WorldWideScience

Sample records for petroleum oli binary

  1. A proposal for revised Intervention Values for petroleum hydrocarbons ('minerale olie') on base of fractions of petroleum hydrocarbons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franken ROG; Baars AJ; Crommentuijn GH; Otte P; LBG

    1999-01-01

    The present Dutch intervention values for mineral oil (i.e. 'Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons') have been reviewed with respect to fractions of TPH and using ecotoxicological and human toxicological data. It is found that review of TPH-fractions is significant with respect to both human and ecological

  2. A Bi-Band Binary Mask Based Land-Use Change Detection Using Landsat 8 OLI Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian Li

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Land use and cover change (LUCC is important for the global biogeochemical cycle and ecosystem. This paper introduced a change detection method based on a bi-band binary mask and an improved fuzzy c-means algorithm to research the LUCC. First, the bi-band binary mask approach with the core concept being the correlation coefficients between bands from different images are used to locate target areas with a likelihood of having changed areas. Second, the improved fuzzy c-means (FCM algorithm was used to execute classification on the target areas. This improved algorithm used distances to the Voronoi cell of the cluster instead of the Euclidean distance to the cluster center in the calculation of membership, and some other improvements were also used to decrease the loops and save time. Third, the post classification comparison was executed to get more accurate change information. As references, change detection using univariate band binary mask and NDVI binary mask were executed. The change detection methods were applied to Landsat 8 OLI images acquired in 2013 and 2015 to map LUCC in Chengwu, north China. The accuracy assessment was executed on classification results and change detection results. The overall accuracy of classification results of the improved FCM is 95.70% and the standard FCM is 84.40%. The average accuracy of change detection results using bi-band mask is 88.92%, using NDVI mask is 81.95%, and using univariate band binary mask is 56.01%. The result of the bi-band mask change detection shows that the change from farmland to built land is the main change type in the study area: total area is 9.03 km2. The developed method in the current study can be an effective approach to evaluate the LUCC and the results helpful for the land policy makers.

  3. Toxicity and toxicokinetics of binary combinations of petroleum hydrocarbon distillates with the earthworm Eisenia andrei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cermak, Janet; Stephenson, Gladys; Birkholz, Detlef; Dixon, D George

    2013-04-01

    Petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs) act via narcosis and are expected to have additive toxicity. However, previous work has demonstrated less-than-additive toxicity with PHC distillates and earthworms. A study was initiated to investigate this through toxicity and toxicokinetic studies with the earthworm Eisenia andrei. Three petroleum distillate fractions, F2 (>C10-C16), F3a (>C16-C23), and F3b (>C23-C34), were used in two binary combinations, F2F3a and F3aF3b. In the toxicity study, clean soil was spiked with equitoxic combinations of the two distillates ranging from 0.5 to 2.5 toxic units. In the toxicokinetic study, a binary combination consisting of one concentration of each distillate was used. On a soil concentration basis, the toxicity of the binary combinations of distillates was less than additive. Accumulation of the individual distillates, however, was generally reduced when a second distillate was present, resulting in lower body burden. This is thought to be due to the presence of a nonaqueous-phase liquid at the soil concentrations used. On a tissue concentration basis, toxicity was closer to additive. The results demonstrate that tissue concentrations are the preferred metric for toxicity for earthworms. They also demonstrate that the Canada-wide soil standards based on individual distillates are likely protective. Copyright © 2013 SETAC.

  4. Petroleum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2000-01-01

    Here are briefly summarized 1)the OPEC decisions and their consequences concerning the production of petroleum in the world 2)some news about the petroleum industry in Chad and in Iraq 3)some news about the new pipelines constructed or to be constructed in the world 4)some news about the LPG industry (start of a LPG extraction unit in Argentina, legislation in France for LPG vehicles) 4)and some news about the petroleum distribution in France. (O.M.)

  5. Petroleum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2000-01-01

    Here are gathered the results of the year 1999 concerning the petroleum industry in France ('UFIP' data), the market quotations of crude oil, the prices of fuels in France and in Portugal and some news about the petroleum industry in Algeria (privatization, exploration-offshore, repurchase), in Iraq (exports, contracts with foreign companies), in Russian Federation (petroleum pipelines and oil ports constructions) and in Chad (production sharing, offshore sites discoveries). (O.M.)

  6. Petroleum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, T. R.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    This review of petroleum covers: crude oil; fuels, gaseous and liquid; lubricants, oils, and greases; asphalts, bitumens, tars, and pitches; hydrocarbons; physical properties; metals in oil; nonmetallic elements and heterocompounds; and analytical methods and apparatus. (MVL)

  7. Petroleum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chautard, S.

    2008-01-01

    While petroleum has become an indispensable product in our everyday life, it is more and more question of an oil shortage. This book makes a status of the real situation. Starting from the industrial revolution and the history of oil exploitation, it explains the main present day stakes: the depletion of reserves, the environmental aspects and the search for alternative energy solutions. (J.S.)

  8. Petroleum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lugg, W G

    1967-07-01

    This discussion of the Canadian petroleum industry for the year 1966 includes production statistics and operating procedures, reserve estimates, exploration and development, transportation, refining, and marketing. Most sectors of the Canadian industry had an excellent year in 1966, featured by continued exploration and development successes in the Rainbow Lake-Zama Lake region of northwestern Alberta and a record value of production that exceeded $900 million for all liquid hydrocarbons. Production of crude oil and natural gas liquids exceeded one million bopd. Crude oil producers supplied 58% of the total crude oil requirements for Canadian refineries. Oil reserves increased due primarily to the application of secondary recovery and the discovery of new reserves. Total pipeline construction decreased, and there was a small increase in refinery capacity.

  9. Olie skaber fred i Sudan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laugesen, Henrik

    Sydsudan forventes formelt at erklære sin uafhængighed den 9. juli 2011. Men hvad sker der, når Sudan nu deles i Nordsudan og Sydsudan? Oliekilderne ligger i Sydsudan, men den helt nødvendige infrastruktur der skal transformere olie til dollars har man i nord. Da op imod 90% af Sydsudans indtægter...

  10. Evaluating the Effect from Constructing Binary Geothermal Power Units Based on Spent Petroleum and Gas Boreholes in the South Regions of Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhasov, A. B.; Alkhasova, D. A.

    2018-02-01

    The article substantiates the possibility of efficiently harnessing the geothermal resources available in the North Caucasian region through constructing binary geothermal power plants (GeoTPPs) using idle petroleum and gas wells. The power capacities of GeoTPPs are evaluated, and the basic characteristics of these power plants in case of constructing them in the promising areas are determined. The overall useful GeoTPP capacity equal to approximately 330 MW can be obtained from using the entire fleet of idle wells available in these areas. Diagrams confirming the possibility of reaching the optimal flowrate of geothermal heat carrier circulating in the geothermal circulation system loop are presented. This flowrate corresponds to a binary GeoTPP's maximal useful power output. The article shows, taking the Ternair geothermal field as an example, that it is inefficient to use medium-enthalpy thermal waters for generating energy at a binary GeoTPP involving reinjection of a spent heat carrier. It is shown that good prospects can be expected from applying a hybrid geothermal and combined-cycle technology, by means of which it is possible to use lowenthalpy (80-100°C) thermal waters for generating electricity in a highly efficient manner. In accordance with such technology, geothermal heat is used in the binary GeoTPP cycle for heating low-boiling working fluid to its evaporation temperature. The working fluid is evaporated and superheated by using the heat of exhaust gases from a gas turbine power unit. Owing to combined use of the thermal water heat potential and the heat of exhaust gases from a gas turbine power plant in a hybrid process system, it becomes possible to obtain high power performance indicators of hybrid geothermal and combined-cycle power plants. This conclusion is confirmed by the results from numerical evaluations carried out as applied to the Ternair geothermal field. With the fully harnessed resource potential of the Ternair field, the total

  11. Development of OLI+S Entry Decision Model for Construction Firms in International Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Che Maznah Binti Mat Isa

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to provide a holistic approach to address how construction firms make decisions covering all three domains (location, timing and mode across country, market, firm and project factors within the Ownership, Locational and Internalisation plus Specialty (OLI+S paradigm. Questionnaires were administered to 62 project managers based on a sampling frame provided by the Construction Industry Development Board Malaysia. The findings provide empirical and theoretical insights on how the OLI+S model addresses firms’ entry decisions to penetrate international markets. It suggests that the ownership-entry decision factors focus on firms’ internal transferable advantages. The locational-entry decision factors emphasise attractiveness of certain locations where firms decided to invest and operate. The internalisation– entry decision factors emphasise the extent to which firms were able to manipulate their internal competitive assets (firm’s resources and capabilities. Finally, the specialty-entry decision factors emphasise on firms’ competency in project management and specialist expertise to handle complex projects based on their previous project experience. An example of construction firms’ unique characteristics, namely, specialty advantages based on the original Dunning’s OLI eclectic paradigm has been adopted. The established OLI+S entry decision model could be investigated to further refine other related internationalisation theory.

  12. Blair oli ikkagi seotud Kelly nime lekitamisega / Maris Lillak

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lillak, Maris, 1970-

    2003-01-01

    Suurbritannia kaitseministeeriumi relvaeksperdi David Kelly surmaga seotud asjaolusid uuriv Huttoni komisjon selgitas, et peaminister Tony Blair oli kohtumisel, kus otsustati relvaeksperdi nime avalikustamine

  13. Kui suur oli "Suur Oktoober 1917" / David Vseviov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vseviov, David, 1949-

    2009-01-01

    Kuivõrd oli Oktoobrirevolutsioon paratamatu? Vassili Šulginist, kes jagas seisukohta revolutsiooni paratamatusest. Kas Lenini saabumine pealinna Saksamaaga peetava sõja ajal vihavaenlaste plommitud vagunis oli saksa luure plaan? Oktoobrirevolutsiooni sarnasusest Prantsuse revolutsiooniga. Oktoobrirevolutsiooni vaimu kestmisest tänapäeval

  14. Hemingway oli KGB, filmistaar Errol Flynn natside agent? / Tõnis Erilaid

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Erilaid, Tõnis, 1943-

    2009-01-01

    John Earl Haynes, Harvey Klehr ja Alexander Vassiliev väidavad oma raamatus "Spies : The Rise and Fall of the KGB in America", et Ernest Hemingway oli 1940ndail aastail KGB ning Errol Flynn 1930ndatel aastatel natside agent

  15. Crude petroleum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    Crude petroleum statistics by country of production, export values and import values from 1983 to 1988 are given. Table A.1 of the Annex includes free market prices and price indices for crude petroleum based on average of Dubai, United Kingdom Brent and Alaska N Slope crude prices (price expressed in dollars/barrel). The data sources are: Crude petroleum United Nations Statistical Office; OPEC Annual Statistical Bulletin, and Petroleum Economist. For trade the sources of data are: National trade statistics; United Nations international trade statistics; International Moneytary Fund (IMF); Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC); UNCTAD secretariat estimates. Tabs

  16. Petroleum price

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chevallier, B.

    2009-01-01

    The 'AFTP' conference on 'petroleum prices' organized by Total last March, tries to explain the different aspects of the crisis we undergo for July 2007 and its consequential effects on the petroleum markets (supply, demand evolvements, impacts on reserves, prices, refining...). (O.M.)

  17. Lugu mehest, kes oli iseenda naine / Kaja Roomets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Roomets, Kaja

    2008-01-01

    Doug Wrighti "Ma olen iseenda naine" Endla teatris, lavastaja Tiit Palu. Esietendus 27. juunil. Lisaks saksa päritolu transvestiidist Charlotte von Mahlsdofist (1928-2002) : "Charlotte oli fenomen" ja Kati Murutari ning Raivo Järvi arvamus : "Mis tunde esietenduselt kaasa saite?"

  18. Transport en afbraak van olie in bodem en grondwater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Begeman, E.; Gestel, van C.A.M.

    1978-01-01

    De bestrijding van olieverontreiniging in de bodem is vooral voor dezedrinkwaterbedrijven erg belangrijk. Het verkrijgen van inzicht in het transport van olie in de bodem is van belang om de verspreiding van een eventuele vervuiling te kunnen voorspellen, zodat de bestrijding effectiever kan worden

  19. Invloed van minerale olie op de bestrijding van Phytophthora infestans in pootaardappelen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spits, H.G.; Bus, C.B.

    2003-01-01

    De invloed van toevoeging van olie aan een fungicide op de werking van het fungicide is afhankelijk van het gebruikte fungicide. Gezamenlijk spuiten van olie en Aviso DF, Curzate M en mogelijk ook Acrobat, verhoogt de curatieve werking van deze fungiciden. Gezamenlijk spuiten van olie en Aviso DF,

  20. "Oli vahinko, et kaikki onnistu niin hyvin. Urheilulukio oli täydellinen urheilijan polku mulle." : hiihtäjien kokemuksia 2000-luvun urheilulukioista

    OpenAIRE

    Saarinen, Milla

    2016-01-01

    Milla Saarinen (2016). ”Oli vahinko, et kaikki onnistu niin hyvin. Urheilulukio oli täydellinen urheilijan polku mulle.” Hiihtäjien kokemuksia 2000-luvun urheilulukiosta. Pro gradu-tutkielma. Liikuntakasvatuksen laitos, liikuntapedagogiikka. Jyväskylän yliopisto, 132 s. Tutkimuksen tarkoituksena oli tutkia hiihtäjien kokemuksia urheilulukion käymisestä, siellä opiskelemisesta ja urheilemisesta. Tavoitteena oli myös selvittää, miten urheilulukioiden toi-mintaa voisi kehittää entistä parem...

  1. Petroleum hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrington, J.W.; Teal, J.M.; Parker, P.L.

    1976-01-01

    Methods for analysis of petroleum hydrocarbons in marine samples are presented. Types of hydrocarbons present and their origins are discussed. Principles and methods of analysis are outlined. Infrared spectrometry, uv spectrometry, gas chromatography, mass spectroscopy, and carbon 14 measurements are described

  2. Petroleum apocalypse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cochet, Y.

    2005-09-01

    Oil prices are increasing while current explanations for this phenomenon are no longer satisfactory. The cheap petroleum era is ending and this problem can seriously convulse our lifestyles. Transports, agriculture, plastics, clothes, medicines: petroleum is everywhere. This is why the rise of hydrocarbons price will not be a simple economic shock but the end of the world like the one we know. However, it is still possible to postpone this event to a later date and to limit its effects by the implementation of a new oil sobriety era. This implies to already organize the decay of materials and energy consumption, together with keeping solidarity, democracy and peace up. In this condition only the transition will be less painful. (J.S.)

  3. Interacting binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eggleton, P.P.; Pringle, J.E.

    1985-01-01

    This volume contains 15 review articles in the field of binary stars. The subjects reviewed span considerably, from the shortest period of interacting binaries to the longest, symbiotic stars. Also included are articles on Algols, X-ray binaries and Wolf-Rayet stars (single and binary). Contents: Preface. List of Participants. Activity of Contact Binary Systems. Wolf-Rayet Stars and Binarity. Symbiotic Stars. Massive X-ray Binaries. Stars that go Hump in the Night: The SU UMa Stars. Interacting Binaries - Summing Up

  4. Petroleum. [Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-01-01

    An introductory chapter of world wide petroleum history is followed by a comprehensive record of the petroliferous basins of Venezuela. Exploration, productivity, production statistics, reserves, geologic structures, and the distribution of oil and gas fields are described separately for the Maracaibo-Falcon basin, Apure-Barinas basin, E. Venezuela basin, and Tuy-Cariaco basin. The descriptions include geographic distribution, geomorphologic outline of the basins, lithology and thickness of sediments, structural development, present structural conditions in which oil and gas fields occur, and their distribution in the basins. Economic factors are discussed in an appendix. 145 references.

  5. Petroleum industry in 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This document presents a detailed outlook of the petroleum industry in the world and more particularly in France in 2005: evolution of crude oil prices; petroleum exploration and production in the world and in France; the French para-petroleum and petroleum industry; the oil supplies; the refining activities; the evolution of products quality and the substitution fuels; the domestic transports, the storage and consumption of petroleum products; the fiscality, prices and distribution of petroleum products. (J.S.)

  6. Analysis of Coastline Extraction from Landsat-8 OLI Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaolin Liu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Coastline extraction is a fundamental work for coastal resource management, coastal environmental protection and coastal sustainable development. Due to the free access and long-term record, Landsat series images have the potential to be used for coastline extraction. However, dynamic features of different types of coastlines (e.g., rocky, sandy, artificial, caused by sea level fluctuation from tidal, storm and reclamation, make it difficult to be accurately extracted with coarse spatial resolution, e.g., 30 m, of Landsat images. To access this problem, we analyze the performance of coastline extraction by integrating downscaling, pansharpening and water index approaches in increasing the accuracy of coastline extraction from the latest Landsat-8 Operational Land Imager (OLI imagery. In order to prove the availability of the proposed method, we designed three strategies: (1 Strategy 1 uses the traditional water index method to extract coastline directly from original 30 m Landsat-8 OLI multispectral (MS image; (2 Strategy 2 extracts coastlines from 15 m fused MS images generated by integrating 15 m panchromatic (PAN band and 30 m MS image with ten pansharpening algorithms; (3 Strategy 3 first downscales the PAN band to a finer spatial resolution (e.g., 7.5 m band, and then extracts coastlines from pansharpened MS images generated by integrating downscaled spatial resolution PAN band and 30 m MS image with ten pansharpening algorithms. Using the coastline extracted from ZiYuan-3 (ZY-3 5.8 m MS image as reference, accuracies of coastlines extracted from MS images in three strategies were validated visually and quantitatively. The results show that, compared with coastline extracted directly from 30 m Landsat-8 MS image (strategy 1, strategy 3 achieves the best accuracies with optimal mean net shoreline movement (MNSM of −2.54 m and optimal mean absolute difference (MAD of 11.26 m, followed by coastlines extracted in strategy 2 with optimal MNSM

  7. Petroleum geophysics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-07-01

    The book is compiled from a series of e-learning modules. GeoCLASS is an e-learning system with contents from petroleum geophysics. It is the result of collaboration between professors at the University of Bergen and the University of Oslo, and its material has been used as curriculum in master program courses at these universities for several years. Using a unique feature to GeoCLASS, these advanced scientific topics are presented on multiple levels. The introductions open the door to this vast pool of knowledge, accessible even for high school students. Enter the door, and you enter the modules. Various levels of content are presented, and the more advanced levels can be shielded from the regular user, and only accessed by those with particular interest. The chapters in the book are: Elastic waves; Survey planning; Seismic acquisition; Basic seismic signal theory and processing; Seismic imaging; Seismic attributes; Rock physics; Reservoir monitoring. (AG)

  8. S&P: meie kohus oli USA riigireitingut alandada / Heiki Suurkask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Suurkask, Heiki, 1972-

    2011-01-01

    Standard & Poor´s langetas USA reitingut tasemelt AAA tasemeni AA+. Agentuuri esindaja sõnul oli reitingu alandamine nende kohustus, sest nende arvates oli USA senine reiting liiga kõrge. Hiina nõuab, et USA hakkaks oma võlaprobleemiga tegelema. AAA reiting on nüüd vaid 15 riigil või territooriumil maailmas

  9. Petroleum 2006. Statistical elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-06-01

    This document gathers in 5 parts, the main existing statistical data about petroleum industry in France and in the rest of the world, together with an insight on other energy sources: 1 - petroleum in the French economy (petroleum and other energies, petroleum and transports, petroleum and energy in the industry, the residential and tertiary sectors, environment: 42 pages); 2 - the French petroleum industry (exploration, production, foreign trade, transports, refining, storage, petrochemistry: 66 pages); 3 - the French market of petroleum products (evolution of sales by product and detail by region for the past year: 38 pages); 4 - prices and taxes of petroleum products (world prices and rates for crude and refined products, evolution of fret rates, retail prices and French taxes: 28 pages); 5 - petroleum in the world (world energy production and consumption, detailed petroleum activity by main areas and for the main countries: 112 pages). (J.S.)

  10. Figures on petroleum 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    This table taken out from the 1981 annual report 1981 contains an introductory remark on the reorganization of mineral oil statistics up to January 82. It is followed by the tables ranged as follows: refinery capacity and production, crude oil supply, GDR-coverings, import of petroleum products, petroleum consumption, export of petroleum products, transport, oil storage tanks, motor vehicle stock, taxes and tariffs, petroleum export trade, energy consumption and world petroleum numbers. In parts the tables contain comparative figures back to 1950.

  11. "Alguses oli tema üksinda, sest oli küll..." : [luuletused] / Kabir ; tlk. Doris Kareva

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kabir

    2006-01-01

    Sisu: "Alguses oli tema üksinda, sest oli küll..." ; "Kõik loodud on Kõiksuse poolt..." ; "Otsid Sa mind?..." ; "Kabir oma meele puhtaks..." ; "Pole pühades järvedes midagi muud peale vee..." ; "Otsisin kelme ja kõveraid..." ; "Ütle, vend, mida küll teha..." ; "Mis kurja on teinud su juuksed..." ; "Ära tõuse, et minna õue vaatama lilli..." ; "Sinu sünd inimesena on küps vili..." ; "Öö saatsid sa magades mööda..." ; "Pole ma hindu..." ; "Ma vaatan sind..." ; "Veskikivisid vaadeldes ; "Nähes aednikku lähenemas, õhkasid pungad..." ; "Tasa, tasa tõtta, mu meel..." ; "Ära kurvasta..." ; "Imetlusväärne on teemant..." ; "Kuula, sõber, see keha on Tema lüüra..." ; "Nagu seemnes varjul on õli..." ; "Olgugi ookean leekides..." ; "Tilka, mis lahustub meres..." ; "Jõgi ja lained on üks..." ; "Kes sa oled ja kust oled tulnud?..." ; "Kaovad kuningad, kauneimad kuningannad..." ; "Rohkem kui midagi muud..." ; "Lihalik, surelik tantsib selle ees..." ; "Väike rubiin, mida igaüks ihkab..." ; "Mine heade juurde, kus Armastatugi elab..." ; "Eksitus sulgeb väravad..." ; "Keelilt vallandub helisid..." ; "Kõik algab lahusoleku valust..." ; "Ärka, sõber! Miks ikka veel magad?..." ; "Kuu on mu kehas, kuid ise ma seda ei näe..." ; "Miks oled nii kärsitu, süda?..." ; "Kellele kuulub see flööt..." ; "Kui raske on Külalist kohata!..." ; "Kandetool toodi minule järgi mu isakoju..." ; "Siia ilma sündides nutsid..." ; "Oh mu süda! Ei jõudnud sa tundma õppida..." ; "Õige kulunud on sinu rüü..." ; "Õhkõrn on see õhuke rüü..." ; "Lipp, mida keegi ei näe..." ; "Oh otsija, lihtne liit lähim on südamele..." ; "Õhtu varjud on sügavaks saanud..." ; "Kuis saakski katkeda armastus me kahe vahel..." ; "Luik, tahaksin, et mulle räägiksid kõik oma loo..." ; "Kuhu ihaled küll, minu süda?..." ; "Ei lakka Lõpmatu flöödiheli..." ; "Mida näed, seda pole...". Autori kohta eluloolisi andmeid lk. 11

  12. Interacting binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Shore, S N; van den Heuvel, EPJ

    1994-01-01

    This volume contains lecture notes presented at the 22nd Advanced Course of the Swiss Society for Astrophysics and Astronomy. The contributors deal with symbiotic stars, cataclysmic variables, massive binaries and X-ray binaries, in an attempt to provide a better understanding of stellar evolution.

  13. Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI)_Thermal Infared Sensor (TIRS) V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Abstract:The Operational Land Imager (OLI) and Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS) are instruments onboard the Landsat 8 satellite, which was launched in February of...

  14. Alguses oli: Arvo Pärdi juubelikuu algas etendusega Noblessi valukojas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    Tõnu Kaljuste ja Peeter Jalaka lavastusest "Alguses oli", lavastuse aluseks Arvo Pärdi teosed "In Principio" ja "Miserere", 17. augustil Noblesse valukojas toimunud etendusest, muusikaline juht Tõnu Kaljuste

  15. Alguses oli Arvo Pärdi muusika ja siis tulid Jalakas ja videokunstnikud / Tiiu Laks

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laks, Tiiu, 1984-

    2010-01-01

    Tõnu Kaljuste ja Peeter Jalaka lavastusest "Alguses oli", lavastuse aluseks Arvo Pärdi teosed "In Principio" ja "Miserere", 17. augustil Noblesse valukojas toimunud etendusest, muusikaline juht Tõnu Kaljuste

  16. Petroleum Sector (NAICS 324)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Find relevant environmental regulations for the petroleum industry (NAICS 324), including National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP)s for petroleum refineries and gasoline dispensing & effluent guidelines for oil and gas extraction

  17. The petroleum industry in 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This 2004 edition of the petroleum industry activities presents results and data concerning the crude oil prices evolution, the petroleum exploration and production in france and in the world, the para-petroleum industry, the hydrocarbons supplies, the refining, the quality evolution of the substitution products and fuels, the internal transports of petroleum products, the petroleum products storage, the petroleum products consumption, the petroleum products prices and taxation, the petroleum products distribution. (A.L.B.)

  18. The world petroleum industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mons, L.

    2005-01-01

    This study proposes a global vision of the petroleum industry, a precise and well argued state of the art of the petroleum markets. It defines the strategical challenges which the petroleum companies are exposed and allows to anticipate the sector evolutions. It details the key acts of the last three years, the financial performances of the companies. (A.L.B.)

  19. Petroleum marketing monthly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data.

  20. Petroleum fiscality indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-02-01

    This document presents the different taxes imposed to petroleum products in France: domestic tax on petroleum products (TIPP) and added value tax (TVA). A comparison is made with the fiscality into effect in other European countries for some petroleum products. Then, the fiscality is detailed for the different petroleum products and automotive fuels with its regional modulations. Finally, the fiscal measures adopted in 2007 are detailed. They concern the transposition of the European directive 2003-96/CE into French right and some fiscal regime changes given to some economical sectors particularly penalized by the rise of petroleum energy prices in 2007. (J.S.)

  1. Petroleum industry 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    A survey on petroleum industry activities in France and in the world in 1996 is presented. The different parts and themes of the study are: evolution of the petroleum market (international and French markets, supply and demand, prices, mark-up and taxation in France and in Europe); activities in the petroleum industries (exploration and production, maritime transportation, inland transportation and storage, refining, quality of petroleum products and substitution fuels, oil distribution); environment and safety (refining, distribution and evolution of products, pipeline and maritime transportation, exploration and production); situation of the sector's companies (oil groups, para-petroleum French industry, scientific and technical research)

  2. Trojan Binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noll, K. S.

    2017-12-01

    The Jupiter Trojans, in the context of giant planet migration models, can be thought of as an extension of the small body populations found beyond Neptune in the Kuiper Belt. Binaries are a distinctive feature of small body populations in the Kuiper Belt with an especially high fraction apparent among the brightest Cold Classicals. The binary fraction, relative sizes, and separations in the dynamically excited populations (Scattered, Resonant) reflects processes that may have eroded a more abundant initial population. This trend continues in the Centaurs and Trojans where few binaries have been found. We review new evidence including a third resolved Trojan binary and lightcurve studies to understand how the Trojans are related to the small body populations that originated in the outer protoplanetary disk.

  3. Petroleum Supply Monthly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major U.S. geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  4. Petroleum supply monthly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blends, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.

  5. Petroleum marketing annual 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-24

    The Petroleum Marketing Annual (PMA) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysis, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the fob and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Annual. For this production, all estimates have been recalculated since their earlier publication in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM). These calculations made use of additional data and corrections that were received after the PMM publication date.

  6. Petroleum marketing annual 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Annual (PMA) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysis, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the fob and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners' acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Annual. For this production, all estimates have been recalculated since their earlier publication in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM). These calculations made use of additional data and corrections that were received after the PMM publication date

  7. Landsat 9 OLI 2 focal plane subsystem: design, performance, and status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Kevin J.; Schrein, Ronald J.; Bradley, M. Scott; Irwin, Ronda; Berdanier, Barry; Donley, Eric

    2017-09-01

    The Landsat 9 mission will continue the legacy of Earth remote sensing that started in 1972. The Operational Land Imager 2 (OLI 2) is one of two instruments on the Landsat 9 satellite. The OLI 2 instrument is essentially a copy of the OLI instrument flying on Landsat 8. A key element of the OLI 2 instrument is the focal plane subsystem, or FPS, which consists of the focal plane array (FPA), the focal plane electronics (FPE) box, and low-thermal conductivity cables. This paper presents design details of the OLI 2 FPS. The FPA contains 14 critically-aligned focal plane modules (FPM). Each module contains 6 visible/near-IR (VNIR) detector arrays and three short-wave infrared (SWIR) arrays. A complex multi-spectral optical filter is contained in each module. Redundant pixels for each array provide exceptional operability. Spare detector modules from OLI were recharacterized after six years of storage. Radiometric test results are presented and compared with data recorded in 2010. Thermal, optical, mechanical and structural features of the FPA will be described. Special attention is paid to the thermal design of the FPA since thermal stability is crucial to ensuring low-noise and low-drift operation of the detectors which operate at -63°C. The OLI 2 FPE provides power, timing, and control to the focal plane modules. It also digitizes the video data and formats it for the solid-state recorder. Design improvements to the FPA-FPE cables will be discussed and characterization data will be presented. The paper will conclude with the status of the flight hardware assembly and testing.

  8. The petroleum industry in 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This document provides information on the petroleum industry for the year 2005. It discusses the world gas and petroleum markets, the world and french petroleum exploration and production, the petroleum and byproducts industry in France, the hydrocarbons supplying, the refining in France, the evolution of the products and fuels substitution quality, the internal transports of petroleum products, the storage consumption and taxes of petroleum products, the prices and distribution of the petroleum products. (A.L.B.)

  9. Petroleum marketing monthly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly.

  10. Petroleum marketing monthly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PPM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o. b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly.

  11. Petroleum marketing monthly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly.

  12. Petroleum industry in CIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaillaud, P.

    1992-01-01

    This paper gives statistical data on petroleum and natural gas industry in USSR and in Eastern Europe: crude oil and gas production, petroleum and natural gas deposits, exports, fuel consumption, pipelines network (total length, compressor or pump stations), petroleum refineries. This paper describes also air pollution (carbon dioxide and sulfur dioxide) and Environmental effects of coal and lignite using in fossil power plants in Eastern Europe. 17 figs., 7 tabs

  13. Petroleum and ethics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henn, N.; Train, E.; Chagnoux, H.; Heinzle, P.; Daubresse, M.; Bret-Rouzaut, N.; Fradin, J.

    2000-01-01

    7 articles in this data sheet, they concern: political stakes and stakes of the industrial petroleum sector towards ethical questions; establishment of associations attending to human and environmental questions; examples of of ethical, environmental and safety policy in an industrialized country (ExxonMobil) and in a developing country (TotalFina); synthesis of the ethical problems that the petroleum industry encounter in industrialized and developing countries; considerations on the communication stakes in petroleum companies with the general public. (O.M.)

  14. Canadian petroleum history bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cass, D.

    2003-09-27

    The Petroleum History Bibliography includes a list of more than 2,000 publications that record the history of the Canadian petroleum industry. The list includes books, theses, films, audio tapes, published articles, company histories, biographies, autobiographies, fiction, poetry, humour, and an author index. It was created over a period of several years to help with projects at the Petroleum History Society. It is an ongoing piece of work, and as such, invites comments and additions.

  15. Petroleum and geopolitics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaigneau, P.

    2004-01-01

    Todays, petroleum companies consider that despite the constant increase of petroleum consumption, petroleum will remain the main energy source for at least 40 years. However, after the Iraq conflict, new regional situations are changing. China, for instance, with its growing up demand, will change the physiognomy of the oil market. In parallel, from Indonesia to Africa, petroleum and religion interfere and explain the new conflict areas. As for the US strategy, which is not limited to the energy paradigm, it largely integrates energy in the main lines of its diplomacy, from the 'Wide Middle East' to the 'Sahel initiative', and in its position with respect to Venezuela

  16. RAČUNALNIŠTVO V OBLAKU IN PRIMERI PRESKUSOV GOOGLE APPS. V OSNOVNI ŠOLI

    OpenAIRE

    Krapež, Domen

    2013-01-01

    Diplomska naloga obravnava računalništvo v oblaku in primere preskusov Google Apps v osnovni šoli na konkretnih primerih. Za potrebe naloge so podrobno opisane storitve, Gmail, Google Calendar, Google Docs ter Google Drive. V eksperimentalnem delu naloge je bila izvedena analiza uporabe Google Apps pred in po uporabi aplikacije v osnovni šoli. Rezultati vprašalnika so pokazali, da je pot do uspešne integracije novih tehnologij še dolga ter da mora izobraževanje kadrov potekati postopoma. R...

  17. "Se Pupuperhe-laulu oli kiva" : musiikki lapsen kasvun ja kehityksen tukena varhaiskasvatuksessa

    OpenAIRE

    Järvinen, Sari

    2016-01-01

    Opinnäytetyön tarkoituksena oli lisätä tietoa musiikin käyttömahdollisuuksista varhaiskasvatuksessa lasten kasvun ja kehityksen tukemisen välineenä. Tavoitteena oli luoda opas varhaiskasvattajille, josta he voivat tarpeen mukaan ottaa käyttöön valmiita menetelmiä. Oppaan menetelmät pyrin valitsemaan niin, että ne olisivat helppoja toteuttaa eikä vaatisi suuria esivalmisteluja. Opinnäytetyön toiminnallinen osuus koostui viidestä toimintatuokiosta, joissa testasin oppaan me...

  18. Financing petroleum agreements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robson, C.J.V.

    1994-01-01

    This chapter describes the typical type of financing agreements which are currently used to finance North Sea petroleum projects whether they are in the cause of development or have been developed and are producing. It deals with the agreements which are entered into to finance borrowings for petroleum projects on a non-resource or limited resource basis. (UK)

  19. Fundamentals of Petroleum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Naval Personnel, Washington, DC.

    Basic information on petroleum is presented in this book prepared for naval logistics officers. Petroleum in national defense is discussed in connection with consumption statistics, productive capacity, world's resources, and steps in logistics. Chemical and geological analyses are made in efforts to familiarize methods of refining, measuring,…

  20. Petroleum systems of Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doust, H.; Noble, R.A.

    2008-01-01

    Indonesia contains many Tertiary basins, several of which have proven to be very prolific producers of oil and gas. The geology and petroleum systems of these productive basins are reviewed, summarized and updated according to the most recent developments. We have linked the recognized petroleum

  1. Petroleum and international policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pertuzio, A.

    2002-01-01

    To illustrate the relation between the petroleum and the international policy, the author presents the place of the petroleum industry in the international relations by an analysis of the historical aspects, the states and international organizations interventions and the prices evolution. (A.L.B.)

  2. Petroleum supply monthly, April 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-01

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographical regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the US. The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the US.

  3. Binary effectivity rules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Hans; Peleg, Bezalel

    2006-01-01

    is binary if it is rationalized by an acyclic binary relation. The foregoing result motivates our definition of a binary effectivity rule as the effectivity rule of some binary SCR. A binary SCR is regular if it satisfies unanimity, monotonicity, and independence of infeasible alternatives. A binary...

  4. APLIKASI METODE KHUN-TUCKER DALAM PENJUALAN OLI MOBIL (Studi Kasus : PT. Anugrah Mitra Dewata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Made Asih

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Aplikasikan Metode Khun-Tucker dalam kasus penjualan oli mobil padaPT. Anugrah Mitra Dewata merupakan salah satu kasus optimasi bersyarat, untukmengetahui oli apa yang harus diproduksi oleh perusahaan, agar mencapai keuntunganmaksimal dan nilai-nilai ekstrim yang akan diperoleh, yang nantinya berperandalam menentukan tingkat keuntungan yang diperoleh perusahaan. Metode Khun-Tucker ini dapat dipergunakan untuk mencari solusi optimal dari suatu fungsi tanpamemandang sifat apakah linier atau nonlinier. Dalam proses pengerjaannya MetodeKhun-Tucker secara esensial melibatkan langkah-langkah yang sama seperti halnyaMerode Lagrange, yaitu: Membentuk Lagrangian untuk dapat menghitungtitik-titik kritisnya, mencari semua solusi (x; , dan menghitung nilai f(x. Dalamproses pencarian semua solusi x dan nya dibantu dengan menggunakan programMATLAB. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan pada caturwulan I dengan memproduksioli SMO HP sebanyak 587 liter diperoleh keuntungan maksimal perusahaansebesar Rp 19.837.000 . Untuk caturwulan II dengan memproduksi oli SMO HPPLUS sebanyak 776 liter diperoleh keuntungan maksimal perusahaan sebesar Rp20.112.000. Untuk caturwulan III dengan memproduksi oli SMO HP sebanyak 470liter diperoleh keuntungan maksimal perusahaan sebesar Rp 20.029.000.

  5. Ocean Color Measurements from Landsat-8 OLI using SeaDAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, Bryan Alden; Bailey, Sean W.; Kuring, Norman; Werdell, P. Jeremy

    2014-01-01

    The Operational Land Imager (OLI) is a multi-spectral radiometer hosted on the recently launched Landsat-8 satellite. OLI includes a suite of relatively narrow spectral bands at 30-meter spatial resolution in the visible to shortwave infrared that make it a potential tool for ocean color radiometry: measurement of the reflected spectral radiance upwelling from beneath the ocean surface that carries information on the biogeochemical constituents of the upper ocean euphotic zone. To evaluate the potential of OLI to measure ocean color, processing support was implemented in SeaDAS, which is an open-source software package distributed by NASA for processing, analysis, and display of ocean remote sensing measurements from a variety of satellite-based multi-spectral radiometers. Here we describe the implementation of OLI processing capabilities within SeaDAS, including support for various methods of atmospheric correction to remove the effects of atmospheric scattering and absorption and retrieve the spectral remote-sensing reflectance (Rrs; sr exp 1). The quality of the retrieved Rrs imagery will be assessed, as will the derived water column constituents such as the concentration of the phytoplankton pigment chlorophyll a.

  6. Ühendpartei Res Publica tiib oli häältekogumisel Isamaast pisut edukam

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Ühenderakonna Res Publica tiiva kandidaadid said Riigikogu valimistel umbes tuhat häält rohkem kui Isamaaliidu tiiva kandidaadid, samas oli IRL-i valimisnimekirjas Res Publica tiiva kandidaate ka mõne inimese võrra rohkem. Isamaaliidu edukaimad hääletoojad

  7. Alguses oli HELI ja PÄRT, siis Jalaka LAVASTUS / Riina Luik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Luik, Riina, 1962-

    2010-01-01

    Tõnu Kaljuste ja Peeter Jalaka lavastusest "Alguses oli", lavastuse aluseks Arvo Pärdi teosed "In Principio" ja "Miserere", 17. augustil Noblesse valukojas toimunud etendusest, muusikaline juht Tõnu Kaljuste. Arvo Pärdi pidunädalate ürituste loetelu

  8. Identification of Water Bodies in a Landsat 8 OLI Image Using a J48 Decision Tree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, Tri Dev; Lee, Dong Ha; Yang, In Tae; Lee, Jae Kang

    2016-07-12

    Water bodies are essential to humans and other forms of life. Identification of water bodies can be useful in various ways, including estimation of water availability, demarcation of flooded regions, change detection, and so on. In past decades, Landsat satellite sensors have been used for land use classification and water body identification. Due to the introduction of a New Operational Land Imager (OLI) sensor on Landsat 8 with a high spectral resolution and improved signal-to-noise ratio, the quality of imagery sensed by Landsat 8 has improved, enabling better characterization of land cover and increased data size. Therefore, it is necessary to explore the most appropriate and practical water identification methods that take advantage of the improved image quality and use the fewest inputs based on the original OLI bands. The objective of the study is to explore the potential of a J48 decision tree (JDT) in identifying water bodies using reflectance bands from Landsat 8 OLI imagery. J48 is an open-source decision tree. The test site for the study is in the Northern Han River Basin, which is located in Gangwon province, Korea. Training data with individual bands were used to develop the JDT model and later applied to the whole study area. The performance of the model was statistically analysed using the kappa statistic and area under the curve (AUC). The results were compared with five other known water identification methods using a confusion matrix and related statistics. Almost all the methods showed high accuracy, and the JDT was successfully applied to the OLI image using only four bands, where the new additional deep blue band of OLI was found to have the third highest information gain. Thus, the JDT can be a good method for water body identification based on images with improved resolution and increased size.

  9. a Preliminary Investigation on Comparison and Transformation of SENTINEL-2 MSI and Landsat 8 Oli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, F.; Lou, S.; Fan, Q.; Li, J.; Wang, C.; Claverie, M.

