resulted in a reduction in oxygen consumption and activity. Both activity and oxygen consumption increased upon acclimatization to osmolarities of 50 and 100 mosm.

  6. Effect of elevated pCO2 on metabolic responses of porcelain crab (Petrolisthes cinctipes) Larvae exposed to subsequent salinity stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Seth H; Zarate, Sonia; Smith, Edmund H; Gaylord, Brian; Hosfelt, Jessica D; Hill, Tessa M

    2014-01-01

    Future climate change is predicted to alter the physical characteristics of oceans and estuaries, including pH, temperature, oxygen, and salinity. Investigating how species react to the influence of such multiple stressors is crucial for assessing how future environmental change will alter marine ecosystems. The timing of multiple stressors can also be important, since in some cases stressors arise simultaneously, while in others they occur in rapid succession. In this study, we investigated the effects of elevated pCO2 on oxygen consumption by larvae of the intertidal porcelain crab Petrolisthes cinctipes when exposed to subsequent salinity stress. Such an exposure mimics how larvae under future acidified conditions will likely experience sudden runoff events such as those that occur seasonally along portions of the west coast of the U.S. and in other temperate systems, or how larvae encounter hypersaline waters when crossing density gradients via directed swimming. We raised larvae in the laboratory under ambient and predicted future pCO2 levels (385 and 1000 µatm) for 10 days, and then moved them to seawater at ambient pCO2 but with decreased, ambient, or elevated salinity, to monitor their respiration. While larvae raised under elevated pCO2 or exposed to stressful salinity conditions alone did not exhibit higher respiration rates than larvae held in ambient conditions, larvae exposed to elevated pCO2 followed by stressful salinity conditions consumed more oxygen. These results show that even when multiple stressors act sequentially rather than simultaneously, they can retain their capacity to detrimentally affect organisms.

  7. Study and application of new chelating resin to recovery uranium from in-situ leach solution with high content saline chloride ion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jianguo; Qiu Yueshuang; Feng Yu; Deng Huidong; Zhao Chaoya

    2014-01-01

    Research on the adsorption and elution property of D814 chelating resin was carried out aiming at the difficult separation of uranium from high content saline chloride ion in situ leach liquor and the adsorption mechanism is also discussed. Influence factors such as contact time, pH value, Ca"2"+, Mg"2"+ and Cl"- concentration etc. to the resin adsorption were studied. Experimental results show that adsorption rate is lowly which need 6h to arrive at the adsorption equilibrium. The resin adsorption uranium pH in the solution is from l.33 to 9. When total salinity is over 20 g/L, calcium ion, and magnesium ion is about 3 g/L, there are no big influence on resin adsorption capacity. The resin has good chloride ion resistance. When chloride ion is over 60 g/L, it is no influence on resin adsorption uranium. Column experiment results indicate that ratio of saturation volume to break-through point volume is l.82, resin saturation uranium capacity is 40.5 mg. U/_g_(_∓_)_R. When elution volume bed number is 23, the eluted solution uranium concentration is below 80 mg/L. The elution rate of the uranium is 96.2%. (authors)

  8. Evaluation of salinity stress on morphophysiological traits of four salin tolarant wheat cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    leila yadelerloo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available For assessment the effects of salinity on morphophysiological traits of wheat an experiment with four caltivars (Karchia, Sorkh tokhm, Sholeh and Roshan and one line (1-66-22 in four salt concentrations(0, 60, 120, and 180 mM NaCl, were conducted by factorial analysis in a completely randomized design with three replications. The rate of leaf area were measured in four stages. In booting stage, relative chlorophyll content (SPAD meter, and in pollination phase the rate of Na+ and K+ iones in four leaves(up to down were assessed and finally stem length and total dry matter were measured. Results showed that salinity reduced leaf area, total dry matter stem length of plants and relative chlorophyll content. With increasing of salinity the rate of Na+ were increased but the rate of K+ iones were decreased. Also the salt exclusion was observed at nodes of stem that of 1-66-22 was spot form.

  9. Calcium-Phosphate-Osteopontin Particles Reduce Biofilm Formation and pH Drops in in situ Grown Dental Biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlafer, Sebastian; Ibsen, Casper J S; Birkedal, Henrik; Nyvad, Bente

    2017-01-01

    This 2-period crossover study investigated the effect of calcium-phosphate-osteopontin particles on biofilm formation and pH in 48-h biofilms grown in situ. Bovine milk osteopontin is a highly phosphorylated glycoprotein that has been shown to interfere with bacterial adhesion to salivary-coated surfaces. Calcium-phosphate-osteopontin particles have been shown to reduce biofilm formation and pH drops in a 5-species laboratory model of dental biofilm without affecting bacterial viability. Here, smooth surface biofilms from 10 individuals were treated ex vivo 6 times/day for 30 min with either calcium-phosphate-osteopontin particles or sterile saline. After growth, the amount of biofilm formed was determined by confocal microscopy, and pH drops upon exposure to glucose were monitored using confocal-microscopy-based pH ratiometry. A total of 160 biofilms were analysed. No adverse effects of repeated ex vivo treatment with calcium-phosphate-osteopontin particles were observed. Particle treatment resulted in a 32% lower amount of biofilm formed (p Biofilm pH was significantly higher upon particle treatment, both shortly after the addition of glucose and after 30 min of incubation with glucose (p biofilms as well as the remineralizing potential of the particles. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. SMAP Salinity Artifacts Associated With Presence of Rain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, M. M.; Santos-Garcia, A.; Jones, L.

    2016-02-01

    The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) satellite carries an L-band radiometer, which measures sea surface salinity (SSS) over a swath of 1000 km @ 40 km resolution. SMAP can extend the Aquarius (AQ) salinity data record with improved temporal/spatial sampling. Previous studies [see references] have demonstrated significant differences between satellite and in-situ salinity measurements during rain. In the presence of precipitation, salinity stratification exists near the sea surface, which nullifies the presumption of a well-mixed salinity. In general, these salinity gradients last only a few hours and the upper layer becomes slightly fresher in salinity. This paper describes the Rain Impact Model (RIM) that simulates the effects of rain accumulation on the SSS [Santos-Garcia et al., 2014] applied to SMAP. This model incorporates rainfall information for the previous 24 hours to the measurement sample (in this case SMAP) and uses as initialization the Hybrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM) data. Given the better resolution of SMAP, the goal of this paper is to continue the analysis previously done with AQ to better understand the effects of the instantaneous and accumulated rain on the salinity measurements. Boutin, J., N. Martin, G. Reverdin, X. Yin, and F. Gaillard (2013), Sea surface freshening inferred from SMOS and ARGO salinity: Impact of rain, Ocean Sci., 9(1), 183-192, doi:10.5194/os-9-183-2013. Santos-Garcia, A., M. Jacob, L. Jones, W. Asher, Y. Hejazin, H. Ebrahimi, and M. Rabolli (2014), Investigation of rain effects on Aquarius Sea Surface Salinity measurements, J. Geophys. Res. Oceans, 119, 7605-7624, doi:10.1002/2014JC010137. Tang, W., S.H Yueh, A. Hayashi, A.G. Fore, W.L. Jones, A. Santos-Garcia, and M.M. Jacob, (2015), Rain-Induced Near Surface Salinity Stratification and Rain Roughness Correction for Aquarius SSS Retrieval, in Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing, IEEE Journal of, 8(99), 1-11, doi: 10.1109/JSTARS.2015.2463768.

  11. Salinity tolerance of Picochlorum atomus and the use of salinity for contamination control by the freshwater cyanobacterium Pseudanabaena limnetica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas von Alvensleben

    Full Text Available Microalgae are ideal candidates for waste-gas and -water remediation. However, salinity often varies between different sites. A cosmopolitan microalga with large salinity tolerance and consistent biochemical profiles would be ideal for standardised cultivation across various remediation sites. The aims of this study were to determine the effects of salinity on Picochlorum atomus growth, biomass productivity, nutrient uptake and biochemical profiles. To determine if target end-products could be manipulated, the effects of 4-day nutrient limitation were also determined. Culture salinity had no effect on growth, biomass productivity, phosphate, nitrate and total nitrogen uptake at 2, 8, 18, 28 and 36 ppt. 11 ppt, however, initiated a significantly higher total nitrogen uptake. While salinity had only minor effects on biochemical composition, nutrient depletion was a major driver for changes in biomass quality, leading to significant increases in total lipid, fatty acid and carbohydrate quantities. Fatty acid composition was also significantly affected by nutrient depletion, with an increased proportion of saturated and mono-unsaturated fatty acids. Having established that P. atomus is a euryhaline microalga, the effects of culture salinity on the development of the freshwater cyanobacterial contaminant Pseudanabaena limnetica were determined. Salinity at 28 and 36 ppt significantly inhibited establishment of P. limnetica in P. atomus cultures. In conclusion, P. atomus can be deployed for bioremediation at sites with highly variable salinities without effects on end-product potential. Nutrient status critically affected biochemical profiles--an important consideration for end-product development by microalgal industries. 28 and 36 ppt slow the establishment of the freshwater cyanobacterium P. limnetica, allowing for harvest of low contaminant containing biomass.

  12. Genome interrogation for novel salinity tolerant Arabidopsis mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Tol, Niels; Pinas, Johan; Schat, Henk; Hooykaas, Paul J J; van der Zaal, Bert J

    2016-12-01

    Soil salinity is becoming an increasingly large problem in agriculture. In this study, we have investigated whether a capacity to withstand salinity can be induced in the salinity sensitive plant species Arabidopsis thaliana, and whether it can be maintained in subsequent generations. To this end, we have used zinc finger artificial transcription factor (ZF-ATFs) mediated genome interrogation. Already within a relatively small collection Arabidopsis lines expressing ZF-ATFs, we found 41 lines that were tolerant to 100 mM NaCl. Furthermore, ZF-ATF encoding gene constructs rescued from the most strongly salinity tolerant lines were indeed found to act as dominant and heritable agents for salinity tolerance. Altogether, our data provide evidence that a silent capacity to withstand normally lethal levels of salinity exists in Arabidopsis and can be evoked relatively easily by in trans acting transcription factors like ZF-ATFs. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Salty or Sweet: Exploring the Challenges of Groundwater Salinization Within a Sustainability Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, N. B.; Van Meter, K. J.; Tate, E.

    2012-12-01

    availability as well as socio-economic factors related to the capacity to deal with water stress. This metric allows us to evaluate and compare water-driven sustainability at the village, block, and district levels in Northern India based on a combination of readily available census and water resource data. Further, we utilize a pressure-response framework that considers monsoonal dynamics and effectively evaluates the effects of intervention efforts over time. Our results indicate that in arid to semi-arid regions, where problems of groundwater salinity are paramount, scaling factors corresponding to salinity levels as well as the relative size of the saline zone must be incorporated into indicators of water access and availability to accurately reflect overall sustainability. More importantly, the results point towards the value of incorporating dynamic, multi-dimensional sustainability metrics into decision-analysis frameworks used to aid in resource prioritization and the evaluation of intervention efforts.

