WorldWideScience

Sample records for petroleum engineering techniques

  1. Offshore petroleum engineering task force report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruelokke, M.

    1999-05-01

    The Offshore Petroleum Engineering Task Force was established in July 1998 in response to concerns about Newfoundland and Labrador's share of offshore petroleum engineering activity, with the aim of determining the current capability of the local sector, the demand for such companies and individuals until the year 2010, their capability to grow over that time-frame, and requirements in order to achieve that growth. The report summarizes the analysis undertaken by the Task Force as well as the conclusions it reached and associated recommendations. Section two provides an overview of the offshore engineering activity, including its origins, structure, and key success factors, and its also provides a profile of the industry, internationally, in Canada and in Newfoundland. Section three presents an analysis of the future demand for offshore engineering in Newfoundland until 2010, based on three development scenarios. Section four based on a Consulting Engineers of Newfoundland and Labrador (CENL) survey, establishes the present offshore engineering capacity and capabilities within the province. Section five examines current education and training programs and their ability to respond to future demands. Section six summarizes the conclusions of the analysis and presents recommendations designed to facilitate and promote the development of the local offshore engineering industry. 6 figs

  2. Uranium content of petroleum by fission track technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paschoa, A.S.; Mafra, O.Y.; Oliveira, C.A.N. de; Pinto, L.R.

    1981-03-01

    The feasibility of the fission track registration technique to investigate the natural uranium concentration in petroleum is examined. The application of this technique to petroleum is briefly described and discussed critically. The results obtained so far indicate uranium concentrations in samples of Brazilian petroleum which are over the detect ion limit of fission track technique. (Author) [pt

  3. 1993 US petroleum engineering manpower supply and demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wattenbarger, R.A.; Morriss, S.

    1994-01-01

    Each year, the SPE Manpower Committee reports on the results of petroleum engineering manpower supply and demand surveys to inform SPE members about hiring patterns of engineers in the petroleum industry and the supply of graduates from US petroleum engineering schools. The SPE Manpower Committee's US surveys show that large companies will decrease their hiring while small companies and service companies will increase their hiring of engineers. During 1992--93, only about 65% of graduating petroleum engineering students were known to have jobs. Another finding is that, overall, new US SPE membership is decreasing while non-US membership is increasing

  4. Approximation techniques for engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Komzsik, Louis

    2006-01-01

    Presenting numerous examples, algorithms, and industrial applications, Approximation Techniques for Engineers is your complete guide to the major techniques used in modern engineering practice. Whether you need approximations for discrete data of continuous functions, or you''re looking for approximate solutions to engineering problems, everything you need is nestled between the covers of this book. Now you can benefit from Louis Komzsik''s years of industrial experience to gain a working knowledge of a vast array of approximation techniques through this complete and self-contained resource.

  5. Uranium content of petroleum by Fission track technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paschaa, A.S.; Mafra, O.Y.; Oliveira, C.A.N.; Pinto, L.R.

    1982-01-01

    This paper examines the feasibility of the fission track registration technique to investigate the natural uranium concentration in petroleum. The application is briefly described and the results obtained indicate the presence of uranium concentrations in samples of Brazilian petroleum which are over the detection limit of the fission track technique. The irradiations were performed by using fluxes with predominance of thermal neutrons, which have a fission cross-section for U 235 equal to 579 barns. Since the neutron fluxes were not comp sed exclusively of thermal neutrons, fissions from fast neutrons would also be taken into account for U 238 and Th 232

  6. Petroleum Diesel Fuel and Linseed Oil Mixtures as Engine Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markov, V. A.; Kamaltdinov, V. G.; Savastenko, A. A.

    2018-01-01

    The actual problem is the use of alternative biofuels in automotive diesel engines. Insufficiently studied are the indicators of toxicity of exhaust gases of these engines operating on biofuel. The aim of the study is to identify indicators of the toxicity of exhaust gases when using of petroleum diesel fuel and linseed oil mixtures as a fuel for automotive diesel engines. Physical and chemical properties of linseed oil and its mixtures with petroleum diesel fuel are considered. Experimental researches of D-245.12C diesel are carried out on mixtures of diesel fuel and corn oil with a different composition. An opportunity of exhaust toxicity indexes improvement using these mixtures as a fuel for automobiles engine is shown.

  7. Statistics for Petroleum Engineers and Geoscientists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, J.L.; Lake, L.W.; Corbett, P.W.M.; Goggin, D.J.

    2000-01-01

    Geostatistics is a common tool in reservoir characterisation. Several texts discuss the subject, however this book differs in its approach and audience from currently available material. Written from the basics of statistics it covers only those topics that are needed for the two goals of the text: to exhibit the diagnostic potential of statistics and to introduce the important features of statistical modeling. This revised edition contains expanded discussions of some materials, in particular conditional probabilities, Bayes Theorem, correlation, and Kriging. The coverage of estimation, variability, and modeling applications have been updated. Seventy examples illustrate concepts and show the role of geology for providing important information for data analysis and model building. Four reservoir case studies conclude the presentation, illustrating the application and importance of the earlier material. This book can help petroleum professionals develop more accurate models, leading to lower sampling costs

  8. The internal combustion engine; a simple solution for pollution from petroleum hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, G.A.

    1992-01-01

    The internal combustion (IC) engine is an indirect cause of groundwater and soil contamination from petroleum hydrocarbons. Leaking underground storage tank systems that are used to store and distribute fuel for automobiles are a major cause of environmental degradation. That same IC engine which has indirectly caused the pollution is an excellent tool for cleaning up environmental contamination from petroleum releases. An extremely flexible clean-up system using an IC engine was designed, constructed and operated to recover free product, treat contaminated soil and remediate groundwater pollution. The treatment system uses the IC engine for vapor extraction, groundwater pumping, spray aeration and incineration. The IC engine is an excellent incinerator. The petroleum vapors are burned in the IC engine with a supplemental propane fuel. The engine drives a power-takeoff unit and provides energy for an air compressor, water pump, electrical generation and other accessories. Using waste to energy methods multiple techniques are being used in combination with different treatment technologies to optimize the remediation. As the remediation progresses the treatment system can be modified to use additional techniques. Another benefit that is directly associated with the IC engine is the presence of excess heat which is helpful in northern climates. The excess heat has many uses including spray aeration and enhanced biological remediation. The IC engine has several limitations and requires an understanding of the physical and chemical properties of the contamination. As with all environmental remediation, a proper understanding of the Hydrogeological System is critical. When properly applied the IC engine has many advantages over other methods of remediation for petroleum hydrocarbons

  9. Nuclear techniques in the prospecting and exploitation of petroleum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balcazar, M.; Lopez, A.; Castellanos, J.P.

    2003-01-01

    The apatite is a mineral that is found in the perforation nucleus of petroleum exploration whose natural content of Uranium is of around 10 ppm. This uranium is spontaneously fissioned producing fission traces whose number it is proportional to the age of the apatite and whose longitudes remained stable to temperatures smaller than 60 C, they decreased partially in the temperature range of 60 to 120 C and they faded totally if the nucleus of perforation was to temperatures bigger than 120 C. This agreement in the call 'thermal formation window' of the petroleum among 60 and 120 C and the partial erased of the longitudes of fission traces in the apatite, it allows to use this to determine not only the age of the petroleum field, but also their geologic thermal history (paleo temperature), it also allows to model the formation of the petroleum field and to contribute to outline to PEMEX on exploitation and exploration strategies. In this work it is presented: the visualization of the fission traces in the apatite of Cerro de Mercado, Durango, considered as an international standard of dating; the basic principles of this nuclear technique that allow to determine the age of the apatite; the formation of horizontal fission traces inside the apatite, by irradiation with fission fragments; and as the analysis of the thermal instability of the lengths of the fission traces it provides information of the paleo temperature of the petroleum basin. (Author)

  10. Hands-on courses in petroleum engineering improve performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abou-Kassem, J.H.; Islam, M.R. [Regina Univ., Regina, SK (Canada)

    1999-07-01

    A hands-on methodology was employed to teach eight lecture-based courses in the United Arab Emirates University in which initially two petroleum engineering courses were used to test the methodology. The courses are considered to be basic to petroleum engineering. Although the courses did not have any impact on the overall student grades, the courses stimulated independent thought among students who were not previously used to this mode of thinking. Students were exposed to laboratory experiments and project works that were considered previously to be too-difficult-to-handle by undergraduate students. The course methodology was more acceptable to the female than the male population. The course methodology centered on creative thinking, questioning the establishment methods and critiquing conventional modes of thinking. Despite the differences between male and female students, overall the student population recognized that their ability to think independently and critically improved after taking the course. An appendix contains examples of learning modules. 18 refs.

  11. Testing techniques in nuclear, petroleum and metallurgic industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    The nondestructive testing techniques by ultrasonic waves, eddy currents, acoustic emission used by Intercontrole (a CEA's affiliated firm in nuclear petrochemical, and engineering site measurements) are presented [fr

  12. Department of Petroleum Engineering and Center for Petroleum and Geosystems Engineering annual report, 1990--1991 academic year

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-12-31

    The Department of Petroleum Engineering at The University of Texas at Austin is one of more than 20 such departments in the United States and more than 40 worldwide. The department has more than 20 faculty members and, as of the fall of 1990, 146 undergraduate and 156 graduate students. During the 1990--91 academic year, undergraduate enrollment is up slightly from the several downturns that began in 1986; graduate enrollment continues to increase, significantly in the number of Ph.D. candidates enrolled. The 1990--91 academic year was one of consolidation of gains. A remote teaching program in the Midland-Odessa area was initiated. During 1991, the Center for Petroleum and Geosystems Engineering (CPGE) continued its large, diversified research activities related to oil, gas and geopressured/geothermal energy production, energy and mineral resources analysis, and added new research projects in other areas such as groundwater remediation. Many of these research projects included interdisciplinary efforts involving faculty, research scientists and graduate students in chemistry, mathematics, geology, geophysics, engineering mechanics, chemical engineering, microbiology and other disciplines. Several projects were undertaken in cooperation with either the Bureau of Economic Geology or the Institute for Geophysics at The University of Texas at Austin. Collaborative research projects with scientists at Brookhaven National Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Rice University, and Sandia National Laboratory were also initiated. About 43 companies from seven countries around the world continued to provide the largest portion of research funding to CPGE.

  13. Department of Petroleum Engineering and Center for Petroleum and Geosystems Engineering annual report, 1990--1991 academic year

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    The Department of Petroleum Engineering at The University of Texas at Austin is one of more than 20 such departments in the United States and more than 40 worldwide. The department has more than 20 faculty members and, as of the fall of 1990, 146 undergraduate and 156 graduate students. During the 1990--91 academic year, undergraduate enrollment is up slightly from the several downturns that began in 1986; graduate enrollment continues to increase, significantly in the number of Ph.D. candidates enrolled. The 1990--91 academic year was one of consolidation of gains. A remote teaching program in the Midland-Odessa area was initiated. During 1991, the Center for Petroleum and Geosystems Engineering (CPGE) continued its large, diversified research activities related to oil, gas and geopressured/geothermal energy production, energy and mineral resources analysis, and added new research projects in other areas such as groundwater remediation. Many of these research projects included interdisciplinary efforts involving faculty, research scientists and graduate students in chemistry, mathematics, geology, geophysics, engineering mechanics, chemical engineering, microbiology and other disciplines. Several projects were undertaken in cooperation with either the Bureau of Economic Geology or the Institute for Geophysics at The University of Texas at Austin. Collaborative research projects with scientists at Brookhaven National Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Rice University, and Sandia National Laboratory were also initiated. About 43 companies from seven countries around the world continued to provide the largest portion of research funding to CPGE.

  14. Curricula and Programmes in Petroleum Engineering for Higher Technical Education Institutions: Comparative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tymkiv, Nadiya

    2018-01-01

    The article states the analysis of the curriculum that regulates the main purposes, essence and directions for petroleum training. The importance and necessity of positive usage of Austrian, English and Norwegian experience at the time of petroleum engineers training in the petroleum industry has been stressed on. The structure and content of…

  15. Petroleum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2000-01-01

    Here are briefly summarized 1)the OPEC decisions and their consequences concerning the production of petroleum in the world 2)some news about the petroleum industry in Chad and in Iraq 3)some news about the new pipelines constructed or to be constructed in the world 4)some news about the LPG industry (start of a LPG extraction unit in Argentina, legislation in France for LPG vehicles) 4)and some news about the petroleum distribution in France. (O.M.)

  16. Petroleum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2000-01-01

    Here are gathered the results of the year 1999 concerning the petroleum industry in France ('UFIP' data), the market quotations of crude oil, the prices of fuels in France and in Portugal and some news about the petroleum industry in Algeria (privatization, exploration-offshore, repurchase), in Iraq (exports, contracts with foreign companies), in Russian Federation (petroleum pipelines and oil ports constructions) and in Chad (production sharing, offshore sites discoveries). (O.M.)

  17. 40 CFR 1048.620 - What are the provisions for exempting large engines fueled by natural gas or liquefied petroleum...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... large engines fueled by natural gas or liquefied petroleum gas? 1048.620 Section 1048.620 Protection of... exempting large engines fueled by natural gas or liquefied petroleum gas? (a) If an engine meets all the... natural gas or liquefied petroleum gas. (2) The engine must have maximum engine power at or above 250 kW...

  18. Environmental science, petroleum engineer`s view. CO2 gas reduction technologies for global warming prevention; Sekiyu gijutsusha no shiten kara no kankyo kagaku. Chikyu ondanka eno taio no tame no CO{sub 2} yokusei gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nomura, K [Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-08-01

    This paper discusses the techniques concerning diesel engines for cogeneration systems, techniques concerning fuel consumption-saving type lubricating oils and techniques concerning oil refineries, out of the CO2 emission control (energy saving) techniques for coping with the global warming which the petroleum engineers are now tackling. The paper introduces CO2 emission control techniques using a petroleum cogeneration system and studies on NOx removing techniques using catalysts as the techniques concerning diesel engines; techniques for reducing friction loss, which occurs in an engine and a transmission, by improving the recipes of lubricating oils and the development of novel friction modifiers as the fuel consumption-saving type lubricating oil techniques; and the CO2 separating techniques using a system for recovering the low-temperature waste heat produced in petroleum refinement with a high efficiency, or using a solid film such as a molecular sieve as the energy-saving techniques used in oil refineries. 18 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Petroleum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, T. R.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    This review of petroleum covers: crude oil; fuels, gaseous and liquid; lubricants, oils, and greases; asphalts, bitumens, tars, and pitches; hydrocarbons; physical properties; metals in oil; nonmetallic elements and heterocompounds; and analytical methods and apparatus. (MVL)

  20. Applications of aerospace technology to petroleum extraction and reservoir engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, L. D.; Back, L. H.; Berdahl, C. M.; Collins, E. E., Jr.; Gordon, P. G.; Houseman, J.; Humphrey, M. F.; Hsu, G. C.; Ham, J. D.; Marte, J. E.; hide

    1977-01-01

    Through contacts with the petroleum industry, the petroleum service industry, universities and government agencies, important petroleum extraction problems were identified. For each problem, areas of aerospace technology that might aid in its solution were also identified, where possible. Some of the problems were selected for further consideration. Work on these problems led to the formulation of specific concepts as candidate for development. Each concept is addressed to the solution of specific extraction problems and makes use of specific areas of aerospace technology.

  1. Petroleum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chautard, S.

    2008-01-01

    While petroleum has become an indispensable product in our everyday life, it is more and more question of an oil shortage. This book makes a status of the real situation. Starting from the industrial revolution and the history of oil exploitation, it explains the main present day stakes: the depletion of reserves, the environmental aspects and the search for alternative energy solutions. (J.S.)

  2. REGISTER ANALYSIS OF THE CONVERSATIONS AMONG PETROLEUM ENGINEERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Nurani

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This present research aims at identifying register used in the conversations among petroleum engineers by examining the linguistic feature which is viewed from the aspect of the field, the tenor and the mode of discourse of the Systemic Functional Linguistics (SFL approach. Findings show that in the field of discourse, all terms of register found in the experiential domain analysis function as technical terms, of which the two major forms of nouns and verbs (i.e., single-word and compound/phrasal word forms are the most frequent categories identified among other kinds of technical terms. The goal orientation appears to have both short and long term while the social activity results in exchanges among participants. In the tenor of discourse, the agentive role is said to be equal and the social role is considered as non-hierarchic. The social distance within the interaction is said to be minimal which is excessively characterized by the use of informal form of expressions. In the mode of discourse, the language role exists equally of both constitutive and ancillary identified by the use of present simple tense and non-present tenses, that is, future simple, past simple and present perfect. The channel is in phonic form. The medium is in spoken with visual contact as it is largely characterized by the use of endophoric reference as well as pronouns.

  3. Undergraduate and graduate petroleum engineering education in the U.S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Von Gonten, W.D.; Whiting, R.L.

    1992-01-01

    Petroleum Engineering educational programs produce graduates primarily for the upstream sector of the petroleum industry. This paper presents a summary of both the undergraduate and graduate petroleum engineering programs in the United States. The undergraduate portion of the paper will address the curriculum, accreditation, enrollments, student recruitment, faculty, jobs, starting salaries, and a historical perspective. The graduate section will address both master and doctoral level programs including the number and size of programs, curriculum, admission requirements, program administration, jobs, salaries, and a historical perspective

  4. Petroleum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lugg, W G

    1967-07-01

    This discussion of the Canadian petroleum industry for the year 1966 includes production statistics and operating procedures, reserve estimates, exploration and development, transportation, refining, and marketing. Most sectors of the Canadian industry had an excellent year in 1966, featured by continued exploration and development successes in the Rainbow Lake-Zama Lake region of northwestern Alberta and a record value of production that exceeded $900 million for all liquid hydrocarbons. Production of crude oil and natural gas liquids exceeded one million bopd. Crude oil producers supplied 58% of the total crude oil requirements for Canadian refineries. Oil reserves increased due primarily to the application of secondary recovery and the discovery of new reserves. Total pipeline construction decreased, and there was a small increase in refinery capacity.

  5. Engineering Students' Views of Corporate Social Responsibility: A Case Study from Petroleum Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jessica M; McClelland, Carrie J; Smith, Nicole M

    2017-12-01

    The mining and energy industries present unique challenges to engineers, who must navigate sometimes competing responsibilities and codes of conduct, such as personal senses of right and wrong, professional ethics codes, and their employers' corporate social responsibility (CSR) policies. Corporate social responsibility (CSR) is the current dominant framework used by industry to conceptualize firms' responsibilities to their stakeholders, yet has it plays a relatively minor role in engineering ethics education. In this article, we report on an interdisciplinary pedagogical intervention in a petroleum engineering seminar that sought to better prepare engineering undergraduate students to critically appraise the strengths and limitations of CSR as an approach to reconciling the interests of industry and communities. We find that as a result of the curricular interventions, engineering students were able to expand their knowledge of the social, rather than simply environmental and economic dimensions of CSR. They remained hesitant, however, in identifying the links between those social aspects of CSR and their actual engineering work. The study suggests that CSR may be a fruitful arena from which to illustrate the profoundly sociotechnical dimensions of the engineering challenges relevant to students' future careers.

  6. Engineering and the Politics of Commensuration in the Mining and Petroleum Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica M. Smith

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Engineers and applied scientists form the backbone of the mining and petroleum industries, yet rarely figure in social science accounts of natural resource extraction. This article begins to fill that gap by ethnographically exploring how community conflicts have prompted engineers and applied scientists working in these industries to reconsider the relationship between the surface and subsurface dimensions of their work. To make social concerns on the surface matter to how drilling and extraction would happen, they tried to make these two domains legible to one another. Using mapping and modeling, they created new techniques for making “social” concerns visible and actionable by field operators, even as they expressed reservations about unduly flattening the inherent complexity of human thought, action, and emotion in the process. While these practices opened space for other engineers and applied scientists to incorporate the concerns of nearby residents into their plans and practices, they also raised questions about the appropriateness of commensuration, or the process of translation through which things and values are made comparable.

  7. Groundwork: An Intermediate-Level Text of ESL for Petroleum Engineers, Geologists, and Geophysicists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellersberger, Gail; Rippert-Davila, Susan

    The negotiation, development, testing, and publishing of a specialized text for instructing Chinese geologists and petroleum engineers in English as a second language are chronicled. Aspects of the process discussed include the initial contact and oral agreement with the corporate representative who had requested the training materials, scheduling…

  8. Engineering and the Politics of Commensuration in the Mining and Petroleum Industries

    OpenAIRE

    Jessica M. Smith; Nicole M. Smith

    2018-01-01

    Engineers and applied scientists form the backbone of the mining and petroleum industries, yet rarely figure in social science accounts of natural resource extraction. This article begins to fill that gap by ethnographically exploring how community conflicts have prompted engineers and applied scientists working in these industries to reconsider the relationship between the surface and subsurface dimensions of their work. To make social concerns on the surface matter to how drilling and extra...

  9. Modeling a distributed environment for a petroleum reservoir engineering application with software product line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheidt, Rafael de Faria; Vilain, Patrícia; Dantas, M A R

    2014-01-01

    Petroleum reservoir engineering is a complex and interesting field that requires large amount of computational facilities to achieve successful results. Usually, software environments for this field are developed without taking care out of possible interactions and extensibilities required by reservoir engineers. In this paper, we present a research work which it is characterized by the design and implementation based on a software product line model for a real distributed reservoir engineering environment. Experimental results indicate successfully the utilization of this approach for the design of distributed software architecture. In addition, all components from the proposal provided greater visibility of the organization and processes for the reservoir engineers

  10. Modeling a distributed environment for a petroleum reservoir engineering application with software product line

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Faria Scheidt, Rafael; Vilain, Patrícia; Dantas, M. A. R.

    2014-10-01

    Petroleum reservoir engineering is a complex and interesting field that requires large amount of computational facilities to achieve successful results. Usually, software environments for this field are developed without taking care out of possible interactions and extensibilities required by reservoir engineers. In this paper, we present a research work which it is characterized by the design and implementation based on a software product line model for a real distributed reservoir engineering environment. Experimental results indicate successfully the utilization of this approach for the design of distributed software architecture. In addition, all components from the proposal provided greater visibility of the organization and processes for the reservoir engineers.

  11. Genome scale engineering techniques for metabolic engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rongming; Bassalo, Marcelo C; Zeitoun, Ramsey I; Gill, Ryan T

    2015-11-01

    Metabolic engineering has expanded from a focus on designs requiring a small number of genetic modifications to increasingly complex designs driven by advances in genome-scale engineering technologies. Metabolic engineering has been generally defined by the use of iterative cycles of rational genome modifications, strain analysis and characterization, and a synthesis step that fuels additional hypothesis generation. This cycle mirrors the Design-Build-Test-Learn cycle followed throughout various engineering fields that has recently become a defining aspect of synthetic biology. This review will attempt to summarize recent genome-scale design, build, test, and learn technologies and relate their use to a range of metabolic engineering applications. Copyright © 2015 International Metabolic Engineering Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. New engineers for the natural gas and petroleum industry; Nachwuchs fuer die Erdgas-/Erdoelindustrie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinicke, K.M.; Pusch, G. [TU Clausthal (Germany). Inst. fuer Erdoel- und Erdgastechnik

    2007-09-13

    Tne natural gas and petroleum industry needs engineers. Universities are faced with the challenge of training them and ensuring their technical, communicative and personal skills. Universities are taking new strategies to do this, joining efforts with other universities and with the oil and natural gas industry. New media are employed, increasingly also for advanced training and for learning by correspondence course in order to provide students with special knowledge and facilitate career changes. The paper describes implemented and projected studies in petroleum and natural gas technology at TU Clausthal university and joint projects with partner universities and industry. (orig.)

  13. Performance of a small compression ignition engine fuelled by liquified petroleum gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambarita, Himsar; Yohanes Setyawan, Eko; Ginting, Sibuk; Naibaho, Waldemar

    2017-09-01

    In this work, a small air cooled single cylinder of diesel engine with a rated power of 2.5 kW at 3000 rpm is tested in two different modes. In the first mode, the CI engines run on diesel fuel mode. In the second mode, the CI engine run on liquified petroleum gas (LPG) mode. In order to simulate the load, a generator is employed. The load is fixed at 800 W and engine speed varies from 2400 rpm to 3400 rpm. The out power, specific fuel consumption, and brake thermal efficiency resulted from the engine in both modes are compared. The results show that the output power of the CI engine run on LPG fuel is comparable with the engine run on diesel fuel. However, the specific fuel consumption of the CI engine with LPG fuel is higher 17.53% in average in comparison with the CI engine run on diesel fuel. The efficiency of the CI engine with LPG fuel is lower 21.43% in average in comparison with the CI engine run on diesel fuel.

  14. TECHNIQUES USED IN SEARCH ENGINE MARKETING

    OpenAIRE

    Assoc. Prof. Liviu Ion Ciora Ph. D; Lect. Ion Buligiu Ph. D

    2010-01-01

    Search engine marketing (SEM) is a generic term covering a variety of marketing techniques intended for attracting web traffic in search engines and directories. SEM is a popular tool since it has the potential of substantial gains with minimum investment. On the one side, most search engines and directories offer free or extremely cheap listing. On the other side, the traffic coming from search engines and directories tends to be motivated for acquisitions, making these visitors some of the ...

  15. ELECTRICAL TECHNIQUES FOR ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisdorf, Robert J.

    1985-01-01

    Surface electrical geophysical methods have been used in such engineering applications as locating and delineating shallow gravel deposits, depth to bedrock, faults, clay zones, and other geological phenomena. Other engineering applications include determining water quality, tracing ground water contaminant plumes and locating dam seepages. Various methods and electrode arrays are employed to solve particular geological problems. The sensitivity of a particular method or electrode array depends upon the physics on which the method is based, the array geometry, the electrical contrast between the target and host materials, and the depth to the target. Each of the available electrical methods has its own particular advantages and applications which the paper discusses.

  16. Determination of hydrogen content of petroleum products from Tema Oil Refinery using neutron backscatter technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salifu, A. S.

    2015-01-01

    The hydrogen content of hydrocarbon materials is very important in several areas of industrial process such as mining, vegetable oil extraction and crude oil exploration and refining. A fast and more universal technique based on thermal neutron reflection was employed to determine the total hydrogen contents of petroleum samples from Tema Oil Refinery (TOR) and Crude oil samples from Jubilee field and Nigeria. The experimental set-up consisted of a source-holder housing a 1Ci Am-Be neutron source and a He-3 neutron detector. Two geometrical arrangements were considered and their sensitivities were compared. The set-up was used to measure the excess neutron count in both geometrical considerations and their reflection parameters were calculated as a function of hydrogen content of the samples. Calibration lines were deduced using liquid hydrocarbons containing well-known hydrogen and carbon contents as standards. Two linear equations were generated from the calibration lines and were used to further determine the hydrogen content of thirteen (13) petroleum samples obtained from Quality Control Department of TOR. The total hydrogen contents were found to be in the range of 7.211(hw %) - 15.069 (hw %) for vertical geometry and 7.206 (hw %) - 14.948 (hw %) for horizontal geometry respectively. The results obtained agreed constructively with other results obtained using different methodologies by other studies. The percentage error of the hydrogen contents denoted by (% E) for the various petroleum samples were also obtained and noticed to be within an acceptable range. The neutron backscatter technique was observed as an alternative and more generalized method for quality assurance and standardization in the petroleum industries

  17. Combustion characteristics of a turbocharged DI compression ignition engine fueled wth petroleum diesel fuels and biodiesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canakci, M. [Kocaeli University, Izmit (Turkey). Department of Mechanical Education

    2007-04-15

    In this study, the combustion characteristics and emissions of two different petroleum diesel fuels (No. 1 and No. 2) and biodiesel from soybean oil were compared. The tests were performed at steady state conditions in a four-cylinder turbocharged DI diesel engine at full load at 1400-rpm engine speed. The experimental results compared with No. 2 diesel fuel showed that biodiesel provided significant reductions in PM, CO, and unburned HC, the NO{sub x} increased by 11.2%. Biodiesel had a 13.8% increase in brake-specific fuel consumption due to its lower heating value. However, using No. 1 diesel fuel gave better emission results, NO{sub x} and brake-specific fuel consumption reduced by 16.1% and 1.2%, respectively. The values of the principal combustion characteristics of the biodiesel were obtained between two petroleum diesel fuels. The results indicated that biodiesel may be blended with No. 1 diesel fuel to be used without any modification on the engine. (author)

  18. Assessment of alternative management techniques of tank bottom petroleum sludge in Oman

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Futaisi, Ahmed; Jamrah, Ahmad; Yaghi, Basma; Taha, Ramzi

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigated several options for environmentally acceptable management techniques of tank bottom oily sludge. In particular, we tested the applicability of managing the sludge by three options: (1) as a fuel supplement; (2) in solidification; (3) as a road material. Environmental testing included determination of heavy metals concentration; toxic organics concentration and radiological properties. The assessment of tank bottom sludge as a fuel supplement included various properties such as proximate analysis, ultimate analysis and energy content. Solidified sludge mixtures and road application sludge mixtures were subjected to leaching using the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP). Tank bottom sludge was characterized as having higher concentrations of lead, zinc, and mercury, but lower concentrations of nickel, copper and chromium in comparison with values reported in the literature. Natural occurring radioactive minerals (NORM) activity values obtained on different sludge samples were very low or negligible compared to a NORM standard value of 100 Bq/g. The fuel assessment results indicate that the heating values, the carbon content and the ash content of the sludge samples are comparable with bituminous coal, sewage sludge, meat and bone meal and petroleum coke/coal mixture, but lower than those in car tyres and petroleum coke. The nitrogen content is lower than those fuels mentioned above, while the sulfur content seems comparable with bituminous coal, petroleum coke and a petroleum coke/coal mixture. The apparent lack of leachability of metals from solidification and road material sludge applications suggests that toxic metals and organics introduced to these applications are not readily attacked by weak acid solutions and would not be expected to migrate or dissolved into the water. Thus, in-terms of trace metals and organics, the suggested sludge applications would not be considered hazardous as defined by the TCLP leaching procedure

  19. Attracting and Maintaining Demographic Diversity in Energy: Lessons from Petroleum Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaksina, Tatyana

    2017-11-01

    Diversity is important for any organization, its development and growth. However, frequently we observe that, if left to their own devices, many social and professional communities become self-selective, less susceptible to change, and, thus, less diverse. For example, this phenomenon can be readily observed in the academia when a professor forms a research group that is mostly comprised of people from certain origin or personal qualities. While on an individual level, this situation can be quite convenient and even beneficial, on the large scale the lack of diversity creates severe distortions and discourages many talented individuals from joining the group, organization, or industry in general. Diversity that includes ethnic, age, and gender aspects is a serious concern in overall energy industry and academia. One of the most prominent field impacted by diversity problems is petroleum engineering which can be used as a learning opportunity for other branches of energy industry. Using petroleum engineering community, we can understand what processes have led it to become self-selective, what measures have been applied to changes the situation and introduce more diversity.

  20. Experimental analysis on a spark ignition petrol engine fuelled with LPG (liquefied petroleum gas)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masi, Massimo

    2012-01-01

    The use of LPG (liquefied petroleum gas) as alternative fuel to petrol is common practise in spark ignition engines. While the main driving force to the use of LPG still remains the low cost for the end user, its favourable pollutant emissions, in particular carbon dioxide, will in the middle term probably increase interest in LPG as an IC engine fuel. In addition, there are both theoretical and technical reasons to consider LPG as an attractive fuel also in terms of engine performance. Despite the continuously increasing stock production of dual-fuel (petrol–LPG) passenger car models, doubts still exist about both real engine performance in LPG operation and the reliability of the dual-fuel feeding system. This paper deals with the theoretical advantages of using LPG as fuel for SI engines. Brake performance tests of a passenger car engine fed with petrol and LPG are analysed and compared. The stock engine has been equipped with a “third-generation” standard kit for dual-fuel operation. The performance reductions in LPG operation are discussed in both steady state and transient condition. The results of some modifications to the set-up of both the petrol and LPG metering devices, designed for a better justification of the measured performance, are also presented. -- Highlights: ► Experimental research on the actual performances of an SI engine fed with petrol and gaseous LPG. ► Theoretical advantages and drawbacks of fuelling SI ICE’s with LPG. ► Brake performance analysis shows a noticeable gap between LPG and petrol operation. ► Local measurements confirm that the thermodynamic operation of the evaporator-pressure reducer device is crucial for the engine performance. ► The performance of the up-to-date kit for petrol–LPG dual-fuel operation is greatly affected by the settings of the mechanical components of the LPG evaporator device.

  1. Determination of trace elements in petroleum products by inductively coupled plasma techniques: A critical review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sánchez, Raquel; Todolí, José Luis; Lienemann, Charles-Philippe; Mermet, Jean-Michel

    2013-01-01

    The fundamentals, applications and latter developments of petroleum products analysis through inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) and mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) are revisited in the present bibliographic survey. Sample preparation procedures for the direct analysis of fuels by using liquid sample introduction systems are critically reviewed and compared. The most employed methods are sample dilution, emulsion or micro-emulsion preparation and sample decomposition. The first one is the most widely employed due to its simplicity. Once the sample has been prepared, an organic matrix is usually present. The performance of the sample introduction system (i.e., nebulizer and spray chamber) depends strongly upon the nature and properties of the solution finally obtained. Many different devices have been assayed and the obtained results are shown. Additionally, samples can be introduced into the plasma by using an electrothermal vaporization (ETV) device or a laser ablation system (LA). The recent results published in the literature showing the feasibility, advantages and drawbacks of latter alternatives are also described. Therefore, the main goal of the review is the discussion of the different approaches developed for the analysis of crude oil and its derivates by inductively coupled plasma (ICP) techniques. - Highlights: • Analysis of petroleum products by inductively coupled plasma techniques is revisited. • Fundamental studies are included together with reports dealing with applications. • Conventional and non-conventional sample introduction methods are considered. • Sample preparation methods are critically compared and described

  2. PERFORMANCE, EMISSION, AND COMBUSTION CHARACTERISTICS OF A CI ENGINE USING LIQUID PETROLEUM GAS AND NEEM OIL IN DUAL FUEL MODE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palanimuthu Vijayabalan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Increased environmental awareness and depletion of resources are driving the industries to develop viable alternative fuels like vegetable oils, compresed natural gas, liquid petroleum gas, producer gas, and biogas in order to provide suitable substitute to diesel for compression ignition engine. In this investigation, a single cylinder, vertical, air-cooled diesel engine was modified to use liquid petroleum gas in dual fuel mode. The liquefied petroleum gas, was mixed with air and supplied through intake manifold. The liquid fuel neem oil or diesel was injected into the combustion chamber. The performance, emission, and combustion characteristics were studied and compared for neat fuel and dual fuel mode. The experimental results on dual fuel engine show a reduction in oxides of nitrogen up to 70% of the rated power and smoke in the entire power range. However the brake thermal efficiency was found decreased in low power range due to lower calorific value of liquid petroleum gas, and increase in higher power range due to the complete burning of liquid petroleum gas. Hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide emissions were increased significantly at lower power range and marginal variation in higher power range.

  3. Regional seismic lines reprocessed using post-stack processing techniques; National Petroleum Reserve, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, John J.; Agena, W.F.; Lee, M.W.; Zihlman, F.N.; Grow, J.A.; Taylor, D.J.; Killgore, Michele; Oliver, H.L.

    2000-01-01

    This CD-ROM contains stacked, migrated, 2-Dimensional seismic reflection data and associated support information for 22 regional seismic lines (3,470 line-miles) recorded in the National Petroleum Reserve ? Alaska (NPRA) from 1974 through 1981. Together, these lines constitute about one-quarter of the seismic data collected as part of the Federal Government?s program to evaluate the petroleum potential of the Reserve. The regional lines, which form a grid covering the entire NPRA, were created by combining various individual lines recorded in different years using different recording parameters. These data were reprocessed by the USGS using modern, post-stack processing techniques, to create a data set suitable for interpretation on interactive seismic interpretation computer workstations. Reprocessing was done in support of ongoing petroleum resource studies by the USGS Energy Program. The CD-ROM contains the following files: 1) 22 files containing the digital seismic data in standard, SEG-Y format; 2) 1 file containing navigation data for the 22 lines in standard SEG-P1 format; 3) 22 small scale graphic images of each seismic line in Adobe Acrobat? PDF format; 4) a graphic image of the location map, generated from the navigation file, with hyperlinks to the graphic images of the seismic lines; 5) an ASCII text file with cross-reference information for relating the sequential trace numbers on each regional line to the line number and shotpoint number of the original component lines; and 6) an explanation of the processing used to create the final seismic sections (this document). The SEG-Y format seismic files and SEG-P1 format navigation file contain all the information necessary for loading the data onto a seismic interpretation workstation.

  4. Recycling used palm oil and used engine oil to produce white bio oil, bio petroleum diesel and heavy fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-abbas, Mustafa Hamid; Ibrahim, Wan Aini Wan; Sanagi, Mohd. Marsin

    2012-09-01

    Recycling waste materials produced in our daily life is considered as an additional resource of a wide range of materials and it conserves the environment. Used engine oil and used cooking oil are two oils disposed off in large quantities as a by-product of our daily life. This study aims at providing white bio oil, bio petroleum diesel and heavy fuel from the disposed oils. Toxic organic materials suspected to be present in the used engine oil were separated using vacuum column chromatography to reduce the time needed for the separation process and to avoid solvent usage. The compounds separated were detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and found to contain toxic aromatic carboxylic acids. Used cooking oils (thermally cracked from usage) were collected and separated by vacuum column chromatography. White bio oil produced was examined by GC-MS. The white bio oil consists of non-toxic hydrocarbons and is found to be a good alternative to white mineral oil which is significantly used in food industry, cosmetics and drugs with the risk of containing polycyclic aromatic compounds which are carcinogenic and toxic. Different portions of the used cooking oil and used engine were mixed to produce several blends for use as heavy oil fuels. White bio oil was used to produce bio petroleum diesel by blending it with petroleum diesel and kerosene. The bio petroleum diesel produced passed the PETRONAS flash point and viscosity specification test. The heat of combustion of the two blends of heavy fuel produced was measured and one of the blends was burned to demonstrate its burning ability. Higher heat of combustion was obtained from the blend containing greater proportion of used engine oil. This study has provided a successful recycled alternative for white bio oil, bio petroleum fuel and diesel which can be an energy source.

  5. Soft computing techniques in engineering applications

    CERN Document Server

    Zhong, Baojiang

    2014-01-01

    The Soft Computing techniques, which are based on the information processing of biological systems are now massively used in the area of pattern recognition, making prediction & planning, as well as acting on the environment. Ideally speaking, soft computing is not a subject of homogeneous concepts and techniques; rather, it is an amalgamation of distinct methods that confirms to its guiding principle. At present, the main aim of soft computing is to exploit the tolerance for imprecision and uncertainty to achieve tractability, robustness and low solutions cost. The principal constituents of soft computing techniques are probabilistic reasoning, fuzzy logic, neuro-computing, genetic algorithms, belief networks, chaotic systems, as well as learning theory. This book covers contributions from various authors to demonstrate the use of soft computing techniques in various applications of engineering.  

  6. Nuclear techniques in the prospecting and exploitation of petroleum; Tecnicas nucleares en la prospeccion y explotacion de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balcazar, M.; Lopez, A.; Castellanos, J.P. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. e-mail: mbg@nuclear.inin.mx

    2003-07-01

    The apatite is a mineral that is found in the perforation nucleus of petroleum exploration whose natural content of Uranium is of around 10 ppm. This uranium is spontaneously fissioned producing fission traces whose number it is proportional to the age of the apatite and whose longitudes remained stable to temperatures smaller than 60 C, they decreased partially in the temperature range of 60 to 120 C and they faded totally if the nucleus of perforation was to temperatures bigger than 120 C. This agreement in the call 'thermal formation window' of the petroleum among 60 and 120 C and the partial erased of the longitudes of fission traces in the apatite, it allows to use this to determine not only the age of the petroleum field, but also their geologic thermal history (paleo temperature), it also allows to model the formation of the petroleum field and to contribute to outline to PEMEX on exploitation and exploration strategies. In this work it is presented: the visualization of the fission traces in the apatite of Cerro de Mercado, Durango, considered as an international standard of dating; the basic principles of this nuclear technique that allow to determine the age of the apatite; the formation of horizontal fission traces inside the apatite, by irradiation with fission fragments; and as the analysis of the thermal instability of the lengths of the fission traces it provides information of the paleo temperature of the petroleum basin. (Author)

  7. Practices and prospect of petroleum engineering technologies in ultra-deep sour gas reservoirs, Yuanba Gasfield, Sichuan Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Xu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Located in the Sichuan Basin, the Yuanba Gasfield is the deepest marine sour gas field among those developed in China so far. Its biohermal gas reservoir of the Upper Permian Changxing Fm is characterized by ultra depth, high content of hydrogen sulfide, medium–low porosity and permeability, and small reservoir thickness. Economic evaluation on it shows that horizontal well drilling is the only way to develop this gas reservoir efficiently and to reduce the total development investment. At present, the petroleum engineering technology for this type of ultra-deep sour gas reservoir is less applied in the world, so an ultra-deep horizontal well is subject to a series of petroleum engineering technology difficulties, such as safe and fast well drilling and completion, mud logging, well logging, downhole operation, safety and environmental protection. Based on the successful development experience of the Puguang Gasfield, therefore, Sinopec Southwest Petroleum Engineering Co., Ltd. took the advantage of integrated engineering geology method to carry out specific technical research and perform practice diligently for 7 years. As a result, 18 key items of technologies for ultra-deep sour gas reservoirs were developed, including horizontal-well drilling speed increasing technology, horizontal-well mud logging and well logging technology, downhole operation technology, and safety and environmental protection technology. These technologies were applied in 40 wells during the first and second phases of productivity construction of the Yuanba Gasfield. All the 40 wells have been built into commercial gas wells, and the productivity construction goal of 3.4 billion m3 purified gas has also been achieved. These petroleum engineering technologies for ultra-deep sour gas fields play a reference role in exploring and developing similar gas reservoirs at home and abroad.