    2018-05-01

    A PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION ON COMPARISON AND TRANSFORMATION OF SENTINEL-2 MSI AND LANDSAT 8 OLI Timely and accurate earth observation with short revisit interval is usually necessary, especially for emergency response. Currently, several new generation sensors provided with similar channel characteristics have been operated onboard different satellite platforms, including Sentinel-2 and Landsat 8. Joint use of the observations by different sensors offers an opportunity to meet the demands for emergency requirements. For example, through the combination of Landsat and Sentinel-2 data, the land can be observed every 2-3 days at medium spatial resolution. However, differences are expected in radiometric values (e.g., channel reflectance) of the corresponding channels between two sensors. Spectral response function (SRF) is taken as an important aspect of sensor settings. Accordingly, between-sensor differences due to SRFs variation need to be quantified and compensated. The comparison of SRFs shows difference (more or less) in channel settings between Sentinel-2 Multi-Spectral Instrument (MSI) and Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI). Effect of the difference in SRF on corresponding values between MSI and OLI was investigated, mainly in terms of channel reflectance and several derived spectral indices. Spectra samples from ASTER Spectral Library Version 2.0 and Hyperion data archives were used in obtaining channel reflectance simulation of MSI and OLI. Preliminary results show that MSI and OLI are well comparable in several channels with small relative discrepancy (model is not ensured when the target belongs to another spectra collection. If an improper transformation model is selected, the between-sensor discrepancy will even largely increase. In conclusion, improvement in between-sensor consistency is possibly a challenge, through linear transformation based on model(s) generated from other spectra collections.

  10. Petroleum question. Die Oelfrage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mommer, B

    1983-01-01

    The author analyses the development of the world petroleum market and its pricing factors to the present on the basis of the theory of ground rent, in which the part played by absolute ground rent, differential rent, and free and national state property in the capitalist mode of production is determined. His investigation of economic policy traces the absorbing history of the petroleum production and policy of the United States of America, which for so long governed the world market, the development of Venezuela into a petroleum country (whose true history is here revealed for the first time), the penetration of the middle East by the international petroleum leaseholders' capital and their cartel, the formation of the OPEC, and finally the 'victory' of the lather over the petroleum combines in the international petroleum crisis of 1970-1973. The book closes with a survey at the start of the 80s and an outlook into the foreseeable future. What is really hidden behind the quarrels about prices, profit, taxes, royalties, franchise agreements, production quotas, nationalization and so forth and behind the economic, political, and even moral arguments of the parties concerned turns out to be the fight of the petroleum ground proprietors for the ground rent - but to win a victory in this fight means ultimately to face its limitations, too. Blindness to the economic and political importance of ground rent, right from the theoretical approach, also created a major cause of the false diagnoses and forecasts on the petroleum market western economic scientists were misled into, and thus of the surprise effect that came in the form of the petroleum crisis of the early 1970s.

  11. Caspian sea: petroleum challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The Caspian sea is one of the world areas the most promising in terms of investments and petroleum development. This study presents the petroleum challenges generated by this hydrocarbons reserve. The first part discusses the juridical status (sea or lake), the petroleum and the gas reserves, the ecosystem and the today environment (fishing and caviar), the geostrategic situation and the transport of gas and oil. It provides also a chronology from 1729 to 2005, a selection of Internet sites, books and reports on the subject and identity sheets of the countries around the Caspian sea. (A.L.B.)

  12. Petroleum investment in Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedrich, M.

    1994-01-01

    There is no specific petroleum legislation as such in place in Kazakhstan and tax legislation is unsophisticated. Regulation of operations is subject to generally applicable legislation. A brief account of the difficulties which exist for both sides in renegotiating a contract is given. Since the competence to enter into contracts with foreign companies has not been fully defined, the first problem when applying for petroleum rights is the identification of a negotiating partner. A summary of terms and conditions and a list of the main laws applicable to petroleum operations are included. (UK)

  13. Petroleum: the new deal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magalhaes, St.; Kan, E.

    2008-01-01

    The drop of oil prices imposes a revision of development and investment strategies of petroleum and para-petroleum companies, while technologies under study try to optimize the exploration and production costs. Following the financial and economical crises, the petroleum industry is preparing its restructuring: new profitability threshold of projects, slowing down of the activity, expected surge of mergers. Despite the crisis, the R and D for the exploitation of tar sands still goes on while on the offshore side, R and D has never been so active to take up the challenge of extreme deep sea conditions. (J.S.)

  14. Petroleum marketing annual, 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Annual contains statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the free-on-board and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners' acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented. (VC)

  15. Petroleum refining and air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raimbault, C.

    1992-01-01

    This paper studies the methods which may be developed in petroleum refineries or during petroleum products using for air pollution abatement: petroleum products desulfurization, lead elimination in gasoline and catalytic converters to reduce sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides in exhaust gases. Investments and costs estimation to adapt petroleum refineries for environment protection is also given. 1 ref., 6 figs., 6 tabs

  16. Figures of the petroleum industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    The statistic tables give informations about: Reserves and production of petroleum and natural gas, supply of crude petroleum in the Federal Republic of Germany, pipelines, tanker ships, petroleum refineries, petroleum consumption, storage and distribution, automobiles, prices, taxis and energy consumption. The data compilations are primarily given for the Federal Republic of Germany.

  17. Petroleum supply monthly, January 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    Data presented describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States. The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.

  18. Petroleum marketing annual, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-08-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Annual contains statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the free-on-board and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners' acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented. For this publication, all estimates have been recalculated since their earlier publication in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM). These calculations made use of additional data and corrections that were received after the PMM publication dates

  19. Apparatus for extracting petroleum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coogan, J

    1921-01-18

    An apparatus for extracting petroleum from petroleum bearing sand or shale is described comprising a container for liquids, the container being divided into a plurality of compartments, an agitator mounted within the container and below the liquid level and having its forward end opening into one of the compartments, means for delivering sand or shale to the forward end of the agitator, means for subjecting the sand or shale to the action of a solvent for the petroleum while the sand or shale is being agitated and is submerged, the first-mentioned compartment being adapted to receive the extracted petroleum and means for removing the treated sand or shale from adjacent the rear end of the agitator.

  20. Petroleum supply annual 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA) contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1992 through annual and monthly surveys. The PSA is divided into two volumes. The first volume contains four sections: Summary Statistics, Detailed Statistics, Refinery Capacity, and Oxygenate Capacity each with final annual data. This second volume contains final statistics for each month of 1992, and replaces data previously published in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM). The tables in Volumes 1 and 2 are similarly numbered to facilitate comparison between them. Explanatory Notes, located at the end of this publication, present information describing data collection, sources, estimation methodology, data quality control procedures, modifications to reporting requirements and interpretation of tables. Industry terminology and product definitions are listed alphabetically in the Glossary

  1. Petroleum marketing annual 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Annual (PMA) contains statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the free-on-board (f.o.b.) and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented. For this publication, all estimates have been recalculated since their earlier publication in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM). These calculations made use of additional data and corrections that were received after the PMM publication dates

  2. Petroleum marketing annual 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-01-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Annual (PMA) contains statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the free-on-board (f.o.b.) and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented. For this publication, all estimates have been recalculated since their earlier publication in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM). These calculations made use of additional data and corrections that were received after the PMM publication dates.

  3. Petroleum Vapor Intrusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    One type of vapor intrusion is PVI, in which vapors from petroleum hydrocarbons such as gasoline, diesel, or jet fuel enter a building. Intrusion of contaminant vapors into indoor spaces is of concern.

  4. Photolysis of petroleum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bobra, M.

    1992-05-01

    A study was conducted to examine the chemical and physical changes that occur in oils as a result of photooxidation. A literature review of recent studies in petroleum photochemistry revealed reported effects of photo-induced reactions in petroleum, including changes in color, polymerization, solidification, increases in solubility and toxicity, and changes in interfacial properties. A list of products reported as a result of photolysis of petroleum is presented, including such compounds as aldehydes, ketones, esters, and lactones. The photoreactivity of various petroleum components is discussed and mechanisms of photooxidation of petroleum are suggested. In the experimental portion of the study, a variety of crude oils and petroleum products were used to determine how different oils are affected by photolysis, and to examine the importance of photolysis as a weathering process. Photooxidation products from several oils were isolated and identified, including aliphatic and aromatic acids, alcohols, and phenols. Some physical manifestations attributed to photolysis included yellowing, formation of precipitates or crusts, increases in density and viscosity with time, increases of asphaltene content in some oils, changes in pH of the surrounding water, and emulsification. 51 refs., 38 figs., 18 tabs

  5. Improvements to the Ontology-based Metadata Portal for Unified Semantics (OlyMPUS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linsinbigler, M. A.; Gleason, J. L.; Huffer, E.

    2016-12-01

    The Ontology-based Metadata Portal for Unified Semantics (OlyMPUS), funded by the NASA Earth Science Technology Office Advanced Information Systems Technology program, is an end-to-end system designed to support Earth Science data consumers and data providers, enabling the latter to register data sets and provision them with the semantically rich metadata that drives the Ontology-Driven Interactive Search Environment for Earth Sciences (ODISEES). OlyMPUS complements the ODISEES' data discovery system with an intelligent tool to enable data producers to auto-generate semantically enhanced metadata and upload it to the metadata repository that drives ODISEES. Like ODISEES, the OlyMPUS metadata provisioning tool leverages robust semantics, a NoSQL database and query engine, an automated reasoning engine that performs first- and second-order deductive inferencing, and uses a controlled vocabulary to support data interoperability and automated analytics. The ODISEES data discovery portal leverages this metadata to provide a seamless data discovery and access experience for data consumers who are interested in comparing and contrasting the multiple Earth science data products available across NASA data centers. Olympus will support scientists' services and tools for performing complex analyses and identifying correlations and non-obvious relationships across all types of Earth System phenomena using the full spectrum of NASA Earth Science data available. By providing an intelligent discovery portal that supplies users - both human users and machines - with detailed information about data products, their contents and their structure, ODISEES will reduce the level of effort required to identify and prepare large volumes of data for analysis. This poster will explain how OlyMPUS leverages deductive reasoning and other technologies to create an integrated environment for generating and exploiting semantically rich metadata.

  6. Veerenni asumi süda oli Lutheri vabrik / Robert Nerman

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Nerman, Robert, 1946-2015

    2008-01-01

    Tallinna kesklinnas Pärnu maantee, Tallinn-Narva raudtee ja Siselinna kalmistu vahel asuva piirkonna ajaloost. Lutheri puidutööstuse rajamisest. Hooned projekteeris arhitekt Erwin Bernhard. Juugendstiilis rahvamaja arhitektid olid Herman Gesellius, Armas Lindgren ja Eliel Saarinen. Keskhaigla töötajatele Herne tänavale rajatud elamute ning Tallinna Ühisgümnaasiumi hoone arhitekt oli Herbert Johanson

  7. Petroleum marketing monthly, May 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-05-26

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly.

  8. Raimond Valgre noorem vend - kes ta oli? : Kuno-Enn Valgre (30.05.1918-02.03.1987) / Valdur Ohmann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ohmann, Valdur, 1958-

    2011-01-01

    Vastukäivad andmed ärgitasid uurima, kes õigupoolest oli Valgre noorem vend. Kõige ehedamalt annab Enn Valgre sõjaaegse käekäigu edasi ülekuulamisprotokoll 11. novembrist 1944. Ülekuulamisprotokolli tekst

  9. A PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION ON COMPARISON AND TRANSFORMATION OF SENTINEL-2 MSI AND LANDSAT 8 OLI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Chen

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available A PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION ON COMPARISON AND TRANSFORMATION OF SENTINEL-2 MSI AND LANDSAT 8 OLI Timely and accurate earth observation with short revisit interval is usually necessary, especially for emergency response. Currently, several new generation sensors provided with similar channel characteristics have been operated onboard different satellite platforms, including Sentinel-2 and Landsat 8. Joint use of the observations by different sensors offers an opportunity to meet the demands for emergency requirements. For example, through the combination of Landsat and Sentinel-2 data, the land can be observed every 2–3 days at medium spatial resolution. However, differences are expected in radiometric values (e.g., channel reflectance of the corresponding channels between two sensors. Spectral response function (SRF is taken as an important aspect of sensor settings. Accordingly, between-sensor differences due to SRFs variation need to be quantified and compensated. The comparison of SRFs shows difference (more or less in channel settings between Sentinel-2 Multi-Spectral Instrument (MSI and Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI. Effect of the difference in SRF on corresponding values between MSI and OLI was investigated, mainly in terms of channel reflectance and several derived spectral indices. Spectra samples from ASTER Spectral Library Version 2.0 and Hyperion data archives were used in obtaining channel reflectance simulation of MSI and OLI. Preliminary results show that MSI and OLI are well comparable in several channels with small relative discrepancy (< 5 %, including the Costal Aerosol channel, a NIR (855–875 nm channel, the SWIR channels, and the Cirrus channel. Meanwhile, for channels covering Blue, Green, Red, and NIR (785–900 nm, the between-sensor differences are significantly presented. Compared with the difference in reflectance of each individual channel, the difference in derived spectral index is more

  10. Petroleum Marketing Annual, 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-18

    This report contains statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for us by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the free-on-board (f.o.b.) and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners' acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented. 13 figs., 51 tabs.

  11. The business of petroleum exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinmetz, R.

    1992-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings of the Business of Petroleum Exploration. The following topics are included: Petroleum business; Economic aspects of the business; Managing business; and Legal, Political, Ethical and environment aspects of the business

  12. Petroleum marketing monthly, June 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. Monthly statistics on purchases of crude oil and sales of petroleum products are presented in five sections: Summary Statistics; Crude Oil Prices; Prices of Petroleum Products; Volumes of Petroleum Products; and Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Petroleum Products for Local Consumption. The feature article is entitled ``The Second Oxygenated Gasoline Season.`` 7 figs., 50 tabs.

  13. Petroleum marketing monthly, July 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. Monthly statistics on purchases of crude oil and sales of petroleum products are presented in five sections: summary statistics; crude oil prices; prices of petroleum products; volumes of petroleum products; and prime supplier sales volumes of petroleum products for local consumption. 7 figs., 50 tabs.

  14. Isotope analysis in petroleum exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, R.

    1982-01-01

    The study about isotopic analysis in petroleum exploration performed at Petrobras Research Center is showed. The results of the petroleum recuperation in same Brazilian basin and shelves are comented. (L.H.L.L.) [pt

  15. Petroleum supply monthly, August 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-26

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  16. The petroleum taxation in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-09-01

    This document details the french specificities of taxation concerning the petroleum products: the TIPP. It shows how this policy acts upon the petroleum products consumption behavior and how it allows the financing of the decentralization. (A.L.B.)

  17. Marks on the petroleum fiscality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-02-01

    This document offers some marks on the petroleum fiscality in France: the taxes as the 'accises' and the 'TVA', the part of the taxes in the sale price at the service station, the comparison with other countries of Europe, the tax revenues and the Government budget. It provides also marks on the fuels prices formation (margins), the world petroleum markets (supply and demand) and the part of the petroleum companies on the petroleum market. (A.L.B.)

  18. Petroleum supply monthly, April 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1990-06-26

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of three publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other two publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR) and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly describe (PSM) the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in Primary Supply.'' Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: (1) the Summary Statistics and (2) the Detailed Statistics.

  19. SWOT ANALYSIS - CHINESE PETROLEUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunlan Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article was written in early December 2013,combined with the historical development andthe latest data on the Chinese Petroleum carried SWOT- analysis. This paper discusses corporate resources, cost, management and external factorssuch as the political environment and the marketsupply and demand, conducted a comprehensiveand profound analysis.

  20. SWOT ANALYSIS - CHINESE PETROLEUM

    OpenAIRE

    Chunlan Wang; Lei Zhang; Qi Zhong

    2014-01-01

    This article was written in early December 2013, combined with the historical development and the latest data on the Chinese Petroleum carried SWOTanalysis. This paper discusses corporate resources, cost, management and external factors such as the political environment and the market supply and demand, conducted a comprehensive and profound analysis.

  1. Environmental pollution by petroleum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murata, T

    1974-06-01

    Pollution causes, cases, and remedies at various stages of petroleum production and usage are reviewed. Petroleum extraction (off-shore drilling and Arctic drilling) can be accompanied by mishaps. In 1971, IMCO (an international safety committee) proposed the partitioning of oil tanker holds into smaller compartments to minimize spillage in case of disaster. Although the solubility of oil in waste water from refineries is reckoned by ppM, the total amount dissolved is not negligible. Petroleum storage and transport on land is complicated by problems of safety in terms of population density as well as by pollution problems. Petroleum end-products such as plastic trash and automobile exhausts contribute to pollution. The role of aldehydes and peroxides in photochemical smog formation must be investigated further. Proper treatment of pollution at each specific point of occurrence, rather than at the end of a production line is recommended. Pollutant concentration for treatment, rather than pollutant dilution for dispersal, should be considered. Technology for pollution abatement is available, but not always economically feasible.

  2. Petroleum industry in 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    This book analyses the major facts and the numbers of 1992, in France and in foreign countries. Its purpose is to be as complete as possible and to present especially all the aspects on a national level: supply, domestic market, prices, exploration, production, stocks, petroleum refining, transports, retailing, financial data

  3. Petroleum: Price trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babusiaux, Denis; Pierru, Axel

    2010-01-01

    The Organization of Petroleum-Exporting Countries (OPEC), some political leaders and financiers have mainly attributed the price spike of oil in 2008 - followed by a just as spectacular drop in prices - to the speculative moves made by financial investors on the futures market instead of to market fundamentals

  4. Petroleum Vapor - Field Technical

    Science.gov (United States)

    The screening approach being developed by EPA OUST to evaluate petroleum vapor intrusion (PVI) requires information that has not be routinely collected in the past at vapor intrusion sites. What is the best way to collect this data? What are the relevant data quality issues and ...

  5. Non-Petroleum Oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    These include synthetics such as silicone fluids and tung oils, wood-derivative oils such as resin/rosin, animal fats/oil, and seed oils. Many have similar physical properties to petroleum-based, such as water insolubility and formation of slicks.

  6. Petroleum product market outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-09-01

    The influence of petroleum market disturbances on price increases was discussed with particular reference to Hurricane Katrina and the loss of refinery production and damage to oil infrastructure in the United States. The supply of petroleum products in Canada will be very tight heading into the winter of 2006, despite the fact that Canadian refineries are operating at full capacity to ensure an adequate supply of gasoline and diesel fuel for consumers. In addition to refinery production, petroleum supplies are also determined by the adequacy of inventories and the efficiency of the infrastructure in place to deliver products to where they are needed. The lack of spare capacity has reduced the flexibility of the North American refining system to respond to further disruptions. Refiners were asked to provide information on 4 areas of their operations in order for Natural Resources Canada to analyze the short-term outlook for petroleum products markets. The 4 areas included refinery utilization rates and capability to increase production; any planned refinery turnaround that would affect petroleum product supplies; inventory levels compared to levels in previous years; and, any logistical problems that could affect product distribution. A graph depicting the relationship between Canadian production of gasoline and domestic sales clearly illustrated the seasonal nature of gasoline consumption and that production in Canada is much higher than consumption. Canada exports large volumes of gasoline, primarily to the United States eastern seabord from refineries in Atlantic Canada. The trend is similar for diesel fuel. Demand for both gasoline and diesel is expected to continue to grow in 2005 as high prices have had a limited impact on demand growth. In general, the Ontario/Quebec region is short of gasoline and must import gasoline during the summer months to cover the shortfall. It was noted that motorists and homeowners who heat with oil will bear the burden of higher

  7. Identification of petroleum pollution sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Begak, O.Yu.; Syroezhko, A.M.

    2001-01-01

    A possibility of preliminary identification of petroleum pollution sources was investigated on specimens of the Khanty-Mansi autonomous district six deposits and specimens of soil and water polluted by these petroleums. Investigations were conducted using IR Fourier spectroscopy and gamma spectrometry, as well as methods of chromato-mass spectrometry and capillary gas liquid chromatography. Every of studied samples of petroleum from different deposits have an individual radiation impression. Insignificant total content of radionuclides in samples is specific to the Khanty-Mansi petroleum region. Gamma spectrometry admits to identify potential source of petroleum pollution using radionuclides of uranium and thorium series [ru

  8. Assessment of The trophic state and Chlorophyll-a concentrations using Landsat OLI in Karaoun reservoir, Lebanon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Fadel

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Fadel, A., Faour G. and Slim K. 2016. Assessment of the trophic state and chlorophyll-a concentrations using Landsat OLI in Karaoun reservoir, Lebanon. Lebanese Science Journal, 17(2: 130-145. Harmful algal blooms have become a worldwide environmental problem. A regular and cost-effective monitoring of these blooms is highly needed by lakes managers. Satellite remote sensing imagery like Landsat Operational Land Imager (OLI can be used to assess and monitor chlorophyll-a in water bodies over large areas in a cost-effective way. In this study, the accuracy of Landsat OLI to estimate chlorophyll-a was examined. Four field campaigns and cloud free images of Landsat OLI with 30 m resolution (01 May 2013, 21 August 2013, 10 July 2015, and 11 August 2015 were used in this study to determine the accuracy of Landsat OLI in estimating chlorophyll-a in a 12 km2 freshwater body, Karaoun reservoir. After atmospheric correction of these images, reflectance of single and multiple band combinations were compared to field chlorophyll-a data. Results of field campaigns showed that the trophic state of Karaoun reservoir is still eutrophic to hypereutrophic with high nutrient concentration and low phytoplankton biodiversity, dominated by cyanobacteria species, Microcystis aeruginosa and Aphanizomenon ovalisporum. On single band level, the in situ chlorophyll-a measurement correlated best with band 5 (0.85 - 0.88 µm, with R=0.75 and R2=0.57. Highest correlation (R=0.84 and R2=0.72 was obtained using band combination, B2:B4 band ratio multiplied by B5. Results indicated that Landsat OLI can be used effectively to determine chlorophyll-a concentration in lakes and reservoirs. We recommend the application of Landsat OLI as a satisfactory and cost effective method for monitoring chlorophyll-a in other lakes through-out the world

  9. Petroleum supply monthly, January 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-15

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  10. Petroleum supply monthly, October 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-26

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  11. Petroleum Supply Monthly, August 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-10-30

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of three publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other two publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR) and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) district movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in Primary Supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections (1) the Summary Statistics and (2) the Detailed Statistics.

  12. Petroleum supply monthly, September 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-09-30

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of three publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other two publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR) and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administrations for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 states and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in Primary Supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections (1) the Summary Statistics and (2) the Detailed Statistics. 65 tabs.

  13. Petroleum Supply Monthly, July 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-09-28

    Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 states and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in Primary Supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.

  14. Yugoslavian Petroleum Refinery development program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ocic, Ozren

    1999-01-01

    This paper shows the analysis of the world petroleum industry development, being an important factor in planning the development of the Yugoslav petroleum industry and Pancevo Petroleum Refinery, as well. Then Yugoslav petroleum industry development is analysed, including the appropriate balances of crude oil production and crude oil products consumption. The way of realizing the basic targets are also proposed. Likewise, the analysis of the condition within West European refineries has been conducted, from the aspects of technology, energy consumption and environmental protection and the same analysis for Pancevo Petroleum Refinery has been presented, too. The analysis of the condition within the refineries in the European Union countries and comparing it with the condition within Pancevo Petroleum Refinery, makes it mainly possible to recognize the development programmes which should be realized in order that Pancevo Petroleum Refinery could reach the refining level of the EU countries. (Original)

  15. Petroleum resources assessment 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    This report consists of two articles. (1) Petroleum resources assessment of the Okinawa Trough: The hydrocarbon potential has been evaluated for the Tertiary strata in the northwestern margin of the Okinawa Trough on the basis of the pale-ontological, petrological, geochemical data from two wells (Nikkan 8-9 and JDZ 7-3), and geophysical data. (2) Petroliferous basin analysis in Jinju area (2): Petroleum geological studies such as stratigraphy, sedimentology, petrology and organic geochemistry were carried out in the Gyeongsang Supergroup, Junju area. Based on lithofacies and rock color, the sequence can be divided into seven formations which can be organized into two groups (Sindong Group: Nagdong, Hasandong and Jinju formations in ascending order; Hayang Group: Chilgog, Silla Conglomerate, Haman and Jindong formations). (author). 57 refs.

  16. China's petroleum industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boykiw, A.; Katsuris, D.

    1997-01-01

    Petroleum and natural gas resources, industry organization, production, pipeline construction and other transportation issues, refining and business aspects of the Chinese petroleum and natural gas industries were reviewed. The need for large amounts of foreign capital and western technology to stem the deficit in domestic hydrocarbon supply were emphasized as being responsible for the creation in China of favourable conditions for foreign participation in oil and gas exploration, and for the growing confidence for Western investment in China. The most important considerations for successful participation in the economic development of China include: understanding the roles of networking, cultural affinity and reciprocity; hands-on management; finding an appropriate business partner, agent/distributor, or joint venture partner; and understanding local peculiarities and customs. 3 refs

  17. Geopolitics of petroleum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sebille-Lopez, Ph.

    2006-01-01

    The unexpected rise of oil prices since 2004 reveals some structural weaknesses of oil markets in front of the evolution of demand. It conceals considerable stakes, more political than strategic, like the securing of oil and petroleum product supplies of big consumers like the USA and China. This demand generates deep changes in the relations between the different actors, from Venezuela to Russia, from the Caspian sea to the Arab-Persian gulf, from the Mediterranean sea to the gulf of Guinea. Terrorists, who try to destabilize markets using threats on petroleum infrastructures, add-up a risk dimension to the uncertainties. The author proposes a world tour of the main production areas, along the 'oil roads' where the main strategic manoeuvres take place. He shades light on the main power stakes: pressure, tensions, threats and deals, alliances, ruptures and potential conflicts. The complex and multiple motivations are explained. (J.S.)

  18. India's Downstream Petroleum Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This study provides a holistic examination of pricing and investment dynamics in India's downstream petroleum sector. It analyses the current pricing practices, highlights the tremendous fiscal cost of current pricing and regulatory arrangements, and examines the sectoral investment dynamics. It also looks at potential paths towards market-based reform along which the Indian government may move, while at the same time protecting energy market access for India's large poor population.

  19. Deodorizing petroleum oils, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haller, A

    1906-06-14

    A process of purifying and deodorizing petroleum oils, gasolines, ethers, benzines, shale oils, resins, and similar products, consisting essentially in passing the vapors of the liquids with a current of hydrogen or of gases high in hydrogen over divided metals, such as nickel, copper, cobalt, iron, platinum, etc., heated to a temperature between 100/sup 0/C and 350/sup 0/C, the vapors passing before entering the apparatus through a column of copper heated to above 350/sup 0/C.

  20. Petroleum marketing monthly, August 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-15

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product Sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly.

  1. Petroleum marketing monthly, September 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum product sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly.

  2. 2005 yearly days of petroleum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constant, R.; Susbielles, G.

    2005-01-01

    14 articles are gathered in this data sheet; they deal with the opening address of the 2005 petroleum days; the hydrocarbons: the evolutive resource; the para-petroleum engineers and the Europe; the speech of Mr Francois Loos; the Shell global scenarios to 2025; the evolution of the gas resource and its uses; the French para-petroleum industry; Bernard Bensaid, Corinne Sagary, Armelle Saniere, economic studies, IFP; the contribution of the innovation and of the technology in the diversification of the hydrocarbons supply; innovation and diversification of the petroleum resource: the point of view of Total; research, development and diversification of the petroleum resource; innovation in services companies; innovation in study and development and engineering; the closing address of the 2005 petroleum days. (O.M.)

  3. Evaporation of petroleum products from contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, S.H.

    1996-01-01

    Bioremediation can remove petroleum products from soil that has been contaminated by leaking underground storage tanks, but abiotic processes such as evaporation can contribute significantly to the overall removal process. The mathematical model described in this paper was developed to predict the evaporation rate of volatile liquids from petroleum-contaminated sand. The model is based on simple concepts relating to molecular diffusion embodied in the theory underlying the estimation of binary diffusivities using measurements made with an Arnold diffusion cell. The model in its simplified form indicates that the rate of evaporation for a particular volatile liquid is proportional to the square root of the product of diffusivity and partial pressure divided by the molecular weight of the liquid. This in part explains why evaporative losses from sand are so much higher for gasoline than for diesel fuel. The model also shows that the time for evaporation is directly proportional to the square of the depth dried out and inversely proportional to the vapor pressure of the volatile liquid. The model was tested using gravimetric measurements of the evaporation of n-heptane, unleaded gasoline, and diesel fuel from sand under laboratory conditions

  4. Assessment of the Trophic State and Chlorophyll-A Concentrations using Landsat OLI in Karaoun Reservoir Lebanon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fadel, A.; Faour, GH.; Slim, K.

    2016-01-01

    Harmful algal blooms have become a worldwide environmental problem. A regular and cost -effective monitoring of these blooms is highly needed by lakes managers. Satellite remote sensing imagery like Landsat Operational Land Imager (OLI) can be used to assess and monitor chlorophyll-a in water bodies over large areas in a cost-effective way. In this study, the accuracy of Landsat OLI to estimate chlorophyll-a was examined. Four field campaigns and cloud free images of Landsat OLI with 30 m resolution (01 May 2013, 21 August 2013, 10 July 2015, and 11 August 2015) were used in this study to determine the accuracy of Landsat OLI in estimating chlorophyll-a in a 12 km2 fresh water body, Karaoun reservoir. After atmospheric correction of these images, reflectance of single and multiple band combinations were compared to field chlorophyll-a data. Results of field campaigns showed that the trophic state of Karaoun reservoir is still eutrophic to hypereutrophic withhigh nutrient concentration andlow phytoplankton biodiversity, dominatedby cyanobacteria species, Microcystis aeruginosa and Aphanizomenon ovalisporum. On single band level, the n situ chlorophyll-a measurement correlated best with band 5 (0.85 -0.88 μm), with R=0.75 and R2=0.57.Highest correlation (R=0.84 and R2=0.72) was obtained using band combination, B2:B4 band ratio multiplied by B5. Results indicated that Landsat OLI can be used effectively to determine chlorophyll-a concentration in lakes and reservoirs. We recommend the application of Landsat OLI as a satisfactory and cost effective method for monitoring chlorophyll-a in other lakes through-out the world. (author)

  5. Petroleum marketing monthly, December 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-05

    This publication provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. It presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include domestic first purchase price, f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude, and refiners` acquisition cost of crude. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane.

  6. Basic petroleum research. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roesjoe, Bjarne; Stiksrud, Helge

    2004-01-01

    An overview of projects in the field of basic petroleum research (PetroForsk) is presented. A brief presentation of some of the projects is included, as well as political comments on the value of these projects. The research program Basic Petroleum Research (PetroForsk) was established in 1998 and ended in 2004. The program has been part of the Research Council of Norway's long-term effort in petroleum research (ml)

  7. Indicators on the world petroleum markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-10-01

    This paper presents tendencies of the petroleum industry market. It analyses the petroleum demand and supply, the prices elaboration, the petroleum market and the OPEC objective, the third petroleum crisis of the year 2000 and gives some data concerning the petroleum market. (A.L.B.)

  8. Solving a binary puzzle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Utomo, P.H.; Makarim, R.H.

    2017-01-01

    A Binary puzzle is a Sudoku-like puzzle with values in each cell taken from the set {0,1} {0,1}. Let n≥4 be an even integer, a solved binary puzzle is an n×n binary array that satisfies the following conditions: (1) no three consecutive ones and no three consecutive zeros in each row and each

  9. Eclipsing binaries in open clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Southworth, John; Clausen, J.V.

    2006-01-01

    Stars: fundamental parameters - Stars : binaries : eclipsing - Stars: Binaries: spectroscopic - Open clusters and ass. : general Udgivelsesdato: 5 August......Stars: fundamental parameters - Stars : binaries : eclipsing - Stars: Binaries: spectroscopic - Open clusters and ass. : general Udgivelsesdato: 5 August...

  10. Selling petroleum to the military

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uscher, R.H.

    1999-01-01

    This article examines what petroleum products and services the US military buys, the contracts awarded to Asian and European refiners for supplies outside the USA, and military specifications and test methods including the specifications of JP-8 battlefield fuel and the JP-8+100 additive package for military aircraft. The way in which the military buys petroleum products is described, and details are given of the types of military contracts, the bidding on Defense Energy Support Center (DESC) petroleum contracts, the performance of military petroleum contracts, socio-economic programmes, the Prompt Payment Act requiring contractors to be paid promptly, and procedures for claims and disputes

  11. Reference data about petroleum fiscality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This paper explains the different taxes existing in France for the petroleum products (domestic tax on petroleum products, added-value tax), the share of taxes in the retail price, the differences with other European countries, the French Government fiscal receipts and budget. Some information forms are attached to this document and concern: the formation of fuel prices (upstream, refining and transport-distribution margins), the evolution of annual average transport-distribution margins, some reference data about world petroleum markets (supply and demand, prices, market data), and some reference data about the role of oil companies on the petroleum market. (J.S.)

  12. Strong increase of profits from oil and natural gas exploitation; Sterke stijging van opbrengsten uit olie- en gaswinning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graveland, C.; Veldhuizen, E.; Schenau, S.; Van den Bergen, D. [Centraal Breau voor de Statistiek, Voorburg/Heerlen (Netherlands)

    2008-08-15

    The amount of oil and natural gas reserves in the Netherlands decreases, although the value of the reserves has increased considerably. The profits are used by the Dutch government in the form of so-called natural gas benefits. [Dutch] De omvang van de Nederlandse olie- en gasreserves daalt gestaag. Desondanks is de waarde van de resterende aardolie- en aardgasreserves flink toegenomen. Dit wordt grotendeels verklaard doordat de winning van olie en gas steeds meer opbrengt. De hogere opbrengsten komen vooral ten goede aan de overheid in de vorm van aardgasbaten, maar ook de winningsbedrijven profiteren er van.

  13. 19 CFR 151.47 - Optional entry of net quantity of petroleum or petroleum products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Optional entry of net quantity of petroleum or petroleum products. 151.47 Section 151.47 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF... Petroleum and Petroleum Products § 151.47 Optional entry of net quantity of petroleum or petroleum products...

  14. OlyMPUS - The Ontology-based Metadata Portal for Unified Semantics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffer, E.; Gleason, J. L.

    2015-12-01

    The Ontology-based Metadata Portal for Unified Semantics (OlyMPUS), funded by the NASA Earth Science Technology Office Advanced Information Systems Technology program, is an end-to-end system designed to support data consumers and data providers, enabling the latter to register their data sets and provision them with the semantically rich metadata that drives the Ontology-Driven Interactive Search Environment for Earth Sciences (ODISEES). OlyMPUS leverages the semantics and reasoning capabilities of ODISEES to provide data producers with a semi-automated interface for producing the semantically rich metadata needed to support ODISEES' data discovery and access services. It integrates the ODISEES metadata search system with multiple NASA data delivery tools to enable data consumers to create customized data sets for download to their computers, or for NASA Advanced Supercomputing (NAS) facility registered users, directly to NAS storage resources for access by applications running on NAS supercomputers. A core function of NASA's Earth Science Division is research and analysis that uses the full spectrum of data products available in NASA archives. Scientists need to perform complex analyses that identify correlations and non-obvious relationships across all types of Earth System phenomena. Comprehensive analytics are hindered, however, by the fact that many Earth science data products are disparate and hard to synthesize. Variations in how data are collected, processed, gridded, and stored, create challenges for data interoperability and synthesis, which are exacerbated by the sheer volume of available data. Robust, semantically rich metadata can support tools for data discovery and facilitate machine-to-machine transactions with services such as data subsetting, regridding, and reformatting. Such capabilities are critical to enabling the research activities integral to NASA's strategic plans. However, as metadata requirements increase and competing standards emerge

  15. Petroleum abundance until when

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appert, O.

    1996-01-01

    The petroleum demand goes on to increase. In front of this demand the non Opec supply increases because of new positive explorations, new technologies and a reduction of exploration-production prices. With 10% of worldwide reserves, OECD insures 30% of worldwide production. With 18% of reserves, the non-Opec world insures 48% of worldwide needs. But a return on Middle East where are 65% of reserves is inescapable but it can be all the more brutal since non Opec world consumes its own resources more quickly. 7 figs

  16. International petroleum statistics report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report is a monthly publication that provides current international oil data. This report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, exports and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world, in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries.

  17. Equation-of-State Modeling of Phase Equilibria in Petroleum Fluids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Marianne

    1996-01-01

    The Soave-Redlich-Kwong (SRK) equation of state was used to investigate and develop several aspects of the modeling of natural petroleum fluids.A new method was presented for numerical evaluation of PVT experiments. This method was used in the estimation of binary interaction parameters. A comphr......The Soave-Redlich-Kwong (SRK) equation of state was used to investigate and develop several aspects of the modeling of natural petroleum fluids.A new method was presented for numerical evaluation of PVT experiments. This method was used in the estimation of binary interaction parameters....... A comphrensive study of pseudoization procedures is presented. It is concluded that the compared methods exhibit results of comparable accuracy, and that six to eight pseudocomponents are needed for optimal representation of petroleum fluids.Finally, it is investigated how well the EOS can represent the VLLE...

  18. Petroleum supply monthly, March 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-03-30

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics. The tables and figures in the Summary Statistics section of the PSM present a time series of selected petroleum data on a US level. Most time series include preliminary estimates for one month based on the Weekly Petroleum Supply Reporting System; statistics based on the most recent data from the Monthly Petroleum Supply Reporting System (MPSRS); and statistics published in prior issues of the PSM and PSA. The Detailed Statistics tables of the PSM present statistics for the most current month available as well as year-to-date. In most cases, the statistics are presented for several geographic areas -- the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia), five PAD Districts, and 12 Refining Districts. At the US and PAD District level, the total volume and the daily rate of activities are presented. The statistics are developed from monthly survey forms submitted by respondents to the EIA and from data provided from other sources.

  19. A multicharge ion source (Supernanogan) for the OLIS facility at ISAC/TRIUMF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayamanna, K; Wight, G; Gallop, D; Dube, R; Jovicic, V; Laforge, C; Marchetto, M; Leross, M; Louie, D; Laplante, R; Laxdal, R; McDonald, M; Wiebe, G J; Wang, V; Yan, F

    2010-02-01

    The Off-Line Ion Source (OLIS) [K. Jayamanna, D. Yuan, T. Kuo, M. MacDonald, P. Schmor, and G. Dutto, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 1061 (1996); K. Jayamanna, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79, 02711 (2008)] facility consists of a high voltage terminal containing a microwave cusp ion source, either a surface ion source or a hybrid surface-arc discharge ion source [K. Jayamanna and C. Vockenhuber, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79, 02C712 (2008)], and an electrostatic switch that allows the selection of any one of the sources without mechanical intervention. These sources provide a variety of +1 beams up to mass 30 for Isotope Separator and ACcelerator (ISAC) [R. E. Laxdal, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 204, 400 (2003)] experiments, commissioning the accelerators, setting up the radioactive experiments, and for tuning the beam lines. The radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) [M. Marchetto, Z. T. Ang, K. Jayamanna, R. E. Laxdal, A. Mitra, and V. Zvyagintsev, Eur. Phys. J. Spec. Top. 150, 241 (2005)] injector accelerator is a constant velocity machine designed to accept only 2 keV/u and the source extraction energy is limited to 60 kV. Further stripping is then needed downstream of the RFQ to inject the beam into the drift tube linac [M. Marchetto, Z. T. Ang, K. Jayamanna, R. E. Laxdal, A. Mitra, and V. Zvyagintsev, Eur. Phys. J. Spec. Top. 150, 241 (2005)] accelerator that requires A/q up to 6. Base on this constraints a multicharge ion source capable to deliver beams above mass 30 with A/q up to 6 was needed in order to reach full capability of the ISAC facility. A Supernanogan [C. Bieth et al., Nucleonika 48, S93 (2003)] multicharge ion source was then purchased from Pantechnik and was installed in the OLIS terminal. Commissioning and performance of the Supernanogan with some results such as emittance dependence of the charge states as well as charge state efficiencies are presented.

  20. International petroleum statistics report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report is a monthly publication that provides current international oil data. This report is published for the use of Members of Congress, Federal agencies, State agencies, industry, and the general public. Publication of this report is in keeping with responsibilities given the Energy Information Administration in Public Law 95-91. The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1995; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1995; and OECD trade from 1985 through 1995.

  1. Canadian petroleum industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dagher, J.H.

    1969-12-01

    This study covers the following Canadian petroleum industry categories: (1) a brief history; (2) the demand for Alberta crude; (3) U.S. oil policies; (4) overseas exploration; (5) the national oil policy; (6) the Montreal pipeline and its targets; (7) a continental oil policy; and (8) the impact of Arctic reserves. It is noted that large potential benefits will improve from the Manhattan navigating the Northwest Passage. Without prejudging the analysis now applied to the information gathered on this voyage, the Manhattan has greatly contributed to the solution of the problem of access to the Arctic islands. The picture for natural gas is less fraught with uncertainties. Unlike oil, where domestic and international considerations may weigh in U.S. policy decision, Canadian natural gas is likely to be allowed to enjoy its full economic potential in bridging the foreseeable U.S. supply gap and, inasmuch as this potential is ultimately tied with that for crude oil markets, the anticipated U.S. needs for Canadian natural gas may be expected to enhance U.S. interest in the overall well-being of the Canadian petroleum industry.