  14. Stabilizing sodium hypochlorite at high pH: effects on soft tissue and dentin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungbluth, Holger; Marending, Monika; De-Deus, Gustavo; Sener, Beatrice; Zehnder, Matthias

    2011-05-01

    When sodium hypochlorite solutions react with tissue, their pH drops and tissue sorption decreases. We studied whether stabilizing a NaOCl solution at a high pH would increase its soft-tissue dissolution capacity and effects on the dentin matrix compared with a standard NaOCl solution of the same concentration and similar initial pH. NaOCl solutions were prepared by mixing (1:1) a 10% stock solution with water (standard) or 2 mol/L NaOH (stabilized). Physiological saline and 1 mol/L NaOH served as the controls. Chlorine content and alkaline capacity of NaOCl solutions were determined. Standardized porcine palatal soft-tissue specimens and human root dentin bars were exposed to test and control solutions. Weight loss percentage was assessed in the soft-tissue dissolution assay. Three-point bending tests were performed on the root dentin bars to determine the modulus of elasticity and flexural strength. Values between groups were compared using one-way analysis of variance with the Bonferroni correction for multiple testing (α pH level of 7.5, respectively. The stabilized NaOCl dissolved significantly more soft tissue than the standard solution, and the pH remained high. It also caused a higher loss in elastic modulus and flexure strength (P < .05) than the control solutions, whereas the standard solution did not. NaOH-stabilized NaOCl solutions have a higher alkaline capacity and are thus more proteolytic than standard counterparts. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The density-salinity relation of standard seawater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Hannes; Seitz, Steffen; Hassel, Egon; Wolf, Henning

    2018-01-01

    The determination of salinity by means of electrical conductivity relies on stable salt proportions in the North Atlantic Ocean, because standard seawater, which is required for salinometer calibration, is produced from water of the North Atlantic. To verify the long-term stability of the standard seawater composition, it was proposed to perform measurements of the standard seawater density. Since the density is sensitive to all salt components, a density measurement can detect any change in the composition. A conversion of the density values to salinity can be performed by means of a density-salinity relation. To use such a relation with a target uncertainty in salinity comparable to that in salinity obtained from conductivity measurements, a density measurement with an uncertainty of 2 g m-3 is mandatory. We present a new density-salinity relation based on such accurate density measurements. The substitution measurement method used is described and density corrections for uniform isotopic and chemical compositions are reported. The comparison of densities calculated using the new relation with those calculated using the present reference equations of state TEOS-10 suggests that the density accuracy of TEOS-10 (as well as that of EOS-80) has been overestimated, as the accuracy of some of its underlying density measurements had been overestimated. The new density-salinity relation may be used to verify the stable composition of standard seawater by means of routine density measurements.

  16. The Effect of Water Table Fluctuation and its Salinity on Fe Crystal and Noncrystal in some Khuzestan Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mostafa Pajohannia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Iron is found in different forms in the soil. In the primary minerals, iron is found as Fe3+ or Fe2+ which converted to Fe2+ and released in unsuitable reduction conditions. Minerals such as sulfide or chlorine and bicarbonate can affect and change the different forms soil Fe. FeAs these elements are abundance in groundwater or soil, they are capable to react chemically with Fe and change different Fe forms and also may deposit or even leach them by increasing its solubility in the soil. Water table fluctuation is a regular phenomenon in Khuzestan that Fe forms change under these situations. The study of Fe oxide forms and its changes can be applied for evaluation of soil development. Therefore, the aim of this study is the water table fluctuation and its quality effects, and some physio-chemical properties on Fe oxides forms in non-saline and saline soils in Khuzestan. Materials and Methods: Soil samples were collected from two regions: saline (Abdolkhan and non-saline (South Susa regions. soil samples were collected from all horizons of 12 soil field studied profiles . The samples were analyzed for soil texture, pH, EC (soil: water ratio 1:5, organic carbon and aggregate stability (Kemper and Rosenau method. Fe forms also were extracted by two methods in all samples: di-tyonite sodium and ammonium oxalate extraction. Fe oxalate extracted was related to Feo (non crystal Fe and Fed-Feo was related to Fec (crystalline Fe. The Fe content were determined by atomic absorbtion spectrophotometer (AAS. Data were analysis in SAS and Excel software and results were presented. Results and Discussion: The results showed that texture were loamy sand to silty clay loam, OM was very poor (0.1-0.7%. The soil salinity was also 2.8-16.8 dS/m. Calcium carbonate equivalent was 38-40%. All pedons were classified in Entisols and Inceptisols according to Keys to soil taxonomy (2010. The results showed that the proportion of Fe with oxalate to di

  17. In-situ epitaxial growth of heavily phosphorus doped SiGe by low pressure chemical vapor deposition

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, C J

    1998-01-01

    We have studied epitaxial crystal growth of Si sub 1 sub - sub x Ge sub x films on silicon substrates at 550 .deg. C by low pressure chemical vapor deposition. In a low PH sub 3 partial pressure region such as below 1.25x10 sup - sup 3 Pa, both the phosphorus and carrier concentrations increased with increasing PH sub 3 partial pressure, but the deposition rate and the Ge fraction remained constant. In a higher PH sub 3 partial pressure region, the deposition rate, the phosphorus concentration, and the carrier concentration decreased, while the Ge fraction increased. These suggest that high surface coverage of phosphorus suppresses both SiH sub 4 and GeH sub 4 adsorption/reactions on the surfaces, and its suppression effect on SiH sub 4 is actually much stronger than on GeH sub 4. In particular, epitaxial crystal growth is largely controlled by surface coverage effect of phosphorus in a higher PH sub 3 partial pressure region.

  18. Use of microwave remote sensing in salinity estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, R.P.; Kumar, V.; Srivastav, S.K.

    1990-01-01

    Soil-moisture interaction and the consequent liberation of ions causes the salinity of waters. The salinity of river, lake, ocean and ground water changes due to seepage and surface runoff. We have studied the feasibility of using microwave remote sensing for the estimation of salinity by carrying out numerical calculations to study the microwave remote sensing responses of various models representative of river, lake and ocean water. The results show the dependence of microwave remote sensing responses on the salinity and surface temperature of water. The results presented in this paper will be useful in the selection of microwave sensor parameters and in the accurate estimation of salinity from microwave remote sensing data

  19. Effect of hydrogen on the fracture toughness of 17-4 PH stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capeletti, T.L.

    1976-01-01

    Fracture toughness (K/sub c/) of 17-4 PH stainless steel decreased significantly with increased hydrogen test pressure for a variety of heat treatment conditions: solution annealed, underaged, peak-aged, and overaged. Minimum toughness (13 MPa√m) was obtained with peak-aged samples tested in 69.5-MPa hydrogen; toughness was maximum (100 MPa√m) for samples tested in helium. Aging treatments increased the hardness from 28 R/sub c/ for solution-annealed material to 42 R/c/ for peak-aged material and correspondingly decreased the fracture toughness in high-pressure hydrogen (K/sub H/) from 31 to 13 MPa√m. However, increased hardness had no substantial effect on the K/sub c/ in helium. Fracture mechanism changed from predominantly ductile rupture in helium to cleavage in 69.5-MPa hydrogen, with mixed-mode fractures at lower hydrogen pressure (3.5-MPa). On the basis of these data, 17-4 PH stainless steel is not recommended for hydrogen service

  20. The use of composite ferrocyanide materials for treatment of high salinity liquid radioactive wastes rich in cesium isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toropov, Andrey S. [National Nuclear Centre of the Republic of Kazakhstan, Kurchatov (Kazakhstan); Shakarim Semey State Univ. (Kazakhstan); Satayeva, Aliya R. [Shakarim Semey State Univ. (Kazakhstan); Mikhalovsky, Sergey [Nazarbayev Univ. (Kazakhstan); Brighton Univ. (United Kingdom); Cundy, Andrew B. [Brighton Univ. (United Kingdom)

    2014-07-01

    The use of composite materials based on metal ferrocyanides combined with natural mineral sorbents for treatment of high salinity Cs-containing liquid radioactive waste (LRW) was investigated. The study indicated that among the investigated composites, the best sorption characteristics for Cs were shown by materials based on copper ferrocyanide. Several factors affecting the removal of cesium from LRW, namely total salt content, pH and organic matter content, were also investigated. High concentrations of complexing organic matter significantly reduced the sorption capacity of ferrocyanide sorbents.

  1. Non-diluted seawater enhances nasal ciliary beat frequency and wound repair speed compared to diluted seawater and normal saline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnomet, Arnaud; Luczka, Emilie; Coraux, Christelle; de Gabory, Ludovic

    2016-10-01

    The regulation of mucociliary clearance is a key part of the defense mechanisms developed by the airway epithelium. If a high aggregate quality of evidence shows the clinical effectiveness of nasal irrigation, there is a lack of studies showing the intrinsic role of the different irrigation solutions allowing such results. This study investigated the impact of solutions with different pH and ionic compositions, eg, normal saline, non-diluted seawater and diluted seawater, on nasal mucosa functional parameters. For this randomized, controlled, blinded, in vitro study, we used airway epithelial cells obtained from 13 nasal polyps explants to measure ciliary beat frequency (CBF) and epithelial wound repair speed (WRS) in response to 3 isotonic nasal irrigation solutions: (1) normal saline 0.9%; (2) non-diluted seawater (Physiomer®); and (3) 30% diluted seawater (Stérimar). The results were compared to control (cell culture medium). Non-diluted seawater enhanced the CBF and the WRS when compared to diluted seawater and to normal saline. When compared to the control, it significantly enhanced CBF and slightly, though nonsignificantly, improved the WRS. Interestingly, normal saline markedly reduced the number of epithelial cells and ciliated cells when compared to the control condition. Our results suggest that the physicochemical features of the nasal wash solution is important because it determines the optimal conditions to enhance CBF and epithelial WRS thus preserving the respiratory mucosa in pathological conditions. Non-diluted seawater obtains the best results on CBF and WRS vs normal saline showing a deleterious effect on epithelial cell function. © 2016 The Authors International Forum of Allergy & Rhinology, published by ARSAAOA, LLC.

  2. AND logic-like pH- and light-dual controlled drug delivery by surface modified mesoporous silica nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Junwei; He, Zhaoshuai; Li, Biao; Cheng, Tanyu, E-mail: tycheng@shnu.edu.cn; Liu, Guohua

    2017-04-01

    Recently, the controlled drug delivery system has become a potential platform for biomedical application. Herein, we developed a pH and light-dual controlled cargo release system exhibiting AND logic based on MCM-41 mesoporous silica nanoparticles, which was surface modified using β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) with imine bond and azobenzene derivative. The complex of β-CD and azobenzene derivative effectively blocked the cargo delivery in pH = 7.0 phosphate buffered saline (PBS) solution without 365 nm UV light irradiation. The cargo was fully released when both factors of acidic environment (pH = 5.0 PBS) and 365 nm UV light irradiation were satisfied, meanwhile only very little cargo was delivered if one factor was satisfied. The result also demonstrates that the opening/closing of the gate and the release of the cargo in small portions can be controlled. - Highlights: • A pH and light-dual controlled cargo release system exhibiting AND logic is developed. • The delivery system can release the cargo in small potions by controlling the opening/closing of the gate. • The delivery system realizes the controlled release in zebrafish.