  8. Generation and characterization of diesel engine combustion emissions from petroleum diesel and soybean biodiesel fuels and application for inhalation exposure studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biodiesel made from the transesterification of plant- and anmal-derived oils is an important alternative fuel source for diesel engines. Although numerous studies have reported health effects associated with petroleum diesel emissions, information on biodiesel emissions are more ...

  9. Petroleum Pumps’ Current and Vibration Signatures Analysis Using Wavelet Coherence Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rmdan Shnibha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Vibration analysis is widely used for rotating machinery diagnostics; however measuring vibration of operational oil well pumps is not possible. The pump’s driver’s current signatures may provide condition-related information without the need for an access to the pump itself. This paper investigates the degree of relationship between the pump’s driver’s current signatures and its induced vibration. This relationship between the driver’s current signatures (DCS and its vibration signatures (DVS is studied by calculating magnitude-squared coherence and phase coherence parameters at a certain frequency band using continuous wavelet transform (CWT. The CWT coherence-based technique allows better analysis of temporal evolution of the frequency content of dynamic signals and areas in the time-frequency plane where the two signals exhibit common power or consistent phase behaviour indicating a relationship between the signals. This novel approach is validated by experimental data acquired from 3 kW petroleum pump’s driver. Both vibration and current signatures were acquired under different speed and load conditions. The outcomes of this research suggest the use of DCS analysis as reliable and inexpensive condition monitoring tool, which could be implemented for oil pumps, real-time monitoring associated with condition-based maintenance (CBM program.

  10. Predicting the performances of a CAMPRO engine retrofitted with liquefied petroleum gas (LPG system using 1-dimensional software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamaruddin M. Hazeem

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the depletion of petroleum resources and the impact of exhaust emission caused by combustion towards environmental has been forced to all researchers to come out with an alternative ways to prevent this situation become worse. Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG is the most compatible and have a potential to become a source of energy for internal combustion engine. Unfortunately, the investigation of LPG in internal combustion engine among researcher still have a gap in research. Thus, in this study a 1-Dimensional simulation CAMPRO 1.6L engine model using GT-Power is developed to predict the performances of engines that using LPG as a fuel for internal combustion engine. The constructed model simulation will throughout the validation process with the experimental data to make sure the precision of this model. The validation process shows that the results have a good agreement between the simulation model and the experimental data. As a result, the performance of LPG simulation model shows that a Brake Torque (BT, Brake Power (BP and Brake Mean Effective Pressure (BMEP were significantly improved in average of 7% in comparison with gasoline model. In addition, Brake Specific Fuel Consumption (BSFC also shows an improvement by 5%, which is become more economic. Therefore, the developed GT-Power model offer a successful fuel conversion to LPG systems via retrofit technology to provide comprehensive support for implementation of energy efficient and environmental friendly vehicles.

  11. Intelligent techniques in engineering management theory and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Onar, Sezi

    2015-01-01

    This book presents recently developed intelligent techniques with applications and theory in the area of engineering management. The involved applications of intelligent techniques such as neural networks, fuzzy sets, Tabu search, genetic algorithms, etc. will be useful for engineering managers, postgraduate students, researchers, and lecturers. The book has been written considering the contents of a classical engineering management book but intelligent techniques are used for handling the engineering management problem areas. This comprehensive characteristics of the book makes it an excellent reference for the solution of complex problems of engineering management. The authors of the chapters are well-known researchers with their previous works in the area of engineering management.

  12. Engine control techniques to account for fuel effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Shankar; Frazier, Timothy R.; Stanton, Donald W.; Xu, Yi; Bunting, Bruce G.; Wolf, Leslie R.

    2014-08-26

    A technique for engine control to account for fuel effects including providing an internal combustion engine and a controller to regulate operation thereof, the engine being operable to combust a fuel to produce an exhaust gas; establishing a plurality of fuel property inputs; establishing a plurality of engine performance inputs; generating engine control information as a function of the fuel property inputs and the engine performance inputs; and accessing the engine control information with the controller to regulate at least one engine operating parameter.

  13. Combustion and exhaust emission characteristics of a compression ignition engine using liquefied petroleum gas-Diesel blended fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi, D.H.; Bian, Y.ZH.; Ma, ZH.Y.; Zhang, CH.H.; Liu, SH.Q.

    2007-01-01

    Towards the effort of reducing pollutant emissions, especially smoke and nitrogen oxides, from direct injection (DI) Diesel engines, engineers have proposed various solutions, one of which is the use of a gaseous fuel as a partial supplement for liquid Diesel fuel. The use of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) as an alternative fuel is a promising solution. The potential benefits of using LPG in Diesel engines are both economical and environmental. The high auto-ignition temperature of LPG is a serious advantage since the compression ratio of conventional Diesel engines can be maintained. The present contribution describes an experimental investigation conducted on a single cylinder DI Diesel engine, which has been properly modified to operate under LPG-Diesel blended fuel conditions, using LPG-Diesel blended fuels with various blended rates (0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%). Comparative results are given for various engine speeds and loads for conventional Diesel and blended fuels, revealing the effect of blended fuel combustion on engine performance and exhaust emissions

  14. Techniques for Analysing Problems in Engineering Projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsteinsson, Uffe

    1998-01-01

    Description of how CPM network can be used for analysing complex problems in engineering projects.......Description of how CPM network can be used for analysing complex problems in engineering projects....

  15. Estimating decades-long trends in petroleum field energy return on investment (EROI) with an engineering-based model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Vinay S.

    2017-01-01

    This paper estimates changes in the energy return on investment (EROI) for five large petroleum fields over time using the Oil Production Greenhouse Gas Emissions Estimator (OPGEE). The modeled fields include Cantarell (Mexico), Forties (U.K.), Midway-Sunset (U.S.), Prudhoe Bay (U.S.), and Wilmington (U.S.). Data on field properties and production/processing parameters were obtained from a combination of government and technical literature sources. Key areas of uncertainty include details of the oil and gas surface processing schemes. We aim to explore how long-term trends in depletion at major petroleum fields change the effective energetic productivity of petroleum extraction. Four EROI ratios are estimated for each field as follows: The net energy ratio (NER) and external energy ratio (EER) are calculated, each using two measures of energy outputs, (1) oil-only and (2) all energy outputs. In all cases, engineering estimates of inputs are used rather than expenditure-based estimates (including off-site indirect energy use and embodied energy). All fields display significant declines in NER over the modeling period driven by a combination of (1) reduced petroleum production and (2) increased energy expenditures on recovery methods such as the injection of water, steam, or gas. The fields studied had NER reductions ranging from 46% to 88% over the modeling periods (accounting for all energy outputs). The reasons for declines in EROI differ by field. Midway-Sunset experienced a 5-fold increase in steam injected per barrel of oil produced. In contrast, Prudhoe Bay has experienced nearly a 30-fold increase in amount of gas processed and reinjected per unit of oil produced. In contrast, EER estimates are subject to greater variability and uncertainty due to the relatively small magnitude of external energy investments in most cases. PMID:28178318

  16. Estimating decades-long trends in petroleum field energy return on investment (EROI) with an engineering-based model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Vinay S; Brandt, Adam R

    2017-01-01

    This paper estimates changes in the energy return on investment (EROI) for five large petroleum fields over time using the Oil Production Greenhouse Gas Emissions Estimator (OPGEE). The modeled fields include Cantarell (Mexico), Forties (U.K.), Midway-Sunset (U.S.), Prudhoe Bay (U.S.), and Wilmington (U.S.). Data on field properties and production/processing parameters were obtained from a combination of government and technical literature sources. Key areas of uncertainty include details of the oil and gas surface processing schemes. We aim to explore how long-term trends in depletion at major petroleum fields change the effective energetic productivity of petroleum extraction. Four EROI ratios are estimated for each field as follows: The net energy ratio (NER) and external energy ratio (EER) are calculated, each using two measures of energy outputs, (1) oil-only and (2) all energy outputs. In all cases, engineering estimates of inputs are used rather than expenditure-based estimates (including off-site indirect energy use and embodied energy). All fields display significant declines in NER over the modeling period driven by a combination of (1) reduced petroleum production and (2) increased energy expenditures on recovery methods such as the injection of water, steam, or gas. The fields studied had NER reductions ranging from 46% to 88% over the modeling periods (accounting for all energy outputs). The reasons for declines in EROI differ by field. Midway-Sunset experienced a 5-fold increase in steam injected per barrel of oil produced. In contrast, Prudhoe Bay has experienced nearly a 30-fold increase in amount of gas processed and reinjected per unit of oil produced. In contrast, EER estimates are subject to greater variability and uncertainty due to the relatively small magnitude of external energy investments in most cases.

  17. Estimating decades-long trends in petroleum field energy return on investment (EROI with an engineering-based model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinay S Tripathi

    Full Text Available This paper estimates changes in the energy return on investment (EROI for five large petroleum fields over time using the Oil Production Greenhouse Gas Emissions Estimator (OPGEE. The modeled fields include Cantarell (Mexico, Forties (U.K., Midway-Sunset (U.S., Prudhoe Bay (U.S., and Wilmington (U.S.. Data on field properties and production/processing parameters were obtained from a combination of government and technical literature sources. Key areas of uncertainty include details of the oil and gas surface processing schemes. We aim to explore how long-term trends in depletion at major petroleum fields change the effective energetic productivity of petroleum extraction. Four EROI ratios are estimated for each field as follows: The net energy ratio (NER and external energy ratio (EER are calculated, each using two measures of energy outputs, (1 oil-only and (2 all energy outputs. In all cases, engineering estimates of inputs are used rather than expenditure-based estimates (including off-site indirect energy use and embodied energy. All fields display significant declines in NER over the modeling period driven by a combination of (1 reduced petroleum production and (2 increased energy expenditures on recovery methods such as the injection of water, steam, or gas. The fields studied had NER reductions ranging from 46% to 88% over the modeling periods (accounting for all energy outputs. The reasons for declines in EROI differ by field. Midway-Sunset experienced a 5-fold increase in steam injected per barrel of oil produced. In contrast, Prudhoe Bay has experienced nearly a 30-fold increase in amount of gas processed and reinjected per unit of oil produced. In contrast, EER estimates are subject to greater variability and uncertainty due to the relatively small magnitude of external energy investments in most cases.

  18. [Advanced online search techniques and dedicated search engines for physicians].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahum, Yoav

    2008-02-01

    In recent years search engines have become an essential tool in the work of physicians. This article will review advanced search techniques from the world of information specialists, as well as some advanced search engine operators that may help physicians improve their online search capabilities, and maximize the yield of their searches. This article also reviews popular dedicated scientific and biomedical literature search engines.

  19. Measure of the volumetric efficiency and evaporator device performance for a liquefied petroleum gas spark ignition engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masi, Massimo; Gobbato, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Measure of the effect of LPG fuel on volumetric efficiency of a SI petrol ICE. ► Steady-state and transient performance of a LPG evaporator device on a SI ICE. ► Volume displaced by LPG causes slight performance loss in SI petrol engines. ► LPG reveals peak efficiency and high-efficiency range wider than petrol in SI ICE’s. ► One-stage pressure reducer for LPG performs satisfactorily during SI ICE transients. - Abstract: The use of Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) as fuel for spark ignition engines originally designed to be gasoline fuelled is common practice in many countries. Despite this, some questions remain still open. The present paper deals with the two main problems related to LPG port-fuel SI engines: the volumetric efficiency drop and the LPG evaporator device performance. A passengers car SI engine equipped with a “third generation” kit for the dual-fuel operation was tested using a dynamometer test rig. A single-stage pressure reducer was selected as LPG evaporator, to take advantage of an additional pre-heating of the liquid LPG that allows higher power output than a two-stage device of the same size. Engine performance, volumetric efficiency and change of LPG thermodynamic states in the evaporator were measured both in steady-state and transient operation of the engine. Steady-state measurements show the advantage of LPG in terms of engine efficiency, and quantify the drop in steady-state brake torque due to the volume swept by gaseous fuel in the fresh charge admission process. On the other hand, transient measurements show that a single-stage evaporator device is capable to match overall simplicity and satisfactory performance during strong changes in engine load.

  20. Experiences with a new soil gas technique for detecting petroleum pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazac, O.; Landa, I.; Rohde, J.R.; Kelly, W.E.

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents field experiences obtained with a new technology for detecting petroleum pollution in soil and ground water based on in situ determination of hydrocarbon concentrations in soil air. Ecoprobe is a new soil gas device from RS-Dynamics in the Czech Republic. The rugged waterproof device is equipped with a built-in computer-controlled semiconductor sensor. Three case histories are presented that demonstrate the use of the equipment under typical conditions. Two case histories present the use of the device under typical field conditions; the third case history compares results from the Ecoprobe and a commercial photoionization detector (PID) device

  1. Bone tissue engineering scaffolding: computer-aided scaffolding techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thavornyutikarn, Boonlom; Chantarapanich, Nattapon; Sitthiseripratip, Kriskrai; Thouas, George A; Chen, Qizhi

    Tissue engineering is essentially a technique for imitating nature. Natural tissues consist of three components: cells, signalling systems (e.g. growth factors) and extracellular matrix (ECM). The ECM forms a scaffold for its cells. Hence, the engineered tissue construct is an artificial scaffold populated with living cells and signalling molecules. A huge effort has been invested in bone tissue engineering, in which a highly porous scaffold plays a critical role in guiding bone and vascular tissue growth and regeneration in three dimensions. In the last two decades, numerous scaffolding techniques have been developed to fabricate highly interconnective, porous scaffolds for bone tissue engineering applications. This review provides an update on the progress of foaming technology of biomaterials, with a special attention being focused on computer-aided manufacturing (Andrade et al. 2002) techniques. This article starts with a brief introduction of tissue engineering (Bone tissue engineering and scaffolds) and scaffolding materials (Biomaterials used in bone tissue engineering). After a brief reviews on conventional scaffolding techniques (Conventional scaffolding techniques), a number of CAM techniques are reviewed in great detail. For each technique, the structure and mechanical integrity of fabricated scaffolds are discussed in detail. Finally, the advantaged and disadvantage of these techniques are compared (Comparison of scaffolding techniques) and summarised (Summary).

  2. Decontamination of Petroleum-Contaminated Soils Using The Electrochemical Technique: Remediation Degree and Energy Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streche, Constantin; Cocârţă, Diana Mariana; Istrate, Irina-Aura; Badea, Adrian Alexandru

    2018-02-19

    Currently, there are different remediation technologies for contaminated soils, but the selection of the best technology must be not only the treatment efficiency but also the energy consumption (costs) during its application. This paper is focused on assessing energy consumption related to the electrochemical treatment of polluted soil with petroleum hydrocarbons. In the framework of a research project, two types of experiments were conducted using soil that was artificially contaminated with diesel fuel at the same level of contamination. The experimental conditions considered for each experiment were: different amounts of contaminated soils (6 kg and 18 kg, respectively), the same current intensity level (0.25A and 0.5A), three different contamination degrees (1%, 2.5% and 5%) and the same time for application of the electrochemical treatment. The remediation degree concerning the removal of petroleum hydrocarbons from soil increased over time by approximately 20% over 7 days. With regard to energy consumption, the results revealed that with an increase in the quantity of treated soil of approximately three times, the specific energy consumption decreased from 2.94 kWh/kg treated soil to 1.64 kWh/kg treated soil.

  3. Development and application of techniques for monitoring the bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greer, C.; Hawar, J.; Samson, R.

    1994-01-01

    A series of tests was designed to examine bioremediation potential in soil and to monitor performance during the treatment operation. Physical and chemical characterization of the soil provides information on the types of organics, their concentrations, and whether interfering materials are present. Microbiological assessment involves culturing of bacterial populations in the soil and examination of the colonies to determine which have the genetic potential to degrade the soil contaminants. Catabolic gene probes are used to survey viable bacteria from petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soils. Such soils consistently demonstrate the presence of bacteria possessing the genetic capability to degrade simple straight-chain alkanes and aromatics. Mineralization and respirometric studies are indicators of the biological activity in the soil, and can be directed at microbial activity towards specific substrates. Gene probe monitoring of a petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soil during biopile treatment demonstrated that hydrocarbon-degrading bacterial numbers and activity were temperature dependent. The results showed that the activity of the indigenous bacteria as measured by hexadecane mineralization also correlated with the disappearance of the oil and grease. The application of this protocol has provided a useful means to screen contaminated soils for bacteria with desirable catabolic properties and to monitor pollutant-degrading bacteria during biotreatment. 15 refs., 10 figs

  4. On Industrial Use of Requirements Engineering Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bækgaard, Lars; Bæk Jørgensen, Jens; Bisgaard Lassen, Kristian

    2007-01-01

    The basis for this paper is a workshop, which was organised by the first and second author, together with colleagues, and held in February 2007. The theme of the workshop was "requirements engineering for innovative administrative systems". The workshop participants came from software companies...... project is about application of the requirements engineering approach called Executable Use Cases in the development of a certain IT system for the Public Utilities in Aalborg, Denmark. The second project is about application of the analysis approach called Activity Cases for a public library in Vejle...

  5. Experiences of a Multidisciplinary Course on Geo-Signal Processing from a DSP Perspective Offered in Electrical Engineering at King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousa, W. A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to share the experience gained in, and the efforts made toward, introducing and implementing a new course in the challenging and important area of geophysical signal processing at the Electrical Engineering (EE) Department, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals (KFUPM), Dhahran, Saudi Arabia. The new course,…

  6. Generation and characterization of diesel engine combustion emissions from petroleum diesel and soybean biodiesel fuels and application for inhalation exposure studies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mutlu, E.; Nash, D.G.; King, C.; Krantz, T.Q.; Preston, W.T.; Kooter, I.M.; Higuchi, M.; DeMarini, D.; Linak, W.P.; Ian Gilmour, M.

    2015-01-01

    Biodiesel made from the transesterification of plant- and animal-derived oils is an important alternative fuel source for diesel engines. Although numerous studies have reported health effects associated with petroleum diesel emissions, information on biodiesel emissions are more limited. To this

  7. Partial differential equations mathematical techniques for engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Epstein, Marcelo

    2017-01-01

    This monograph presents a graduate-level treatment of partial differential equations (PDEs) for engineers. The book begins with a review of the geometrical interpretation of systems of ODEs, the appearance of PDEs in engineering is motivated by the general form of balance laws in continuum physics. Four chapters are devoted to a detailed treatment of the single first-order PDE, including shock waves and genuinely non-linear models, with applications to traffic design and gas dynamics. The rest of the book deals with second-order equations. In the treatment of hyperbolic equations, geometric arguments are used whenever possible and the analogy with discrete vibrating systems is emphasized. The diffusion and potential equations afford the opportunity of dealing with questions of uniqueness and continuous dependence on the data, the Fourier integral, generalized functions (distributions), Duhamel's principle, Green's functions and Dirichlet and Neumann problems. The target audience primarily comprises graduate s...

  8. Photographic and drafting techniques simplify method of producing engineering drawings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provisor, H.

    1968-01-01

    Combination of photographic and drafting techniques has been developed to simplify the preparation of three dimensional and dimetric engineering drawings. Conventional photographs can be converted to line drawings by making copy negatives on high contrast film.

  9. Protein engineering techniques gateways to synthetic protein universe

    CERN Document Server

    Poluri, Krishna Mohan

    2017-01-01

    This brief provides a broad overview of protein-engineering research, offering a glimpse of the most common experimental methods. It also presents various computational programs with applications that are widely used in directed evolution, computational and de novo protein design. Further, it sheds light on the advantages and pitfalls of existing methodologies and future perspectives of protein engineering techniques.

  10. Methods and experimental techniques in computer engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Schiaffonati, Viola

    2014-01-01

    Computing and science reveal a synergic relationship. On the one hand, it is widely evident that computing plays an important role in the scientific endeavor. On the other hand, the role of scientific method in computing is getting increasingly important, especially in providing ways to experimentally evaluate the properties of complex computing systems. This book critically presents these issues from a unitary conceptual and methodological perspective by addressing specific case studies at the intersection between computing and science. The book originates from, and collects the experience of, a course for PhD students in Information Engineering held at the Politecnico di Milano. Following the structure of the course, the book features contributions from some researchers who are working at the intersection between computing and science.

  11. Sputtering. [as deposition technique in mechanical engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spalvins, T.

    1976-01-01

    This paper primarily reviews the potential of using the sputtering process as a deposition technique; however, the manufacturing and sputter etching aspects are also discussed. Since sputtering is not regulated by classical thermodynamics, new multicomponent materials can be developed in any possible chemical composition. The basic mechanism for dc and rf sputtering is described. Sputter-deposition is described in terms of the unique advantageous features it offers such as versatility, momentum transfer, stoichiometry, sputter-etching, target geometry (coating complex surfaces), precise controls, flexibility, ecology, and sputtering rates. Sputtered film characteristics, such as strong adherence and coherence and film morphology, are briefly evaluated in terms of varying the sputtering parameters. Also described are some of the specific industrial areas which are turning to sputter-deposition techniques.

  12. Combustion and emission characteristics of a dual fuel engine operated with mahua oil and liquefied petroleum gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadar Kapilan N.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available For the present work, a single cylinder diesel engine was modified to work in dual fuel mode. To study the feasibility of using methyl ester of mahua oil as pilot fuel, it was used as pilot fuel and liquefied petroleum gas was used as primary fuel. In dual fuel mode, pilot fuel quantity and injector opening pressure are the few variables, which affect the performance and emission of dual fuel engine. Hence, in the present work, pilot fuel quantity and injector opening pressure were varied. From the test results, it was observed that the pilot fuel quantity of 5 mg per cycle and injector opening pressure of 200 bar results in higher brake thermal efficiency. Also the exhaust emissions such as smoke, unburnt hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide are lower than other pressures and pilot fuel quantities. The higher injection pressure and proper pilot fuel quantity might have resulted in better atomization, penetration of methyl ester of mahua oil and better combustion of fuel.

  13. Methods and techniques of detecting petroleum-polluted water. Metody i tekhnika obnaruzheniya neftyanykh zagroyaznenii vod

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogorodskii, V V; Kropotkin, M A; Sheveleva, T Yu

    1975-01-01

    The booklet presents physical principles and techniques of contact and remote sensing of oil pollution. Different methods and their practical possibilities are discussed. The possibility of application of remote CO/sub 2/-laser radar technique for the detection of oil pollution is considered. The booklet may be useful for specialists in oceanology, oceanic physics, meteorology, and in remote physical methods for environmental studies.

  14. Petroleum investment opportunities in Manitoba: A geological, engineering and economic perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, J.N.; Martinuk, C.D.

    1994-01-01

    The geology and reservoir characteristics of Manitoba's oil producing horizons are described, and exploration and development prospects are reviewed. Southwestern Manitoba occupies part of the northeastern flank of the Williston Basin. Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and Cenozoic rocks form a basinward thickening wedge of sedimentary strata that reach a total thickness of 2,300 m in the southwest corner of the province. To date, oil production in Manitoba is restricted to the sandstones of the Middle Jurassic, the Jurassic Amaranth Formation, the Mississippian Bakken Formation, and the carbonates of the Mississippian Lodgepole and Mission Canyon Formations. The deeper Ordovician, Silurian, and Devonian formations offer oil and gas potential but remain largely undrilled. Total recoverable reserves are ca 36 million m 3 and remaining proved reserves are ca 6 million m 3 . Manitoba had a resurgence in petroleum activity in 1993; 102 wells were licensed, compared to an annual average of 61 over the past five years. More Crown land was disposed at the two lease sales in 1993 than had been leased in the previous five years. Low Crown land price is one competitive advantage available to Manitoba oil producers. Other advantages include low drilling and completion costs, low drilling density, a competitive and stable fiscal regime, drilling and exploration incentives, and unrestricted access to markets. Sample economics are included to illustrate the attractiveness of vertical and horizontal drilling opportunities in Manitoba. 8 refs., 6 figs., 7 tabs

  15. Petroleum investment opportunities in Manitoba - a geological, engineering and economic perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, J. N.; Martiniuk, C. D.

    1997-01-01

    Geology and reservoir characteristics of Manitoba's producing horizons were described, and recent activity in exploration and development prospects for the immediate future were reviewed. These prospects have improved considerably, thanks to recent efforts of the Manitoba Department of Energy and Mines to ensure that barriers to petroleum investment are eliminated. As a result of these and related efforts by the Manitoba government the investment climate is stable and competitive. Advantages in Manitoba include availability of Crown land at comparatively low prices, drilling and exploration incentives, low drilling and completion costs, and easy access to markets. Development drilling opportunities exist for each of Manitoba's five producing formations (the sandstones of the Jurassic Melita and Amaranth formations, and the Mississippian Bakken Formation, and the carbonates of the Mississipian Lodgepole and Mission Canyon formations). Sample economic scenarios run on three development scenarios and modelled after typical Manitoba oil play were very favorable, indicating a potential rate of return on investments of 25 to 37 per cent and pay-out in 2.6 to 3.2 years. 10 refs., 7 tabs., 5 figs

  16. The Study of the Performance of Engine Operating on Petroleum and Ethanol Blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Mažeika

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Test results indicate that a fully loaded engine, fed with 10 vol % ethanol and petrol blends, has power output reduced by 1.67–3.2% at 1400 and 1800 rev/min, while the specific fuel consumption can be slightly increased (up to 4% at 1400 rev/min, and slightly decreased at 1800 rev/min. Carbon monoxide CO emissions of the fully loaded engine running on biofuel blend E10 are reduced by about 0–50% compared to those observed when petrol is used. To introduce ethanol and petrol blends with higher E20 concentration as an engine fuel, special adjustment of the fuel system is needed.Article in Lithuanian

  17. Reliability analysis techniques for the design engineer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corran, E.R.; Witt, H.H.

    1982-01-01

    This paper describes a fault tree analysis package that eliminates most of the housekeeping tasks involved in proceeding from the initial construction of a fault tree to the final stage of presenting a reliability analysis in a safety report. It is suitable for designers with relatively little training in reliability analysis and computer operation. Users can rapidly investigate the reliability implications of various options at the design stage and evolve a system which meets specified reliability objectives. Later independent review is thus unlikely to reveal major shortcomings necessitating modification and project delays. The package operates interactively, allowing the user to concentrate on the creative task of developing the system fault tree, which may be modified and displayed graphically. For preliminary analysis, system data can be derived automatically from a generic data bank. As the analysis proceeds, improved estimates of critical failure rates and test and maintenance schedules can be inserted. The technique is applied to the reliability analysis of the recently upgraded HIFAR Containment Isolation System. (author)

  18. Revisiting diesel fuel formulation from Petroleum light and middle refinery streams based on optimized engine behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Ben Amara , Arij; Dauphin , Roland; Babiker , Hassan; Viollet , Yoann; Chang , Junseok; Jeuland , Nicolas; Amer , Amer

    2016-01-01

    International audience; The share of diesel fuel in European transport sector, which currently represents over 50% of total 11 demand, is increasing, requiring massive imports of this product, while at the same time, gasoline fuels are 12 today in surplus. In terms of air pollutant emissions, gasoline and kerosene streams have shown potential 13 in achieving lower emissions in Compression Ignition (CI) engines, particularly nitrogen oxides (NOx) 14 and particulates. A new fuel formulation app...

  19. International Conference on Soft Computing Techniques and Engineering Application

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Xiaolong

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of ICSCTEA 2013 is to provide a platform for researchers, engineers and academicians from all over the world to present their research results and development activities in soft computing techniques and engineering application. This conference provides opportunities for them to exchange new ideas and application experiences face to face, to establish business or research relations and to find global partners for future collaboration.

  20. Evaluation of the Use of Two Teaching Techniques in Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Antonio Alvarez Salas

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of the practical implementation of two teaching techniques so-called Problem-Based Learning and Cooperative Learning. These techniques were applied to some courses in the Department of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering and evaluated through assessment rubrics. In a sample of students and teachers, the assessment rubrics were applied to numerically evaluate the proportion of each course, in which the teacher uses traditional teaching versus teaching for meaningful learning. The results of the presented analysis allow to verify the use of these teaching techniques by professors of the Department of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering. This activity was developed as a part of the work established by the Institutional Development Plan of the Faculty of Engineering, which includes the strategic objective of developing an innovative educational model in the following ten years.

  1. Cuban advances in the application of nuclear techniques in petroleum prospection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Martinez, Norma; Montero Cabrera, Maria Elena

    1997-01-01

    Accumulated experience demonstrates how effective is the utilization of nuclear techniques in oil prospection. Until a little while ago the national geophysical service had a wide complex of nuclear and radioactive methods that were including: Methods Neutron compensated Gamma Density Cabotage Gamma and Natural Gamma for evaluating the properties of capacity and filtration of the hydrocarbons reservoirs. Neutronic Impulses Generating Method for determining and specifying the water-oil contact zone within the hydrocarbon deposits, radioactive tracers for: 1- detecting breakdowns in the coating pipeline of the wells, 2- for determining zones of losses of circulation of the fluid in the wells; Furthermore in laboratory conditions are used other nuclear analytical techniques: Neutron Activation Analysis, X-Ray Fluorescence, gamma spectrometry to determine multielemental composition of rocks including the traces elements. The determination, have permitted us to characterize each one of the sequences and they are used as a criterion for their stratigraphic differentiation at the same time, they are techniques-considering their affectation to neutronic methods

  2. Experimental Technique of Titanium Fire in Aero-engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MI Guangbao

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Titanium fire is the typical catastrophic fault in the aero-engine. Aiming at the urgent demand for experimental technique of titanium fire from advanced high thrust-weight ratio aero-engine, the combustion technology and theory of titanium alloy based on friction oxygen concentration method (FOC were systematically studied. The evaluation method of fireproof property and the friction ignition model were built, and the fireproof mechanism was illustrated. By generalizing recent progress in experimental technique of titanium fire from three levels, including evolutionary rule, mechanism and prevention and control technology, the ideas and directions of experimental technique associated with the application research of titanium fire in the future were proposed, namely overall evaluation of fireproof property close to air flow environment of the aero-engine, prediction model of fireproof property and experimental verification of fireproof technique under the air flow environment of aero-engine. It is necessary to establish the prevention system of titanium fire in aero-engine, which contributes to the realization of "full titanium" in compressor and to the increase of high thrust-weight ratio.

  3. Engineers find climbing techniques work well for dam inspections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Shea, M.; Graves, A. [Bureau of Reclamation, Denver, CO (United States)

    1996-10-01

    Climbing techniques adopted by the Bureau of Reclamation to inspect previously inaccessible or difficult to reach features at dams are described. Following the failure of the steel radial-arm gate at Folsom Dam, engineers mounted an effort to reach and inspect the dam`s seven other spillway gates. This close-up examination was performed to: (1) determine the condition of these gates; and (2) gather clues about the failure of the one gate. The access techniques described involved mountaineering techniques, as opposed to high scaling techniques, performed with dynamic and static nylon kermantle ropes.

  4. Organic acid derivatization techniques applied to petroleum hydrocarbon transformations in subsurface environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barcelona, M.J.; Lu, J.; Tomczak, D.M.

    1995-01-01

    Evidence for the natural microbial remediation of subsurface fuel contamination situations should include identification and analysis of transformation or degradation products. In this way, a mass balance between fuel constituents and end products may be approached to monitor cleanup progress. Application of advanced organic acid metabolite derivatization techniques to several know sites of organic compounds and fuel mixture contamination provide valuable information on the pathways and progress of microbial transformation. Good correlation between observed metabolites and transformation pathways of aromatic fuel constituents were observed at the sites

  5. Combination of novel coalescing oil water separator and electrocoagulation technique for treatment of petroleum compound contaminated groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oladzad, Sepideh; Fallah, Narges; Nasernejad, Bahram

    2017-07-01

    In the present study a combination of a novel coalescing oil water separator (COWS) and electrocoagulation (EC) technique was used for treatment of petroleum product contaminated groundwater. In the first phase, COWS was used as the primary treatment. Two different types of coalescing media and two levels of flow rates were examined in order to find the optimum conditions. The effluent of COWS was collected in optimum conditions and was treated using an EC process in the second phase of the research. In this phase, preliminary experiments were conducted in order to investigate the effect of EC reaction time and sedimentation time on chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency. Best conditions for EC reaction time and sedimentation time were obtained to be 5 min and 30 min, respectively. Response surface methodology was applied to evaluate the effect of initial pH, current density and aeration rate on settling velocity (V s ) and effluent COD. The optimum conditions, for achieving maximum values of V s as well as the values of effluent COD, in the range of results were obtained at conditions of 7, 34 mA·cm -2 and 1.5 L·min -1 for initial pH, current density and aeration rate, respectively.

  6. Updating the U.S. Life Cycle GHG Petroleum Baseline to 2014 with Projections to 2040 Using Open-Source Engineering-Based Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooney, Gregory; Jamieson, Matthew; Marriott, Joe; Bergerson, Joule; Brandt, Adam; Skone, Timothy J

    2017-01-17

    The National Energy Technology Laboratory produced a well-to-wheels (WTW) life cycle greenhouse gas analysis of petroleum-based fuels consumed in the U.S. in 2005, known as the NETL 2005 Petroleum Baseline. This study uses a set of engineering-based, open-source models combined with publicly available data to calculate baseline results for 2014. An increase between the 2005 baseline and the 2014 results presented here (e.g., 92.4 vs 96.2 g CO 2 e/MJ gasoline, + 4.1%) are due to changes both in modeling platform and in the U.S. petroleum sector. An updated result for 2005 was calculated to minimize the effect of the change in modeling platform, and emissions for gasoline in 2014 were about 2% lower than in 2005 (98.1 vs 96.2 g CO 2 e/MJ gasoline). The same methods were utilized to forecast emissions from fuels out to 2040, indicating maximum changes from the 2014 gasoline result between +2.1% and -1.4%. The changing baseline values lead to potential compliance challenges with frameworks such as the Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) Section 526, which states that Federal agencies should not purchase alternative fuels unless their life cycle GHG emissions are less than those of conventionally produced, petroleum-derived fuels.

  7. Neural engineering from advanced biomaterials to 3D fabrication techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Kaplan, David

    2016-01-01

    This book covers the principles of advanced 3D fabrication techniques, stem cells and biomaterials for neural engineering. Renowned contributors cover topics such as neural tissue regeneration, peripheral and central nervous system repair, brain-machine interfaces and in vitro nervous system modeling. Within these areas, focus remains on exciting and emerging technologies such as highly developed neuroprostheses and the communication channels between the brain and prostheses, enabling technologies that are beneficial for development of therapeutic interventions, advanced fabrication techniques such as 3D bioprinting, photolithography, microfluidics, and subtractive fabrication, and the engineering of implantable neural grafts. There is a strong focus on stem cells and 3D bioprinting technologies throughout the book, including working with embryonic, fetal, neonatal, and adult stem cells and a variety of sophisticated 3D bioprinting methods for neural engineering applications. There is also a strong focus on b...

  8. A review of rapid prototyping techniques for tissue engineering purposes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peltola, Sanna M.; Melchels, Ferry P. W.; Grijpma, Dirk W.; Kellomaki, Minna

    2008-01-01

    Rapid prototyping (RP) is a common name for several techniques, which read in data from computer-aided design (CAD) drawings and manufacture automatically three-dimensional objects layer-by-layer according to the virtual design. The utilization of RP in tissue engineering enables the production of

  9. Convergent engineering techniques for management of nuclear processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carabulea, A.; Popa, I.

    1995-01-01

    The paper briefly presents the concept of convergent arhemo-systematical engineering, its advantages in comparison with classical methods of research, design, manufacture. The convergent engineering application supposes the usage of the advanced methods, techniques and equipment corresponding to the domain and specific for the corresponding branch of computer science. Starting from the convergent engineering principles and concept, the paper proposes two models applicable for new products and also for improving and optimizing the existing ones. The models are based on two levels of feedback corresponding to two levels of control and they assume the utilization of expert and robot-expert systems. The economical efficiency of the application of the convergent engineering method is evaluated for the case of a nuclear power plant by calculation the main technical and economical indicators. (Author) 2 Figs., 5 Refs

  10. Metabolic Engineering: Techniques for analysis of targets for genetic manipulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Bredal

    1998-01-01

    Metabolic engineering has been defined as the purposeful modification of intermediary metabolism using recombinant DNA techniques. With this definition metabolic engineering includes: (1) inserting new pathways in microorganisms with the aim of producing novel metabolites, e.g., production...... of polyketides by Streptomyces; (2) production of heterologous peptides, e.g., production of human insulin, erythropoitin, and tPA; and (3) improvement of both new and existing processes, e.g., production of antibiotics and industrial enzymes. Metabolic engineering is a multidisciplinary approach, which involves...... input from chemical engineers, molecular biologists, biochemists, physiologists, and analytical chemists. Obviously, molecular biology is central in the production of novel products, as well as in the improvement of existing processes. However, in the latter case, input from other disciplines is pivotal...

  11. Additive manufacturing techniques for the production of tissue engineering constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, Carlos; Puppi, Dario; Chiellini, Federica; Chiellini, Emo

    2015-03-01

    'Additive manufacturing' (AM) refers to a class of manufacturing processes based on the building of a solid object from three-dimensional (3D) model data by joining materials, usually layer upon layer. Among the vast array of techniques developed for the production of tissue-engineering (TE) scaffolds, AM techniques are gaining great interest for their suitability in achieving complex shapes and microstructures with a high degree of automation, good accuracy and reproducibility. In addition, the possibility of rapidly producing tissue-engineered constructs meeting patient's specific requirements, in terms of tissue defect size and geometry as well as autologous biological features, makes them a powerful way of enhancing clinical routine procedures. This paper gives an extensive overview of different AM techniques classes (i.e. stereolithography, selective laser sintering, 3D printing, melt-extrusion-based techniques, solution/slurry extrusion-based techniques, and tissue and organ printing) employed for the development of tissue-engineered constructs made of different materials (i.e. polymeric, ceramic and composite, alone or in combination with bioactive agents), by highlighting their principles and technological solutions. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Crude petroleum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    Crude petroleum statistics by country of production, export values and import values from 1983 to 1988 are given. Table A.1 of the Annex includes free market prices and price indices for crude petroleum based on average of Dubai, United Kingdom Brent and Alaska N Slope crude prices (price expressed in dollars/barrel). The data sources are: Crude petroleum United Nations Statistical Office; OPEC Annual Statistical Bulletin, and Petroleum Economist. For trade the sources of data are: National trade statistics; United Nations international trade statistics; International Moneytary Fund (IMF); Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC); UNCTAD secretariat estimates. Tabs

  13. 2005 yearly days of petroleum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constant, R.; Susbielles, G.

    2005-01-01

    14 articles are gathered in this data sheet; they deal with the opening address of the 2005 petroleum days; the hydrocarbons: the evolutive resource; the para-petroleum engineers and the Europe; the speech of Mr Francois Loos; the Shell global scenarios to 2025; the evolution of the gas resource and its uses; the French para-petroleum industry; Bernard Bensaid, Corinne Sagary, Armelle Saniere, economic studies, IFP; the contribution of the innovation and of the technology in the diversification of the hydrocarbons supply; innovation and diversification of the petroleum resource: the point of view of Total; research, development and diversification of the petroleum resource; innovation in services companies; innovation in study and development and engineering; the closing address of the 2005 petroleum days. (O.M.)

  14. Applying decision-making techniques to Civil Engineering Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fam F. Abdel-malak

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Multi-Criteria Decision-Making (MCDM techniques are found to be useful tools in project managers’ hands to overcome decision-making (DM problems in Civil Engineering Projects (CEPs. The main contribution of this paper includes selecting and studying the popular MCDM techniques that uses different and wide ranges of data types in CEPs. A detailed study including advantages and pitfalls of using the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP and Fuzzy Technique for Order of Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (Fuzzy TOPSIS is introduced. Those two techniques are selected for the purpose of forming a package that covers most available data types in CEPs. The results indicated that AHP has a structure which simplifies complicated problems, while Fuzzy TOPSIS uses the advantages of linguistic variables to solve the issue of undocumented data and ill-defined problems. Furthermore, AHP is a simple technique that depends on pairwise comparisons of factors and natural attributes, beside it is preferable for widely spread hierarchies. On the other hand, Fuzzy TOPSIS needs more information but works well for the one-tier decision tree as well as it shows more flexibility to work in fuzzy environments. The two techniques have the facility to be integrated and combined in a new module to support most of the decisions required in CEPs. Keywords: Decision-making, AHP, Fuzzy TOPSIS, CBA, Civil Engineering Projects

  15. Vermiremediation of soils contaminated with mixture of petroleum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, vermiremediation, a biological technique was utilized in order to clean-up soil contaminated with gasoline, diesel and spent engine oil using an earthworm - Eisenia fetida. The contaminated soils were analyzed for the total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) level every 24 hours over a period of 120 hours using ...