  2. The future petroleum geologist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, R.R.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that in July 1985, AAPG President William L. Fisher appointed a select committee to determine the capabilities that will be required of petroleum geologists in the future. His charge to the committee was based on the profound changes and uncertainties that were beginning to be felt in the industry and would surely affect the employment of geologists and their professional practice. These changes are well known: the supply of oil had exceeded demand, the price of oil was unstable, many companies were threatened by debt and buy-outs, and corporate restructuring was underway to meet changing economic conditions. All contributed to great uncertainty about the need and requirements of geological employment and practice. Specifically, President Fisher charged the committee to distinguish those elements of recent times that are cyclic and those that are long-term in their effects; to characterize the state of the industry for the next 25 years; to predict the capabilities that the future petroleum geologist should posses to meet the challenges of the future; and most importantly, the define the role of AAPG and its commitments to the membership under these changing conditions

  3. Petroleum resources assessment (I)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    This report consists of 2 subjects. 1) Petroleum resources assessment on the western part of the Kunsan Basin: Palynomorphs including spores, pollen and organic-walled microfossils and calcareous microfossils such as ostracods, charophytes and gastropods were studied for the biostratigraphic work of Kachi-1 and IIH-1Xa wells. Based on available well data, the rifting probably began in the Cretaceous time had continued until Paleocene. It is considered that compressional force immediately after rifting event deformed sedimentary sections. During the period of Paleocene to middle Miocene, the sediments were deposited in stable environment without particular tectonic event. 2) Petroliferous basin analysis in Taegu area (II): The Nakdong and Jinju formations contain abundant black shales, and thermal maturity of the organic matter reached at the final stage of dry gas generation. These formations also contain thick sandstones which can act as a petroleum reservoir. However, reservoir quality of the sandstones is poor (porosity: < 5%; permeability: < 0.001 md). In these sandstones, secondary pores such as dissolution pores and micropores can act as a tight gas reservoir. (author). 56 refs., 24 tabs., 68 figs.

  4. Petroleum and natural gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    060,

    1965-02-01

    Substantial increases in demand for Canadian petroleum and natural gas in both domestic and export markets resulted in another good year throughout the main sectors of the industry. In February, production averaged 850,000 bpd, or about 8% more than 1963 output of crude oil and natural gas liquids. Construction began on the first full scale plant for the extraction of oil from the Athabasca bituminous sands. In 1964, exploratory and development drilling in western Canada increased 10% from the previous year. A total of 15.5 million ft was drilled, the largest since the record drilling year of 1956. The main oil field development areas in Alberta were the House Mountain, Deer Mountain and Goose River Fields, and the Bantry-Taber heavy oil region in southeastern Alberta. Oil reserves were increased substantially by waterflood pressure maintenance projects in many of the older oil fields. The largest oil accumulation discovered in 1964 was the Syvia-Honda Field in the Devonian Gilwood sandstone in N.-central Alberta. Two graphs illustrate the crude petroleum in Canada in millions of barrels from 1940 to 1964, and natural gas in Canada in billions of cu ft from 1950 to 1964. The outlook for the industry in 1965 is good.

  5. Facts 2010 - The Norwegian petroleum sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-07-01

    The publication provides a general overview of information regarding the petroleum activities on the Norwegian continental shelf. Content; Foreword; The petroleum sector - Norway's largest industry; Organisation of Norwegian petroleum activity; Government petroleum revenues; Exploration activities; Development and operations; Norwegian gas exports; Decommissioning; Research, technology and industrial development; Environmental considerations in the Norwegian petroleum sector; Petroleum resources; Fields in production; Fields under development; Future developments; Fields where production has ceased; Pipelines and onshore facilities. (AG)

  6. Facts 2010 - The Norwegian petroleum sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-07-01

    The publication provides a general overview of information regarding the petroleum activities on the Norwegian continental shelf. Content; Foreword; The petroleum sector - Norway's largest industry; Organisation of Norwegian petroleum activity; Government petroleum revenues; Exploration activities; Development and operations; Norwegian gas exports; Decommissioning; Research, technology and industrial development; Environmental considerations in the Norwegian petroleum sector; Petroleum resources; Fields in production; Fields under development; Future developments; Fields where production has ceased; Pipelines and onshore facilities. (AG)

  7. Facts 2011 - The Norwegian petroleum sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-07-15

    The publication provides a general overview of information regarding the petroleum activities on the Norwegian continental shelf. Content; Foreword; The petroleum sector - Norway's largest industry; Organisation of Norwegian petroleum activity; Government petroleum revenues; Exploration activities; Development and operations; Norwegian gas exports; Decommissioning; Research, technology and industrial development; Environmental considerations in the Norwegian petroleum sector; Petroleum resources; Fields in production; Fields under development; Future developments; Fields where production has ceased; Pipelines and onshore facilities. (AG)

  8. Oriënterend onderzoek naar de mogelijkheid om met behulp van NIRS het gehalte aan olie en y-linoleenzuur in teunisbloemzaad te bepalen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munsteren, van A.J.; Frankhuizen, R.; Veen, van der N.G.

    1987-01-01

    Nagaan of met behulp van NIRS het gehalte aan olie en y-linoleenzuur in teunisbloemzaad voldoende nauwkeurig te bepalen is. Van 21 monsters teunisbloemzaad zijn met behulp van verschillende rekenmethoden correlatieberekeningen uitgevoerd tussen de chemisch bepaalde gehalten aan olie en

  9. Petroleum industry assists hurricane relief

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that the petroleum industry is aiding victims of last month's Hurricane Andrew with cash, clothing, food, water, and other supplies. Cash contributions announced as of last week totaled more than $2.7 million for distribution in South Florida and South Louisiana. Petroleum industry employees were collecting relief items such as bottled water and diapers for distribution in those areas

  10. The para-petroleum industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-07-01

    The para-petroleum industry includes societies that realize studies and installations for the deposits exploitation. This document presents the situation of the para-petroleum industry in 2001, the world investment growth of the activity, the french societies financial results and an inventory of the main operations in the amalgamation domain. (A.L.B.)

  11. Petroleum Biotechnology. Developments and Perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vazquez-Duhalt, R.; Quintero-Ramirez, R.

    2004-01-01

    This book deals with the field of petroleum biorefining and biological upgrade of petroleum; it presents a critical review as well as an integrated overview of the potential biochemical processes, bridging the gap between academia and industry. It addresses today's demanding production challenges, taking into account energy efficient and environmentally friendly processes, and also looks at the future possibility of implementing new refinery systems

  12. Petroleum: An energy profile, 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    This report prepared by the Energy Information Administration covers the following topics: petroleum production and end-use sectors; resources and reserves; exploration and production; LPG sources and processing; motor gasoline octane enhancement; constructing pipelines; the strategic petroleum reserve; imports and exports; marketing; district descriptions and maps; and refinery processes and facilities. 33 figs., 7 tabs.

  13. Petroleum marketing monthly, March 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-10

    This report for March 1995, provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly. A glossary is included.

  14. The new challenges of petroleum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gernelle, E.

    2006-02-01

    Petroleum in in the center of our civilization: abundant, easy to use and energy powerful, it is used almost everywhere: transports, lighting, space heating, plastics, fertilizers, cloth industry etc. The 'black-gold' is the object of all stakes, from richness to power. However, petroleum is also at the origin of many evils: pollution, corruption, violence. Today, petroleum is a source of worries: how long will it last? How long will we be able to stand its impacts on environment? This book shades light on all these questions and supplies some concrete elements about this energy source. Content: technological challenges of petroleum; producers: powers and risks; consumers' dependence; to learn more about petroleum. (J.S.)

  15. Samenstelling van de vluchtige olie van Origanum vulgare L. ssp. vulgare gedurende de ontwikkeling van de plant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maarse, Henk

    1971-01-01

    INLEIDING EN DOEL VAN HET ONDERZOEK Vele onderzoekers hebben de laatste jaren de vorming van de verbindingen in vluchtige olien van planten bestudeerd door het bepalen van de verandering in de samenstelling van de vluchtige olie tijdens de groei van de plant. Lemli (68) wees als eerste op de

  16. Evaluating the capability of Landsat 8 OLI and SPOT 6 for discriminating invasive alien species in the African Savanna landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kganyago, Mahlatse; Odindi, John; Adjorlolo, Clement; Mhangara, Paidamoyo

    2018-05-01

    Globally, there is paucity of accurate information on the spatial distribution and patch sizes of Invasive Alien Plants (IAPs) species. Such information is needed to aid optimisation of control mechanisms to prevent further spread of IAPs and minimize their impacts. Recent studies have shown the capability of very high spatial (management. In this study medium and high resolution datasets from Landsat Operational Land Imager (OLI) and SPOT 6 sensors respectively, were evaluated for mapping the distribution and patch sizes of IAP, Parthenium hysterophorus in the savannah landscapes of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Support Vector Machines (SVM) classifier was used for classification of both datasets. Results indicated that SPOT 6 had a higher overall accuracy (86%) than OLI (83%) in mapping P. hysterophorus. The study found larger distributions and patch sizes in OLI than in SPOT 6 as a result of possible P. hysterophorus expansion due to temporal differences between images and coarser pixels were insufficient to delineate gaps inside larger patches. On the other hand, SPOT 6 showed better capabilities of delineating gaps and boundaries of patches, hence had better estimates of distribution and patch sizes. Overall, the study showed that OLI may be suitable for mapping well-established patches for the purpose of large scale monitoring, while SPOT 6 can be used for mapping small patches and prioritising them for eradication to prevent further spread at a landscape scale.

  17. Petroleum software profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    A profile of twenty-two software packages designed for petroleum exploration and production was provided. Some focussed on the oil and gas engineering industry, and others on mapping systems containing well history files and well data summaries. Still other programs provided accounting systems designed to address the complexities of the oil and gas industry. The software packages reviewed were developed by some of the best-known groups involved in software development for the oil and gas industry, including among others, Geoquest, the Can Tek Group, Applied Terravision Systems Inc., Neotechnology Consultants Ltd., (12) OGCI Software Inc., Oracle Energy, Production Revenue Information Systems Management, Virtual Computing Services Ltd., and geoLogic Systems Ltd

  18. Petroleum and the economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohi, D.R.

    1992-01-01

    In re-examining the effect of energy price shocks on the economy, this article applies several tests to show that the apparent coincidence between price shocks and poor economic performance may be misleading. For example, whereas macroeconomic analysis graphs of employment and GNP clearly indicate an apparent correlation between the 1979 petroleum price hike and economic downturn in the USA, Great Britain and Germany, Japan's performance stayed fairly constant during that period. Additional sectoral analyses of the performances of the western economies show that the impacts of the '74 and '79 oil price shocks were not equally distributed across the different industrial sectors of the various nations. The paper argues that a deeper understanding of the energy-economy relationship is required to reduce these ambiguities

  19. 1992 petroleum software directory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    This book is designed especially for the petroleum industry. Each program listing includes a description of the function, language and memory requirements, operating systems, special accessories required, compatibles and pricing information. A separate section lists the more than 600 companies that produce and sell the programs. Companies are listed alphabetically and include address, phone, fax and telex numbers as well as contact names for each location. Many company listings also include distributors. This book includes information on Accounting/Statistics, Design/Construction/Engineering Graphics, Drilling Engineering and Equipment, Economics/Financial Analysis, Engineering, Exploration, Land and Leasing, Maintenance and Repair/Quality Control/Monitoring, Manufacturing, Maps, Marketing, Pipelines/Shipping/Storage, Production Engineering and Recovery Methods, Synthetic/Alternate Resources and Fuels

  20. Petroleum Business in Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dublin-Green, W. F.

    1997-01-01

    The petroleum industry is vital to the health of the Nigerian economy as it accounts for over 80% of Nigeria's total export earnings and about 70% of total government revenue. Nigeria has an oil reserve base of 21 billion barrels and gas reserve of 120 trillion cubic feet. With natural gas becoming the worlds fastest growing energy resource, the Nigerian Government has put in place a program to grow her oil reserve base to over 25 billion barrels and significantly increase her gas reserves. An earlier commitment made in 1990 to increase Nigeria's oil reserve base from a level of 16 to 20 billion barrels by 1995 was achieved well ahead of time. This success was largely due to financial incentives offered investors. This healthy business climate still prevails. This paper presents the investment opportunities that Nigeria offers genuine investors in both the upstream and downstream sectors of the industry and defines the legal/regulatory requirements for doing business in Nigeria. We try to give an insight into specific government policies that help to create an enabling environment for investors in the upstream and downstream sectors of the petroleum industry. We showcase the 5 (five) major sedimentary basins with enormous oil and gas potential where exploration/exploitation risks are rated medium to low. We focus on the environment and government's efforts to enforce the rules and guidelines that govern the policy termed the Environment, Safety and Standards. We recognize that the business challenges of the third millennium will dictate new alliances and partnerships that will survive and thrive only in a climate that is safe for the investor. This is the business climate we throw open in Nigeria for investors to come in and do business with us

  1. Binary Masking & Speech Intelligibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boldt, Jesper

    The purpose of this thesis is to examine how binary masking can be used to increase intelligibility in situations where hearing impaired listeners have difficulties understanding what is being said. The major part of the experiments carried out in this thesis can be categorized as either experime......The purpose of this thesis is to examine how binary masking can be used to increase intelligibility in situations where hearing impaired listeners have difficulties understanding what is being said. The major part of the experiments carried out in this thesis can be categorized as either...... experiments under ideal conditions or as experiments under more realistic conditions useful for real-life applications such as hearing aids. In the experiments under ideal conditions, the previously defined ideal binary mask is evaluated using hearing impaired listeners, and a novel binary mask -- the target...... binary mask -- is introduced. The target binary mask shows the same substantial increase in intelligibility as the ideal binary mask and is proposed as a new reference for binary masking. In the category of real-life applications, two new methods are proposed: a method for estimation of the ideal binary...

  2. Interacting binary stars

    CERN Document Server

    Sahade, Jorge; Ter Haar, D

    1978-01-01

    Interacting Binary Stars deals with the development, ideas, and problems in the study of interacting binary stars. The book consolidates the information that is scattered over many publications and papers and gives an account of important discoveries with relevant historical background. Chapters are devoted to the presentation and discussion of the different facets of the field, such as historical account of the development in the field of study of binary stars; the Roche equipotential surfaces; methods and techniques in space astronomy; and enumeration of binary star systems that are studied

  3. Petroleum marketing monthly, November 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-09

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed costs of imported crude oil, and the refiner`s acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented.

  4. Petroleum marketing monthly, July 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-07-15

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented.

  5. Petroleum marketing monthly, January 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented.

  6. Petroleum marketing monthly, August 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-10

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented.

  7. Petroleum marketing monthly, February 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-25

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiner`s acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented.

  8. Petroleum marketing monthly, April 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-12

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented.

  9. Petroleum marketing monthly, March 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-03-22

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, education institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiner`s acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented.

  10. Lasers and petroleum in Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    da Costa, G.; Guerri, G.; Calatroni, J. (Universidad Simon Bolivar, Caracas (Venezuela). Lab. de Optica Cuantica)

    1978-06-01

    The viscosity of heavy hydrocarbons is one reason why conventional drilling methods are insufficient for petroleum extraction in Venezuela at a depth of 1000 m. The Quantum Optics Laboratory of Simon Bolivar University in Caracas is conducting a search for novel perforation and heating tools for petroleum extraction. Basic research is being carried out using a 10 MW TEA-CO/sub 2/ laser. The laser is not only a research tool but a matter of national interests, as petroleum is Venezuela's main export article.

  11. Petroleum marketing monthly, August 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-11-07

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners' acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented. 12 figs., 49 tabs.

  12. Petroleum marketing monthly, October 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-07

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase prices, the f.o b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented.

  13. Facts 2009 - The Norwegian petroleum sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-07-01

    The publication provides a general overview of information regarding the petroleum activities on the Norwegian continental shelf. Contents: Foreword; The petroleum sector; Norwegian resource management; Government petroleum revenues; Exploration activities; Development and operations; Norwegian gas exports; Decommissioning; Research, technology; Environmental considerations; Petroleum resources; Fields in production; Fields under development; Future developments; Fields where production has ceased; Pipelines and onshore facilities. (AG)

  14. Petroleum coke as energy source: an update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinelli, G.

    2008-01-01

    A previous review presented a critical evaluation of the use of petroleum coke as energy source. After some years, with reference to increased petroleum coke production, that paper is revised. In particular, the attention is now focused on world petroleum coke market trends and, in regard to petroleum coke used as fuel, on new Italian environment laws. [it

  15. 21 CFR 178.3710 - Petroleum wax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Petroleum wax. 178.3710 Section 178.3710 Food and... and Production Aids § 178.3710 Petroleum wax. Petroleum wax may be safely used as a component of nonfood articles in contact with food, in accordance with the following conditions: (a) Petroleum wax is a...

  16. Ex-USSR: petroleum activities in 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This paper gives statistical data on economy and petroleum industry in ex-USSR: Primary energy production and consumption (coal, petroleum, natural gas, primary power), petroleum and natural gas reserves, drilling activity, exports and imports of petroleum products, refining capacity. 2 figs., 14 tabs

  17. Logistics aspects of petroleum pipeline operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. J. Pienaar

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper identifies, assesses and describes the logistics aspects of the commercial operation of petroleum pipelines. The nature of petroleum-product supply chains, in which pipelines play a role, is outlined and the types of petroleum pipeline systems are described. An outline is presented of the nature of the logistics activities of petroleum pipeline operations. The reasons for the cost efficiency of petroleum pipeline operations are given. The relative modal service effectiveness of petroleum pipeline transport, based on the most pertinent service performance measures, is offered. The segments in the petroleum-products supply chain where pipelines can play an efficient and effective role are identified.

  18. Panorama of the petroleum industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-02-01

    This document provides tables and charts of statistical data concerning the petroleum industry activity in 2004: supply and demand, prices, consumption, service station number and the market. (A.L.B.)

  19. Gasoline from Kumkol deposit petroleum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadirov, A.N.; Zhizhin, N.I.; Musaeva, Z.G.

    1997-01-01

    Samples of gasoline from petroleum of Kumkol deposit are investigated by chromatographic analysis. It is found, that gasoline is characterizing by increased content of iso-paraffin hydrocarbons. (author)

  20. Dermal uptake of petroleum substances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jakasa, Ivone; Kezic, Sanja; Boogaard, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Petroleum products are complex substances comprising varying amounts of linear and branched alkanes, alkenes, cycloalkanes, and aromatics which may penetrate the skin at different rates. For proper interpretation of toxic hazard data, understanding their percutaneous absorption is of paramount

  1. Petroleum investment conditions in Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Schreck, M.

    1996-01-01

    This report focuses on the current petroleum investment conditions in Peru, and Peru's hydrocarbon potential. Investment conditions are examined, and political risk, internal security, the economic environment, and the legal framework for investment are considered. (UK)

  2. Mining frequent binary expressions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calders, T.; Paredaens, J.; Kambayashi, Y.; Mohania, M.K.; Tjoa, A.M.

    2000-01-01

    In data mining, searching for frequent patterns is a common basic operation. It forms the basis of many interesting decision support processes. In this paper we present a new type of patterns, binary expressions. Based on the properties of a specified binary test, such as reflexivity, transitivity

  3. Petroleum and Water Logistics Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-06-19

    petroleum office ( SAPO ). The combatant commander JPO coordinates all agree- ments concerning bulk fuel support between com- ponent commands and HNs. For the...commander of the unified command through the JPO. The uni- fied command may also establish SAPOs at the subunified command level to provide in-country or...gency situations. PWRS are usually stored in theater and are monitored by the appropriate combatant commander JPO/ SAPO . MEF Petroleum War Reserve

  4. Colombian petroleum - A good business

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carta Petrolera

    1998-01-01

    A great interest exists for Colombia, a country in which the statistics of petroleum and gas production, have been shot to volumes record; where 15 new contracts are signed every year, arriving in December from 1997 to an effective figure record of 107, a country that see grow their exports of raw; a country that every time has more facilities of transport and commercialization of hydrocarbons and it receives to more companies interested in sharing the risk in petroleum search

  5. Modified Optimization Water Index (mowi) for LANDSAT-8 Oli/tirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, M.; Sahebi, M.; Shokri, M.

    2017-09-01

    Water is one of the most important resources that essential need for human life. Due to population growth and increasing need of human to water, proper management of water resources will be one of the serious challenges of next decades. Remote sensing data is the best way to the management of water resources due time and cost effectiveness over a greater range of temporal and spatial scales. Between many kinds of satellite data, from SAR to optic or from high resolution to low resolution, Landsat imagery is more interesting data for water detection and management of earth surface water. Landsat8 OLI/TIRS is the newest version of Landsat satellite series. In this paper, we investigated the full spectral potential of Landsat8 for water detection. It is developed many kinds of methods for this purpose that index based methods have some advantages than other methods. Pervious indices just use a limited number of spectral band. In this paper, Modified Optimization Water Index (MOWI) defined by consideration of a linear combination of bands that each coefficient of bands calculated by particle swarm algorithm. The result shows that modified optimization water index (MOWI) has a proper performance on different condition like cloud, cloud shadow and mountain shadow.

  6. Evaluation of relative radiometric correction techniques on Landsat 8 OLI sensor data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novelli, Antonio; Caradonna, Grazia; Tarantino, Eufemia

    2016-08-01

    The quality of information derived from processed remotely sensed data may depend upon many factors, mostly related to the extent data acquisition is influenced by atmospheric conditions, topographic effects, sun angle and so on. The goal of radiometric corrections is to reduce such effects in order enhance the performance of change detection analysis. There are two approaches to radiometric correction: absolute and relative calibrations. Due to the large amount of free data products available, absolute radiometric calibration techniques may be time consuming and financially expensive because of the necessary inputs for absolute calibration models (often these data are not available and can be difficult to obtain). The relative approach to radiometric correction, known as relative radiometric normalization, is preferred with some research topics because no in situ ancillary data, at the time of satellite overpasses, are required. In this study we evaluated three well known relative radiometric correction techniques using two Landsat 8 - OLI scenes over a subset area of the Apulia Region (southern Italy): the IR-MAD (Iteratively Reweighted Multivariate Alteration Detection), the HM (Histogram Matching) and the DOS (Dark Object Subtraction). IR-MAD results were statistically assessed within a territory with an extremely heterogeneous landscape and all computations performed in a Matlab environment. The panchromatic and thermal bands were excluded from the comparisons.

  7. Canadian retail petroleum markets study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ervin, M.J.

    1998-02-01

    A retail petroleum market study was conducted to provide a comprehensive overview of the competitiveness of the downstream petroleum industry in Canada and to set a foundation for effective policy development. The downstream petroleum industry, which includes the petroleum refining and marketing sectors, faces a poor public image, competitive pressures from U.S. and offshore refiners, and a broad range of environmental challenges. In this study, 19 markets representing a wide range of conditions were chosen for a detailed review of outlet economics. A market-by-market and regional comparisons of key competitiveness indicators was made in order to identify market and regional competitive differences as potential issues or opportunities within the industry. The study also included a pump price/margin model and provided a general overview of the retail gasoline sub-sector in terms of infrastructure. A review of prices, margins and demand patterns over the past several years was also undertaken to show the relationship between consumer demand patterns and pump price fluctuations. The study presented 22 findings which led to several conclusions and recommendations regarding the competitiveness of Canada's petroleum marketing sector. Two of the key conclusions were that taxation is a significant factor in the price of retail gasoline (about 50 per cent) and that government intervention into petroleum marketing is likely to be a poor alternative to market-based regulation. 18 tabs., 37 figs

  8. International petroleum statistics report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report is a monthly publication that provides current international data. The report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent 12 months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1996; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1996; and OECD trade from 1986 through 1996.

  9. International petroleum statistics report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, exports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1994; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1994; and OECD trade from 1984 through 1994.

  10. International petroleum statistics report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. Word oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1995; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1995; and OECD trade from 1985 through 1995.

  11. Iran's petroleum industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebneyousef, M.H.; Bogart, A.J.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that during the past several years Iran's potentials have been forgotten or ignored by the outside world mainly due to misconceptions, fears, and political concerns attributed to the religious overtone. The intention of the authors is to introduction to the new realities of regional, as well as global geopolitics and the main political and economic aspects of Iran's huge and growing petroleum industry. The fact of the matter is that in the rapidly changing world order the need for a true stability in the region and a global cooperation has been recognized by Iran. The country, with a population of 60 million, is now preparing itself for the major political and economic role thrust upon the nation by the socio-economic changes in the integrating Europe; the outcome of the Iran-Iraq and the Persian Gulf wars, including the likely instability of the autocratic governments of Arab states of the region; the breakup of the former Soviet Union; and market changes in the Far East

  12. Landsat-8/OLI images has the potential to estimate the CDOM absorption coefficient in tropical inland water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcantara, E.; Bernardo, N.

    2016-12-01

    Colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) is the most abundant dissolved organic matter (DOM) in many natural waters and can affect the water quality, such as the light penetration and the thermal properties of water system. So the objective of this letter was to estimate the colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) absorption coefficient at 440 nm, aCDOM(440), in Barra Bonita Reservoir (São Paulo State, Brazil) using OLI/Landsat-8 images. For this two field campaigns were conducted in May and October 2014. During the field campaigns remote sensing reflectance (Rrs) were measured using a TriOS hyperspectral radiometer. Water samples were collected and analyzed to obtain the aCDOM(440). To predict the aCDOM(440) from Rrs at two key wavelengths (650 and 480 nm) were regressed against laboratory derived aCDOM(440) values. The validation using in situ data of aCDOM(440) algorithm indicated a goodness of fit, R2 = 0.70, with a root-mean-square error (RMSE) of 10.65%. The developed algorithm was applied to the OLI/Lansat-8 images. Distribution maps were created with OLI/Landsat-8 images based on the adjusted algorithm.

  13. Monitoring water quality in a hypereutrophic reservoir using Landsat ETM+ and OLI sensors: how transferable are the water quality algorithms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, Eliza S; Alameddine, Ibrahim; El-Fadel, Mutasem

    2018-02-15

    The launch of the Landsat 8 in February 2013 extended the life of the Landsat program to over 40 years, increasing the value of using Landsat to monitor long-term changes in the water quality of small lakes and reservoirs, particularly in poorly monitored freshwater systems. Landsat-based water quality hindcasting often incorporate several Landsat sensors in an effort to increase the temporal range of observations; yet the transferability of water quality algorithms across sensors remains poorly examined. In this study, several empirical algorithms were developed to quantify chlorophyll-a, total suspended matter (TSM), and Secchi disk depth (SDD) from surface reflectance measured by Landsat 7 ETM+ and Landsat 8 OLI sensors. Sensor-specific multiple linear regression models were developed by correlating in situ water quality measurements collected from a semi-arid eutrophic reservoir with band ratios from Landsat ETM+ and OLI sensors, along with ancillary data (water temperature and seasonality) representing ecological patterns in algae growth. Overall, ETM+-based models outperformed (adjusted R 2 chlorophyll-a = 0.70, TSM = 0.81, SDD = 0.81) their OLI counterparts (adjusted R 2 chlorophyll-a = 0.50, TSM = 0.58, SDD = 0.63). Inter-sensor differences were most apparent for algorithms utilizing the Blue spectral band. The inclusion of water temperature and seasonality improved the power of TSM and SDD models.

  14. Petroleum product deparaffination process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martynenko, A.G.; Dorodnova, V.S.; Korzhov, Yu.A.

    1980-12-23

    In the process for deparaffination of petroleum products (NP) by treatment of them with carbamide (KA) in the presence of an activator (AK) and solvent with subsequent separation of the forming paraffin-carbamide complex (PKC) the NP is mixed with the AK at a temperature of 5-40/sup 0/ in an NP:AK ratio of 1:0.01-0.03 with subsequent addition of portions of KA at a temperature of 5-20/sup 0/. The advantages of the process in comparison with the known one consists in the fact that the process of complex formation is realized practically without an induction period, and paraffin yield is increased by 27% on the potential with a simultaneous decrease in reagent consumption: KA by 20% and MeOH by 35%. Example -- 100 g of diesel fuel (a 200-360/sup 0/ fraction) is mixed with MeOH (1.3% on the feedstock), which in the obtained mixture is found in a liquid droplet state. To the mixture 40 g KA is added (2/3 of the total amount of KA to be added). The complex formation temperature is held at 35/sup 0/. To the PKC practically forming at once 260 g of solvent (an 85-120/sup 0/ gasoline fraction) and then 20 g KA are added. The temperature is held at 20/sup 0/. The forming suspension of the complex is distinguished by uniformity and the absence of coarse conglomerates. The paraffin yield amounts to 11.8% on the feedstock or 74% on the potential. The melting point of the paraffin is 22/sup 0/. In the described deparaffination scheme according to the proposed process complex formation is carried out in two steps; in a third step the suspension of KA and centrifuged paraffin is separated; the KA is returned to the complex formation reactor, and the centrifuged paraffin --- for solvent regeneration.

  15. Petroleum resources assessment (I)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    On the basis of diverse microfossils such as foraminifers, ostracods, micromulluscs, fossil spores and pollen and calcareous nannofossils derived from 14 drill holes, the sediments are divided into two part, the upper marine part and the lower nonmarine one. Marine part is subdivided into 4 foraminiferal zones and 3 nannofossil zones of Plio-Pleistocene age. In the lower part ranging from Oligocene to Late Miocene 4 palynomoph assemblages are established, which reflect climatic changes fluctuating between subtropical and cool temperate. Some fine sediments occurring in the South Sea continental shelf are rich in organic matter to be hydrocarbon source rock. The organic matter is mainly compared to type 3. However, lower part of the Geobuk-1 and Okdom-1 shows more oil prone geochemical characteristics than other wells. The kerosene is mixture type 1 and type 3 organic matter. The main oil generation zone located between 2,500 m and 3,000 m and gas generation zone from 3,500 m to 4,000 m approximately. Hydrocarbon accumulation could be expected in the trap formed in the period earlier than 10 Ma. as the hydrocarbon started to be expelled at 10 Ma. according to the modeling. Approximately 13,000 Line-km of multichannel seismic data integrated with 14 wells and gravity and magnetic data were analyzed to investigate the structural and stratigraphic evolution of southern part of offshore Korea. The northeast-southwest trending Taiwan-Sinzi Uplift Belt separates the area into two regions with different tectonic features, northwestern and southwestern regions. The potential hydrocarbon traps associated with anticline, tilted fault block, fault, unconformity, and rollover structure exist. This project is consisted of two main subjects. 1) Petroleum resources assessment on the continental shelf basin of the south sea. 2) Petroliferous basin analysis in Taegu area (1). (author). refs., tabs., figs.

  16. Petroleum resources assessment (I)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    This report consists of 2 subjects. 1) Petroleum resources assessment of the Kunsan Basin : Kunsan Basin is mainly filled with Cretaceous and Tertiary clastic sediments, and divided into Southwest Sub-basin, Central Sub-basin and Northeast Sub-basin by uplifts and faults developed in the basin. Microfossils were studied for the biostratigraphic works of drill wells in the Kunsan Basin. The microfossils include organic-walled microfossils such as spores, pollen and nonmarine dinoflagellates and calcareous microfossils such as ostracods, charophytes and gastropods. The fossil assemblages of the Kunsan Basin reveal nonmarine environments ranging from alluvial fan to shallow lacustrine and climatic variation between subtropical and cool temperate temperature in the arid/humid alternating conditions. According to the paleontological data, the Kunsan Basin was initiated in the Early Cretaceous and expanded during Paleogene followed by regional erosion at the closing time of Paleogene on which Neogene sediments have been accumulated. The Paleogene strata show laterally irregular thickness in each Epoch due to migrating depocenter. 2) Petroliferous basin analysis in Hapcheon area (I) : The Cretaceous Gyeongsang Supergroup consists of more than 9 Km sequences of sedimentary and volcanic rocks in Hapcheon-Changyong-Euiryong-Haman area and occupies the middle part of the Milyang subbasin. The Supergroup can be divided into three group; Sindong, Hayang and Yuchon groups in ascending order. Based on rock color, the Sindong Group can be subdivided into Nakdong, Hasandong and Jinju Formations. The Hayang Group can be subdivided into Chilgok, Silla Conglomerate, Haman and Jindong Formations. The Chilgok Formation includes basaltic lava and tuffs in the upper part. The Haman Formation has Kusandong tuff (keybed) in the uppermost part in the Changyong area, whereas the tuff is intercalated below the vocaniclastics in the Haman area. (author). 60 refs., 22 tabs., 61 figs.

  17. Assessment of land cover changes in Lampedusa Island (Italy) using Landsat TM and OLI data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Alessandro; Manzo, Ciro; Fontinovo, Giuliano; Bassani, Cristiana; Allegrini, Alessia; Petracchini, Francesco

    2016-10-01

    The Lampedusa Island displays important socio-economic criticalities related to an intensive touristic activity, which implies an increase in electricity consumption and waste production. An adequate island conversion to a more environmental, sustainable community needs to be faced by the local Management Plans establishment. For this purpose, several thematic datasets have to be produced and evaluated. Socio-economic and bio-ecological components as well as land cover/use assessment are some of the main topics to be managed within the Decision Support Systems. Considering the lack of Land Cover (LC) and vegetation change detection maps in Lampedusa Island (Italy), this paper focuses on the retrieval of these topics by remote sensing techniques. The analysis was carried out by Landsat 5 TM and Landsat 8 OLI multispectral images from 1984 to 2014 in order to obtain spatial and temporal information of changes occurred in the island. Firstly, imagery was co-registered and atmospherically corrected; secondly, it was then classified for land cover and vegetation distribution analysis with the use of QGIS and Saga GIS open source softwares. The Maximum Likelihood Classifier (MLC) was used for LC maps production, while the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) was used for vegetation examination and distribution. Topographic maps, historical aerial photos, ortophotos and field data are merged in the GIS for accuracy assessment. Finally, change detection of MLC and NDVI are provided respectively by Post-Classification Comparison (PCC) and Image Differencing (ID). The provided information, combined with local socio-economic parameters, is essential for the improvement of environmental sustainability of anthropogenic activities in Lampedusa.

  18. Exports of petroleum products, 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-04-01

    A summary is presented of exports of motor gasoline, middle distillate, aviation turbine fuel, heavy fuel oil, and partially processed oil from Canada for the 1987 calendar year. A discussion of petroleum product imports is included in order to put exports in the context of the overall trade. Exports of the above petroleum products averaged 22,200 m 3 /d in 1987, up 15% from 1986 levels. Exports of middle distillates and aviation fuel had the largest gains in 1987. Export prices for light petroleum products stayed relatively close to USA spot prices. The heavy fuel oil price was below the New York spot price in the beginning of 1987 but remained close for the rest of the year. Canada's petroleum products exports were made to 5 countries while imports came from at least 13 countries. The USA remained Canada's largest trading partner in petroleum products. Exports to Japan and the Far East rose ca 60% over 1986. Product outturns for export were 9% of total Canadian refinery throughput. Exports of aviation turbine fuel from Ontario began in April 1987. The top single exporter in Canada was Irving Oil Ltd. with 2,485,000 m 3 . Irving was also the top exporter in 1986. 11 figs., 4 tabs

  19. Exports of petroleum products, 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-04-01

    A summary is presented of exports of motor gasoline, middle distillate, aviation turbine fuel, heavy fuel oil, and partially processed oil from Canada for the 1989 calendar year. A discussion of petroleum product imports is included in order to put exports in the context of the overall trade. Exports of the above petroleum products averaged 30,400 m 3 /d in 1989, down 5% from 1988 levels. Motor gasoline shipments showed the largest decrease, down 1,500 m 3 to 7,700 m 3 /d. Export prices for light petroleum products stayed relatively close to USA spot prices except in June and July 1989, when attractive prices were obtained for shipments from the prairie provinces. The heavy fuel oil export price was similar to the USA east coast spot price in 1989, except in December. Canada's petroleum products imports in 1989 were 21,600 m 3 /d, compared to 18,400 m 3 /d in 1988. Imports of heavy fuel oil in eastern Canada rose 36% in 1989 because of industries switching from electricity and the high demand for thermal power generation. The USA remained Canada's largest trading partner in petroleum products. The top single exporter in 1989, as in 1988, was Newfoundland Processing, with a volume of 3,484,500 m 3 . 24 figs., 4 tabs

  20. Exports of petroleum products, 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-04-01

    A summary is presented of exports of motor gasoline, middle distillate, aviation turbine fuel, heavy fuel oil, and partially processed oil from Canada for the 1988 calendar year. A discussion of petroleum product imports is included in order to put exports in the context of the overall trade. Exports of the above petroleum products averaged 32,000 m 3 /d in 1988, up 44% from 1987 levels. Each product except aviation fuel registered increases in export volumes, which reached the highest total volume of the decade. The main reason for the large increase was the first full year of production from the export-directed refinery at Come By Chance, Newfoundland. Export prices for light petroleum products stayed relatively close to USA spot prices. The heavy fuel oil price was mostly above the USA east coast spot price during 1988. Attractive prices on the USA east coast resulted in a few cargoes of middle distillate and motor gasoline shipped from British Columbia. Petroleum products imports came from 12 countries; Quebec had the largest volume of imports in 1988. The USA remained Canada's largest trading partner in petroleum products. Western exporters view the Far East as an ongoing important market. The top single exporter in Canada was Newfoundland Processing, with 32% of the total export volume. 12 figs., 3 tabs

  1. The hidden face of the petroleum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laurent, E.

    2006-02-01

    For the first time, a book reveals what that was hidden to the public opinions: why the petroleum crisis of 1973 what only a manipulation, an arrangement between the OPEC and the petroleum companies, why the data concerning the petroleum reserves are wrong and increased by the producers countries, how Washington used the Saudi petroleum weapon to create the Soviet Union fall, and why from march 2001 maps of the Iraq (where were drawn the future petroleum explorations) were working documents for the vice President Cheney and petroleum managers for the ''secret society''. (A.L.B.)

  2. Close binary stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsson-Leander, G.

    1979-01-01

    Studies of close binary stars are being persued more vigorously than ever, with about 3000 research papers and notes pertaining to the field being published during the triennium 1976-1978. Many major advances and spectacular discoveries were made, mostly due to increased observational efficiency and precision, especially in the X-ray, radio, and ultraviolet domains. Progress reports are presented in the following areas: observational techniques, methods of analyzing light curves, observational data, physical data, structure and models of close binaries, statistical investigations, and origin and evolution of close binaries. Reports from the Coordinates Programs Committee, the Committee for Extra-Terrestrial Observations and the Working Group on RS CVn binaries are included. (Auth./C.F.)

  3. Binary and ternary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrov, D.A.

    1986-01-01

    Conditions for thermodynamical equilibrium in binary and ternary systems are considered. Main types of binary and ternary system phase diagrams are sequently constructed on the basis of general regularities on the character of transition from one equilibria to others. New statements on equilibrium line direction in the diagram triple points and their isothermal cross sections are developed. New represenations on equilibria in case of monovariant curve minimum and maximum on three-phase equilibrium formation in ternary system are introduced

  4. Planet formation in Binaries

    OpenAIRE

    Thebault, Ph.; Haghighipour, N.

    2014-01-01

    Spurred by the discovery of numerous exoplanets in multiple systems, binaries have become in recent years one of the main topics in planet formation research. Numerous studies have investigated to what extent the presence of a stellar companion can affect the planet formation process. Such studies have implications that can reach beyond the sole context of binaries, as they allow to test certain aspects of the planet formation scenario by submitting them to extreme environments. We review her...

  5. Ireland unveils petroleum tax measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that Ireland's government has introduced detailed petroleum tax legislation designed to boost offshore exploration and development. The petroleum tax measures, published last week and included in the government's omnibus finance bill for 1992, will provide Ireland for the first time a comprehensive petroleum tax regime. They include elements which, in tax terms, will make Ireland a most attractive location for oil and gas exploration and development, the Irish Energy Minister Robert Molloy. He the, Exploration companies will now have the benefit of the certainty of a detailed tax framework and attractive tax rates. Debate on the finance bill has begun in the Irish Dail (parliament). Under Ireland's constitution, the budget bill must be approved and signed by the president by the end of May. Failure to approve a budget bill within that time would mean the current government's collapse

  6. Petroleum 1996 - issues and trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    Increasingly, users of the Energy Information Administration`s petroleum data and analytical reports have expressed an interest in a recurring report that takes a broad view of the petroleum sector. What is sought is some perspective on the complex interrelationships that comprise an industry and markets accounting for 40 percent of the energy consumed in the United States and ranging from the drilling rig in the oil field to the pump at the local gasoline station. This report comprehensively examines historical trends, and selectively focuses on major issues and the events they represent. It analyzes different dimensions of the industry and related markets in terms of how they relate to a common theme, in this case, the volatility in petroleum markets.