  3. PRODUCTION OF TOMATO SEEDLINGS UNDER SALINE IRRIGATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Brasiliano Campos

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Processing tomato is the most important vegetable crop of the Brazilian agribusiness and few researches have been conducted to evaluate the tolerance of this crop to saline stress. In this study, the effects of five levels of salinity of the irrigation water (1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 dS m-1 and three equivalent proportions of Na:Ca:Mg (1:1:0.5, 4:1:0.5 and 7:1:0.5 were tested on the emergence and vigor of processing tomato, cultivar IPA 6. Seeds were sowed in expanded polystyrene tray (128 cells and each tray received 1 L of water after sowing. The trays were piled and, four days after sowing, they were placed on suspended supports in a greenhouse. Irrigation was accomplished daily from the fifth day after sowing. Only dry weight of shoot and root was affected by sodium proportions, while linear reductions of the speed of emergence, stem length and the dry weight of shoot and root were observed with increasing salinity. Root was more affected than shoot by salinity and relative growth ratioincreased with salinity levels on the 14-21 days after sowing period, indicating that the crop showed a certain increase of salinity tolerance with the time of exposure to salts.

  4. Effects of Iodide and Hydrogen Peroxide on Measuring High Temperature pH in Various Lithium Borate Buffer Solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Jae Sik; Yun, Myung Hee; Yeon, Jei Won; Song, Kyu Seok [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-10-15

    In a reactor coolant system of nuclear power plants, the need for reliable high temperature pH electrodes has resulted from interests in the corrosion and corrosion product behaviors of the structural materials in a high temperature coolant system. In developing the electrodes for measuring the high temperature pH of aqueous solutions, it is necessary to note two major problems: the chemical stability of an electrode against other chemical impurities, and an electrode's integrity as the temperature and pressure are varied between operational extremes. Over the past decade Macdonald et al. and Danielson et al. have developed many ceramic membrane pH electrodes based on a yttrium stabilized zirconium oxide. However, there are still many experimental difficulties associated with the problems in obtaining electrochemical information across different pressure boundaries and against many kinds of chemical impurities caused by the radiolysis of water and the leakage of a fuel clad. In the present work, we investigated the effects of the environmental factors on a high temperature pH. The selected environmental factors are as follows: system pressure, and chemical species such as iodide and hydrogen peroxide ions.

  5. Escherichia coli O157:H7 bacteriophage 241 isolated from an industrial cucumber fermentation at high acidity and salinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongjing eLu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A novel phage, 241, specific for Escherichia coli O157:H7 was isolated from an industrial cucumber fermentation where both acidity (pH  3.7 and salinity ( 5% NaCl were high. The phage belongs to the Myoviridae family. Its latent period was 15 min and average burst size was 53 phage particles per infected cell. The phage was able to lyse 48 E. coli O157:H7 strains, but none of the 18 non-O157 strains (including E. coli O104:H7 or the 2 O antigen-negative mutants of O157:H7 strain, 43895per (also lacking H7 antigen and F12 (still expressing H7 antigen. However, the phage was able to lyse a per-complemented strain (43895perComp which expresses O157 antigen. These results indicated that phage 241 is specific for O157 antigen, and E. coli strains lacking O157 antigen were resistant to the phage infection, regardless of the presence or absence of H7 antigen. SDS-PAGE profile revealed at least 13 structural proteins of the phage. The phage DNA was resistant to many commonly used restriction endonucleases, suggesting the presence of modified nucleotides in the phage genome. At the multiplicity of infection of 10, 3 or 0.3, the phage caused a rapid cell lysis within 1 or 2 h, resulting in 3.5- or 4.5-log-unit reduction in cell concentration. The high lytic activity, specificity and tolerance to low pH and high salinity make phage 241 a potentially ideal biocontrol agent of E. coli O157:H7 in various foods. To our knowledge, this is the first report on E. coli O157:H7 phage isolated from high acidity and salinity environment.

  6. Dwarf cashew growth irrigated with saline waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Orlando Carvallo Guerra

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The cashew production is one of the most important agricultural activities from the social-economical viewpoint for the North East of Brazil; besides to produce a great deal of hand labor, it is very important as an exporting commodity. The inadequate use of irrigation in the semi arid regions of the North East of Brazil has induced soil salinization and consequently problems for the irrigated agriculture. In spite of this, few works have been conducted to study the effect of saline stress on the growth and development of the cashew. Because of the lack of information for this crop, an experiment was conducted to study the effect of salinity stress on the phytomass production and nutrient accumulation on the different organs of the precocious dwarf cashew (Anacardium occidentale L. clone CCP76. The study was conducted under controlled conditions using as statistical scheme a randomized block design factorial with six replicates. Five salinity treatments were considered for the irrigation water (electrical conductivities of 0.8, 1.6, 2.4, 3.2 and 4.0 dS m-1 at 25oC. The increasing in salinity of the irrigation water reduced the phytomass at different organs of the studied plant. The nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, chloride and sodium in the plant varied with the salinity of the irrigation water according with the part of the plant analyzed; in some parts increased, in others decreased, in others increased initially and decreased afterwards, and finally, in other part of the plant the salinity of the irrigation water did not affect the nutrient concentration.

  7. Dwarfism of blue mussels in the low saline Baltic Sea — growth to the lower salinity limit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisgård, Hans Ulrik; Larsen, Poul Scheel; Turja, Raisa

    2014-01-01

    Mussels within the Baltic Mytilus edulis × M. trossulus hybrid zone have adapted to the low salinities in the Baltic Sea which, however, results in slow-growing dwarfed mussels. To get a better understanding of the nature of dwarfism, we studied the ability of M. trossulus to feed and grow at low...... to become negative below 4.5 psu. We suggest that reduced ability to produce shell material at extremely low salinity may explain dwarfism of mussels in the Baltic Sea. Reduced bio-calcification at low salinity, however, may impede shell growth, but not somatic growth, and this may at first result...

  8. An Integrative Genomic Island Affects the Adaptations of Piezophilic Hyperthermophilic Archaeon Pyrococcus yayanosii to High Temperature and High Hydrostatic Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Li

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Deep-sea hydrothermal vent environments are characterized by high hydrostatic pressure and sharp temperature and chemical gradients. Horizontal gene transfer is thought to play an important role in the microbial adaptation to such an extreme environment. In this study, a 21.4-kb DNA fragment was identified as a genomic island, designated PYG1, in the genomic sequence of the piezophilic hyperthermophile Pyrococcus yayanosii. According to the sequence alignment and functional annotation, the genes in PYG1 could tentatively be divided into five modules, with functions related to mobility, DNA repair, metabolic processes and the toxin-antitoxin system. Integrase can mediate the site-specific integration and excision of PYG1 in the chromosome of P. yayanosii A1. Gene replacement of PYG1 with a SimR cassette was successful. The growth of the mutant strain ∆PYG1 was compared with its parent strain P. yayanosii A2 under various stress conditions, including different pH, salinity, temperature and hydrostatic pressure. The ∆PYG1 mutant strain showed reduced growth when grown at 100 °C, while the biomass of ∆PYG1 increased significantly when cultured at 80 MPa. Differential expression of the genes in module Ⅲ of PYG1 was observed under different temperature and pressure conditions. This study demonstrates the first example of an archaeal integrative genomic island that could affect the adaptation of the hyperthermophilic piezophile P. yayanosii to high temperature and high hydrostatic pressure.

  9. Three dimensional graphene transistor for ultra-sensitive pH sensing directly in biological media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ameri, Shideh Kabiri; Singh, Pramod K.; Sonkusale, Sameer R.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, pH sensing directly in biological media using three dimensional liquid gated graphene transistors is presented. The sensor is made of suspended network of graphene coated all around with thin layer of hafnium oxide (HfO_2), showing high sensitivity and sensing beyond the Debye-screening limit. The performance of the pH sensor is validated by measuring the pH of isotonic buffered, Dulbecco's phosphate buffered saline (DPBS) solution, and of blood serum derived from Sprague-Dawley rat. The pH sensor shows high sensitivity of 71 ± 7 mV/pH even in high ionic strength media with molarities as high as 289 ± 1 mM. High sensitivity of this device is owing to suspension of three dimensional graphene in electrolyte which provides all around liquid gating of graphene, leading to higher electrostatic coupling efficiency of electrolyte to the channel and higher gating control of transistor channel by ions in the electrolyte. Coating graphene with hafnium oxide film (HfO_2) provides binding sites for hydrogen ions, which results in higher sensitivity and sensing beyond the Debye-screening limit. The 3D graphene transistor offers the possibility of real-time pH measurement in biological media without the need for desaltation or sample preparation. - Graphical abstract: (a) Test setup – Direct rat blood serum pH measurements (b) Measured transfer characteristics of the transistor for blood serum at different pH values, and (c) Zoomed in version around direct point. - Highlights: • A three-dimensional graphene transistor for pH sensing is presented. • It shows sensitivity of 71 ± 7 mV/pH even in high ionic strength media. • High sensitivity attributed to 3D foam structure and all-around liquid gating. • Enables real-time pH sensing in biological media without need of desaltation.

  10. Three dimensional graphene transistor for ultra-sensitive pH sensing directly in biological media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ameri, Shideh Kabiri; Singh, Pramod K.; Sonkusale, Sameer R., E-mail: sameer@ece.tufts.edu

    2016-08-31

    In this work, pH sensing directly in biological media using three dimensional liquid gated graphene transistors is presented. The sensor is made of suspended network of graphene coated all around with thin layer of hafnium oxide (HfO{sub 2}), showing high sensitivity and sensing beyond the Debye-screening limit. The performance of the pH sensor is validated by measuring the pH of isotonic buffered, Dulbecco's phosphate buffered saline (DPBS) solution, and of blood serum derived from Sprague-Dawley rat. The pH sensor shows high sensitivity of 71 ± 7 mV/pH even in high ionic strength media with molarities as high as 289 ± 1 mM. High sensitivity of this device is owing to suspension of three dimensional graphene in electrolyte which provides all around liquid gating of graphene, leading to higher electrostatic coupling efficiency of electrolyte to the channel and higher gating control of transistor channel by ions in the electrolyte. Coating graphene with hafnium oxide film (HfO{sub 2}) provides binding sites for hydrogen ions, which results in higher sensitivity and sensing beyond the Debye-screening limit. The 3D graphene transistor offers the possibility of real-time pH measurement in biological media without the need for desaltation or sample preparation. - Graphical abstract: (a) Test setup – Direct rat blood serum pH measurements (b) Measured transfer characteristics of the transistor for blood serum at different pH values, and (c) Zoomed in version around direct point. - Highlights: • A three-dimensional graphene transistor for pH sensing is presented. • It shows sensitivity of 71 ± 7 mV/pH even in high ionic strength media. • High sensitivity attributed to 3D foam structure and all-around liquid gating. • Enables real-time pH sensing in biological media without need of desaltation.