  16. Decomposition techniques in mathematical programming engineering and science applications

    CERN Document Server

    Conejo, Antonio J; Minguez, Roberto; Garcia-Bertrand, Raquel

    2006-01-01

    Optimization plainly dominates the design, planning, operation, and c- trol of engineering systems. This is a book on optimization that considers particular cases of optimization problems, those with a decomposable str- ture that can be advantageously exploited. Those decomposable optimization problems are ubiquitous in engineering and science applications. The book considers problems with both complicating constraints and complicating va- ables, and analyzes linear and nonlinear problems, with and without in- ger variables. The decomposition techniques analyzed include Dantzig-Wolfe, Benders, Lagrangian relaxation, Augmented Lagrangian decomposition, and others. Heuristic techniques are also considered. Additionally, a comprehensive sensitivity analysis for characterizing the solution of optimization problems is carried out. This material is particularly novel and of high practical interest. This book is built based on many clarifying, illustrative, and compu- tional examples, which facilitate the learning p...

  17. Monitoring of civil engineering structures using Digital Image Correlation technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malesa, M.; Szczepanek, D.; Kujawińska, M.; Świercz, A.; Kołakowski, P.

    2010-06-01

    The Digital Image Correlation (DIC) technique enables full field, noncontact measurements of displacements and strains of a wide variety of objects. An adaptation of the DIC technique for monitoring of civil-engineering structures is presented in the paper. A general concept of the complex, automatic monitoring system, in which the DIC sensor plays an important role is described. Some new software features, which aim to facilitate outdoor measurements and speed up the correlation analysis, is also introduced. As an example of application, measurements of a railway bridge in Nieporet (Poland) are presented. The experimental results are compared with displacements of a FEM model of the bridge.

  18. Software engineering techniques and CASE tools in RD13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buono, S.; Gaponenko, I.; Jones, R.; Khodabandeh, A.; Mapelli, L.; Mornacchi, G.; Prigent, D.; Sanchez-Corral, E.; Skiadelli, M.; Toppers, A.; Duval, P. Y.; Ferrato, D.; Le Van Suu, A.; Qian, Z.; Rondot, C.; Ambrosini, G.; Fumagalli, G.; Polesello, G.; Aguer, M.; Huet, M.

    1994-12-01

    The RD13 project was approved in April 1991 for the development of a scalable data-taking system suitable for hosting various LHC studies. One of its goals is the exploitation of software engineering techniques, in order to indicate their overall suitability for data acquisition (DAQ), software design and implementation. This paper describes how such techniques have been applied to the development of components of the RD13 DAQ used in test-beam runs at CERN. We describe our experience with the Artifex CASE tool and its associated methodology. The issues raised when code generated by a CASE tool has to be integrated into an existing environment are also discussed.

  19. Attempt of application of prefabrication techniques to nuclear engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frangi, Roger

    1981-01-01

    Prefabrication can apply to nuclear civil engineering for the execution of complicated or tall shuttering or casing work, requiring shoring that one would wish to simplify or suppress. This technique saves on work hours and improves quality and safety. A few examples carried out on the Saint-Laurent-des-Eaux and Chinon power stations are given as well as that which will be undertaken on the Belleville power station [fr

  20. Engineered in situ bioremediation of a petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated aquifer: assessment of mineralization based on alkalinity, inorganic carbon and stable carbon isotope balances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunkeler, Daniel; Höhener, Patrick; Bernasconi, Stefano; Zeyer, Josef

    1999-04-01

    A concept is proposed to assess in situ petroleum hydrocarbon mineralization by combining data on oxidant consumption, production of reduced species, CH 4, alkalinity and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) with measurements of stable isotope ratios. The concept was applied to a diesel fuel contaminated aquifer in Menziken, Switzerland, which was treated by engineered in situ bioremediation. In the contaminated aquifer, added oxidants (O 2 and NO 3-) were consumed, elevated concentrations of Fe(II), Mn(II), CH 4, alkalinity and DIC were detected and the DIC was generally depleted in 13C compared to the background. The DIC production was larger than expected based on the consumption of dissolved oxidants and the production of reduced species. Stable carbon isotope balances revealed that the DIC production in the aquifer originated mainly from microbial petroleum hydrocarbon mineralization, and that geochemical reactions such as carbonate dissolution produced little DIC. This suggests that petroleum hydrocarbon mineralization can be underestimated if it is determined based on concentrations of dissolved oxidants and reduced species.

  1. IERIAS: inference engine for reactor accident diagnostic system using knowledge engineering technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokobayashi, Masao; Yoshida, Kazuo; Kohsaka, Atsuo; Yamamoto, Minoru.

    1984-11-01

    This report describes an inference engine IERIAS which has been devoloped for a diagnostic system to identify the cause and type of an abnormal transient of a reactor plant. This system using knowledge engineering technique consists of a knowledge base and an inference engine. The inference engine IERIAS is designed so as to treat time-varying data of a plant. The major features of IERIAS are ; (1) histroy of transients can be treated, (2) knowledge base can be divided into some knowledge units, (3) program language UTILISP is used which is suitable for symbolic data manipulation. Inference was made using IERIAS with a knowledge base which was created from simulated results of various transients by a PWR plant simulator. The results showed a good applicability of IERIAS for reactor diagnosis. (author)

  2. Method for plant operation guidance by knowledge engineering technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiguchi, Takashi; Yoshida, Kenichi; Motoda, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Setsuo

    1983-01-01

    A method for plant operation guidance has been developed by using the Knowledge Engineering technique. The method is characterized by its capability of handling plant dynamics. The knowledge-base includes plant simulation programs as tools to evaluate dynamic behaviors as well as production rules of ''if..., then...'' type. The inference engine is thus capable of predicting plant dynamics and making decisions in accordance with time progress. The performance of the guidance method was evaluated by simulation tests assuming various abnormal situations of a BWR power plant. It was shown that the method can detect each of the abnormal events along the course of their occurrence, and provide the guidance for corrective actions. The operation guidance method proposed in this paper is general and is applicable not only to nuclear power plants but also to other plants such as chemical production plants and fossile power plants. (author)

  3. Petroleum price

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chevallier, B.

    2009-01-01

    The 'AFTP' conference on 'petroleum prices' organized by Total last March, tries to explain the different aspects of the crisis we undergo for July 2007 and its consequential effects on the petroleum markets (supply, demand evolvements, impacts on reserves, prices, refining...). (O.M.)

  4. Comparison of three field screening techniques for delineating petroleum hydrocarbon plumes in groundwater at a site in the southern Carson Desert, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smuin, D.R.

    1993-01-01

    Three types of field screening techniques used in the characterization of potentially contaminated sites at Naval Air Station Fallon, Nevada, are compared. The methods and results for each technique are presented. The three techniques include soil-gas surveys, electromagnetic geophysical surveys, and groundwater test hole screening. Initial screening at the first study site included two soil-gas surveys and electromagnetic geophysical studies. These screening methods identified I areas of contamination; however, results were inconclusive. Therefore groundwater test hole screening was performed. Groundwater screening consisted of auger drilling down to the shallow alluvial aquifer. Groundwater samples were collected from the open drill hole with a bailer. On-site head-space analyses for volatile organic compounds (VOCS) were performed using a portable gas chromatograph (GC). Five areas of floating petroleum hydrocarbon product were identified along with the overall dissolved contaminant plume boundaries. Well placement was re-evaluated, and well sites were relocated based on the screening information. The most effective technique for identification of petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminant plumes was groundwater test hole screening. Groundwater screening was subsequently performed at 19 other sites. A total of 450 test holes were analyzed resulting in the delineation of six plumes

  5. Using Innovative Techniques for Manufacturing Rocket Engine Hardware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betts, Erin M.; Reynolds, David C.; Eddleman, David E.; Hardin, Andy

    2011-01-01

    Many of the manufacturing techniques that are currently used for rocket engine component production are traditional methods that have been proven through years of experience and historical precedence. As we enter into a new space age where new launch vehicles are being designed and propulsion systems are being improved upon, it is sometimes necessary to adopt new and innovative techniques for manufacturing hardware. With a heavy emphasis on cost reduction and improvements in manufacturing time, manufacturing techniques such as Direct Metal Laser Sintering (DMLS) are being adopted and evaluated for their use on J-2X, with hopes of employing this technology on a wide variety of future projects. DMLS has the potential to significantly reduce the processing time and cost of engine hardware, while achieving desirable material properties by using a layered powder metal manufacturing process in order to produce complex part geometries. Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has recently hot-fire tested a J-2X gas generator discharge duct that was manufactured using DMLS. The duct was inspected and proof tested prior to the hot-fire test. Using the Workhorse Gas Generator (WHGG) test setup at MSFC?s East Test Area test stand 116, the duct was subject to extreme J-2X gas generator environments and endured a total of 538 seconds of hot-fire time. The duct survived the testing and was inspected after the test. DMLS manufacturing has proven to be a viable option for manufacturing rocket engine hardware, and further development and use of this manufacturing method is recommended.

  6. Repair and tissue engineering techniques for articular cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makris, Eleftherios A; Gomoll, Andreas H; Malizos, Konstantinos N; Hu, Jerry C; Athanasiou, Kyriacos A

    2015-01-01

    Chondral and osteochondral lesions due to injury or other pathology commonly result in the development of osteoarthritis, eventually leading to progressive total joint destruction. Although current progress suggests that biologic agents can delay the advancement of deterioration, such drugs are incapable of promoting tissue restoration. The limited ability of articular cartilage to regenerate renders joint arthroplasty an unavoidable surgical intervention. This Review describes current, widely used clinical repair techniques for resurfacing articular cartilage defects; short-term and long-term clinical outcomes of these techniques are discussed. Also reviewed is a developmental pipeline of acellular and cellular regenerative products and techniques that could revolutionize joint care over the next decade by promoting the development of functional articular cartilage. Acellular products typically consist of collagen or hyaluronic-acid-based materials, whereas cellular techniques use either primary cells or stem cells, with or without scaffolds. Central to these efforts is the prominent role that tissue engineering has in translating biological technology into clinical products; therefore, concomitant regulatory processes are also discussed.

  7. Chemical reaction engineering studies on cocracking of petroleum vacuum residue with coal, plastics, and biomass (bagasse and petrocrop)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmaruzzaman, M.; Sharma, D.K. [Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi (India). Centre for Energy Studies

    2007-07-01

    This article deals with the studies on cocracking of petroleum vacuum residue (XVR) with thermosetting plastic, I. e., bakelite (BL), Samla coal (SC), biomass, I. e., bagasse (BG) or C. procera (CL) and their binary, ternary, and quaternary mixtures in a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA). The kinetic studies were performed using the Coats and Redfern kinetic modeling equation. The overall activation energies obtained were 25 kJ/mole for petroleum vacuum residue, 99 kJ/mole for polypropylene, 21 kJ/mole for coal, 23 kJ/mole for Calotropis procera, and 25 kJ/mole for the combination of these four materials. However, other models, such as van Krevelan et al. and Horowitz and Metzger have also been used in some cases to compare the results with those obtained by the Coats and Redfern kinetic models. In the present work, the effect of catalysts on the cracking of Basra vacuum residue (BVR) has also been reported.

  8. Application of classic engineering techniques (value engineering and observational method) at the Weldon Spring Quarry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferguson, R.D.; Valett, G.L.

    1991-01-01

    In July of 1987 the Weldon Spring quarry was listed on the Environmental Protection Agency National Priority List as the highest priority Federal facility site. The Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project applied the principles and techniques of Value Engineering (VE) and the Observational Method to remedial planning efforts at the quarry. VE sessions resulted in modifications of the scenarios developed during the Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RM) process in preparation for conceptual design activities for the removal of waste from the quarry. The Observational Method, a technique developed to manage uncertainties, was used to guide both environmental and engineering planning to ensure that the waste removal activities win be carried out in a safe and environmentally responsible manner

  9. Improved Nanomechanical Test Techniques for Surface Engineered Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen R. Goodes

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The development and implementation of a wide range of innovative nanomechanical test techniques to solve tribological problems in applications as diverse as biomedical and automotive are described in this review. For improved wear resistance and durability, the importance of understanding the system response rather than the coating-only properties is emphasized. There are many applications involving mechanical contact where the key to understanding the problem is to test at higher load and to combine reliable measurements taken across different length scales using both nano- and micro-indentation and related wear measurement techniques which more closely simulate contact conditions to fully understand the mechanical behaviour and hence deliver improved application performance. Results are presented with the NanoTest platform for applications for biomedical devices and surface engineering of lightweight alloys for the automotive industry. By combining results with different techniques it is possible to postulate predictive design rules – based on the elastic and plastic deformation energies involved in contact - to aid the reliable optimisation of mechanical properties in the various contact situations in the different applications.

  10. Further developments in performance prediction techniques of adiabatic diesel engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasihhan, Y

    1990-01-01

    The engine cycle simulation program 'SPICE', developed at Bath University, has been used extensively for insulated diesel engine research. The present study introduces more comprehensive engine heat transfer models thus enabling us to study the insulated engine heat transfer and performance characteristics in more detail. The new version of 'SPICE' separates the gas to wall heat transfer into two parts, convective and radiative. For this purpose, a detailed radiative heat transfer model which considers both the flame (gas and soot) and wall to wall radiative heat transfer is written. The previous engine resistance model is refined and replaced by a more detailed resistance model which considers piston-liner conduction heat transfer and 2-D heat flow in the liner. The wall surface temperature swing is also included in the engine heat transfer calculations which is quite significant in low conductivity ceramic insulated engines. A 1-D finite difference model is written for the transient heat transfer region of the wall and linked to the engine resistance model. This new version of 'SPICE' is used to predict the insulated engine heat transfer and performance for the experimental Petter PH1W engine for various insulation levels and schemes. An answer to the controversy of increase in engine heat loss with insulation is looked for. The effect of wall deposits on engine heat transfer and its significance for the insulated engine is highlighted. (Author).

  11. Visualization techniques in diesel engine research. Diesel Engine kenkyu ni okeru kashika gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komori, M.; Tsujimura, K. (New ACE., Tsukuba (Japan))

    1993-04-01

    In order to grasp the phenomena actually occurring in the combustion chamber for improving the combustion and for reducing the exhaust gas emission of the diesel engines, the visualization techniques are becoming to be essential and indispensable. The authors have observed the spray and combustion, when proceeding the combustion improvement by the high pressure injection, and then have performed the image processing and simulation calculation based on them. The high pressure injection devices used for the experiment are the intensifier type and accumulator type which can generate the injection pressure more than 200MPa, and both of them are the electronic controlled hydraulic drive type, and are driven separately from the engine. Since it was found that the analysis of high pressure injection by the hologram is limited in the conditions, as for the spray, the spray analysis was performed by the transmitted light attenuation method and laser sheet method. As for the combustion, the engine for observing the combustion was trially made, and then the combustion state was observed by the high speed photograph. Furthermore, the flame temperature analysis by the image processing using the combustion photograph and the analysis of flow and turbulence of the flame were carried out. 9 refs., 16 figs.

  12. Analiza primene tečnog naftnog gasa kao pogonskog energenta motora SUS / Analysis of application of liquefied petroleum gas as an IC engine fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavko Rakić

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available U svetu su izražene tendencije razvoja motornih vozila koja koriste ekološki čista i dovoljno raspoloživa goriva. Jedan od načina rešavanja aktuelnih zadataka automobilske industrije jeste korišćenje alternativnih goriva, odnosno alternativnih energetskih potencijala. U radu je analiziran tečni naftni gas (TNG kao alternativno gorivo za pogon motornih vozila. Nakon iznošenja osnovnih fizičko -kemijskih karakteristika TNG-a i analize upotrebe gasa kao pogonskog goriva motora SUS, prikazane su i komponente sistema za pogon motora na TNG. Navedeni su i primeri razvijenih zemalja koje pokušavaju da povećaju procenat primene alternativnih goriva u drumskom saobraćaju. Analizirani su, takođe, osnovni pokazatelji motora (snaga, ekonomičnost i ekološke karakteristike pri pogonu na TNG, koji potvrđuju daje ovo gorivo ekonomičnije i ekološki čistije od benzina i dizel goriva. / Global trends in automotive industry worldwide include development of environment-friendly vehicles which use 'clean' and attainable fuels. Alternative fuels and alternative energy sources represent one solution to the problem. In this paper Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG is analyzed as an alternative fuel for motor vehicle engines. After bringing up basic physical and chemical properties of LPG and the analysis of gas usage as a fuel for internal combustion engines, the general picture of the system components for LPG engine fuels is given. The paper also presents examples of how developed countries try to increase the percentage of alternative fuel usage in the road transportation. Finally, the analysis of the main LPG-powered engine indicators (power, economical and environmental properties confirms that LPG is more economical and more environment-friendly than standard engine fuels.

  13. On teaching software engineering based on formal techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørner, Dines

    2001-01-01

    thoughts about and plans for a different software engineering text book peter Lucas Farewell Symposium......thoughts about and plans for a different software engineering text book peter Lucas Farewell Symposium...

  14. Application of value engineering technique in construction project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Changbing

    2003-01-01

    The author introduces how to apply the theories and methods of the value engineering in construction project. In the construction of a test device of the thermal hydrodynamic process, the authors have greatly reduced the construction cost and shortened the construction period by using the value engineering analyzing method. The application of value engineering in the project management is innovative. This practice indicates that the value engineering is important in many construction projects

  15. Petroleum hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrington, J.W.; Teal, J.M.; Parker, P.L.

    1976-01-01

    Methods for analysis of petroleum hydrocarbons in marine samples are presented. Types of hydrocarbons present and their origins are discussed. Principles and methods of analysis are outlined. Infrared spectrometry, uv spectrometry, gas chromatography, mass spectroscopy, and carbon 14 measurements are described

  16. The EED [Emergencies Engineering Division] solvent extraction process for the removal of petroleum-derived hydrocarbons from soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastien, C.Y.

    1994-03-01

    Research was conducted to investigate the ability of hexane and natural gas condensate (NGC) to extract three different types of hydrocarbon contaminant (light crude oil, diesel fuel, and bunker C oil) from three types of soil (sand, peat, and clay). A separate but related study determined the efficiency of solvent extraction (using hexane and five other solvents but not NGC) for removal of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) from contaminated soil. The process developed for this research includes stages of mixing, extraction, separation, and solvent recovery, for eventual implementation as a mobile solvent extraction unit. In experiments on samples created in the laboratory, extraction efficiencies of hydrocarbons often rose above 95%. On samples from a petroleum contaminated site, average extraction efficiency was ca 82%. Sandy soils contaminated in the laboratory were effectively cleaned of all hydrocarbons tested but only diesel fuel was successfully extracted from peat soils. No significant differences were observed in the effectiveness of hexane and NGC for contamination levels above 3%. Below this number, NGC seems more effective at removing oil from peat while hexane is slightly more effective on clay soils. Sand is equally cleaned by both solvents at all contamination levels. Safety considerations, odor, extra care needed to deal with light ends and aromatics, and the fact that only 26% of the solvent is actually usable make NGC an unfeasible option in spite of its significantly lower cost compared to hexane. For extracting PCBs, a hexane/acetone mixture proved to have the best removal efficiency. 14 refs., 14 figs., 7 tabs

  17. Petroleum Characterisation and Reservoir Dynamics - The Froey Field and the Rind Discovery, Norwegian Continental Shelf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhullar, Abid G.

    1999-07-01

    The objective of this thesis is to apply the fundamental principles of petroleum geochemistry integrated with petroleum/reservoir engineering and geological concepts to the dynamics and characterisation of petroleum reservoirs. The study is based on 600 core samples and 9 DST oils from 11 wells in the Froey Field and the Rind Discovery. The work is presented in five papers. Paper 1 is a detailed characterisation of the reservoirs using a petroleum geochemical approach. Paper 2 describes the application of a single reservoir geochemical screening technique to exploration, appraisal and production geology and reservoir/petroleum engineering. Paper 3 compares the Iatroscan TLC-FID screening technique and the extraction efficiency of micro-extraction used in this work with the well-established Rock-Eval geochemical screening method and with the Soxtec extraction method. Paper 4 refines the migration and filling models of Paper 1, and Paper 5 presents a comparison of models of petroleum generation, migration and accumulation based on geochemical data with 1D burial history, a ''pseudo well'' based on actual well data and regional seismic analysis representing the hydrocarbon generative basin conditions.

  18. 1992 petroleum software directory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    This book is designed especially for the petroleum industry. Each program listing includes a description of the function, language and memory requirements, operating systems, special accessories required, compatibles and pricing information. A separate section lists the more than 600 companies that produce and sell the programs. Companies are listed alphabetically and include address, phone, fax and telex numbers as well as contact names for each location. Many company listings also include distributors. This book includes information on Accounting/Statistics, Design/Construction/Engineering Graphics, Drilling Engineering and Equipment, Economics/Financial Analysis, Engineering, Exploration, Land and Leasing, Maintenance and Repair/Quality Control/Monitoring, Manufacturing, Maps, Marketing, Pipelines/Shipping/Storage, Production Engineering and Recovery Methods, Synthetic/Alternate Resources and Fuels

  19. A Literature Review of Indexing and Searching Techniques Implementation in Educational Search Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Guemmat, Kamal; Ouahabi, Sara

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this article is to analyze the searching and indexing techniques of educational search engines' implementation while treating future challenges. Educational search engines could greatly help in the effectiveness of e-learning if used correctly. However, these engines have several gaps which influence the performance of e-learning…

  20. Genetic engineering possibilities for CELSS: A bibliography and summary of techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, E. J.

    1982-01-01

    A bibliography of the most useful techniques employed in genetic engineering of higher plants, bacteria associated with plants, and plant cell cultures is provided. A resume of state-of-the-art genetic engineering of plants and bacteria is presented. The potential application of plant bacterial genetic engineering to CELSS (Controlled Ecological Life Support System) program and future research needs are discussed.

  1. Petroleum apocalypse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cochet, Y.

    2005-09-01

    Oil prices are increasing while current explanations for this phenomenon are no longer satisfactory. The cheap petroleum era is ending and this problem can seriously convulse our lifestyles. Transports, agriculture, plastics, clothes, medicines: petroleum is everywhere. This is why the rise of hydrocarbons price will not be a simple economic shock but the end of the world like the one we know. However, it is still possible to postpone this event to a later date and to limit its effects by the implementation of a new oil sobriety era. This implies to already organize the decay of materials and energy consumption, together with keeping solidarity, democracy and peace up. In this condition only the transition will be less painful. (J.S.)

  2. Petroleum refining. Separation processes; Le raffinage du petrole. Procedes de separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wauquier, J.P. [Institut Francais du Petrole (IFP), 92 - Rueil-Malmaison (France); Bonfils, P. [AB Industries (France); Company, J.P. [Compagnie de Raffinage et de Distribution TOTAL France, 75 - Paris (France); Deschamps, A. [Institut Francais du Petrole (IFP), 92 - Rueil-Malmaison (France); Gourlia, J.P. [Elf Aquitaine (France); Gouzien, L. [Compagnie de Raffinage et de Distribution TOTAL France, 75 - Paris (France); Hombourger, T. [Mobil (France); Jullian, S. [Institut Francais du Petrole (IFP), 92 - Rueil-Malmaison (France); Marty, C. [Compagnie de Raffinage et de Distribution TOTAL France, 75 - Paris (France); Mikitenko, P. [Institut Francais du Petrole (IFP), 92 - Rueil-Malmaison (France); Ptak, C. [Technip, 92 - Rueil-Malmaison (France); Rojey, A.; Streicher, C.; Vidal, J. [Institut Francais du Petrole (IFP), 92 - Rueil-Malmaison (France)

    1998-12-01

    After having given into details the conventional separation processes used in petroleum refining, the author describes the development future prospects: improvement of the existing technologies, introduction of new techniques or separation processes still not used today in this industry. This book is particularly devoted to students and to engineers and technical men who work in refineries. (O.M.) 308 refs.

  3. [Development of computer aided forming techniques in manufacturing scaffolds for bone tissue engineering].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xuelei; Dong, Fuhui

    2011-12-01

    To review recent advance in the research and application of computer aided forming techniques for constructing bone tissue engineering scaffolds. The literature concerning computer aided forming techniques for constructing bone tissue engineering scaffolds in recent years was reviewed extensively and summarized. Several studies over last decade have focused on computer aided forming techniques for bone scaffold construction using various scaffold materials, which is based on computer aided design (CAD) and bone scaffold rapid prototyping (RP). CAD include medical CAD, STL, and reverse design. Reverse design can fully simulate normal bone tissue and could be very useful for the CAD. RP techniques include fused deposition modeling, three dimensional printing, selected laser sintering, three dimensional bioplotting, and low-temperature deposition manufacturing. These techniques provide a new way to construct bone tissue engineering scaffolds with complex internal structures. With rapid development of molding and forming techniques, computer aided forming techniques are expected to provide ideal bone tissue engineering scaffolds.

  4. Modeling Techniques for a Computational Efficient Dynamic Turbofan Engine Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rory A. Roberts

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A transient two-stream engine model has been developed. Individual component models developed exclusively in MATLAB/Simulink including the fan, high pressure compressor, combustor, high pressure turbine, low pressure turbine, plenum volumes, and exit nozzle have been combined to investigate the behavior of a turbofan two-stream engine. Special attention has been paid to the development of transient capabilities throughout the model, increasing physics model, eliminating algebraic constraints, and reducing simulation time through enabling the use of advanced numerical solvers. The lessening of computation time is paramount for conducting future aircraft system-level design trade studies and optimization. The new engine model is simulated for a fuel perturbation and a specified mission while tracking critical parameters. These results, as well as the simulation times, are presented. The new approach significantly reduces the simulation time.

  5. Exploring Arduino tools and techniques for engineering wizardry

    CERN Document Server

    Blum, Jeremy

    2013-01-01

    Learn to easily build gadgets, gizmos, robots, and more using Arduino Written by Arduino expert Jeremy Blum, this unique book uses the popular Arduino microcontroller platform as an instrument to teach you about topics in electrical engineering, programming, and human-computer interaction. Whether you're a budding hobbyist or an engineer, you'll benefit from the perfectly paced lessons that walk you through useful, artistic, and educational exercises that gradually get more advanced. In addition to specific projects, the book shares best practices in programming and design that

  6. Petroleum. [Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-01-01

    An introductory chapter of world wide petroleum history is followed by a comprehensive record of the petroliferous basins of Venezuela. Exploration, productivity, production statistics, reserves, geologic structures, and the distribution of oil and gas fields are described separately for the Maracaibo-Falcon basin, Apure-Barinas basin, E. Venezuela basin, and Tuy-Cariaco basin. The descriptions include geographic distribution, geomorphologic outline of the basins, lithology and thickness of sediments, structural development, present structural conditions in which oil and gas fields occur, and their distribution in the basins. Economic factors are discussed in an appendix. 145 references.

  7. Management Science/Industrial Engineering Techniques to Reduce Food Costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Murray

    This paper examines the contributions of Industrial Engineering and Management Science toward reduction in the cost of production and distribution of food. Food processing firms were requested to respond to a questionnaire which asked for examples of their use of various operations research tools and information on the number of operations…

  8. Use of electrical resistivity technique for engineering site investigation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The presence of moderately thick (1.5 – 16.5m) clay has been established in this area; therefore the use of raft foundation and/or any other foundation that is commensurate with civil engineering standard is suggested for high rise structures. Keywords: bedrock integrity, transverse unit resistance, foundation. Global Journal ...

  9. 40 CFR 1065.720 - Liquefied petroleum gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... may use fuel that your in-use engines normally use, such as commercial-quality liquefied petroleum gas... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Liquefied petroleum gas. 1065.720... CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Engine Fluids, Test Fuels, Analytical Gases and Other Calibration...

  10. Petroleum industry in 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This document presents a detailed outlook of the petroleum industry in the world and more particularly in France in 2005: evolution of crude oil prices; petroleum exploration and production in the world and in France; the French para-petroleum and petroleum industry; the oil supplies; the refining activities; the evolution of products quality and the substitution fuels; the domestic transports, the storage and consumption of petroleum products; the fiscality, prices and distribution of petroleum products. (J.S.)

  11. Coldness applied to plastic engineering techniques and rooms; Le froid applique aux techniques de la plasturgie et a ses locaux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This technical dossier is the result of a collaboration between the CFE, EdF Industrie and the French federation of plastic engineering. It aims at answering all questions relative to plastic materials processing: 1 - general study on the economical aspects of plastic engineering, plastic materials, and manufacturing processes; 2 - the different cold processing techniques (air cooling and refrigerating systems); 3 - the main transformation processes for thermo-plastic materials and the advantage of cooling techniques; 4 - the environmental conditioning of rooms (clean rooms); 5 - examples of realizations. (J.S.)

  12. Risk assessment of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG storage tanks in the process industries using the Bowtie technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Mirzaei aliabadi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: LPG storage tanks contain of large volumes of flammable and pressurized gases. Release of these fluids can lead to disastrous accidents such BLEVE, fiery explosion. Therefore, identifying the causes, consequences, probabilities and scenarios of accidents using Bowtie technique, that is combination of Fault Tree Analyses (FTA and Event Tree Analyses (ETA, is imperative and the purpose of this study. Methods: The hazards of the mentioned in Tehran Refinery LPG tanks were identified by Fault Tree Analyses and the consequences of the top event were predicted by Event Tree Analyses. Then probabilities of the events were calculated and the accident route, from causes phase to consequences phase, was drawn by Bowtie diagram. Results: In total, 21 events and 11 minimal cut sets with their occurrence probabilities and importance measure were determined at the left side of the Bowtie diagram. Also 9 consequences and scenarios of the top event were determined at the right side of the diagram. The occurrence probability of the top event (LPG release of spherical tanks was calculated 3.45×10-2. Conclusion: All factors involved in the occurrence of accidents and their consequences are showed in the Bowtie diagram. According to the obtained data, failure of cathodic protection systems and instrumentation, and overflow of tanks are included as important defects of the LPG tanks. Due to the high probability of the consequences, preventing systems such as cooling systems and Fire stop systems are required for installing in the studied unit to reduce the consequences of accidents.

  13. The Use of encapsulation techniques as an alternative to employment of soil contaminated by petroleum products in base and sub-base of pavement layers

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco das Chagas Isael Teixeira Cavalcante

    2013-01-01

    The petrochemical industry or petroleum deserves special attention because, in practically all stages (drilling, refining, storage and distribution), residues that harm the environment and is a challenge to those responsible for their management are generated. Among the various wastes generated by the oil industry, are the Soils Contaminated by Petroleum Products (SCPD). In Cearà state, the generation of this type of waste is coming from a refinery that is located in Fortaleza city. During ma...

  14. Petroleum geophysics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-07-01

    The book is compiled from a series of e-learning modules. GeoCLASS is an e-learning system with contents from petroleum geophysics. It is the result of collaboration between professors at the University of Bergen and the University of Oslo, and its material has been used as curriculum in master program courses at these universities for several years. Using a unique feature to GeoCLASS, these advanced scientific topics are presented on multiple levels. The introductions open the door to this vast pool of knowledge, accessible even for high school students. Enter the door, and you enter the modules. Various levels of content are presented, and the more advanced levels can be shielded from the regular user, and only accessed by those with particular interest. The chapters in the book are: Elastic waves; Survey planning; Seismic acquisition; Basic seismic signal theory and processing; Seismic imaging; Seismic attributes; Rock physics; Reservoir monitoring. (AG)

  15. Molecular profiling techniques as tools to detect potential unintended effects in genetically engineered maize

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Barros, E

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Molecular Profiling Techniques as Tools to Detect Potential Unintended Effects in Genetically Engineered Maize Eugenia Barros Introduction In the early stages of production and commercialization of foods derived from genetically engineered (GE) plants... systems. In a recent paper published in Plant Biotechnology Journal,4 we compared two transgenic white maize lines with the non-transgenic counterpart to investigate two possible sources of variation: genetic engineering and environmental variation...

  16. Scheduling techniques in the Request Oriented Scheduling Engine (ROSE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoch, David R.

    1991-01-01

    Scheduling techniques in the ROSE are presented in the form of the viewgraphs. The following subject areas are covered: agenda; ROSE summary and history; NCC-ROSE task goals; accomplishments; ROSE timeline manager; scheduling concerns; current and ROSE approaches; initial scheduling; BFSSE overview and example; and summary.

  17. Development of engineering scale HLLW vitrification technique at PNC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagaki, H.; Oguino, N.; Tsunoda, N.; Segawa, T.

    1979-01-01

    Some processes have been investigated to develop the technology of solidification of the high-level radioactive liquid waste generated from the nuclear fuel reprocessing plant operated by the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC) at Tokai-mura. This report covers the present state of development of a Joule-heated ceramic melter and a direct megahertz induction-heated melter. Engineering-scale tests have been performed with both melters. The Joule-heated melter could produce 45 kg or 16 liters of glass per hour. The direct-induction furnace was able to melt 5 kg or 1.8 liters of glass per hour. Both melters were composed of electrofused cast refractory brick. Thus it was possible to melt the glass at above 1200 0 C. Glass produced at higher melting temperatures is generally superior. 3 figures, 2 tables

  18. Environmental sensitive road planning and transportation techniques in forest engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Hulusi Acar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Forestry management has activities dealing with technical, economic, social and environmental services. Forestry operations which are carried out on forest areas , an important part of the ecosistem are materialized in open space. This forestry activities on large areas and high sloping generally, include many different techniques. It is needed primarily to the forest road network in terms of forest management. Determining the approriate route in the natural environment, planning and road construction affairs for forest roads which are necessary accessing in forest areas, is also of great importance from an environmental viewpoint as well as technical and economic manner. Forest road planning which can not be changed later and left a permanent mark on the natural environment carries much more importance to the environment especially on sloping land. This is because, it is important choosing correct type of roaf structure, and doing periodic maintenance of the roads. Skidding activities, after wood production, is important in terms of its impact on forest soil and by means of effects on saplings and trees on the releated forest areas.The development of environmental sensitive techniques is difficult, limited or expensive for this wood extraction works which are made more difficult conditons in the sloping terrain. Therefore, especially in using some silvicultural methods wood extraction damages are even greater. In this study; some road planning, road construction and wood extraction techniques which performed by me have been made to examine the environmental aspects. Environment-friendly forest roads and primary transport techniques on the forest ecosystem are briefly explained and discussed in the frame of the environmental aspects.

  19. Plagiarism detection and prevention techniques in engineering education

    OpenAIRE

    Halak, Basel; El-Hajjar, Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    Plagiarism seriously damages the education process in a number of ways; it prevents students from developing the skills of creative thinking and critical analysis; it undermines the trust between lectures and students, and if goes undetected, it can impact the reputation of the academic institution and devalue its degrees. In this paper, we present two techniques for plagiarism detection and prevention. The first method is based on the allocation of a unique assignment for each student, and t...

  20. Development of optical techniques for chemical engineering applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamadie, F.; Charton, S.; Langlard, M. de; Ouattara, M.; Sentis, M. [CEA, Centre de Marcoule, DEN,DTEC,SGCS, F-30207 Marcoule (France)

    2016-07-01

    The design of separation processes for nuclear spend fuel treatment, dedicated to either research studies or industrial applications, is currently based on a phenomenological approach, relying on Computational Fluid Dynamics, and complemented by validation tests performed at small-scale. Indeed, most of the steps of the Purex process involve multiphasic flows (dissolution, leaching, liquid-liquid extraction, precipitation, filtration, etc.). Therefore an accurate knowledge of the dispersed phase properties is required in order to assess their coupling with the flow features, to predict the process performance and efficiency and to achieve size reduction or extrapolation. Hence, the measurements of particulate flows properties, and especially the particles (or drops or bubbles) size distribution, concentration (i.e. hold-up) and velocity has become a growing issue. Relevant techniques for measuring these flow properties are multiple, from the high-speed video acquisition coupled to image processing to the laser-induced fluorescence, including the particle imaging velocimetry or interferometric techniques (digital in-line holography, rainbow refractometry, etc.). In this communication, different techniques developed at CEA Marcoule for the characterization of multiphase flows, will be introduced. The strong interaction with computational fluid dynamics, in the scope of a multi-scale approach, will be discussed through typical results of gas-liquid, liquid-liquid and solid-liquid flows possibly encountered in nuclear fuel reprocessing process. (authors)

  1. Petroleum 2006. Statistical elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-06-01

    This document gathers in 5 parts, the main existing statistical data about petroleum industry in France and in the rest of the world, together with an insight on other energy sources: 1 - petroleum in the French economy (petroleum and other energies, petroleum and transports, petroleum and energy in the industry, the residential and tertiary sectors, environment: 42 pages); 2 - the French petroleum industry (exploration, production, foreign trade, transports, refining, storage, petrochemistry: 66 pages); 3 - the French market of petroleum products (evolution of sales by product and detail by region for the past year: 38 pages); 4 - prices and taxes of petroleum products (world prices and rates for crude and refined products, evolution of fret rates, retail prices and French taxes: 28 pages); 5 - petroleum in the world (world energy production and consumption, detailed petroleum activity by main areas and for the main countries: 112 pages). (J.S.)

  2. Figures on petroleum 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    This table taken out from the 1981 annual report 1981 contains an introductory remark on the reorganization of mineral oil statistics up to January 82. It is followed by the tables ranged as follows: refinery capacity and production, crude oil supply, GDR-coverings, import of petroleum products, petroleum consumption, export of petroleum products, transport, oil storage tanks, motor vehicle stock, taxes and tariffs, petroleum export trade, energy consumption and world petroleum numbers. In parts the tables contain comparative figures back to 1950.

  3. Wear studies of engine components using neutron activation techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banados Perez, H.E.; Carvalho, G.; Daltro, T.F.L.

    1984-01-01

    The results obtained in a series of tests for determining the wearing rate of some diesel engine components are reported. The pieces investigated were the needles of fuel injection nozzles, that were previously irradiated with a 10 13 nv in the IEA-R1 nuclear reactor, and the wearing rate was established for different types of fuels. Total wear was calculated by measuring the specific activity of 51 Cr present in the fuel and originated by metal particles worn from the needle. Wear were performed using a device that simulated the actual working conditions of the injection nozzles. The system was run during 350 hours and, along that period, 36 fuel samples of 10 ml each, were collected and analysed for cumulative wear calculation. A metal concentration as low as 10- 6 g in 10 ml of fuel sample could be measured by this method. At present time this procedure is being applied for measuring the wear-rate of other nozzle parts, using localized neutron activation techiques. (Author) [pt

  4. Increasing the reliability of ecological models using modern software engineering techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert M. Scheller; Brian R. Sturtevant; Eric J. Gustafson; Brendan C. Ward; David J. Mladenoff

    2009-01-01

    Modern software development techniques are largely unknown to ecologists. Typically, ecological models and other software tools are developed for limited research purposes, and additional capabilities are added later, usually in an ad hoc manner. Modern software engineering techniques can substantially increase scientific rigor and confidence in ecological models and...

  5. Risk assessment techniques with applicability in marine engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudenko, E.; Panaitescu, F. V.; Panaitescu, M.

    2015-11-01

    Nowadays risk management is a carefully planned process. The task of risk management is organically woven into the general problem of increasing the efficiency of business. Passive attitude to risk and awareness of its existence are replaced by active management techniques. Risk assessment is one of the most important stages of risk management, since for risk management it is necessary first to analyze and evaluate risk. There are many definitions of this notion but in general case risk assessment refers to the systematic process of identifying the factors and types of risk and their quantitative assessment, i.e. risk analysis methodology combines mutually complementary quantitative and qualitative approaches. Purpose of the work: In this paper we will consider as risk assessment technique Fault Tree analysis (FTA). The objectives are: understand purpose of FTA, understand and apply rules of Boolean algebra, analyse a simple system using FTA, FTA advantages and disadvantages. Research and methodology: The main purpose is to help identify potential causes of system failures before the failures actually occur. We can evaluate the probability of the Top event.The steps of this analize are: the system's examination from Top to Down, the use of symbols to represent events, the use of mathematical tools for critical areas, the use of Fault tree logic diagrams to identify the cause of the Top event. Results: In the finally of study it will be obtained: critical areas, Fault tree logical diagrams and the probability of the Top event. These results can be used for the risk assessment analyses.

  6. Petroleum: the new challenges. Market pressure and technological lever

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boy de la Tour, X.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the forecasting of petroleum demand during the next years, the state of petroleum reserves and recognized oil fields in the whole world at the present time. The challenge to obtain a sufficient petroleum production, facing an increased energy demand, requires to have recourse to new exploration and oil recovery techniques. 8 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  7. The Application of Advanced Technique of Fan Frame Unit on High Bypass Ratio Aero Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hou Peng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available High bypass ratio aero-engine was widely used on military and civil aviation domain, as the power of larger aircraft. Fan frame unit was the main bearing frame of high bypass ratio aero-engine, which composed of strut, HUB MID BOX and external bypass parts. Resin/composite was used on external bypass parts(acoustic liner, containment ring, fan outlet guide vane and fan case skin fillets, which not only reduced the weight and manufacturing cost, but also improved the noise absorption, containment and anti-fatigue ability of engine. The design of composite was becoming a key technique for high bypass ratio aero-engine. In special test of the core engine, nitrogen cooling system was designed to cool the cavity of spool. The nitrogen pipeline passed through the inner cavity of fan frame, then inserted into NO. 3 bearing seal, so nitrogen gas was sent into the cavity of core engine spool. On high bypass ratio aero-engine, the external bypass and fan frame inner cavity were the design platform for advanced technique, such as composite and pipeline system, and also provided guarantee for reliable operation of engine.