  7. Biological Remediation of Petroleum Contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhad, Ramesh Chander; Gupta, Rishi

    Large volumes of hazardous wastes are generated in the form of oily sludges and contaminated soils during crude oil transportation and processing. Although many physical, chemical and biological treatment technologies are available for petroleum contaminants petroleum contaminants in soil, biological methods have been considered the most cost-effective. Practical biological remediation methods typically involve direct use of the microbes naturally occurring in the contaminated environment and/or cultured indigenous or modified microorganisms. Environmental and nutritional factors, including the properties of the soil, the chemical structure of the hydrocarbon(s), oxygen, water, nutrient availability, pH, temperature, and contaminant bioavailability, can significantly affect the rate and the extent of hydrocarbon biodegradation hydrocarbon biodegradation by microorganisms in contaminated soils. This chapter concisely discusses the major aspects of bioremediation of petroleum contaminants.

  8. Recent Advances in Petroleum Microbiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hamme, Jonathan D.; Singh, Ajay; Ward, Owen P.

    2003-01-01

    Recent advances in molecular biology have extended our understanding of the metabolic processes related to microbial transformation of petroleum hydrocarbons. The physiological responses of microorganisms to the presence of hydrocarbons, including cell surface alterations and adaptive mechanisms for uptake and efflux of these substrates, have been characterized. New molecular techniques have enhanced our ability to investigate the dynamics of microbial communities in petroleum-impacted ecosystems. By establishing conditions which maximize rates and extents of microbial growth, hydrocarbon access, and transformation, highly accelerated and bioreactor-based petroleum waste degradation processes have been implemented. Biofilters capable of removing and biodegrading volatile petroleum contaminants in air streams with short substrate-microbe contact times (desulfurization processes with biodesulfurization methods through promotion of selective sulfur removal without degradation of associated carbon moieties. However, since microbes require an environment containing some water, a two-phase oil-water system must be established to optimize contact between the microbes and the hydrocarbon, and such an emulsion is not easily created with viscous crude oil. This challenge may be circumvented by application of the technology to more refined gasoline and diesel substrates, where aqueous-hydrocarbon emulsions are more easily generated. Molecular approaches are being used to broaden the substrate specificity and increase the rates and extents of desulfurization. Bacterial processes are being commercialized for removal of H2S and sulfoxides from petrochemical waste streams. Microbes also have potential for use in removal of nitrogen from crude oil leading to reduced nitric oxide emissions provided that technical problems similar to those experienced in biodesulfurization can be solved. Enzymes are being exploited to produce added-value products from petroleum substrates, and

  9. Petroleum industry opportunities in Guatemala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The investment opportunities that Guatemala has to offer in the petroleum sector are discussed, highlighting aspects of legislation as well as investment recovery. The increase in seismic and geological information that Guatemala has recently accumulated allows for an increased level of success in petroleum exploration, which coupled with an increase in basic infrastructure and the experience acquired in the administration of the hydrocarbons law, make it more attractive for foreign investment. An overview is presented of the sedimentary basins present, exploratory activity, surface reconnaissance permits, production sharing contracts, prices, taxation, royalties, and options. 7 figs

  10. The petroleum dilemma of Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roubinski, Y.

    2004-01-01

    Russia is confronted with major choices in the research of an optimum petroleum strategy. Now the first world exporter, Russia takes advantage of the Usa policy, first importer, which aim to diversify their supply sources since the 11 september 2001, to decrease their dependence from the Saudi Arabia and more generally from the instable Middle East. In another hand, Moscow wants to minimize the dependence of the petroleum benefit and the oils prices fluctuations, by a diversification of its economy structure. These choices define a part of the russian policy in the context of the presidential elections of march 2004. (A.L.B.)

  11. Petroleum marketing monthly, September 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-14

    This document designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and for the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented.

  12. Saudi Arabia: petroleum industry review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shammas, Pierre

    2000-01-01

    A comprehensive review is provided of Saudi Arabia's petroleum industry covering oil and gas exploration and production, refining, oil and gas trade, marketing and Saudi overseas investments. Profiles of key Saudi decision makers are provided. A statistical appendix includes data from the start of oil production in Saudi Arabia in 1938. Part I Geological potential; Part II The Saudi energy economy; Part III Production capacity; Part IV The oil refining sector ; Part V Exports and logistics; Part VI Overseas petroleum industry investments; Part VII The decision makers; Part VIII Statistical Appendix; Reserves, Production, Exports, Prices 1950 to 1999. (Author)

  13. Petroleum marketing monthly, June 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-06-10

    This publication is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented.

  14. Towards the end of full-petroleum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The experts agree on the petroleum reserves exhausting. Even if some disagreements subsist on the term, the years 2020 seem to be decisive. This paper takes stock on the governments policy facing the petroleum reserves decrease. (A.L.B.)

  15. Stable isotope mass spectrometry in petroleum exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathur, Manju

    1997-01-01

    The stable isotope mass spectrometry plays an important role to evaluate the stable isotopic composition of hydrocarbons. The isotopic ratios of certain elements in petroleum samples reflect certain characteristics which are useful for petroleum exploration

  16. BIOREMEDIATION OF A PETROLEUM-HYDROCARBON

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ES OBE

    under field conditions in the bioremediation of a petroleum- hydrocarbon polluted ... an accelerated biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in a polluted agricultural soil ..... 12) Jackson, M.L. Soil chemical analysis. ... biological assay. 3 rd.

  17. Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH): ToxFAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a state: This map displays locations where Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH) is known to be present. On ... I get more information? ToxFAQs TM for Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH) ( Hidrocarburos Totales de Petróleo (TPH) ) August ...

  18. Canadian Petroleum Products Inst. annual report, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The Canadian Petroleum Products Institute (CPPI) was created in 1989 as a nonprofit association of Canadian refiners and marketers of petroleum products. In 1991, the Atlantic Petroleum Association, the Quebec Petroleum Association, the Ontario Petroleum Association, the Canada West Petroleum Association, and the Petroleum Association for Conservation of the Canadian Environment (PACE) were integrated into the CPPI. The objective of the CPPI is to serve and represent the refining and marketing sectors of the petroleum industry with respect to environment, health and safety, and business issues. An industry overview is provided, as well as highlights of environmental achievements and challenges, and economics and operations for the year. Lists of CPPI publications, standing committees, and officers are also included. 9 figs

  19. FRACTURED PETROLEUM RESERVOIRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbas Firoozabadi

    1999-06-11

    different from that of gas displacement processes. The work is of experimental nature and clarifies several misconceptions in the literature. Based on experimental results, it is established that the main reason for high efficiency of solution gas drive from heavy oil reservoirs is due to low gas mobility. Chapter III presents the concept of the alteration of porous media wettability from liquid-wetting to intermediate gas-wetting. The idea is novel and has not been introduced in the petroleum literature before. There are significant implications from such as proposal. The most direct application of intermediate gas wetting is wettability alteration around the wellbore. Such an alteration can significantly improve well deliverability in gas condensate reservoirs where gas well deliverability decreases below dewpoint pressure. Part I of Chapter III studies the effect of gravity, viscous forces, interfacial tension, and wettability on the critical condensate saturation and relative permeability of gas condensate systems. A simple phenomenological network model is used for this study, The theoretical results reveal that wettability significantly affects both the critical gas saturation and gas relative permeability. Gas relative permeability may increase ten times as contact angle is altered from 0{sup o} (strongly liquid wet) to 85{sup o} (intermediate gas-wetting). The results from the theoretical study motivated the experimental investigation described in Part II. In Part II we demonstrate that the wettability of porous media can be altered from liquid-wetting to gas-wetting. This part describes our attempt to find appropriate chemicals for wettability alteration of various substrates including rock matrix. Chapter IV provides a comprehensive treatment of molecular, pressure, and thermal diffusion and convection in porous media Basic theoretical analysis is presented using irreversible thermodynamics.

  20. The role of the national petroleum company in petroleum development market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, B J [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-08-01

    The present century started with the creation of national petroleum companies, and it ends with those national petroleum companies exerting various types of efforts to increase the efficiency of their management. Especially, the efforts of these national petroleum companies are ever intensifying to adapt to new trends in the world petroleum market such as intensified competition, ever-deepening price unstableness, separation of structure between upstream and downstream portions, rapid development of petroleum development technologies, change of political systems and the demise of national borders, ever-increasing consciousness of environmental preservation, etc. Korea cannot be exempt from management rationalization efforts of national petroleum companies. Especially, Korea established its own national petroleum company in order to actively deal with these as its supply system is very weak. Therefore, the national petroleum company should create as many successful petroleum development businesses by actively carrying out petroleum development businesses domestically and overseas in order to establish a stable supply system of petroleum and to support the petroleum development businesses of civilian enterprises more effectively. The national petroleum company must, first of all, replace the bureaucracy with entrepreneurship. Esp., in order to enhance the efficiency of management, short- term outcome should not be emphasized over long-term tenure of petroleum development businesses, and excessive interference of government on the national petroleum company should be excluded. The entrepreneurship of the national petroleum company should be pursued in Positive-sum way, and its public image should be actively promoted through this. 35 refs., 11 figs., 32 tabs.

  1. 77 FR 56421 - Standards of Performance for Petroleum Refineries; Standards of Performance for Petroleum...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-12

    ... Parts 9 and 60 Standards of Performance for Petroleum Refineries; Standards of Performance for Petroleum...-9672-3] RIN 2060-AN72 Standards of Performance for Petroleum Refineries; Standards of Performance for Petroleum Refineries for Which Construction, Reconstruction, or Modification Commenced After May 14, 2007...

  2. 46 CFR 148.04-15 - Petroleum coke, uncalcined; petroleum coke, uncalcined and calcined (mixture).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Petroleum coke, uncalcined; petroleum coke, uncalcined and calcined (mixture). 148.04-15 Section 148.04-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Requirements for Certain Material § 148.04-15 Petroleum coke, uncalcined; petroleum coke, uncalcined and...

  3. The United States facing their petroleum dependence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noel, P.

    2002-06-01

    In the framework of ''the energy crisis of 2000-2001'', the Cheney report and the petroleum dependence, this study presents a critical examination of the United States petroleum situation, its perception in the american political milieu and the public policies implementing during the last ten years. The first section is devoted to the petroleum supply. In the second section, the american petroleum policy and the energy safety are studied. (A.L.B.)

  4. Fact sheet. Norwegian petroleum activity 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westgaard, T. [ed.

    1996-02-01

    The present report from the Royal Ministry of Industry and Energy deals with the Norwegian petroleum activity. Main topics are as follow: Historical overview; state organisation of petroleum activities; the economic impact of Norwegian oil and gas; state revenues; mainland activities; petroleum resources; production; marketing situation for petroleum products; environmental aspects; the legal and licence framework; licensing rounds; exploration; fields in production; fields under development; discoveries with development plan under consideration; transportation systems; licence interests; company interests. 36 refs., 24 figs., 15 tabs.

  5. EFEKTIVITAS LIMBAH RAMBUT DALAM MENURUNKAN KADAR MINYAK OLI PADA AIR LIMBAH BENGKEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainal Akhmadi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Effectiveness Of Hair Waste In Reducing Waste Oil Level In Waste Water Of Service Station. Waste service stations classified as B3 waste because they contain hazardous materials that may damage or pollute the environment or endanger human health.  The purpose is to determine the efficient design of wastewater treatment with the combination of hair waste as media capture and coconut shell charcoal as filtration media in reducing total oil in wastewater. This study is quasi-experimental. The independent variables include combinations of hair waste as media capture and coconut shell charcoal as filtration media with a thickness of 40 cm and 80 cm, while the dependent variable is the oil content in the wastewater. The location of research is motor vehicle repair shop Tire MTL jl. Wahid Hasyim, office Surya Pratama numbers 4-5 Pontianak. The content of the oil content of wastewater motor vehicle repair shop before treatment by an average of 26.466 mg / l and 4.283 mg / l of after treatment. From the results of these measurements that effectively amounted to 83.6%. Waste Water Treatment with a combination of hair waste and coconut shell charcoal as an effective filtration media for reduced total oil in wastewater for the motor vehicle repair shop. Abstrak: Efektivitas Limbah Rambut Dalam Menurunkan Kadar Minyak Oli Pada Air Limbah Bengkel. Limbah bengkel digolongkan sebagai limbah B3 karena mengandung bahan berbahaya yang dapat merusak atau mencemari lingkungan atau membahayakan kesehatan manusia. Tujuan penelitian adalah menentukan desain efektivitas pengolahan air limbah dengan kombinasi limbah rambut capture media dan arang tempurung kelapa sebagai media filtrasi dalam mengurangi minyak total dalam air limbah. Penelitian ini merupakan kuasi-eksperimental. Variabel bebas mencakup kombinasi dari limbah rambut capture media dan arang tempurung kelapa sebagai media filtrasi dengan ketebalan 40 cm dan 80 cm, sedangkan variabel dependen adalah

  6. On the Tengiz petroleum deposit previous study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nysangaliev, A.N.; Kuspangaliev, T.K.

    1997-01-01

    Tengiz petroleum deposit previous study is described. Some consideration about structure of productive formation, specific characteristic properties of petroleum-bearing collectors are presented. Recommendation on their detail study and using of experience on exploration and development of petroleum deposit which have analogy on most important geological and industrial parameters are given. (author)

  7. The petroleum industry in 1999 (editorial)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This document deals with the petroleum activity in 1999. It provides three economic analysis. The first one concerns the petroleum industry activity in 1999 and the corresponding french energy policy. The second one presents the petroleum activity in the world. The third one presents the hydrocarbons market supplying in France. (A.L.B.)

  8. 78 FR 40131 - National Petroleum Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY National Petroleum Council AGENCY: Office of Fossil Energy, Department of... Petroleum Council. The Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463, 86 Stat. 770) requires that public... Administrative Matters Discussion of Any Other Business Properly Brought Before the National Petroleum Council...

  9. Unit: Petroleum, Inspection Pack, National Trial Print.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Australian Science Education Project, Toorak, Victoria.

    This is a National Trial Print of a unit on petroleum developed for the Australian Science Education Project. The package contains the teacher's edition of the written material and a script for a film entitled "The Extraordinary Experience of Nicholas Nodwell" emphasizing the uses of petroleum and petroleum products in daily life and…

  10. 77 FR 42297 - National Petroleum Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY National Petroleum Council AGENCY: Department of Energy, Office of Fossil... National Petroleum Council. The Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463, 86 Stat. 770) requires that... Matters Discussion of Any Other Business Properly Brought Before the National Petroleum Council...

  11. 76 FR 53889 - National Petroleum Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY National Petroleum Council AGENCY: Department of Energy, Office of Fossil... Petroleum Council. The Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463, 86 Stat. 770) requires that public... Properly Brought Before the National, Petroleum Council, Adjournment. Public Participation: The meeting is...

  12. Panorama of the petroleum industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-05-01

    This document provides tables and charts of statistical data concerning the petroleum industry activity in 2002: supply and demand, prices, consumption, service station number and the market. A second part is devoted to the fuel quality and air quality: the constant improvement of the fuels and the investments refining/distribution. (A.L.B.)

  13. A Computerized Petroleum Geology Package.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Louise E.

    1983-01-01

    Describes a package of computer programs developed to implement an oil exploration game that gives undergraduate students practical experience in applying theoretical principles of petroleum geology. The programs facilitate management of the game by the instructor and enhance the learning experience. (Author/MBR)

  14. PETROLEUM BIOREFINING FOR POLLUTION PREVENTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John J. Kilbane II

    2002-03-01

    The objective of this project was to isolate and characterize thermophilic bacterial cultures that can be used for the selective removal of nitrogen, sulfur, and/or metals in the biorefining of petroleum. The project was completed on schedule and no major difficulties were encountered. Significant progress was made on multiple topics relevant to the development of a petroleum biorefining process capable of operating at thermophilic temperatures. New cultures capable of selectively cleaving C-N or C-S bonds in molecules relevant to petroleum were obtained, and the genes encoding the enzymes for these unique biochemical reactions were cloned and sequenced. Genetic tools were developed that enable the use of Thermus thermophilus as a host to express any gene of interest, and information was obtained regarding the optimum conditions for the growth of T. thermophilus. The development of a practical biorefining process still requires further research and the future research needs identified in this project include the development of new enzymes and pathways for the selective cleavage of C-N or C-S bonds that have higher specific activities, increased substrate range, and are capable of functioning at thermophilic temperatures. Additionally, there is a need for process engineering research to determine the maximum yield of biomass and cloned gene products that can be obtained in fed-batch cultures using T. thermophilus, and to determine the best configuration for a process employing biocatalysts to treat petroleum.

  15. Volatility Spillovers Across Petroleum Markets

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Baruník, Jozef; Kočenda, Evžen; Vácha, Lukáš

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 36, č. 3 (2015), s. 309-329 ISSN 0195-6574 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-24129S Keywords : Volatility spillovers * Asymmetry * Petroleum markets Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.662, year: 2015 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2014/E/barunik-0438407.pdf

  16. Petroleum business of high risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carta Petrolera

    2001-01-01

    The paper is about the economic risk and of the geologic risk that assist the industry of the petroleum; an analysis of these types of risk, possibilities of success and investments to carry out in the search of hydrocarbons are made

  17. Tumaco the other Petroleum face

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carta Petrolera

    1997-01-01

    The Tumaco City (Colombia), it is one of the exit points of the Colombian and Ecuadorian petroleum. To Tumaco port arrives 80.000 daily barrels coming from the south of Colombia and Ecuador on the average. Tumaco and Covenas (shipment Port for the Caribbean Sea) they conform the points of shipment of the international trade of hydrocarbons in the country

  18. The petroleum industry in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-06-01

    A review is presented of China's petroleum industry. In recent years China has ranked as the world's fifth or sixth largest oil producer, providing ca 20% of China's energy needs and generating US $45 billion in exports during 1988-89. However, domestic oil consumption is rapidly outpacing growth in production, and China may become a net oil importer as early as March 1994 if trends continue. In order to slow declining production rates, China must: introduce modern management techniques, equipment and technology; accelerate exploration to find new reserves; employ the latest equipment and technology, consulting services and foreign training to develop new reserves as quickly as possible; and improve the efficiency with which petroleum is used and traded. Key players including the China National Petroleum Corporation, China National Oil Development Corporation, China National United Oil Company, and China National Offshore Oil Corporation are described. Current Chinese petroleum industry priorities are discussed, together with Canadian capabilities relevant to these activities, and recent bilateral agreements in the sector

  19. Skewed Binary Search Trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Moruz, Gabriel

    2006-01-01

    It is well-known that to minimize the number of comparisons a binary search tree should be perfectly balanced. Previous work has shown that a dominating factor over the running time for a search is the number of cache faults performed, and that an appropriate memory layout of a binary search tree...... can reduce the number of cache faults by several hundred percent. Motivated by the fact that during a search branching to the left or right at a node does not necessarily have the same cost, e.g. because of branch prediction schemes, we in this paper study the class of skewed binary search trees....... For all nodes in a skewed binary search tree the ratio between the size of the left subtree and the size of the tree is a fixed constant (a ratio of 1/2 gives perfect balanced trees). In this paper we present an experimental study of various memory layouts of static skewed binary search trees, where each...

  20. Subpixel Inundation Mapping Using Landsat-8 OLI and UAV Data for a Wetland Region on the Zoige Plateau, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haoming Xia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Wetland inundation is crucial to the survival and prosperity of fauna and flora communities in wetland ecosystems. Even small changes in surface inundation may result in a substantial impact on the wetland ecosystem characteristics and function. This study presented a novel method for wetland inundation mapping at a subpixel scale in a typical wetland region on the Zoige Plateau, northeast Tibetan Plateau, China, by combining use of an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV and Landsat-8 Operational Land Imager (OLI data. A reference subpixel inundation percentage (SIP map at a Landsat-8 OLI 30 m pixel scale was first generated using high resolution UAV data (0.16 m. The reference SIP map and Landsat-8 OLI imagery were then used to develop SIP estimation models using three different retrieval methods (Linear spectral unmixing (LSU, Artificial neural networks (ANN, and Regression tree (RT. Based on observations from 2014, the estimation results indicated that the estimation model developed with RT method could provide the best fitting results for the mapping wetland SIP (R2 = 0.933, RMSE = 8.73% compared to the other two methods. The proposed model with RT method was validated with observations from 2013, and the estimated SIP was highly correlated with the reference SIP, with an R2 of 0.986 and an RMSE of 9.84%. This study highlighted the value of high resolution UAV data and globally and freely available Landsat data in combination with the developed approach for monitoring finely gradual inundation change patterns in wetland ecosystems.

  1. Mapping paddy rice planting area in rice-wetland coexistent areas through analysis of Landsat 8 OLI and MODIS images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yuting; Xiao, Xiangming; Qin, Yuanwei; Dong, Jinwei; Zhang, Geli; Kou, Weili; Jin, Cui; Wang, Jie; Li, Xiangping

    2016-04-01

    Accurate and up-to-date information on the spatial distribution of paddy rice fields is necessary for the studies of trace gas emissions, water source management, and food security. The phenology-based paddy rice mapping algorithm, which identifies the unique flooding stage of paddy rice, has been widely used. However, identification and mapping of paddy rice in rice-wetland coexistent areas is still a challenging task. In this study, we found that the flooding/transplanting periods of paddy rice and natural wetlands were different. The natural wetlands flood earlier and have a shorter duration than paddy rice in the Panjin Plain, a temperate region in China. We used this asynchronous flooding stage to extract the paddy rice planting area from the rice-wetland coexistent area. MODIS Land Surface Temperature (LST) data was used to derive the temperature-defined plant growing season. Landsat 8 OLI imagery was used to detect the flooding signal and then paddy rice was extracted using the difference in flooding stages between paddy rice and natural wetlands. The resultant paddy rice map was evaluated with in-situ ground-truth data and Google Earth images. The estimated overall accuracy and Kappa coefficient were 95% and 0.90, respectively. The spatial pattern of OLI-derived paddy rice map agrees well with the paddy rice layer from the National Land Cover Dataset from 2010 (NLCD-2010). The differences between Rice Landsat and Rice NLCD are in the range of ±20% for most 1-km grid cell. The results of this study demonstrate the potential of the phenology-based paddy rice mapping algorithm, via integrating MODIS and Landsat 8 OLI images, to map paddy rice fields in complex landscapes of paddy rice and natural wetland in the temperate region.

  2. A mathematical model for predicting glucose levels in critically-ill patients: the PIGnOLI model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongheng Zhang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives. Glycemic control is of paramount importance in the intensive care unit. Presently, several BG control algorithms have been developed for clinical trials, but they are mostly based on experts’ opinion and consensus. There are no validated models predicting how glucose levels will change after initiating of insulin infusion in critically ill patients. The study aimed to develop an equation for initial insulin dose setting.Methods. A large critical care database was employed for the study. Linear regression model fitting was employed. Retested blood glucose was used as the independent variable. Insulin rate was forced into the model. Multivariable fractional polynomials and interaction terms were used to explore the complex relationships among covariates. The overall fit of the model was examined by using residuals and adjusted R-squared values. Regression diagnostics were used to explore the influence of outliers on the model.Main Results. A total of 6,487 ICU admissions requiring insulin pump therapy were identified. The dataset was randomly split into two subsets at 7 to 3 ratio. The initial model comprised fractional polynomials and interactions terms. However, this model was not stable by excluding several outliers. I fitted a simple linear model without interaction. The selected prediction model (Predicting Glucose Levels in ICU, PIGnOLI included variables of initial blood glucose, insulin rate, PO volume, total parental nutrition, body mass index (BMI, lactate, congestive heart failure, renal failure, liver disease, time interval of BS recheck, dextrose rate. Insulin rate was significantly associated with blood glucose reduction (coefficient: −0.52, 95% CI [−1.03, −0.01]. The parsimonious model was well validated with the validation subset, with an adjusted R-squared value of 0.8259.Conclusion. The study developed the PIGnOLI model for the initial insulin dose setting. Furthermore, experimental study is

  3. A cloud shadow detection method combined with cloud height iteration and spectral analysis for Landsat 8 OLI data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lin; Liu, Xinyan; Yang, Yikun; Chen, TingTing; Wang, Quan; Zhou, Xueying

    2018-04-01

    Although enhanced over prior Landsat instruments, Landsat 8 OLI can obtain very high cloud detection precisions, but for the detection of cloud shadows, it still faces great challenges. Geometry-based cloud shadow detection methods are considered the most effective and are being improved constantly. The Function of Mask (Fmask) cloud shadow detection method is one of the most representative geometry-based methods that has been used for cloud shadow detection with Landsat 8 OLI. However, the Fmask method estimates cloud height employing fixed temperature rates, which are highly uncertain, and errors of large area cloud shadow detection can be caused by errors in estimations of cloud height. This article improves the geometry-based cloud shadow detection method for Landsat OLI from the following two aspects. (1) Cloud height no longer depends on the brightness temperature of the thermal infrared band but uses a possible dynamic range from 200 m to 12,000 m. In this case, cloud shadow is not a specific location but a possible range. Further analysis was carried out in the possible range based on the spectrum to determine cloud shadow location. This effectively avoids the cloud shadow leakage caused by the error in the height determination of a cloud. (2) Object-based and pixel spectral analyses are combined to detect cloud shadows, which can realize cloud shadow detection from two aspects of target scale and pixel scale. Based on the analysis of the spectral differences between the cloud shadow and typical ground objects, the best cloud shadow detection bands of Landsat 8 OLI were determined. The combined use of spectrum and shape can effectively improve the detection precision of cloud shadows produced by thin clouds. Several cloud shadow detection experiments were carried out, and the results were verified by the results of artificial recognition. The results of these experiments indicated that this method can identify cloud shadows in different regions with correct

  4. Modelling binary data

    CERN Document Server

    Collett, David

    2002-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Some Examples The Scope of this Book Use of Statistical Software STATISTICAL INFERENCE FOR BINARY DATA The Binomial Distribution Inference about the Success Probability Comparison of Two Proportions Comparison of Two or More Proportions MODELS FOR BINARY AND BINOMIAL DATA Statistical Modelling Linear Models Methods of Estimation Fitting Linear Models to Binomial Data Models for Binomial Response Data The Linear Logistic Model Fitting the Linear Logistic Model to Binomial Data Goodness of Fit of a Linear Logistic Model Comparing Linear Logistic Models Linear Trend in Proportions Comparing Stimulus-Response Relationships Non-Convergence and Overfitting Some other Goodness of Fit Statistics Strategy for Model Selection Predicting a Binary Response Probability BIOASSAY AND SOME OTHER APPLICATIONS The Tolerance Distribution Estimating an Effective Dose Relative Potency Natural Response Non-Linear Logistic Regression Models Applications of the Complementary Log-Log Model MODEL CHECKING Definition of Re...

  5. Evolution of dwarf binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tutukov, A.V.; Fedorova, A.V.; Yungel'son, L.R.

    1982-01-01

    The conditions of mass exchange in close binary systems with masses of components less or equal to one solar mass have been analysed for the case, when the system radiates gravitational waves. It has been shown that the mass exchange rate depends in a certain way on the mass ratio of components and on the mass of component that fills its inner critical lobe. The comparison of observed periods, masses of contact components, and mass exchange rates of observed cataclysmic binaries have led to the conclusion that the evolution of close binaries WZ Sge, OY Car, Z Cha, TT Ari, 2A 0311-227, and G 61-29 may be driven by the emission of gravitational waves [ru

  6. Binary catalogue of exoplanets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Richard; Bazso, Akos; Zechner, Renate; Funk, Barbara

    2016-02-01

    Since 1995 there is a database which list most of the known exoplanets (The Extrasolar Planets Encyclopaedia at http://exoplanet.eu/). With the growing number of detected exoplanets in binary and multiple star systems it became more important to mark and to separate them into a new database, which is not available in the Extrasolar Planets Encyclopaedia. Therefore we established an online database (which can be found at: http://www.univie.ac.at/adg/schwarz/multiple.html) for all known exoplanets in binary star systems and in addition for multiple star systems, which will be updated regularly and linked to the Extrasolar Planets Encyclopaedia. The binary catalogue of exoplanets is available online as data file and can be used for statistical purposes. Our database is divided into two parts: the data of the stars and the planets, given in a separate list. We describe also the different parameters of the exoplanetary systems and present some applications.

  7. Binary and Millisecond Pulsars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorimer, Duncan R

    2008-01-01

    We review the main properties, demographics and applications of binary and millisecond radio pulsars. Our knowledge of these exciting objects has greatly increased in recent years, mainly due to successful surveys which have brought the known pulsar population to over 1800. There are now 83 binary and millisecond pulsars associated with the disk of our Galaxy, and a further 140 pulsars in 26 of the Galactic globular clusters. Recent highlights include the discovery of the young relativistic binary system PSR J1906+0746, a rejuvination in globular cluster pulsar research including growing numbers of pulsars with masses in excess of 1.5 M ⊙ , a precise measurement of relativistic spin precession in the double pulsar system and a Galactic millisecond pulsar in an eccentric ( e = 0.44) orbit around an unevolved companion. Supplementary material is available for this article at 10.12942/lrr-2008-8.

  8. Binary and Millisecond Pulsars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorimer Duncan R.

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available We review the main properties, demographics and applications of binary and millisecond radio pulsars. Our knowledge of these exciting objects has greatly increased in recent years, mainly due to successful surveys which have brought the known pulsar population to over 1800. There are now 83 binary and millisecond pulsars associated with the disk of our Galaxy, and a further 140 pulsars in 26 of the Galactic globular clusters. Recent highlights include the discovery of the young relativistic binary system PSR J1906+0746, a rejuvination in globular cluster pulsar research including growing numbers of pulsars with masses in excess of 1.5M_⊙, a precise measurement of relativistic spin precession in the double pulsar system and a Galactic millisecond pulsar in an eccentric (e = 0.44 orbit around an unevolved companion.

  9. Dissipative binary collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aboufirassi, M; Angelique, J.C.; Bizard, G.; Bougault, R.; Brou, R.; Buta, A.; Colin, J.; Cussol, D.; Durand, D.; Genoux-Lubain, A.; Horn, D.; Kerambrun, A.; Laville, J.L.; Le Brun, C.; Lecolley, J.F.; Lefebvres, F.; Lopez, O.; Louvel, M.; Meslin, C.; Metivier, V.; Nakagawa, T.; Peter, J.; Popescu, R.; Regimbart, R.; Steckmeyer, J.C.; Tamain, B.; Vient, E.; Wieloch, A.; Yuasa-Nakagawa, K.

    1998-01-01

    The binary character of the heavy ion collisions at intermediate energies in the exit channel has been observed under 30 MeV/n in medium and heavy systems. Measurements in light systems at energies approaching ∼ 100 MeV/nucleon as well as in very heavy systems have allowed to extend considerably the investigations of this binary process. Thus, the study of the Pb + Au system showed that the complete charge events indicated two distinct sources: the quasi-projectile and the quasi-target. The characteristics of these two sources are rather well reproduced by a trajectory computation which takes into account the Coulomb and nuclear forces and the friction appearing from the projectile-target interaction. The Wilczynski diagram is used to probe the correlation between the kinetic energy quenching and the deflecting angle. In case of the system Pb + Au at 29 MeV/nucleon the diagram indicate dissipative binary collisions typical for low energies. This binary aspect was also detected in the systems Xe + Ag at 44 MeV/nucleon, 36 Ar + 27 Al and 64 Zn + nat Ti. Thus, it was possible to reconstruct the quasi-projectile and to study its mass and excitation energy evolution as a function of the impact parameter. The dissipative binary collisions represent for the systems and energies under considerations the main contribution to the cross section. This does not implies that there are not other processes; particularly, the more or less complete fusion is also observed but with a low cross section which decreases with the increase of bombardment energy. More exclusive measurements with the INDRA detector on quasi-symmetric systems as Ar + KCl and Xe + Sn seem to confirm the importance of the binary collisions. The two source reconstruction of the Xe + Sn data at 50 MeV/nucleon reproduces the same behaviour as that observed in the system Pb + Au at 29 MeV/nucleon

  10. Binary and Millisecond Pulsars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorimer Duncan R.

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available We review the main properties, demographics and applications of binary and millisecond radio pulsars. Our knowledge of these exciting objects has greatly increased in recent years, mainly due to successful surveys which have brought the known pulsar population to over 1700. There are now 80 binary and millisecond pulsars associated with the disk of our Galaxy, and a further 103 pulsars in 24 of the Galactic globular clusters. Recent highlights have been the discovery of the first ever double pulsar system and a recent flurry of discoveries in globular clusters, in particular Terzan 5.

  11. Two related lithium calixarene complexes, [p-tert-butylcalix[4]arene(OMe)(OH)2(OLi)](2).4MeCN and {p-tert-butylcalix[4]arene(OH)2(OLi)[OLi(NCMe)2]}(2).8MeCN, determined using synchrotron radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Darren S; Elsegood, Mark R J; Redshaw, Carl; Zhan, Shuzhong

    2009-08-01

    The crystal structures of acetonitrile solvates of two related lithium calixarene complexes have been determined by low-temperature single-crystal X-ray diffraction using synchrotron radiation. Bis(mu-5,11,17,23-tetra-tert-butyl-26,28-dihydroxy-25-methoxy-27-oxidocalix[4]arene)dilithium(I) acetonitrile tetrasolvate, [Li2(C45H57O4)2].4C2H3N or [p-tert-butylcalix[4]arene(OMe)(OH)2(OLi)](2).4MeCN, (I), crystallizes with the complex across a centre of symmetry and with four molecules of unbound acetonitrile of crystallization per complex. Tetraacetonitrilebis(mu-5,11,17,23-tetra-tert-butyl-26,28-dihydroxy-25,27-dioxidocalix[4]arene)tetralithium(I) acetonitrile octasolvate, [Li4(C44H54O4)2(C2H3N)4].8C2H3N or {p-tert-butylcalix[4]arene(OH)2(OLi)[OLi(NCMe)2]}(2).8MeCN, (II), also crystallizes with the complex lying across a centre of symmetry and contains eight molecules of unbound acetonitrile per complex plus four more directly bound to two of the lithium ions, two on each ion. The cores of both complexes are partially supported by O-H...O hydrogen bonds. The methoxy methyl groups in (I) prevent the binding of any more than two Li+ ions, while the corresponding two O-atom sites in (II) bind an extra Li(+) ion each, making four in total. The calixarene cone adopts an undistorted cone conformation in (I), but an elliptical one in (II).

  12. Petroleum Resins: Separation, Character, and Role in Petroleum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Simon Ivar; Speight, James

    2001-01-01

    are precipitated, adsorbents are added to the n-pentane solutions of the resins and oils, by which process the resins are adsorbed and subsequently recovered by the use of a more polar solvent, and the oils remain in solution. The resin fraction plays an important role in the stability of petroleum and prevents...... separation of the asphaltene constituents as a separate phase. Indeed, the absence of the resin fraction (produced by a variety of methods) from the maltenes influences the ability of the de-resined maltenes to accommodate the asphaltenes either in solution or as a stable part of a colloidal system. In spite....... Suggestions are also made regarding current thoughts of the role of these constituents on the structure and stability of petroleum....

  13. Petroleum Supply Monthly, September 1990. [Contains glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whited, D.; Jacobus, P. (eds.)

    1990-11-28

    Data presented in this PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in Primary Supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. 12 figs., 46 tabs.

  14. Petroleum supply monthly, October 1991. [Contains glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-30

    Data presented in this report describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in Primary Supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importer, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data are divided into two sections (1) the Summary Statistics and (2) the Detailed Statistics 14 figs., 56 tabs.

  15. Petroleum supply monthly, October 1990. [Contains Glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-27

    Data presented in this report describes the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in Primary Supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. 12 figs., 54 tabs.

  16. OLI/ESP Modeling Of The Semi-Integrated Pilot Plant For Estimate Of Campaigns I-IV Simulant Volumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CARL, BARNES

    2004-01-01

    Four SIPP campaigns have been planned to investigate the effect of recycle streams on the RPP-WTP pretreatment process such as the filter flux rate and other areas of interest. This document describes OLI/ESP modeling work done in support of the planning and operation of the SIPP. An existing OLI/ESP steady-state model was expanded to represent the pretreatment system through to the TLP evaporator for the LAW train and the washed sludge for the HLW train. The model was used to investigate alternative operating scenarios, determine the optimum volumetric waste feed ratio of AP-101 to AY-102, and, for each campaign, estimate the simulant and input recycle volumes corresponding to the target glass production rates of 6MT/day HLW glass and 80MT/day LAW glass and scaled to the target of 140L of Campaign I washed sludge. It was designed to quickly achieve steady state and simulation results indicate this was accomplished by Campaign IV. The alternative operating scenarios modeled differed only in the point at which the AP-101 and AY-102 waste feed streams were introduced to the process. The results showed no difference in the production rate between the scenarios. Therefore, for these specific waste feeds the process should be operated to maximize the energy efficiency and minimize scaling in the evaporator by feeding the AY-102 waste feed to the ultra-filtration feed prep tank, bypassing the waste feed evaporator

  17. Optical absorption and thermoluminescence in Mg O, Mg O:Ni and Mg O:Li irradiated at room temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delgado, L.

    1984-01-01

    Optical absorption and thermoluminescence (TL) studies in Mg O, Mg O:Ni and Mg O:Li irradiated at room temperature are presented. In pure Mg O the thermal annihilation of Fe3+ by recombination with thermally released electrons at ∼ 90 and 175 degree centigree and the V center annealing by hole release up to 100 degree centigree cause the observed glow peaks at these temperatures. The TL excitation spectrum shows two maxima at 245 nm (electron center) and 288 nm (Fe3+). In Mg O:Ni X irradiation induces Fe 2 + →- Fe 3 + and Ni 2 + → Ni 3 + oxidations. Two TL emission bands centered at 110 degree centigree (red) and 80 o C (green) are assigned to electron release and their recombination at Fe 3 + and Ni 3 + respectively. In Mg O:Li two TL emission bands, one blue (430 nm) and the other red (730 nm) with excitation maxima at 245 nm (electron center) and 200 nm (hole center) respectively are observed. No V-center formation was detected in both Ni and Li doped samples. (Author) 42 refs

  18. Radiometric Non-Uniformity Characterization and Correction of Landsat 8 OLI Using Earth Imagery-Based Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Pesta

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Landsat 8 is the first satellite in the Landsat mission to acquire spectral imagery of the Earth using pushbroom sensor instruments. As a result, there are almost 70,000 unique detectors on the Operational Land Imager (OLI alone to monitor. Due to minute variations in manufacturing and temporal degradation, every detector will exhibit a different behavior when exposed to uniform radiance, causing a noticeable striping artifact in collected imagery. Solar collects using the OLI’s on-board solar diffuser panels are the primary method of characterizing detector level non-uniformity. This paper reports on an approach for using a side-slither maneuver to estimate relative detector gains within each individual focal plane module (FPM in the OLI. A method to characterize cirrus band detector-level non-uniformity using deep convective clouds (DCCs is also presented. These approaches are discussed, and then, correction results are compared with the diffuser-based method. Detector relative gain stability is assessed using the side-slither technique. Side-slither relative gains were found to correct streaking in test imagery with quality comparable to diffuser-based gains (within 0.005% for VNIR/PAN; 0.01% for SWIR and identified a 0.5% temporal drift over a year. The DCC technique provided relative gains that visually decreased striping over the operational calibration in many images.

  19. Equational binary decision diagrams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.F. Groote (Jan Friso); J.C. van de Pol (Jaco)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractWe incorporate equations in binary decision diagrams (BDD). The resulting objects are called EQ-BDDs. A straightforward notion of ordered EQ-BDDs (EQ-OBDD) is defined, and it is proved that each EQ-BDD is logically equivalent to an EQ-OBDD. Moreover, on EQ-OBDDs satisfiability and

  20. Binary tense and modality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekhuis, H.; Verkuyl, H.J

    2014-01-01

    The present paper adopts as its point of departure the claim by Te Winkel (1866) and Verkuyl (2008) that mental temporal representations are built on the basis of three binary oppositions: Present/Past, Synchronous/Posterior and Imperfect/Perfect. Te Winkel took the second opposition in terms of the

  1. N-Bit Binary Resistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tcheng, Ping

    1989-01-01

    Binary resistors in series tailored to precise value of resistance. Desired value of resistance obtained by cutting appropriate traces across resistors. Multibit, binary-based, adjustable resistor with high resolution used in many applications where precise resistance required.