  11. The Effect of Arterial pH on Oxygenation Persists Even in Infants Treated with Inhaled Nitric Oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aimee M. Barton

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To validate the empiric observation that pH has an important effect on oxygenation in infants receiving iNO. Study Design. Demographics, ventilator settings, arterial blood gases (ABG, and interventions for up to 96 hours of life were extracted from the charts of 51 infants receiving iNO. Need for ECMO and survival to discharge were noted. Mean blood pressure (MBP and mean airway pressure (MAP were recorded. The arterial/alveolar (a/A ratio was used as the primary outcome. Analysis was by simple linear regression and multiple linear regression analyses and Fisher's exact test. pH responsiveness was arbitrarily defined as a correlation coefficient (CC of >0.40 with 7.55. Of 11 patients requiring ECMO, only 3 exhibited responsiveness at any time in their course. Three responders required ECMO. Conclusion. This small study suggests that failure or inability to optimize pH may account for observed unresponsiveness to iNO. Maintaining a pH > 7.5 using hyperventilation is not recommended.

  12. Influence of oxygen partial pressure and salinity on the community composition of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria in the Schelde estuary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bollmann, A.; Laanbroek, H.J.

    2002-01-01

    The influence of environmental factors on the community structure of ammoniaoxidizing bacteria (AOB) was investigated in the Schelde estuary. Simultaneously with the increase of oxygen and salinity, a shift of the dominant AOB was observed. Molecular analysis based on 16S rRNA genes showed that

  13. Performance Limiting Effects in Power Generation from Salinity Gradients by Pressure Retarded Osmosis

    KAUST Repository

    Yip, Ngai Yin

    2011-12-01

    Pressure retarded osmosis has the potential to utilize the free energy of mixing when fresh river water flows into the sea for clean and renewable power generation. Here, we present a systematic investigation of the performance limiting phenomena in pressure retarded osmosis-external concentration polarization, internal concentration polarization, and reverse draw salt flux-and offer insights on the design criteria of a high performance pressure retarded osmosis power generation system. Thin-film composite polyamide membranes were chemically modified to produce a range of membrane transport properties, and the water and salt permeabilities were characterized to determine the underlying permeability-selectivity trade-off relationship. We show that power density is constrained by the trade-off between permeability and selectivity of the membrane active layer. This behavior is attributed to the opposing influence of the beneficial effect of membrane water permeability and the detrimental impact of reverse salt flux coupled with internal concentration polarization. Our analysis reveals the intricate influence of active and support layer properties on power density and demonstrates that membrane performance is maximized by tailoring the water and salt permeabilities to the structural parameters. An analytical parameter that quantifies the relative influence of each performance limiting phenomena is employed to identify the dominant effect restricting productivity. External concentration polarization is shown to be the main factor limiting performance at high power densities. Enhancement of the hydrodynamic flow conditions in the membrane feed channel reduces external concentration polarization and thus, yields improved power density. However, doing so will also incur additional operating costs due to the accompanying hydraulic pressure loss. This study demonstrates that by thoughtful selection of the membrane properties and hydrodynamic conditions, the detrimental

  14. A prototype cell for extracting energy from a water salinity difference by means of double layer expansion in nanoporous carbon electrodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brogioli, D.; Zhao, R.; Biesheuvel, P.M.

    2011-01-01

    Electrical energy can be obtained from the controlled mixing of fresh (river) and saline (sea) water. Existing technologies such as pressure retarded osmosis and reverse electrodialysis make use of ion-exchange membranes which must be crossed by either the water or the ions. Recently a new physical

  15. Salinity anomaly as a trigger for ENSO events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jieshun; Huang, Bohua; Zhang, Rong-Hua; Hu, Zeng-Zhen; Kumar, Arun; Balmaseda, Magdalena A; Marx, Lawrence; Kinter, James L

    2014-10-29

    According to the classical theories of ENSO, subsurface anomalies in ocean thermal structure are precursors for ENSO events and their initial specification is essential for skillful ENSO forecast. Although ocean salinity in the tropical Pacific (particularly in the western Pacific warm pool) can vary in response to El Niño events, its effect on ENSO evolution and forecasts of ENSO has been less explored. Here we present evidence that, in addition to the passive response, salinity variability may also play an active role in ENSO evolution, and thus important in forecasting El Niño events. By comparing two forecast experiments in which the interannually variability of salinity in the ocean initial states is either included or excluded, the salinity variability is shown to be essential to correctly forecast the 2007/08 La Niña starting from April 2007. With realistic salinity initial states, the tendency to decay of the subsurface cold condition during the spring and early summer 2007 was interrupted by positive salinity anomalies in the upper central Pacific, which working together with the Bjerknes positive feedback, contributed to the development of the La Niña event. Our study suggests that ENSO forecasts will benefit from more accurate salinity observations with large-scale spatial coverage.

  16. Local pH domains regulate NHE3-mediated Na+ reabsorption in the renal proximal tubule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burford, James L.; McDonough, Alicia A.; Holstein-Rathlou, Niels-Henrik; Peti-Peterdi, Janos

    2014-01-01

    The proximal tubule Na+/H+ exchanger 3 (NHE3), located in the apical dense microvilli (brush border), plays a major role in the reabsorption of NaCl and water in the renal proximal tubule. In response to a rise in blood pressure NHE3 redistributes in the plane of the plasma membrane to the base of the brush border, where NHE3 activity is reduced. This NHE3 redistribution is assumed to provoke pressure natriuresis; however, it is unclear how NHE3 redistribution per se reduces NHE3 activity. To investigate if the distribution of NHE3 in the brush border can change the reabsorption rate, we constructed a spatiotemporal mathematical model of NHE3-mediated Na+ reabsorption across a proximal tubule cell and compared the model results with in vivo experiments in rats. The model predicts that when NHE3 is localized exclusively at the base of the brush border, it creates local pH microdomains that reduce NHE3 activity by >30%. We tested the model's prediction experimentally: the rat kidney cortex was loaded with the pH-sensitive fluorescent dye BCECF, and cells of the proximal tubule were imaged in vivo using confocal fluorescence microscopy before and after an increase of blood pressure by ∼50 mmHg. The experimental results supported the model by demonstrating that a rise of blood pressure induces the development of pH microdomains near the bottom of the brush border. These local changes in pH reduce NHE3 activity, which may explain the pressure natriuresis response to NHE3 redistribution. PMID:25298526

  17. Numerical Studies on the Effects of the Channel-Inlet-Pressure Difference in the Pressure-Retarded Osmosis (PRO) Power System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Sung Soo; Ryoo, Won; Chung, Gui Yung; Chun, Myung-Suk

    2014-01-01

    In the spiral wound module of the pressure-retarded osmosis (PRO) system for the salinity gradient power generation, effects of the inlet pressure differences between feed-channel and draw-channel were studied. Fluxes of water and solute through membrane and power were estimated. The water flux through membrane decreased along the x-direction and increased along the y-direction with the increase of inlet pressure differences between two channels. On the other hand, the solute flux through membrane showed the opposite trend. The concentration of flow in the feed-channel increased a lot along the y-direction and that in the draw-channel decreased along the x-direction. In our system, for the inlet pressure differences of 1-11 atm, the flow rate in the feed-channel decreased about 8-13% and that in the draw-channel increased by the same amount. The power density increased and then decreased with the increasing inlet pressure difference

  18. Numerical Studies on the Effects of the Channel-Inlet-Pressure Difference in the Pressure-Retarded Osmosis (PRO) Power System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Sung Soo; Ryoo, Won; Chung, Gui Yung [Hong-Ik University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chun, Myung-Suk [Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST), Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-02-15

    In the spiral wound module of the pressure-retarded osmosis (PRO) system for the salinity gradient power generation, effects of the inlet pressure differences between feed-channel and draw-channel were studied. Fluxes of water and solute through membrane and power were estimated. The water flux through membrane decreased along the x-direction and increased along the y-direction with the increase of inlet pressure differences between two channels. On the other hand, the solute flux through membrane showed the opposite trend. The concentration of flow in the feed-channel increased a lot along the y-direction and that in the draw-channel decreased along the x-direction. In our system, for the inlet pressure differences of 1-11 atm, the flow rate in the feed-channel decreased about 8-13% and that in the draw-channel increased by the same amount. The power density increased and then decreased with the increasing inlet pressure difference.

  19. Temperature, salinity and other parameters from bottle casts in the northeast Pacific Ocean from SWAN from 1965-10-30 to 1966-09-18 (NODC Accession 7000633)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature and salinity profile data, barometric pressure, air temperature and surface winds measurements were collected during nine bottle cast at six stations in...

  20. A pH-, salt- and solvent-responsive carboxymethylcellulose-g-poly(sodium acrylate/medical stone superabsorbent composite with enhanced swelling and responsive properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Free-radical graft copolymerization among sodium carboxymethylcellulose (CMC, partially neutralized acrylic acid (NaA, medical stone (MS and crosslinker N,N'-methylene-bis-acrylamide (MBA was performed to prepare new carboxymethylcellulose-g-poly(sodium acrylate/medical stone (CMC-g-PNaA/MS superabsorbent composites. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectra, thermogravimetry- differential scanning calorimetry (TG-DSC and field emission scanning electromicrsocopic (FESEM analysis confirmed that NaA had been grafted onto CMC backbone and MS participated in polymerization, and the thermal stability and surface morphologies were improved by the addition of MS. Energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS and elemental map (EM analyses revealed the better distribution of MS in the CMC-g-PNaA matrix. The incorporation of 20 wt% MS clearly enhanced the water absorption by 100% (from 317 to 634 g/g. The developed composites showed enhanced swelling rate and On-Off switching swelling characteristics in various pH solutions, saline solutions and hydrophilic organic solvents, which represented interesting and reversible pH-, saline- and hydrophilic organic solvent-responsive characteristics. In addition, the composite exhibited intriguing time-dependent kinetic swelling properties in various heavy metal solutions.

  1. Influence of oxygen partial pressure and salinity on the community composition of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria in the Schelde estuary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bollmann, A.; Laanbroek, H.J.

    2002-01-01

    The influence of environmental factors on the community structure of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) was investigated in the Schelde estuary. Simultaneously with the increase of oxygen and salinity, a shift of the dominant AOB was observed. Molecular analysis based on 16S rRNA genes showed that the

  2. Investigations in Marine Chemistry: Salinity II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    Presented is a science activity in which the student investigates methods of calibration of a simple conductivity meter via a hands-on inquiry technique. Conductivity is mathematically compared to salinity using a point slope formula and graphical techniques. Sample solutions of unknown salinity are provided so that the students can sharpen their…

  3. Influence of salinity and cadmium on the survival and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    osmoregulated at salinities between 5 and 25 and osmoconformed at salinities greater than 25. Chiromantes eulimene followed a hyper-hypo-osmoregulatory strategy; it hyper-regulated in salinities from 0 up to isosmotic conditions at about 28 (c.