  8. A Typology of Techniques for Motivation of Personnel at Mechanical Engineering Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melnyk Olga G.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article is to develop a typology of techniques for motivation of personnel at mechanical engineering enterprises providing for systematization of their forms on the basis of a number of the existing features and identified new ones, which are justified by the requirements of today. There has been proved the fragmentary character of developments in this area making it impossible to form basic prerequisites for studying the concept. It has been found that certain features of the typology of methods for motivating employees may also be signs of a typology of techniques for motivation of personnel at enterprises of mechanical engineering industry. Among the current signs of a typology of techniques for motivation of personnel at mechanical engineering enterprises it is proposed to use the following ones: the nature of the impact; results obtained, object of the impact; direction; nature of the objectives; scope of the anticipated changes in the existing motivation system; nature of the needs, at which the techniques are directed. In addition, expediency of introducing new features of the typology, namely: the novelty level (classic and innovative motivation techniques, level of individualization (individual and standard; level of formalization (formalized at the high, medium and low level, source of the need for formation and implementation (the techniques, which necessity is specified by the enterprise, and the techniques, which necessity is specified by the business environment, origin («field» and «office» ones. These results allow forming a holistic view of the diversity of techniques for motivation of personnel at mechanical engineering enterprises as well as reasonable choosing among them their individual types at improving the motivation system. Prospects for further research in this direction should be allocation and systematization of the factors influencing the choice of one or another technique for motivation of

  9. The application of LQR synthesis techniques to the turboshaft engine control problem. [Linear Quadratic Regulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeil, W. H.; De Los Reyes, G.; Bobula, G. A.

    1985-01-01

    A power turbine governor was designed for a recent-technology turboshaft engine coupled to a modern, articulated rotor system using Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) and Kalman Filter (KF) techniques. A linear, state-space model of the engine and rotor system was derived for six engine power settings from flight idle to maximum continuous. An integrator was appended to the fuel flow input to reduce the steady-state governor error to zero. Feedback gains were calculated for the system states at each power setting using the LQR technique. The main rotor tip speed state is not measurable, so a Kalman Filter of the rotor was used to estimate this state. The crossover of the system was increased to 10 rad/s compared to 2 rad/sec for a current governor. Initial computer simulations with a nonlinear engine model indicate a significant decrease in power turbine speed variation with the LQR governor compared to a conventional governor.

  10. The application of LQR synthesis techniques to the turboshaft engine control problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeil, W. H.; De Los Reyes, G.; Bobula, G. A.

    1984-01-01

    A power turbine governor was designed for a recent-technology turboshaft engine coupled to a modern, articulated rotor system using Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) and Kalman Filter (KF) techniques. A linear, state-space model of the engine and rotor system was derived for six engine power settings from flight idle to maximum continuous. An integrator was appended to the fuel flow input to reduce the steady-state governor error to zero. Feedback gains were calculated for the system states at each power setting using the LQR technique. The main rotor tip speed state is not measurable, so a Kalman Filter of the rotor was used to estimate this state. The crossover of the system was increased to 10 rad/s compared to 2 rad/sec for a current governor. Initial computer simulations with a nonlinear engine model indicate a significant decrease in power turbine speed variation with the LQR governor compared to a conventional governor.

  11. Study of wear in piston ring of the vehicle engine using thin layer activation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, I.H.; Farooq, M.; Ghiyas-ud-Din; Gul, S.; Qureshi, R.M.; Jin Joon Ha; Wallace, G.

    2004-01-01

    Thin Layer Activation (TLA) technique was used to investigate piston ring wear of a six cylinders vehicle engine at various engine speeds and load conditions. The activated ring was installed in cylinder no.5 of the engine at middle position (compression ring). Monitoring was carried out on-line (extremely on the engine block) using 'Thin Layer Difference Method'. The calibration curve of the activity profile was prepared with the help of activation parameters determined at the time of ring activation in particle accelerator. The results show that the piston ring wear varies from 0.309 micron/hour to 0.404 micron/hour at given engine speed and load conditions. (author)

  12. Analytical Modelling of the Effects of Different Gas Turbine Cooling Techniques on Engine Performance =

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uysal, Selcuk Can

    In this research, MATLAB SimulinkRTM was used to develop a cooled engine model for industrial gas turbines and aero-engines. The model consists of uncooled on-design, mean-line turbomachinery design and a cooled off-design analysis in order to evaluate the engine performance parameters by using operating conditions, polytropic efficiencies, material information and cooling system details. The cooling analysis algorithm involves a 2nd law analysis to calculate losses from the cooling technique applied. The model is used in a sensitivity analysis that evaluates the impacts of variations in metal Biot number, thermal barrier coating Biot number, film cooling effectiveness, internal cooling effectiveness and maximum allowable blade temperature on main engine performance parameters of aero and industrial gas turbine engines. The model is subsequently used to analyze the relative performance impact of employing Anti-Vortex Film Cooling holes (AVH) by means of data obtained for these holes by Detached Eddy Simulation-CFD Techniques that are valid for engine-like turbulence intensity conditions. Cooled blade configurations with AVH and other different external cooling techniques were used in a performance comparison study. (Abstract shortened by ProQuest.).

  13. Petroleum software profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    A profile of twenty-two software packages designed for petroleum exploration and production was provided. Some focussed on the oil and gas engineering industry, and others on mapping systems containing well history files and well data summaries. Still other programs provided accounting systems designed to address the complexities of the oil and gas industry. The software packages reviewed were developed by some of the best-known groups involved in software development for the oil and gas industry, including among others, Geoquest, the Can Tek Group, Applied Terravision Systems Inc., Neotechnology Consultants Ltd., (12) OGCI Software Inc., Oracle Energy, Production Revenue Information Systems Management, Virtual Computing Services Ltd., and geoLogic Systems Ltd

  14. Rare and expensive petroleum: impact on careers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, E.; Krasowski, T.; Kerdraon, Y.; Drevet, R.; Andreis, D.; Pouille, J.P.; Villoslada Prado, P.; Sigaud, J.B.

    2006-01-01

    Oil peak, reserves depletion, greenhouse effect, pollution, uncertain future and international insecurity could be negative arguments to discourage candidates to start up a career in the petroleum industry. This press kit presents testimonies of young professionals who explain their motivations for committing themselves in this way. Testimonies are chosen in various domains of the petroleum industry: geophysics, exploration, processes, refining, and engines technology. (J.S.)

  15. Proceedings of the national seminar on advanced construction techniques and geotechnical engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Partheeban, P.; Poornima, C.A.; Guru, V.

    2015-02-01

    The objective of this seminar is to emphasize the need for developing modern construction materials in the era of technology. It also provides a forum for National Research Scholars, Construction Specialists and Professionals, Planners, Faculty, PG and UG Students to discuss and evolve solutions for various difficulties faced during construction. Theme of seminar includes Geotechnical site Investigation, Ground improvement Techniques, Soil Dynamics, Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering, Geo- Environmental Engineering, Self Compacting Concrete, Geopolymer Concrete and Concrete Technology, Cost Effective Construction Techniques, Limit state performance state approach Elastic and Elasto-plastic behavior and Reduction of Corrosion in concrete using Chemical admixtures. Paper relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  16. Petroleum Sector (NAICS 324)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Find relevant environmental regulations for the petroleum industry (NAICS 324), including National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP)s for petroleum refineries and gasoline dispensing & effluent guidelines for oil and gas extraction

  17. The petroleum industry in 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This 2004 edition of the petroleum industry activities presents results and data concerning the crude oil prices evolution, the petroleum exploration and production in france and in the world, the para-petroleum industry, the hydrocarbons supplies, the refining, the quality evolution of the substitution products and fuels, the internal transports of petroleum products, the petroleum products storage, the petroleum products consumption, the petroleum products prices and taxation, the petroleum products distribution. (A.L.B.)

  18. The world petroleum industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mons, L.

    2005-01-01

    This study proposes a global vision of the petroleum industry, a precise and well argued state of the art of the petroleum markets. It defines the strategical challenges which the petroleum companies are exposed and allows to anticipate the sector evolutions. It details the key acts of the last three years, the financial performances of the companies. (A.L.B.)

  19. Database 'catalogue of techniques applied to materials and products of nuclear engineering'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebedeva, E.E.; Golovanov, V.N.; Podkopayeva, I.A.; Temnoyeva, T.A.

    2002-01-01

    The database 'Catalogue of techniques applied to materials and products of nuclear engineering' (IS MERI) was developed to provide informational support for SSC RF RIAR and other enterprises in scientific investigations. This database contains information on the techniques used at RF Minatom enterprises for reactor material properties investigation. The main purpose of this system consists in the assessment of the current status of the reactor material science experimental base for the further planning of experimental activities and methodical support improvement. (author)

  20. Source identification of underground fuel spills in a petroleum refinery using fingerprinting techniques and chemo-metric analysis. A Case Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanellopoulou, G.; Gidarakos, E.; Pasadakis, N.

    2005-01-01

    Crude oil and its refining products are the most frequent contaminants, found in the environment due to spills. The aim of this work was the identification of spill source(s) in the subsurface of a petroleum refinery. Free phase samples were analyzed with gas chromatography and the analytical results were interpreted using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) method. The chemical analysis of groundwater samples from the refinery subsurface was also employed to obtain a comprehensive picture of the spill distribution and origin. (authors)

  1. PETROLEUM BIOREFINING FOR POLLUTION PREVENTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John J. Kilbane II

    2002-03-01

    The objective of this project was to isolate and characterize thermophilic bacterial cultures that can be used for the selective removal of nitrogen, sulfur, and/or metals in the biorefining of petroleum. The project was completed on schedule and no major difficulties were encountered. Significant progress was made on multiple topics relevant to the development of a petroleum biorefining process capable of operating at thermophilic temperatures. New cultures capable of selectively cleaving C-N or C-S bonds in molecules relevant to petroleum were obtained, and the genes encoding the enzymes for these unique biochemical reactions were cloned and sequenced. Genetic tools were developed that enable the use of Thermus thermophilus as a host to express any gene of interest, and information was obtained regarding the optimum conditions for the growth of T. thermophilus. The development of a practical biorefining process still requires further research and the future research needs identified in this project include the development of new enzymes and pathways for the selective cleavage of C-N or C-S bonds that have higher specific activities, increased substrate range, and are capable of functioning at thermophilic temperatures. Additionally, there is a need for process engineering research to determine the maximum yield of biomass and cloned gene products that can be obtained in fed-batch cultures using T. thermophilus, and to determine the best configuration for a process employing biocatalysts to treat petroleum.

  2. The development of quality management techniques in civil engineering design and site supervision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowan, A.J.

    1991-01-01

    Quality assurance techniques have developed considerably over the past few years, and in particular the application of Quality Management within a service industry such as civil engineering has evolved into a well developed management control system. James Williamson and Partners were the first members of the Association of Consulting Engineers successfully to achieve third party accreditation with BSI for civil and structural design. The initial system was generated for work on Torness Power Station in the early 1980s, and the firm has, in the last ten years, developed a flexible quality system to effectively control and co-ordinate complex projects. This paper discusses the use of quality assurance (QA) techniques in a civil engineering design office, looking at a few areas where the requirements of BS 5750 and BS 5882 are difficult to interpret. Some observations are also made on the adoption of QA for site supervision. (author)

  3. A Hybrid Neural Network-Genetic Algorithm Technique for Aircraft Engine Performance Diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Takahisa; Simon, Donald L.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, a model-based diagnostic method, which utilizes Neural Networks and Genetic Algorithms, is investigated. Neural networks are applied to estimate the engine internal health, and Genetic Algorithms are applied for sensor bias detection and estimation. This hybrid approach takes advantage of the nonlinear estimation capability provided by neural networks while improving the robustness to measurement uncertainty through the application of Genetic Algorithms. The hybrid diagnostic technique also has the ability to rank multiple potential solutions for a given set of anomalous sensor measurements in order to reduce false alarms and missed detections. The performance of the hybrid diagnostic technique is evaluated through some case studies derived from a turbofan engine simulation. The results show this approach is promising for reliable diagnostics of aircraft engines.

  4. Cognitive Mapping Techniques: Implications for Research in Engineering and Technology Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Raymond A.; Lammi, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    The primary goal of this paper is to present the theoretical basis and application of two types of cognitive maps, concept map and mind map, and explain how they can be used by educational researchers in engineering design research. Cognitive mapping techniques can be useful to researchers as they study students' problem solving strategies…

  5. Ultrasound Imaging Techniques for Spatiotemporal Characterization of Composition, Microstructure, and Mechanical Properties in Tissue Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Cheri X; Hong, Xiaowei; Stegemann, Jan P

    2016-08-01

    Ultrasound techniques are increasingly being used to quantitatively characterize both native and engineered tissues. This review provides an overview and selected examples of the main techniques used in these applications. Grayscale imaging has been used to characterize extracellular matrix deposition, and quantitative ultrasound imaging based on the integrated backscatter coefficient has been applied to estimating cell concentrations and matrix morphology in tissue engineering. Spectral analysis has been employed to characterize the concentration and spatial distribution of mineral particles in a construct, as well as to monitor mineral deposition by cells over time. Ultrasound techniques have also been used to measure the mechanical properties of native and engineered tissues. Conventional ultrasound elasticity imaging and acoustic radiation force imaging have been applied to detect regions of altered stiffness within tissues. Sonorheometry and monitoring of steady-state excitation and recovery have been used to characterize viscoelastic properties of tissue using a single transducer to both deform and image the sample. Dual-mode ultrasound elastography uses separate ultrasound transducers to produce a more potent deformation force to microscale characterization of viscoelasticity of hydrogel constructs. These ultrasound-based techniques have high potential to impact the field of tissue engineering as they are further developed and their range of applications expands.

  6. A New Project-Based Curriculum of Design Thinking with Systems Engineering Techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haruyama, S.; Kim, S.K.; Beiter, K.A.; Dijkema, G.P.J.; De Weck, O.L.

    2012-01-01

    We developed a new education curriculum called "ALPS" (Active Learning Project Sequence) at Keio University that emphasizes team project-based learning and design thinking with systems engineering techniques. ALPS is a 6 month course, in which students work as a team and design and propose

  7. Development and application of laser techniques for studying fuel dynamics and NO formation in engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Oeivind

    2000-11-01

    In this work a number of laser techniques have been applied in new ways for combustion diagnostics in engines. The applications cover small two-stroke engines, ordinary spark ignition (SI) engines, direct-injection spark ignition (DISI) engines, and heavy-duty diesel truck engines. In an investigation of unmodified two-stroke engines running at high engine speed, it has been shown that cycle-resolved laser diagnostics are applicable to real-world engines. The emission of unburned fuel was detected at the exhaust port with successful discrimination against other unburned hydrocarbons. Although a few problems remain to be solved in order to get quantitative concentration data, valuable information can nonetheless be attained using this technique. The technique would benefit from the use of a non-fluorescing lubricant, as that would decrease the background fluorescence. Laser-based techniques also provide a useful tool for studying the fuel dynamics inside the cylinder. In the development of DISI engines it is of particular importance to acquire knowledge about the distribution of fuel around the spark plug. Numerical computer codes are often used as design tools in these applications. Laser techniques are capable of yielding instantaneous multi-point concentration information with high spatial and temporal resolution, making them ideal both for validation of CFD simulations and for testing designs. The feasibility of using laser diagnostics in the development of DISI engines has been shown. Future research should be aimed at simplifying the procedure for quantifying the data, since a fairly simple and reliable technique would be an important asset for the industry. In a more fundamental study, it has been shown that it is possible to simultaneously detect a substance in both liquid and vapour phase. Water was used in the study since it is easily produced in both phases. Liquid drops were detected using spontaneous Raman scattering, whereas the vapour surrounding them

  8. Development and application of laser techniques for studying fuel dynamics and NO formation in engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Oeivind

    2000-11-01

    In this work a number of laser techniques have been applied in new ways for combustion diagnostics in engines. The applications cover small two-stroke engines, ordinary spark ignition (SI) engines, direct-injection spark ignition (DISI) engines, and heavy-duty diesel truck engines. In an investigation of unmodified two-stroke engines running at high engine speed, it has been shown that cycle-resolved laser diagnostics are applicable to real-world engines. The emission of unburned fuel was detected at the exhaust port with successful discrimination against other unburned hydrocarbons. Although a few problems remain to be solved in order to get quantitative concentration data, valuable information can nonetheless be attained using this technique. The technique would benefit from the use of a non-fluorescing lubricant, as that would decrease the background fluorescence. Laser-based techniques also provide a useful tool for studying the fuel dynamics inside the cylinder. In the development of DISI engines it is of particular importance to acquire knowledge about the distribution of fuel around the spark plug. Numerical computer codes are often used as design tools in these applications. Laser techniques are capable of yielding instantaneous multi-point concentration information with high spatial and temporal resolution, making them ideal both for validation of CFD simulations and for testing designs. The feasibility of using laser diagnostics in the development of DISI engines has been shown. Future research should be aimed at simplifying the procedure for quantifying the data, since a fairly simple and reliable technique would be an important asset for the industry. In a more fundamental study, it has been shown that it is possible to simultaneously detect a substance in both liquid and vapour phase. Water was used in the study since it is easily produced in both phases. Liquid drops were detected using spontaneous Raman scattering, whereas the vapour surrounding them

  9. Treatment of petroleum hydrocarbon polluted environment through bioremediation: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kriti; Chandra, Subhash

    2014-01-01

    Bioremediation play key role in the treatment of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated environment. Exposure of petroleum hydrocarbon into the environment occurs either due to human activities or accidentally and cause environmental pollution. Petroleum hydrocarbon cause many toxic compounds which are potent immunotoxicants and carcinogenic to human being. Remedial methods for the treatment of petroleum contaminated environment include various physiochemical and biological methods. Due to the negative consequences caused by the physiochemical methods, the bioremediation technology is widely adapted and considered as one of the best technology for the treatment of petroleum contaminated environment. Bioremediation utilizes the natural ability of microorganism to degrade the hazardous compound into simpler and non hazardous form. This paper provides a review on the role of bioremediation in the treatment of petroleum contaminated environment, discuss various hazardous effects of petroleum hydrocarbon, various factors influencing biodegradation, role of various enzymes in biodegradation and genetic engineering in bioremediation.

  10. Recent Advances in Petroleum Microbiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hamme, Jonathan D.; Singh, Ajay; Ward, Owen P.

    2003-01-01

    Recent advances in molecular biology have extended our understanding of the metabolic processes related to microbial transformation of petroleum hydrocarbons. The physiological responses of microorganisms to the presence of hydrocarbons, including cell surface alterations and adaptive mechanisms for uptake and efflux of these substrates, have been characterized. New molecular techniques have enhanced our ability to investigate the dynamics of microbial communities in petroleum-impacted ecosystems. By establishing conditions which maximize rates and extents of microbial growth, hydrocarbon access, and transformation, highly accelerated and bioreactor-based petroleum waste degradation processes have been implemented. Biofilters capable of removing and biodegrading volatile petroleum contaminants in air streams with short substrate-microbe contact times (desulfurization processes with biodesulfurization methods through promotion of selective sulfur removal without degradation of associated carbon moieties. However, since microbes require an environment containing some water, a two-phase oil-water system must be established to optimize contact between the microbes and the hydrocarbon, and such an emulsion is not easily created with viscous crude oil. This challenge may be circumvented by application of the technology to more refined gasoline and diesel substrates, where aqueous-hydrocarbon emulsions are more easily generated. Molecular approaches are being used to broaden the substrate specificity and increase the rates and extents of desulfurization. Bacterial processes are being commercialized for removal of H2S and sulfoxides from petrochemical waste streams. Microbes also have potential for use in removal of nitrogen from crude oil leading to reduced nitric oxide emissions provided that technical problems similar to those experienced in biodesulfurization can be solved. Enzymes are being exploited to produce added-value products from petroleum substrates, and

  11. Petroleum marketing monthly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data.

  12. Petroleum fiscality indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-02-01

    This document presents the different taxes imposed to petroleum products in France: domestic tax on petroleum products (TIPP) and added value tax (TVA). A comparison is made with the fiscality into effect in other European countries for some petroleum products. Then, the fiscality is detailed for the different petroleum products and automotive fuels with its regional modulations. Finally, the fiscal measures adopted in 2007 are detailed. They concern the transposition of the European directive 2003-96/CE into French right and some fiscal regime changes given to some economical sectors particularly penalized by the rise of petroleum energy prices in 2007. (J.S.)

  13. Petroleum industry 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    A survey on petroleum industry activities in France and in the world in 1996 is presented. The different parts and themes of the study are: evolution of the petroleum market (international and French markets, supply and demand, prices, mark-up and taxation in France and in Europe); activities in the petroleum industries (exploration and production, maritime transportation, inland transportation and storage, refining, quality of petroleum products and substitution fuels, oil distribution); environment and safety (refining, distribution and evolution of products, pipeline and maritime transportation, exploration and production); situation of the sector's companies (oil groups, para-petroleum French industry, scientific and technical research)

  14. Identification of the Scale of Changes in Personnel Motivation Techniques at Mechanical-Engineering Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melnyk Olga G.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The method for identification of the scale of changes in personnel motivation techniques at mechanical-engineering enterprises based on structural and logical sequence of implementation of relevant stages (identification of the mission, strategy and objectives of the enterprise; forecasting the development of the enterprise business environment; SWOT-analysis of actual motivation techniques, deciding on the scale of changes in motivation techniques, choosing providers for changing personnel motivation techniques, choosing an alternative to changing motivation techniques, implementation of changes in motivation techniques; control over changes in motivation techniques. It has been substantiated that the improved method enables providing a systematic and analytical justification for management decisionmaking in this field and choosing the best for the mechanical-engineering enterprise scale and variant of changes in motivation techniques. The method for identification of the scale of changes in motivation techniques at mechanical-engineering enterprises takes into account the previous, current and prospective character. Firstly, the approach is based on considering the past state in the motivational sphere of the mechanical-engineering enterprise; secondly, the method involves identifying the current state of personnel motivation techniques; thirdly, within the method framework the prospective, which is manifested in strategic vision of the enterprise development as well as in forecasting the development of its business environment, is taken into account. The advantage of the proposed method is that the level of its specification may vary depending on the set goals, resource constraints and necessity. Among other things, this method allows integrating various formalized and non-formalized causal relationships in the sphere of personnel motivation at machine-building enterprises and management of relevant processes. This creates preconditions for a

  15. Petroleum Supply Monthly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major U.S. geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  16. Petroleum supply monthly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blends, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.

  17. Petroleum marketing annual 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-24

    The Petroleum Marketing Annual (PMA) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysis, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the fob and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Annual. For this production, all estimates have been recalculated since their earlier publication in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM). These calculations made use of additional data and corrections that were received after the PMM publication date.

  18. Petroleum marketing annual 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Annual (PMA) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysis, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the fob and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners' acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Annual. For this production, all estimates have been recalculated since their earlier publication in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM). These calculations made use of additional data and corrections that were received after the PMM publication date

  19. Determination of wear metals in engine oil by PIXE and RBS technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alkofahi, M M [Physics Dept., Yarmouk university, Irbid, (Jordan)

    1995-10-01

    The constituents of fresh and used engine oil were determined by PIXE and RBS techniques using 2 MeV He{sup ++} ion beams. The concentration of generated wear metals in used engine oil was measured as a function of running kilometers. The fresh oil was found to contain the elements: Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, and Fe. In addition to theses elements, Pb and Br were found in the used oil. Changes in the concentrations of S, Zn and Br were noticed as the running kilometers increased. 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Positron emission tomography - a new technique for observing fluid behaviour in engineering systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, P.A.E.; Rogers, J.D.; Skelton, R.T.

    1988-01-01

    Positron emission tomography promises to become a powerful new technique for flow tracing and measurement within metal structures in general and operating engines in particular. The principles involved are outlined, and a mobile positron camera system being developed jointly by Rolls-Royce, Castrol, the University of Birmingham and the Rutherford-Appleton Laboratory of the SERC is described. Finally, illustrative examples of the camera's capability are presented drawn from its use to study lubricating fluid flow in the bearings of a Viper gas turbine engine on test up to 100% full power. (author)

  1. The petroleum industry in 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This document provides information on the petroleum industry for the year 2005. It discusses the world gas and petroleum markets, the world and french petroleum exploration and production, the petroleum and byproducts industry in France, the hydrocarbons supplying, the refining in France, the evolution of the products and fuels substitution quality, the internal transports of petroleum products, the storage consumption and taxes of petroleum products, the prices and distribution of the petroleum products. (A.L.B.)

  2. Introduction to digital instrumentation and control techniques used in nuclear engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurilla, R.G.; Kenney, E.S.

    1988-01-01

    For the past 8 yr, the nuclear engineering department at Pennsylvania State University has been teaching a digital interfacing class at the undergraduate (senior) level. With the ever-increasing use of computers in the nuclear engineering area (such as in the use of automated data acquisition systems) and the complexity of control instrumentation, more than a cursory introduction into electronics and computer controls is needed. Because of the ever-increasing popularity, and hence importance, of IBM-PC compatible microcomputers in the engineering fields, the program has been adapted to the Intel 8086 microprocessor. Courses such as this one are helpful in ensuring the students have an adequate design and practice base as required by accrediting groups. The course, is composed of three parts: (1) machine code/assembly language, (2) interfacing, and (3) final project. Experience demonstrates that a course of this inherent complexity can successfully be taught within a nuclear engineering curriculum without extensive prerequisites. The important ingredient is to treat nuclear engineering students for exactly what they are, engineers. By having them use their creativity and adaptability, they can successfully integrate the digital interfacing techniques now routinely used in the nuclear industry

  3. A novel technique for presurgical nasoalveolar molding using computer-aided reverse engineering and rapid prototyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Quan; Gong, Xin; Wang, Guo-Min; Yu, Zhe-Yuan; Qian, Yu-Fen; Shen, Gang

    2011-01-01

    To establish a new method of presurgical nasoalveolar molding (NAM) using computer-aided reverse engineering and rapid prototyping technique in infants with unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP). Five infants (2 males and 3 females with mean age of 1.2 w) with complete UCLP were recruited. All patients were subjected to NAM before the cleft lip repair. The upper denture casts were recorded using a three-dimensional laser scanner within 2 weeks after birth in UCLP infants. A digital model was constructed and analyzed to simulate the NAM procedure with reverse engineering software. The digital geometrical data were exported to print the solid model with rapid prototyping system. The whole set of appliances was fabricated based on these solid models. Laser scanning and digital model construction simplified the NAM procedure and estimated the treatment objective. The appliances were fabricated based on the rapid prototyping technique, and for each patient, the complete set of appliances could be obtained at one time. By the end of presurgical NAM treatment, the cleft was narrowed, and the malformation of nasoalveolar segments was aligned normally. We have developed a novel technique of presurgical NAM based on a computer-aided design. The accurate digital denture model of UCLP infants could be obtained with laser scanning. The treatment design and appliance fabrication could be simplified with a computer-aided reverse engineering and rapid prototyping technique.

  4. The petroleum industry in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-06-01

    A review is presented of China's petroleum industry. In recent years China has ranked as the world's fifth or sixth largest oil producer, providing ca 20% of China's energy needs and generating US $45 billion in exports during 1988-89. However, domestic oil consumption is rapidly outpacing growth in production, and China may become a net oil importer as early as March 1994 if trends continue. In order to slow declining production rates, China must: introduce modern management techniques, equipment and technology; accelerate exploration to find new reserves; employ the latest equipment and technology, consulting services and foreign training to develop new reserves as quickly as possible; and improve the efficiency with which petroleum is used and traded. Key players including the China National Petroleum Corporation, China National Oil Development Corporation, China National United Oil Company, and China National Offshore Oil Corporation are described. Current Chinese petroleum industry priorities are discussed, together with Canadian capabilities relevant to these activities, and recent bilateral agreements in the sector

  5. Optical Measurement Techniques for Rocket Engine Testing and Component Applications: Digital Image Correlation and Dynamic Photogrammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gradl, Paul

    2016-01-01

    NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has been advancing dynamic optical measurement systems, primarily Digital Image Correlation, for extreme environment rocket engine test applications. The Digital Image Correlation (DIC) technology is used to track local and full field deformations, displacement vectors and local and global strain measurements. This technology has been evaluated at MSFC through lab testing to full scale hotfire engine testing of the J-2X Upper Stage engine at Stennis Space Center. It has been shown to provide reliable measurement data and has replaced many traditional measurement techniques for NASA applications. NASA and AMRDEC have recently signed agreements for NASA to train and transition the technology to applications for missile and helicopter testing. This presentation will provide an overview and progression of the technology, various testing applications at NASA MSFC, overview of Army-NASA test collaborations and application lessons learned about Digital Image Correlation.

  6. Practical Applications of Evolutionary Computation to Financial Engineering Robust Techniques for Forecasting, Trading and Hedging

    CERN Document Server

    Iba, Hitoshi

    2012-01-01

    “Practical Applications of Evolutionary Computation to Financial Engineering” presents the state of the art techniques in Financial Engineering using recent results in Machine Learning and Evolutionary Computation. This book bridges the gap between academics in computer science and traders and explains the basic ideas of the proposed systems and the financial problems in ways that can be understood by readers without previous knowledge on either of the fields. To cement the ideas discussed in the book, software packages are offered that implement the systems described within. The book is structured so that each chapter can be read independently from the others. Chapters 1 and 2 describe evolutionary computation. The third chapter is an introduction to financial engineering problems for readers who are unfamiliar with this area. The following chapters each deal, in turn, with a different problem in the financial engineering field describing each problem in detail and focusing on solutions based on evolutio...

  7. Petroleum marketing monthly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly.

  8. Petroleum marketing monthly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PPM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o. b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly.

  9. Petroleum marketing monthly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly.

  10. Software engineering techniques applied to agricultural systems an object-oriented and UML approach

    CERN Document Server

    Papajorgji, Petraq J

    2014-01-01

    Software Engineering Techniques Applied to Agricultural Systems presents cutting-edge software engineering techniques for designing and implementing better agricultural software systems based on the object-oriented paradigm and the Unified Modeling Language (UML). The focus is on the presentation of  rigorous step-by-step approaches for modeling flexible agricultural and environmental systems, starting with a conceptual diagram representing elements of the system and their relationships. Furthermore, diagrams such as sequential and collaboration diagrams are used to explain the dynamic and static aspects of the software system.    This second edition includes: a new chapter on Object Constraint Language (OCL), a new section dedicated to the Model-VIEW-Controller (MVC) design pattern, new chapters presenting details of two MDA-based tools – the Virtual Enterprise and Olivia Nova, and a new chapter with exercises on conceptual modeling.  It may be highly useful to undergraduate and graduate students as t...

  11. Do plants modulate biomass allocation in response to petroleum pollution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Ming; Yang, Qiang; Jiang, Li-Fen; Fang, Chang-Ming; Chen, Jia-Kuan; Li, Bo

    2010-01-01

    Biomass allocation is an important plant trait that responds plastically to environmental heterogeneities. However, the effects on this trait of pollutants owing to human activities remain largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the response of biomass allocation of Phragmites australis to petroleum pollution by a 13CO2 pulse-labelling technique. Our data show that plant biomass significantly decreased under petroleum pollution, but the root–shoot ratio for both plant biomass and 13C increased with increasing petroleum concentration, suggesting that plants could increase biomass allocation to roots in petroleum-polluted soil. Furthermore, assimilated 13C was found to be significantly higher in soil, microbial biomass and soil respiration after soils were polluted by petroleum. These results suggested that the carbon released from roots is rapidly turned over by soil microbes under petroleum pollution. This study found that plants can modulate biomass allocation in response to petroleum pollution. PMID:20484231

  12. Petroleum industry in CIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaillaud, P.

    1992-01-01

    This paper gives statistical data on petroleum and natural gas industry in USSR and in Eastern Europe: crude oil and gas production, petroleum and natural gas deposits, exports, fuel consumption, pipelines network (total length, compressor or pump stations), petroleum refineries. This paper describes also air pollution (carbon dioxide and sulfur dioxide) and Environmental effects of coal and lignite using in fossil power plants in Eastern Europe. 17 figs., 7 tabs

  13. Petroleum and ethics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henn, N.; Train, E.; Chagnoux, H.; Heinzle, P.; Daubresse, M.; Bret-Rouzaut, N.; Fradin, J.

    2000-01-01

    7 articles in this data sheet, they concern: political stakes and stakes of the industrial petroleum sector towards ethical questions; establishment of associations attending to human and environmental questions; examples of of ethical, environmental and safety policy in an industrialized country (ExxonMobil) and in a developing country (TotalFina); synthesis of the ethical problems that the petroleum industry encounter in industrialized and developing countries; considerations on the communication stakes in petroleum companies with the general public. (O.M.)

  14. Canadian petroleum history bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cass, D.

    2003-09-27

    The Petroleum History Bibliography includes a list of more than 2,000 publications that record the history of the Canadian petroleum industry. The list includes books, theses, films, audio tapes, published articles, company histories, biographies, autobiographies, fiction, poetry, humour, and an author index. It was created over a period of several years to help with projects at the Petroleum History Society. It is an ongoing piece of work, and as such, invites comments and additions.

  15. Vibro-acoustic condition monitoring of Internal Combustion Engines: A critical review of existing techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delvecchio, S.; Bonfiglio, P.; Pompoli, F.

    2018-01-01

    This paper deals with the state-of-the-art strategies and techniques based on vibro-acoustic signals that can monitor and diagnose malfunctions in Internal Combustion Engines (ICEs) under both test bench and vehicle operating conditions. Over recent years, several authors have summarized what is known in critical reviews mainly focused on reciprocating machines in general or on specific signal processing techniques: no attempts to deal with IC engine condition monitoring have been made. This paper first gives a brief summary of the generation of sound and vibration in ICEs in order to place further discussion on fault vibro-acoustic diagnosis in context. An overview of the monitoring and diagnostic techniques described in literature using both vibration and acoustic signals is also provided. Different faulty conditions are described which affect combustion, mechanics and the aerodynamics of ICEs. The importance of measuring acoustic signals, as opposed to vibration signals, is due since the former seem to be more suitable for implementation on on-board monitoring systems in view of their non-intrusive behaviour, capability in simultaneously capturing signatures from several mechanical components and because of the possibility of detecting faults affecting airborne transmission paths. In view of the recent needs of the industry to (-) optimize component structural durability adopting long-life cycles, (-) verify the engine final status at the end of the assembly line and (-) reduce the maintenance costs monitoring the ICE life during vehicle operations, monitoring and diagnosing system requests are continuously growing up. The present review can be considered a useful guideline for test engineers in understanding which types of fault can be diagnosed by using vibro-acoustic signals in sufficient time in both test bench and operating conditions and which transducer and signal processing technique (of which the essential background theory is here reported) could be

  16. Petroleum and geopolitics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaigneau, P.

    2004-01-01

    Todays, petroleum companies consider that despite the constant increase of petroleum consumption, petroleum will remain the main energy source for at least 40 years. However, after the Iraq conflict, new regional situations are changing. China, for instance, with its growing up demand, will change the physiognomy of the oil market. In parallel, from Indonesia to Africa, petroleum and religion interfere and explain the new conflict areas. As for the US strategy, which is not limited to the energy paradigm, it largely integrates energy in the main lines of its diplomacy, from the 'Wide Middle East' to the 'Sahel initiative', and in its position with respect to Venezuela

  17. Digital Image Correlation Techniques Applied to Large Scale Rocket Engine Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gradl, Paul R.

    2016-01-01

    Rocket engine hot-fire ground testing is necessary to understand component performance, reliability and engine system interactions during development. The J-2X upper stage engine completed a series of developmental hot-fire tests that derived performance of the engine and components, validated analytical models and provided the necessary data to identify where design changes, process improvements and technology development were needed. The J-2X development engines were heavily instrumented to provide the data necessary to support these activities which enabled the team to investigate any anomalies experienced during the test program. This paper describes the development of an optical digital image correlation technique to augment the data provided by traditional strain gauges which are prone to debonding at elevated temperatures and limited to localized measurements. The feasibility of this optical measurement system was demonstrated during full scale hot-fire testing of J-2X, during which a digital image correlation system, incorporating a pair of high speed cameras to measure three-dimensional, real-time displacements and strains was installed and operated under the extreme environments present on the test stand. The camera and facility setup, pre-test calibrations, data collection, hot-fire test data collection and post-test analysis and results are presented in this paper.

  18. Application of integrated logistic techniques to operation, maintenance and re engineering processes in Nuclear Power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santiago Diez, P.

    1997-01-01

    This paper addresses the advisability of adapting and applying management and Integrated Logistic engineering techniques to nuclear power plants instead of using more traditional maintenance management methods. It establishes a historical framework showing the origins of integrated approaches based on traditional logistic support concepts, their phases and the real results obtained in the aeronautic world where they originated. It reviews the application of integrated management philosophy, and logistic support and engineering analysis techniques regarding Availability, Reliability and Maintainability (ARM) and shows their inter dependencies in different phases of the system's life (Design, Development and Operation). It describes how these techniques are applied to nuclear power plant operation, their impact on plant availability and the optimisation of maintenance and replacement plans. The paper analyses the need for data (type and volume), which will have to be collected, and the different tools to manage such data. It examines the different CALS tools developed by EA for engineering and for logistic management. It also explains the possibility of using these tools for process and data operations through the INTERNET. It also focuses on the qualities of some simple examples of possible applications, and how they would be used in the framework of Integrated Logistic Support (ILS). (Author)

  19. Knee Ligament Injury and the Clinical Application of Tissue Engineering Techniques: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Thomas C; Mafi, Reza; Mafi, Pouya; Khan, Wasim S

    2018-02-23

    The incidence of knee ligament injury is increasing and represents a significant cost to healthcare providers. Current interventions include tissue grafts, suture repair and non-surgical management. These techniques have demonstrated good patient outcomes but have been associated graft rejection, infection, long term immobilization and reduced joint function. The limitations of traditional management strategies have prompted research into tissue engineering of knee ligaments. This paper aims to evaluate whether tissue engineering of knee ligaments offers a viable alternative in the clinical management of knee ligament injuries. A search of existing literature was performed using OVID Medline, Embase, AMED, PubMed and Google Scholar, and a manual review of citations identified within these papers. Silk, polymer and extracellular matrix based scaffolds can all improve graft healing and collagen production. Fibroblasts and stem cells demonstrate compatibility with scaffolds, and have been shown to increase organized collagen production. These effects can be augmented using growth factors and extracellular matrix derivatives. Animal studies have shown tissue engineered ligaments can provide the biomechanical characteristics required for effective treatment of knee ligament injuries. There is a growing clinical demand for a tissue engineered alternative to traditional management strategies. Currently, there is limited consensus regarding material selection for use in tissue engineered ligaments. Further research is required to optimize tissue engineered ligament production before clinical application. Controlled clinical trials comparing the use of tissue engineered ligaments and traditional management in patients with knee ligament injury could determine whether they can provide a cost-effective alternative. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  20. Document imaging finding niche in petroleum industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cisco, S.L.

    1992-01-01

    Optical disk-based document imaging systems can reduce operating costs, save office space, and improve access to necessary information for petroleum companies that have extensive records in various formats. These imaging systems help solve document management problems to improve technical and administrative operations. Enron Gas Pipeline Group has installed a document imaging system for engineering applications to integrate records stored on paper, microfilm, or computer-aided drafting (CAD) systems. BP Exploration Inc. recently implemented a document imaging system for administrative applications. The company is evaluating an expansion of the system to include engineering and technical applications. The petroleum industry creates, acquires, distributes, and retrieves enormous amounts of data and information, which are stored on multiple media, including paper, microfilm, and electronic formats. There are two main factors responsible for the immense information storage requirements in the petroleum industry

  1. 20 Engineering Technologies Which Changed The World

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, In Sik; Shin, Dong Won; Mun, Jung Yang and others

    2004-07-01

    This book deals with 20 engineering technologies which changed the world, these are about a, compass, papermaking, a lens, gunpowder, machine watch, printing technique, vaccine, a suspension bridge, a railroad, a loom, photograph, petroleum, automobile, electricity, wireless communications, synthetic medicine, a jet engine and a rocket, nuclear bombs, ENIAC, and polymerase chain reaction method. Each skill is introduced with history and the detailed reports by other persons.

  2. Shell petroleum handbook. [Glossary included

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-01-01

    The present edition has been completely updated and revised, reflecting the very great changes which have come about in the oil industry over the last 18 years, since the last edition appeared. The expressed aim of the Handbook is to combine explanations of the processes of today's petroleum industry, from crude oil exploration to product end-use, with some historical background and explanation of the economic context in which the oil, gas and petrochemical industries operate. It is therefore intended as a technical reference manual, although it will be of interest both to specialists in search of information outside their expertise and to the more general reader. Chapter 3, entitled Exploration and Production, is concerned with structural geology, exploration methods and theory, and reservoir engineering, although the economic and financial aspects of drilling, project management and communication logistics are also considered. Other chapters are devoted to the distribution, consumption and end use of natural gas and NGL, the chemistry of petroleum, the manufacture of oil products, marketing, supply and trading, petrochemicals, synfuels, R and D, environmental conservation, and introduction to the world petroleum industry, and a review of oil and gas in the centrally planned economies, although only the Soviet Union is considered in any detail.