  2. Environmental protection and petroleum business

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-03-01

    This report is a summary of panel discussion concerning environmental protection and petroleum business. Summarized here are country presentations from Iraq, Malaysia, Saudi Arabia, and Venezuela, comments by two Japanese panelists from petroleum companies, questions, answers, and discussions, and summary by the session moderator. The country presentation centered on pollution problems and environmental protection policies in each country, national policy regarding environmental problems, and comprehensive planning for environmental protection in specific industrial areas. The panelists' reports mainly concerned the legal framework for environmental protection in Japan and the importance of investment for environmental protection. Questions and answers clarified the problems. The moderator, when summarizing the panel discussion, stressed that environmental problems should be addressed on a global level and that early preventive measures should be taken, and also emphasized the polluter pays principle.

  3. Association models for petroleum applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kontogeorgis, Georgios

    2013-01-01

    Thermodynamics plays an important role in many applications in the petroleum industry, both upstream and downstream, ranging from flow assurance, (enhanced) oil recovery and control of chemicals to meet production and environmental regulations. There are many different applications in the oil & gas...... industry, thus thermodynamic data (phase behaviour, densities, speed of sound, etc) are needed to study a very diverse range of compounds in addition to the petroleum ones (CO2, H2S, water, alcohols, glycols, mercaptans, mercury, asphaltenes, waxes, polymers, electrolytes, biofuels, etc) within a very....... Such association models have been, especially over the last 20 years, proved to be very successful in predicting many thermodynamic properties in the oil & gas industry. They have not so far replaced cubic equations of state, but the results obtained by using these models are very impressive in many cases, e...

  4. Types of international petroleum contracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katz, S.B.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on history and development of International Petroleum Contracts. The emphasis in petroleum exploration has steadily shifted away from the domestic oil patch and toward the international arena. Today an estimated 577.3 billion bbl, or approximately 83% of the world's proven oil reserves, lie outside the western hemisphere. The distribution of these proven oil reserves can be broken down into three major socioeconomic categories - developed market economies, centrally planned economies, and developing countries - indicating that fully 76.7% of the world's proven oil reserves occur in developing countries. As multinational oil companies come into contact with the various host countries around the world, their course of action, and the course of the host country's reaction to them, are unfortunately colored by events that proceeded the initial contact

  5. Bolivian petroleum privatization taking shape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    Bolivia is boldly embracing a free market philosophy that extends to liberalization of the country's petroleum sector. Although petroleum industry privatization is being considered by several South American countries, only Argentina has so far completely opened its oil sector and fully privatized its state oil company. The Bolivian government's own version of privatization, capitalization, is a groundbreaking attempt to attract massive investment from the private sector without leaving the government open to accusations of stripping the country's assets for short term electoral gain. The paper discusses the government's strategy to sell the state owned company either as a single unit or to split it into upstream and downstream units. Questions still to be resolved, international interest in the move, bolivian potential, and the gas supply infrastructure are also discussed

  6. Petroleum refining industry in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walls, W.D.

    2010-01-01

    The oil refining industry in China has faced rapid growth in oil imports of increasingly sour grades of crude with which to satisfy growing domestic demand for a slate of lighter and cleaner finished products sold at subsidized prices. At the same time, the world petroleum refining industry has been moving from one that serves primarily local and regional markets to one that serves global markets for finished products, as world refining capacity utilization has increased. Globally, refined product markets are likely to experience continued globalization until refining investments significantly expand capacity in key demand regions. We survey the oil refining industry in China in the context of the world market for heterogeneous crude oils and growing world trade in refined petroleum products. (author)

  7. The True Ultracool Binary Fraction Using Spectral Binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardalez Gagliuffi, Daniella; Burgasser, Adam J.; Schmidt, Sarah J.; Gagné, Jonathan; Faherty, Jacqueline K.; Cruz, Kelle; Gelino, Chris

    2018-01-01

    Brown dwarfs bridge the gap between stars and giant planets. While the essential mechanisms governing their formation are not well constrained, binary statistics are a direct outcome of the formation process, and thus provide a means to test formation theories. Observational constraints on the brown dwarf binary fraction place it at 10 ‑ 20%, dominated by imaging studies (85% of systems) with the most common separation at 4 AU. This coincides with the resolution limit of state-of-the-art imaging techniques, suggesting that the binary fraction is underestimated. We have developed a separation-independent method to identify and characterize tightly-separated (dwarfs as spectral binaries by identifying traces of methane in the spectra of late-M and early-L dwarfs. Imaging follow-up of 17 spectral binaries yielded 3 (18%) resolved systems, corroborating the observed binary fraction, but 5 (29%) known binaries were missed, reinforcing the hypothesis that the short-separation systems are undercounted. In order to find the true binary fraction of brown dwarfs, we have compiled a volume-limited, spectroscopic sample of M7-L5 dwarfs and searched for T dwarf companions. In the 25 pc volume, 4 candidates were found, three of which are already confirmed, leading to a spectral binary fraction of 0.95 ± 0.50%, albeit for a specific combination of spectral types. To extract the true binary fraction and determine the biases of the spectral binary method, we have produced a binary population simulation based on different assumptions of the mass function, age distribution, evolutionary models and mass ratio distribution. Applying the correction fraction resulting from this method to the observed spectral binary fraction yields a true binary fraction of 27 ± 4%, which is roughly within 1σ of the binary fraction obtained from high resolution imaging studies, radial velocity and astrometric monitoring. This method can be extended to identify giant planet companions to young brown

  8. Petroleum tax and financial decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stensland, G.; Sunnevaag, K.

    1993-03-01

    The work presented in this report focuses on tax motivated financial incentives in the Norwegian petroleum tax system. Of particular concern is the effects of the reserve fund requirement in the Joint Stock Companies Act. Our prime concern is the Norwegian petroleum tax system as applicable from January 1992, but for the sake of comparison, we have also examined the ''old'' Norwegian petroleum tax system. The findings presented in this report can be divided in two parts. Based on an overview over the development in debt and equity for the major part of companies operating on the Norwegian continental shelf it seems reasonable to divide the companies in three groups. The first group is companies which is not in a tax paying position, both ''foreign'' and domestic. These companies seem to use debt as their most important capital source. The second group is Norwegian companies in a tax paying position. These companies also seem to use debt as the most important capital source. The last group is ''foreign'' companies in a tax paying position. This is a group of companies that mainly use equity to finance their investments in the offshore sector. The second part of the report tries to explain these observations. In the report we compare the incentive effects in the new petroleum tax system to the old tax system. The incentives to finance investments with debt is stronger in the new tax system. Several explanations emerge. Firstly, in the old tax system the investor got an effective tax deduction of 12.8% for dividends. This is removed in the new system. Secondly, in the new system 78% tax is included in the financial statements after tax profit calculation and the maximum dividend calculation, while in the old tax system the withholding tax was excluded. 31 refs., 13 figs. 2 tabs

  9. Black holes in binary stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijers, R.A.M.J.

    1996-01-01

    Introduction Distinguishing neutron stars and black holes Optical companions and dynamical masses X-ray signatures of the nature of a compact object Structure and evolution of black-hole binaries High-mass black-hole binaries Low-mass black-hole binaries Low-mass black holes Formation of black holes

  10. Shell petroleum handbook. [Glossary included

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-01-01

    The present edition has been completely updated and revised, reflecting the very great changes which have come about in the oil industry over the last 18 years, since the last edition appeared. The expressed aim of the Handbook is to combine explanations of the processes of today's petroleum industry, from crude oil exploration to product end-use, with some historical background and explanation of the economic context in which the oil, gas and petrochemical industries operate. It is therefore intended as a technical reference manual, although it will be of interest both to specialists in search of information outside their expertise and to the more general reader. Chapter 3, entitled Exploration and Production, is concerned with structural geology, exploration methods and theory, and reservoir engineering, although the economic and financial aspects of drilling, project management and communication logistics are also considered. Other chapters are devoted to the distribution, consumption and end use of natural gas and NGL, the chemistry of petroleum, the manufacture of oil products, marketing, supply and trading, petrochemicals, synfuels, R and D, environmental conservation, and introduction to the world petroleum industry, and a review of oil and gas in the centrally planned economies, although only the Soviet Union is considered in any detail.

  11. Dermal uptake of petroleum substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakasa, Ivone; Kezic, Sanja; Boogaard, Peter J

    2015-06-01

    Petroleum products are complex substances comprising varying amounts of linear and branched alkanes, alkenes, cycloalkanes, and aromatics which may penetrate the skin at different rates. For proper interpretation of toxic hazard data, understanding their percutaneous absorption is of paramount importance. The extent and significance of dermal absorption of eight petroleum substances, representing different classes of hydrocarbons, was evaluated. Literature data on the steady-state flux and permeability coefficient of these substances were evaluated and compared to those predicted by mathematical models. Reported results spanned over 5-6 orders of magnitude and were largely dependent on experimental conditions in particular on the type of the vehicle used. In general, aromatic hydrocarbons showed higher dermal absorption than more lipophilic aliphatics with similar molecular weight. The results showed high variation and were largely influenced by experimental conditions emphasizing the need of performing the experiments under "in use" scenario. The predictive models overestimated experimental absorption. The overall conclusion is that, based on the observed percutaneous penetration data, dermal exposure to petroleum hydrocarbons, even of aromatics with highest dermal absorption is limited and highly unlikely to be associated with health risks under real use scenarios. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Learning to assign binary weights to binary descriptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhoudi; Wei, Zhenzhong; Zhang, Guangjun

    2016-10-01

    Constructing robust binary local feature descriptors are receiving increasing interest due to their binary nature, which can enable fast processing while requiring significantly less memory than their floating-point competitors. To bridge the performance gap between the binary and floating-point descriptors without increasing the computational cost of computing and matching, optimal binary weights are learning to assign to binary descriptor for considering each bit might contribute differently to the distinctiveness and robustness. Technically, a large-scale regularized optimization method is applied to learn float weights for each bit of the binary descriptor. Furthermore, binary approximation for the float weights is performed by utilizing an efficient alternatively greedy strategy, which can significantly improve the discriminative power while preserve fast matching advantage. Extensive experimental results on two challenging datasets (Brown dataset and Oxford dataset) demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed method.

  13. Neutron activation analysis for the determination of arsenic and mercury in petroleum and petroleum distillates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Resnizky, Sara M.

    1999-01-01

    A radiochemical separation procedure to determine As and Hg in petroleum and petroleum distillates is described. The procedure uses the formation of HgS to co-precipitate the As and Hg activities produced during the irradiation. (author)

  14. Processing Of Binary Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, H. S.

    1985-07-01

    An overview of the recent progress in the area of digital processing of binary images in the context of document processing is presented here. The topics covered include input scan, adaptive thresholding, halftoning, scaling and resolution conversion, data compression, character recognition, electronic mail, digital typography, and output scan. Emphasis has been placed on illustrating the basic principles rather than descriptions of a particular system. Recent technology advances and research in this field are also mentioned.

  15. Abundant and cheap petroleum until what date?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    Here is an economic analysis about the petroleum market. With the increasing demand in petroleum and the limited possibilities of supply, it should be obvious to increase the petroleum prices and to make investments in research and development to find new reserves or to increase the production capacities, without these options the demand could exceed the supply and strong tensions could appear in some years. (N.C.)

  16. Petroleum Prices, Taxation and Subsidies in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    The current Indian system of effectively subsidised petroleum product prices has significant implications for the emergence of India as a major global energy consumer, for the integrity of India's Central Government budget and for investment in India's growing oil and petroleum sector. This paper is part one of a broader study that looks at the current system of petroleum pricing and the macroeconomic, microeconomic, regional and global effects of this system.

  17. The three R's of petroleum exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, M.L.

    1992-01-01

    Petroleum exploration comprises a many-faceted activity. It is a complex mix of science and technology, operating in a complex economic and political matrix. In this paper, the authors will review some of the basic aspects of petroleum geology, economics and politics which influence this world-wide activity. The authors hope that such a review may be of some value to some of you, especially in viewing exploration in the context of changing world supplies and demands for petroleum

  18. Petroleum Prices, Taxation and Subsidies in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    The current Indian system of effectively subsidised petroleum product prices has significant implications for the emergence of India as a major global energy consumer, for the integrity of India's Central Government budget and for investment in India's growing oil and petroleum sector. This paper is part one of a broader study that looks at the current system of petroleum pricing and the macroeconomic, microeconomic, regional and global effects of this system.

  19. Effects of the petroleum tax reform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stensland, G.; Sunnevaag, K.; Tennfjord, B.S.

    1992-04-01

    The report evaluates the effects of the petroleum taxation in Norway. In connection with the general reform of the Norwegian industry taxation, changes are proposed in the petroleum tax law. The report gives a survey of the development in the Norwegian petroleum taxation, and analyses the effects of changing the tax revenue both for the Government and for the companies concerned. The effects of incentives caused by changing the taxation are looked upon. In the appendix the depreciation rules in connection with petroleum taxation are discussed. 18 refs., 17 figs

  20. Petroleum supply annual, 1997. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-06-01

    The Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA) contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1997 through annual and monthly surveys. The PSA is divided into two volumes. This first volume contains three sections: Summary Statistics, Detailed Statistics, and Refinery Statistics; each with final annual data. The second volume contains final statistics for each month of 1997, and replaces data previously published in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM). The tables in Volumes 1 and 2 are similarly numbered to facilitate comparison between them. 16 figs., 48 tabs.

  1. Petroleum supply annual 1994. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA) contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1994 through annual and monthly surveys. The PSA is divided into two volumes. This first volume contains four sections: Summary Statistics, Detailed Statistics, Refinery Capacity, and Oxygenate Capacity each with final annual data. The second volume contains final statistics for each month of 1994, and replaces data previously published in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM). The tables in Volumes 1 and 2 are similarly numbered to facilitate comparison between them. Below is a description of each section in Volume 1 of the PSA

  2. Petroleum supply annual 1992: Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA) contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1992 through annual and monthly surveys. The PSA is divided into two volumes. This first volume contains four sections: Summary Statistics, Detailed Statistics, Refinery Capacity and Oxygenate Capacity each with final annual data. The second volume contains final statistics for each month of 1992, and replaces data previously published in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM). The tables in Volumes 1 and 2 are similarly numbered to facilitate comparison between them

  3. Petroleum supply annual, 1997. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-06-01

    The Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA) contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1997 through annual and monthly surveys. The PSA is divided into two volumes. This first volume contains three sections: Summary Statistics, Detailed Statistics, and Refinery Statistics; each with final annual data. The second volume contains final statistics for each month of 1997, and replaces data previously published in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM). The tables in Volumes 1 and 2 are similarly numbered to facilitate comparison between them. 16 figs., 48 tabs

  4. Environmental impact of petroleum products in the soil. Part II: Petroleum products composition and key properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zerlia, T.

    2001-01-01

    The fate of petroleum hydrocarbons in the soil depends on the chemical-physic properties of each hydrocarbon, as well as on the soil characteristics. The mean composition of various petroleum products, the key chemical compounds and their characteristics are focused in order to outline the environmental behaviour of petroleum hydrocarbons in the soil [it

  5. Energy use in petroleum refineries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haynes, V.O.

    1976-09-01

    Refining petroleum accounts for about 4 percent of the total energy consumed in the United States and about 15 percent of all industrial consumption. The kinds of energy used and the manner in which energy is used are discussed on a process-by-process basis. Emphasis is placed on existing processes to identify and quantify process and equipment substitutions which might significantly conserve energy. General industry and process information is given and estimates of potential savings are made. A few research and development opportunities are identified and nontechnical factors are discussed. Nearly one-half the energy consumed by refineries is obtained from by-product refinery gas and coke, and about one-third is supplied by natural gas. On a regional basis, refineries were found to vary by a factor of two in the amount of energy used to refine a unit of crude oil. Refineries in regions traditionally abundant in inexpensive natural gas were found to use relatively more natural gas and energy. About 36 percent of the energy used by petroleum refineries is consumed in the distillation units to separate the refinery streams into their basic components. Including energy for manufacturing hydrogen, about 24 percent of the total is used for cracking of the heavier components. Most of the remainder is used for reforming, hydrogen treating, and alkylation, distributed about 11, 17, and 6 percent respectively. Potential energy savings discussed in this report total 61 x 10/sup 13/ Btu/yr based on 1974 capacities, a figure which represents about 20 percent of the energy consumed to refine petroleum.

  6. Mapping Soil Salinity/Sodicity by using Landsat OLI Imagery and PLSR Algorithm over Semiarid West Jilin Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mingyue; Du, Baojia; Zhang, Bai

    2018-01-01

    Soil salinity and sodicity can significantly reduce the value and the productivity of affected lands, posing degradation, and threats to sustainable development of natural resources on earth. This research attempted to map soil salinity/sodicity via disentangling the relationships between Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) imagery and in-situ measurements (EC, pH) over the west Jilin of China. We established the retrieval models for soil salinity and sodicity using Partial Least Square Regression (PLSR). Spatial distribution of the soils that were subjected to hybridized salinity and sodicity (HSS) was obtained by overlay analysis using maps of soil salinity and sodicity in geographical information system (GIS) environment. We analyzed the severity and occurring sizes of soil salinity, sodicity, and HSS with regard to specified soil types and land cover. Results indicated that the models’ accuracy was improved by combining the reflectance bands and spectral indices that were mathematically transformed. Therefore, our results stipulated that the OLI imagery and PLSR method applied to mapping soil salinity and sodicity in the region. The mapping results revealed that the areas of soil salinity, sodicity, and HSS were 1.61 × 106 hm2, 1.46 × 106 hm2, and 1.36 × 106 hm2, respectively. Also, the occurring area of moderate and intensive sodicity was larger than that of salinity. This research may underpin efficiently mapping regional salinity/sodicity occurrences, understanding the linkages between spectral reflectance and ground measurements of soil salinity and sodicity, and provide tools for soil salinity monitoring and the sustainable utilization of land resources. PMID:29614727

  7. Surfactants from petroleum paraffin wax

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kassem, T.M.; Hussein, M.H.; El Sayed, A.S.

    Paraffin wax from Egyptian petroleum was purified and then oxidized to fatty acids which were esterified to form their methyl esters, fractionated and then hydrolysed. The obtained fatty acids were converted into the corresponding primary amines which were converted with ethylene oxide to form nonionic surfactants. The prepared primary amines were also converted into tertiary amines and then converted into cationic surfactants through condensation with benzyl chloride or 1-chloromethylnaphthalene. Also, amine oxide surfactants were prepared by oxidation of the tertiary amines with hydrogen peroxide. The surface active properties of all the prepared surfactants were determined, and the effect of their chemical structure on the surfactant properties are discussed in this paper.

  8. Massive Black Hole Binary Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merritt David

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Coalescence of binary supermassive black holes (SBHs would constitute the strongest sources of gravitational waves to be observed by LISA. While the formation of binary SBHs during galaxy mergers is almost inevitable, coalescence requires that the separation between binary components first drop by a few orders of magnitude, due presumably to interaction of the binary with stars and gas in a galactic nucleus. This article reviews the observational evidence for binary SBHs and discusses how they would evolve. No completely convincing case of a bound, binary SBH has yet been found, although a handful of systems (e.g. interacting galaxies; remnants of galaxy mergers are now believed to contain two SBHs at projected separations of <~ 1kpc. N-body studies of binary evolution in gas-free galaxies have reached large enough particle numbers to reproduce the slow, “diffusive” refilling of the binary’s loss cone that is believed to characterize binary evolution in real galactic nuclei. While some of the results of these simulations - e.g. the binary hardening rate and eccentricity evolution - are strongly N-dependent, others - e.g. the “damage” inflicted by the binary on the nucleus - are not. Luminous early-type galaxies often exhibit depleted cores with masses of ~ 1-2 times the mass of their nuclear SBHs, consistent with the predictions of the binary model. Studies of the interaction of massive binaries with gas are still in their infancy, although much progress is expected in the near future. Binary coalescence has a large influence on the spins of SBHs, even for mass ratios as extreme as 10:1, and evidence of spin-flips may have been observed.

  9. D'Monte : rünnaku ajend oli koostöö Ameerikaga / Darryl D'Monte ; interv, Ülle Toode

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    D'Monte, Darryl

    2008-01-01

    India ajakirjanik vastab küsimustele, mis oli Mumbai terrorirünnaku poliitiline taust, kes olukorrast kasu lõikab, miks peaminister Manmohan Singh teatas esmalt, et rünnak tuli väljastpoolt ja mida peaks India valitsus probleemi lahendamiseks ette võtma

  10. Rein Veidemann: meil oli valida - nüüd või mitte kunagi / Rein Veidemann ; küsitles Tõnu Prei

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Veidemann, Rein, 1946-

    2007-01-01

    Intervjuu Rein Veidemanniga, kes oli üks 1991.a. augustiputši päevil Eesti iseseisvust kinnitava otsuse poolt hääletanud 69 rahvasaadikust. Ülemnõukogu 20. augusti otsust peab ta sama tähtsaks kui Eesti Vabariigi väljakuulutamist 1918. aastal

  11. Depositional environments, organic maturity and petroleum potential of the Cretaceous coal-bearing Atane Formation at Qullissat, Nuussuaq Basin, West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Gunver Krarup; Andersen, Loa Arp; Lundsteen, Eva Bjerrum

    2006-01-01

    geologi, sedimentologi, kulpetrografi, olie, Atane Formationen, Qullissat, Nuussuaqbassinet, Vestgrønland......geologi, sedimentologi, kulpetrografi, olie, Atane Formationen, Qullissat, Nuussuaqbassinet, Vestgrønland...

  12. India's petroleum privatization gathering speed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    Privatization of India's petroleum industry is seen as inevitable, even by the staunchest supporters of the state owned sector there. What has become clear is that the huge investments required for Indian exploration, refining, and marketing are beyond the scope of even the biggest state owned firms, such as Oil and Natural Gas Commission (ONGC) and Indian Oil Corp. (IOC). A proposal was put forth last fall to offer Bombay High offshore oil fields to leading multinationals for redevelopment to stem the production slide in India's mainstay producing area. Some of those projects could entail capital outlays of as much as $1 billion. In another step to attract foreign investment to the petroleum sector, India last month decided to take steps for phased decontrol of domestic crude oil prices to bring them in line with world market levels and help set the stage for privatization of ONGC. The paper describes major projects, the slide in oil production, price changes, the need for privatization, and the lukewarm interest in exploration

  13. Exports of petroleum products, 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-04-01

    A summary is presented of exports of motor gasoline, middle distillate, aviation turbine fuel, heavy fuel oil, and partially processed oil from Canada for the 1990 calendar year. Exports of the above petroleum products averaged 34,000 m 3 /d in 1990, up 12% from 1989 levels. The increase reflects increased output from the Come By Chance refinery in Newfoundland. Motor gasoline exports increased 35% to 10,500 m 3 /d, reflecting refinery upgrading in eastern Canada. Export prices were generally in line with spot product prices in the USA. Spot prices rose sharply following the Kuwait crisis in August 1990 but fell again in November. The spot price for jet fuel rose more dramatically in that period than for other products, reflecting increased military demand. In winter 1989/90 and during the Kuwait conflict, the export price of heating oil tended to track the USA spot price. Petroleum products imports in 1990 were 18,500 m 3 /d, compared to 21,900 m 3 /d in 1988. Imports were lower partially as a result of higher crude runs in Quebec and a Quebec refinery expansion. Imports of heavy fuel oil in eastern Canada continued to be strong in comparison to the mid-1980s. The top single exporter in 1990, as in 1989, was Newfoundland Processing, with a volume of 4,506,400 m 3 . 13 figs., 5 tabs

  14. Bioremediation of petroleum contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Autry, A.R.; Ellis, G.M.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on bioremediation, which offers a cost-competitive, effective remediation alternative for soil contaminated with petroleum products. These technologies involve using microorganisms to biologically degrade organic constituents in contaminated soil. All bioremediation applications must mitigate various environmental rate limiting factors so that the biodegradation rates for petroleum hydrocarbons are optimized in field-relevant situations. Traditional bioremediation applications include landfarming, bioreactors, and composting. A more recent bioremediation application that has proven successful involves excavation of contaminated soil. The process involves the placement of the soils into a powerscreen, where it is screened to remove rocks and larger debris. The screened soil is then conveyed to a ribbon blender, where it is mixed in batch with nutrient solution containing nitrogen, phosphorus, water, and surfactants. Each mixed soil batch is then placed in a curing pile, where it remains undisturbed for the remainder of the treatment process, during which time biodegradation by naturally occurring microorganisms, utilizing biochemical pathways mediated by enzymes, will occur

  15. Facts 2011 - The Norwegian petroleum sector; Fakta 2011 - norsk petroleumsverksemd

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-07-15

    The publication provides a general overview of information regarding the petroleum activities on the Norwegian continental shelf. Content; Foreword; The petroleum sector - Norway's largest industry; Organisation of Norwegian petroleum activity; Government petroleum revenues; Exploration activities; Development and operations; Norwegian gas exports; Decommissioning; Research, technology and industrial development; Environmental considerations in the Norwegian petroleum sector; Petroleum resources; Fields in production; Fields under development; Future developments; Fields where production has ceased; Pipelines and onshore facilities. (AG)

  16. Facts 2010 - The Norwegian petroleum sector; Fakta 2010 - norsk petroleumsverksemd

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-07-01

    The publication provides a general overview of information regarding the petroleum activities on the Norwegian continental shelf. Content; Foreword; The petroleum sector - Norway's largest industry; Organisation of Norwegian petroleum activity; Government petroleum revenues; Exploration activities; Development and operations; Norwegian gas exports; Decommissioning; Research, technology and industrial development; Environmental considerations in the Norwegian petroleum sector; Petroleum resources; Fields in production; Fields under development; Future developments; Fields where production has ceased; Pipelines and onshore facilities. (AG)

  17. Binary optics: Trends and limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farn, Michael W.; Veldkamp, Wilfrid B.

    1993-01-01

    We describe the current state of binary optics, addressing both the technology and the industry (i.e., marketplace). With respect to the technology, the two dominant aspects are optical design methods and fabrication capabilities, with the optical design problem being limited by human innovation in the search for new applications and the fabrication issue being limited by the availability of resources required to improve fabrication capabilities. With respect to the industry, the current marketplace does not favor binary optics as a separate product line and so we expect that companies whose primary purpose is the production of binary optics will not represent the bulk of binary optics production. Rather, binary optics' more natural role is as an enabling technology - a technology which will directly result in a competitive advantage in a company's other business areas - and so we expect that the majority of binary optics will be produced for internal use.

  18. Particle acceleration in binaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinitsyna V.G.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cygnus X-3 massive binary system is one of the powerful sources of radio and X-ray emission consisting of an accreting compact object, probably a black hole, with a Wolf-Rayet star companion. Based on the detections of ultra high energy gamma-rays by Kiel and Havera Park, Cygnus X-3 has been proposed to be one of the most powerful sources of charged cosmic ray particles in the Galaxy. The results of long-term observations of the Cyg X-3 binary at energies 800 GeV–85 TeV detected by SHALON in 1995 are presented with images, integral spectra and spectral energy distribution. The identification of source with Cygnus X-3 detected by SHALON was secured by the detection of its 4.8 hour orbital period in TeV gamma-rays. During the whole observation period of Cyg X-3 with SHALON significant flux increases were detected at energies above 0.8 TeV. These TeV flux increases are correlated with flaring activity at a lower energy range of X-ray and/or at observations of Fermi LAT as well as with radio emission from the relativistic jets of Cygnus X-3. The variability of very high-energy gamma-radiation and correlation of radiation activity in the wide energy range can provide essential information on particle mechanism production up to very high energies. Whereas, modulation of very high energy emission connected to the orbital motion of the binary system, provides an understanding of the emission processes, nature and location of particle acceleration.

  19. Primary biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in seawater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comber, M.I.H.; Den Haan, K.H.; Djemel, N.; Eadsforth, C.V.; King, D.; Paumen, M.L.; Parkerton, T.; Dmytrasz, B.

    2012-12-15

    This report describes primary biodegradation experiments performed to determine the persistence of higher molecular weight petroleum hydrocarbons in seawater. Results from the biodegradation experiments show that the majority of tested petroleum hydrocarbons have half-lives in seawater less than 60 days.

  20. Petroleum-hydrocarbons biodegradation by Pseudomonas strains ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The capability of these isolates to degrade petroleum was performed by measuring the optical density, colony forming unit counts (CFU/ml) and concentration of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH). Degradation of Isomerate by these isolates was analyzed by gas chromatography with flame ionization detector (FID). Results ...

  1. Metals distribution in Kumkol deposit petroleum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musaeva, Z.G.; Nadirov, A.N.; Ajdarbaev, A.S.

    1997-01-01

    Metals content in samples of Kumkol deposit petroleum is determined by the method of X-ray diffraction and neutron activation analysis. Specific consideration was devoted to nickel and vanadium. It is possible, that sources of these metals are various petroleum formation as well as both the absorbed or the got in stratum microelements. (author)

  2. The Suez Canal and the petroleum harbors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    The Suez Canal is the second longest channel in the world and allows to save 60% of the travel time between the petroleum harbors of the Arabic peninsula and Europe. This short paper gives a summary of the main petroleum harbors activity along the channel from the Red sea to the Mediterranean sea. (J.S.)

  3. Petroleum supply annual 1993. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    This publication contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1993 through annual and monthly surveys. This second volume contains final statistics for each month of 1993.

  4. Petroleum and Political Change in Mexico,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    and exploitation of our petroleum resources." The argument continued that "private entrepreneurs are disposed to work in this area under the control of...membership was designed to jar the non-petroleum export sector into a more competitive posture, thereby incresing exports from that sector and diminishing

  5. Petroleum market instability and enterprise rule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vacca', S.; Citterio, G.; Pesce, P.

    2000-01-01

    Special importance is given to some producer country (Saudi Arabia, Iraq, Kuwait, Iran, United Arab Emirate, Venezuela) that determine the trend of petroleum price. These countries have about the 70% of world petroleum reserves against the 3% of world population [it

  6. French petroleum demand stable since thirteen years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauvot, M.

    2005-01-01

    The French union of petroleum industries (Ufip) has presented a globally satisfactory status of the French petroleum situation. However, the refining capacities are not always well adapted to the evolution of the demand and the production of diesel fuels remains insufficient while France exports gasoline. Short paper. (J.S.)

  7. 77 FR 2714 - National Petroleum Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY National Petroleum Council AGENCY: Office of Fossil Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of Renewal. SUMMARY: Pursuant to Section 14(a)(2)(A) of the Federal Advisory... Services Administration, notice is hereby given that the National Petroleum Council has been renewed for a...

  8. Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    During fiscal year 1992, the reserves generated $473 million in revenues, a $181 million decrease from the fiscal year 1991 revenues, primarily due to significant decreases in oil and natural gas prices. Total costs were $200 million, resulting in net cash flow of $273 million, compared with $454 million in fiscal year 1991. From 1976 through fiscal year 1992, the Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves generated more than $15 billion in revenues and a net operating income after costs of $12.5 billion. In fiscal year 1992, production at the Naval Petroleum Reserves at maximum efficient rates yielded 26 million barrels of crude oil, 119 billion cubic feet of natural gas, and 164 million gallons of natural gas liquids. From April to November 1992, senior managers from the Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves held a series of three workshops in Boulder, Colorado, in order to build a comprehensive Strategic Plan as required by Secretary of Energy Notice 25A-91. Other highlights are presented for the following: Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1--production achievements, crude oil shipments to the strategic petroleum reserve, horizontal drilling, shallow oil zone gas injection project, environment and safety, and vanpool program; Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 2--new management and operating contractor and exploration drilling; Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 3--steamflood; Naval Oil Shale Reserves--protection program; and Tiger Team environmental assessment of the Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming

  9. 75 FR 48320 - National Petroleum Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY National Petroleum Council AGENCY: Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy. ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a meeting of the National Petroleum Council. The Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463, 86 Stat. 770) requires that public...

  10. Microbial dynamics in petroleum oilfields and their relationship with physiological properties of petroleum oil reservoirs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varjani, Sunita J; Gnansounou, Edgard

    2017-12-01

    Petroleum is produced by thermal decay of buried organic material over millions of years. Petroleum oilfield ecosystems represent resource of reduced carbon which favours microbial growth. Therefore, it is obvious that many microorganisms have adapted to harsh environmental conditions of these ecosystems specifically temperature, oxygen availability and pressure. Knowledge of microorganisms present in ecosystems of petroleum oil reservoirs; their physiological and biological properties help in successful exploration of petroleum. Understanding microbiology of petroleum oilfield(s) can be used to enhance oil recovery, as microorganisms in oil reservoirs produce various metabolites viz. gases, acids, solvents, biopolymers and biosurfactants. The aim of this review is to discuss characteristics of petroleum oil reservoirs. This review also provides an updated literature on microbial ecology of these extreme ecosystems including microbial origin as well as various types of microorganisms such as methanogens; iron, nitrate and sulphate reducing bacteria, and fermentative microbes present in petroleum oilfield ecosystems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Large Fleets Lead in Petroleum Reduction (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Proc, H.

    2011-03-01

    Fact sheet describes Clean Cities' National Petroleum Reduction Partnership, an initiative through which large private fleets can receive support from Clean Cities to reduce petroleum consumption.

  12. EVALUATION OF PETROLEUM HYDROCARBONS ELUTION FROM SOIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janina Piekutin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents studies on oil removal from soil by means of water elution with a help of shaking out the contaminants from the soil. The tests were performed on simulated soil samples contaminated with a mixture of petroleum hydrocarbons. The study consisted in recording the time influence and the number of elution cycles to remove contaminants from the soil. The samples were then subject to the determination of petroleum hydrocarbons, aliphatic hydrocarbons, and BTEX compounds (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene. Due to adding various concentrations of petroleum into particular soil samples and applying different shaking times, it was possible to find out the impact of petroleum content and sample shaking duration on the course and possibility of petroleum substances removal by means of elution process.

  13. Magnetic binary nanofillers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales Mendoza, N.; Goyanes, S.; Chiliotte, C.; Bekeris, V.; Rubiolo, G.; Candal, R.

    2012-01-01

    Magnetic binary nanofillers containing multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) and hercynite were synthesized by Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) on Fe/AlOOH prepared by the sol-gel method. The catalyst precursor was fired at 450 °C, ground and sifted through different meshes. Two powders were obtained with different particle sizes: sample A (50-75 μm) and sample B (smaller than 50 μm). These powders are composed of iron oxide particles widely dispersed in the non-crystalline matrix of aluminum oxide and they are not ferromagnetic. After reduction process the powders are composed of α-Fe nanoparticles inside hercynite matrix. These nanofillers are composed of hercynite containing α-Fe nanoparticles and MWCNT. The binary magnetic nanofillers were slightly ferromagnetic. The saturation magnetization of the nanofillers depended on the powder particle size. The nanofiller obtained from powder particles in the range 50-75 μm showed a saturation magnetization 36% higher than the one formed from powder particles smaller than 50 μm. The phenomenon is explained in terms of changes in the magnetic environment of the particles as consequence of the presence of MWCNT.

  14. Magnetic binary nanofillers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales Mendoza, N. [INQUIMAE, CONICET-UBA, Ciudad Universitaria, Pab2, (C1428EHA) Bs As (Argentina); LPyMC, Dep. De Fisica, FCEN-UBA and IFIBA -CONICET, Ciudad Universitaria, Cap. Fed. (Argentina); Goyanes, S. [LPyMC, Dep. De Fisica, FCEN-UBA and IFIBA -CONICET, Ciudad Universitaria, Cap. Fed. (Argentina); Chiliotte, C.; Bekeris, V. [LBT, Dep. De Fisica, FCEN-UBA. Ciudad Universitaria, Pab1, C1428EGA CABA (Argentina); Rubiolo, G. [LPyMC, Dep. De Fisica, FCEN-UBA and IFIBA -CONICET, Ciudad Universitaria, Cap. Fed. (Argentina); Unidad de Actividad Materiales, CNEA, Av Gral. Paz 1499, San Martin (1650), Prov. de Bs As (Argentina); Candal, R., E-mail: candal@qi.fcen.uba.ar [INQUIMAE, CONICET-UBA, Ciudad Universitaria, Pab2, (C1428EHA) Bs As (Argentina); Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnologia, 3iA, Universidad de Gral. San Martin, San Martin, Prov. Bs As (Argentina)

    2012-08-15

    Magnetic binary nanofillers containing multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) and hercynite were synthesized by Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) on Fe/AlOOH prepared by the sol-gel method. The catalyst precursor was fired at 450 Degree-Sign C, ground and sifted through different meshes. Two powders were obtained with different particle sizes: sample A (50-75 {mu}m) and sample B (smaller than 50 {mu}m). These powders are composed of iron oxide particles widely dispersed in the non-crystalline matrix of aluminum oxide and they are not ferromagnetic. After reduction process the powders are composed of {alpha}-Fe nanoparticles inside hercynite matrix. These nanofillers are composed of hercynite containing {alpha}-Fe nanoparticles and MWCNT. The binary magnetic nanofillers were slightly ferromagnetic. The saturation magnetization of the nanofillers depended on the powder particle size. The nanofiller obtained from powder particles in the range 50-75 {mu}m showed a saturation magnetization 36% higher than the one formed from powder particles smaller than 50 {mu}m. The phenomenon is explained in terms of changes in the magnetic environment of the particles as consequence of the presence of MWCNT.

  15. Petroleum marketing monthly with data for April 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-05

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data on the Petroleum Marketing Monthly. Monthly statistics on purchases of crude oil and sales of petroleum products are presented in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly in five sections: Summary statistics; crude oil prices; prices of petroleum products; volumes of petroleum products; and prime supplier sales volumes of petroleum products for local consumption.

  16. Petroleum marketing monthly, June 1995 with data for March 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-16

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly. Monthly statistics on purchases of crude oil and sales of petroleum products are presented in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly in five sections: Summary Statistics Crude Oil Prices; Prices of Petroleum Products; Volumes of Petroleum Products; and Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Petroleum Products for Local Consumption.

  17. Petroleum R and D collaboration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerr, R.

    1995-01-01

    Conditions for collaboration in research and development (R and D) were developed based on a decision-tree analysis. A key requirement for effective R and D collaboration was stated to be the company's ability to internalize a significant portion of the benefits. This was seen as the principal factor that determined good collaborators and good industries for collaboration. It was noted that collaboration benefits can also be improved through R and D exchanges in collaborative associations. Simple decision-tree analysis tended to understate the advantages of collaboration. Portfolio risk reduction and inter-project synergies were significant additional advantages. Collaborative R and D was said to be the preferred route for the development of a broad base of petroleum-related technologies. 5 tabs., 2 figs

  18. Phillips Petroleum -- Capitalizing on technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perdue, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    Phillips Petroleum Co., one of the largest international oil companies and the largest producer of natural gas liquids in the US, recently reported that first half 1996 net income was $916 million, up from $224 million for the same period the year before. During the past 5 years, reserves have increased 11% and production by 8%. Exploration expenses are down 32% and production costs per boe are down 24%. Compared to other majors involved in worldwide E and P, Phillips has the second highest 5-year percentage of reserves replacement--117%--and the second lowest finding and development cost/boe--$3.46--in the industry. How did the company do this while decreasing headcount by 5,300? The paper discusses focused growth, paring down assets, E and P projects, research and development, and electronic document management

  19. The southern cone petroleum market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pisani, W.

    1992-01-01

    The Argentine oil sector has been moving strongly toward complete deregulation since 1989. Price controls on byproducts has been lifted, old petroleum contracts became into concessions, and the state oil company, YPF, is under process of privatization. In this context, the international companies scouting for opportunities can find an important menu of potential investments But here remain some problems connected with this deregulation, too. The lack of a reference crude and product market price is one of them. This paper focuses how to overcome this trouble with the establishment of an institutional market for crude and products, not only for Argentina but also for the entire Southern Cone Region (Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Paraguay and Uruguay), inquiring into the benefits of its creation

  20. Relativistic Binaries in Globular Clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J. Benacquista

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Galactic globular clusters are old, dense star systems typically containing 10^4 – 10^6 stars. As an old population of stars, globular clusters contain many collapsed and degenerate objects. As a dense population of stars, globular clusters are the scene of many interesting close dynamical interactions between stars. These dynamical interactions can alter the evolution of individual stars and can produce tight binary systems containing one or two compact objects. In this review, we discuss theoretical models of globular cluster evolution and binary evolution, techniques for simulating this evolution that leads to relativistic binaries, and current and possible future observational evidence for this population. Our discussion of globular cluster evolution will focus on the processes that boost the production of tight binary systems and the subsequent interaction of these binaries that can alter the properties of both bodies and can lead to exotic objects. Direct N-body integrations and Fokker–Planck simulations of the evolution of globular clusters that incorporate tidal interactions and lead to predictions of relativistic binary populations are also discussed. We discuss the current observational evidence for cataclysmic variables, millisecond pulsars, and low-mass X-ray binaries as well as possible future detection of relativistic binaries with gravitational radiation.