  4. Sequestration of non-pure carbon dioxide streams in iron oxyhydroxide-containing saline repositories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, S.; Rosenbauer, Robert J.; Palandri, James L.; Maroto-Valer, M. Mercedes

    2012-01-01

    Iron oxyhydroxide, goethite (α-FeOOH), was evaluated as a potential formation mineral reactant for trapping CO2 in a mineral phase such as siderite (FeCO3), when a mixture of CO2-SO 2 flue gas is injected into a saline aquifer. Two thermodynamic simulations were conducted, equilibrating a CO2-SO2 fluid mixture with a NaCl-brine and Fe-rich rocks at 150 °C and 300 bar. The modeling studies evaluated mineral and fluid composition at equilibrium and the influence of pH buffering in the system. Results show siderite precipitates both in the buffered and unbuffered system; however, the presence of an alkaline pH buffer enhances the stability of the carbonate. Based on the model, an experiment was designed to compare with thermodynamic predictions. A CO2-SO2 gas mixture was reacted in 150 ml of NaCl-NaOH brine containing 10 g of goethite at 150 °C and 300 bar for 24 days. Mineralogical and brine chemistry confirmed siderite as the predominant reaction product in the system. Seventy-six mg of CO2 are sequestered in siderite per 10 g of goethite.

  5. Population specific salinity tolerance in eelgrass (Zostera marina)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salo, Tiina Elina; Pedersen, Morten Foldager; Boström, Christoffer

    2014-01-01

    and that the lowsaline population is better adapted to hyposaline conditions. Despite the long-term adaptation of the low saline population to stable, low salinity, these plants were still able to function normally in high salinities, indicating remarkable plasticity. The results further suggest that altered salinity...

  6. α-MnO2 nanowires transformed from precursor δ-MnO2 by refluxing under ambient pressure: The key role of pH and growth mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Qin; Xiao Zhidong; Feng Xionghan; Tan Wenfeng; Qiu Guohong; Liu Fan

    2011-01-01

    α-MnO 2 nanowires were obtained by reflux treatment of precursor δ-MnO 2 in acidic medium under ambient pressure. The great effects of pH on the transformation of δ-MnO 2 to α-MnO 2 and the concentration of coexistent cations (K + , Mn 2+ ) was investigated in systematically designed experiments by using powder X-ray diffraction and atomic absorption spectrometry analysis. The specific surface area of the products could be simply controlled by adjusting the initial pH value of the suspension. The micro-morphologies during the transition process from the precursors to final products were characterized by SEM and TEM. A dissolution-recrystallization mechanism was proposed to describe the growth process of the one-dimensional nanowire. MnO x units or MnO 6 octahedra was formed firstly from the dissolution of outmost surfaces of δ-MnO 2 , followed by a rearrangement/crystallization to form one-dimensional α-MnO 2 nanowire. In addition, the time-dependent process of dissolution would take place gradually from the external to internal of the precursor.

  7. Salinity information in coral δ18O records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy, J. L.; Thompson, D. M.; Dassié, E. P.; Stevenson, S.; Konecky, B. L.; DeLong, K. L.; Sayani, H. R.; Emile-Geay, J.; Partin, J. W.; Abram, N. J.; Martrat, B.

    2017-12-01

    Coral oxygen isotopic ratios (δ18O) are typically utilized to reconstruct sea surface temperature (SST), or SST-based El Niño-Southern Oscillation metrics (e.g., NIÑO3.4), despite the influence of both SST and the oxygen isotopic composition of seawater (δ18Osw) on coral δ18O. The ideal way to isolate past δ18Osw variations is to develop independent and univariate SST and δ18Osw responders, for instance, via paired coral δ18O and Sr/Ca analyses. Nonetheless, many coral δ18O records without paired Sr/Ca records already exist in the paleoclimatic literature, and these may be able to provide some insight into past δ18Osw and salinity changes due to the nature of the significant positive relationship between instrumental salinity and δ18Osw. Here we use coral δ18O records from the new PAGES Iso2k database to assess the regions in which coral δ18O has the greatest potential to provide salinity information based on the strength of the relationship between instrumental salinity and coral δ18O values. We find from annual pseudocoral similations that corals in the western tropical Pacific share a substantial fraction of their variance with δ18Osw rather than SST. In contrast, in the Indian Ocean and eastern tropical Pacific it is SST that predominantly explains coral δ18O variance. In agreement with this variance decomposition, we find that coral δ18O time series from the western tropical Pacific are significantly correlated with mid to late 20th century salinity. However, variations in the strength of the δ18Osw-salinity relationship across the western tropical Pacific will likely have a significant influence on coral δ18O-based salinity reconstructions. Additionally, in some cases a strong, negative correlation between SST and δ18Osw might not allow their influences to be adequately separated in coral δ18O records without the use of coupled Sr/Ca estimates of the temperature contribution. Overall, we find a range of modern salinity and SST

  8. The effectiveness of dispersants under various temperature and salinity regimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fingas, M.; Fieldhouse, B.; Wang, Z.; Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON

    2005-01-01

    A series of tests were conducted to determine the effectiveness of dispersants in Arctic waters where salinity and temperature interactions play a critical role. In particular, Corexit 9500 was tested on Alaska North Slope oil at different temperatures and salinity using the ASTM standard test and variations of this test. Results were compared to the only historically reported test in which both temperature and salinity were changed over a range of values. This series of tests demonstrated that there is an interaction between salinity, temperature and dispersant effectiveness. It was shown that conventional and currently available dispersants are nearly ineffective at 0 salinity. Dispersant effectiveness peaks at 20 to 40 units of salinity, depending on the type of dispersant. Corexit is less sensitive to salinity, while Corexit 9527 is more sensitive to salinity. There is a smooth gradient of effectiveness with salinity both as the salinity rises to a peak point of effectiveness and as it exceeds this value. Results from the 2 field trials in fresh water suggest that laboratory tests correctly conclude that the effectiveness of dispersants is very low in freshwater. The study also examined several analytical factors such as the total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) versus relative petroleum hydrocarbon (RPH) methods, specific versus general calibration curves, and automatic versus manual baseline placement. The analytical variations of effectiveness by RPH or TPH methods do not affect the fundamental relationship between salinity and temperature. 6 refs., 6 tabs., 8 figs

  9. Global Sensitivity Analysis to Assess Salt Precipitation for CO2 Geological Storage in Deep Saline Aquifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Salt precipitation is generated near the injection well when dry supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2 is injected into saline aquifers, and it can seriously impair the CO2 injectivity of the well. We used solid saturation (Ss to map CO2 injectivity. Ss was used as the response variable for the sensitivity analysis, and the input variables included the CO2 injection rate (QCO2, salinity of the aquifer (XNaCl, empirical parameter m, air entry pressure (P0, maximum capillary pressure (Pmax, and liquid residual saturation (Splr and Sclr. Global sensitivity analysis methods, namely, the Morris method and Sobol method, were used. A significant increase in Ss was observed near the injection well, and the results of the two methods were similar: XNaCl had the greatest effect on Ss; the effect of P0 and Pmax on Ss was negligible. On the other hand, with these two methods, QCO2 had various effects on Ss: QCO2 had a large effect on Ss in the Morris method, but it had little effect on Ss in the Sobol method. We also found that a low QCO2 had a profound effect on Ss but that a high QCO2 had almost no effect on the Ss value.

  10. Abacus to determine soils salinity in presence of saline groundwater in arid zones case of the region of Ouargla

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fergougui, Myriam Marie El; Benyamina, Hind; Boutoutaou, Djamel

    2018-05-01

    In order to remedy the limit of salt intake to the soil surface, it is necessary to study the causes of the soil salinity and find the origin of these salts. The arid areas in the region of Ouargla lie on excessively mineralized groundwater whose level is near the soil surface (0 - 1.5 m). The topography and absence of a reliable drainage system led to the rise of the groundwater beside the arid climatic conditions contributed to the salinization and hydromorphy of the soils. The progress and stabilization of cultures yields in these areas can only occur if the groundwater is maintained (drained) to a depth of 1.6 m. The results of works done to the determination of soil salinity depend mainly on the groundwater's salinity, its depth and the climate.

  11. Developments in the monitoring and control of Eh and pH conditions in hydrothermal experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, J.; Ulmer, G.C.; Grandstaff, D.E.; Brozdowski, R.; Danielson, M.J.; Koski, O.H.

    1984-01-01

    In the design of a high-level nuclear waste repository it is essential to obtain accurate groundwater Eh-pH data. Design considerations such as the choice of matrix for the waste form, type and dimensions of canister material, use of buffers, and type and amount of backfill would all benefit from an exact knowledge of oxidation potentials (Eh) and acidity levels (pH) of the groundwater. The Basalt Waste Isolation Project (BWIP) has initiated a research effort to develop sensors which can be mounted in autoclaves to provide constant monitoring of the Eh-pH conditions that exist during waste form/barrier material/groundwater hydrothermal interaction tests. Sensors must withstand temperatures up to 300 0 C and pressures up to 300 bars. This report considers Teflon hydrogen diffusion membranes and zirconia pH sensors. The development of these sensors represents a significant advance in the environmental monitoring of Eh and pH conditions at elevated temperatures and pressures

  12. The pH of buffers based on 2-amino-2-hydroxymethyl-1,3-propanediol (`tris') in synthetic sea water

    Science.gov (United States)

    DelValls, T. A.; Dickson, A. G.

    1998-09-01

    E.m.f. measurements were made over the temperature range 273.15-318.15 K, and at five salinities from 20 to 40, using the cell Pt( s) H2( g, p°) BH+ and B in synthetic sea water AgCl( s) Ag( s) Pt( s) where p°=101.325 kPa, and BH + and B are the conjugate acid-base pair of 2-amino-2hydroxymethyl-1,3-propanediol ('tris') - each present at a concentration of 0.04 mol kg -1. The results were used to assign pH values based on the 'total' hydrogen ion scale to such buffer solutions based on this acid-base pair. Additional measurements were made over a range of buffer concentrations at a salinity of 35; these were used to calculate the stoichiometric (ionic medium) dissociation constant for 'tris-H +' in synthetic sea water.