  3. Financing petroleum agreements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robson, C.J.V.

    1994-01-01

    This chapter describes the typical type of financing agreements which are currently used to finance North Sea petroleum projects whether they are in the cause of development or have been developed and are producing. It deals with the agreements which are entered into to finance borrowings for petroleum projects on a non-resource or limited resource basis. (UK)

  4. Fundamentals of Petroleum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Naval Personnel, Washington, DC.

    Basic information on petroleum is presented in this book prepared for naval logistics officers. Petroleum in national defense is discussed in connection with consumption statistics, productive capacity, world's resources, and steps in logistics. Chemical and geological analyses are made in efforts to familiarize methods of refining, measuring,…

  5. Petroleum systems of Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doust, H.; Noble, R.A.

    2008-01-01

    Indonesia contains many Tertiary basins, several of which have proven to be very prolific producers of oil and gas. The geology and petroleum systems of these productive basins are reviewed, summarized and updated according to the most recent developments. We have linked the recognized petroleum

  6. Petroleum and international policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pertuzio, A.

    2002-01-01

    To illustrate the relation between the petroleum and the international policy, the author presents the place of the petroleum industry in the international relations by an analysis of the historical aspects, the states and international organizations interventions and the prices evolution. (A.L.B.)

  7. Corrosion in systems for storage and transportation of petroleum products and biofuels identification, monitoring and solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Groysman, Alec

    2014-01-01

    This book treats corrosion as it occurs and affects processes in real-world situations, and thus points the way to practical solutions. Topics described include the conditions in which petroleum products are corrosive to metals; corrosion mechanisms of petroleum products; which parts of storage tanks containing crude oils and petroleum products undergo corrosion; dependence of corrosion in tanks on type of petroleum products; aggressiveness of petroleum products to polymeric material; how microorganisms take part in corrosion of tanks and pipes containing petroleum products; which corrosion monitoring methods are used in systems for storage and transportation of petroleum products; what corrosion control measures should be chosen; how to choose coatings for inner and outer surfaces of tanks containing petroleum products; and how different additives (oxygenates, aromatic solvents) to petroleum products and biofuels influence metallic and polymeric materials. The book is of interest to corrosion engineers, mat...

  8. Petroleum supply monthly, April 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-01

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographical regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the US. The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the US.

  9. A DIC Based Technique to Measure the Contraction of a Skeletal Muscle Engineered Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuele Rizzuto

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tissue engineering is a multidisciplinary science based on the application of engineering approaches to biologic tissue formation. Engineered tissue internal organization represents a key aspect to increase biofunctionality before transplant and, as regarding skeletal muscles, the potential of generating contractile forces is dependent on the internal fiber organization and is reflected by some macroscopic parameters, such as the spontaneous contraction. Here we propose the application of digital image correlation (DIC as an independent tool for an accurate and noninvasive measurement of engineered muscle tissue spontaneous contraction. To validate the proposed technique we referred to the X-MET, a promising 3-dimensional model of skeletal muscle. The images acquired through a high speed camera were correlated with a custom-made algorithm and the longitudinal strain predictions were employed for measuring the spontaneous contraction. The spontaneous contraction reference values were obtained by studying the force response. The relative error between the spontaneous contraction frequencies computed in both ways was always lower than 0.15%. In conclusion, the use of a DIC based system allows for an accurate and noninvasive measurement of biological tissues’ spontaneous contraction, in addition to the measurement of tissue strain field on any desired region of interest during electrical stimulation.

  10. Fabrication of Nanohydroxyapatite/Poly(caprolactone Composite Microfibers Using Electrospinning Technique for Tissue Engineering Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Izzat Hassan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tissue engineering fibrous scaffolds serve as three-dimensional (3D environmental framework by mimicking the extracellular matrix (ECM for cells to grow. Biodegradable polycaprolactone (PCL microfibers were fabricated to mimic the ECM as a scaffold with 7.5% (w/v and 12.5% (w/v concentrations. Lower PCL concentration of 7.5% (w/v resulted in microfibers with bead defects. The average diameter of fibers increased at higher voltage and the distance of tip to collector. Further investigation was performed by the incorporation of nanosized hydroxyapatite (nHA into microfibers. The incorporation of 10% (w/w nHA with 7.5% (w/v PCL solution produced submicron sized beadless fibers. The microfibrous scaffolds were evaluated using various techniques. Biodegradable PCL and nHA/PCL could be promising for tissue engineering scaffold application.

  11. Computation techniques and computer programs to analyze Stirling cycle engines using characteristic dynamic energy equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, V. H.

    1982-01-01

    The basic equations that are used to describe the physical phenomena in a Stirling cycle engine are the general energy equations and equations for the conservation of mass and conversion of momentum. These equations, together with the equation of state, an analytical expression for the gas velocity, and an equation for mesh temperature are used in this computer study of Stirling cycle characteristics. The partial differential equations describing the physical phenomena that occurs in a Stirling cycle engine are of the hyperbolic type. The hyperbolic equations have real characteristic lines. By utilizing appropriate points along these curved lines the partial differential equations can be reduced to ordinary differential equations. These equations are solved numerically using a fourth-fifth order Runge-Kutta integration technique.

  12. Recent Progress of Fabrication of Cell Scaffold by Electrospinning Technique for Articular Cartilage Tissue Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingge Zhou

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available As a versatile nanofiber manufacturing technique, electrospinning has been widely employed for the fabrication of tissue engineering scaffolds. Since the structure of natural extracellular matrices varies substantially in different tissues, there has been growing awareness of the fact that the hierarchical 3D structure of scaffolds may affect intercellular interactions, material transportation, fluid flow, environmental stimulation, and so forth. Physical blending of the synthetic and natural polymers to form composite materials better mimics the composition and mechanical properties of natural tissues. Scaffolds with element gradient, such as growth factor gradient, have demonstrated good potentials to promote heterogeneous cell growth and differentiation. Compared to 2D scaffolds with limited thicknesses, 3D scaffolds have superior cell differentiation and development rate. The objective of this review paper is to review and discuss the recent trends of electrospinning strategies for cartilage tissue engineering, particularly the biomimetic, gradient, and 3D scaffolds, along with future prospects of potential clinical applications.

  13. Engine Yaw Augmentation for Hybrid-Wing-Body Aircraft via Optimal Control Allocation Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Brian R.; Yoo, Seung Yeun

    2011-01-01

    Asymmetric engine thrust was implemented in a hybrid-wing-body non-linear simulation to reduce the amount of aerodynamic surface deflection required for yaw stability and control. Hybrid-wing-body aircraft are especially susceptible to yaw surface deflection due to their decreased bare airframe yaw stability resulting from the lack of a large vertical tail aft of the center of gravity. Reduced surface deflection, especially for trim during cruise flight, could reduce the fuel consumption of future aircraft. Designed as an add-on, optimal control allocation techniques were used to create a control law that tracks total thrust and yaw moment commands with an emphasis on not degrading the baseline system. Implementation of engine yaw augmentation is shown and feasibility is demonstrated in simulation with a potential drag reduction of 2 to 4 percent. Future flight tests are planned to demonstrate feasibility in a flight environment.

  14. A systematic review of applying modern software engineering techniques to developing robotic systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Pons

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Robots have become collaborators in our daily life. While robotic systems become more and more complex, the need to engineer their software development grows as well. The traditional approaches used in developing these software systems are reaching their limits; currently used methodologies and tools fall short of addressing the needs of such complex software development. Separating robotics’ knowledge from short-cycled implementation technologies is essential to foster reuse and maintenance. This paper presents a systematic review (SLR of the current use of modern software engineering techniques for developing robotic software systems and their actual automation level. The survey was aimed at summarizing existing evidence concerning applying such technologies to the field of robotic systems to identify any gaps in current research to suggest areas for further investigation and provide a background for positioning new research activities.

  15. Emerging Techniques in Stratified Designs and Continuous Gradients for Tissue Engineering of Interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dormer, Nathan H.; Berkland, Cory J.; Detamore, Michael S.

    2013-01-01

    Interfacial tissue engineering is an emerging branch of regenerative medicine, where engineers are faced with developing methods for the repair of one or many functional tissue systems simultaneously. Early and recent solutions for complex tissue formation have utilized stratified designs, where scaffold formulations are segregated into two or more layers, with discrete changes in physical or chemical properties, mimicking a corresponding number of interfacing tissue types. This method has brought forth promising results, along with a myriad of regenerative techniques. The latest designs, however, are employing “continuous gradients” in properties, where there is no discrete segregation between scaffold layers. This review compares the methods and applications of recent stratified approaches to emerging continuously graded methods. PMID:20411333

  16. Applications of nuclear techniques in agronomy as a contribution to the integral formation of agronomical engineers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Núñez Meireles, Mónica; Hernández Martínez, Asiel; Charbonet Martell, Miguel Enrique

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, nuclear research applied to agriculture and food is a reality, and is being supported by institutions like the International Atomic Energy Agency and the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization. Stable and radioactive isotopes are used in different ways in agricultural research mainly in the determination of required conditions to optimize efficiency in the use of fertilizers and water, the development of high yield agricultural and horticultural varieties, reduction of diseases due to contaminated food, and soil erosion studies among others. Accordingly to the study carried out, there is not much knowledge about nuclear phenomena applied to agronomy. Nevertheless there is a positive criterion about the introduction of these topics in Agronomical Engineers education, by mean of implementing an optional subject, aimed at explaining different spheres of action of nuclear techniques in Agriculture. Consequently, it would be possible achieving the linkage of agronomical engineers with the nuclear techniques, though respecting at the same time the professional model of this career. Moreover, it is also proposed to include laboratory practices in the curriculum of this career, using nuclear techniques and showing their proper linkage with Agronomy. (author)

  17. Joint application of non-invasive techniques to characterize the dynamic behaviuor of engineering structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallipoli, M. R.; Perrone, A.; Stabile, T. A.; Ponzo, F. C.; Ditommaso, R.

    2012-04-01

    The systematic monitoring of strategic civil infrastructures such as bridges, large dams or high-rise buildings in order to ensure their structural stability is a strategic issue particularly in earthquake-prone regions. Nevertheless, in areas less exposed to seismic hazard, the monitoring is also an important tool for civil engineers, for instance if they have to deal with structures exposed to heavy operational demands for extended periods of time and whose structural integrity might be in question or at risk. A continuous monitoring of such structures allows the identification of their fundamental response characteristics and the changes of these over time, the latter representing indicators for potential structural degradation. The aim of this paper is the estimation of fundamental dynamic parameters of some civil infrastructures by the joint application of fast executable, non-invasive techniques such as the Ambient Noise Standard Spectral Ratio, and Ground-Based microwave Radar Interferometer techniques. The joint approach combine conventional, non-conventional and innovative techniques in order to set up a non destructive evaluation procedure allowing for a multi-sensing monitoring at a multi-scale and multi-depth levels (i.e. with different degrees of spatial resolution and different subsurface depths). In particular, techniques based on ambient vibration recordings have become a popular tool for characterizing the seismic response and state-of-health of strategic civil infrastructure. The primary advantage of these approaches lies in the fact that no transient earthquake signals or even active excitation of the structure under investigation are required. The microwave interferometry radar technology, it has proven to be a powerful remote sensing tool for vibration measurement of structures, such as bridge, heritage architectural structures, vibrating stay cables, and engineering structures. The main advantage of this radar technique is the possibility to

  18. The Application of Biomedical Engineering Techniques to the Diagnosis and Management of Tropical Diseases: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatimah Ibrahim

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews a number of biomedical engineering approaches to help aid in the detection and treatment of tropical diseases such as dengue, malaria, cholera, schistosomiasis, lymphatic filariasis, ebola, leprosy, leishmaniasis, and American trypanosomiasis (Chagas. Many different forms of non-invasive approaches such as ultrasound, echocardiography and electrocardiography, bioelectrical impedance, optical detection, simplified and rapid serological tests such as lab-on-chip and micro-/nano-fluidic platforms and medical support systems such as artificial intelligence clinical support systems are discussed. The paper also reviewed the novel clinical diagnosis and management systems using artificial intelligence and bioelectrical impedance techniques for dengue clinical applications.

  19. Model-driven engineering of information systems principles, techniques, and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Cretu, Liviu Gabriel

    2015-01-01

    Model-driven engineering (MDE) is the automatic production of software from simplified models of structure and functionality. It mainly involves the automation of the routine and technologically complex programming tasks, thus allowing developers to focus on the true value-adding functionality that the system needs to deliver. This book serves an overview of some of the core topics in MDE. The volume is broken into two sections offering a selection of papers that helps the reader not only understand the MDE principles and techniques, but also learn from practical examples. Also covered are the

  20. The application of biomedical engineering techniques to the diagnosis and management of tropical diseases: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Fatimah; Thio, Tzer Hwai Gilbert; Faisal, Tarig; Neuman, Michael

    2015-03-23

    This paper reviews a number of biomedical engineering approaches to help aid in the detection and treatment of tropical diseases such as dengue, malaria, cholera, schistosomiasis, lymphatic filariasis, ebola, leprosy, leishmaniasis, and American trypanosomiasis (Chagas). Many different forms of non-invasive approaches such as ultrasound, echocardiography and electrocardiography, bioelectrical impedance, optical detection, simplified and rapid serological tests such as lab-on-chip and micro-/nano-fluidic platforms and medical support systems such as artificial intelligence clinical support systems are discussed. The paper also reviewed the novel clinical diagnosis and management systems using artificial intelligence and bioelectrical impedance techniques for dengue clinical applications.

  1. Demonstration of Novel Sampling Techniques for Measurement of Turbine Engine Volatile and Non-Volatile Particulate Matter (PM) Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-06

    WP-201317) Demonstration of Novel Sampling Techniques for Measurement of Turbine Engine Volatile and Non-volatile Particulate Matter (PM... Engine Volatile and Non-Volatile Particulate Matter (PM) Emissions 6. AUTHOR(S) E. Corporan, M. DeWitt, C. Klingshirn, M.D. Cheng, R. Miake-Lye, J. Peck...the performance and viability of two devices to condition aircraft turbine engine exhaust to allow the accurate measurement of total (volatile and non

  2. Petroleum question. Die Oelfrage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mommer, B

    1983-01-01

    The author analyses the development of the world petroleum market and its pricing factors to the present on the basis of the theory of ground rent, in which the part played by absolute ground rent, differential rent, and free and national state property in the capitalist mode of production is determined. His investigation of economic policy traces the absorbing history of the petroleum production and policy of the United States of America, which for so long governed the world market, the development of Venezuela into a petroleum country (whose true history is here revealed for the first time), the penetration of the middle East by the international petroleum leaseholders' capital and their cartel, the formation of the OPEC, and finally the 'victory' of the lather over the petroleum combines in the international petroleum crisis of 1970-1973. The book closes with a survey at the start of the 80s and an outlook into the foreseeable future. What is really hidden behind the quarrels about prices, profit, taxes, royalties, franchise agreements, production quotas, nationalization and so forth and behind the economic, political, and even moral arguments of the parties concerned turns out to be the fight of the petroleum ground proprietors for the ground rent - but to win a victory in this fight means ultimately to face its limitations, too. Blindness to the economic and political importance of ground rent, right from the theoretical approach, also created a major cause of the false diagnoses and forecasts on the petroleum market western economic scientists were misled into, and thus of the surprise effect that came in the form of the petroleum crisis of the early 1970s.

  3. Development of an eddy current inspection technique for sleeved engine disk bolt holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palanisamy, R.; Lakin, K.M.

    1983-01-01

    Recent research programs have concentrated mainly on developing techniques to characterize surface breaking cracks and very little has been done towards characterizing subsurface flaws in conducting materials. Presented in this paper are the results of some initial theoretical work aimed at the development of a reliable eddy current technique to detect and characterize defects in engine disk bolt holes under a 0.05'' stainless steel sleeve. The change in impedance of an absolute eddy current coil with and without ferrite core, and the distribution of eddy currents around a second layer crack with and without a thin insulating film between the two conducting layers have been predicted numerically. The overall system development goals and methods to accomplish them are outlined briefly

  4. Caspian sea: petroleum challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The Caspian sea is one of the world areas the most promising in terms of investments and petroleum development. This study presents the petroleum challenges generated by this hydrocarbons reserve. The first part discusses the juridical status (sea or lake), the petroleum and the gas reserves, the ecosystem and the today environment (fishing and caviar), the geostrategic situation and the transport of gas and oil. It provides also a chronology from 1729 to 2005, a selection of Internet sites, books and reports on the subject and identity sheets of the countries around the Caspian sea. (A.L.B.)

  5. Petroleum investment in Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedrich, M.

    1994-01-01

    There is no specific petroleum legislation as such in place in Kazakhstan and tax legislation is unsophisticated. Regulation of operations is subject to generally applicable legislation. A brief account of the difficulties which exist for both sides in renegotiating a contract is given. Since the competence to enter into contracts with foreign companies has not been fully defined, the first problem when applying for petroleum rights is the identification of a negotiating partner. A summary of terms and conditions and a list of the main laws applicable to petroleum operations are included. (UK)

  6. Petroleum: the new deal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magalhaes, St.; Kan, E.

    2008-01-01

    The drop of oil prices imposes a revision of development and investment strategies of petroleum and para-petroleum companies, while technologies under study try to optimize the exploration and production costs. Following the financial and economical crises, the petroleum industry is preparing its restructuring: new profitability threshold of projects, slowing down of the activity, expected surge of mergers. Despite the crisis, the R and D for the exploitation of tar sands still goes on while on the offshore side, R and D has never been so active to take up the challenge of extreme deep sea conditions. (J.S.)

  7. Petroleum marketing annual, 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Annual contains statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the free-on-board and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners' acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented. (VC)

  8. Petroleum refining and air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raimbault, C.

    1992-01-01

    This paper studies the methods which may be developed in petroleum refineries or during petroleum products using for air pollution abatement: petroleum products desulfurization, lead elimination in gasoline and catalytic converters to reduce sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides in exhaust gases. Investments and costs estimation to adapt petroleum refineries for environment protection is also given. 1 ref., 6 figs., 6 tabs

  9. Figures of the petroleum industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    The statistic tables give informations about: Reserves and production of petroleum and natural gas, supply of crude petroleum in the Federal Republic of Germany, pipelines, tanker ships, petroleum refineries, petroleum consumption, storage and distribution, automobiles, prices, taxis and energy consumption. The data compilations are primarily given for the Federal Republic of Germany.

  10. Technological contribution of production engineering for national self-sufficiency in petroleum; Contribuicao tecnologica da engenharia de producao para a auto-suficiencia nacional

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lara, Anelise Quintao [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). E e P Engenharia de Producao. Gerencia de Engenharia de Reservatorios], e-mail: alara@petrobras.com.br; Pinto, Antonio Carlos Capeleiro [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). E e P Engenharia de Producao. Gerencia de Pre-Projetos de Desenvolvimento da Producao], e-mail: acc@petrobras.com.br; Lage, Antonio Carlos Vieira Martins [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES). Gerencia de Tecnologia e Engenharia de Poco], e-mail: antoniolage@petrobas.com.br; Del Vecchio, Cesar Jose Moraes [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES). Programa Tecnologico de Transporte (PROTRAN)], e-mail: cdv@petrobras.com.br; Masetti, Isaias Quaresma [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES). Gerencia de Metodos Cientificos], e-mail: masetti@petrobras.com.br; Formigli Filho, Jose Miranda [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). E e P Engenharia de Producao. Gerencia Executiva de Engenharia de Producao; Fagundes Netto, Jose Roberto [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES). Gerencia de Tecnologia de Elevacao, Escoamento e Processamento], e-mail: rfagundes@petrobras.com.br; Beltrao, Ricardo Luis Carneiro [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES). Gerencia Geral de Producao], e-mail: rbeltrao@petrobras.com.br

    2006-06-15

    This paper presents a retrospective of some of PETROBRAS' main technological advances that contributed for Brazil to reach petroleum production self-sufficiency. The impact of the corporate strategy to invest in training and qualifying human resources in the development of critical technologies for the Company's business is discussed. From the mid-seventies, there has been a significant increase in the effort directed to research and development (R and D) in the Exploration and Production (E and P) segment. Motivated by challenges imposed by ever increasing water depths (WD) and the early production of discovered fields, technological developments accelerated. A few of the topics discussed herein include the competition between wet subsea systems and atmospheric systems, the first floating production units based on semi-submersible drilling platforms and on adapted tankers, the development of wellhead systems, risers and production lines. Beginning in the mid-eighties, PETROBRAS successively broke world records in terms of water depth with its wells and production and off loading facilities. In order to support this leadership, new technologies were developed and adapted, in partnership with vendors and scientific and technological institutions, in the country and abroad. This paper discusses the technologies developed for maintaining the production of mature fields, increasing the production capacity and managing the integrity of installed units, managing great volumes of produced water as a function of mechanisms adopted for the maintenance of reservoir pressure and managing production projects. In conclusion, the main solutions currently in development are described. (author)

  11. Petroleum supply monthly, January 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    Data presented describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States. The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.

  12. Fabrication and Characterization of three dimensional Scaffolds for tissue engineering application via microstereolithography technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marina Talib; Covington, J.A.; Dove, A.; Bolarinwa, A.; Grover, L.

    2012-01-01

    Microstereolithography is a method used for rapid proto typing of polymeric and ceramic components. This technique converts a computer-aided design (CAD) to a three dimensional (3D) model, and enables layer-per-layer fabrication curing a liquid resin with UV-light or laser source. However, the use of stereo lithography in tissue engineering has not been significantly explored possibly due to the lack of commercially available implantable or biocompatible materials from the SL industry. This study seeks to develop a range of new bio-compatible/degradable materials that are compatible with a commercial 3D direct manufacture system (envisionTEC Desktop). Firstly, a selection of multifunctional polymer and calcium phosphate were studied in order to formulate biodegradable photo polymer resin for specific tissue engineering applications. A 3D structure was successfully fabricated from the formulated photo curable resins. The photo polymer of ceramic suspension was prepared with the addition of 50-70 wt % of calcium pyrophosphate (CPP) and hydroxyapatite (HA). They were then sintered at high temperature for polymer removal, to obtain a ceramic of the desired porosity. Mechanical properties, morphology and calcium phosphate content of the sintered polymers were characterised and investigated with SEM and XRD, respectively. The addition of calcium phosphate coupled with high temperature sintering, had a significant effect on the mechanical properties exhibited by the bio ceramic. The successful fabrication of novel bio ceramic polymer composite with MSL technique offers the possibility of designing complex tissue scaffolds with optimum mechanical properties for specific tissue engineering applications. (author)

  13. Petroleum marketing annual, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-08-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Annual contains statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the free-on-board and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners' acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented. For this publication, all estimates have been recalculated since their earlier publication in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM). These calculations made use of additional data and corrections that were received after the PMM publication dates

  14. Apparatus for extracting petroleum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coogan, J

    1921-01-18

    An apparatus for extracting petroleum from petroleum bearing sand or shale is described comprising a container for liquids, the container being divided into a plurality of compartments, an agitator mounted within the container and below the liquid level and having its forward end opening into one of the compartments, means for delivering sand or shale to the forward end of the agitator, means for subjecting the sand or shale to the action of a solvent for the petroleum while the sand or shale is being agitated and is submerged, the first-mentioned compartment being adapted to receive the extracted petroleum and means for removing the treated sand or shale from adjacent the rear end of the agitator.

  15. Petroleum supply annual 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA) contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1992 through annual and monthly surveys. The PSA is divided into two volumes. The first volume contains four sections: Summary Statistics, Detailed Statistics, Refinery Capacity, and Oxygenate Capacity each with final annual data. This second volume contains final statistics for each month of 1992, and replaces data previously published in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM). The tables in Volumes 1 and 2 are similarly numbered to facilitate comparison between them. Explanatory Notes, located at the end of this publication, present information describing data collection, sources, estimation methodology, data quality control procedures, modifications to reporting requirements and interpretation of tables. Industry terminology and product definitions are listed alphabetically in the Glossary

  16. Petroleum marketing annual 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Annual (PMA) contains statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the free-on-board (f.o.b.) and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented. For this publication, all estimates have been recalculated since their earlier publication in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM). These calculations made use of additional data and corrections that were received after the PMM publication dates

  17. Petroleum marketing annual 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-01-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Annual (PMA) contains statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the free-on-board (f.o.b.) and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented. For this publication, all estimates have been recalculated since their earlier publication in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM). These calculations made use of additional data and corrections that were received after the PMM publication dates.

  18. Petroleum Vapor Intrusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    One type of vapor intrusion is PVI, in which vapors from petroleum hydrocarbons such as gasoline, diesel, or jet fuel enter a building. Intrusion of contaminant vapors into indoor spaces is of concern.

  19. Photolysis of petroleum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bobra, M.

    1992-05-01

    A study was conducted to examine the chemical and physical changes that occur in oils as a result of photooxidation. A literature review of recent studies in petroleum photochemistry revealed reported effects of photo-induced reactions in petroleum, including changes in color, polymerization, solidification, increases in solubility and toxicity, and changes in interfacial properties. A list of products reported as a result of photolysis of petroleum is presented, including such compounds as aldehydes, ketones, esters, and lactones. The photoreactivity of various petroleum components is discussed and mechanisms of photooxidation of petroleum are suggested. In the experimental portion of the study, a variety of crude oils and petroleum products were used to determine how different oils are affected by photolysis, and to examine the importance of photolysis as a weathering process. Photooxidation products from several oils were isolated and identified, including aliphatic and aromatic acids, alcohols, and phenols. Some physical manifestations attributed to photolysis included yellowing, formation of precipitates or crusts, increases in density and viscosity with time, increases of asphaltene content in some oils, changes in pH of the surrounding water, and emulsification. 51 refs., 38 figs., 18 tabs

  20. The Recent Developments in Biobased Polymers toward General and Engineering Applications : Polymers that Are Upgraded from Biodegradable Polymers, Analogous to Petroleum-Derived Polymers, and Newly Developed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nakajima, Hajime; Dijkstra, Peter; Loos, Katja

    2017-01-01

    The main motivation for development of biobased polymers was their biodegradability, which is becoming important due to strong public concern about waste. Reflecting recent changes in the polymer industry, the sustainability of biobased polymers allows them to be used for general and engineering

  1. Advanced Laser-Based Techniques for Gas-Phase Diagnostics in Combustion and Aerospace Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehn, Andreas; Zhu, Jiajian; Li, Xuesong; Kiefer, Johannes

    2017-03-01

    Gaining information of species, temperature, and velocity distributions in turbulent combustion and high-speed reactive flows is challenging, particularly for conducting measurements without influencing the experimental object itself. The use of optical and spectroscopic techniques, and in particular laser-based diagnostics, has shown outstanding abilities for performing non-intrusive in situ diagnostics. The development of instrumentation, such as robust lasers with high pulse energy, ultra-short pulse duration, and high repetition rate along with digitized cameras exhibiting high sensitivity, large dynamic range, and frame rates on the order of MHz, has opened up for temporally and spatially resolved volumetric measurements of extreme dynamics and complexities. The aim of this article is to present selected important laser-based techniques for gas-phase diagnostics focusing on their applications in combustion and aerospace engineering. Applicable laser-based techniques for investigations of turbulent flows and combustion such as planar laser-induced fluorescence, Raman and Rayleigh scattering, coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering, laser-induced grating scattering, particle image velocimetry, laser Doppler anemometry, and tomographic imaging are reviewed and described with some background physics. In addition, demands on instrumentation are further discussed to give insight in the possibilities that are offered by laser flow diagnostics.

  2. The Recent Developments in Biobased Polymers toward General and Engineering Applications: Polymers that Are Upgraded from Biodegradable Polymers, Analogous to Petroleum-Derived Polymers, and Newly Developed

    OpenAIRE

    Nakajima, Hajime; Dijkstra, Peter; Loos, Katja

    2017-01-01

    The main motivation for development of biobased polymers was their biodegradability, which is becoming important due to strong public concern about waste. Reflecting recent changes in the polymer industry, the sustainability of biobased polymers allows them to be used for general and engineering applications. This expansion is driven by the remarkable progress in the processes for refining biomass feedstocks to produce biobased building blocks that allow biobased polymers to have more versati...

  3. Planetary-Scale Geospatial Data Analysis Techniques in Google's Earth Engine Platform (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancher, M.

    2013-12-01

    Geoscientists have more and more access to new tools for large-scale computing. With any tool, some tasks are easy and other tasks hard. It is natural to look to new computing platforms to increase the scale and efficiency of existing techniques, but there is a more exiting opportunity to discover and develop a new vocabulary of fundamental analysis idioms that are made easy and effective by these new tools. Google's Earth Engine platform is a cloud computing environment for earth data analysis that combines a public data catalog with a large-scale computational facility optimized for parallel processing of geospatial data. The data catalog includes a nearly complete archive of scenes from Landsat 4, 5, 7, and 8 that have been processed by the USGS, as well as a wide variety of other remotely-sensed and ancillary data products. Earth Engine supports a just-in-time computation model that enables real-time preview during algorithm development and debugging as well as during experimental data analysis and open-ended data exploration. Data processing operations are performed in parallel across many computers in Google's datacenters. The platform automatically handles many traditionally-onerous data management tasks, such as data format conversion, reprojection, resampling, and associating image metadata with pixel data. Early applications of Earth Engine have included the development of Google's global cloud-free fifteen-meter base map and global multi-decadal time-lapse animations, as well as numerous large and small experimental analyses by scientists from a range of academic, government, and non-governmental institutions, working in a wide variety of application areas including forestry, agriculture, urban mapping, and species habitat modeling. Patterns in the successes and failures of these early efforts have begun to emerge, sketching the outlines of a new set of simple and effective approaches to geospatial data analysis.

  4. Finite element methods for engineering sciences. Theoretical approach and problem solving techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaskalovic, J. [Ariel University Center of Samaria (Israel); Pierre and Marie Curie (Paris VI) Univ., 75 (France). Inst. Jean le Rond d' Alembert

    2008-07-01

    This self-tutorial offers a concise yet thorough grounding in the mathematics necessary for successfully applying FEMs to practical problems in science and engineering. The unique approach first summarizes and outlines the finite-element mathematics in general and then, in the second and major part, formulates problem examples that clearly demonstrate the techniques of functional analysis via numerous and diverse exercises. The solutions of the problems are given directly afterwards. Using this approach, the author motivates and encourages the reader to actively acquire the knowledge of finite- element methods instead of passively absorbing the material, as in most standard textbooks. The enlarged English-language edition, based on the original French, also contains a chapter on the approximation steps derived from the description of nature with differential equations and then applied to the specific model to be used. Furthermore, an introduction to tensor calculus using distribution theory offers further insight for readers with different mathematical backgrounds. (orig.)

  5. Low-cost engineering techniques in sustainable operation of a rural clean water plant in thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pengchai, P.; Keawkhun, K.; Suwapaet, N.

    2012-01-01

    Problems of water supply in many rural regions of Thailand result from the lack of awareness and financial limitations. Payanghang Clean Water Plant is an example of the rural water plant that has been suffering from the poor operation since 2003. The objective of this study was to modify the operation processes of this water plant to achieve cleaner water and better financial condition. Low-cost engineering techniques, such as the use of floating switches in filtration ponds, the use of water drip system for alum dosing and the addition of Tamarindus indica Linn seed solution was applied. As a result, 76% of turbidity removal efficiency was derived. Although, the difference was not statistically significant at 95% confidence level, higher removal efficiency in comparison with the one before modification (65%) suggested better operation. In the view of financial aspect, l07 dollars (1 baht = 0.0326 U.S. dollar) benefit was obtained from 7 month-operation period. (author)

  6. Cost Engineering Techniques and Their Applicability for Cost Estimation of Organic Rankine Cycle Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanne Lemmens

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The potential of organic Rankine cycle (ORC systems is acknowledged by both considerable research and development efforts and an increasing number of applications. Most research aims at improving ORC systems through technical performance optimization of various cycle architectures and working fluids. The assessment and optimization of technical feasibility is at the core of ORC development. Nonetheless, economic feasibility is often decisive when it comes down to considering practical instalments, and therefore an increasing number of publications include an estimate of the costs of the designed ORC system. Various methods are used to estimate ORC costs but the resulting values are rarely discussed with respect to accuracy and validity. The aim of this paper is to provide insight into the methods used to estimate these costs and open the discussion about the interpretation of these results. A review of cost engineering practices shows there has been a long tradition of industrial cost estimation. Several techniques have been developed, but the expected accuracy range of the best techniques used in research varies between 10% and 30%. The quality of the estimates could be improved by establishing up-to-date correlations for the ORC industry in particular. Secondly, the rapidly growing ORC cost literature is briefly reviewed. A graph summarizing the estimated ORC investment costs displays a pattern of decreasing costs for increasing power output. Knowledge on the actual costs of real ORC modules and projects remains scarce. Finally, the investment costs of a known heat recovery ORC system are discussed and the methodologies and accuracies of several approaches are demonstrated using this case as benchmark. The best results are obtained with factorial estimation techniques such as the module costing technique, but the accuracies may diverge by up to +30%. Development of correlations and multiplication factors for ORC technology in particular is

  7. Petroleum marketing monthly, May 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-05-26

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly.

  8. Bioremediation of petroleum-contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearce, K.; Snyman, H.G.; Oellermann, R.A.; Gerber, A.

    1995-01-01

    A pilot-scale study was conducted to evaluate the application of land-farming techniques in bioremediating a soil highly contaminated with petroleum products. A commercial biosupplement, and one prepared with indigenous microorganisms from the contaminated soil, were tested. Application of either of the biosupplements, in addition to the control of pH, moisture, and oxygen levels, resulted in a 94% reduction of the initial total petroleum hydrocarbon concentration (TPHC) (32% mass/mass) over a 70-day period. Implementation of these findings at full scale to bioremediate highly weathered petroleum products showed an average reduction of 89% over 5.5 months. Target levels of 1,400 mg/kg soil were reached from an initial average TPHC concentration of 12,200 mg/kg soil

  9. Petroleum software and the road ahead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heggelund, D.G.

    1996-01-01

    Regardless of what software vendors want to do, in the end, it is the user, through his/her choices of software products, who will decide what the software of the petroleum-engineering industry will look like. In this article, the author has looked at several items that will impact the future of petroleum-engineering software. Out of these, two will stand out: (1) the adoption of a single integrated dynamic reservoir model and (2) the move to a client/server architecture. However, the biggest challenge for both vendors and users will be to manage change. This will require users to participate more actively in the development of new technology and to be willing to pay for it, and it will require vendors to adopt standards more readily

  10. Application of powder metallurgy techniques to produce improved bearing elements for liquid rocket engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moracz, D. J.; Shipley, R. J.; Moxson, V. S.; Killman, R. J.; Munson, H. E.

    1992-01-01

    The objective was to apply powder metallurgy techniques for the production of improved bearing elements, specifically balls and races, for advanced cryogenic turbopump bearings. The materials and fabrication techniques evaluated were judged on the basis of their ability to improve fatigue life, wear resistance, and corrosion resistance of Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) propellant bearings over the currently used 440C. An extensive list of candidate bearing alloys in five different categories was considered: tool/die steels, through hardened stainless steels, cobalt-base alloys, and gear steels. Testing of alloys for final consideration included hardness, rolling contact fatigue, cross cylinder wear, elevated temperature wear, room and cryogenic fracture toughness, stress corrosion cracking, and five-ball (rolling-sliding element) testing. Results of the program indicated two alloys that showed promise for improved bearing elements. These alloys were MRC-2001 and X-405. 57mm bearings were fabricated from the MRC-2001 alloy for further actual hardware rig testing by NASA-MSFC.

  11. Responsive copolymers for enhanced petroleum recovery. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    This report describes the development of new synthetic polymers to be used in petroleum recovery. The solution behavior and rheology properties, as well as new techniques for measuring extensional flow behavior under controlled conditions in packed bed geometries is described.

  12. Techniques to assess acoustic-structure interaction in liquid rocket engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, R. Benjamin

    Acoustoelasticity is the study of the dynamic interaction between elastic structures and acoustic enclosures. In this dissertation, acoustoelasticity is considered in the context of liquid rocket engine design. The techniques presented here can be used to determine which forcing frequencies are important in acoustoelastic systems. With a knowledge of these frequencies, an analyst can either find ways to attenuate the excitation at these frequencies or alter the system in such a way that the prescribed excitations do result in a resonant condition. The end result is a structural component that is less susceptible to failure. The research scope is divided into three parts. In the first part, the dynamics of cylindrical shells submerged in liquid hydrogen (LH2) and liquid oxygen (LOX) are considered. The shells are bounded by rigid outer cylinders. This configuration gives rise to two fluid-filled cavities---an inner cylindrical cavity and an outer annular cavity. Such geometries are common in rocket engine design. The natural frequencies and modes of the fluid-structure system are computed by combining the rigid wall acoustic cavity modes and the in vacuo structural modes into a system of coupled ordinary differential equations. Eigenvalue veering is observed near the intersections of the curves representing natural frequencies of the rigid wall acoustic and the in vacuo structural modes. In the case of a shell submerged in LH2, system frequencies near these intersections are as much as 30% lower than the corresponding in vacuo structural frequencies. Due to its high density, the frequency reductions in the presence of LOX are even more dramatic. The forced responses of a shell submerged in LH2 and LOX while subject to a harmonic point excitation are also presented. The responses in the presence of fluid are found to be quite distinct from those of the structure in vacuo. In the second part, coupled mode theory is used to explore the fundamental features of

  13. Petroleum Marketing Annual, 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-18

    This report contains statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for us by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the free-on-board (f.o.b.) and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners' acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented. 13 figs., 51 tabs.

  14. The business of petroleum exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinmetz, R.

    1992-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings of the Business of Petroleum Exploration. The following topics are included: Petroleum business; Economic aspects of the business; Managing business; and Legal, Political, Ethical and environment aspects of the business

  15. Petroleum marketing monthly, June 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. Monthly statistics on purchases of crude oil and sales of petroleum products are presented in five sections: Summary Statistics; Crude Oil Prices; Prices of Petroleum Products; Volumes of Petroleum Products; and Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Petroleum Products for Local Consumption. The feature article is entitled ``The Second Oxygenated Gasoline Season.`` 7 figs., 50 tabs.

  16. Petroleum marketing monthly, July 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. Monthly statistics on purchases of crude oil and sales of petroleum products are presented in five sections: summary statistics; crude oil prices; prices of petroleum products; volumes of petroleum products; and prime supplier sales volumes of petroleum products for local consumption. 7 figs., 50 tabs.

  17. Isotope analysis in petroleum exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, R.

    1982-01-01

    The study about isotopic analysis in petroleum exploration performed at Petrobras Research Center is showed. The results of the petroleum recuperation in same Brazilian basin and shelves are comented. (L.H.L.L.) [pt

  18. Petroleum supply monthly, August 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-26

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  19. The petroleum taxation in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-09-01

    This document details the french specificities of taxation concerning the petroleum products: the TIPP. It shows how this policy acts upon the petroleum products consumption behavior and how it allows the financing of the decentralization. (A.L.B.)

  20. Marks on the petroleum fiscality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-02-01

    This document offers some marks on the petroleum fiscality in France: the taxes as the 'accises' and the 'TVA', the part of the taxes in the sale price at the service station, the comparison with other countries of Europe, the tax revenues and the Government budget. It provides also marks on the fuels prices formation (margins), the world petroleum markets (supply and demand) and the part of the petroleum companies on the petroleum market. (A.L.B.)

  1. A novel porous scaffold fabrication technique for epithelial and endothelial tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHugh, Kevin J; Tao, Sarah L; Saint-Geniez, Magali

    2013-07-01

    Porous scaffolds have the ability to minimize transport barriers for both two- (2D) and three-dimensional tissue engineering. However, current porous scaffolds may be non-ideal for 2D tissues such as epithelium due to inherent fabrication-based characteristics. While 2D tissues require porosity to support molecular transport, pores must be small enough to prevent cell migration into the scaffold in order to avoid non-epithelial tissue architecture and compromised function. Though electrospun meshes are the most popular porous scaffolds used today, their heterogeneous pore size and intense topography may be poorly-suited for epithelium. Porous scaffolds produced using other methods have similar unavoidable limitations, frequently involving insufficient pore resolution and control, which make them incompatible with 2D tissues. In addition, many of these techniques require an entirely new round of process development in order to change material or pore size. Herein we describe "pore casting," a fabrication method that produces flat scaffolds with deterministic pore shape, size, and location that can be easily altered to accommodate new materials or pore dimensions. As proof-of-concept, pore-cast poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) scaffolds were fabricated and compared to electrospun PCL in vitro using canine kidney epithelium, human colon epithelium, and human umbilical vein endothelium. All cell types demonstrated improved morphology and function on pore-cast scaffolds, likely due to reduced topography and universally small pore size. These results suggest that pore casting is an attractive option for creating 2D tissue engineering scaffolds, especially when the application may benefit from well-controlled pore size or architecture.