  1. Spectral properties of binary asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajuelo, Myriam; Birlan, Mirel; Carry, Benoît; DeMeo, Francesca E.; Binzel, Richard P.; Berthier, Jérôme

    2018-04-01

    We present the first attempt to characterize the distribution of taxonomic class among the population of binary asteroids (15% of all small asteroids). For that, an analysis of 0.8-2.5{μ m} near-infrared spectra obtained with the SpeX instrument on the NASA/IRTF is presented. Taxonomic class and meteorite analog is determined for each target, increasing the sample of binary asteroids with known taxonomy by 21%. Most binary systems are bound in the S-, X-, and C- classes, followed by Q and V-types. The rate of binary systems in each taxonomic class agrees within uncertainty with the background population of small near-Earth objects and inner main belt asteroids, but for the C-types which are under-represented among binaries.

  2. Planets in Binary Star Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Haghighipour, Nader

    2010-01-01

    The discovery of extrasolar planets over the past decade has had major impacts on our understanding of the formation and dynamical evolution of planetary systems. There are features and characteristics unseen in our solar system and unexplainable by the current theories of planet formation and dynamics. Among these new surprises is the discovery of planets in binary and multiple-star systems. The discovery of such "binary-planetary" systems has confronted astrodynamicists with many new challenges, and has led them to re-examine the theories of planet formation and dynamics. Among these challenges are: How are planets formed in binary star systems? What would be the notion of habitability in such systems? Under what conditions can binary star systems have habitable planets? How will volatiles necessary for life appear on such planets? This volume seeks to gather the current research in the area of planets in binary and multistar systems and to familiarize readers with its associated theoretical and observation...

  3. RS CVn binary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linsky, J.L.

    1984-01-01

    The author attempts to place in context the vast amount of data obtained in the last few years as a result of X-ray, ultraviolet, optical, and microwave observations of RS CVn and similar spectroscopic binary systems. He concentrates on the RS CVn systems and their long-period analogs, and restricts the scope by attempting to answer on the basis of the recent data and theory following questions: (1) Are the original defining characteristics still valid and still adequate? (2) What is the evidence for discrete active regions? (3) Have we derived any meaningful physical properties for the atmospheres of RS CVn systems? (4) What are the flare observations telling us about magnetic fields in the RS CVn systems? (5) Is there evidence for systematic trends in RS CVn systems with spectral type?

  4. Norwegian Petroleum Activity 97. Fact Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This report is the official governmental review of the offshore operations on the Norwegian Continental Shelf in 1996. It covers the following topics: (1) Summary, (2) Historical overview, (3) State organization of petroleum activities, (4) The economic impact of Norwegian oil and gas, (5) State revenues, (6) Mainland activities, (7) Petroleum resources, (8) Production, (9) Marketing situation for petroleum products, (10) Environmental aspects, (11) The legal and license framework, (12) Licensing rounds, (13) Exploration, (14) Fields in production, (15) Fields under development, (16) Discoveries with development plan under consideration, (17) Transportation systems, (18) License interests, (19) Company interests, (20) White papers, (21) Useful postal addresses. 24 figs., 16 tabs.

  5. Petroleum supply annual 1998: Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-06-01

    The ``Petroleum Supply Annual`` (PSA) contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1998 through annual and monthly surveys. The PSA is divided into two volumes. This first volume contains three sections: Summary Statistics, Detailed Statistics, and Refinery Statistics; each with final annual data. The second volume contains final statistics for each month of 1998, and replaces data previously published in the PSA. The tables in Volumes 1 and 2 are similarly numbered to facilitate comparison between them. 16 figs., 59 tabs.

  6. Petroleum supply annual 1998: Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-06-01

    The ''Petroleum Supply Annual'' (PSA) contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1998 through annual and monthly surveys. The PSA is divided into two volumes. This first volume contains three sections: Summary Statistics, Detailed Statistics, and Refinery Statistics; each with final annual data. The second volume contains final statistics for each month of 1998, and replaces data previously published in the PSA. The tables in Volumes 1 and 2 are similarly numbered to facilitate comparison between them. 16 figs., 59 tabs

  7. Saudi Arabia: Petroleum and new economic trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarkis, N.

    1996-01-01

    The new economic trends of Saudi Arabia are detailed in this article. This country can take an important place on the world petroleum market in the future; he has the quarter of world petroleum reserves, and is determined to keep its place of first petroleum exporter. New developments projects are arising: electric power, telecommunications, civil aviation, seawater desalination. In terms of financing, as the state cannot finance all these new projects, new means are used: privatisation, BOT (build-operate-transfer) contracts, and offset programs. (N.C.)

  8. Analysis of soils contaminated with petroleum constituents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Shay, T.A.; Hoddinott, K.

    1994-01-01

    This symposium was held in Atlanta, Georgia on June 24, 1993. The purpose of the symposium was to provide a forum for exchange of information on petroleum contaminated soils. When spilled on the ground, petroleum products can cause massive problems in the environment. In this Special Technical Publication (STP), papers were selected in two categories; the analytical procedures for soil contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons and the behavior of hydrocarbon contaminated soils. Individual papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases

  9. Petroleum marketing monthly, November 1991. [Contains glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-11-07

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners' acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented. 12 figs., 53 tabs.

  10. Petroleum Marketing Monthly, January 1991. [Contains Glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-09

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners' acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented. 12 figs., 55 tabs.

  11. Petroleum and Health Care: Evaluating and Managing Health Care's Vulnerability to Petroleum Supply Shifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednarz, Daniel; Bae, Jaeyong; Pierce, Jessica

    2011-01-01

    Petroleum is used widely in health care—primarily as a transport fuel and feedstock for pharmaceuticals, plastics, and medical supplies—and few substitutes for it are available. This dependence theoretically makes health care vulnerable to petroleum supply shifts, but this vulnerability has not been empirically assessed. We quantify key aspects of petroleum use in health care and explore historical associations between petroleum supply shocks and health care prices. These analyses confirm that petroleum products are intrinsic to modern health care and that petroleum supply shifts can affect health care prices. In anticipation of future supply contractions lasting longer than previous shifts and potentially disrupting health care delivery, we propose an adaptive management approach and outline its application to the example of emergency medical services. PMID:21778473

  12. Taxation of petroleum products: theory and empirical evidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, S.; Mahler, W.

    1995-01-01

    The domestic taxation of petroleum products is an important source of revenue in most countries. However, there is a wide variation of tax rates on petroleum products across countries, which cannot be explained by economic theory alone. This paper surveys different considerations advanced for taxing petroleum and presents petroleum tax rate data in 120countries. (author)

  13. Facts 2009 - The Norwegian petroleum sector; Fakta 2009 - norsk petroleumsverksemd

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-07-01

    The publication provides a general overview of information regarding the petroleum activities on the Norwegian continental shelf. Contents: Foreword; The petroleum sector; Norwegian resource management; Government petroleum revenues; Exploration activities; Development and operations; Norwegian gas exports; Decommissioning; Research, technology; Environmental considerations; Petroleum resources; Fields in production; Fields under development; Future developments; Fields where production has ceased; Pipelines and onshore facilities. (AG)

  14. 21 CFR 172.888 - Synthetic petroleum wax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Synthetic petroleum wax. 172.888 Section 172.888... CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.888 Synthetic petroleum wax. Synthetic petroleum wax may be safely used in or on foods in accordance with the following conditions: (a) Synthetic petroleum wax is a...

  15. Examining spectral properties of Landsat 8 OLI for predicting above-ground carbon of Labanan Forest, Berau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhardiman, A.; Tampubolon, B. A.; Sumaryono, M.

    2018-04-01

    Many studies revealed significant correlation between satellite image properties and forest data attributes such as stand volume, biomass or carbon stock. However, further study is still relevant due to advancement of remote sensing technology as well as improvement on methods of data analysis. In this study, the properties of three vegetation indices derived from Landsat 8 OLI were tested upon above-ground carbon stock data from 50 circular sample plots (30-meter radius) from ground survey in PT. Inhutani I forest concession in Labanan, Berau, East Kalimantan. Correlation analysis using Pearson method exhibited a promising results when the coefficient of correlation (r-value) was higher than 0.5. Further regression analysis was carried out to develop mathematical model describing the correlation between sample plots data and vegetation index image using various mathematical models.Power and exponential model were demonstrated a good result for all vegetation indices. In order to choose the most adequate mathematical model for predicting Above-ground Carbon (AGC), the Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC) was applied. The lowest BIC value (i.e. -376.41) shown by Transformed Vegetation Index (TVI) indicates this formula, AGC = 9.608*TVI21.54, is the best predictor of AGC of study area.

  16. Evaluation of automatic cloud removal method for high elevation areas in Landsat 8 OLI images to improve environmental indexes computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, César I.; Teodoro, Ana; Tierra, Alfonso

    2017-10-01

    Thin clouds in the optical remote sensing data are frequent and in most of the cases don't allow to have a pure surface data in order to calculate some indexes as Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). This paper aims to evaluate the Automatic Cloud Removal Method (ACRM) algorithm over a high elevation city like Quito (Ecuador), with an altitude of 2800 meters above sea level, where the clouds are presented all the year. The ACRM is an algorithm that considers a linear regression between each Landsat 8 OLI band and the Cirrus band using the slope obtained with the linear regression established. This algorithm was employed without any reference image or mask to try to remove the clouds. The results of the application of the ACRM algorithm over Quito didn't show a good performance. Therefore, was considered improving this algorithm using a different slope value data (ACMR Improved). After, the NDVI computation was compared with a reference NDVI MODIS data (MOD13Q1). The ACMR Improved algorithm had a successful result when compared with the original ACRM algorithm. In the future, this Improved ACRM algorithm needs to be tested in different regions of the world with different conditions to evaluate if the algorithm works successfully for all conditions.

  17. The 1999 MWV petroleum consumption forecast: Petroleum still in the lead in the German energy market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1999-01-01

    Petroleum consumption in Germany has been stagnant over the last few years. Since in 1998 the decline in light heating oil sales was balanced out by an increase in fuel consumption and petroleum sales to the petrochemical industry, total domestic supplies of petroleum products amounted to 127.4 million tonnes and thus remained at last year's level. According to the latest forecast of the Mineraloelwirtschaftsverband e.V., extending to the year 2010, stagnation will continue for some years, but petroleum consumption is expected to then take a clear downward trend and fall off by 11 million tonnes (or 9%) until 2010. (orig./CB) [de

  18. Petroleum supply annual, 1997. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-06-01

    The Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA) contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1997 through monthly surveys. The PSA is divided into two volumes. The first volume contains three sections: Summary Statistics, Detailed Statistics, and Refinery Statistics; each with final annual data. The second volume contains final statistics for each month of 1997, and replaces data previously published in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM). The tables in Volumes 1 and 2 are similarly numbered to facilitate comparison between them. Explanatory Notes, located at the end of this publication, present information describing data collection, sources, estimation methodology, data quality control procedures, modifications to reporting requirements and interpretation of tables. Industry terminology and product definitions are listed alphabetically in the Glossary. 35 tabs

  19. Petroleum supply annual 1996: Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    The Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA) contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1996 through monthly surveys. The PSA is divided into two volumes. The first volume contains three sections: Summary Statistics, Detailed Statistics, and Refinery Capacity; each with final annual data. The second volume contains final statistics for each month of 1996, and replaces data previously published in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM). The tables in Volumes 1 and 2 are similarly numbered to facilitate comparison between them. Explanatory Notes, located at the end of this publication, present information describing data collection, sources, estimation methodology, data quality control procedures, modifications to reporting requirements and interpretation of tables. Industry terminology and product definitions are listed alphabetically in the Glossary. 35 tabs.

  20. Petroleum supply annual, 1997. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-06-01

    The Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA) contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1997 through monthly surveys. The PSA is divided into two volumes. The first volume contains three sections: Summary Statistics, Detailed Statistics, and Refinery Statistics; each with final annual data. The second volume contains final statistics for each month of 1997, and replaces data previously published in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM). The tables in Volumes 1 and 2 are similarly numbered to facilitate comparison between them. Explanatory Notes, located at the end of this publication, present information describing data collection, sources, estimation methodology, data quality control procedures, modifications to reporting requirements and interpretation of tables. Industry terminology and product definitions are listed alphabetically in the Glossary. 35 tabs.

  1. Petroleum supply annual 1998: Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-06-01

    The Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA) contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1998 through monthly surveys. The PSA is divided into two volumes. The first volume contains three sections: Summary Statistics, Detailed Statistics, and Refinery Statistics; each with final annual data. This second volume contains final statistics for each month of 1998, and replaces data previously published in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM). The tables in Volumes 1 and 2 are similarly numbered to facilitate comparison between them. Explanatory Notes, located at the end of this publication, present information describing data collection, sources, estimation methodology, data quality control procedures, modifications to reporting requirements and interpretation of tables. Industry terminology and product definitions are listed alphabetically in the Glossary. 35 tabs.

  2. Petroleum supply annual 1994, Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-06-01

    The Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA) contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1994 through annual and monthly surveys. The PSA is divided into two volumes. This first volume contains four sections: Summary Statistics, Detailed Statistics, Refinery Capacity, and Oxygenate Capacity each with final annual data. The second volume contains final statistics for each month of 1994, and replaces data previously published in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM). The tables in Volumes 1 and 2 are similarly numbered to facilitate comparison between them. Explanatory Notes, located at the end of this publication, present information describing data collection, sources, estimation methodology, data quality control procedures, modifications to reporting requirements and interpretation of tables. Industry terminology and product definitions are listed alphabetically in the Glossary

  3. Petroleum supply annual 1996: Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-06-01

    The Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA) contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1996 through monthly surveys. The PSA is divided into two volumes. The first volume contains three sections: Summary Statistics, Detailed Statistics, and Refinery Capacity; each with final annual data. The second volume contains final statistics for each month of 1996, and replaces data previously published in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM). The tables in Volumes 1 and 2 are similarly numbered to facilitate comparison between them. Explanatory Notes, located at the end of this publication, present information describing data collection, sources, estimation methodology, data quality control procedures, modifications to reporting requirements and interpretation of tables. Industry terminology and product definitions are listed alphabetically in the Glossary. 35 tabs

  4. Petroleum and geopolitics; Petrole et geopolitique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaigneau, P. [Centre d' etudes diplomatiques et strategiques de Paris, 75 (France)

    2004-04-01

    Todays, petroleum companies consider that despite the constant increase of petroleum consumption, petroleum will remain the main energy source for at least 40 years. However, after the Iraq conflict, new regional situations are changing. China, for instance, with its growing up demand, will change the physiognomy of the oil market. In parallel, from Indonesia to Africa, petroleum and religion interfere and explain the new conflict areas. As for the US strategy, which is not limited to the energy paradigm, it largely integrates energy in the main lines of its diplomacy, from the 'Wide Middle East' to the 'Sahel initiative', and in its position with respect to Venezuela.

  5. PETROLEUM-COLLECTING AND DISPERSING CHEMICALS FOR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    Films of petroleum origin reflecting sunlight rays hinder absorption of energy by water necessary for life ... Dispersing chemicals like mechanical clean-up methods have their own place in fighting oil spills. They are ... yellow color, and filtered.

  6. Petroleum supply annual 1995: Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-06-01

    The Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA) contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1995 through monthly surveys. The PSA is divided into two volumes. This first volume contains three sections: Summary Statistics, Detailed Statistics, and selected Refinery Statistics each with final annual data. The second volume contains final statistics for each month of 1995, and replaces data previously published in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM). The tables in Volumes 1 and 2 are similarly numbered to facilitate comparison between them. Explanatory Notes, located at the end of this publication, present information describing data collection, sources, estimation methodology, data quality control procedures, modifications to reporting requirements and interpretation of tables. Industry terminology and product definitions are listed alphabetically in the Glossary

  7. Petroleum supply annual 1998. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-06-01

    The Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA) contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1998 through monthly surveys. The PSA is divided into two volumes. The first volume contains three sections: Summary Statistics, Detailed Statistics, and Refinery Statistics; each with final annual data. This second volume contains final statistics for each month of 1998, and replaces data previously published in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM). The tables in Volumes 1 and 2 are similarly numbered to facilitate comparison between them. Explanatory Notes, located at the end of this publication, present information describing data collection, sources, estimation methodology, data quality control procedures, modifications to reporting requirements and interpretation of tables. Industry terminology and product definitions are listed alphabetically in the Glossary. 35 tabs

  8. Canadian Petroleum Products Inst. annual report, 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Canadian Petroleum Products Institute (CPPI) was created in 1989 as a nonprofit association of Canadian refiners and marketers of petroleum products. The objective of the CPPI is to serve and represent the refining and marketing sectors of the petroleum industry with respect to environment, health and safety, and business issues. CPPI conducts research to develop industry policy on a wide variety of environmental, health, safety and business issues. Key activities include: developing guidelines for the safe handling of petroleum products, establishing environmental policies, managing a national environmental protection network of over 100 centers across Canada; providing information on industry activities to the public; and developing working partnerships with government and public interest groups to address issues of common concern. An overview is provided of industry operations, economics and financial performance, and environmental protection and safety. Lists of CPPI publications, awards, standing committees, and officers are also included. 9 figs

  9. Petroleum development offers way out of poverty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mollet, P.

    1996-01-01

    The North African states of Algeria, Libya, Tunisia and Egypt are starting to explore the possibility of fuelling their economic development using their petroleum reserves which have not, as yet, been exploited. Poverty and Islamic extremism is widespread, leading to political difficulties domestically and a reluctance on the part of international oil companies to reinvest in the region. Despite these problems, growth in the local petroleum industry may yet offer a path to economic growth. (UK)

  10. Environment 2002. The Norwegian petroleum sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    The Ministry of Petroleum and Energy produces an annual environmental review in cooperation with the Norwegian Petroleum Directorate. The purpose of this publication is threefold: (1) to increase knowledge about the environmental aspects of Norwegian oil and gas activities, (2) to take a more detailed look at a specific topic which particularly concerns both the industry and the authorities, and identify the challenges and options faced, (3) to emphasise the governments goal of ensuring that Norway reconciles its role as a large energy producer with a pioneering position on environmental issues. This year's edition focuses on the topic of ''oil and fish - common sea''. Both the petroleum and fishing industries depend on the waters off Norway. Ever since petroleum activities began on the Norwegian continental shelf more than 30 years ago, the authorities have been keen to ensure that these two sectors can work in the same sea areas. What challenges and opportunities face the petroleum industry over discharges to the sea and living marine resources? How can the authorities ensure that this sector is able to coexist with the fisheries? These and similar questions about the relationship between the petroleum and fishing industries in their shared seas are covered in section two of this publication. Environment 2002 also incorporates a factual section, which covers the status of emissions/discharges, environmental impacts and measures to reduce discharges to the sea and emissions to the air from petroleum activities. The MPE hopes that a publication of this kind can enhance basic knowledge about petroleum activities and environmental issues.

  11. Guam Transportation Petroleum-Use Reduction Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, C.

    2013-04-01

    The island of Guam has set a goal to reduce petroleum use 20% by 2020. Because transportation is responsible for one-third of on-island petroleum use, the Guam Energy Task Force (GETF), a collaboration between the U.S. Department of Energy and numerous Guam-based agencies and organizations, devised a specific plan by which to meet the 20% goal within the transportation sector. This report lays out GETF's plan.

  12. The petroleum economy of the Congo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gualbert-Brice Massengo, Ph.D.

    2005-01-01

    The author aims to explain the petroleum phenomena in Congo as a contribution to the truth. The Congo petroleum experience can be seen as a lesson for the next generations and for the other african countries. The Congo Brazzaville, a little country by its population and well equipped in natural and human resources, is become meanwhile a non security area for its inhabitants because of a decreasing economy and a continuous political crisis. (A.L.B.)

  13. Rare and expensive petroleum: impact on careers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, E.; Krasowski, T.; Kerdraon, Y.; Drevet, R.; Andreis, D.; Pouille, J.P.; Villoslada Prado, P.; Sigaud, J.B.

    2006-01-01

    Oil peak, reserves depletion, greenhouse effect, pollution, uncertain future and international insecurity could be negative arguments to discourage candidates to start up a career in the petroleum industry. This press kit presents testimonies of young professionals who explain their motivations for committing themselves in this way. Testimonies are chosen in various domains of the petroleum industry: geophysics, exploration, processes, refining, and engines technology. (J.S.)

  14. Environment 2002. The Norwegian petroleum sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The Ministry of Petroleum and Energy produces an annual environmental review in cooperation with the Norwegian Petroleum Directorate. The purpose of this publication is threefold: (1) to increase knowledge about the environmental aspects of Norwegian oil and gas activities, (2) to take a more detailed look at a specific topic which particularly concerns both the industry and the authorities, and identify the challenges and options faced, (3) to emphasise the governments goal of ensuring that Norway reconciles its role as a large energy producer with a pioneering position on environmental issues. This year's edition focuses on the topic of ''oil and fish - common sea''. Both the petroleum and fishing industries depend on the waters off Norway. Ever since petroleum activities began on the Norwegian continental shelf more than 30 years ago, the authorities have been keen to ensure that these two sectors can work in the same sea areas. What challenges and opportunities face the petroleum industry over discharges to the sea and living marine resources? How can the authorities ensure that this sector is able to coexist with the fisheries? These and similar questions about the relationship between the petroleum and fishing industries in their shared seas are covered in section two of this publication. Environment 2002 also incorporates a factual section, which covers the status of emissions/discharges, environmental impacts and measures to reduce discharges to the sea and emissions to the air from petroleum activities. The MPE hopes that a publication of this kind can enhance basic knowledge about petroleum activities and environmental issues

  15. Natural analogs in the petroleum industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, J.R.

    1995-01-01

    This article describes the use of natural analogues in petroleum exploration and includes numerous geologic model descriptions which have historically been used in the prediction of geometries and location of oil and gas accumulations. These geologic models have been passed down to and used by succeeding generations of petroleum geologists. Some examples of these geologic models include the Allan fault-plane model, porosity prediction, basin modelling, prediction of basin compartmentalization, and diagenesis

  16. Ideas: the column of: about the petroleum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sachs, J.D.

    2004-01-01

    Two energy problems will modify the economical and geopolitical future the next ten years: the petroleum supply insecurity from the Middle East and the climatic change. In this context the energy future depends on many solutions: the exploration and the development of new petroleum sources (without the Middle East), a better energy efficiency, the development of renewable energies sources and the use of fossil fuels respectful of the environment. (A.L.B.)

  17. Petroleum as a raw material resource for sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egorov, O.I.

    1996-01-01

    Author notes that for economic and social region development it is necessary has been created large petroleum chemical plants near by Atyrau city (initial raw material - Tengiz, Korolev and other petroleum deposits of this region) and Aktau (Mangistau and Bazuchin petroleum). Realization of projects for structure changes of petroleum and gas region demands a great investments. It is noted that growing scales of petroleum and gas resources mastering calls already a considerable environmental complications because of Caspian Sea's level marking rise

  18. Optimally cloned binary coherent states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, C. R.; Leuchs, G.; Marquardt, Ch.; Andersen, U. L.

    2017-10-01

    Binary coherent state alphabets can be represented in a two-dimensional Hilbert space. We capitalize this formal connection between the otherwise distinct domains of qubits and continuous variable states to map binary phase-shift keyed coherent states onto the Bloch sphere and to derive their quantum-optimal clones. We analyze the Wigner function and the cumulants of the clones, and we conclude that optimal cloning of binary coherent states requires a nonlinearity above second order. We propose several practical and near-optimal cloning schemes and compare their cloning fidelity to the optimal cloner.

  19. Comparison of hyperspectral transformation accuracies of multispectral Landsat TM, ETM+, OLI and EO-1 ALI images for detecting minerals in a geothermal prospect area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Nguyen Tien; Koike, Katsuaki

    2018-03-01

    Hyperspectral remote sensing generally provides more detailed spectral information and greater accuracy than multispectral remote sensing for identification of surface materials. However, there have been no hyperspectral imagers that cover the entire Earth surface. This lack points to a need for producing pseudo-hyperspectral imagery by hyperspectral transformation from multispectral images. We have recently developed such a method, a Pseudo-Hyperspectral Image Transformation Algorithm (PHITA), which transforms Landsat 7 ETM+ images into pseudo-EO-1 Hyperion images using multiple linear regression models of ETM+ and Hyperion band reflectance data. This study extends the PHITA to transform TM, OLI, and EO-1 ALI sensor images into pseudo-Hyperion images. By choosing a part of the Fish Lake Valley geothermal prospect area in the western United States for study, the pseudo-Hyperion images produced from the TM, ETM+, OLI, and ALI images by PHITA were confirmed to be applicable to mineral mapping. Using a reference map as the truth, three main minerals (muscovite and chlorite mixture, opal, and calcite) were identified with high overall accuracies from the pseudo-images (> 95% and > 42% for excluding and including unclassified pixels, respectively). The highest accuracy was obtained from the ALI image, followed by ETM+, TM, and OLI images in descending order. The TM, OLI, and ALI images can be alternatives to ETM+ imagery for the hyperspectral transformation that aids the production of pseudo-Hyperion images for areas without high-quality ETM+ images because of scan line corrector failure, and for long-term global monitoring of land surfaces.

  20. Petroleum industry of Korea seen from industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, H.P. [SK Co, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-05-01

    The domestic petroleum industry faced with outward opening and exchange crisis is put under the most difficult period so far, and costs reduction and securing international competitive power in software field are emerging as important assignments on which the life and death of national key industries depends not only as a restructuring issue of each petroleum company. Required strategy of petroleum industry to solve this effectively this year must be the thorough revamping through restructuring and reform of management standards not the survival exercise through price competition. For this, each petroleum company and distributor should open a new petroleum industry in which fair rules of the game are developed as well as costs reduction through joint efforts and value creation in overall industry. For this, government should support the domestic petroleum industry to stand up straight as a keeper of domestic energy industry by helping it to arm with international competitive power within a short period of time through overall needed system and legal scheme. It is because nobody can deny that energy industry is the key industry on which national existence is at stake.

  1. Petroleum industry: Development strategies to year 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curcio, E.

    1993-01-01

    During the last two years, the petroleum industry has undergone a period of modest demand increase on the international market, normal consumption rates by consuming countries and, faced with a growing supply base, a progressive per barrel unit price depreciation. In the refinery sector, margins have been reduced due to strong petroleum products price reductions. New anti-pollution laws have necessitated substantial investment in the development of cleaner fuels and pollution control technologies. The reorganization of the former USSR petroleum and gas sector should give rise to technology transfer opportunities for Western nations and spur gradual production increases especially in natural gas. Petroleum and gas demand increases are expected due to the modernization of China's industries. While it is clear that for the next decade their won't be any shortages in supply, forecasting petroleum prices to the year 2000 will remain clouded with uncertainty until such time as the national European petroleum industries decide to go ahead with their long awaited privatization and adjustments are made to current government and private sector energy strategies

  2. Risk behavior in petroleum exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose, P.R.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, the author uses the term risk aversion, which weighs the magnitude of investment against four factors: size of available budget, potential gain, potential loss, and probabilities of each outcome. Modern petroleum exploration consists of a series of investment decisions on whether to acquire additional technical data (geological, geophysical, engineering, drilling, or economic) and/or additional mineral interests. Each decision should allow a progressively clearer perception of project risk versus reward and should support timely management action concerning the inferred accumulation. Companies searching for oil and natural gas make hundreds of such exploration decisions each year. So the problem in serial exploration decision making is twofold: to be consistent in the way we deal with risk and uncertainty and to perceive risk and uncertainty accurately and reduce them where possible. Risk aversion is not just a hypothetical nuisance. It causes explorationists to make inconsistent investment decisions, and it costs exploration companies millions of dollars annually in lost opportunities, bad choices, and wasted investment dollars

  3. Analysis of foreign petroleum contracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moran, S.S.

    1991-01-01

    Most foreign exploration and production contracts are of two basic types: Production-Sharing contracts in which a portion of oil revenues, 'cost oil,' is available to the contractor for recoupment of exploration and production costs with the remainder, 'profit oil,' being shared according to an agreed-upon formula, and the familiar Tax-Royalty contract in which a share of petroleum revenues goes to the host country 'off the top' as royalties, and operating profits are taxed at the going rate. Bottom line splits of profits between host governments and contractors, which are approximately 50-50 in the United States, are typically in the 60-40 to 85-15 range elsewhere, with lower profit shares being offset by the higher volume potential and lower costs that may be associated with less mature exploration areas. Foreign contract qualities can be grossly compared by walking typical field models through the contracts to arrive at the bottom line profit splits. Variations within the contract forms include government participation, sliding scale contract elements, special taxes related to rates of return, etc. Often, contract terms are subject to negotiation and the tradeoffs between contract elements must be understood. Contract life, amortization schedules, fund repatriation, currency exchange rates, and the interaction of foreign and United States tax regimens are among the other factors that must be considered. Final decisions on foreign ventures must combine consideration of contracts, economic projections, hydrocarbon volumes, exploration cost estimates, and the estimated probability of success into an overall project assessment

  4. Radiometric Cross-Calibration of GAOFEN-1 Wfv Cameras with LANDSAT-8 Oli and Modis Sensors Based on Radiation and Geometry Matching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, J.; Wu, Z.; Wei, X.; Zhang, Y.; Feng, F.; Guo, F.

    2018-04-01

    Cross-calibration has the advantages of high precision, low resource requirements and simple implementation. It has been widely used in recent years. The four wide-field-of-view (WFV) cameras on-board Gaofen-1 satellite provide high spatial resolution and wide combined coverage (4 × 200 km) without onboard calibration. In this paper, the four-band radiometric cross-calibration coefficients of WFV1 camera were obtained based on radiation and geometry matching taking Landsat 8 OLI (Operational Land Imager) sensor as reference. Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) feature detection method and distance and included angle weighting method were introduced to correct misregistration of WFV-OLI image pair. The radiative transfer model was used to eliminate difference between OLI sensor and WFV1 camera through the spectral match factor (SMF). The near-infrared band of WFV1 camera encompasses water vapor absorption bands, thus a Look Up Table (LUT) for SMF varies from water vapor amount is established to estimate the water vapor effects. The surface synchronization experiment was designed to verify the reliability of the cross-calibration coefficients, which seem to perform better than the official coefficients claimed by the China Centre for Resources Satellite Data and Application (CCRSDA).

  5. Separation in 5 Msun Binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Nancy R.; Bond, H. E.; Schaefer, G.; Mason, B. D.; Karovska, M.; Tingle, E.

    2013-01-01

    Cepheids (5 Msun stars) provide an excellent sample for determining the binary properties of fairly massive stars. International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) observations of Cepheids brighter than 8th magnitude resulted in a list of ALL companions more massive than 2.0 Msun uniformly sensitive to all separations. Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) has resolved three of these binaries (Eta Aql, S Nor, and V659 Cen). Combining these separations with orbital data in the literature, we derive an unbiased distribution of binary separations for a sample of 18 Cepheids, and also a distribution of mass ratios. The distribution of orbital periods shows that the 5 Msun binaries prefer shorter periods than 1 Msun stars, reflecting differences in star formation processes.

  6. Mesoscopic model for binary fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echeverria, C.; Tucci, K.; Alvarez-Llamoza, O.; Orozco-Guillén, E. E.; Morales, M.; Cosenza, M. G.

    2017-10-01

    We propose a model for studying binary fluids based on the mesoscopic molecular simulation technique known as multiparticle collision, where the space and state variables are continuous, and time is discrete. We include a repulsion rule to simulate segregation processes that does not require calculation of the interaction forces between particles, so binary fluids can be described on a mesoscopic scale. The model is conceptually simple and computationally efficient; it maintains Galilean invariance and conserves the mass and energy in the system at the micro- and macro-scale, whereas momentum is conserved globally. For a wide range of temperatures and densities, the model yields results in good agreement with the known properties of binary fluids, such as the density profile, interface width, phase separation, and phase growth. We also apply the model to the study of binary fluids in crowded environments with consistent results.

  7. Some properties of spectral binary stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krajcheva, Z.T.; Popova, E.I.; Tutukov, A.V.; Yungel'son, L.R.; AN SSSR, Moscow. Astronomicheskij Sovet)

    1978-01-01

    Statistical investigations of spectra binary stars are carried out. Binary systems consisting of main sequence stars are considered. For 826 binary stars masses of components, ratios of component masses, semiaxes of orbits and orbital angular momenta are calculated. The distributions of these parameters and their correlations are analyzed. The dependences of statistical properties of spectral binary stars on their origin and evolution are discussed

  8. 15 CFR Supplement No. 1 to Part 754 - Petroleum and Petroleum Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... fuel (including tractor fuel and stationary turbine fuel). 2710.00.2000 Kerosene derived from petroleum... medicinal grade derived from petroleum, shale oil or both. 3819.00.0000 Hydraulic fluids, including... lubricating oil. 2710.00.3030 Turbine lubricating oil, including marine. 2710.00.3040 Automotive gear oils...

  9. High paraffin Kumkol petroleum processing under fuel and lubricant petroleum scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadirov, N.K.; Konaev, Eh.N.

    1997-01-01

    Technological opportunity of high paraffin Kumkol petroleum processing under the fuel and lubricant scheme with production of lubricant materials in short supply, combustible materials and technical paraffin is shown. Mini petroleum block putting into operation on Kumkol deposit is reasonable economically and raises profitableness of hydrocarbon raw material production. (author)

  10. Identifying Distribution of Chlorophyll-a Concentration Using Landsat 8 OLI on Marine Waters Area of Cirebon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buditama, Gilang; Damayanti, Astrid; Giok Pin, Tjiong

    2017-12-01

    Phytoplankton is a microscopic plant that has a function to produces oxygen and organic substances. It also plays a role as a main producer in the food chain of a marine ecosystem. Chlorophyll-a is a colour pigment most common in phytoplankton species, so that the concentration level of chlorophyll-a can be used as an indicator of the abundance of phytoplankton cells, and as a reference for predicting organic potency in the aquatic area. This research discusses about the spatial and temporal distribution of chlorophyll-a and its correlation with salinity and total suspended solid (TSS), in the seawaters of Cirebon, West Java. The goal of this research is to be a source of information for fishermen, and other stakeholders whose related subjects in the field of marine and fisheries to predict fertile water regions and can also be used as an indicator in discovering potential areas to catch pelagic fish in Cirebon seawaters. Chlorophyll-a concentration, salinity, and TSS are identified using remote sensing data such as Landsat-8 OLI multi temporal images according to dry and wet month parameters in the 2014-2015. The results of the processed image are then validated between in-situ measurements in the field and remote sensing imagery at the same time. This research utilizes descriptive analysis, and statistics with spatial approach. The results of the research show that temporally, chlorophyll-a levels have a tendency to be higher in wet months compared to dry months, while chlorophyll-a is higher in areas near the coastline compared to open sea areas. The distribution of chlorophyll-a concentration is affected by salinity and TSS distribution, where salinity has the negative relationship and TSS has the positive relationship with chlorophyll-a distribution.

  11. A robust Multi-Band Water Index (MBWI) for automated extraction of surface water from Landsat 8 OLI imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaobiao; Xie, Shunping; Zhang, Xueliang; Chen, Cheng; Guo, Hao; Du, Jinkang; Duan, Zheng

    2018-06-01

    Surface water is vital resources for terrestrial life, while the rapid development of urbanization results in diverse changes in sizes, amounts, and quality of surface water. To accurately extract surface water from remote sensing imagery is very important for water environment conservations and water resource management. In this study, a new Multi-Band Water Index (MBWI) for Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) images is proposed by maximizing the spectral difference between water and non-water surfaces using pure pixels. Based on the MBWI map, the K-means cluster method is applied to automatically extract surface water. The performance of MBWI is validated and compared with six widely used water indices in 29 sites of China. Results show that our proposed MBWI performs best with the highest accuracy in 26 out of the 29 test sites. Compared with other water indices, the MBWI results in lower mean water total errors by a range of 9.31%-25.99%, and higher mean overall accuracies and kappa coefficients by 0.87%-3.73% and 0.06-0.18, respectively. It is also demonstrated for MBWI in terms of robustly discriminating surface water from confused backgrounds that are usually sources of surface water extraction errors, e.g., mountainous shadows and dark built-up areas. In addition, the new index is validated to be able to mitigate the seasonal and daily influences resulting from the variations of the solar condition. MBWI holds the potential to be a useful surface water extraction technology for water resource studies and applications.

  12. Early Spring Post-Fire Snow Albedo Dynamics in High Latitude Boreal Forests Using Landsat-8 OLI Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhuosen; Erb, Angela M.; Schaaf, Crystal B.; Sun, Qingsong; Liu, Yan; Yang, Yun; Shuai, Yanmin; Casey, Kimberly A.; Roman, Miguel O.

    2016-01-01

    Taking advantage of the improved radiometric resolution of Landsat-8 OLI which, unlike previous Landsat sensors, does not saturate over snow, the progress of fire recovery progress at the landscape scale (less than 100 m) is examined. High quality Landsat-8 albedo retrievals can now capture the true reflective and layered character of snow cover over a full range of land surface conditions and vegetation densities. This new capability particularly improves the assessment of post-fire vegetation dynamics across low- to high-burn severity gradients in Arctic and boreal regions in the early spring, when the albedos during recovery show the greatest variation. We use 30 m resolution Landsat-8 surface reflectances with concurrent coarser resolution (500 m) MODIS high quality full inversion surface Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Functions (BRDF) products to produce higher resolution values of surface albedo. The high resolution full expression shortwave blue sky albedo product performs well with an overall RMSE of 0.0267 between tower and satellite measures under both snow-free and snow-covered conditions. While the importance of post-fire albedo recovery can be discerned from the MODIS albedo product at regional and global scales, our study addresses the particular importance of early spring post-fire albedo recovery at the landscape scale by considering the significant spatial heterogeneity of burn severity, and the impact of snow on the early spring albedo of various vegetation recovery types. We found that variations in early spring albedo within a single MODIS gridded pixel can be larger than 0.6. Since the frequency and severity of wildfires in Arctic and boreal systems is expected to increase in the coming decades, the dynamics of albedo in response to these rapid surface changes will increasingly impact the energy balance and contribute to other climate processes and physical feedback mechanisms. Surface radiation products derived from Landsat-8 data will

  13. Facts 2006. The Norwegian petroleum sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dokka, Ane; Midttun, Oeyvind

    2006-01-01

    The petroleum sector is extremely important to Norway. The industry is responsible for one fourth of all value creation in the country and more than one fourth of the state's revenues. It is currently Norway's largest industry, and the spillover effects to other industries are substantial. Norway ranks as the world's third largest exporter of oil and the eighth largest oil producer. Less than one third of the estimated petroleum reserves Norway has have been produced. The level of activity on the Norwegian continental shelf was very high in 2005. The number of producing fields was 50, and these fields produced 3 million barrels of oil (including NGL and condensate) per day and 85 billion standard cubic metres (scm) gas, for a total production saleable petroleum of 257 million scm of oil equivalents. Resource management is conducted through the models of cooperation and competition. Annual licensing rounds are held by the authorities where companies are given access to new exploration areas. The interest in the 19th licensing round in 2005 was considerable, indicating a continuous high interest in the Norwegian continental shelf. The Norwegian Petroleum Directorate estimates for the future a gradual increase in the petroleum production up until 2011, and a gradual fall thereafter. Gas production is expected to increase until 2013. Gas production represents 35 percent of the total production in 2006. It is expected that by 2013 it will represent 50 percent of the total. Other aspects accounted for include government petroleum revenues, environmental considerations, petroleum resources and overviews of fields in production, fields where production has ceased and fields under development

  14. Petroleum marketing monthly, June 1999, with data for March 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-06-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. Monthly statistics on purchases of crude oil and sales of petroleum products are presented in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly in five sections: Initial Estimates; Summary Statistics; Crude Oil Prices; Prices of Petroleum Products; Volumes of Petroleum Products; and Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Petroleum Products for Local Consumption. 7 figs., 50 tabs.

  15. Petroleum marketing monthly, May 1998, with data for February 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-05-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides Information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. Monthly statistics on purchases of crude oil and sales of petroleum products are presented in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly in five sections: summary statistics; crude oil prices; prices of petroleum products; volumes of petroleum products; prime supplier sales volumes of petroleum products for local consumption. 7 figs., 50 tabs.

  16. Petroleum marketing monthly, July 1998 with data for April 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. Monthly statistics on purchases of crude oil and sales of petroleum products are presented in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly in five sections: summary statistics; crude oil prices; prices of petroleum products; volumes of petroleum products; and prime supplier sales volumes of petroleum products for local consumption. 7 figs., 50 tabs.

  17. Petroleum marketing monthly: August 1998, with data for May 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-08-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. Monthly statistics on purchases of crude oil and sales of petroleum products are presented in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly in five sections: Summary Statistics; Crude Oil Prices; Prices of Petroleum Products; Volumes of Petroleum Products; and Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Petroleum Products for Local Consumption. 7 figs., 50 tabs.

  18. Petroleum marketing monthly, September 1998, with data for June 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. Monthly statistics on purchases of crude oil and sales of petroleum products are presented in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly in five sections: summary statistics; crude oil prices; prices of petroleum products; volumes of petroleum products; prime supplier sales volumes of petroleum products for local consumption. 7 figs., 50 tabs.