  13. Fresh Water Generation from Aquifer-Pressured Carbon Storage: Annual Report FY09

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolery, T; Aines, R; Hao, Y; Bourcier, W; Wolfe, T; Haussman, C

    2009-11-25

    This project is establishing the potential for using brine pressurized by Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) operations in saline formations as the feedstock for desalination and water treatment technologies including reverse osmosis (RO) and nanofiltration (NF). The aquifer pressure resulting from the energy required to inject the carbon dioxide provides all or part of the inlet pressure for the desalination system. Residual brine is reinjected into the formation at net volume reduction, such that the volume of fresh water extracted balances the volume of CO{sub 2} injected into the formation. This process provides additional CO{sub 2} storage capacity in the aquifer, reduces operational risks (cap-rock fracturing, contamination of neighboring fresh water aquifers, and seismicity) by relieving overpressure in the formation, and provides a source of low-cost fresh water to offset costs or operational water needs. This multi-faceted project combines elements of geochemistry, reservoir engineering, and water treatment engineering. The range of saline formation waters is being identified and analyzed. Computer modeling and laboratory-scale experimentation are being used to examine mineral scaling and osmotic pressure limitations. Computer modeling is being used to evaluate processes in the storage aquifer, including the evolution of the pressure field. Water treatment costs are being evaluated by comparing the necessary process facilities to those in common use for seawater RO. There are presently limited brine composition data available for actual CCS sites by the site operators including in the U.S. the seven regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships (CSPs). To work around this, we are building a 'catalog' of compositions representative of 'produced' waters (waters produced in the course of seeking or producing oil and gas), to which we are adding data from actual CCS sites as they become available. Produced waters comprise the most common

  14. Dysregulated pH in Tumor Microenvironment Checkmates Cancer Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaleh Barar

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The dysregulation of pH by cancerous cells of solid tumors is able to create a unique milieu that is in favor of progression, invasion and metastasis as well as chemo-/immuno-resistance traits of solid tumors. Bioelements involved in pH dysregulation provide new set of oncotargets, inhibition of which may result in better clinical outcome. Methods: To study the impacts of pH dysregulation, we investigated the tumor development and progression in relation with Warburg effect, glycolysis and formation of aberrant tumor microenvironment. Results: The upregulation of glucose transporter GLUT-1 and several enzymes involve in glycolysis exacerbates this phenomenon. The accumulation of lactic acids in cancer cells provokes upregulation of several transport machineries (MCT-1, NHE-1, CA IX and H+ pump V-ATPase resulting in reinforced efflux of proton into extracellular fluid. This deviant event makes pH to be settled at 7.4 and 6.6 respectively in cancer cells cytoplasm and extracellular fluid within the tumor microenvironment, which in return triggers secretion of lysosomal components (various enzymes in acidic milieu with pH 5 into cytoplasm. All these anomalous phenomena make tumor microenvironment (TME to be exposed to cocktail of various enzymes with acidic pH, upon which extracellular matrix (ECM can be remodeled and even deformed, resulting in emergence of a complex viscose TME with high interstitial fluid pressure. Conclusion: It seems that pH dysregulation is able to remodel various physiologic functions and make solid tumors to become much more invasive and metastatic. It also can cause undesired resistance to chemotherapy and immunotherapy. Hence, cancer therapy needs to be reinforced using specific inhibitors of bioelements involved in pH dysregulation of TME in solid tumors.

  15. Decline of the world's saline lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayne A. Wurtsbaugh; Craig Miller; Sarah E. Null; R. Justin DeRose; Peter Wilcock; Maura Hahnenberger; Frank Howe; Johnnie Moore

    2017-01-01

    Many of the world’s saline lakes are shrinking at alarming rates, reducing waterbird habitat and economic benefits while threatening human health. Saline lakes are long-term basin-wide integrators of climatic conditions that shrink and grow with natural climatic variation. In contrast, water withdrawals for human use exert a sustained reduction in lake inflows and...

  16. Development of a Rapid, Nondestructive Method to Measure Aqueous Carbonate in High Salinity Brines Using Raman Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGraw, L.; Phillips-Lander, C. M.; Elwood Madden, A. S.; Parnell, S.; Elwood Madden, M.

    2015-12-01

    Traditional methods of quantitative analysis are often ill-suited to determining the bulk chemistry of high salinity brines due to their corrosive and clogging properties. Such methods are also often difficult to apply remotely in planetary environments. However, Raman spectroscopy can be used remotely without physical contact with the fluid and is not affected by many ionic brines. Developing methods to study aqueous carbonates is vital to future study of brines on Mars and other planetary bodies, as they can reveal important information about modern and ancient near-surface aqueous processes. Both sodium carbonate standards and unknown samples from carbonate mineral dissolution experiments in high salinity brines were analyzed using a 532 nm laser coupled to an inVia Renishaw spectrometer to collect carbonate spectra from near-saturated sodium chloride and sodium sulfate brines. A calibration curve was determined by collecting spectra from solutions of known carbonate concentrations mixed with a pH 13 buffer and a near-saturated NaCl or Na2SO4 brine matrix. The spectra were processed and curve fitted to determine the height ratio of the carbonate peak at 1066 cm-1 to the 1640 cm-1 water peak. The calibration curve determined using the standards was then applied to the experimental data after accounting for dilutions. Concentrations determined based on Raman spectra were compared against traditional acid titration measurements. We found that the two techniques vary by less than one order of magnitude. Further work is ongoing to verify the method and apply similar techniques to measure aqueous carbonate concentrations in other high salinity brines.Traditional methods of quantitative analysis are often ill-suited to determining the bulk chemistry of high salinity brines due to their corrosive and clogging properties. Such methods are also often difficult to apply remotely in planetary environments. However, Raman spectroscopy can be used remotely without physical

  17. Salinity controls on plant transpiration and soil water balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perri, S.; Molini, A.; Suweis, S. S.; Viola, F.; Entekhabi, D.

    2017-12-01

    Soil salinization and aridification represent a major threat for the food security and sustainable development of drylands. The two problems are deeply connected, and their interplay is expected to be further enhanced by climate change and projected population growth. Salt-affected land is currently estimated to cover around 1.1 Gha, and is particularly widespread in semi-arid to hyper-arid climates. Over 900 Mha of these saline/sodic soils are potentially available for crop or biomass production. Salt-tolerant plants have been recently proposed as valid solution to exploit or even remediate salinized soils. However the effects of salinity on evapotranspiration, soil water balance and the long-term salt mass balance in the soil, are still largely unexplored. In this contribution we analyze the feedback of evapotranspiration on soil salinization, with particular emphasis on the role of vegetation and plant salt-tolerance. The goal is to introduce a simple modeling framework able to shed some light on how (a) soil salinity controls plant transpiration, and (b) salinization itself is favored/impeded by different vegetation feedback. We introduce at this goal a spatially lumped stochastic model of soil moisture and salt mass dynamics averaged over the active soil depth, and accounting for the effect of salinity on evapotranspiration. Here, the limiting effect of salinity on ET is modeled through a simple plant response function depending on both salt concentration in the soil and plant salt-tolerance. The coupled soil moisture and salt mass balance is hence used to obtain the conditional steady-state probability density function (pdf) of soil moisture for given salt tolerance and salinization level, Our results show that salinity imposes a limit in the soil water balance and this limit depends on plant salt-tolerance mainly through the control of the leaching occurrence (tolerant plants exploit water more efficiently than the sensitive ones). We also analyzed the

  18. Characterization of a halophilic heterotrophic nitrification-aerobic denitrification bacterium and its application on treatment of saline wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Jinming; Fang, Hongda; Su, Bing; Chen, Jinfang; Lin, Jinmei

    2015-03-01

    A novel halophilic bacterium capable of heterotrophic nitrification-aerobic denitrification was isolated from marine sediments and identified as Vibrio diabolicus SF16. It had ability to remove 91.82% of NH4(+)-N (119.77 mg/L) and 99.71% of NO3(-)-N (136.43 mg/L). The nitrogen balance showed that 35.83% of initial NH4(+)-N (119.77 mg/L) was changed to intracellular nitrogen, and 53.98% of the initial NH4(+)-N was converted to gaseous denitrification products. The existence of napA gene further proved the aerobic denitrification ability of strain SF16. The optimum culture conditions were salinity 1-5%, sodium acetate as carbon source, C/N 10, and pH 7.5-9.5. When an aerated biological filter system inoculated with strain SF16 was employed to treat saline wastewater, the average removal efficiency of NH4(+)-N and TN reached 97.14% and 73.92%, respectively, indicating great potential of strain SF16 for future full-scale applications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Time-dependence of salinity in monsoonal estuaries

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Vijith, V.; Sundar, D.; Shetye, S.R.

    processes (diffusion, gravity current formation, impact of tidal asymmetries, etc.) is balanced by salinity-egress induced by runoff. Here we point out that the salinity field of the estuaries that are located on the coasts of the Indian subcontinent...

  20. Bromate formation from the oxidation of bromide in the UV/chlorine process with low pressure and medium pressure UV lamps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Jingyun; Zhao, Quan; Fan, Chihhao; Shang, Chii; Fu, Yun; Zhang, Xiangru

    2017-09-01

    When a bromide-containing water is treated by the ultraviolet (UV)/chlorine process, hydroxyl radicals (HO) and halogen radicals such as Cl or Br are formed due to the UV photolysis of free halogens. These reactive species may induce the formation of bromate, which is a probable human carcinogen. Bromate formation in the UV/chlorine process using low pressure (LP) and medium pressure (MP) lamps in the presence of bromide was investigated in the present study. The UV/chlorine process significantly enhanced bromate formation as compared to dark chlorination. The bromate formation was elevated with increasing UV fluence, bromide concentration, and pH values under both LP and MP UV irradiations. It was significantly enhanced at pH 9 compared to those at pH 6 and 7 with MP UV irradiation, while it was slightly enhanced at pH 9 with LP UV. The formation by UV/chlorine process started with the formation of free bromine (HOBr/OBr - ) through the reaction of chlorine and bromide, followed by a subsequent oxidation of free bromine and formation of BrO and bromate by reacting with radicals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A method for measuring pH at high temperatures is presented

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudon, Luc.

    1979-01-01

    Two hydrogen electrodes are used and set up in a PTFE cell comprising two chambers connected through a saturated potassium chloride solution bridge. This cell is put in an autoclave containing hydrogen. The potential difference of the following cell is measured: H 2 , Pt, R solution - KCl saturated solution at 25 0 C - X solution, Pt, H 2 - The pH of the reference solution R is known up to 300 0 C and the X solution must have its pH to be determined. The precision of the measures at 300 0 C is estimated about +-0,1 pH unit. The dissociation constant of water is calculated from pH variations of alcaline solutions up to 300 0 C. The method has helped to measure the pH at 300 0 C of some boric acid solutions, with or without lithium hydroxide additions, in the following concentration range: B: 250 to 1500 ppm and Li: 0 to 3 ppm. Some concentrations are in fact those chosen for the primary circuits of pressurized water reactors. The pH of ammoniacal solutions is measured too and helped to determine the variations of the dissociation constant of ammonia with temperature [fr

  2. Improvement of potato tolerance to salinity using tissue culture techniques and irradiation with in vitro selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Safadi, B.; Arabi, M. I. E.

    2006-01-01

    A mutation breeding program was conducted to improve potato (Solanum tuberosum) tolerance to salinity. In vitro cultured explants from potato cvs. Draga, Diamant, Spunta were irradiated with gamma doses 25, 30, and 35 Gy. Mutants were isolated to get rid of chimeral tissues and subsequently propagated for in vitro and pot selection pressure. Cultivar Sponta produced the highest number of tolerant plants (4) and only one plant was obtained from Diamant. (authors)

  3. High salinity conveys thermotolerance in the coral model Aiptasia

    KAUST Repository

    Gegner, Hagen M.