  2. A new construction technique for tissue-engineered heart valves using the self-assembly method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Catherine; Ruel, Jean; Bourget, Jean-Michel; Laterreur, Véronique; Vallières, Karine; Tondreau, Maxime Y; Lacroix, Dan; Germain, Lucie; Auger, François A

    2014-11-01

    Tissue engineering appears as a promising option to create new heart valve substitutes able to overcome the serious drawbacks encountered with mechanical substitutes or tissue valves. The objective of this article is to present the construction method of a new entirely biological stentless aortic valve using the self-assembly method and also a first assessment of its behavior in a bioreactor when exposed to a pulsatile flow. A thick tissue was created by stacking several fibroblast sheets produced with the self-assembly technique. Different sets of custom-made templates were designed to confer to the thick tissue a three-dimensional (3D) shape similar to that of a native aortic valve. The construction of the valve was divided in two sequential steps. The first step was the installation of the thick tissue in a flat preshaping template followed by a 4-week maturation period. The second step was the actual cylindrical 3D forming of the valve. The microscopic tissue structure was assessed using histological cross sections stained with Masson's Trichrome and Picrosirius Red. The thick tissue remained uniformly populated with cells throughout the construction steps and the dense extracellular matrix presented corrugated fibers of collagen. This first prototype of tissue-engineered heart valve was installed in a bioreactor to assess its capacity to sustain a light pulsatile flow at a frequency of 0.5 Hz. Under the light pulsed flow, it was observed that the leaflets opened and closed according to the flow variations. This study demonstrates that the self-assembly method is a viable option for the construction of complex 3D shapes, such as heart valves, with an entirely biological material.

  3. Petroleum supply monthly, April 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1990-06-26

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of three publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other two publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR) and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly describe (PSM) the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in Primary Supply.'' Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: (1) the Summary Statistics and (2) the Detailed Statistics.

  4. Tissue-engineered trachea regeneration using decellularized trachea matrix treated with laser micropore technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yong; Li, Dan; Yin, Zongqi; He, Aijuan; Lin, Miaomiao; Jiang, Gening; Song, Xiao; Hu, Xuefei; Liu, Yi; Wang, Jinpeng; Wang, Xiaoyun; Duan, Liang; Zhou, Guangdong

    2017-08-01

    Tissue-engineered trachea provides a promising approach for reconstruction of long segmental tracheal defects. However, a lack of ideal biodegradable scaffolds greatly restricts its clinical translation. Decellularized trachea matrix (DTM) is considered a proper scaffold for trachea cartilage regeneration owing to natural tubular structure, cartilage matrix components, and biodegradability. However, cell residual and low porosity of DTM easily result in immunogenicity and incomplete cartilage regeneration. To address these problems, a laser micropore technique (LMT) was applied in the current study to modify trachea sample porosity to facilitate decellular treatment and cell ingrowth. Decellularization processing demonstrated that cells in LMT treated samples were more easily removed compared with untreated native trachea. Furthermore, after optimizing the protocols of LMT and decellular treatments, the LMT-treated DTM (LDTM) could retain their original tubular shape with only mild extracellular matrix damage. After seeding with chondrocytes and culture in vitro for 8 weeks, the cell-LDTM constructs formed tubular cartilage with relatively homogenous cell distribution in both micropores and bilateral surfaces. In vivo results further confirmed that the constructs could form mature tubular cartilage with increased DNA and cartilage matrix contents, as well as enhanced mechanical strength, compared with native trachea. Collectively, these results indicate that LDTM is an ideal scaffold for tubular cartilage regeneration and, thus, provides a promising strategy for functional reconstruction of trachea cartilage. Lacking ideal biodegradable scaffolds greatly restricts development of tissue-engineered trachea. Decellularized trachea matrix (DTM) is considered a proper scaffold for trachea cartilage regeneration. However, cell residual and low porosity of DTM easily result in immunogenicity and incomplete cartilage regeneration. By laser micropore technique (LMT), the

  5. SWOT ANALYSIS - CHINESE PETROLEUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunlan Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article was written in early December 2013,combined with the historical development andthe latest data on the Chinese Petroleum carried SWOT- analysis. This paper discusses corporate resources, cost, management and external factorssuch as the political environment and the marketsupply and demand, conducted a comprehensiveand profound analysis.

  6. SWOT ANALYSIS - CHINESE PETROLEUM

    OpenAIRE

    Chunlan Wang; Lei Zhang; Qi Zhong

    2014-01-01

    This article was written in early December 2013, combined with the historical development and the latest data on the Chinese Petroleum carried SWOTanalysis. This paper discusses corporate resources, cost, management and external factors such as the political environment and the market supply and demand, conducted a comprehensive and profound analysis.

  7. Environmental pollution by petroleum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murata, T

    1974-06-01

    Pollution causes, cases, and remedies at various stages of petroleum production and usage are reviewed. Petroleum extraction (off-shore drilling and Arctic drilling) can be accompanied by mishaps. In 1971, IMCO (an international safety committee) proposed the partitioning of oil tanker holds into smaller compartments to minimize spillage in case of disaster. Although the solubility of oil in waste water from refineries is reckoned by ppM, the total amount dissolved is not negligible. Petroleum storage and transport on land is complicated by problems of safety in terms of population density as well as by pollution problems. Petroleum end-products such as plastic trash and automobile exhausts contribute to pollution. The role of aldehydes and peroxides in photochemical smog formation must be investigated further. Proper treatment of pollution at each specific point of occurrence, rather than at the end of a production line is recommended. Pollutant concentration for treatment, rather than pollutant dilution for dispersal, should be considered. Technology for pollution abatement is available, but not always economically feasible.

  8. Petroleum industry in 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    This book analyses the major facts and the numbers of 1992, in France and in foreign countries. Its purpose is to be as complete as possible and to present especially all the aspects on a national level: supply, domestic market, prices, exploration, production, stocks, petroleum refining, transports, retailing, financial data

  9. Petroleum: Price trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babusiaux, Denis; Pierru, Axel

    2010-01-01

    The Organization of Petroleum-Exporting Countries (OPEC), some political leaders and financiers have mainly attributed the price spike of oil in 2008 - followed by a just as spectacular drop in prices - to the speculative moves made by financial investors on the futures market instead of to market fundamentals

  10. Petroleum Vapor - Field Technical

    Science.gov (United States)

    The screening approach being developed by EPA OUST to evaluate petroleum vapor intrusion (PVI) requires information that has not be routinely collected in the past at vapor intrusion sites. What is the best way to collect this data? What are the relevant data quality issues and ...

  11. Non-Petroleum Oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    These include synthetics such as silicone fluids and tung oils, wood-derivative oils such as resin/rosin, animal fats/oil, and seed oils. Many have similar physical properties to petroleum-based, such as water insolubility and formation of slicks.

  12. Petroleum product market outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-09-01

    The influence of petroleum market disturbances on price increases was discussed with particular reference to Hurricane Katrina and the loss of refinery production and damage to oil infrastructure in the United States. The supply of petroleum products in Canada will be very tight heading into the winter of 2006, despite the fact that Canadian refineries are operating at full capacity to ensure an adequate supply of gasoline and diesel fuel for consumers. In addition to refinery production, petroleum supplies are also determined by the adequacy of inventories and the efficiency of the infrastructure in place to deliver products to where they are needed. The lack of spare capacity has reduced the flexibility of the North American refining system to respond to further disruptions. Refiners were asked to provide information on 4 areas of their operations in order for Natural Resources Canada to analyze the short-term outlook for petroleum products markets. The 4 areas included refinery utilization rates and capability to increase production; any planned refinery turnaround that would affect petroleum product supplies; inventory levels compared to levels in previous years; and, any logistical problems that could affect product distribution. A graph depicting the relationship between Canadian production of gasoline and domestic sales clearly illustrated the seasonal nature of gasoline consumption and that production in Canada is much higher than consumption. Canada exports large volumes of gasoline, primarily to the United States eastern seabord from refineries in Atlantic Canada. The trend is similar for diesel fuel. Demand for both gasoline and diesel is expected to continue to grow in 2005 as high prices have had a limited impact on demand growth. In general, the Ontario/Quebec region is short of gasoline and must import gasoline during the summer months to cover the shortfall. It was noted that motorists and homeowners who heat with oil will bear the burden of higher

  13. Electro fluido dynamic techniques to design instructive biomaterials for tissue engineering and drug delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guarino, Vincenzo, E-mail: vguarino@unina.it; Altobelli, Rosaria; Cirillo, Valentina; Ambrosio, Luigi [Institute for Polymers, Composites and Biomaterials, Department of Chemical Sciences & Materials Technology, National Research Council of Italy, V.le Kennedy 54, Naples (Italy)

    2015-12-17

    A large variety of processes and tools is continuously investigated to discover new solutions to design instructive materials with controlled chemical, physical and biological properties for tissue engineering and drug delivery. Among them, electro fluido dynamic techniques (EFDTs) are emerging as an interesting strategy, based on highly flexible and low-cost processes, to revisit old biomaterial’s manufacturing approach by utilizing electrostatic forces as the driving force for the fabrication of 3D architectures with controlled physical and chemical functionalities to guide in vitro and in vivo cell activities. By a rational selection of polymer solution properties and process conditions, EFDTs allow to produce fibres and/or particles at micro and/or nanometric size scale which may be variously assembled by tailored experimental setups, thus giving the chance to generate a plethora of different 3D devices able to incorporate biopolymers (i.e., proteins, polysaccharides) or active molecules (e.g., drugs) for different applications. Here, we focus on the optimization of basic EFDTs - namely electrospinning, electrospraying and electrodynamic atomization - to develop active platforms (i.e., monocomponent, protein and drug loaded scaffolds and µ-scaffolds) made of synthetic (PCL, PLGA) or natural (chitosan, alginate) polymers. In particular, we investigate how to set materials and process parameters to impart specific morphological, biochemical or physical cues to trigger all the fundamental cell–biomaterial and cell– cell cross-talking elicited during regenerative processes, in order to reproduce the complex microenvironment of native or pathological tissues.

  14. Electro fluido dynamic techniques to design instructive biomaterials for tissue engineering and drug delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guarino, Vincenzo; Altobelli, Rosaria; Cirillo, Valentina; Ambrosio, Luigi

    2015-01-01

    A large variety of processes and tools is continuously investigated to discover new solutions to design instructive materials with controlled chemical, physical and biological properties for tissue engineering and drug delivery. Among them, electro fluido dynamic techniques (EFDTs) are emerging as an interesting strategy, based on highly flexible and low-cost processes, to revisit old biomaterial’s manufacturing approach by utilizing electrostatic forces as the driving force for the fabrication of 3D architectures with controlled physical and chemical functionalities to guide in vitro and in vivo cell activities. By a rational selection of polymer solution properties and process conditions, EFDTs allow to produce fibres and/or particles at micro and/or nanometric size scale which may be variously assembled by tailored experimental setups, thus giving the chance to generate a plethora of different 3D devices able to incorporate biopolymers (i.e., proteins, polysaccharides) or active molecules (e.g., drugs) for different applications. Here, we focus on the optimization of basic EFDTs - namely electrospinning, electrospraying and electrodynamic atomization - to develop active platforms (i.e., monocomponent, protein and drug loaded scaffolds and µ-scaffolds) made of synthetic (PCL, PLGA) or natural (chitosan, alginate) polymers. In particular, we investigate how to set materials and process parameters to impart specific morphological, biochemical or physical cues to trigger all the fundamental cell–biomaterial and cell– cell cross-talking elicited during regenerative processes, in order to reproduce the complex microenvironment of native or pathological tissues

  15. Electro fluido dynamic techniques to design instructive biomaterials for tissue engineering and drug delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarino, Vincenzo; Altobelli, Rosaria; Cirillo, Valentina; Ambrosio, Luigi

    2015-12-01

    A large variety of processes and tools is continuously investigated to discover new solutions to design instructive materials with controlled chemical, physical and biological properties for tissue engineering and drug delivery. Among them, electro fluido dynamic techniques (EFDTs) are emerging as an interesting strategy, based on highly flexible and low-cost processes, to revisit old biomaterial's manufacturing approach by utilizing electrostatic forces as the driving force for the fabrication of 3D architectures with controlled physical and chemical functionalities to guide in vitro and in vivo cell activities. By a rational selection of polymer solution properties and process conditions, EFDTs allow to produce fibres and/or particles at micro and/or nanometric size scale which may be variously assembled by tailored experimental setups, thus giving the chance to generate a plethora of different 3D devices able to incorporate biopolymers (i.e., proteins, polysaccharides) or active molecules (e.g., drugs) for different applications. Here, we focus on the optimization of basic EFDTs - namely electrospinning, electrospraying and electrodynamic atomization - to develop active platforms (i.e., monocomponent, protein and drug loaded scaffolds and µ-scaffolds) made of synthetic (PCL, PLGA) or natural (chitosan, alginate) polymers. In particular, we investigate how to set materials and process parameters to impart specific morphological, biochemical or physical cues to trigger all the fundamental cell-biomaterial and cell- cell cross-talking elicited during regenerative processes, in order to reproduce the complex microenvironment of native or pathological tissues.

  16. A novel tissue engineering technique for regeneration of lost interdental papillary height

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rutuj Surana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Open interdental spaces caused by papillary gingival recession are one of the most common problems faced in dentistry. Surgical and nonsurgical periodontal treatments for regeneration of lost papillary height have been reported with limited success. The present study reports effectiveness of autologous cultured fibroblast injections, a tissue engineering technique for papillary regeneration. A black triangle caused by Tarnow′s and Nordland′s class I papillary gingival loss was reported in maxillary anterior region of a young male patient. An autologous gingival biopsy was cultured in a biotechnology lab for the growth and expansion of fibroblasts. Cultured fibroblast suspension was injected into the receded papilla twice at an interval of 5 days. Follow-ups were recorded on the 6th day, 15 th day, at 1 month and at 2 months. Complete fill of black triangle was noted at the end of 2 months. No inflammatory or immune reactions were noted at the site of injection. Autologous cultured fibroblast injections are safe, efficacious, and an acceptable treatment option for the regeneration of lost papillary height.

  17. Identification of petroleum pollution sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Begak, O.Yu.; Syroezhko, A.M.

    2001-01-01

    A possibility of preliminary identification of petroleum pollution sources was investigated on specimens of the Khanty-Mansi autonomous district six deposits and specimens of soil and water polluted by these petroleums. Investigations were conducted using IR Fourier spectroscopy and gamma spectrometry, as well as methods of chromato-mass spectrometry and capillary gas liquid chromatography. Every of studied samples of petroleum from different deposits have an individual radiation impression. Insignificant total content of radionuclides in samples is specific to the Khanty-Mansi petroleum region. Gamma spectrometry admits to identify potential source of petroleum pollution using radionuclides of uranium and thorium series [ru

  18. Adapting planning and scheduling concepts to an engineering perspective: Key issues and successful techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finnegan, J.M.

    1986-01-01

    Traditional approaches to engineering planning are slanted toward the formats and interests of downstream implementation, and do not always consider the form and criticality of the front-end engineering development process. These processes and scopes are less defined and more subjective than most construction and operations tasks, and require flexible scheduling methods. This paper discusses the characteristics and requirement of engineering schedules, presents concepts for approaching planning in this field, and illustrates simple methods for developing and analyzing engineering plans, and evaluating schedule performance. Engineering plans are structured into a schedule hierarchy which delineates appropriate control and responsibilities, and is governed by key evaluation and decision milestones. Schedule risk analysis considers the uncertainty of engineering tasks, and critical resource constraints. Methods to evaluate schedule performance recognize that engineers and managers are responsible for adequate planning and forecasting, and quality decisions, even if they cannot control all factors influencing schedule results

  19. Efficient Techniques of Sparse Signal Analysis for Enhanced Recovery of Information in Biomedical Engineering and Geosciences

    KAUST Repository

    Sana, Furrukh

    2016-11-01

    Sparse signals are abundant among both natural and man-made signals. Sparsity implies that the signal essentially resides in a small dimensional subspace. The sparsity of the signal can be exploited to improve its recovery from limited and noisy observations. Traditional estimation algorithms generally lack the ability to take advantage of signal sparsity. This dissertation considers several problems in the areas of biomedical engineering and geosciences with the aim of enhancing the recovery of information by exploiting the underlying sparsity in the problem. The objective is to overcome the fundamental bottlenecks, both in terms of estimation accuracies and required computational resources. In the first part of dissertation, we present a high precision technique for the monitoring of human respiratory movements by exploiting the sparsity of wireless ultra-wideband signals. The proposed technique provides a novel methodology of overcoming the Nyquist sampling constraint and enables robust performance in the presence of noise and interferences. We also present a comprehensive framework for the important problem of extracting the fetal electrocardiogram (ECG) signals from abdominal ECG recordings of pregnant women. The multiple measurement vectors approach utilized for this purpose provides an efficient mechanism of exploiting the common structure of ECG signals, when represented in sparse transform domains, and allows leveraging information from multiple ECG electrodes under a joint estimation formulation. In the second part of dissertation, we adopt sparse signal processing principles for improved information recovery in large-scale subsurface reservoir characterization problems. We propose multiple new algorithms for sparse representation of the subsurface geological structures, incorporation of useful prior information in the estimation process, and for reducing computational complexities of the problem. The techniques presented here enable significantly

  20. Petroleum supply monthly, January 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-15

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  1. Petroleum supply monthly, October 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-26

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  2. Petroleum Supply Monthly, August 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-10-30

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of three publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other two publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR) and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) district movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in Primary Supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections (1) the Summary Statistics and (2) the Detailed Statistics.

  3. Petroleum supply monthly, September 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-09-30

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of three publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other two publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR) and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administrations for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 states and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in Primary Supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections (1) the Summary Statistics and (2) the Detailed Statistics. 65 tabs.

  4. Petroleum Supply Monthly, July 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-09-28

    Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 states and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in Primary Supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.

  5. Yugoslavian Petroleum Refinery development program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ocic, Ozren

    1999-01-01

    This paper shows the analysis of the world petroleum industry development, being an important factor in planning the development of the Yugoslav petroleum industry and Pancevo Petroleum Refinery, as well. Then Yugoslav petroleum industry development is analysed, including the appropriate balances of crude oil production and crude oil products consumption. The way of realizing the basic targets are also proposed. Likewise, the analysis of the condition within West European refineries has been conducted, from the aspects of technology, energy consumption and environmental protection and the same analysis for Pancevo Petroleum Refinery has been presented, too. The analysis of the condition within the refineries in the European Union countries and comparing it with the condition within Pancevo Petroleum Refinery, makes it mainly possible to recognize the development programmes which should be realized in order that Pancevo Petroleum Refinery could reach the refining level of the EU countries. (Original)

  6. The role of the University of Calgary in the development of a centre of excellence in petroleum technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, G.; Chakma, A.

    1996-01-01

    The role of the University of Calgary's Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering in developing a world centre of excellence in petroleum engineering in Calgary, was discussed. Reasons for the failure of previous efforts to establish a Department of Petroleum Engineering at the University were explained. High participation levels in the existing Department of Chemical and Petroleum Reservoir Engineering's water-flooding, and reservoir engineering programs were noted. Support for the development of a centre of excellence in petroleum engineering from government and industry, with specific reference to the the recently instituted, government sponsored, ACCESS program, was described. Problems in maintaining a University Faculty with a wide range of petroleum expertise were noted. Current plans for the development of a Conjoint Centre of Applied Petroleum Technology in conjunction with the Southern Alberta Institute of Technology were described. The joint effort between the two institutions appeared to be the most promising avenue to date to realize the dream of Calgary as a world center of excellence in petroleum engineering, preparing future workers in the petroleum industry at all levels, from technologists to post-doctoral fellows

  7. Petroleum resources assessment 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    This report consists of two articles. (1) Petroleum resources assessment of the Okinawa Trough: The hydrocarbon potential has been evaluated for the Tertiary strata in the northwestern margin of the Okinawa Trough on the basis of the pale-ontological, petrological, geochemical data from two wells (Nikkan 8-9 and JDZ 7-3), and geophysical data. (2) Petroliferous basin analysis in Jinju area (2): Petroleum geological studies such as stratigraphy, sedimentology, petrology and organic geochemistry were carried out in the Gyeongsang Supergroup, Junju area. Based on lithofacies and rock color, the sequence can be divided into seven formations which can be organized into two groups (Sindong Group: Nagdong, Hasandong and Jinju formations in ascending order; Hayang Group: Chilgog, Silla Conglomerate, Haman and Jindong formations). (author). 57 refs.

  8. China's petroleum industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boykiw, A.; Katsuris, D.

    1997-01-01

    Petroleum and natural gas resources, industry organization, production, pipeline construction and other transportation issues, refining and business aspects of the Chinese petroleum and natural gas industries were reviewed. The need for large amounts of foreign capital and western technology to stem the deficit in domestic hydrocarbon supply were emphasized as being responsible for the creation in China of favourable conditions for foreign participation in oil and gas exploration, and for the growing confidence for Western investment in China. The most important considerations for successful participation in the economic development of China include: understanding the roles of networking, cultural affinity and reciprocity; hands-on management; finding an appropriate business partner, agent/distributor, or joint venture partner; and understanding local peculiarities and customs. 3 refs

  9. Geopolitics of petroleum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sebille-Lopez, Ph.

    2006-01-01

    The unexpected rise of oil prices since 2004 reveals some structural weaknesses of oil markets in front of the evolution of demand. It conceals considerable stakes, more political than strategic, like the securing of oil and petroleum product supplies of big consumers like the USA and China. This demand generates deep changes in the relations between the different actors, from Venezuela to Russia, from the Caspian sea to the Arab-Persian gulf, from the Mediterranean sea to the gulf of Guinea. Terrorists, who try to destabilize markets using threats on petroleum infrastructures, add-up a risk dimension to the uncertainties. The author proposes a world tour of the main production areas, along the 'oil roads' where the main strategic manoeuvres take place. He shades light on the main power stakes: pressure, tensions, threats and deals, alliances, ruptures and potential conflicts. The complex and multiple motivations are explained. (J.S.)

  10. India's Downstream Petroleum Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This study provides a holistic examination of pricing and investment dynamics in India's downstream petroleum sector. It analyses the current pricing practices, highlights the tremendous fiscal cost of current pricing and regulatory arrangements, and examines the sectoral investment dynamics. It also looks at potential paths towards market-based reform along which the Indian government may move, while at the same time protecting energy market access for India's large poor population.

  11. Deodorizing petroleum oils, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haller, A

    1906-06-14

    A process of purifying and deodorizing petroleum oils, gasolines, ethers, benzines, shale oils, resins, and similar products, consisting essentially in passing the vapors of the liquids with a current of hydrogen or of gases high in hydrogen over divided metals, such as nickel, copper, cobalt, iron, platinum, etc., heated to a temperature between 100/sup 0/C and 350/sup 0/C, the vapors passing before entering the apparatus through a column of copper heated to above 350/sup 0/C.

  12. Use of absorption spectroscopy for refined petroleum product discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, Michael

    1991-07-01

    On-line discrimination between arbitrary petroleum products is necessary for optimal control of petroleum refinery and pipeline operation and process control involving petroleum distillates. There are a number of techniques by which petroleum products can be distinguished from one another. Among these, optical measurements offer fast, non-intrusive, real-time characterization. The application examined here involves optically monitoring the interface between dissimilar batches of fluids in a gasoline pipeline. After examination of near- infrared and mid-infrared absorption spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy, Fourier transform mid-infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was chosen as the best candidate for implementation. On- line FTIR data is presented, verifying the applicability of the technique for batch interface detection.

  13. Assessing an Entrepreneurship Education Project in Engineering Studies by Means of Participatory Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Medina, Leovigilda; Fernández-Ahumada, Elvira; Lara-Vélez, Pablo; Garrido-Varo, Ana; Pérez-Marin, Dolores; Guerrero-Ginel, José Emilio

    2014-01-01

    The new imperatives of the knowledge-based society require engineering students to equip themselves with a broad range of skills, among which entrepreneurship plays a critical role. An academic itinerary was designed with the explicit aim of improving the entrepreneurial attitudes of agricultural engineering students in a state university in…

  14. Clinical translation of autologous cell-based tissue engineering techniques as Class III therapeutics in China: Taking cartilage tissue engineering as an example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Autologous cell-based tissue engineering (TE techniques have been clinically approved for approximately 4 years in China, since the first cartilage TE technique was approved for clinical use by the Zhejiang Health Bureau. TE techniques offer a promising alternative to traditional transplantation surgery, and are different from those for transplanted tissues (biologics or pharmaceutical, the clinical translational procedures are unique and multitasked, and the requirements may differ from those of the target tissues. Thus, the translational procedure is still unfamiliar to most researchers and needs further improvement. This perspectives paper describes the key guidelines and regulations involved in the current translational process, and shares our translational experiences in cartilage TE to provide an example of autologous cell-based TE translation in China. Finally, we discuss the scientific and social challenges and provide some suggestions for future improvements.

  15. The influence of petroleum products on the methane fermentation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choromański, Paweł; Karwowska, Ewa; Łebkowska, Maria

    2016-01-15

    In this study the influence of the petroleum products: diesel fuel and spent engine oil on the sewage sludge digestion process and biogas production efficiency was investigated. Microbiological, chemical and enzymatic analyses were applied in the survey. It was revealed that the influence of the petroleum derivatives on the effectiveness of the methane fermentation of sewage sludge depends on the type of the petroleum product. Diesel fuel did not limit the biogas production and the methane concentration in the biogas, while spent engine oil significantly reduced the process efficacy. The changes in physical-chemical parameters, excluding COD, did not reflect the effect of the tested substances. The negative influence of petroleum products on individual bacterial groups was observed after 7 days of the process, while after 14 days probably some adaptive mechanisms appeared. The dehydrogenase activity assessment was the most relevant parameter to evaluate the effect of petroleum products contamination. Diesel fuel was probably used as a source of carbon and energy in the process, while the toxic influence was observed in case of spent engine oil. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Preparing systems engineering and computing science students in disciplined methods, quantitative, and advanced statistical techniques to improve process performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCray, Wilmon Wil L., Jr.

    The research was prompted by a need to conduct a study that assesses process improvement, quality management and analytical techniques taught to students in U.S. colleges and universities undergraduate and graduate systems engineering and the computing science discipline (e.g., software engineering, computer science, and information technology) degree programs during their academic training that can be applied to quantitatively manage processes for performance. Everyone involved in executing repeatable processes in the software and systems development lifecycle processes needs to become familiar with the concepts of quantitative management, statistical thinking, process improvement methods and how they relate to process-performance. Organizations are starting to embrace the de facto Software Engineering Institute (SEI) Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI RTM) Models as process improvement frameworks to improve business processes performance. High maturity process areas in the CMMI model imply the use of analytical, statistical, quantitative management techniques, and process performance modeling to identify and eliminate sources of variation, continually improve process-performance; reduce cost and predict future outcomes. The research study identifies and provides a detail discussion of the gap analysis findings of process improvement and quantitative analysis techniques taught in U.S. universities systems engineering and computing science degree programs, gaps that exist in the literature, and a comparison analysis which identifies the gaps that exist between the SEI's "healthy ingredients " of a process performance model and courses taught in U.S. universities degree program. The research also heightens awareness that academicians have conducted little research on applicable statistics and quantitative techniques that can be used to demonstrate high maturity as implied in the CMMI models. The research also includes a Monte Carlo simulation optimization

  17. Multi-model approach to petroleum resource appraisal using analytic methodologies for probabilistic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crovelli, R.A.

    1988-01-01

    The geologic appraisal model that is selected for a petroleum resource assessment depends upon purpose of the assessment, basic geologic assumptions of the area, type of available data, time available before deadlines, available human and financial resources, available computer facilities, and, most importantly, the available quantitative methodology with corresponding computer software and any new quantitative methodology that would have to be developed. Therefore, different resource assessment projects usually require different geologic models. Also, more than one geologic model might be needed in a single project for assessing different regions of the study or for cross-checking resource estimates of the area. Some geologic analyses used in the past for petroleum resource appraisal involved play analysis. The corresponding quantitative methodologies of these analyses usually consisted of Monte Carlo simulation techniques. A probabilistic system of petroleum resource appraisal for play analysis has been designed to meet the following requirements: (1) includes a variety of geologic models, (2) uses an analytic methodology instead of Monte Carlo simulation, (3) possesses the capacity to aggregate estimates from many areas that have been assessed by different geologic models, and (4) runs quickly on a microcomputer. Geologic models consist of four basic types: reservoir engineering, volumetric yield, field size, and direct assessment. Several case histories and present studies by the U.S. Geological Survey are discussed. ?? 1988 International Association for Mathematical Geology.

  18. [National Institute for Petroleum and Energy Research] monthly progress report, July 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-09-01

    Accomplishments for the month of July are described briefly under tasks for: Energy Production Research; Fuels Research; and Supplemental Government Program. Energy Production Research includes: reservoir assessment and characterization; TORIS research support; development of improved microbial flooding methods; surfactant flooding methods; development of improved alkaline flooding methods; mobility control and sweep improvement in chemical flooding; gas flood performance prediction improvement; mobility control, profile modification, and sweep improvement in gas flooding; three-phase relative permeability research; thermal processes for light oil recovery; thermal processes for heavy oil recovery; and imaging techniques applied to the study of fluids in porous media. Fuel Research includes: development of analytical methodology for analysis of heavy crudes; and thermochemistry and thermophysical properties of organic nitrogen- and diheteroatom-containing compounds. Supplement Government Program includes: microbial-enhanced waterflooding field project; feasibility study of heavy oil recovery in the midcontinent region--Oklahoma, Kansas, and Missouri; surfactant-enhanced alkaline flooding field project; development of methods for mapping distribution of clays in petroleum reservoirs; summary of geological and production characteristics of class 1. unstructured, deltaic reservoirs; third international reservoir characterization technical conference; process-engineering property measurements on heavy petroleum components; development and application of petroleum production technologies; upgrade BPO crude oil data base; simulation analysis of steam-foam projects; analysis of the US oil resource base and estimate of future recoverable oil; DOE education initiative project; and technology transfer to independent producers.

  19. (National Institute for Petroleum and Energy Research) monthly progress report, July 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-09-01

    Accomplishments for the month of July are described briefly under tasks for: Energy Production Research; Fuels Research; and Supplemental Government Program. Energy Production Research includes: reservoir assessment and characterization; TORIS research support; development of improved microbial flooding methods; surfactant flooding methods; development of improved alkaline flooding methods; mobility control and sweep improvement in chemical flooding; gas flood performance prediction improvement; mobility control, profile modification, and sweep improvement in gas flooding; three-phase relative permeability research; thermal processes for light oil recovery; thermal processes for heavy oil recovery; and imaging techniques applied to the study of fluids in porous media. Fuel Research includes: development of analytical methodology for analysis of heavy crudes; and thermochemistry and thermophysical properties of organic nitrogen- and diheteroatom-containing compounds. Supplement Government Program includes: microbial-enhanced waterflooding field project; feasibility study of heavy oil recovery in the midcontinent region--Oklahoma, Kansas, and Missouri; surfactant-enhanced alkaline flooding field project; development of methods for mapping distribution of clays in petroleum reservoirs; summary of geological and production characteristics of class 1. unstructured, deltaic reservoirs; third international reservoir characterization technical conference; process-engineering property measurements on heavy petroleum components; development and application of petroleum production technologies; upgrade BPO crude oil data base; simulation analysis of steam-foam projects; analysis of the US oil resource base and estimate of future recoverable oil; DOE education initiative project; and technology transfer to independent producers.

  20. Petroleum marketing monthly, August 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-15

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product Sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly.

  1. Petroleum marketing monthly, September 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum product sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly.

  2. Petroleum marketing monthly, December 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-05

    This publication provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. It presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include domestic first purchase price, f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude, and refiners` acquisition cost of crude. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane.

  3. Basic petroleum research. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roesjoe, Bjarne; Stiksrud, Helge

    2004-01-01

    An overview of projects in the field of basic petroleum research (PetroForsk) is presented. A brief presentation of some of the projects is included, as well as political comments on the value of these projects. The research program Basic Petroleum Research (PetroForsk) was established in 1998 and ended in 2004. The program has been part of the Research Council of Norway's long-term effort in petroleum research (ml)

  4. Indicators on the world petroleum markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-10-01

    This paper presents tendencies of the petroleum industry market. It analyses the petroleum demand and supply, the prices elaboration, the petroleum market and the OPEC objective, the third petroleum crisis of the year 2000 and gives some data concerning the petroleum market. (A.L.B.)

  5. Environmental hazard and risk characterisation of petroleum substances: a guided "walking tour" of petroleum hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierkens, Johan; Geerts, Lieve

    2014-05-01

    Petroleum substances are used in large quantities, primarily as fuels. They are complex mixtures whose major constituents are hydrocarbons derived from crude oil by distillation and fractionation. Determining the complete molecular composition of petroleum and its refined products is not feasible with current analytical techniques because of the huge number of molecular components. This complex nature of petroleum products, with their varied number of constituents, all of them exhibiting different fate and effect characteristics, merits a dedicated hazard and risk assessment approach. From a regulatory perspective they pose a great challenge in a number of REACH processes, in particular in the context of dossier and substance evaluation but also for priority setting activities. In order to facilitate the performance of hazard and risk assessment for petroleum substances the European oil company association, CONCAWE, has developed the PETROTOX and PETRORISK spreadsheet models. Since the exact composition of many petroleum products is not known, an underlying assumption of the PETROTOX and PETRORISK tools is that the behaviour and fate of a total petroleum substance can be simulated based on the physical-chemical properties of representative structures mapped to hydrocarbon blocks (HBs) and on the relative share of each HB in the total mass of the product. To assess how differing chemical compositions affect the simulated chemical fate and toxicity of hydrocarbon mixtures, a series of model simulations were run using an artificial petroleum substance, containing 386 (PETROTOX) or 160 (PETRORISK) HBs belonging to different chemical classes and molecular weight ranges, but with equal mass assigned to each of them. To this artificial petroleum substance a guided series of subsequent modifications in mass allocation to a delineated number of HBs belonging to different chemical classes and carbon ranges was performed, in what we perceived as a guided "walking tour

  6. An intelligent decision support system for management of petroleum-contaminated sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liquang Geng; Chan, C.W.; Zhi Chen; Huang, G.H.

    2001-01-01

    Groundwater and soil contamination resulted from LNAPLs (light nonaqueous phase liquids) spills and leakage in petroleum industry is currently one of the major environmental concerns in North America. Numerous site remediation technologies have been developed and implemented in the last two decades. They are classified as ex-situ and in-situ remediation techniques. One of the problems associated with ex-situ remediation is the cost of operation. In recent years, in-situ techniques have acquired popularity. However, the selection of the optimal techniques is difficult and insufficient expertise in the process may result in large inflation of expenses. This study presents an expert system (ES) for the management of petroleum contaminated sites in which a variety of artificial intelligence (AI) techniques were used to construct a support tool for site remediation decision-making. This paper presents the knowledge engineering processes of knowledge acquisition, conceptual design, and system implementation. The results from some case studies indicate that the expert system can generate cost-effective remediation alternatives to assist decision-makers. (Author)

  7. Selling petroleum to the military

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uscher, R.H.

    1999-01-01

    This article examines what petroleum products and services the US military buys, the contracts awarded to Asian and European refiners for supplies outside the USA, and military specifications and test methods including the specifications of JP-8 battlefield fuel and the JP-8+100 additive package for military aircraft. The way in which the military buys petroleum products is described, and details are given of the types of military contracts, the bidding on Defense Energy Support Center (DESC) petroleum contracts, the performance of military petroleum contracts, socio-economic programmes, the Prompt Payment Act requiring contractors to be paid promptly, and procedures for claims and disputes

  8. Reference data about petroleum fiscality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This paper explains the different taxes existing in France for the petroleum products (domestic tax on petroleum products, added-value tax), the share of taxes in the retail price, the differences with other European countries, the French Government fiscal receipts and budget. Some information forms are attached to this document and concern: the formation of fuel prices (upstream, refining and transport-distribution margins), the evolution of annual average transport-distribution margins, some reference data about world petroleum markets (supply and demand, prices, market data), and some reference data about the role of oil companies on the petroleum market. (J.S.)

  9. Chapter VIII. Contributions of propagation techniques and genetic modification to breeding - genetic engineering for disease resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genetic engineering offers an opportunity to develop flower bulb crops with resistance to fungal, viral, and bacterial pathogens. Several of the flower bulb crops, Lilium spp., Gladiolus, Zantedeschia, Muscari, Hyacinthus, Narcissus, Ornithogalum, Iris, and Alstroemeria, have been transformed with t...

  10. Inverse Theory for Petroleum Reservoir Characterization and History Matching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Dean S.; Reynolds, Albert C.; Liu, Ning

    This book is a guide to the use of inverse theory for estimation and conditional simulation of flow and transport parameters in porous media. It describes the theory and practice of estimating properties of underground petroleum reservoirs from measurements of flow in wells, and it explains how to characterize the uncertainty in such estimates. Early chapters present the reader with the necessary background in inverse theory, probability and spatial statistics. The book demonstrates how to calculate sensitivity coefficients and the linearized relationship between models and production data. It also shows how to develop iterative methods for generating estimates and conditional realizations. The text is written for researchers and graduates in petroleum engineering and groundwater hydrology and can be used as a textbook for advanced courses on inverse theory in petroleum engineering. It includes many worked examples to demonstrate the methodologies and a selection of exercises.

  11. Adaptive critic learning techniques for engine torque and air-fuel ratio control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Derong; Javaherian, Hossein; Kovalenko, Olesia; Huang, Ting

    2008-08-01

    A new approach for engine calibration and control is proposed. In this paper, we present our research results on the implementation of adaptive critic designs for self-learning control of automotive engines. A class of adaptive critic designs that can be classified as (model-free) action-dependent heuristic dynamic programming is used in this research project. The goals of the present learning control design for automotive engines include improved performance, reduced emissions, and maintained optimum performance under various operating conditions. Using the data from a test vehicle with a V8 engine, we developed a neural network model of the engine and neural network controllers based on the idea of approximate dynamic programming to achieve optimal control. We have developed and simulated self-learning neural network controllers for both engine torque (TRQ) and exhaust air-fuel ratio (AFR) control. The goal of TRQ control and AFR control is to track the commanded values. For both control problems, excellent neural network controller transient performance has been achieved.

  12. Nondestructive Techniques to Evaluate the Characteristics and Development of Engineered Cartilage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, Joseph M.; Lee, Zhenghong; Welter, Jean F.

    2016-01-01

    In this review, methods for evaluating the properties of tissue engineered (TE) cartilage are described. Many of these have been developed for evaluating properties of native and osteoarthritic articular cartilage. However, with the increasing interest in engineering cartilage, specialized methods are needed for nondestructive evaluation of tissue while it is developing and after it is implanted. Such methods are needed, in part, due to the large inter- and intra-donor variability in the performance of the cellular component of the tissue, which remains a barrier to delivering reliable TE cartilage for implantation. Using conventional destructive tests, such variability makes it near-impossible to predict the timing and outcome of the tissue engineering process at the level of a specific piece of engineered tissue and also makes it difficult to assess the impact of changing tissue engineering regimens. While it is clear that the true test of engineered cartilage is its performance after it is implanted, correlation of pre and post implantation properties determined non-destructively in vitro and/or in vivo with performance should lead to predictive methods to improve quality-control and to minimize the chances of implanting inferior tissue. PMID:26817458

  13. 19 CFR 151.47 - Optional entry of net quantity of petroleum or petroleum products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Optional entry of net quantity of petroleum or petroleum products. 151.47 Section 151.47 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF... Petroleum and Petroleum Products § 151.47 Optional entry of net quantity of petroleum or petroleum products...

  14. Efficient Techniques of Sparse Signal Analysis for Enhanced Recovery of Information in Biomedical Engineering and Geosciences

    KAUST Repository

    Sana, Furrukh

    2016-01-01

    precision technique for the monitoring of human respiratory movements by exploiting the sparsity of wireless ultra-wideband signals. The proposed technique provides a novel methodology of overcoming the Nyquist sampling constraint and enables robust

  15. Petroleum abundance until when

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appert, O.

    1996-01-01

    The petroleum demand goes on to increase. In front of this demand the non Opec supply increases because of new positive explorations, new technologies and a reduction of exploration-production prices. With 10% of worldwide reserves, OECD insures 30% of worldwide production. With 18% of reserves, the non-Opec world insures 48% of worldwide needs. But a return on Middle East where are 65% of reserves is inescapable but it can be all the more brutal since non Opec world consumes its own resources more quickly. 7 figs

  16. International petroleum statistics report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report is a monthly publication that provides current international oil data. This report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, exports and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world, in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries.

  17. An electrochemical engineering technique to improve the corrosion resistance of some structural materials in lead-alloy coolants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tacica, M.; Andrei, V.; Rusu, O.; Coaca, E.; Minca, M.; Florea, S.; Oncioiu, G.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to present some conclusions resulted from the literature studies referring to the materials potential to be used in Lead Fast Reactors (LFR), and the results obtained in the surface engineering field which can be used in our institute in order to obtain materials with appropriate properties for their use in LFR. In this context, the paper presents some preliminary results obtained in Surface Analysis Laboratory of INR Pitesti and research works in progress referring to: controlled modification of AISI 316 L surface by electrochemical plasma treatment (carburization, nitrocarburizings); electrodeposition of some protective thin-films based on Ni and Al obtained from ionic liquids; development of some procedures related to the activities involved in the behaviour evaluation, in LFR specific conditions, for material samples subjected to treatments by surface engineering techniques using the LEad COrrosion TEsting LOop (LECOTELO) test bench. The superficial structures obtained have been characterized by metallographic microscopy, X-Ray Photoemission Spectroscopy (XPS), Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS); the electrochemical techniques were used to evaluate the corrosion behaviour. The preliminary results have shown that the used electrochemical surface engineering techniques are appropriate in order to improve the mechanical properties and corrosion behaviour of AISI 316 L steel. (authors)

  18. Laboratory modeling, field study, and numerical simulation of bioremediation of petroleum contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livingston, R.J.; Islam, M.R.