  19. Petroleum marketing monthly, December 1998 with data for September 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. Monthly statistics on purchases of crude oil and sales of petroleum products are presented in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly in five sections: summary statistics; crude oil prices; prices of petroleum products; volumes of petroleum products; and prime supplier sales volumes of petroleum products for local consumption. 7 figs., 50 tabs.

  20. Petroleum marketing monthly, May 1999, with data for February 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. Monthly statistics on purchases of crude oil and sales of petroleum products are presented in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly in five sections: Initial Estimates; Summary Statistics; Crude Oil Prices; Prices of Petroleum Products; Volumes of Petroleum Products; and Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Petroleum Products for Local Consumption. 7 figs., 50 tabs.

  1. Petroleum marketing monthly, January 1999 with data for October 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-01-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. Monthly statistics on purchases of crude oil and sales of petroleum products are presented in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly in five sections: summary statistics; crude oil prices; prices of petroleum products; volumes of petroleum products; and prime supplier sales volumes of petroleum products for local consumption. 7 figs., 50 tabs.

  2. Petroleum marketing monthly, July 1999, with data for April 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. Monthly statistics on purchases of crude oil and sales of petroleum products are presented in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly in five sections: initial estimates; summary statistics; crude oil prices; prices of petroleum products; volumes of petroleum products; and prime supplier sales volumes of petroleum products for local consumption. 7 figs., 70 tabs.

  3. Petroleum marketing monthly, November 1998, with data for August 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-11-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. Monthly statistics on purchases of crude oil and sales of petroleum products are presented in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly in five sections: Summary statistics; Crude oil prices; Prices of petroleum products; Volumes of petroleum products; and Prime supplier sales volumes of petroleum products for local consumption. 7 figs., 50 tabs.

  4. Petroleum marketing monthly, October 1998, with data for July 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-10-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. Monthly statistics on purchases of crude oil and sales of petroleum products are presented in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly in five sections: Summary statistics; Crude oil prices; Prices of petroleum products; Volumes of petroleum products; and Prime supplier sales volumes of petroleum products for local consumption. 7 figs., 50 tabs.

  5. Petroleum marketing monthly, June 1998, with data from March 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-06-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. Monthly statistics on purchases of crude oil and sales of petroleum products are presented in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly in five sections: summary statistics; crude oil prices; prices of petroleum products; volumes of petroleum products and prime supplier sales volumes of petroleum products for local consumption. 7 figs., 50 tabs.

  6. Petroleum marketing monthly, March 1999 with data for December 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. Monthly statistics on purchases of crude oil and sales of petroleum products are presented in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly in five sections: summary statistics; crude oil prices; prices of petroleum products; volumes of petroleum products; and prime supplier sales volumes of petroleum products for local consumption. 7 figs., 50 tabs.

  7. Petroleum marketing monthly, February 1999 with data for November 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-02-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. Monthly statistics on purchases of crude oil and sales of petroleum products are presented in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly in six sections: Initial Estimates; Summary Statistics; Crude Oil Prices; Prices of Petroleum Products; Volumes of Petroleum Products; and Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Petroleum Products for Local Consumption. 7 figs., 50 tabs.

  8. Petroleum supply monthly with data from January 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.

  9. Petroleum supply monthly with data for March 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major U.S. geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 states and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.

  10. Binary Systems and the Initial Mass Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malkov, O. Yu.

    2017-07-01

    In the present paper we discuss advantages and disadvantages of binary stars, which are important for star formation history determination. We show that to make definite conclusions of the initial mass function shape, it is necessary to study binary population well enough to correct the luminosity function for unresolved binaries; to construct the mass-luminosity relation based on wide binaries data, and to separate observational mass functions of primaries, of secondaries, and of unresolved binaries.

  11. Hydrogen Solubility in Heavy Undefined Petroleum Fractions Using Group Contributions Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aguilar-Cisneros Humberto

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen solubility in heavy undefined petroleum fractions is estimated by taking as starting point a method of characterization based on functional groups [ Carreón-Calderón et al. (2012 Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 51, 14188-14198 ]. Such method provides properties entering into equations of states and molecular pseudostructures formed by non-integer numbers of functional groups. Using Vapor-Liquid Equilibria (VLE data from binary mixtures of known compounds, interaction parameters between hydrogen and the calculated functional groups were estimated. Besides, the incorporation of the hydrogen-carbon ratio of the undefined petroleum fractions into the method allows the corresponding hydrogen solubility to be properly estimated. This procedure was tested with seven undefined petroleum fractions from 27 to 6 API over wide ranges of pressure and temperature (323.15 to 623.15 K. The results seem to be in good agreement with experimental data (overall Relative Average Deviation, RAD < 15%.

  12. Petroleum supply annual 1996: Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    The Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA) contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1996 through annual and monthly surveys. The PSA is divided into two volumes. This first volume contains three sections: Summary Statistics, Detailed Statistics, and Refinery Capacity; each with final annual data. The summary statistics section show 16 years of data depicting the balance between supply, disposition and ending stocks for various commodities including crude oil, motor gasoline, distillate fuel oil, residual fuel oil, jet fuel propane/propylene, and liquefied petroleum gases. The detailed statistics section provide 1996 detailed statistics on supply and disposition, refinery operations, imports and exports, stocks, and transportation of crude oil and petroleum products. The refinery capacity contain listings of refineries and associated crude oil distillation and downstream capacities by State, as of January 1, 1997, as well as summaries of corporate refinery capacities and refinery storage capacities. In addition, refinery receipts of crude oil by method of transportation for 1996 are provided. Also included are fuels consumed at refineries, and lists of shutdowns, sales, reactivations, and mergers during 1995 and 1996. 16 figs., 59 tabs.

  13. Fact sheet. Norwegian petroleum activity 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harv, M.R.

    1995-02-01

    This report on the Norwegian petroleum activity in 1994 is published by the Royal Ministry of Industry and Energy. Production to the end of 1994 totaled 1.63 billion scm oe. At 31 Dec 1994, total reserves on the Norwegian continental shelf comprised 1.34 billion scm oe of oil, 1.35 billion scm oe of gas and 0.1 billion scm oe of NGLs. The net increment in oil and gas during 1994 was about 115 million scm oe. Twenty-seven exploration wells, including 22 wildcats and five appraisal wells, were completed or temporarily abandoned on the Norwegian continental shelf in 1994. Governmental approval was given for developing the second phase of the Ekofisk field, the Vigdis and Snorre Lunde oil fields, and two smaller formations on the Veslefrikk field. Investment in petroleum operations totaled about NOK 50 billion. Norwegian oil and gas production came to about 180 million scm oe. At present levels of output, Norway's petroleum resources are sufficient to support production of oil for 20 years and of gas for 115 years. The estimated value of Norwegian petroleum exports in 1994 is NOK 114 billion, representing about 34% of the country's total export earnings. State revenues from taxes and royalties on petroleum operations came to about NOK 23.7 billion, or eight per cent of total government revenues. 24 figs., 13 tabs

  14. Making petroleum equipment safe, a priority

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Changes to the 'Act respecting the use of petroleum products' have been announced effective May 1, 1999. The changes have been made to reduce problems which can be attributed to petroleum product leaks. The new regulations will make owners and users of petroleum equipment, including underground and above-ground storage equipment and commercial storage tanks, more accountable for the use of their own equipment. The emphasis in the new regulations is based upon the storage capacity of petroleum equipment and the risks associated with this equipment, rather than the on the activities of the owners concerned. Accordingly, the new regulations call for stricter requirements for high-risk equipment, a private equipment inspection plan, a two-year operating permit, replacing the current permits and certificates, a tariff structure based on the risks associated with the equipment, and deregulation of commercial activities involving petroleum products that require no equipment. Additionally, the amendments to the Act transfer responsibility for administration to the Regie du batiment and to the Ministere des Transports. Details of each of these changes are explained

  15. Petroleum supply annual 1996: Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-06-01

    The Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA) contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1996 through annual and monthly surveys. The PSA is divided into two volumes. This first volume contains three sections: Summary Statistics, Detailed Statistics, and Refinery Capacity; each with final annual data. The summary statistics section show 16 years of data depicting the balance between supply, disposition and ending stocks for various commodities including crude oil, motor gasoline, distillate fuel oil, residual fuel oil, jet fuel propane/propylene, and liquefied petroleum gases. The detailed statistics section provide 1996 detailed statistics on supply and disposition, refinery operations, imports and exports, stocks, and transportation of crude oil and petroleum products. The refinery capacity contain listings of refineries and associated crude oil distillation and downstream capacities by State, as of January 1, 1997, as well as summaries of corporate refinery capacities and refinery storage capacities. In addition, refinery receipts of crude oil by method of transportation for 1996 are provided. Also included are fuels consumed at refineries, and lists of shutdowns, sales, reactivations, and mergers during 1995 and 1996. 16 figs., 59 tabs

  16. Real-time petroleum spill detection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dakin, D.T.

    2001-01-01

    A real-time autonomous oil and fuel spill detection system has been developed to rapidly detect of a wide range of petroleum products floating on, or suspended in water. The system consists of an array of spill detection buoys distributed within the area to be monitored. The buoys are composed of a float and a multispectral fluorometer, which looks up through the top 5 cm of water to detect floating and suspended petroleum products. The buoys communicate to a base station computer that controls the sampling of the buoys and analyses the data from each buoy to determine if a spill has occurred. If statistically significant background petroleum levels are detected, the system raises an oil spill alarm. The system is useful because early detection of a marine oil spill allows for faster containment, thereby minimizing the contaminated area and reducing cleanup costs. This paper also provided test results for biofouling, various petroleum product detection, water turbidity and wave tolerance. The technology has been successfully demonstrated. The UV light source keeps the optic window free from biofouling, and the electronics are fully submerged so there is no risk that the unit could ignite the vapours of a potential oil spill. The system can also tolerate moderately turbid waters and can therefore be used in many rivers, harbours, water intakes and sumps. The system can detect petroleum products with an average thickness of less than 3 micrometers floating on the water surface. 3 refs., 15 figs

  17. Canadian Petroleum Products Institute 1996 annual review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The Canadian Petroleum Products Institute (CPPI) is an association of Canadian companies involved in the downstream sector of the petroleum industry which includes refining, distributing and marketing of petroleum products. CPPI's mandate includes: (1) establishing environmental policies, (2) establishing working relationships with governments to develop public policy, (3) developing guidelines for the safe handling of petroleum products, and (4) providing information about the petroleum industry to the public. Canada's 19 refineries processed an average of 1.5 million barrels of crude oil per day in 1996. Domestic sources of crude made up 61 per cent of crude oil processed in 1996. Total exports during the year amounted to 105 million barrels. Some of the issues that the CPPI focused on during 1996 included the controversy over the future of the octane enhancing fuel additive MMT, fuel quality standards for transportation fuels and reformulated fuels, gasoline pricing, air quality and workplace safety. CPPI members' participation in the Voluntary Challenge and Registry (VCR) program towards reducing greenhouse gas emissions was also discussed. The industry was also actively involved in seeking to improve its refinery wastewater discharges

  18. The use of nuclear energy for obtaining petroleum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waldmann, H.; Koch, C.; Thelen, H.J.; Kappe, P.

    1982-01-01

    After some basic considerations of petroleum demand, petroleum supply and petroleum reserves, the article gives a survey of the various methods of obtaining petroleum. The use of energy in the form of steam and electricity in the previously used processes and in conventional deposits requires up to 50% of the energy contained in the oil obtained. Now unconventional sources of petroleum (tertiary petroleum, heavy fractions and shale oil) could become of interest to West Germany in the near future. The economy of production can be determined by the energy source used, to a large extent. A series of possibilities are discussed for using nuclear steam raising systems for this purpose. (UA) [de

  19. Kevadfestival oli metsateemaline

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Üritustest 29. maist kuni 1. juunini Türi Kevadfestivali raames: Alo Põldmäe loodusfotode näituse "Muusikaline Neeruti" avamisest 30. mail Türi kultuurimajas, pianisti Kadri-Ann Sumera esinemisest festivali avakontserdil "Metsastseenid" 29. mail Türi kultuurimajas, regilaulude laulmisest Jaak Johansoni ja Riina Roose eestvedamisel ürituse "Ööülikool" raames 30. mail, koomilise laulumängu "Lopi ja Lapi" esietendusest 31. mail Oisu rahvamajas

  20. OLI 2.0

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xin; Gammelgaard, Jens; Feng, Liyun

    2013-01-01

    When it comes to the debate on whether the traditional theories of MNE and foreign direct investment (FDI) are adequate to account for the rise of emerging market (EM) MNEs, our stance is that although some EM MNEs do challenge the conventional wisdom, the existing theories are still valuable.......0 model, we transform Dunning’s original model of ownership-location-internalization advantages into the new model of advantages of ownership, localization, and internalization. We argue this redefined model is more more coherent than Dunning’s eclectice paradigm as a theory of FDI or MNE. We also explain...

  1. Taxation of petroleum companies possessing private information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osmundsen, P.

    1995-01-01

    For countries having petroleum resources, a common objective of the Ministry of Energy is to maximise the net total government take from the petroleum industry. Most models of petroleum taxation, assuming symmetric information, recommended neutral taxation. A royalty is not optimal in this case as it gives disincentives for extraction, causing too much of the reservoir to remain unexploited. Through the operating activities, however, the companies obtain private information about the costs. A low cost company may conceal its information by imitating a high cost company, and must therefore be given an economic compensation (information rent) to be induced to reveal its true costs. An optimal regulatory response to asymmetric information may involve royalties, as these enable the government to capture a larger fraction of the economic rent. 17 refs., 2 figs

  2. Environment and petroleum exploration in Madagascar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratsimandresy, R.; Raveloson, E.A.; Lalaharisaina, J.V.

    1991-01-01

    This paper deals with the environmental problems related to Petroleum Exploration Programs (PEP) in Madagascar and measures taken, in short terms, to minimize environment degradation resulting from these. PEP concerns the three main western sedimentary basins (Ambilobe Basin - Majunga Basin - Morodava basin) of which 12% of the surface are classified as protected area (forests, parks, reserves) in respect of the richness and rareness of wildlife species. PEP's operations (seismic survey and drilling wells), when conducted in these zones, affect the system (access road, people migration), leading to the degradation of the wildlife. For petroleum companies working in those zones, some appropriate measures (adequacy of equipment, engagement to restore damages, environment study) were required before concerned administration could grant the agreement. One example of specific environment damages caused by Petroleum Exploration Operations is mentioned in this paper

  3. Petroleum demand continues to grow but slowly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1998-01-01

    While it is always entertaining and intellectually stimulating to look at all the marvelous technological alternatives just around the corner for transport, the transport task in Australia continues to grow and so does petroleum consumption. Australia presently consumes more than 750,000 barrels per day of petroleum products. Latest figures are given for petroleum consumption up to the end of August 1998. They indicate that total demand for petrol has continued to grow, but very slowly. Growth in 1997-1998 compared with 1996-1997 was only 0.3%. This trend for very low growth has been continued into July and August, perhaps indicative of a slow down in the economy

  4. Bioremediation of petroleum-contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearce, K.; Snyman, H.G.; Oellermann, R.A.; Gerber, A.

    1995-01-01

    A pilot-scale study was conducted to evaluate the application of land-farming techniques in bioremediating a soil highly contaminated with petroleum products. A commercial biosupplement, and one prepared with indigenous microorganisms from the contaminated soil, were tested. Application of either of the biosupplements, in addition to the control of pH, moisture, and oxygen levels, resulted in a 94% reduction of the initial total petroleum hydrocarbon concentration (TPHC) (32% mass/mass) over a 70-day period. Implementation of these findings at full scale to bioremediate highly weathered petroleum products showed an average reduction of 89% over 5.5 months. Target levels of 1,400 mg/kg soil were reached from an initial average TPHC concentration of 12,200 mg/kg soil

  5. Canadian petroleum history bibliography. Release update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cass, D.

    2010-01-07

    The petroleum history bibliography was created over several years as a record dedicated to preserving the history of the Canadian petroleum industry. It comprises a list of more than 5000 publications, including books, theses, films, audio tapes, published articles and stories of the many companies that have come and gone. It aims to include all publications and audio visual products from the Social Sciences and Humanities on company histories, biographies, autobiographies, fiction, poetry and humour. An author index is included. Most government documents are excluded as they are accessible through Library and Archives Canada. This bibliography is an ongoing piece of work, and welcomes any additions relating to the study and preservation of Canadian petroleum industry history.

  6. Document imaging finding niche in petroleum industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cisco, S.L.

    1992-01-01

    Optical disk-based document imaging systems can reduce operating costs, save office space, and improve access to necessary information for petroleum companies that have extensive records in various formats. These imaging systems help solve document management problems to improve technical and administrative operations. Enron Gas Pipeline Group has installed a document imaging system for engineering applications to integrate records stored on paper, microfilm, or computer-aided drafting (CAD) systems. BP Exploration Inc. recently implemented a document imaging system for administrative applications. The company is evaluating an expansion of the system to include engineering and technical applications. The petroleum industry creates, acquires, distributes, and retrieves enormous amounts of data and information, which are stored on multiple media, including paper, microfilm, and electronic formats. There are two main factors responsible for the immense information storage requirements in the petroleum industry

  7. Toxicological characteristics of petroleum products repeated exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.M. Rubin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The ability of petroleum products to initiate cumulative effects was assessed in experimental intragastric admission to male albino rats for one month. The analysis of skin-resorptive effects was performed using "test-tube" method on the skin of rats’ tails. It has been established that petroleum products can penetrate the intact skin and, with repeated admission, cause a general toxic effect. There were reductions bodyweights, the negative effect on the function of the kidneys and liver, changes of hematological parameters, as well as activation of the antioksidatnoy system. Repeated intragastric administration does not lead to the death of the animals testifying to the lack of accumulation capacity for petroleum products at the level of functional mortal effects, the cumulation coefficient being > 5.1. Negative impact on urinary function and hepatobiliary system, changes in hematological parameters and activation of the «lipid peroxidation – antioksidant defense» were observed.

  8. Petroleum and natural gas in Illinois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-01-01

    Presentations made at the 7th Annual Illinois Energy Conference are compiled and reported. Specific topics include: Illinois petroleum and natural gas supply; energy use patterns for Illinois and the nation; impacts of the National Energy Act on the natural gas industry; natural gas for North America; natural gas supply under the Natural Gas Policy; US access to international oil; deregulation and its impact on the US petroleum supply; the US Energy Policy; petroleum pricing and taxation policies in Illinois; the high cost of energy and its impact on the poor; impact of increased fuel prices on Illinois' industrial future; energy prices and inflation; opportunities for energy conservation in transportaton; overview of energy and synfuels from biomass and wastes; an inventory of energy potential from biomass in Illinois; problems and potential of alcohol from agriculture; liquid and gaseous fuels from coal; and alternatives to liquid and gaseous fuels.

  9. Hidden slow pulsars in binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavani, Marco; Brookshaw, Leigh

    1993-01-01

    The recent discovery of the binary containing the slow pulsar PSR 1718-19 orbiting around a low-mass companion star adds new light on the characteristics of binary pulsars. The properties of the radio eclipses of PSR 1718-19 are the most striking observational characteristics of this system. The surface of the companion star produces a mass outflow which leaves only a small 'window' in orbital phase for the detection of PSR 1718-19 around 400 MHz. At this observing frequency, PSR 1718-19 is clearly observable only for about 1 hr out of the total 6.2 hr orbital period. The aim of this Letter is twofold: (1) to model the hydrodynamical behavior of the eclipsing material from the companion star of PSR 1718-19 and (2) to argue that a population of binary slow pulsars might have escaped detection in pulsar surveys carried out at 400 MHz. The possible existence of a population of partially or totally hidden slow pulsars in binaries will have a strong impact on current theories of binary evolution of neutron stars.

  10. Two Nucleolar Proteins, GDP1 and OLI2, Function As Ribosome Biogenesis Factors and Are Preferentially Involved in Promotion of Leaf Cell Proliferation without Strongly Affecting Leaf Adaxial–Abaxial Patterning in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koji Kojima

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Leaf abaxial–adaxial patterning is dependent on the mutual repression of leaf polarity genes expressed either adaxially or abaxially. In Arabidopsis thaliana, this process is strongly affected by mutations in ribosomal protein genes and in ribosome biogenesis genes in a sensitized genetic background, such as asymmetric leaves2 (as2. Most ribosome-related mutants by themselves do not show leaf abaxialization, and one of their typical phenotypes is the formation of pointed rather than rounded leaves. In this study, we characterized two ribosome-related mutants to understand how ribosome biogenesis is linked to several aspects of leaf development. Previously, we isolated oligocellula2 (oli2 which exhibits the pointed-leaf phenotype and has a cell proliferation defect. OLI2 encodes a homolog of Nop2 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a ribosome biogenesis factor involved in pre-60S subunit maturation. In this study, we found another pointed-leaf mutant that carries a mutation in a gene encoding an uncharacterized protein with a G-patch domain. Similar to oli2, this mutant, named g-patch domain protein1 (gdp1, has a reduced number of leaf cells. In addition, gdp1 oli2 double mutants showed a strong genetic interaction such that they synergistically impaired cell proliferation in leaves and produced markedly larger cells. On the other hand, they showed additive phenotypes when combined with several known ribosomal protein mutants. Furthermore, these mutants have a defect in pre-rRNA processing. GDP1 and OLI2 are strongly expressed in tissues with high cell proliferation activity, and GDP1-GFP and GFP-OLI2 are localized in the nucleolus. These results suggest that OLI2 and GDP1 are involved in ribosome biogenesis. We then examined the effects of gdp1 and oli2 on adaxial–abaxial patterning by crossing them with as2. Interestingly, neither gdp1 nor oli2 strongly enhanced the leaf polarity defect of as2. Similar results were obtained with as2 gdp1 oli2

  11. Prospective of petroleum products 2002-2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This prospective provides a complete panorama of the requirements in the refining industry of Mexico at short, medium and long terms. Here subjects such as: fuels quality, historical and expected investments and prices, International situation of the installed refining capacity, the demand and regional balance of petroleum products at year 2001, the regulatory framework and the organization of the petroleum sector, the realized investments in the last nine years, Saving programs and efficient use of energy and the applicable regulations to this sector for its optimum use are treated. At the end of this book there are annexes with the abbreviations, acronyms and, conversion factors as well as the fundamental definitions. (Author)

  12. Taking the petroleum out of petrochemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, T

    1982-01-01

    It is thought to be inevitable that world production of petroleum will start declining in the not too distant future. When this happens, the only feedstock for the organic chemicals industry and the polymer chemistry industry will be coal. It is emphasized that the best way of substituting coal for petroleum fractions as an alternative energy source is the technologically easy conversion of economic coal to methanol. There are explanations of the problems involved in obtaining fuel methanol as an energy source, as feedstock for the chemical industry, and as a raw material for chemistry. (13 refs.)

  13. 34. annual conference Ontario Petroleum Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    A total of 18 papers, dealing with a variety of issues relevant to the petroleum industry, such as marketing strategies, feasibility studies and exploration technologies, were combined in this volume of proceedings of the 34th annual conference of the Ontario Petroleum Institute. Some of the papers presented case studies of hydrocarbon reserves in North America, along with their depositional histories. Oil yields and resource potential of fractured reservoirs was the subject of some presentations. Studies of cores from drilling sites and complete stratigraphic columns of some oil fields were also presented. (Papers are paged individually). refs., tabs., figs

  14. Norway: the traps of the petroleum wealth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastien, D.

    2006-01-01

    Thanks to petroleum, the Norwegian population is the richness in the world. The petroleum profits have been always carefully managed and stored in a special fund. However, this richness has now a disastrous impact on the Norwegian society which is progressively falling asleep in its comfort while the economy shows signs of overheating. Oil production has started its decline and will accelerate by 2010. The strategy of Norway is now to massively invest in gas exportation and to saturate the gas pipelines towards Europe. In the future Norway has planned to export LNG to the US and Spain. (J.S.)

  15. Effect of petroleum hydrocarbons on algae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhadauria, S.; Sengar, R.M.S.; Mittal, S.; Bhattacharjee, S.

    1992-01-01

    Algal species (65) were isolated from oil refinery effluent. Twenty-five of these species were cultured in Benecke's medium in a growth chamber, along with controls. Retardation in algal growth, inhibition in algal photosynthesis, and discoloration was observed in petroleum enriched medium. Few forms, viz. Cyclotella sp., Cosmarium sp., and Merismopedia sp. could not survive. The lag phase lengthened by several days and slope of exponential phase was also depressed. Chlamydomonas sp., Scenedesmus sp., Ankistrodesmus sp., Nitzschia sp. and Navicula sp. were comparatively susceptible to petroleum. Depression in carbon fixation, cell numbers, and total dry algal mass was noticeable, showing toxicity to both diatoms and green algae

  16. Domestic demand for petroleum in OPEC countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakravorty, U.; Fesharaki, F.; Zhou, S.

    2000-01-01

    The literature on OPEC energy policy has focused primarily on its production and export potential. The rapidly increasing domestic demand for petroleum products in OPEC countries has often been ignored. This study estimates domestic demand for petroleum products by the major OPEC economies and forecasts consumption trends under alternative assumptions regarding economic growth and price deregulation. It concludes that product demand is generally price and income inelastic and thus domestic consumption in OPEC will continue to grow rapidly, even if domestic prices are raised closer to world levels in the near future

  17. Converting petroleum into acids, soaps, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imray, J

    1883-06-19

    The conversion of petroleum and hydrocarbons resulting from distillation of lignite, coal, peat, shale, etc., into organic acids by treating the hydrocarbons in the presence of caustic alkalies, alkaline earths, alkaline carbonates, or other bodies with alkaline reaction, with a current of air or oxygen, with or without pressure, at a raised temperature, and decomposing the soaps formed, the free acid being removed from the compound which is then separated into single fractions by fractional distillation or by taking advantage of the unequal solubility in petroleum or similar solvents is described.

  18. Petroleum marketing monthly, September 1990. [Contains Glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-11

    This report is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, education institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners' acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented. 12 figs., 55 tabs.

  19. New contractual trends in world petroleum industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arzu, M.; Clerici, C.

    1992-01-01

    Oil industry contractual practices have gone through a rapid evolution starting from the 1970's, mainly determined by a change in the relationship between producer and consumer countries. Current steady price trends have led to a new equilibrium causing the petroleum companies and producer countries to re-examine their contractual strategies. This article highlights the new contractual trends in the petroleum industry by tracing the evolution of international business relationships and by comparing the main types of contractual schemes, e.g., concession, production sharing, services and services support, adopted today by the key hydrocarbon producing countries of the world

  20. The mirage of higher petroleum prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynch, M.C.

    1996-01-01

    Most petroleum industry price forecasters do not possess a record of which they can be proud. Long-term petroleum market forecasting has been so inaccurate that it has often been described as virtually impossible. To avoid criticism of their performance, many organizations no longer circulate their forecasts. Why have the forecasts been so wrong? Because of failure to predict supply. This paper reviews the erroneous methods used to predict price trends in the oil and gas industry and identifies methods to correct the problem

  1. Petroleum marketing monthly, October 1991. [Contains glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-10

    This report is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiner's acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented. 12 figs., 55 tabs.

  2. Petroleum hydrocarbon toxicity to corals: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Nicholas R; Renegar, D Abigail

    2017-06-30

    The proximity of coral reefs to coastal urban areas and shipping lanes predisposes corals to petroleum pollution from multiple sources. Previous research has evaluated petroleum toxicity to coral using a variety of methodology, including monitoring effects of acute and chronic spills, in situ exposures, and ex situ exposures with both adult and larval stage corals. Variability in toxicant, bioassay conditions, species and other methodological disparities between studies prevents comprehensive conclusions regarding the toxicity of hydrocarbons to corals. Following standardized protocols and quantifying the concentration and composition of toxicant will aid in comparison of results between studies and extrapolation to actual spills. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The microbiology of hydorcarbon degradation in subsurface petroleum reservoirs: perspectives and prospects.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roling, W.F.M.; Head, I.M.; Larter, S.R.

    2003-01-01

    The majority of the Earth's petroleum resource is partly biodegraded. This is of considerable practical significance and can limit economic exploitation of petroleum reserves and lead to problems during petroleum production. Knowledge of the microorganisms present in petroleum reservoirs, their

  4. Snow fraction products evaluation with Landsat-8/OLI data and its spatial scale effects over the Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, L.

    2016-12-01

    Snow cover is one of important elements in the water supply of large populations, especially in those downstream from mountainous watershed. The cryosphere process in the Tibetan Plateau is paid much attention due to rapid change of snow amount and cover extent. Snow mapping from MODIS has been increased attention in the study of climate change and hydrology. But the lack of intensive validation of different snow mapping methods especially at Tibetan Plateau hinders its application. In this work, we examined three MODIS snow products, including standard MODIS fractional snow product (MOD10A1) (Kaufman et al., 2002; Salomonson & Appel, 2004, 2006), two other fractional snow product, MODSCAG (Painter et al., 2009) and MOD_MESMA (Shi, 2012). Both these two methods are based on spectral mixture analysis. The difference between MODISCAG and MOD_MESMA was the endmember selection. For MODSCAG product, snow spectral endmembers of varying grain size was obtained both from a radiative transfer model and spectra of vegetation, rock and soil collected in the field and laboratory. MOD_MESMA was obtained from automated endmember extraction method using linear spectral mixture analysis. Its endmembers are selected in each image to enhance the computational efficiency of MESMA (Multiple Endmember Spectral Analysis). Landsat-8 Operatinal Land Imager (OLI) data from 2013-2015 was used to evaluate the performance of these three snow fraction products in Tibetan Plateau. The effect of land cover types including forest, grass and bare soil was analyzed to evaluate three products. In addition, the effects of relatively flat surface in internal plateau and high mountain areas of Himalaya were also evaluated on the impact of these snow fraction products. From our comparison, MODSCAG and MOD10A1 overestimated snow cover, while MOD_MESMA underestimated snow cover. And RMSE of MOD_MESMA at each land cover type including forest, grass and mountain area decreased with the spatial resolution

  5. Ability of LANDSAT-8 Oli Derived Texture Metrics in Estimating Aboveground Carbon Stocks of Coppice Oak Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safari, A.; Sohrabi, H.

    2016-06-01

    The role of forests as a reservoir for carbon has prompted the need for timely and reliable estimation of aboveground carbon stocks. Since measurement of aboveground carbon stocks of forests is a destructive, costly and time-consuming activity, aerial and satellite remote sensing techniques have gained many attentions in this field. Despite the fact that using aerial data for predicting aboveground carbon stocks has been proved as a highly accurate method, there are challenges related to high acquisition costs, small area coverage, and limited availability of these data. These challenges are more critical for non-commercial forests located in low-income countries. Landsat program provides repetitive acquisition of high-resolution multispectral data, which are freely available. The aim of this study was to assess the potential of multispectral Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) derived texture metrics in quantifying aboveground carbon stocks of coppice Oak forests in Zagros Mountains, Iran. We used four different window sizes (3×3, 5×5, 7×7, and 9×9), and four different offsets ([0,1], [1,1], [1,0], and [1,-1]) to derive nine texture metrics (angular second moment, contrast, correlation, dissimilar, entropy, homogeneity, inverse difference, mean, and variance) from four bands (blue, green, red, and infrared). Totally, 124 sample plots in two different forests were measured and carbon was calculated using species-specific allometric models. Stepwise regression analysis was applied to estimate biomass from derived metrics. Results showed that, in general, larger size of window for deriving texture metrics resulted models with better fitting parameters. In addition, the correlation of the spectral bands for deriving texture metrics in regression models was ranked as b4>b3>b2>b5. The best offset was [1,-1]. Amongst the different metrics, mean and entropy were entered in most of the regression models. Overall, different models based on derived texture metrics

  6. The Young Visual Binary Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prato, Lisa; Avilez, Ian; Lindstrom, Kyle; Graham, Sean; Sullivan, Kendall; Biddle, Lauren; Skiff, Brian; Nofi, Larissa; Schaefer, Gail; Simon, Michal

    2018-01-01

    Differences in the stellar and circumstellar properties of the components of young binaries provide key information about star and disk formation and evolution processes. Because objects with separations of a few to a few hundred astronomical units share a common environment and composition, multiple systems allow us to control for some of the factors which play into star formation. We are completing analysis of a rich sample of about 100 pre-main sequence binaries and higher order multiples, primarily located in the Taurus and Ophiuchus star forming regions. This poster will highlight some of out recent, exciting results. All reduced spectra and the results of our analysis will be publicly available to the community at http://jumar.lowell.edu/BinaryStars/. Support for this research was provided in part by NSF award AST-1313399 and by NASA Keck KPDA funding.

  7. The petroleum taxation in France; La fiscalite petroliere en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-09-15

    This document details the french specificities of taxation concerning the petroleum products: the TIPP. It shows how this policy acts upon the petroleum products consumption behavior and how it allows the financing of the decentralization. (A.L.B.)

  8. Petroleum supply monthly with data for December 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-02-01

    This report presents statistical data on the production, imports, exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States.

  9. Petroleum supply monthly, November 1996 with data for September 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    Data presented in this report describes the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the US and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products fin the US (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the US. The tables and figures in the Summary Statistics section present a time series of selected petroleum data on a US level. The Detailed Statistics tables present statistics for the most current month available as well as year-to-date. 16 figs., 66 tabs.

  10. Petroleum supply monthly with data from October 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    This publication provides information on the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United states and major geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports, exports, PAD district movements, and inventories by major suppliers of petroleum products.

  11. Petroleum supply monthly: September 1996, with data for July 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    Data presented in this report describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the US and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the US (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the US. The tables and figures in the Summary Statistics section of the PSM present a time series of selected petroleum data on a US level. The Detailed Statistics tables of the PSM present statistics for the most current month available as well as year-to-date. 56 tabs.

  12. Petroleum supply monthly, December 1998 with data for October 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the US and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the US (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the US. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics. 82 tabs.

  13. Occupational exposure to chlorinated and petroleum solvents and mycosis fungoides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morales-Suárez-Varela, Maria M; Olsen, Jørn; Villeneuve, Sara

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the potential association between occupational exposure to chlorinated and petroleum solvents and mycosis fungoides (MF).......To evaluate the potential association between occupational exposure to chlorinated and petroleum solvents and mycosis fungoides (MF)....

  14. A REVIEW OF THE KEY PROVISIONS OF THE PETROLEUM ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    safety measures relating to all aspects of upstream petroleum operations, publish reports and ... Nigerian Petroleum Assets Management Company Limited12 ..... the demand” will apply and the public will be protected against monopolies,.

  15. Characterization of CRUDE OILS and petroleum products: (i) elution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Characterization of CRUDE OILS and petroleum products: (i) elution liquid chromatographic separation and gas chromatographic analysis of crude oils and petroleum products. E.O. Odebunmi, E.A. Ogunsakin, P.E.P. Ilukhor ...

  16. Petroleum: fate of mankind. [in German]. Oel - Schicksal der Menschheit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konzelmann, G

    1976-01-01

    The author reports on the history, exploratio, exploitation, transport, and refining of petroleum, and on the policies in the petroleum business, concentrating on the oil-exporting countries. Many impressive color pictures supplement the text.

  17. Petroleum Release Assessment and Impacts of Weather Extremes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contaminated ground water and vapor intrusion are two major exposure pathways of concern at petroleum release sites. EPA has recently developed a model for petroleum vapor intrusion, called PVIScreen, which incorporates variability and uncertainty in input parameters. This ap...

  18. The petroleum industry in 2003; L'industrie petroliere en 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This 2004 edition of the petroleum industry activities presents results and data concerning the crude oil prices evolution, the petroleum exploration and production in france and in the world, the para-petroleum industry, the hydrocarbons supplies, the refining, the quality evolution of the substitution products and fuels, the internal transports of petroleum products, the petroleum products storage, the petroleum products consumption, the petroleum products prices and taxation, the petroleum products distribution. (A.L.B.)

  19. Petroleum Gases Market in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bumin, S.; Ozyoruk, B.

    2007-01-01

    and Europe. Therefore, Turkey is widely called as 'The Energy Bridge between the East and the West'. Turkey's natural energy resources are quite diversified; hard coal, lignite, asphaltite, oil, natural gas, hydro, geothermal, wood, animal and plant wastes, solar and secondary energy resources such as coke and briquettes are produced and consumed. Although Turkey's oil and natural gas reserves are limited, coal reserves are quite abundant. Energy forecasts show that primary energy demand would be 117 million TOE in 2005 and 156 million TOE in 2010. Turkey has a large LPG (Liquefied Petroleum Gas) consumption, which ranks third in Europe and within the top ten in the world. Turkey's LPG market structure depends largely on imports. At the end of 2005, the LPG consumption was around 3.7 billion tonnes and about 80 % of this, which amounts to 2.8 billion tonnes, has been provided through imports.(author)

  20. Evolution in close binary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yungel'son, L.R.; Masevich, A.G.

    1983-01-01

    Duality is the property most typical of stars. If one investigates how prevalent double stars are, making due allowance for selection effects, one finds that as many as 90 percent of all stars are paired. Contrary to tradition it is single stars that are out of the ordinary, and as will be shown presently even some of these may have been formed by coalescence of the members of binary systems. This review deals with the evolution of close binaries, defined as double-star systems whose evolution entails exchange of material between the two components

  1. The after petroleum. When the wells dried up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefevre-Balleydier, A.

    2006-01-01

    Facing the petroleum crisis of the years 70 and the today petroleum reserves problems, the author wonders on a society without cheap petroleum. Which energies will take over: gas, coal, nuclear of renewable energies? In seven chapters the following topics are discussed: the petroleum in our life, for how long, the alternative energies, the environmental impacts, the socio-economic impacts, the possible actions today. (A.L.B.)

  2. Geopolitical problems bond to the petroleum production and exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-12-01

    The persistent interest of States for the petroleum shows, always today, that it is a specific raw material. The petroleum specificity comes from the supply and demand character, which the prospective study is presented in the first part of this analysis. From this presentation the authors discuss the petroleum ''great fear'' which leads to the dependence and then the interdependence of the petroleum States in an international cooperation. (A.L.B.)

  3. The role of the Arctic in future global petroleum supply

    OpenAIRE

    Lars Lindholt; Solveig Glomsrød

    2011-01-01

    The Arctic has a substantial share of global petroleum resources, but at higher costs than in most other petroleum provinces. Arctic states and petroleum companies are carefully considering the potential for future extraction in the Arctic. This paper studies the oil and gas supply from 6 arctic regions during 2010-2050 along with global economic growth and different assumptions regarding petroleum prices and resource endowments. Supply is calculated based on a global model of oil and gas mar...

  4. Necessities and constraints of petroleum exploration in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fetah, M.

    1991-01-01

    In spite of the petroleum low prices, persisting since 1986, many developing countries, non-producing petroleum, are facing growing energy problems: fall of petroleum exploration activities, quasi stoppage of projects for energy substitute development, consecutively to the lowering of the crude oil prices. This communication shows the necessity for these countries to resume petroleum exploration and proposes solutions in order to release constraints: international cooperation, fiscal incentives, access to the financial market, etc. Morocco is taken as an example

  5. REDUCING POWER PRODUCTION COSTS BY UTILIZING PETROLEUM COKE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin C. Galbreath; Donald L. Toman; Christopher J. Zygarlicke

    1999-09-01

    Petroleum coke, a byproduct of the petroleum-refining process, is an attractive primary or supplemental fuel for power production primarily because of a progressive and predictable increase in the production volumes of petroleum coke (1, 2). Petroleum coke is most commonly blended with coal in proportions suitable to meet sulfur emission compliance. Petroleum coke is generally less reactive than coal; therefore, the cofiring of petroleum coke with coal typically improves ignition, flame stability, and carbon loss relative to the combustion of petroleum coke alone. Although petroleum coke is a desirable fuel for producing relatively inexpensive electrical power, concerns about the effects of petroleum coke blending on combustion and pollution control processes exist in the coal-fired utility industry (3). The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) completed a 2-year technical assessment of petroleum coke as a supplemental fuel. A survey questionnaire was sent to seven electric utility companies that are currently cofiring coal and petroleum coke in an effort to solicit specific suggestions on research needs and fuel selections. An example of the letter and survey questionnaire is presented in Appendix A. Interest was expressed by most utilities in evaluating the effects of petroleum coke blending on grindability, combustion reactivity, fouling, slagging, and fly ash emissions control. Unexpectedly, concern over corrosion was not expressed by the utilities contacted. Although all seven utilities responded to the question, only two utilities, Northern States Power Company (NSP) and Ameren, sent fuels to the EERC for evaluation. Both utilities sent subbituminous coals from the Power River Basin and petroleum shot coke samples. Petroleum shot coke is produced unintentionally during operational upsets in the petroleum refining process. This report evaluates the effects of petroleum shot coke blending on grindability, fuel reactivity, fouling/slagging, and

  6. Integrating Data of ASTER and Landsat-8 OLI (AO for Hydrothermal Alteration Mineral Mapping in Duolong Porphyry Cu-Au Deposit, Tibetan Plateau, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingbin Zhang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important characteristics of porphyry copper deposits (PCDs is the type and distribution pattern of alteration zones which can be used for screening and recognizing these deposits. Hydrothermal alteration minerals with diagnostic spectral absorption properties in the visible and near-infrared (VNIR through the shortwave infrared (SWIR regions can be identified by multispectral and hyperspectral remote sensing data. Six Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER bands in SWIR have been shown to be effective in the mapping of Al-OH, Fe-OH, Mg-OH group minerals. The five VNIR bands of Landsat-8 (L8 Operational Land Imager (OLI are useful for discriminating ferric iron alteration minerals. In the absence of complete hyperspectral coverage area, an opportunity, however, exists to integrate ASTER and L8-OLI (AO to compensate each other’s shortcomings in covering area for mineral mapping. This study examines the potential of AO data in mineral mapping in an arid area of the Duolong porphyry Cu-Au deposit(Tibetan Plateau in China by using spectral analysis techniques. Results show the following conclusions: (1 Combination of ASTER and L8-OLI data (AO has more mineral information content than either alone; (2 The Duolong PCD alteration zones of phyllic, argillic and propylitic zones are mapped using ASTER SWIR bands and the iron-bearing mineral information is best mapped using AO VNIR bands; (3 The multispectral integration data of AO can provide a compensatory data of ASTER VNIR bands for iron-bearing mineral mapping in the arid and semi-arid areas.