    2017-12-15

    The endosymbiosis between dinoflagellate algae of the genus Symbiodinium and stony corals provides the foundation of coral reef ecosystems. Coral bleaching, the expulsion of endosymbionts from the coral host tissue as a consequence of heat or light stress, poses a threat to reef ecosystem functioning on a global scale. Hence, a better understanding of the factors contributing to heat stress susceptibility and tolerance is needed. In this regard, some of the most thermotolerant corals also live in particularly saline habitats, but possible effects of high salinity on thermotolerance in corals are anecdotal. Here we test the hypothesis that high salinity may lead to increased thermotolerance. We conducted a heat stress experiment at low, intermediate, and high salinities using a set of host-endosymbiont combinations of the coral model Aiptasia. As expected, all host-endosymbiont combinations showed reduced photosynthetic efficiency and endosymbiont loss during heat stress, but the severity of bleaching was significantly reduced with increasing salinities for one of the host-endosymbiont combinations. Our results show that higher salinities can convey increased thermotolerance in Aiptasia, although this effect seems to be dependent on the particular host strain and/or associated symbiont type. This finding may help explain the extraordinarily high thermotolerance of corals in high salinity environments such as the Red Sea and the Persian/Arabian Gulf and provides novel insight regarding factors that contribute to thermotolerance. Since our results are based on a salinity effect in symbiotic sea anemones, it remains to be determined whether this salinity effect can also be observed in stony corals.

  4. High salinity conveys thermotolerance in the coral model Aiptasia

    KAUST Repository

    Gegner, Hagen M.; Ziegler, Maren; Radecker, Nils; Buitrago Lopez, Carol; Aranda, Manuel; Voolstra, Christian R.

    2017-01-01

    The endosymbiosis between dinoflagellate algae of the genus Symbiodinium and stony corals provides the foundation of coral reef ecosystems. Coral bleaching, the expulsion of endosymbionts from the coral host tissue as a consequence of heat or light stress, poses a threat to reef ecosystem functioning on a global scale. Hence, a better understanding of the factors contributing to heat stress susceptibility and tolerance is needed. In this regard, some of the most thermotolerant corals also live in particularly saline habitats, but possible effects of high salinity on thermotolerance in corals are anecdotal. Here we test the hypothesis that high salinity may lead to increased thermotolerance. We conducted a heat stress experiment at low, intermediate, and high salinities using a set of host-endosymbiont combinations of the coral model Aiptasia. As expected, all host-endosymbiont combinations showed reduced photosynthetic efficiency and endosymbiont loss during heat stress, but the severity of bleaching was significantly reduced with increasing salinities for one of the host-endosymbiont combinations. Our results show that higher salinities can convey increased thermotolerance in Aiptasia, although this effect seems to be dependent on the particular host strain and/or associated symbiont type. This finding may help explain the extraordinarily high thermotolerance of corals in high salinity environments such as the Red Sea and the Persian/Arabian Gulf and provides novel insight regarding factors that contribute to thermotolerance. Since our results are based on a salinity effect in symbiotic sea anemones, it remains to be determined whether this salinity effect can also be observed in stony corals.

  5. Integrated stratigraphy, astronomical dating and proxy records of the Ain el Beida and Loulja sections (NW Morocco). Implications for regional climate change, glacial history and the Messinian Salinity Crisis. Geologica Ultraiectina (324)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Laan, E.

    2010-01-01

    This Ph.D. thesis aims to provide a better understanding of the origin of sedimentary colour cycles in the Bou Regreg area in NW Morocco. Sediments were deposited during the late Miocene and early Pliocene at times that the Mediterranean was isolated from the Atlantic during the Messinian salinity

  6. Water cycle and salinity dynamics in the mangrove forests of Europa and Juan de Nova Islands, southwest Indian Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambs, Luc; Mangion, Perrine; Mougin, Eric; Fromard, François

    2016-01-30

    The functioning of mangrove forests found on small coralline islands is characterized by limited freshwater inputs. Here, we present data on the water cycling of such systems located on Europa and Juan de Nova Islands, Mozambique Channel. In order to better understand the water cycle and mangrove growth conditions, we have analysed the hydrological and salinity dynamics of the systems by gauge pressure and isotopic tracing (δ18O and δ2H values). Both islands have important seawater intrusion as measured by the water level change and the high salinities in the karstic ponds. Europa Island displays higher salinity stress, with its inner lagoon, but presents a pluri-specific mangrove species formation ranging from shrub to forest stands. No freshwater signal could be detected around the mangrove trees. On Juan de Nova Island, the presence of sand and detrital sediment allows the storage of some amount of rainfall to form a brackish groundwater. The mangrove surface area is very limited with only small mono-specific stands being present in karstic depression. On the drier Europa Island, the salinity of all the water points is equal to or higher than that of the seawater, and on Juan de Nova the groundwater salinity is lower (5 to 20 PSU). This preliminary study shows that the karstic pothole mangroves exist due to the sea connection through the fractured coral and the high tidal dynamics.

  7. Estimation of salinity power potential in India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Das, V.K.; RamaRaju, D.V.

    Salinity gradient as a source of energy has much potential, but this has been recognized only recently. The energy density of this source is equivalent to about 250 m water head for a salinity difference of 35 ppt. This source exists...

  8. Salinity and sigma-t data from CTD casts in the TOGA Area - Pacific Ocean from 1994-01-06 to 1995-08-03 (NODC Accession 9600024)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Salinity and sigma-t data were collected using current meter, pressure gauge, and CTD casts in the TOGA Area - Pacific Ocean from January 6, 1994 to August 3, 1995....

  9. Shallow rainwater lenses in deltaic areas with saline seepage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louw, de P.G.B.; Eeman, S.; Siemon, B.; `Voortman, B.R.; Gunnink, J.; Baaren, E.S.; Oude Essink, G.H.P.

    2011-01-01

    In deltaic areas with saline seepage, freshwater availability is often limited to shallow rainwater lenses lying on top of saline groundwater. Here we describe the characteristics and spatial variability of such lenses in areas with saline seepage and the mechanisms that control their occurrence and

  10. Shallow rainwater lenses in deltaic areas with saline seepage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Louw, Perry G.B.; Eeman, Sara; Siemon, Bernhard; Voortman, Bernard R.; Gunnink, Jan; Van Baaren, Esther S.; Oude Essink, Gualbert

    2011-01-01

    In deltaic areas with saline seepage, fresh water availability is often limited to shallow rainwater lenses lying on top of saline groundwater. Here we describe the characteristics and spatial variability of such lenses in areas with saline seepage and the mechanisms that control their occurrence

  11. Modelling the salinization of a coastal lagoon-aquifer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombani, N.; Mastrocicco, M.

    2017-08-01

    In this study, a coastal area constituted by alternations of saline-brackish lagoons and freshwater bodies was studied and modelled to understand the hydrological processes occurring between the lagoons, the groundwater system of the Po River Delta (Italy) and the Adriatic Sea. The contribution of both evaporation and anthropogenic factors on groundwater salinization was assessed by means of soil, groundwater and surface water monitoring. Highresolution multi-level samplers were used to capture salinity gradients within the aquifer and surface water bodies. Data were employed to calibrate a density-dependent numerical transport model implemented with SEAWAT code along a transect perpendicular to the coast line. The results show that the lagoon is hydraulically well connected with the aquifer, which provides the major source of salinity because of the upcoming of paleo-seawater from the aquitard laying at the base of the unconfined aquifer. On the contrary, the seawater (diluted by the freshwater river outflow) creates only a limited saltwater wedge. The increase in groundwater salinity could be of serious concern, especially for the pinewood located in the dune near the coast, sensitive to salinity increases. This case study represents an interesting paradigm for other similar environmental setting, where the assumption of classical aquifer salinization from a saltwater wedge intruding from the sea is often not representative of the actual aquifer’s salinization mechanisms.

  12. Coagulation processes of kaolinite and montmorillonite in calm, saline water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jin-Feng; Zhang, Qing-He; Maa, Jerome P.-Y.

    2018-03-01

    A three dimensional numerical model for simulating the coagulation processes of colloids has been performed by monitoring the time evolution of particle number concentration, the size distribution of aggregates, the averaged settling velocity, the collision frequency, and the collision efficiency in quiescent water with selected salinities. This model directly simulates all interaction forces between particles based on the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) and the extended Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (XDLVO) theory, and thus, can reveal the collision and coagulation processes of colloidal suspensions. Although using perfect spherical particles in the modeling, the results were compared with those for kaolinite and montmorillonite suspensions to demonstrate the capability of simulating the responses of these particles with highly irregular shape. The averaged settling velocity of kaolinite aggregates in quiescent saline water reached a maximum of 0.16 mm/s when the salinity increasing to about 3, and then, exhibited little dependence on salinity thereafter. Model simulations results (by choosing specific values that represent kaolinite's characteristics) indicate a similar trend: rapid decrease of the particle number concentration (i.e., rapidly flocculated, and thus, settling velocity also increases rapidly) when salinity increases from 0 to 2, and then, only increased slightly when salinity was further increased from 5 to 20. The collision frequency for kaolinite only decreases slightly with increasing salinity because that the fluid density and viscosity increase slightly in sea water. It suggests that the collision efficiency for kaolinite rises rapidly at low salinities and levels off at high salinity. For montmorillonite, the settling velocity of aggregates in quiescent saline water continuedly increases to 0.022 mm/s over the whole salinity range 0-20, and the collision efficiency for montmorillonite rises with increasing salinities.

  13. About the issue of monitoring method of Ararat valley soils salinization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.G. Yeghiazaryan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The short description of the agro-ameliorative situation of the Republic of Armenia, particularly, that of Ararat valley shows that the unpredictable and unmanageable process of regime procedures at this area can cause serious consequences, pushing out the agricultural golden fund of the republic from the agricultural turnover, namely the land of Ararat valley. Numerous investigations on the soil reclaimed state in Ararat valley at the Republic of Armenia reveal that they are currently in an extremely threatening condition. The result analyses show that more than 35% of Ararat valley lands of agricultural importance are in insufficiently reclaimed state, moreover the 54% of them are weakly salinized, 11,8% are averagely and strongly salinized and 34.2% are strongly salinized. The analyses of the conducted theoretical and experimental research results show that the above mentioned negative processes are promoted by the depth of the ground water allocation, which in Ararat valley fluctuates within the depth of 1 m, 1-3 m and more than 3 m. According to the distribution area the ground waters on 6,6% land areas of Ararat valley irrigated soils are allocated at the depth of 1 m, in 27,8% land areas the ground waters are allocated at the depth of 1–3 m, and in the rest of 65,6% land area waters are allocated at the depth of more than 3 m. For the prevention of the soils salinization process at Ararat valley and for the development of measures for struggling against it, the impact of ground waters installation depth, their mineralization, calculated evapo-transpiration from the soil and plants, irrigation norm, watering regime and technique, pressure nutrition caused from underground water basin and the impact of evaporation raising from the ground water surfaces on the ground waters level change in the vegetation period is evaluated in the current work. For the evaluation of the above mentioned individual factors the integral

  14. Oceanographic profile temperature, salinity and pressure measurements collected using moored buoy in the Indian Ocean from 2001-2006 (NODC Accession 0002733)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature and salinity measurements in the Equatorial Indian from 2001 to 2006 from the TRITON (TRIANGLE TRANS-OCEAN BUOY NETWORK); JAPAN AGENCY FOR MARINE-EARTH...