    1999-01-01

    Historical methods of cleaning up petroleum hydrocarbons from the vadose zone, the capillary zone, and the aquifers are not technically true cleanup technologies but rather transfer techniques. In addition, environmental engineers are realizing that the standard remediation techniques are not entirely effective in removing the hazardous material in a reasonable time frame. Long-chain hydrocarbons such as kerosene, diesel, and waste oil are particularly difficult to remediate using conventional techniques. The use of bioremediation as an alternative remediation technology is fast becoming the technique of choice among many environmental professionals. This method offers substantial benefits not found in other remediation processes. Bioremediation is very cost effective, nondestructive, relatively uncomplicated in implementing, requires non specialized equipment, and can be extremely effective in removing recalcitrant petroleum hydrocarbons. This study researched the availability of viable microbial populations in the arid climate in South Dakota. Exponential growth of the bacteria and the ability of bacteria to degrade long-chain hydrocarbons indicated that healthy populations do exist and could be used to mineralize organic hydrocarbons. Experimental results indicated that bioremediation can be effectively enhanced in landfills as well as in the subsurface using a supply of harmless nutrients. The biodegradation rate can be further enhanced with the use of edible surfactant that helped disperse the petroleum products. Also, the use of hydrogen peroxide enhanced the oxygen availability and increased the degradation rate. Interestingly, the bacterial growth rate is found to be high in difficult-to-biodegrade contaminants, such as waste oil. A numerical simulation program was also developed that describes the bacterial growth in the subsurface along with the reduction in substrate (contamination). Results from this program were found to be consistent with laboratory

  19. Petroleum supply monthly, March 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-03-30

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics. The tables and figures in the Summary Statistics section of the PSM present a time series of selected petroleum data on a US level. Most time series include preliminary estimates for one month based on the Weekly Petroleum Supply Reporting System; statistics based on the most recent data from the Monthly Petroleum Supply Reporting System (MPSRS); and statistics published in prior issues of the PSM and PSA. The Detailed Statistics tables of the PSM present statistics for the most current month available as well as year-to-date. In most cases, the statistics are presented for several geographic areas -- the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia), five PAD Districts, and 12 Refining Districts. At the US and PAD District level, the total volume and the daily rate of activities are presented. The statistics are developed from monthly survey forms submitted by respondents to the EIA and from data provided from other sources.

  20. Using the ultrasound and instrumented indentation techniques to measure the elastic modulus of engineering materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meza, J. M.; Franco, E. E.; Farias, M. C. M.; Buiochi, F.; Souza, R. M.; Cruz, J.

    2008-01-01

    Currently, the acoustic and nano indentation techniques are two of the most used techniques for materials elastic modulus measurement. In this article fundamental principles and limitations of both techniques are shown and discussed. Last advances in nano indentation technique are also reviewed. an experimental study in ceramic, metallic, composite and single crystals was also done. Results shown that ultrasonic technique is capable to provide results in agreement with those reported in literature. However, ultrasonic technique does not allow measuring the elastic modulus of some small samples and single crystals. On the other hand, the nano indentation technique estimates the elastic modulus values in reasonable agreement with those measured by acoustic methods, particularly in amorphous materials, while in some policristaline materials some deviation from expected values was obtained. (Author) 29 refs

  1. [Analysis of fluorescence spectrum of petroleum-polluted water].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Miao-Fen; Song, Qing-Jun; Xing, Xu-Feng; Jian, Wei-Jun; Liu, Yuan; Zhao, Zu-Long

    2014-09-01

    In four ratio experiments, natural waters, sampled from the mountain reservoir and the sea water around Dalian city, were mixed with the sewage from petroleum refinery and petroleum exploitation plants. The fluorescence spectra of water samples containing only chromophoric dissolved organic matters(CDOM), samples containing only petroleum, and samples containing a mixture of petroleum and CDOM were analyzed, respectively. The purpose of this analysis is to provide a basis for determining the contribution of petroleum substances and CDOM to the total absorption coefficient of the petroleum-contaminated water by using fluorescence technique. The results showed that firstly, CDOM in seawater had three main fluorescence peaks at Ex: 225-230 nm/Em: 320-330 nm, Ex: 280 nm/Em: 340 nm and Ex: 225-240 nm/Em: 430-470 nm, respectively, and these may arise from the oceanic chlorophyll. CDOM in natural reservoir water had two main fluorescence peaks at EX: 240- 260 nm/Em: 420-450 nm and Ex: 310~350 nm/Em: 420--440 nm, respectively, and these may arise from the terrestrial sources; secondly, the water samples containing only petroleum extracted with n-hexane had one to three fluorescence spectral peaksat Ex: 220-240 nm/Em: 320-340 nm, Ex: 270-290 nm/Em: 310-340 nm and Ex: 220-235 nm/Em: 280-310 nm, respectively, caused by their hydrocarbon component; finally, the water samples containing both petroleum and CDOM showed a very strong fluorescence peak at Ex: 230-250 nm/Em: 320-370 nm, caused by the combined effect of CDOM and petroleum hydrocarbons.

  2. The United Nations Framework Classification for World Petroleum Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlbrandt, T.S.; Blystad, P.; Young, E.D.; Slavov, S.; Heiberg, S.

    2003-01-01

    The United Nations has developed an international framework classification for solid fuels and minerals (UNFC). This is now being extended to petroleum by building on the joint classification of the Society of Petroleum Engineers (SPE), the World Petroleum Congresses (WPC) and the American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG). The UNFC is a 3-dimansional classification. This: Is necessary in order to migrate accounts of resource quantities that are developed on one or two of the axes to the common basis; Provides for more precise reporting and analysis. This is particularly useful in analyses of contingent resources. The characteristics of the SPE/WPC/AAPG classification has been preserved and enhanced to facilitate improved international and national petroleum resource management, corporate business process management and financial reporting. A UN intergovernmental committee responsible for extending the UNFC to extractive energy resources (coal, petroleum and uranium) will meet in Geneva on October 30th and 31st to review experiences gained and comments received during 2003. A recommended classification will then be delivered for consideration to the United Nations through the Committee on Sustainable Energy of the Economic Commission for Europe (UN ECE).

  3. Flow in porous media, phase behavior and ultralow interfacial tensions: mechanisms of enhanced petroleum recovery. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, H.T.; Scriven, L.E.

    1982-01-01

    A major program of university research, longer-ranged and more fundamental in approach than industrial research, into basic mechanisms of enhancing petroleum recovery and into underlying physics, chemistry, geology, applied mathematics, computation, and engineering science has been built at Minnesota. The 1982 outputs of the interdisciplinary team of investigators were again ideas, instruments, techniques, data, understanding and skilled people: forty-one scientific and engineering papers in leading journals; four pioneering Ph.D. theses; numerous presentations to scientific and technical meetings, and to industrial, governmental and university laboratories; vigorous program of research visits to and from Minnesota; and two outstanding Ph.D.'s to research positions in the petroleum industry, one to a university faculty position, one to research leadership in a governmental institute. This report summarizes the 1982 papers and theses and features sixteen major accomplishments of the program during that year. Abstracts of all forty-five publications in the permanent literature are appended. Further details of information transfer and personnel exchange with industrial, governmental and university laboratories appear in 1982 Quarterly Reports available from the Department of Energy and are not reproduced here. The Minnesota program continues in 1983, notwithstanding earlier uncertainty about the DOE funding which finally materialized and is the bulk of support. Supplemental grants-in-aid from nine companies in the petroleum industry are important, as are the limited University and departmental contributions. 839 references, 172 figures, 29 tables.

  4. Risk behavior in petroleum exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose, P.R.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, the author uses the term risk aversion, which weighs the magnitude of investment against four factors: size of available budget, potential gain, potential loss, and probabilities of each outcome. Modern petroleum exploration consists of a series of investment decisions on whether to acquire additional technical data (geological, geophysical, engineering, drilling, or economic) and/or additional mineral interests. Each decision should allow a progressively clearer perception of project risk versus reward and should support timely management action concerning the inferred accumulation. Companies searching for oil and natural gas make hundreds of such exploration decisions each year. So the problem in serial exploration decision making is twofold: to be consistent in the way we deal with risk and uncertainty and to perceive risk and uncertainty accurately and reduce them where possible. Risk aversion is not just a hypothetical nuisance. It causes explorationists to make inconsistent investment decisions, and it costs exploration companies millions of dollars annually in lost opportunities, bad choices, and wasted investment dollars

  5. In-cylinder pressure-based direct techniques and time frequency analysis for combustion diagnostics in IC engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D’Ambrosio, S.; Ferrari, A.; Galleani, L.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Direct pressure-based techniques have been applied successfully to spark-ignition engines. • The burned mass fraction of pressure-based techniques has been compared with that of 2- and 3-zone combustion models. • The time frequency analysis has been employed to simulate complex diesel combustion events. - Abstract: In-cylinder pressure measurement and analysis has historically been a key tool for off-line combustion diagnosis in internal combustion engines, but online applications for real-time condition monitoring and combustion management have recently become popular. The present investigation presents and compares different low computing-cost in-cylinder pressure based methods for the analyses of the main features of combustion, that is, the start of combustion, the end of combustion and the crankshaft angle that responds to half of the overall burned mass. The instantaneous pressure in the combustion chamber has been used as an input datum for the described analytical procedures and it has been measured by means of a standard piezoelectric transducer. Traditional pressure-based techniques have been shown to be able to predict the burned mass fraction time history more accurately in spark ignition engines than in diesel engines. The most suitable pressure-based techniques for both spark ignition and compression ignition engines have been chosen on the basis of the available experimental data. Time–frequency analysis has also been applied to the analysis of diesel combustion, which is richer in events than spark ignited combustion. Time frequency algorithms for the calculation of the mean instantaneous frequency are computationally efficient, allow the main events of the diesel combustion to be identified and provide the greatest benefits in the presence of multiple injection events. These algorithms can be optimized and applied to onboard diagnostics tools designed for real control, but can also be used as an advanced validation tool for

  6. Eurisys: chemistry and petroleum as diversification centers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    The Eurisys Network has followed in 1995 its strategy of diversification and extended its engineering and servicing activities outside the nuclear domain towards other sectors such as the hydrocarbons sector. This development led to a 26% turnover increase (4.7 billions of French Francs (GF) in 1996 with respect to 3.8 GF in 1994) and a net result of 204 millions of Francs for the group. This short paper summarises the new servicing activities and contracts of the group in the petrochemistry, chemistry, petroleum and natural gas domain. (J.S.)

  7. International petroleum statistics report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report is a monthly publication that provides current international oil data. This report is published for the use of Members of Congress, Federal agencies, State agencies, industry, and the general public. Publication of this report is in keeping with responsibilities given the Energy Information Administration in Public Law 95-91. The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1995; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1995; and OECD trade from 1985 through 1995.

  8. Canadian petroleum industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dagher, J.H.

    1969-12-01

    This study covers the following Canadian petroleum industry categories: (1) a brief history; (2) the demand for Alberta crude; (3) U.S. oil policies; (4) overseas exploration; (5) the national oil policy; (6) the Montreal pipeline and its targets; (7) a continental oil policy; and (8) the impact of Arctic reserves. It is noted that large potential benefits will improve from the Manhattan navigating the Northwest Passage. Without prejudging the analysis now applied to the information gathered on this voyage, the Manhattan has greatly contributed to the solution of the problem of access to the Arctic islands. The picture for natural gas is less fraught with uncertainties. Unlike oil, where domestic and international considerations may weigh in U.S. policy decision, Canadian natural gas is likely to be allowed to enjoy its full economic potential in bridging the foreseeable U.S. supply gap and, inasmuch as this potential is ultimately tied with that for crude oil markets, the anticipated U.S. needs for Canadian natural gas may be expected to enhance U.S. interest in the overall well-being of the Canadian petroleum industry.

  9. The future petroleum geologist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, R.R.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that in July 1985, AAPG President William L. Fisher appointed a select committee to determine the capabilities that will be required of petroleum geologists in the future. His charge to the committee was based on the profound changes and uncertainties that were beginning to be felt in the industry and would surely affect the employment of geologists and their professional practice. These changes are well known: the supply of oil had exceeded demand, the price of oil was unstable, many companies were threatened by debt and buy-outs, and corporate restructuring was underway to meet changing economic conditions. All contributed to great uncertainty about the need and requirements of geological employment and practice. Specifically, President Fisher charged the committee to distinguish those elements of recent times that are cyclic and those that are long-term in their effects; to characterize the state of the industry for the next 25 years; to predict the capabilities that the future petroleum geologist should posses to meet the challenges of the future; and most importantly, the define the role of AAPG and its commitments to the membership under these changing conditions

  10. Petroleum resources assessment (I)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    This report consists of 2 subjects. 1) Petroleum resources assessment on the western part of the Kunsan Basin: Palynomorphs including spores, pollen and organic-walled microfossils and calcareous microfossils such as ostracods, charophytes and gastropods were studied for the biostratigraphic work of Kachi-1 and IIH-1Xa wells. Based on available well data, the rifting probably began in the Cretaceous time had continued until Paleocene. It is considered that compressional force immediately after rifting event deformed sedimentary sections. During the period of Paleocene to middle Miocene, the sediments were deposited in stable environment without particular tectonic event. 2) Petroliferous basin analysis in Taegu area (II): The Nakdong and Jinju formations contain abundant black shales, and thermal maturity of the organic matter reached at the final stage of dry gas generation. These formations also contain thick sandstones which can act as a petroleum reservoir. However, reservoir quality of the sandstones is poor (porosity: < 5%; permeability: < 0.001 md). In these sandstones, secondary pores such as dissolution pores and micropores can act as a tight gas reservoir. (author). 56 refs., 24 tabs., 68 figs.

  11. Petroleum and natural gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    060,

    1965-02-01

    Substantial increases in demand for Canadian petroleum and natural gas in both domestic and export markets resulted in another good year throughout the main sectors of the industry. In February, production averaged 850,000 bpd, or about 8% more than 1963 output of crude oil and natural gas liquids. Construction began on the first full scale plant for the extraction of oil from the Athabasca bituminous sands. In 1964, exploratory and development drilling in western Canada increased 10% from the previous year. A total of 15.5 million ft was drilled, the largest since the record drilling year of 1956. The main oil field development areas in Alberta were the House Mountain, Deer Mountain and Goose River Fields, and the Bantry-Taber heavy oil region in southeastern Alberta. Oil reserves were increased substantially by waterflood pressure maintenance projects in many of the older oil fields. The largest oil accumulation discovered in 1964 was the Syvia-Honda Field in the Devonian Gilwood sandstone in N.-central Alberta. Two graphs illustrate the crude petroleum in Canada in millions of barrels from 1940 to 1964, and natural gas in Canada in billions of cu ft from 1950 to 1964. The outlook for the industry in 1965 is good.

  12. Facts 2010 - The Norwegian petroleum sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-07-01

    The publication provides a general overview of information regarding the petroleum activities on the Norwegian continental shelf. Content; Foreword; The petroleum sector - Norway's largest industry; Organisation of Norwegian petroleum activity; Government petroleum revenues; Exploration activities; Development and operations; Norwegian gas exports; Decommissioning; Research, technology and industrial development; Environmental considerations in the Norwegian petroleum sector; Petroleum resources; Fields in production; Fields under development; Future developments; Fields where production has ceased; Pipelines and onshore facilities. (AG)

  13. Facts 2010 - The Norwegian petroleum sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-07-01

    The publication provides a general overview of information regarding the petroleum activities on the Norwegian continental shelf. Content; Foreword; The petroleum sector - Norway's largest industry; Organisation of Norwegian petroleum activity; Government petroleum revenues; Exploration activities; Development and operations; Norwegian gas exports; Decommissioning; Research, technology and industrial development; Environmental considerations in the Norwegian petroleum sector; Petroleum resources; Fields in production; Fields under development; Future developments; Fields where production has ceased; Pipelines and onshore facilities. (AG)

  14. Facts 2011 - The Norwegian petroleum sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-07-15

    The publication provides a general overview of information regarding the petroleum activities on the Norwegian continental shelf. Content; Foreword; The petroleum sector - Norway's largest industry; Organisation of Norwegian petroleum activity; Government petroleum revenues; Exploration activities; Development and operations; Norwegian gas exports; Decommissioning; Research, technology and industrial development; Environmental considerations in the Norwegian petroleum sector; Petroleum resources; Fields in production; Fields under development; Future developments; Fields where production has ceased; Pipelines and onshore facilities. (AG)

  15. Petroleum industry assists hurricane relief

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that the petroleum industry is aiding victims of last month's Hurricane Andrew with cash, clothing, food, water, and other supplies. Cash contributions announced as of last week totaled more than $2.7 million for distribution in South Florida and South Louisiana. Petroleum industry employees were collecting relief items such as bottled water and diapers for distribution in those areas

  16. The para-petroleum industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-07-01

    The para-petroleum industry includes societies that realize studies and installations for the deposits exploitation. This document presents the situation of the para-petroleum industry in 2001, the world investment growth of the activity, the french societies financial results and an inventory of the main operations in the amalgamation domain. (A.L.B.)

  17. Petroleum Biotechnology. Developments and Perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vazquez-Duhalt, R.; Quintero-Ramirez, R.

    2004-01-01

    This book deals with the field of petroleum biorefining and biological upgrade of petroleum; it presents a critical review as well as an integrated overview of the potential biochemical processes, bridging the gap between academia and industry. It addresses today's demanding production challenges, taking into account energy efficient and environmentally friendly processes, and also looks at the future possibility of implementing new refinery systems

  18. Petroleum: An energy profile, 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    This report prepared by the Energy Information Administration covers the following topics: petroleum production and end-use sectors; resources and reserves; exploration and production; LPG sources and processing; motor gasoline octane enhancement; constructing pipelines; the strategic petroleum reserve; imports and exports; marketing; district descriptions and maps; and refinery processes and facilities. 33 figs., 7 tabs.

  19. Passive Techniques for Fan Noise Reduction in New Turbofan Engines: Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Gorj-Bandpy

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Among the various environmental concerns, the aircraft noise item has been constantly growing in importance over the past years. Measures for its reduction at the source as well its mitigation around airports must take into account aspects of medicine and technical design as well as legal and land use planning aspects. Fan noise is one of the principal noise sources in turbofan aero-engines. In this paper a review of the main technologies employed for the reduction of fan noise turbofan engines is presented.

  20. Man and the chip in nuclear engineering - techniques in information processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-12-01

    Hardware and software tools are available which cover the whole range of planning, construction and operation of nuclear facilities; they accelerate and further perfect working processes, and improve communication between man and machine. The application of data processing and electronics in nuclear engineering are evaluated for their present-day extent. 25 papers highlight on-line process control systems, computer-aided management systems, monitoring and diagnosis, EDP application in the planning and construction of industrial-scale plants, simulators, and expert systems used in engineering. All papers were abstracted and entered separately into the data base. (DG) [de

  1. The Improvement of Kansei Engineering by Using the Repertory Grid Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steinberg Falk

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A customer-oriented approach to product development with particular consideration of emotions is represented by Kansei Engineering. Developed by Mitsuo Nagamachi, Kansei Engineering is characterized by the possibility to capture customer perceptions and to translate them into product features. In order to assess these perceptions, a semantic space is generated. For this purpose it is necessary to identify Kansei words that are gathered up through research in marketing concepts, scientific journals and service reports. This procedure though displays the disadvantage of not being able to identify all emotions referring to the investigated product.

  2. Applications of T-ray spectroscopy in the petroleum field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Douseri, Fatemah M.

    2005-11-01

    Because of heavy usage of petroleum products, which are the main source of energy in daily life and industry, a fast, reliable, and portable analysis system is needed to complement traditional techniques. Terahertz (THz) radiation, or T-rays, is electromagnetic radiation in the 0.1 to 10 THz frequency range. One unique attribute of T-rays is their ability to sensitively measure the induced molecular dipole moments in non-polar liquids such as aromatics, which make up the majority of the contents of many petroleum products. This information can lead to several applications in petroleum analysis. The application of T-rays to petroleum product analysis has the potential to make a significant impact in the petroleum field. In this dissertation, I show the first use of T-ray time-domain spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy techniques for petroleum product analysis. I report on the feasibility of analyzing selected petroleum products, including gasoline, diesel, lubricating oil, and selected compounds of toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX). With the use of a T-ray time-domain spectrometer. I demonstrate that gasolines with different octane numbers and diesel all show specific absorption coefficients and refractive indexes in the spectral range from 0.5 to 2.0 THz. Furthermore, I report the qualitative and quantitative analysis of selected BTEX components in gasoline and diesel using FTIR spectroscopy in the 50 to 650 cm-1 region. I distinguish gasolines with different octane numbers from diesel and lubricating oil according to their different spectral features. I also determine the concentration of (o, m, p) xylene isomers in gasoline according to their specific absorption bands. The experimental results in this thesis, imply that linking between the knowledge of petroleum products and the development of T-ray spectrometer with the cooperation of industry might translate the T-ray spectroscopic system into a real world application in

  3. Environment 2004. The Norwegian petroleum sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gooderham, Rolf E. (ed.)

    2004-07-01

    The Ministry of Petroleum and Energy produces an annual environmental review in cooperation with the Norwegian Petroleum Directorate. The purpose of this publication is threefold: (1) to increase knowledge about the environmental aspects of Norwegian oil and gas activities, (2) to take a more detailed look at a specific topic which particularly concerns both the industry and the authorities, and identify the challenges and options faced, (3) to emphasise the government's goal of ensuring that Norway reconciles its role as a large energy producer with a pioneering position on environmental issues. This year's edition focuses on the topic of produced water treatment techniques. It demonstrates that new Norwegian technology helps to limit the risk of environmental harm. New treatment techniques have been developed and adopted, but it can be difficult to understand why a specific solution is not applicable to every field. Through the thematic section in part 2, we endeavour to explain why the choice of solution will vary from field to field, and how that reflects such considerations as technical reservoir conditions and costs. The strong focus on the environmental aspects of Norwegian oil and gas production has undoubtedly helped to make the Norwegian petroleum sector a leader in this area. That reflects both the way the authorities have incorporated environmental considerations extensively into the industry's frame conditions, and from the commitment made by the industry itself. Environment 2004 also incorporates a factual section, which covers the status of emissions discharges, environmental impacts, measures to reduce discharges to the sea and emissions to the air from petroleum activities.

  4. Petroleum marketing monthly, March 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-10

    This report for March 1995, provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly. A glossary is included.

  5. The new challenges of petroleum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gernelle, E.

    2006-02-01

    Petroleum in in the center of our civilization: abundant, easy to use and energy powerful, it is used almost everywhere: transports, lighting, space heating, plastics, fertilizers, cloth industry etc. The 'black-gold' is the object of all stakes, from richness to power. However, petroleum is also at the origin of many evils: pollution, corruption, violence. Today, petroleum is a source of worries: how long will it last? How long will we be able to stand its impacts on environment? This book shades light on all these questions and supplies some concrete elements about this energy source. Content: technological challenges of petroleum; producers: powers and risks; consumers' dependence; to learn more about petroleum. (J.S.)

  6. Petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated sites: a review of investigation and remediation regulations and processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Epelbaum, Michel; Claudio, Jair R. [Bureau Veritas do Brasil Sociedade Classificadora e Certificadora Ltda., Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    1993-12-31

    This paper discusses alternatives on remediation of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated sites which include groundwater remediation techniques and soil remediation techniques. Finally, the work points out some trends of sites remediation in Brazil and abroad. 6 refs., 1 fig., 7 tabs.

  7. Petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated sites: a review of investigation and remediation regulations and processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Epelbaum, Michel; Claudio, Jair R [Bureau Veritas do Brasil Sociedade Classificadora e Certificadora Ltda., Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    1994-12-31

    This paper discusses alternatives on remediation of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated sites which include groundwater remediation techniques and soil remediation techniques. Finally, the work points out some trends of sites remediation in Brazil and abroad. 6 refs., 1 fig., 7 tabs.

  8. Photolithography and micromolding techniques for the realization of 3D polycaprolactone scaffolds for tissue engineering applications

    KAUST Repository

    Limongi, Tania; Schipani, Rossana; Di Vito, Anna; Giugni, Andrea; Francardi, Marco; Torre, Bruno; Allione, Marco; Miele, Ermanno; Malara, Natalia Maria; Alrasheed, Salma; Raimondo, Raffaella; Candeloro, Patrizio; Mollace, Vincenzo; Di Fabrizio, Enzo M.

    2015-01-01

    Material science, cell biology, and engineering are all part of the research field of tissue engineering. It is the application of knowledge, methods and instrumentations of engineering and life science to the development of biocompatible solutions for repair and/or replace tissues and damaged organs. Last generation microfabrication technologies utilizing natural and synthetic biomaterials allow the realization of scaffolds resembling tissue-like structures as skin, brain, bones, muscles, cartilage and blood vessels. In this work we describe an effective and simple micromolding fabrication process allowing the realization of 3D polycaprolactone (PCL) scaffold for human neural stem cells (hNSC) culture. Scanning Electron Microscopy has been used to investigate the micro and nano features characterizing the surface of the device. Immunofluorescence analysis showed how, after seeding cells onto the substrate, healthy astrocytes grew up in a well-organized 3D network. Thus, we proposed this effective fabrication method for the production of nanopatterned PCL pillared scaffold providing a biomimetic environment for the growth of hNSC, a promising and efficient means for future applications in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine.

  9. Towards a Rigorous Formulation of the Space Mapping Technique for Engineering Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koziel, Slawek; Bandler, John W.; Madsen, Kaj

    2005-01-01

    This paper deals with the Space Mapping (SM) approach to engineering design optimization. We attempt here a theoretical justification of methods that have already proven efficient in solving practical problems, especially in the RF and microwave area. A formal definition of optimization algorithm...

  10. Identifying Engineering Students' English Sentence Reading Comprehension Errors: Applying a Data Mining Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Yea-Ru; Ouyang, Chen-Sen; Chang, Yukon

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to propose a diagnostic approach to identify engineering students' English reading comprehension errors. Student data were collected during the process of reading texts of English for science and technology on a web-based cumulative sentence analysis system. For the analysis, the association-rule, data mining technique…

  11. Effective Design of Educational Virtual Reality Applications for Medicine Using Knowledge-Engineering Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Górski, Filip; Bun, Pawel; Wichniarek, Radoslaw; Zawadzki, Przemyslaw; Hamrol, Adam

    2017-01-01

    Effective medical and biomedical engineering education is an important problem. Traditional methods are difficult and costly. That is why Virtual Reality is often used for that purpose. Educational medical VR is a well-developed IT field, with many available hardware and software solutions. Current solutions are prepared without methodological…

  12. Application of systems engineering techniques (reliability, availability, maintainability, and dollars) to the Gas Centrifuge Enrichment Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boylan, J.G.; DeLozier, R.C.

    1982-01-01

    The systems engineering function for the Gas Centrifuge Enrichment Plant (GCEP) covers system requirements definition, analyses, verification, technical reviews, and other system efforts necessary to assure good balance of performance, safety, cost, and scheduling. The systems engineering function will support the design, installation, start-up, and operational phases of GCEP. The principal objectives of the systems engineering function are to: assure that the system requirements of the GCEP process are adequately specified and documented and that due consideration and emphasis are given to all aspects of the project; provide system analyses of the designs as they progress to assure that system requirements are met and that GCEP interfaces are compatible; assist in the definition of programs for the necessary and sufficient verification of GCEP systems; and integrate reliability, maintainability, logistics, safety, producibility, and other related specialties into a total system effort. This paper addresses the GCEP reliability, availability, maintainability, and dollars (RAM dollars) analyses which are the primary systems engineering tools for the development and implementation of trade-off studies. These studies are basic to reaching cost-effective project decisions. The steps necessary to achieve optimum cost-effective design are shown

  13. The rotator cuff: from bench to bedside. Developments in tissue engineering, surgical techniques and pathogenetic factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Longo, U.G.

    2012-01-01

    This thesis originates from the difficulties in the management of patients with rotator cuff tears. Since tendon healing rate is relatively slow compared with other connective tissues, we reviewed the available literature on tissue engineered biological augmentation for tendon healing, including

  14. Assessing and mitigating risks of engineering programs with lean management techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fritz, A.; Oehmen, Josef; Rebentisch, E.

    2014-01-01

    for a specific program are identified and how the effort for implementation of these lean best practices is estimated. Large-scale engineering programs have as results usually complex technical products or systems such as airplanes, satellites (GPS) or software programs, immense infrastructure efforts like...

  15. Development of free-piston Stirling engine performance and optimization codes based on Martini simulation technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, William R.

    1989-01-01

    A FORTRAN computer code is described that could be used to design and optimize a free-displacer, free-piston Stirling engine similar to the RE-1000 engine made by Sunpower. The code contains options for specifying displacer and power piston motion or for allowing these motions to be calculated by a force balance. The engine load may be a dashpot, inertial compressor, hydraulic pump or linear alternator. Cycle analysis may be done by isothermal analysis or adiabatic analysis. Adiabatic analysis may be done using the Martini moving gas node analysis or the Rios second-order Runge-Kutta analysis. Flow loss and heat loss equations are included. Graphical display of engine motions and pressures and temperatures are included. Programming for optimizing up to 15 independent dimensions is included. Sample performance results are shown for both specified and unconstrained piston motions; these results are shown as generated by each of the two Martini analyses. Two sample optimization searches are shown using specified piston motion isothermal analysis. One is for three adjustable input and one is for four. Also, two optimization searches for calculated piston motion are presented for three and for four adjustable inputs. The effect of leakage is evaluated. Suggestions for further work are given.

  16. Photolithography and micromolding techniques for the realization of 3D polycaprolactone scaffolds for tissue engineering applications

    KAUST Repository

    Limongi, Tania

    2015-06-01

    Material science, cell biology, and engineering are all part of the research field of tissue engineering. It is the application of knowledge, methods and instrumentations of engineering and life science to the development of biocompatible solutions for repair and/or replace tissues and damaged organs. Last generation microfabrication technologies utilizing natural and synthetic biomaterials allow the realization of scaffolds resembling tissue-like structures as skin, brain, bones, muscles, cartilage and blood vessels. In this work we describe an effective and simple micromolding fabrication process allowing the realization of 3D polycaprolactone (PCL) scaffold for human neural stem cells (hNSC) culture. Scanning Electron Microscopy has been used to investigate the micro and nano features characterizing the surface of the device. Immunofluorescence analysis showed how, after seeding cells onto the substrate, healthy astrocytes grew up in a well-organized 3D network. Thus, we proposed this effective fabrication method for the production of nanopatterned PCL pillared scaffold providing a biomimetic environment for the growth of hNSC, a promising and efficient means for future applications in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine.

  17. Using Web 2.0 Techniques in NASA's Ares Engineering Operations Network (AEON) Environment - First Impressions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, David W.

    2010-01-01

    The Mission Operations Laboratory (MOL) at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is responsible for Engineering Support capability for NASA s Ares rocket development and operations. In pursuit of this, MOL is building the Ares Engineering and Operations Network (AEON), a web-based portal to support and simplify two critical activities: Access and analyze Ares manufacturing, test, and flight performance data, with access to Shuttle data for comparison Establish and maintain collaborative communities within the Ares teams/subteams and with other projects, e.g., Space Shuttle, International Space Station (ISS). AEON seeks to provide a seamless interface to a) locally developed engineering applications and b) a Commercial-Off-The-Shelf (COTS) collaborative environment that includes Web 2.0 capabilities, e.g., blogging, wikis, and social networking. This paper discusses how Web 2.0 might be applied to the typically conservative engineering support arena, based on feedback from Integration, Verification, and Validation (IV&V) testing and on searching for their use in similar environments.

  18. Restoration of badlands through applying bio-engineering techniques in active gully systems: Evidence from the Ecuadorian Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borja, P.; Vanacker, V.; Alvarado, D.; Govers, G.

    2012-04-01

    A better insight in the processes controlling sediment generation, transport and deposition in badlands is necessary to enhance restoration of degraded soils through eco-engineering techniques. In this study, we evaluate the effect of different bio-engineering measures on soil and slope stability. Five micro-catchments (of 0.2 to 5 ha) were selected within a 3 km2 area in the lower part of the Loreto catchment (Southern Ecuadorian Andes). The micro-catchments differ only by land cover and degree of implementation of soil and water conservation measures. Bio-engineering techniques were used to construct dikes made of fascines of wooden sticks and earth-filled tires in active gully beds, where they are most efficient to reduce water and sediment transport. The experimental design consists of three micro-catchments within highly degraded lands: (DI) micro-catchment with bio-engineering measures concentrated in the active gully beds, (DF) with reforestation of Eucalyptus trees, and (DT) reference situation without any conservation measures. Two micro-catchments were monitored in agricultural lands with (AI) and without (AT) bio-engineering measures in the active gully beds. All catchments were equipped with San Dimas flumes to measure water flow, and sediment traps to monitor sediment export. In the (active) gully beds, various parameters related to gully stability (soil water content, bed elevation, vegetation cover, sedimentation/erosion) were monitored at weekly intervals. First results show that bio-engineering techniques are efficient to stabilize active gully beds through a reduction of the rapid concentration of excess rainfall and the sediment production and transfer. Fascines made of wooden sticks are far more efficient than earth-filled tires. Sediment deposition behind dikes is strongly dependent on precedent rainfall events, and the slope and vegetation cover of the gully floor. The sediment deposited facilitates colonization of the gully floor by native

  19. Processing (refining) of petroleum and natural gases. Pererabotka neftyanykh i prirodnykh gazov

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berlin, M A; Gorechenkov, V G; Volkov, N P

    1981-01-01

    A discussion is made of the theoretical principles underlying the processes involved in the processing of natural and petroleum gases and gas condensate. Information is given on apparatus, engineering systems, and machine methods for the designing of gas refining plants. The book is intended for engineers and operation personnel of gas refining plants, and might also be useful to senior undergraduates at chemistry and petroleum institutes of higher learning. 278 references, 54 tables.

  20. Assessment of phytoremediation as an in-situ technique for cleaning oil-contaminated sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frick, C. M.; Farrell, R. E.; Germida, J. J.

    1999-01-01

    Literature on examples of phytoremediation techniques used in the in-situ remediation of soils contaminated by petroleum hydrocarbons is reviewed. The review includes discussion of the key mechanisms involved in each case, benefits, limitations and costs compared to alternative approaches, including natural attenuation, engineering and bioremediation. Review of the literature led to the conclusion that phytoremediation is an effective method for degrading and containing petroleum hydrocarbons in soil, and confirmed the ability of plants to transfer volatile petroleum hydrocarbons, such as napthalene, from the soil to the atmosphere via transpiration. The primary loss mechanism for the degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons appears to be microorganisms in the rhizosphere of plants. The available information also suggests that plants may degrade petroleum hydrocarbons directly, although the indirect role played by plants is far more common. These roles include supplying root exudates for microbial use, releasing root-associated enzymes that degrade contaminants in the soil, and altering soil to promote phytoremediation. BTEX compounds are most easily amenable to phytoremediation; large and lipophilic compounds such as four or five-ring polyaromatic hydrocarbons are more difficult to remediate. The limited information available suggests that phytoremediation is slightly less expensive than bioremediation, and several order of magnitude less than engineering techniques. In general, phytoremediation is faster than natural attenuation, but typically slower than engineering and bioremediation. On the other hand, it is less disruptive to the site than ex-situ engineering and bioremediation that involve excavation efforts. Phytoremediation is most effective with shallow contamination. Preliminary screenings indicate that there are several plant species, native and introduced, that may be used with some success for phytoremediation in the Prairie and Boreal Plains ecozones

  1. An Electronic Engineering Curriculum Design Based on Concept-Mapping Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toral, S. L.; Martinez-Torres, M. R.; Barrero, F.; Gallardo, S.; Duran, M. J.

    2007-01-01

    Curriculum design is a concern in European Universities as they face the forthcoming European Higher Education Area (EHEA). This process can be eased by the use of scientific tools such as Concept-Mapping Techniques (CMT) that extract and organize the most relevant information from experts' experience using statistics techniques, and helps a…

  2. Cellular uptake and intracellular fate of engineered nanoparticles: a review on the application of imaging techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantra, Ratna; Knight, Alex

    2011-09-01

    The use of imaging tools to probe nanoparticle-cell interactions will be crucial to elucidating the mechanisms of nanoparticle-induced toxicity. Of particular interest are mechanisms associated with cell penetration, translocation and subsequent accumulation inside the cell, or in cellular compartments. The objective of the present paper is to review imaging techniques that have been previously used in order to assess such interactions, and new techniques with the potential to be useful in this area. In order to identify the most suitable techniques, they were evaluated and matched against a list of evaluation criteria. We conclude that limitations exist with all of the techniques and the ultimate choice will thus depend on the needs of end users, and their particular application. The state-of-the-art techniques appear to have the least limitations, despite the fact that they are not so well established and still far from being routine. For example, super-resolution microscopy techniques appear to have many advantages for understanding the details of the interactions between nanoparticles and cells. Future research should concentrate on further developing or improving such novel techniques, to include the development of standardized methods and appropriate reference materials.

  3. Petroleum and the economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohi, D.R.

    1992-01-01

    In re-examining the effect of energy price shocks on the economy, this article applies several tests to show that the apparent coincidence between price shocks and poor economic performance may be misleading. For example, whereas macroeconomic analysis graphs of employment and GNP clearly indicate an apparent correlation between the 1979 petroleum price hike and economic downturn in the USA, Great Britain and Germany, Japan's performance stayed fairly constant during that period. Additional sectoral analyses of the performances of the western economies show that the impacts of the '74 and '79 oil price shocks were not equally distributed across the different industrial sectors of the various nations. The paper argues that a deeper understanding of the energy-economy relationship is required to reduce these ambiguities

  4. Petroleum Business in Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dublin-Green, W. F.

    1997-01-01

    The petroleum industry is vital to the health of the Nigerian economy as it accounts for over 80% of Nigeria's total export earnings and about 70% of total government revenue. Nigeria has an oil reserve base of 21 billion barrels and gas reserve of 120 trillion cubic feet. With natural gas becoming the worlds fastest growing energy resource, the Nigerian Government has put in place a program to grow her oil reserve base to over 25 billion barrels and significantly increase her gas reserves. An earlier commitment made in 1990 to increase Nigeria's oil reserve base from a level of 16 to 20 billion barrels by 1995 was achieved well ahead of time. This success was largely due to financial incentives offered investors. This healthy business climate still prevails. This paper presents the investment opportunities that Nigeria offers genuine investors in both the upstream and downstream sectors of the industry and defines the legal/regulatory requirements for doing business in Nigeria. We try to give an insight into specific government policies that help to create an enabling environment for investors in the upstream and downstream sectors of the petroleum industry. We showcase the 5 (five) major sedimentary basins with enormous oil and gas potential where exploration/exploitation risks are rated medium to low. We focus on the environment and government's efforts to enforce the rules and guidelines that govern the policy termed the Environment, Safety and Standards. We recognize that the business challenges of the third millennium will dictate new alliances and partnerships that will survive and thrive only in a climate that is safe for the investor. This is the business climate we throw open in Nigeria for investors to come in and do business with us

  5. Development of reactor accident diagnostic system DISKET using knowledge engineering technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokobayashi, Masao; Yoshida, Kazuo; Kohsaka, Atsuo; Yamamoto, Minoru.

    1986-01-01

    An accident diagnostic system DISKET has been developed to identify the cause and the type of an abnormal transient of a nuclear power plant. The system is based on the knowledge engineering (KE) and consists of an inference engine IERIAS and a knowledge base. The main features of DISKET are the following : (1) Time-varying characteristics of transients can be treated. (2) Knowledge base can be divided into several knowledge units to handle a lot of rules effectively. (3) Programming language UTILISP, which is a dialect of LISP, is used to manipulate symbolic data effectively. For the verification of DISKET, performance tests have been conducted for several types of accidents. The knowledge base used in the tests was generated from the data of various types of transients produced by a PWR plant simulator. The results of verification studies showed a good applicability of DISKET to reactor accident diagnosis. (author)

  6. Technique and the scheme of engineering-seismometric supervision over seismic events on large dams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karapetyan, S.; Babayan, T.; Mkrtchyan, G. [National Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Armenia (Armenia). Inst. of Geophysics and Engineering Seismology

    2004-07-01

    A network of engineering-seismometric monitoring stations have been installed at the Tavshout dam in a seismically active region of Armenia. The 37 meter high embankment dam consists of gravel-pebbles with a core of sandy clay. Recent earthquakes have presented a direct hazard for the dam and its water reservoir. In order to determine the degree of seismic hazard and prevention, it is necessary to study the interaction between the ground and the foundation of the dam. The seismometers were fixed at three points both on the foundation and the ground to obtain information on the whole route of seismic waves and to define the geology based amplification factors using empirical equations. The system of engineering-seismometric observations included a network of seismometric instruments, communications and a recording complex. 4 refs., 14 figs.