  7. The oligodendroglial precursor cell line Oli-neu represents a cell culture system to examine functional expression of the mouse gap junction gene connexin29 (Cx29

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran Christoph Söhl

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The potential gap junction forming mouse connexin29 (Cx29 protein is concomitantly expressed with connexin32 (Cx32 in peripheral myelin forming Schwann cells and together with both Cx32 and connexin47 (Cx47 in oligodendrocytes of the CNS. To study the genomic structure and functional expression of Cx29, either primary cells or cell culture systems might be selected, from which the latter are easier to cultivate. Both structure and expression of Cx29 is still not fully understood. In the mouse sciatic nerve, brain and the oligodendroglial precursor cell line Oli-neu the Cx29 gene is processed in two transcript isoforms both harbouring a unique reading frame. In contrast to Cx32 and Cx47, only Cx29 protein is abundantly expressed in undifferentiated as well as differentiated Oli-neu cells but the absence of Etbr dye transfer after microinjection concealed the function of Cx29 mediated gap junction communication between those cells. Although HeLa cells stably transfected with Cx29 or Cx29-eGFP neither demonstrated any permeability for Lucifer yellow nor for neurobiotin, blocking of Etbr uptake from the media by gap junction blockers does suppose a role of Cx29 in hemi-channel function. Thus, we conclude that, due to its high abundance of Cx29 expression and its reproducible culture conditions, the oligodendroglial precursor cell line Oli-neu might constitute an appropriate cell culture system to study molecular mechanisms or putative extracellular stimuli to functionally open Cx29 channels or hemi-channels.

  8. A qualitative assessment of desertification change in the Tarfaya basin (Morocco using panchromatic data of Landsat ETM+ and oli: sand encroachment approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aydda Ali

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present work is to assess desertification change in the Tarfaya basin (Morocco based on quantifying sand dunes mass change at the corridor scale using two Panchromatic bands of Landsat ETM+ and OLI with 15 m of resolution covering the study area for ten years (2005–2016. In this work, the sand dunes quantification is qualitative and is based on automatic extraction and classification of sand dunes shape using co-occurence texture filters and Support Vector Machine (SVM classifier. The statistical results show that the area covered by sand was increased during the last ten years, which reveal that desertification becomes more intense.

  9. Pemodelan Dan Analisis Pengaruh Variasi Oli dan Diameter Orifice terhadap Gaya Redam Shock Absorber Dan Respon Dinamis Sepeda Motor Yamaha Jupiter Z 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Newanda Asa Wahid

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Sepeda motor merupakan moda transportasi yang paling banyak diminati oleh masyarakat Indonesia. Dalam hal kenyamanan, maka komponen sepeda motor yang berperan penting adalah sistem suspensi. Sistem suspensi berfungsi menyerap getaran berlebih akibat profil permukaan jalan, sehingga meningkatkan kenyamanan dan keamanan. Oleh karena itu, perlu dilakukan penelitian untuk mendapatkan sistem suspensi yang terbaik. Dalam tugas akhir ini dilakukan pemodelan dan analisis pengaruh perubahan parameter sistem suspensi sepeda motor Yamaha Jupiter Z 2008 khususnya pada komponen monotube hydraulic shock absorber yang didasarkan pada pemodelan setengah kendaraan. Parameter yang divariasikan adalah tipe oli dan diameter orifice, dimana terdapat 5 macam tipe oli dengan rentang nilai massa jenis (ρ sebesar 845 – 874 kg/m3, dan viskositas (ν sebesar 11,3 – 46 mm2/s, sementara untuk diameter orifice yaitu saat kompresi (Docomp sebesar 1,2 – 1,5 mm, saat ekspansi (Doexp sebesar 0,8 – 1 mm. Input yang digunakan pada simulasi adalah input sinusoidal dan input bump modified. Dari penelitian ini didapatkan hasil bahwa sistem suspensi modifikasi monotube hydraulic shock absorber yang menghasilkan gaya redam optimal memiliki nilai parameter viskositas kinematis oli 46 mm2/s, massa jenis oli 845 kg/m3, diameter orifice kompresi 0,00135 m, dan diameter orifice ekspansi 0,0009 m. Nilai gaya redam optimal yang dihasilkan sistem suspensi modifikasi adalah sebesar 1171,3 N, lebih tinggi hingga 546,44 N dibandingkan dengan gaya redam sistem supensi asli yang bernilai 624,86 N pada frekuensi 2 Hz. Pada sistem setengah kendaraan motor dengan penggunaan sistem suspensi asli maupun modifikasi, untuk input bump, respon kendaraan dan penumpang mencapai steady state kurang dari 2 detik dan 5 detik, sedangkan untuk input sinusoidal responnya mencapai steady state kurang dari 2 detik dan 3 detik. Penggunaan suspensi asli maupun modifikasi menghasilkan nilai perpindahan RMS yang

  10. Density of Na2O-Li2O-SiO2-B2O3 Molten Slag at 1 803-1 873 K

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Feng; FANG Liang

    2004-01-01

    The density of three kinds of molten slags was measured by modified sessile drop method at 1 803-1 873 K. The density of molten slag is found to decrease with increasing temperature. The temperature coefficients of Na2O-Li2O-SiO2 and Li2O-SiO2-B2O3 slag are smaller than that of Na2O-B2O3 slag. The molar volume of slags increases with increasing temperature.

  11. "Parasta oli, että työntekijä vaivautui tulemaan meille asti, monta kertaa." : Kokemuksia ratkaisukeskeisestä neuropsykiatrisesta valmennuksesta

    OpenAIRE

    Isomettä, Jenni

    2012-01-01

    Opinnäytetyön aihe nousi esiin Tampereen kaupungin lasten ja nuorten terveyspalveluiden OSMO-hankkeesta. Työelämätaho oli vakuuttunut tämänkaltaisen työn tarpeellisuudesta. OSMO-lyhenne tulee sanoista osaamisverkostoista monimuotoinen tuki lasten ja nuorten kehitysympäristöihin. Opinnäytetyössä kartoitettiin Tampereen kaupungin OSMO-hankkeen ratkaisukeskeiseen neuropsykiatriseen valmennukseen osallistuneiden kokemuksia valmennuksesta. Opinnäytetyössä selvitettiin, mitä he ovat kokeneet valmen...

  12. ”ja kaiken A ja O olis avoin ja luottamuksellinen yhteistyö” : Varhaiskasvatuspalvelujen täydentäminen varhaiskasvatuksen perhetyöllä

    OpenAIRE

    Kuparinen, Melanie; Ojala, Katja

    2016-01-01

    Opinnäytetyömme tarkoitus oli kehittää varhaiskasvatuksen perhetyön malli Etelä-Suomessa sijaitsevaan kuntaan. Varhaiskasvatuksen perhetyö ei ole uusi palvelumuoto, mutta sille ei ole luotu yksiselitteistä mallia, jota palvelua tarjoavissa kunnissa toteutettaisiin. Pidämme yhteiskunnallisella tasolla tärkeänä tuoda esiin varhaiskasvatuksen perhetyötä ja haluamme kirkastaa sen merkitystä osana perheiden palvelupakettia. Teoriaosuudessa selvitämme lapsiperheiden hyvinvoinnin tilaa ja mi...

  13. 10 CFR 490.804 - Eligible reductions in petroleum consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Eligible reductions in petroleum consumption. 490.804... Alternative Compliance § 490.804 Eligible reductions in petroleum consumption. (a) Motor vehicles. Demonstrated reductions in petroleum consumption during the model year for which a waiver is requested that are...

  14. Uranium content of petroleum by fission track technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paschoa, A.S.; Mafra, O.Y.; Oliveira, C.A.N. de; Pinto, L.R.

    1981-03-01

    The feasibility of the fission track registration technique to investigate the natural uranium concentration in petroleum is examined. The application of this technique to petroleum is briefly described and discussed critically. The results obtained so far indicate uranium concentrations in samples of Brazilian petroleum which are over the detect ion limit of fission track technique. (Author) [pt

  15. Petroleum supply monthly, March 1999, with data for January 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four petroleum supply publications produced by the Petroleum Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the US and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the US (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the US. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  16. Industry sector analysis, Mexico: Annual petroleum report. Export Trade Information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The comprehensive appraisal of the Mexican Petroleum industry was completed in July 1991. Some of the topics concerning the Mexican petroleum industry covered in the Annual Petroleum Report include: exploration efforts, oil reserves, pipelines, refining, finances, transportation, alternative energy sources, and others. The report also contains lists of petrochemicals produced in Mexico and extensive statistics on oil production and export prices

  17. 40 CFR 52.1931 - Petroleum storage tank controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Petroleum storage tank controls. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Oklahoma § 52.1931 Petroleum... plan, the petroleum storage tanks listed in paragraphs (b) through (e) of this section shall be subject...

  18. 29 CFR 794.132 - “Petroleum products”.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false âPetroleum productsâ. 794.132 Section 794.132 Labor... WHOLESALE OR BULK PETROLEUM DISTRIBUTORS UNDER SECTION 7(b)(3) OF THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Exemption... § 794.132 “Petroleum products”. A sale by an enterprise engaged in the wholesale or bulk distribution of...

  19. 75 FR 63200 - Petroleum Wax Candles From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-14

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 731-TA-282 (Third Review)] Petroleum Wax Candles... five-year review concerning the antidumping duty order on petroleum wax candles from China. SUMMARY... antidumping duty order on petroleum wax candles from China would be likely to lead to continuation or...

  20. 48 CFR 908.7109 - Fuels and packaged petroleum products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fuels and packaged petroleum products. 908.7109 Section 908.7109 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY....7109 Fuels and packaged petroleum products. Acquisitions of fuel and packaged petroleum products by DOE...

  1. 49 CFR 192.11 - Petroleum gas systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Petroleum gas systems. 192.11 Section 192.11... BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS General § 192.11 Petroleum gas systems. (a) Each plant that supplies petroleum gas by pipeline to a natural gas distribution system must meet the requirements...

  2. 75 FR 80843 - Petroleum Wax Candles From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-23

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 731-TA-282 (Third Review)] Petroleum Wax Candles... Tariff Act of 1930 (19 U.S.C. 1675(c)), that revocation of the antidumping duty order on petroleum wax... contained in USITC Publication 4207 (December 2010), entitled Petroleum Wax Candles from China...

  3. Petroleum: the new challenges. Market pressure and technological lever

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boy de la Tour, X.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the forecasting of petroleum demand during the next years, the state of petroleum reserves and recognized oil fields in the whole world at the present time. The challenge to obtain a sufficient petroleum production, facing an increased energy demand, requires to have recourse to new exploration and oil recovery techniques. 8 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  4. 46 CFR 105.05-2 - Prohibitions regarding petroleum products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Prohibitions regarding petroleum products. 105.05-2... VESSELS COMMERCIAL FISHING VESSELS DISPENSING PETROLEUM PRODUCTS Application § 105.05-2 Prohibitions regarding petroleum products. (a) Commercial fishing vessels shall not transport Grade A flammable liquids...

  5. Chemical reaction engineering studies on cocracking of petroleum vacuum residue with coal, plastics, and biomass (bagasse and petrocrop)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmaruzzaman, M.; Sharma, D.K. [Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi (India). Centre for Energy Studies

    2007-07-01

    This article deals with the studies on cocracking of petroleum vacuum residue (XVR) with thermosetting plastic, I. e., bakelite (BL), Samla coal (SC), biomass, I. e., bagasse (BG) or C. procera (CL) and their binary, ternary, and quaternary mixtures in a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA). The kinetic studies were performed using the Coats and Redfern kinetic modeling equation. The overall activation energies obtained were 25 kJ/mole for petroleum vacuum residue, 99 kJ/mole for polypropylene, 21 kJ/mole for coal, 23 kJ/mole for Calotropis procera, and 25 kJ/mole for the combination of these four materials. However, other models, such as van Krevelan et al. and Horowitz and Metzger have also been used in some cases to compare the results with those obtained by the Coats and Redfern kinetic models. In the present work, the effect of catalysts on the cracking of Basra vacuum residue (BVR) has also been reported.

  6. Dissolved petroleum hydrocarbons in the Andaman Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Topgi, R.S.; Noronha, R.J.; Fondekar, S.P.

    Mean dissolved petroleum hydrocarbons, measured using UV-spectrophotometry, at 0 and 10m were 51 plus or minus 1 and 55 plus or minus 1.2 mu g/litre respectively; range of variation being between 28 and 83 mu g/litre. Very little difference...

  7. Facts 2000. The Norwegian Petroleum Sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-02-01

    Petroleum production on the Norwegian continental shelf (NCS) in the North Sea, the Norwegian Sea and the Barents Sea totalled 2.7 bn scm oil equivalents (oe) up to 1998. Per December 1999, remaining reserves totalled 1.5 bn scm of oil, 1.2 bn scm oe gas and 0.2 bn scm oe of NGL/condensate. Twenty-eight exploration wells were completed or temporarily abandoned on the NCS in 1999. By 31 December 1999, 967 exploration wells had been completed or temporarily abandoned off Norway. Discoveries totalled 45-60 mill scm of oil and 45-70 bn scm of gas. Governmental approval was given in 1999 for the Tune, Borg and Sygna developments. Investment in exploration, field development and pipeline transport totalled about NOK 67 bn in 1998. Oil and gas production in 1999 was roughly on the par with 1998, while NGL/condensate sales rose by 19 per cent. The Balder, Gullfaks South, Jotun, Oseberg East, Visund and Aasgard projects came on stream during 1999. It is estimated that, with the present production rate, Norway's remaining discovered oil resources will last for 17 years, and gas, 93 years. The estimated value of Norwegian petroleum export in 1999 was NOK 168 bn, which is about 36% of the country's total earnings from foreign sales. Published by the Norwegian Ministry of Petroleum and Energy, the book is a major source of information on the Norwegian offshore petroleum activities

  8. Facts 2000. The Norwegian Petroleum Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-02-01

    Petroleum production on the Norwegian continental shelf (NCS) in the North Sea, the Norwegian Sea and the Barents Sea totalled 2.7 bn scm oil equivalents (oe) up to 1998. Per December 1999, remaining reserves totalled 1.5 bn scm of oil, 1.2 bn scm oe gas and 0.2 bn scm oe of NGL/condensate. Twenty-eight exploration wells were completed or temporarily abandoned on the NCS in 1999. By 31 December 1999, 967 exploration wells had been completed or temporarily abandoned off Norway. Discoveries totalled 45-60 mill scm of oil and 45-70 bn scm of gas. Governmental approval was given in 1999 for the Tune, Borg and Sygna developments. Investment in exploration, field development and pipeline transport totalled about NOK 67 bn in 1998. Oil and gas production in 1999 was roughly on the par with 1998, while NGL/condensate sales rose by 19 per cent. The Balder, Gullfaks South, Jotun, Oseberg East, Visund and Aasgard projects came on stream during 1999. It is estimated that, with the present production rate, Norway's remaining discovered oil resources will last for 17 years, and gas, 93 years. The estimated value of Norwegian petroleum export in 1999 was NOK 168 bn, which is about 36% of the country's total earnings from foreign sales. Published by the Norwegian Ministry of Petroleum and Energy, the book is a major source of information on the Norwegian offshore petroleum activities.

  9. Biosurfactants: Promising Molecules for Petroleum Biotechnology Advances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DARNE GERMANO DE ALMEIDA

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The growing global demand for sustainable technologies that improves the efficiency of petrochemical processes in the oil industry has driven advances in petroleum biotechnology in recent years. Petroleum industry uses substantial amounts of petrochemical-based synthetic surfactants in its activities as mobilizing agents to increase the availability or recovery of hydrocarbons as well as many other applications related to extraction, treatment, cleaning and transportation. However, biosurfactants have several potential applications for use across the oil processing chain and in the formulations of petrochemical products such as emulsifying/demulsifying agents, anticorrosive, biocides for sulphate-reducing bacteria, fuel formulation, extraction of bitumen from tar sands and many other innovative applications. Due to their versatility and proven efficiency, biosurfactants are often presented as valuable versatile tools that can transform and modernise petroleum biotechnology in an attempt to provide a true picture of state of the art and directions or use in the oil industry. We believe that biosurfactants are going to have a significant role in many future applications in the oil industries and in this review therefore, we highlight recent important relevant applications, patents disclosures and potential future applications for biosurfactants in petroleum and related industries.

  10. Biosurfactants: Promising Molecules for Petroleum Biotechnology Advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Almeida, Darne G; Soares Da Silva, Rita de Cássia F; Luna, Juliana M; Rufino, Raquel D; Santos, Valdemir A; Banat, Ibrahim M; Sarubbo, Leonie A

    2016-01-01

    The growing global demand for sustainable technologies that improves the efficiency of petrochemical processes in the oil industry has driven advances in petroleum biotechnology in recent years. Petroleum industry uses substantial amounts of petrochemical-based synthetic surfactants in its activities as mobilizing agents to increase the availability or recovery of hydrocarbons as well as many other applications related to extraction, treatment, cleaning, and transportation. However, biosurfactants have several potential applications for use across the oil processing chain and in the formulations of petrochemical products such as emulsifying/demulsifying agents, anticorrosive, biocides for sulfate-reducing bacteria, fuel formulation, extraction of bitumen from tar sands, and many other innovative applications. Due to their versatility and proven efficiency, biosurfactants are often presented as valuable versatile tools that can transform and modernize petroleum biotechnology in an attempt to provide a true picture of state of the art and directions or use in the oil industry. We believe that biosurfactants are going to have a significant role in many future applications in the oil industries and in this review therefore, we highlight recent important relevant applications, patents disclosures and potential future applications for biosurfactants in petroleum and related industries.

  11. Geochemical Investigation of Vertical Migration of Petroleum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. K.J. Umar

    chimneys over faults in an overpressured zone in the western part of ... Haltenbanken area is part of a passive continental margin between the Møre Basin and the Trøndelag. Platform ... The petroleum accumulations in the Heidrun field and in.

  12. The petroleum in the postwar period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez Ortiz, Astrid

    2003-01-01

    This paper analyzes some antecedents and are answers formulated to questions as: how is the oil world after Iraq? Which is the future of the OPEC, how are evolved the prices of the petroleum and repercussions of these facts in Colombia

  13. Earthworm-assisted bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ameh

    The use of earthworms (Eudrilus eugenia) for vermi-assisted bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated mechanic workshop soils ... not always result in complete neutrali- zation of pollutants (Yerushalmi et al., 2003). ..... Screening of biofouling activity in marine bacterial isolate from ship hull. Int. J. Environ. Sci.

  14. Effect of petroleum products on mangrove seedlings

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jagtap, T.G.; Untawale, A.G.

    The effect of petrol, diesel and motor oil was studied on the fruits of Rhizophora mucronata and Avicennia officinalis. The former species was found to be more resistant to these petroleum products than the latter, in which more toxic effect were...

  15. Liquefied petroleum gas overexposure in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) contains propane and butane gas and is ... source of energy, there are specific health risks to the uninformed user. In SA, LPG is ... the collateral history indicated the gas as the possible agent. • the patient had a ...

  16. Mathematical modelling on transport of petroleum hydrocarbons

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A brief theory has been included on the composition and transport of petroleum hydrocarbons following an onshore oil spill in order to demonstrate the level of complexity associated with the LNAPL dissolution mass transfer even in a classical porous medium. However, such studies in saturated fractured rocks are highly ...

  17. The oil and petroleum industry. 20. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This financial survey is a compilation of financial and marketing data on oil and petroleum industry companies in the United Kingdom. It includes quoted companies in the production and distribution industry, unquoted companies in the exploration and production industry, unquoted companies in the refining and distribution industry, a geographical index and an alphabetical index. (UK)

  18. Biosurfactants: Promising Molecules for Petroleum Biotechnology Advances

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Almeida, Darne G.; Soares Da Silva, Rita de Cássia F.; Luna, Juliana M.; Rufino, Raquel D.; Santos, Valdemir A.; Banat, Ibrahim M.; Sarubbo, Leonie A.

    2016-01-01

    The growing global demand for sustainable technologies that improves the efficiency of petrochemical processes in the oil industry has driven advances in petroleum biotechnology in recent years. Petroleum industry uses substantial amounts of petrochemical-based synthetic surfactants in its activities as mobilizing agents to increase the availability or recovery of hydrocarbons as well as many other applications related to extraction, treatment, cleaning, and transportation. However, biosurfactants have several potential applications for use across the oil processing chain and in the formulations of petrochemical products such as emulsifying/demulsifying agents, anticorrosive, biocides for sulfate-reducing bacteria, fuel formulation, extraction of bitumen from tar sands, and many other innovative applications. Due to their versatility and proven efficiency, biosurfactants are often presented as valuable versatile tools that can transform and modernize petroleum biotechnology in an attempt to provide a true picture of state of the art and directions or use in the oil industry. We believe that biosurfactants are going to have a significant role in many future applications in the oil industries and in this review therefore, we highlight recent important relevant applications, patents disclosures and potential future applications for biosurfactants in petroleum and related industries. PMID:27843439

  19. Facts 2000. The Norwegian Petroleum Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-02-01

    Petroleum production on the Norwegian continental shelf (NCS) in the North Sea, the Norwegian Sea and the Barents Sea totalled 2.7 bn scm oil equivalents (oe) up to 1998. Per December 1999, remaining reserves totalled 1.5 bn scm of oil, 1.2 bn scm oe gas and 0.2 bn scm oe of NGL/condensate. Twenty-eight exploration wells were completed or temporarily abandoned on the NCS in 1999. By 31 December 1999, 967 exploration wells had been completed or temporarily abandoned off Norway. Discoveries totalled 45-60 mill scm of oil and 45-70 bn scm of gas. Governmental approval was given in 1999 for the Tune, Borg and Sygna developments. Investment in exploration, field development and pipeline transport totalled about NOK 67 bn in 1998. Oil and gas production in 1999 was roughly on the par with 1998, while NGL/condensate sales rose by 19 per cent. The Balder, Gullfaks South, Jotun, Oseberg East, Visund and Aasgard projects came on stream during 1999. It is estimated that, with the present production rate, Norway's remaining discovered oil resources will last for 17 years, and gas, 93 years. The estimated value of Norwegian petroleum export in 1999 was NOK 168 bn, which is about 36% of the country's total earnings from foreign sales. Published by the Norwegian Ministry of Petroleum and Energy, the book is a major source of information on the Norwegian offshore petroleum activities.

  20. Petroleum Independence: A Business Case and Strategy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gallant, Robin

    2006-01-01

    .... All of which have contributed to the erosion of our pole position in international affairs. This paper argues the business case that the US has arrived at the point in its history where it is now too expensive to pursue petroleum-based energy...

  1. The petroleum industry and environment law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bond, Richard

    1992-01-01

    A brief review is given of certain aspects of the petroleum industry's operation in the context of the growth in European Community environmental law. Topics covered include exploration and production, transportation by both pipeline and tanker, oil terminals, refineries and the abandonment and decommissioning of offshore installations. (UK)

  2. hydrocarbons biodegradation and evidence of mixed petroleum

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DJFLEX

    MIXED PETROLEUM SOURCE INPUTS TO SURFACE. SEDIMENTS ... environmental risk assessment and remediation efforts. ... (station CR10), a distance of approximately 95km ... Cross River –near Oku Iboku beach area and ... extraction, and evapourated to near dryness ..... Ecological parameters of the mangrove.

  3. Hydrocarbons biodegradation and evidence of mixed petroleum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chromatographic analysis of extracts from the Cross River system show evidence of variable composition of biogenic n-alkane profile with dominance of terrigenous over aquatic organic matter present (LHC/SHC-0.36-10.57) at upstream location reflecting the natural background levels and marked levels of petroleum ...

  4. Radiation Emergency Planning in Petroleum Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Shinawy, R.M.K.; El-Naggar, M.A.; Abdel-Fattah, A.T.; Gomaa, A.M.

    2001-01-01

    Similar to all industrial activities utilizing radiation sources, or dealing with radioactive materials in its operations, petroleum industry requires the organization of a Radiation Emergency Plan. This plan should be based on a comprehensive and subtle understanding of the extensive multidisciplinary operations involved in petroleum processing and the dangers that threaten human health, environment and property; both from ordinary emergency situations common to petroleum industry activities and also from radiation emergency events. Radiation emergencies include radiological source accidents involving occurrence of high dose exposures. Radioactive contamination or spill are also major problems that may cause low dose exposures and environmental radioactive contamination. The simultaneous occurrence of other industrial emergency events such as fires or structural collapses will add to the seriousness of the emergency situation. The essential aspects of Radiation Emergency Planning include notification, assessment of situation, foresight, definition of roles and responsibilities including health safety and environmental concepts. An important contribution to the Emergency Planning is the proper intelligent medical response. Another essential parameter is the training of personnel that will undertake the responsibility of executing the emergency procedures according to the various emergency situations. The main features of the radiation Emergency Plan in Petroleum industry is presented in the text

  5. Online Petroleum Industry Bibliographic Databases: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Margaret B.

    This paper discusses the present status of the bibliographic database industry, reviews the development of online databases of interest to the petroleum industry, and considers future developments in online searching and their effect on libraries and information centers. Three groups of databases are described: (1) databases developed by the…

  6. Facts 2002. The Norwegian petroleum sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    The petroleum sector is highly significant for the Norwegian economy. Its share of gross domestic product, exports and total government revenues has been substantial over the past two decades, reaching a particularly high level in 2000 and 2001. The principal reason why revenues were so high in these two years is a combination of high oil prices, a strong USD against the NOK and historically high petroleum production. The share of petroleum investment in total capital spending in the Norwegian economy was at its highest in the early 1990s. Total investment in the petroleum sector has been above NOK 40 bn every year since 1992, and peaked in 1998 at roughly NOK 80 bn. Capital spending declined to around NOK 56.9 bn in 2001. The government's most important revenue sources in recent years have been cash flow from the state's direct financial interest (SDFI) and from taxes. Production of crude oil has averaged around three mill barrels per day since 1996. The figure for 2001 was 3.1 mill barrels. Including natural gas liquids (NGL) and condensate raises the 2001 average to 3.4 mill barrels oe per day. At 53 mill scm oe, gas production was also high in 2001. Oil production is expected to remain more or less unchanged over the next few years, and then to go into a gradual decline. Gas output, on the other hand, should expand substantially over the coming decade and is expected to be increasingly significant in Norwegian petroleum output in future. The petroleum sector is also a substantial player internationally. Norway ranks as the world's sixth largest producer and third largest net exporter of oil. It is also the world's third largest exporter of pipeline gas, and Norwegian foreign sales of this commodity accounted for about two per cent of global consumption in 2001. Roughly 10 per cent of west European gas consumption is covered from Norway. Several changes were made to state participation in the petroleum sector during 2001. The government sold 15 per cent of the

  7. Facts 2002. The Norwegian petroleum sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The petroleum sector is highly significant for the Norwegian economy. Its share of gross (domestic product, exports and total government revenues has been substantial over the past two decades, reaching a particularly high level in 2000 and 2001. The principal reason why revenues were so high in these two years is a combination of high oil prices, a strong USD against the NOK and historically high petroleum production. The share of petroleum investment in total capital spending in the Norwegian economy was at its highest in the early 1990s. Total investment in the petroleum sector has been above NOK 40 bn every year since 1992, and peaked in 1998 at roughly NOK 80 bn. Capital spending declined to around NOK 56.9 bn in 2001. The government's most important revenue sources in recent years have been cash flow from the state's direct financial interest (SDFI) and from taxes. Production of crude oil has averaged around three mill barrels per day since 1996. The figure for 2001 was 3.1 mill barrels. Including natural gas liquids (NGL) and condensate raises the 2001 average to 3.4 mill barrels oe per day. At 53 mill scm oe, gas production was also high in 2001. Oil production is expected to remain more or less unchanged over the next few years, and then to go into a gradual decline. Gas output, on the other hand, should expand substantially over the coming decade and is expected to be increasingly significant in Norwegian petroleum output in future. The petroleum sector is also a substantial player internationally. Norway ranks as the world's sixth largest producer and third largest net exporter of oil. It is also the world's third largest exporter of pipeline gas, and Norwegian foreign sales of this commodity accounted for about two per cent of global consumption in 2001. Roughly 10 per cent of west European gas consumption is covered from Norway. Several changes were made to state participation in the petroleum sector during 2001. The government sold 15 per cent of the

  8. Facts 2002. The Norwegian petroleum sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    The petroleum sector is highly significant for the Norwegian economy. Its share of gross domestic product, exports and total government revenues has been substantial over the past two decades, reaching a particularly high level in 2000 and 2001. The principal reason why revenues were so high in these two years is a combination of high oil prices, a strong USD against the NOK and historically high petroleum production. The share of petroleum investment in total capital spending in the Norwegian economy was at its highest in the early 1990s. Total investment in the petroleum sector has been above NOK 40 bn every year since 1992, and peaked in 1998 at roughly NOK 80 bn. Capital spending declined to around NOK 56.9 bn in 2001. The government's most important revenue sources in recent years have been cash flow from the state's direct financial interest (SDFI) and from taxes. Production of crude oil has averaged around three mill barrels per day since 1996. The figure for 2001 was 3.1 mill barrels. Including natural gas liquids (NGL) and condensate raises the 2001 average to 3.4 mill barrels oe per day. At 53 mill scm oe, gas production was also high in 2001. Oil production is expected to remain more or less unchanged over the next few years, and then to go into a gradual decline. Gas output, on the other hand, should expand substantially over the coming decade and is expected to be increasingly significant in Norwegian petroleum output in future. The petroleum sector is also a substantial player internationally. Norway ranks as the world's sixth largest producer and third largest net exporter of oil. It is also the world's third largest exporter of pipeline gas, and Norwegian foreign sales of this commodity accounted for about two per cent of global consumption in 2001. Roughly 10 per cent of west European gas consumption is covered from Norway. Several changes were made to state participation in the petroleum sector during 2001. The government sold

  9. Petroleum and mineral resources of Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovar, Karel; Behrendt, John Charles

    1983-01-01

    No known petroleum or mineral resources occur in Antarctica. The data on these subjects have been collected, mainly since the IGY (International Geophysical Year), 1957-58, as a part of other research carried out by geologists and geophysicists from a number of countries. Specific resource-related studies have not been made. Wright and Williams (1974) summarized what was known of Antarctic mineral resources a decade ago.The U.S. Geological Survey has been actively pursuing various investigations in Antarctica since 194 7. In the course of this work and that of our colleagues elsewhere in the United States and in other countries, much information relevant to petroleum and mineral resources has been obtained. Since 1976, modern state-of-the-art multichannel seismic reflection and aeromagnetic surveys by several countries over the continental margin of Antarctica have indicated thick sedimentary basins. However, no offshore drilling beneath the continental shelf has taken place since the DSDP (Deep Sea Drilling Project) holes in the Ross Sea in 1973. Geologic field investigations begun at the turn of the twentieth century have been intensified in the past two decades; most rock outcrops have been visited and samples collected. Technology to exploit resources, particularly in the Arctic, has been developing at a rapid rate, and much of it could be applied to Antarctica. As a result of the petroleum price increases of the past decade, the attention of a number of countries has turned to Antarctica, but under the policy of "voluntary restraint" adopted by the Antarctic Treaty nations, no active petroleum or mineral exploration is taking place. The Antarctic treaty countries are in the process of negotiating an Antarctic mineral resources regime that is anticipated to be completed within the next several years. Therefore it seemed timely to us to readdress the question of petroleum and mineral resources. These reports review and summarize the available information. The

  10. The Binary Ties that Bind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Mike

    2008-01-01

    As any reader of "About Campus" knows, binary oppositions contribute to the definitions of institutional types--the trade school versus the liberal arts college, for example. They help define disciplines and subdisciplines and the status differentials among them: consider the difference in intellectual cachet as one moves from linguistics to…

  11. Optimally cloned binary coherent states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mueller, C. R.; Leuchs, G.; Marquardt, Ch

    2017-01-01

    their quantum-optimal clones. We analyze the Wigner function and the cumulants of the clones, and we conclude that optimal cloning of binary coherent states requires a nonlinearity above second order. We propose several practical and near-optimal cloning schemes and compare their cloning fidelity to the optimal...

  12. Subluminous X-ray binaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Armas Padilla, M.

    2013-01-01

    The discovery of the first X-ray binary, Scorpius X-1, by Giacconi et al. (1962), marked the birth of X-ray astronomy. Following that discovery, many additional X-ray sources where found with the first generation of X-ray rockets and observatories (e.g., UHURU and Einstein). The short-timescale

  13. Misclassification in binary choice models

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Meyer, B. D.; Mittag, Nikolas

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 200, č. 2 (2017), s. 295-311 ISSN 0304-4076 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GJ16-07603Y Institutional support: Progres-Q24 Keywords : measurement error * binary choice models * program take-up Subject RIV: AH - Economics OBOR OECD: Economic Theory Impact factor: 1.633, year: 2016

  14. Misclassification in binary choice models

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Meyer, B. D.; Mittag, Nikolas

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 200, č. 2 (2017), s. 295-311 ISSN 0304-4076 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : measurement error * binary choice models * program take-up Subject RIV: AH - Economics OBOR OECD: Economic Theory Impact factor: 1.633, year: 2016

  15. Binary logic is rich enough

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zapatrin, R.R.

    1992-01-01

    Given a finite ortholattice L, the *-semigroup is explicitly built whose annihilator ortholattice is isomorphic to L. Thus, it is shown that any finite quantum logic is the additive part of a binary logic. Some areas of possible applications are outlined. 7 refs

  16. Fact Sheet 1999. Norwegian Petroleum Activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breivik, Jan

    1999-10-01

    As discussed in this publication, petroleum resources in the order of 9.5 billion (bn) standard cubic metres (scm) oil equivalents (oe) have been discovered on the Norwegian continental shelf (NCS), 77 per cent in the North Sea, 19 per cent in the Norwegian Sea and four per cent in the Barents Sea. By the end of 1998, remaining reserves on the NCS totalled 1.6 bn scm of oil, 1.2 bn scm oe gas and 160 mill scm oe of natural gas liquids. Thirty-two exploration wells, including 21 wildcats and 11 for appraisal, were completed or temporarily abandoned on the NCS in 1998. 939 exploration wells had been completed or temporarily abandoned off Norway. In 1998 governmental approval was given for the Huldra, Snorre B phase II, Gullfaks satellites phase II and Yme Beta West. Norwegian offshore petroleum production in 1998 totalled 222.5 scm oe, including 168.9 mill scm oe of oil, 43.6 mill scm oe of gas and 10 mill scm oe of NGL/condensate. Oil production declined by 4 per cent compared with 1997, while gas sales rose by 2 per cent. The estimated value of Norwegian petroleum exports in 1998 was NOK 123 bn, or about 30 per cent of the country`s total earnings from foreign sales. Petroleum production and pipeline transport accounted for 12 per cent of Norway`s gross national product. Net government revenues from taxes and royalties on petroleum operations is put at 27.6 billion NOK. The publication also includes a list of white papers and a list of useful postal addresses. 23 figs., 14 tabs.

  17. The Chuar Petroleum System, Arizona and Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillis, Paul G.

    2016-01-01

    The Neoproterozoic Chuar Group consists of marine mudstone, sandstone and dolomitic strata divided into the Galeros and Kwagunt Formations, and is exposed only in the eastern Grand Canyon, Arizona. Research by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in the late 1980s identified strata within the group to be possible petroleum source rocks, and in particular the Walcott Member of the Kwagunt Formation. Industry interest in a Chuar oil play led to several exploratory wells drilled in the 1990s in southern Utah and northern Arizona to test the overlying Cambrian Tapeats Sandstone reservoir, and confirm the existence of the Chuar in subcrop. USGS geochemical analyses of Tapeats oil shows in two wells have been tentatively correlated to Chuar bitumen extracts. Distribution of the Chuar in the subsurface is poorly constrained with only five well penetrations, but recently published gravity/aeromagnetic interpretations provide further insight into the Chuar subcrop distribution. The Chuar petroleum system was reexamined as part of the USGS Paradox Basin resource assessment in 2011. A map was constructed to delineate the Chuar petroleum system that encompasses the projected Chuar source rock distribution and all oil shows in the Tapeats Sandstone, assuming that the Chuar is the most likely source for such oil shows. Two hypothetical plays were recognized but not assessed: (1) a conventional play with a Chuar source and Tapeats reservoir, and (2) an unconventional play with a Chuar source and reservoir. The conventional play has been discouraging because most surface structures have been tested by drilling with minimal petroleum shows, and there is some evidence that petroleum may have been flushed by CO2 from Tertiary volcanism. The unconventional play is untested and remains promising even though the subcrop distribution of source facies within the Chuar Group is largely unknown.

  18. Analysis of petroleum oily sludge producing in petroleum field of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Cicero de Souza; Lima, Regineide Oliveira; Silva, Edjane Fabiula Buriti da; Castro, Kesia Kelly Vieira de; Chiavone Filho, Osvaldo; Araujo, Antonio Souza de [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), RN (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    In exploration and production of petroleum is generated solid waste different and components other. The petroleum oily sludge is a complex mix of components different (water, oil and solid). The petroleum oily sludge generally has other residues and is formed during production and operations, transport, storage and petroleum refining (atmospheric residue, vacuum residue and catalytic cracking residue). However, according to its origin, the compositions can be found quite varied for sludge. Observing the process steps production and refining is possible to locate its main sources and percentage contributions in terms of waste generation. The elemental analysis was performed with oily sludge from region and it showed different composition. For carbon element and hydrogen, small differences was observed, but for was observed greater differences for Oxygen element. The sludge has different inorganic and organic composition. The sludge from oil water separator (OWS) 2 showed a greater amount of oil (94.88%), this may indicate a residue of aggregate high for petroleum industry. In analysis of Saturates, Aromatics, Resins and Asphaltenes (SARA), the sludge from unloading showed amount high of saturates. The inorganic material separated from sludge was characterized and sludge from OWS 2 had high amount sulfur (41.57%). The sludge analyzed showed organic components high values, so it can be treated and reprocessed in process units petroleum industry. The analysis thermal degradation had a better setting for treated oily sludge. (author)

  19. Petroleum product scarcity: a review of the supply and distribution of petroleum products in Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akpoghomeh, Osi S.; Badejo, Dele

    2006-01-01

    Nigeria ranks high among the comity of oil producers both at the world level and among the OPEC eleven. It is, therefore, paradoxical that the supply of all petroleum products is erratic and has declined sharply in the recent past. This paper thus reviews the petroleum product supply and distribution systems in the country to ascertain the extent to which the system may have contributed to the present product scarcity in Nigeria and, by extension, identify the causes of the present regime of petroleum product scarcity. The paper observes that the network density and connectivity of petroleum product distribution pipelines are low and both indicators consequently show the inadequacy/deficiency of the network in ensuring an efficient distribution system. The supply mode, on the other hand, has, over the years, demonstrated its inability to guarantee adequate supply due to factors including sabotage, vandalism, banditry and poorly maintained infrastructure. Further, the federal government and the major and independent marketers could not sustain the importation of petroleum products because of the shortfall between the landed cost of imported products and their selling prices in Nigeria, which made the business unprofitable. Finally, the paper examines the withdrawal by the federal government of subsidies on the price of petroleum products consumed locally. All the above factors together occasioned increases in the cost of products. In conclusion, this paper supports the call for the privatization of refineries and the depot/pipeline system as a viable option to end the supply problems. (Author)

  20. Petroleum supply monthly with data for September 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    Data presented in this document describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major U.S. geographic regions. This document contains information on oil production, imports, exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 states and the District of Columbia). When aggregated, the data reported by the various petroleum sectors in this report approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the U.S.