  15. Thermal and high pressure inactivation kinetics of blueberry peroxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terefe, Netsanet Shiferaw; Delon, Antoine; Versteeg, Cornelis

    2017-10-01

    This study for the first time investigated the stability and inactivation kinetics of blueberry peroxidase in model systems (McIlvaine buffer, pH=3.6, the typical pH of blueberry juice) during thermal (40-80°C) and combined high pressure-thermal processing (0.1-690MPa, 30-90°C). At 70-80°C, the thermal inactivation kinetics was best described by a biphasic model with ∼61% labile and ∼39% stable fractions at temperature between 70 and 75°C. High pressure inhibited the inactivation of the enzyme with no inactivation at pressures as high as 690MPa and temperatures less than 50°C. The inactivation kinetics of the enzyme at 60-70°C, and pressures higher than 500MPa was best described by a first order biphasic model with ∼25% labile fraction and 75% stable fraction. The activation energy values at atmospheric pressure were 548.6kJ/mol and 324.5kJ/mol respectively for the stable and the labile fractions. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Salinity and resource management in the Hunter Valley

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Creelman, R.A.; Cooke, R.; Simons, M. [RA Creelman & Associates (Australia)

    1995-08-01

    If excess water salinity is to be managed in the Hunter Valley, its causes and behaviour must be understood. Although Hunter Valley hydrology, hydrogeology and hydrogeochemistry require further study, there is now enough information available to begin the development of both temporal and spatial models as valley management tools. Currently the Department of Water Resources is developing a model known as Integrated Water Quality and Quantity Model (IQQM). IQQM which includes a salinity module is essentially a surface water simulation model. It wll enable testing of alternate management and operation policies such as the salinity property rights trading scheme recently introduced by the EPA to manage salt release from coal mines and power stations. An overview is presented of the progress made to date on the salinity module for IQQM, and an outline is given of the geological and hydrogeochemical concepts that have been assembled to support the salinity module of IQQM. 17 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  17. A literature review of the variation of dispersant effectiveness and salinity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fingas, M.

    2005-01-01

    Surfactants have varying solubilities in water and varying actions toward oil and water. This paper presents a summary of the effects of water salinity on chemical dispersion. Literature reveals that effectiveness testing with salinity variations shows a consistent decrease in effectiveness at lower salinities and a decrease after a maximum salinity is reached between 20 to 40 units of salinity. In waters with 0 salinity, conventional and currently available dispersants have a very low effectiveness or are sometimes even completely ineffective, a fact which is consistent in surfactant literature. Dispersant effectiveness peaks in waters with a salinity ranging from 20 to 40. Corexit 9500 appears to be less sensitive to salinity, but still peaks at about 35. There is a relatively smooth gradient of effectiveness with salinity both as the salinity rises to a peak point of effectiveness and after it exceeds this value. The curves for this salinity effect appear to be Gaussian. While there is some evidence for a temperature-salinity interaction as noted in the data, there is not enough data to make solid conclusions. Recent data is almost exclusively measured using Corexit 9527 and Corexit 9500. Since these have the same surfactant packages, there is a concern that the results may be more relevant to these formulations than to all possible formulations. Observations on 2 field trials in freshwater appear to indicate that the laboratory tests were correct in concluding very low dispersant effectiveness in freshwater. There were few studies on the biological effects of varying salinity and given oil exposure. It was concluded that the findings in the dispersant literature reviewed here are in agreement with those in the theoretical and basic surfactant literature. The effect of ionic strength and salinity on both hydrophilic-lipophilic balance and stability is the reason for the decreased effectiveness noted at low salinities and the same decrease at high salinities

  18. Urbanization accelerates long-term salinization and alkalinization of fresh water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushal, S.; Duan, S.; Doody, T.; Haq, S.; Smith, R. M.; Newcomer Johnson, T. A.; Delaney Newcomb, K.; Gorman, J. K.; Bowman, N.; Mayer, P. M.; Wood, K. L.; Belt, K.; Stack, W.

    2017-12-01

    Human dominated land-use increases transport a major ions in streams due to anthropogenic salts and accelerated weathering. We show long-term trends in calcium, magnesium, sodium, alkalinity, and hardness over 50 years in the Baltimore metropolitan region and elsewhere. We also examine how major ion concentrations have increased significantly with impervious surface cover in watersheds across land use. Base cations show strong relationships with acid anions, which illustrates the coupling of major biogeochemical cycles in urban watersheds over time. Longitudinal patterns in major ions can also show increasing trends from headwaters to coastal waters, which suggests coupled biogeochemical cycles over space. We present new results from manipulative experiments and long-term monitoring across different urban regions regarding patterns and processes of salinization and alkalinization. Overall, our work demonstrates that urbanization dramatically increases major ions, ionic strength, and pH over decades from headwaters to coastal waters, which impacts the integrity of aquatic life, infrastructure, drinking water, and coastal ocean alkalinization.

  19. Limnology of Kharland (saline) ponds of Ratnagiri, Maharashtra in relation to prawn culture potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saksena, D N; Gaidhane, D M; Singh, H

    2006-01-01

    The coastal saline soils, Kharlands, have great potential for their use in aquaculture. This study has been taken up to understand the limnology of the ponds in Kharland area for assessing their prawn culture potential. This study was carried out during September, 1999 to August, 2001. Each Kharland pond has an area of 0.045 hectare. During the study, depth of pond water was 47.7 to 120.0 cm, temperature varied from 25.7 to 34.5 degrees C; transparency from nil to 65.0 cm; specific conductivity from 1.78 to 94.5 microS.cm(-1); total dissolved solids from 0.89 to 27.55 ppt; pH 5.42 to 8.25; dissolved oxygen 1.6 to 8 mg.l(-1); free carbon dioxide 10.00 to 44.00 mg.l(-1); total alkalinity 5.00 to 142.00 mg.l(-1); salinity 0.45 to 39.55 ppt; total hardness 245.00 to 5945.00; calcium 56.05 to 1827.6; magnesium 110.74 to 4507.75 mg.l(-1); dissolved organic matter 1.45 to 9.68 mg.l(-1); ammonia 1.00-8.00 microg.l(-1); nitrite nil to 20.00 micro l(-1) and nitrate 7.5 to 17.5 microg.l(-1). These Kharland ponds are unique in physio-chemical characteristics during their seasonal cycle. From July to October, these ponds have nearly freshwater while from November to May pond water becomes saline. Thus, there is a great possibility of taking up monoculture of both the freshwater and brackish water prawns as well as polyculture of prawns and fishes in the Kharland ponds.

  20. Dynamic regulation of gastric surface pH by luminal pH

    OpenAIRE

    Chu, Shaoyou; Tanaka, Shin; Kaunitz, Jonathan D.; Montrose, Marshall H.

    1999-01-01

    In vivo confocal imaging of the mucosal surface of rat stomach was used to measure pH noninvasively under the mucus gel layer while simultaneously imaging mucus gel thickness and tissue architecture. When tissue was superfused at pH 3, the 25 μm adjacent to the epithelial surface was relatively alkaline (pH 4.1 ± 0.1), and surface alkalinity was enhanced by topical dimethyl prostaglandin E2 (pH 4.8 ± 0.2). Luminal pH was changed from pH 3 to pH 5 to mimic the fasted-to-fed transition in intra...

  1. Salinity-dependent limitation of photosynthesis and oxygen exchange in microbial mats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia-Pichel, F.; Kühl, Michael; Nübel, U.

    1999-01-01

    was specific for each community and in accordance with optimal performance at the respective salinity of origin. This pattern was lost after long-term exposure to varying salinities when responses to salinity were found to approach a general pattern of decreasing photosynthesis and oxygen exchange capacity...... with increasing salinity. Exhaustive measurements of oxygen export in the light, oxygen consumption in the dark and gross photosynthesis indicated that a salinity-dependent limitation of all three parameters occurred. Maximal values for all three parameters decreased exponentially with increasing salinity...

  2. SALINITY TOLERANCE OF SEVERAL RICE GENOTYPES AT SEEDLING STAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heni Safitri

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Salinity is one of the most serious problems in rice cultivation. Salinity drastically reduced plant growth and yield, especially at seedling stage. Several rice genotypes have been produced, but their tolerance to salinity has not yet been evaluated. The study aimed to evaluate salinity tolerance of rice genotypes at seedling stage. The glasshouse experiment was conducted at Cimanggu Experimental Station, Bogor, from April to May 2013. Thirteen rice genotypes and two check varieties, namely Pokkali (salt tolerant and IR29 (salt sensitive were tested at seedling stage. The experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block design with three replications and two factors, namely the levels of NaCl (0 and 120 mM and 13 genotypes of rice. Rice seedlings were grown in the nutrient culture (hydroponic supplemented with NaCl at different levels. The growth and salinity injury levels of the genotypes were recorded periodically. The results showed that salinity level of 120 mM NaCl reduced seedling growth of all rice genotypes, but the tolerant ones were survived after 14 days or until the sensitive check variety died. Based on the visual injury symptoms on the leaves, five genotypes, i.e. Dendang, Inpara 5, Inpari 29, IR77674-3B-8-2-2-14-4-AJY2, and IR81493-BBB-6-B- 2-1-2 were tolerant to 120 mM salinity level, while Inpara 4 was comparable to salt sensitive IR29. Hence, Inpara 4 could be used as a salinity sensitive genotype for future research of testing tolerant variety. Further evaluation is needed to confirm their salinity tolerance under field conditions. 

  3. Identification and characterization of miRNAs and targets in flax (Linum usitatissimum) under saline, alkaline, and saline-alkaline stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ying; Wu, Guangwen; Yuan, Hongmei; Cheng, Lili; Zhao, Dongsheng; Huang, Wengong; Zhang, Shuquan; Zhang, Liguo; Chen, Hongyu; Zhang, Jian; Guan, Fengzhi

    2016-05-27

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play a critical role in responses to biotic and abiotic stress and have been characterized in a large number of plant species. Although flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) is one of the most important fiber and oil crops worldwide, no reports have been published describing flax miRNAs (Lus-miRNAs) induced in response to saline, alkaline, and saline-alkaline stresses. In this work, combined small RNA and degradome deep sequencing was used to analyze flax libraries constructed after alkaline-salt stress (AS2), neutral salt stress (NSS), alkaline stress (AS), and the non-stressed control (CK). From the CK, AS, AS2, and NSS libraries, a total of 118, 119, 122, and 120 known Lus-miRNAs and 233, 213, 211, and 212 novel Lus-miRNAs were isolated, respectively. After assessment of differential expression profiles, 17 known Lus-miRNAs and 36 novel Lus-miRNAs were selected and used to predict putative target genes. Gene ontology term enrichment analysis revealed target genes that were involved in responses to stimuli, including signaling and catalytic activity. Eight Lus-miRNAs were selected for analysis using qRT-PCR to confirm the