  7. Porous starch/cellulose nanofibers composite prepared by salt leaching technique for tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasri-Nasrabadi, Bijan; Mehrasa, Mohammad; Rafienia, Mohammad; Bonakdar, Shahin; Behzad, Tayebeh; Gavanji, Shahin

    2014-08-08

    Starch/cellulose nanofibers composites with proper porosity pore size, mechanical strength, and biodegradability for cartilage tissue engineering have been reported in this study. The porous thermoplastic starch-based composites were prepared by combining film casting, salt leaching, and freeze drying methods. The diameter of 70% nanofibers was in the range of 40-90 nm. All samples had interconnected porous morphology; however an increase in pore interconnectivity was observed when the sodium chloride ratio was increased in the salt leaching. Scaffolds with the total porogen content of 70 wt% exhibited adequate mechanical properties for cartilage tissue engineering applications. The water uptake ratio of nanocomposites was remarkably enhanced by adding 10% cellulose nanofibers. The scaffolds were partially destroyed due to low in vitro degradation rate after more than 20 weeks. Cultivation of isolated rabbit chondrocytes on the fabricated scaffold proved that the incorporation of nanofibers in starch structure improves cell attachment and proliferation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Probing Enzyme-Surface Interactions via Protein Engineering and Single-Molecule Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-26

    SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: The overall objective of this research was to exploit protein engineering and fluorescence single-molecule methods to...enhance our understanding of the interaction of proteins and surfaces. Given this objective, the specific aims of this research were to: 1) exploit the...incorporation of unnatural amino acids in proteins to introduce single-molecule probes (i.e., fluorophores for fluorescence resonance energy transfer

  9. Production technique of vermicular graphite iron cylinder head of vehicle diesel engine

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou Gen; Liu Wanhua

    2008-01-01

    The 25 years’production and application have proved that vermicular graphite iron cylinder heads with vermicularity ≥50% satisfy the machinability and performance demand of diesel engine. The method, in which using cupola-induction furnace duplex melting and pour-over process with rare earth-ferrosilicon or rare earthsilicon compound as vermicularizing alloy plus rare earth-magnesium-ferrosilicon as stirring alloy, is an optimal vermicularizing process for obtaining satisfi ed vermicularity. ...

  10. Genetic engineering technology for the improvement of the sterile insect technique. Proceedings of a final research co-ordination meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    Since the beginning of the joint FAO/IAEA programme on the research and development of insect pest control methodology, emphasis has been placed on the basic and applied aspects of implementing the sterile insect technique (SIT). Special emphasis has always been directed at the assembly of technological progress into workable systems that can be implemented in developing countries. The general intention is to solve problems associated with insect pests that have an adverse impact on production of food and fibre. For several insect species SIT has proven to be a powerful method for control. This includes the New World screwworm fly (Cochliomyia hominivorox), the Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata), the melon fly (Bactrocera cucurbitae), the Queensland fruit fly (Bactrocera tryoni) and one tsetse fly species (Glossina austeni). Improvements of the SIT are possible, especially through the use of molecular techniques. The final report of the Co-ordinated Research Programme on ``Genetic Engineering Technology for the Improvement of the Sterile Insect Technique`` highlights the progress made towards the development of transformation systems for non-drosophilid insects and the research aimed at the identification and engineering of potential target genes or traits. Refs, figs, tabs.

  11. Genetic engineering technology for the improvement of the sterile insect technique. Proceedings of a final research co-ordination meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    Since the beginning of the joint FAO/IAEA programme on the research and development of insect pest control methodology, emphasis has been placed on the basic and applied aspects of implementing the sterile insect technique (SIT). Special emphasis has always been directed at the assembly of technological progress into workable systems that can be implemented in developing countries. The general intention is to solve problems associated with insect pests that have an adverse impact on production of food and fibre. For several insect species SIT has proven to be a powerful method for control. This includes the New World screwworm fly (Cochliomyia hominivorox), the Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata), the melon fly (Bactrocera cucurbitae), the Queensland fruit fly (Bactrocera tryoni) and one tsetse fly species (Glossina austeni). Improvements of the SIT are possible, especially through the use of molecular techniques. The final report of the Co-ordinated Research Programme on ''Genetic Engineering Technology for the Improvement of the Sterile Insect Technique'' highlights the progress made towards the development of transformation systems for non-drosophilid insects and the research aimed at the identification and engineering of potential target genes or traits

  12. Bureau Veritas: 1995 realizations in the petroleum domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    The completion of the Bureau Veritas (BV) company reorganization in France led to a stabilization of its main activities which fall into five engineering domains: sea service, building and exploitation safety, industry, international trade, aeronautics. The petroleum industry remains a great consumer of the offshore and onshore services provided by this company worldwide. This short paper briefly describes some recent contracts signed between BV and famous petroleum and service companies for the inspection and the safety analyses of industrial materials devoted to offshore exploitation, drilling and lodging, of gas transportation and storage systems (pipelines, reservoirs, tankers), and for the research and development studies related to deep-sea operations. (J.S.)

  13. Reverse engineering smart card malware using side channel analysis with machine learning techniques

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Djonon Tsague, Hippolyte

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available as much variance of the original data as possible. Among feature extraction techniques, PCA and LDA are very common dimensionality reduction algorithms that have successfully been applied in many classification problems like face recognition, character...

  14. FY71 Engineering Report on Surveillance Techniques for Civil Aviation Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    1971-11-01

    This document discusses the work performed by the TSC task group on surveillance techniques in FY71. The principal section is devoted to the technical description, classification and evaluation of commercial metal detectors for concealed weapons. It ...

  15. Proceedings of the 2004 annual petroleum days

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millet, M.

    2004-01-01

    The 2004 annual petroleum days were organized by the AFTP, the CEPM and the GEP. The main theme, entitled 'hydrocarbons, energies of the future and environment' was dealing with the depletion of the petroleum resources and the necessity to reduce the greenhouse gases emissions (industrial facilities and transportation systems). The leaders of French companies (IFP, CGG, BP France, Total) explained their point of view during the plenary sessions, while during the parallel sessions, several experts presented the works in progress in the different branches of the petroleum industry. This article summarizes these different talks and treats of the following topics: the evolution of the global oil production and the abatement of air pollution, the evolution of exploration-production investments and the evolution of oil prices, the evaluation of reserves and their reevaluation, the global warming and the fight against the greenhouse effect (air pollution abatement, development of renewable energy sources, increase of energy efficiency, CO 2 sequestration etc..), evolution of transportation systems (hydrogen fuel cell, biomass fuels, hybrid electric-powered vehicles). A summary of the specialized sessions about new techniques concludes the article: improvements in stratigraphy, seismic surveys, and well logging. (J.S.)

  16. Short term forecasting of petroleum product demand in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadren, M.

    1998-01-01

    The analysis of petroleum product demand became a privileged thrust of research following the modifications in terms of structure and level of the petroleum markets since eighties. The greatest importance to econometrics models of Energy demand, joint works about nonstationary data, explained the development of error-correction models and the co-integration. In this context, the short term econometrics modelling of petroleum product demand does not only focus on forecasts but also on the measure of the gain acquired from using error-correction techniques and co-integration. It's filling to take the influence of technical improvement and environment pressures into account in econometrics modelling of petroleum products demand. The first part presents the evolution of Energy Demand in France and more particularly the petroleum product demand since 1986. The objective is to determine the main characteristics of each product, which will help us to analyse and validate the econometrics models. The second part focus on the recent developments in times series modelling. We study the problem of nonstationary data and expose different unit root tests. We examine the main approaches to univariate and multivariate modelling with nonstationary data and distinguish the forecasts of the latter's. The third part is intended to applications; its objective is to illustrate the theoretic developments of the second part with a comparison between the performances of different approaches (approach Box and Jenkins, Johansen approach's and structural approach). The models will be applied to the main French petroleum market. The observed asymmetrical demand behaviour is also considered. (author)

  17. A general purpose diagnostic technique for marine diesel engines - Application on the main propulsion and auxiliary diesel units of a marine vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamaris, V.T.; Hountalas, D.T.

    2010-01-01

    Diesel engines are widely used in marine applications (i.e. propulsion and auxiliaries) except from a few cases where gas or steam turbines are used. This is the result of their high efficiency, power concentration and reliability compared to other compatible or alternative power sources. The proper and efficient operation of the engines (main engine and diesel generator units) in marine applications is critical, and therefore techniques or systems that determine engine current condition and detect potential faults are extremely important. Furthermore, it is advantageous when such techniques can be applied on different engine configurations and provide reliable results, because on a vessel usually exist diesel engines of different type, i.e. the main propulsion unit is a large low-speed two-stroke diesel engine while the diesel generators are four-stroke medium or high speed engines. In the present work is described and evaluated for the first time the application of an improved diagnostic technique, developed by the authors, on both the main engine and the auxiliary units of a commercial marine vessel. The diagnostic technique is based on a thermodynamic simulation model. The simulation model embedded in the technique has been modified, namely an existing two-zone model is replaced by a multi-zone one. With this modification it is avoided model constant tuning with the operating conditions. This is extremely important for the diagnostic philosophy of the proposed technique. Using data from engine shop tests, the simulation model is calibrated (i.e. model constants are determined) and the engine reference condition is obtained. The simulation model is then used to estimate the current engine condition, using field measurements (i.e. cylinder pressure measurements, periphery data, etc.). From the results it is revealed that the diagnosis method provides detailed information for the operating condition of both engines and the values of parameters that cannot be

  18. Petroleum marketing monthly, November 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-09

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed costs of imported crude oil, and the refiner`s acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented.

  19. Petroleum marketing monthly, July 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-07-15

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented.

  20. Petroleum marketing monthly, January 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented.

  1. Petroleum marketing monthly, August 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-10

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented.

  2. Petroleum marketing monthly, February 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-25

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiner`s acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented.

  3. Petroleum marketing monthly, April 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-12

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented.

  4. Petroleum marketing monthly, March 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-03-22

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, education institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiner`s acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented.

  5. Lasers and petroleum in Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    da Costa, G.; Guerri, G.; Calatroni, J. (Universidad Simon Bolivar, Caracas (Venezuela). Lab. de Optica Cuantica)

    1978-06-01

    The viscosity of heavy hydrocarbons is one reason why conventional drilling methods are insufficient for petroleum extraction in Venezuela at a depth of 1000 m. The Quantum Optics Laboratory of Simon Bolivar University in Caracas is conducting a search for novel perforation and heating tools for petroleum extraction. Basic research is being carried out using a 10 MW TEA-CO/sub 2/ laser. The laser is not only a research tool but a matter of national interests, as petroleum is Venezuela's main export article.

  6. Petroleum marketing monthly, August 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-11-07

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners' acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented. 12 figs., 49 tabs.

  7. Petroleum marketing monthly, October 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-07

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase prices, the f.o b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented.

  8. Facts 2009 - The Norwegian petroleum sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-07-01

    The publication provides a general overview of information regarding the petroleum activities on the Norwegian continental shelf. Contents: Foreword; The petroleum sector; Norwegian resource management; Government petroleum revenues; Exploration activities; Development and operations; Norwegian gas exports; Decommissioning; Research, technology; Environmental considerations; Petroleum resources; Fields in production; Fields under development; Future developments; Fields where production has ceased; Pipelines and onshore facilities. (AG)

  9. Petroleum coke as energy source: an update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinelli, G.

    2008-01-01

    A previous review presented a critical evaluation of the use of petroleum coke as energy source. After some years, with reference to increased petroleum coke production, that paper is revised. In particular, the attention is now focused on world petroleum coke market trends and, in regard to petroleum coke used as fuel, on new Italian environment laws. [it

  10. 21 CFR 178.3710 - Petroleum wax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Petroleum wax. 178.3710 Section 178.3710 Food and... and Production Aids § 178.3710 Petroleum wax. Petroleum wax may be safely used as a component of nonfood articles in contact with food, in accordance with the following conditions: (a) Petroleum wax is a...

  11. Ex-USSR: petroleum activities in 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This paper gives statistical data on economy and petroleum industry in ex-USSR: Primary energy production and consumption (coal, petroleum, natural gas, primary power), petroleum and natural gas reserves, drilling activity, exports and imports of petroleum products, refining capacity. 2 figs., 14 tabs

  12. Production technique of vermicular graphite iron cylinder head of vehicle diesel engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Gen

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The 25 years’production and application have proved that vermicular graphite iron cylinder heads with vermicularity ≥50% satisfy the machinability and performance demand of diesel engine. The method, in which using cupola-induction furnace duplex melting and pour-over process with rare earth-ferrosilicon or rare earthsilicon compound as vermicularizing alloy plus rare earth-magnesium-ferrosilicon as stirring alloy, is an optimal vermicularizing process for obtaining satisfi ed vermicularity. Using top kiss risers, enlarging kissing areas and expanding covering width and making ingates to freeze earlier are the effective measures to eliminate shrinkage, blowhole and oxide inclusions in the vermicular graphite iron cylinder heads.

  13. A Review of the Piezoelectric Electromechanical Impedance Based Structural Health Monitoring Technique for Engineering Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wongi S. Na

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The birth of smart materials such as piezoelectric (PZT transducers has aided in revolutionizing the field of structural health monitoring (SHM based on non-destructive testing (NDT methods. While a relatively new NDT method known as the electromechanical (EMI technique has been investigated for more than two decades, there are still various problems that must be solved before it is applied to real structures. The technique, which has a significant potential to contribute to the creation of one of the most effective SHM systems, involves the use of a single PZT for exciting and sensing of the host structure. In this paper, studies applied for the past decade related to the EMI technique have been reviewed to understand its trend. In addition, new concepts and ideas proposed by various authors are also surveyed, and the paper concludes with a discussion of the potential directions for future works.

  14. Logistics aspects of petroleum pipeline operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. J. Pienaar

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper identifies, assesses and describes the logistics aspects of the commercial operation of petroleum pipelines. The nature of petroleum-product supply chains, in which pipelines play a role, is outlined and the types of petroleum pipeline systems are described. An outline is presented of the nature of the logistics activities of petroleum pipeline operations. The reasons for the cost efficiency of petroleum pipeline operations are given. The relative modal service effectiveness of petroleum pipeline transport, based on the most pertinent service performance measures, is offered. The segments in the petroleum-products supply chain where pipelines can play an efficient and effective role are identified.

  15. Frontiers in economic research on petroleum allocation using mathematical programming methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowse, J.

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents a state of the art of operations research techniques applied in petroleum allocation, namely mathematical programming methods, with principal attention directed toward linear programming and nonlinear programming (including quadratic programming). Contributions to the economics of petroleum allocation are discussed for international trade, industrial organization, regional/macro economics, public finance and natural resource/environmental economics

  16. Tracer-based laser-induced fluorescence measurement technique for quantitative fuel/air-ratio measurements in a hydrogen internal combustion engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blotevogel, Thomas; Hartmann, Matthias; Rottengruber, Hermann; Leipertz, Alfred

    2008-12-10

    A measurement technique for the quantitative investigation of mixture formation processes in hydrogen internal combustion engines (ICEs) has been developed using tracer-based laser-induced fluorescence (TLIF). This technique can be employed to fired and motored engine operation. The quantitative TLIF fuel/air-ratio results have been verified by means of linear Raman scattering measurements. Exemplary results of the simultaneous investigation of mixture formation and combustion obtained at an optical accessible hydrogen ICE are shown.

  17. New Techniques for Deep Learning with Geospatial Data using TensorFlow, Earth Engine, and Google Cloud Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancher, M.

    2017-12-01

    Recent years have seen promising results from many research teams applying deep learning techniques to geospatial data processing. In that same timeframe, TensorFlow has emerged as the most popular framework for deep learning in general, and Google has assembled petabytes of Earth observation data from a wide variety of sources and made them available in analysis-ready form in the cloud through Google Earth Engine. Nevertheless, developing and applying deep learning to geospatial data at scale has been somewhat cumbersome to date. We present a new set of tools and techniques that simplify this process. Our approach combines the strengths of several underlying tools: TensorFlow for its expressive deep learning framework; Earth Engine for data management, preprocessing, postprocessing, and visualization; and other tools in Google Cloud Platform to train TensorFlow models at scale, perform additional custom parallel data processing, and drive the entire process from a single familiar Python development environment. These tools can be used to easily apply standard deep neural networks, convolutional neural networks, and other custom model architectures to a variety of geospatial data structures. We discuss our experiences applying these and related tools to a range of machine learning problems, including classic problems like cloud detection, building detection, land cover classification, as well as more novel problems like illegal fishing detection. Our improved tools will make it easier for geospatial data scientists to apply modern deep learning techniques to their own problems, and will also make it easier for machine learning researchers to advance the state of the art of those techniques.

  18. The world economy of petroleum products and the strategy of a petroleum company from exporting country: Cases of SONATRACH (Algeria), KPC (Kuwait), PEMEX (Mexico), PDVSA (Venezuela). Second volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preure, M.

    1992-12-01

    This thesis contains 2 volumes. In this second volume, the author describes the industrial and technological developments and the strategy of petroleum companies in exporting countries. The main industrial strategies studied are national integration strategy in a planned economy (case of Algeria) or in a controlled-liberal economy (case of Mexico) and international integration strategies to the lower part of petroleum industry and external growth (cases of Kuwait and Venezuela). Technological strategies studied are development of a national engineering, information, research programs/ development and innovation. The last chapter takes stock of research and development programs for petroleum products (case of Mexico) . 258 refs., 103 tabs

  19. Execution techniques for high level radioactive waste disposal. 4. Design and manufacturing procedure of engineered barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogata, Nobuhide; Kosaki, Akio; Ueda, Hiroyoshi; Asano, Hidekazu; Takao, Hajime

    1999-01-01

    Ensuring the physical integrity of engineered barriers for an extremely long time period is necessary for geological disposal of high-level radioactive wastes. This report describes the design process and the designed configurations of both overpack and buffer as engineered barriers. Manufacturing procedure, quality control and inspection methods are also summarized. Carbon steel was selected as a structural material of the overpack and the specification of the overpack was determined assuming disposal in the depths of 1000 m below surface of crystalline rock site. The mixture of bentonite and sand (80% sodium bentonite and 20% silica sand by mass) was selected as material for a buffer from mainly its permeability and characteristics of self-sealing of a gap occurred in construction work. Welding method of a lid onto the main body of the overpack, uniting method of a corrosion-resistance layer and the structural component in the case of a composite overpack and manufacturing procedures of both blocks-type and monolithic-type buffers are also investigated. (author)

  20. influence des engins et techniques de peche sur l'abondance

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    17 févr. 2017 ... calculated using XLSTAT Software. Ordinary kriging technique in ArcGis 9.3 Software was used to map the measured ... Further studies are needed to develop a plan for sustainable management of the fisheries ...... sustainability in the Lake Victoria basin: an ... Management of large Rivers for Fisheries,.

  1. Panorama of the petroleum industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-02-01

    This document provides tables and charts of statistical data concerning the petroleum industry activity in 2004: supply and demand, prices, consumption, service station number and the market. (A.L.B.)

  2. Gasoline from Kumkol deposit petroleum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadirov, A.N.; Zhizhin, N.I.; Musaeva, Z.G.

    1997-01-01

    Samples of gasoline from petroleum of Kumkol deposit are investigated by chromatographic analysis. It is found, that gasoline is characterizing by increased content of iso-paraffin hydrocarbons. (author)

  3. Dermal uptake of petroleum substances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jakasa, Ivone; Kezic, Sanja; Boogaard, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Petroleum products are complex substances comprising varying amounts of linear and branched alkanes, alkenes, cycloalkanes, and aromatics which may penetrate the skin at different rates. For proper interpretation of toxic hazard data, understanding their percutaneous absorption is of paramount

  4. Petroleum investment conditions in Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Schreck, M.

    1996-01-01

    This report focuses on the current petroleum investment conditions in Peru, and Peru's hydrocarbon potential. Investment conditions are examined, and political risk, internal security, the economic environment, and the legal framework for investment are considered. (UK)

  5. Dictionary of combustion engineering and heating engineering. Pt. 1. Woerterbuch der Feuerungs- und Heizungstechnik. T. 1. - Encyclopedie de la technique de combustion et de chauffage. Pt. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katz, M

    1984-01-01

    The dictionary lists technical terms of the fields of combustion engineering and heating engineering. The heating engineering part was kept as short as possible; only those terms are listed, that are directly or indirectly related to combustion engineering. Contents: Definitions, standard nomenclature, burner systems, treatment systems, burner components, dictionary, SI-units, drawings with translations. 26 figs.

  6. Petroleum and Water Logistics Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-06-19

    petroleum office ( SAPO ). The combatant commander JPO coordinates all agree- ments concerning bulk fuel support between com- ponent commands and HNs. For the...commander of the unified command through the JPO. The uni- fied command may also establish SAPOs at the subunified command level to provide in-country or...gency situations. PWRS are usually stored in theater and are monitored by the appropriate combatant commander JPO/ SAPO . MEF Petroleum War Reserve

  7. Colombian petroleum - A good business

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carta Petrolera

    1998-01-01

    A great interest exists for Colombia, a country in which the statistics of petroleum and gas production, have been shot to volumes record; where 15 new contracts are signed every year, arriving in December from 1997 to an effective figure record of 107, a country that see grow their exports of raw; a country that every time has more facilities of transport and commercialization of hydrocarbons and it receives to more companies interested in sharing the risk in petroleum search

  8. A review of optimization techniques used in the design of fibre composite structures for civil engineering applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awad, Ziad K.; Aravinthan, Thiru; Zhuge, Yan; Gonzalez, Felipe

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: → We reviewed existing optimization techniques of fibre composite structures. → Proposed an improved methodology for design optimization. → Comparison showed the MRDO is most suitable. -- Abstract: Fibre composite structures have become the most attractive candidate for civil engineering applications. Fibre reinforced plastic polymer (FRP) composite materials have been used in the rehabilitation and replacement of the old degrading traditional structures or build new structures. However, the lack of design standards for civil infrastructure limits their structural applications. The majority of the existing applications have been designed based on the research and guidelines provided by the fibre composite manufacturers or based on the designer's experience. It has been a tendency that the final structure is generally over-designed. This paper provides a review on the available studies related to the design optimization of fibre composite structures used in civil engineering such as; plate, beam, box beam, sandwich panel, bridge girder, and bridge deck. Various optimization methods are presented and compared. In addition, the importance of using the appropriate optimization technique is discussed. An improved methodology, which considering experimental testing, numerical modelling, and design constrains, is proposed in the paper for design optimization of composite structures.

  9. Development of Innovative Radioactive Isotope Production Techniques at the Pennsylvania State University Radiation Science and Engineering Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnsen, Amanda M. [Pennsylvania State Univ., State College, PA (United States). Radiation Science and Engineering Center; Heidrich, Brenden [Pennsylvania State Univ., State College, PA (United States). Radiation Science and Engineering Center; Durrant, Chad [Pennsylvania State Univ., State College, PA (United States). Department of mechanical and Nuclear Engineering Center; Bascom, Andrew [Pennsylvania State Univ., State College, PA (United States). Department of mechanical and Nuclear Engineering Center; Unlu, Kenan [Pennsylvania State Univ., State College, PA (United States). Radiation Science and Engineering Center

    2013-08-15

    The Penn State Breazeale Nuclear Reactor (PSBR) at the Radiation Science and Engineering Center (RSEC) has produced radioisotopes for research and commercial purposes since 1956. With the rebirth of the radiochemistry education and research program at the RSEC, the Center stands poised to produce a variety of radioisotopes for research and industrial work that is in line with the mission of the DOE Office of Science, Office of Nuclear Physics, Isotope Development and Production Research and Application Program. The RSEC received funding from the Office of Science in 2010 to improve production techniques and develop new capabilities. Under this program, we improved our existing techniques to provide four radioisotopes (Mn-56, Br-82, Na-24, and Ar-41) to researchers and industry in a safe and efficient manner. The RSEC is also working to develop new innovative techniques to provide isotopes in short supply to researchers and others in the scientific community, specifically Cu-64 and Cu-67. Improving our existing radioisotopes production techniques and investigating new and innovative methods are two of the main initiatives of the radiochemistry research program at the RSEC.

  10. Effect of engine parameters and type of gaseous fuel on the performance of dual-fuel gas diesel engines. A critical review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahoo, B.B. [Centre for Energy, Indian Institute of Technology, Guwahati 781039 (India); Sahoo, N.; Saha, U.K. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Guwahati 781039 (India)

    2009-08-15

    Petroleum resources are finite and, therefore, search for their alternative non-petroleum fuels for internal combustion engines is continuing all over the world. Moreover gases emitted by petroleum fuel driven vehicles have an adverse effect on the environment and human health. There is universal acceptance of the need to reduce such emissions. Towards this, scientists have proposed various solutions for diesel engines, one of which is the use of gaseous fuels as a supplement for liquid diesel fuel. These engines, which use conventional diesel fuel and gaseous fuel, are referred to as 'dual-fuel engines'. Natural gas and bio-derived gas appear more attractive alternative fuels for dual-fuel engines in view of their friendly environmental nature. In the gas-fumigated dual-fuel engine, the primary fuel is mixed outside the cylinder before it is inducted into the cylinder. A pilot quantity of liquid fuel is injected towards the end of the compression stroke to initiate combustion. When considering a gaseous fuel for use in existing diesel engines, a number of issues which include, the effects of engine operating and design parameters, and type of gaseous fuel, on the performance of the dual-fuel engines, are important. This paper reviews the research on above issues carried out by various scientists in different diesel engines. This paper touches upon performance, combustion and emission characteristics of dual-fuel engines which use natural gas, biogas, producer gas, methane, liquefied petroleum gas, propane, etc. as gaseous fuel. It reveals that 'dual-fuel concept' is a promising technique for controlling both NO{sub x} and soot emissions even on existing diesel engine. But, HC, CO emissions and 'bsfc' are higher for part load gas diesel engine operations. Thermal efficiency of dual-fuel engines improve either with increased engine speed, or with advanced injection timings, or with increased amount of pilot fuel. The ignition

  11. Poland petroleum refinery sludge lagoon demonstration project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altman, D.J.

    2000-01-01

    The US Department of Energy and the Institute for Ecology of Industrial Area have been working together to develop mutually beneficial, cost-effective environmental remediation technologies such as the demonstration of bioremediation techniques for the clean up of acidic petroleum sludge impacted soils at an oil refinery in southern Poland. After an expedited site characterization, treatability study, and a risk assessment study, a remediation strategy was devised. The waste material was composed primarily of high molecular weight paraffinic and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons. A biopile design which employed a combination of passive and active aeration in conjunction with nutrient and surfactant application as used to increase the biodegradation of the contaminants of concern

  12. Occupational safety in the petroleum industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elsner, W

    1987-03-01

    The original technique-oriented accident prevention today has grown to a comprehensive occupational workers protection system. Modern occupational safety requires latest strategies. Side by side with technical and organizational measures we see duties for all superiors directed to plant related occupational safety. These new principles of leadership on the basis of occupational safety policies from top management require equivalent tactics to cause change in behaviour of the employees. Such a not only formulated but also accepted safety strategy is extremely clear by its positive results in the petroleum industry.

  13. Benzene exposure in a Japanese petroleum refinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, T; Yamaoka, K; Uchida, Y; Ikeda, M

    1990-07-01

    Time-weighted average (TWA) intensity of exposure of workers to benzene vapor during a shift was monitored by diffusive sampling technique in a Japanese petroleum refinery. The subjects monitored (83 in total) included refinery operators, laboratory personnel and tanker-loading workers. The results showed that the time-weighted average exposures are well below 1 ppm in most cases. The highest exposure was recorded in 1 case involved in bulk loading of tanker ships, in which exposure of over 1 ppm might take place depending on operational conditions. The observation was generally in agreement with levels previously reported.

  14. Canadian retail petroleum markets study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ervin, M.J.

    1998-02-01

    A retail petroleum market study was conducted to provide a comprehensive overview of the competitiveness of the downstream petroleum industry in Canada and to set a foundation for effective policy development. The downstream petroleum industry, which includes the petroleum refining and marketing sectors, faces a poor public image, competitive pressures from U.S. and offshore refiners, and a broad range of environmental challenges. In this study, 19 markets representing a wide range of conditions were chosen for a detailed review of outlet economics. A market-by-market and regional comparisons of key competitiveness indicators was made in order to identify market and regional competitive differences as potential issues or opportunities within the industry. The study also included a pump price/margin model and provided a general overview of the retail gasoline sub-sector in terms of infrastructure. A review of prices, margins and demand patterns over the past several years was also undertaken to show the relationship between consumer demand patterns and pump price fluctuations. The study presented 22 findings which led to several conclusions and recommendations regarding the competitiveness of Canada's petroleum marketing sector. Two of the key conclusions were that taxation is a significant factor in the price of retail gasoline (about 50 per cent) and that government intervention into petroleum marketing is likely to be a poor alternative to market-based regulation. 18 tabs., 37 figs

  15. Application of system safety engineering techniques for hazard prevention at the Superconducting Super Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendrix, B.L.

    1991-01-01

    A primary goal of the Superconducting Super Collider Laboratory (SSCL) is to establish an exemplary safety program. Achieving this goal requires leadership, planning, coordination, and technical know-how. To ensure that safety is an inherent part of the design, the Environment, Safety and Health Office employs a systems engineering discipline and process known as System Safety. The goal of System Safety - hazard prevention - is accomplished by analyzing systems to identify hazards and to evaluate design and procedural options and countermeasures to prevent, eliminate, mitigate, or control hazards and risks. Establishment of safety and human factors design criteria at the outset of the project prevents unsafe designs and safety violations, reduces risks, and helps in avoiding costly design changes later. This process requires a considerable amount of coordination with a variety of technical disciplines and safety professionals to integrate methods of hazard prevention, mitigation, and risk reduction throughout the system life-cycle

  16. International petroleum statistics report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report is a monthly publication that provides current international data. The report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent 12 months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1996; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1996; and OECD trade from 1986 through 1996.

  17. International petroleum statistics report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, exports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1994; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1994; and OECD trade from 1984 through 1994.

  18. International petroleum statistics report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. Word oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1995; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1995; and OECD trade from 1985 through 1995.

  19. Iran's petroleum industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebneyousef, M.H.; Bogart, A.J.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that during the past several years Iran's potentials have been forgotten or ignored by the outside world mainly due to misconceptions, fears, and political concerns attributed to the religious overtone. The intention of the authors is to introduction to the new realities of regional, as well as global geopolitics and the main political and economic aspects of Iran's huge and growing petroleum industry. The fact of the matter is that in the rapidly changing world order the need for a true stability in the region and a global cooperation has been recognized by Iran. The country, with a population of 60 million, is now preparing itself for the major political and economic role thrust upon the nation by the socio-economic changes in the integrating Europe; the outcome of the Iran-Iraq and the Persian Gulf wars, including the likely instability of the autocratic governments of Arab states of the region; the breakup of the former Soviet Union; and market changes in the Far East

  20. A review of modern instrumental methods of elemental analysis of petroleum related material. Part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadkarni, R.A.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper a review is presented of the state of the art in elemental analysis of petroleum-related materials (crude oil, gasoline, additives, and lubricants) using modern instrumental analysis techniques. The major instrumental techniques used for elemental analysis of petroleum products include atomic absorption spectrometry (both with flame and with graphite furnace atomizer), inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry, ion chromatography, microelemental methods, neutron activation, spark source mass spectrometry, and x-ray fluorescence. Each of these techniques is compared for its advantages, disadvantages, and typical applications in the petroleum field

  1. Engineer Ethics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Dae Sik; Kim, Yeong Pil; Kim, Yeong Jin

    2003-03-01

    This book tells of engineer ethics such as basic understanding of engineer ethics with history of engineering as a occupation, definition of engineering and specialized job and engineering, engineer ethics as professional ethics, general principles of ethics and its limitation, ethical theory and application, technique to solve the ethical problems, responsibility, safety and danger, information engineer ethics, biotechnological ethics like artificial insemination, life reproduction, gene therapy and environmental ethics.

  2. Applied Geophysics Opportunities in the Petroleum Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olgaard, D. L.; Tikku, A.; Roberts, J. C.; Martinez, A.

    2012-12-01

    Meeting the increasing global demand for energy over the next several decades presents daunting challenges to engineers and scientists, including geoscientists of all disciplines. Many opportunities exist for geophysicists to find and produce oil and gas in a safe, environmentally responsible and affordable manner. Successful oil and gas exploration involves a 'Plates to Pores' approach that integrates multi-scale data from satellites, marine and land seismic and non-seismic field surveys, lab experiments, and even electron microscopy. The petroleum industry is at the forefront of using high performance computing to develop innovative methods to process and analyze large volumes of seismic data and perform realistic numerical modeling, such as finite element fluid flow and rock deformation simulations. Challenging and rewarding jobs in exploration, production and research exist for students with BS/BA, MS and PhD degrees. Geophysics students interested in careers in the petroleum industry should have a broad foundation in science, math and fundamental geosciences at the BS/BA level, as well as mastery of the scientific method, usually gained through thesis work at MS and PhD levels. Field geology or geophysics experience is also valuable. Other personal attributes typical for geoscientists to be successful in industry include a passion for solving complex geoscience problems, the flexibility to work on a variety of assignments throughout a career and skills such as teamwork, communication, integration and leadership. In this presentation we will give examples of research, exploration and production opportunities for geophysicists in petroleum companies and compare and contrast careers in academia vs. industry.

  3. Fabrication of silk fibroin film using centrifugal casting technique for corneal tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Min Chae; Kim, Dong-Kyu; Lee, Ok Joo; Kim, Jung-Ho; Ju, Hyung Woo; Lee, Jung Min; Moon, Bo Mi; Park, Hyun Jung; Kim, Dong Wook; Kim, Su Hyeon; Park, Chan Hum

    2016-04-01

    Films prepared from silk fibroin have shown potential as biomaterials in tissue engineering applications for the eye. Here, we present a novel process for fabrication of silk fibroin films for corneal application. In this work, fabrication of silk fibroin films was simply achieved by centrifugal force. In contrast to the conventional dry casting method, we carried out the new process in a centrifuge with a rotating speed of 4000 rpm, where centrifugal force was imposed on an aluminum tube containing silk fibroin solution. In the present study, we also compared the surface roughness, mechanical properties, transparency, and cell proliferation between centrifugal and dry casting method. In terms of surface morphology, films fabricated by the centrifugal casting have less surface roughness than those by the dry casting. For elasticity and transparency, silk fibroin films obtained from the centrifugal casting had favorable results compared with those prepared by dry casting. Furthermore, primary human corneal keratocytes grew better in films prepared by the centrifugal casting. Therefore, our results suggest that this new fabrication process for silk fibroin films offers important potential benefits for corneal tissue regeneration. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Characterization of Airborne Particles Collected from Car Engine Air Filters Using SEM and EDX Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heredia Rivera, Birmania; Gerardo Rodriguez, Martín

    2016-01-01

    Particulate matter accumulated on car engine air-filters (CAFs) was examined in order to investigate the potential use of these devices as efficient samplers for collecting street level air that people are exposed to. The morphology, microstructure, and chemical composition of a variety of particles were studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX). The particulate matter accumulated by the CAFs was studied in two categories; the first was of removed particles by friction, and the second consisted of particles retained on the filters. Larger particles with a diameter of 74–10 µm were observed in the first category. In the second one, the detected particles had a diameter between 16 and 0.7 µm. These particles exhibited different morphologies and composition, indicating mostly a soil origin. The elemental composition revealed the presence of three groups: mineral (clay and asphalt), metallic (mainly Fe), and biological particles (vegetal and animal debris). The palynological analysis showed the presence of pollen grains associated with urban plants. These results suggest that CAFs capture a mixture of atmospheric particles, which can be analyzed in order to monitor urban air. Thus, the continuous availability of large numbers of filters and the retroactivity associated to the car routes suggest that these CAFs are very useful for studying the high traffic zones within a city. PMID:27706087

  5. Engineering the bioelectrochemical interface using functional nanomaterials and microchip technique toward sensitive and portable electrochemical biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xiaofang; Dong, Shaojun; Wang, Erkang

    2016-02-15

    Electrochemical biosensors have played active roles at the forefront of bioanalysis because they have the potential to achieve sensitive, specific and low-cost detection of biomolecules and many others. Engineering the electrochemical sensing interface with functional nanomaterials leads to novel electrochemical biosensors with improved performances in terms of sensitivity, selectivity, stability and simplicity. Functional nanomaterials possess good conductivity, catalytic activity, biocompatibility and high surface area. Coupled with bio-recognition elements, these features can amplify signal transduction and biorecognition events, resulting in highly sensitive biosensing. Additionally, microfluidic electrochemical biosensors have attracted considerable attention on account of their miniature, portable and low-cost systems as well as high fabrication throughput and ease of scaleup. For example, electrochemical enzymetic biosensors and aptamer biosensors (aptasensors) based on the integrated microchip can be used for portable point-of-care diagnostics and environmental monitoring. This review is a summary of our recent progress in the field of electrochemical biosensors, including aptasensors, cytosensors, enzymatic biosensors and self-powered biosensors based on biofuel cells. We presented the advantages that functional nanomaterials and microfluidic chip technology bring to the electrochemical biosensors, together with future prospects and possible challenges. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Transformation techniques for metabolic engineering of diatoms and haptophytes: current state and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velmurugan, Natarajan; Deka, Deepi

    2018-05-01

    Diatoms and haptophytes represent a key segment of the dominant phytoplankton communities that frequently form massive blooms in the photic zone of the ocean and are considered indicators of global climate changes. Diatoms and haptophytes also play a vital role in the biological carbon fixation in the carbon cycles. Carbon partitioning within diatoms and haptophytes possesses a wide range of chemical compounds and storage materials, such as lipids, carbohydrates, and chlorophyll. Among the marine microorganisms, diatoms and haptophytes have been recognized as promising sources of long- and very long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). So far, a variety of approaches have been employed for genetic modification in the nuclei of diatoms and haptophytes. Studies on transformation and metabolic engineering in various intracellular genomes, such as chloroplast and mitochondria, are scarce. Particle bombardment, Agrobacterium and PEG-mediated gene transfer, and electroporation have been reported for foreign gene transformation into the diatoms and haptophytes. Antibiotics (G418 and chloramphenicol) and herbicides (zeocin, hygromycin, and norflurazon) have been successfully demonstrated as the best selection markers. Despite the availability of a wide range of molecular tools for foreign gene expression in microalgae, very few promoters (lhcf1, nr, h4, ef2, fcp, and pds) have been reported for diatoms and haptophytes. Therefore, in this review, we first summarize the significant progress that has been achieved in transgene expression in diatoms and haptophytes and highlight the importance and availability of recently developed novel tools that are suitable for transgenic expression in diatoms and haptophytes.

  7. Characterization of Airborne Particles Collected from Car Engine Air Filters Using SEM and EDX Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birmania Heredia Rivera

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Particulate matter accumulated on car engine air-filters (CAFs was examined in order to investigate the potential use of these devices as efficient samplers for collecting street level air that people are exposed to. The morphology, microstructure, and chemical composition of a variety of particles were studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM and energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX. The particulate matter accumulated by the CAFs was studied in two categories; the first was of removed particles by friction, and the second consisted of particles retained on the filters. Larger particles with a diameter of 74–10 µm were observed in the first category. In the second one, the detected particles had a diameter between 16 and 0.7 µm. These particles exhibited different morphologies and composition, indicating mostly a soil origin. The elemental composition revealed the presence of three groups: mineral (clay and asphalt, metallic (mainly Fe, and biological particles (vegetal and animal debris. The palynological analysis showed the presence of pollen grains associated with urban plants. These results suggest that CAFs capture a mixture of atmospheric particles, which can be analyzed in order to monitor urban air. Thus, the continuous availability of large numbers of filters and the retroactivity associated to the car routes suggest that these CAFs are very useful for studying the high traffic zones within a city.

  8. Application of powder metallurgy technique to produce improved bearing elements for cryogenic aerospace engine turbopumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moxson, V. S.; Moracz, D. J.; Bhat, B. N.; Dolan, F. J.; Thom, R.

    1987-01-01

    Traditionally, vacuum melted 440C stainless steel is used for high performance bearings for aerospace cryogenic systems where corrosion due to condensation is a major concern. For the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME), however, 440C performance in the high-pressure turbopumps has been marginal. A basic assumption of this study was that powder metallurgy, rather than cast/wrought, processing would provide the finest, most homogeneous bearing alloy structure. Preliminary testing of P/M alloys (hardness, corrosion resistance, wear resistance, fatigue resistance, and fracture toughness) was used to 'de-select' alloys which did perform as well as baseline 440C. Five out of eleven candidate materials (14-4/6V, X-405, MRC-2001, T-440V, and D-5) based on preliminary screening were selected for the actual rolling-sliding five-ball testing. The results of this test were compared with high-performance vacuum-melted M50 bearing steel. The results of the testing indicated outstanding performance of two P/M alloys, X-405 and MRC-2001, which eventually will be further evaluated by full-scale bearing testing.

  9. Petroleum product deparaffination process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martynenko, A.G.; Dorodnova, V.S.; Korzhov, Yu.A.

    1980-12-23

    In the process for deparaffination of petroleum products (NP) by treatment of them with carbamide (KA) in the presence of an activator (AK) and solvent with subsequent separation of the forming paraffin-carbamide complex (PKC) the NP is mixed with the AK at a temperature of 5-40/sup 0/ in an NP:AK ratio of 1:0.01-0.03 with subsequent addition of portions of KA at a temperature of 5-20/sup 0/. The advantages of the process in comparison with the known one consists in the fact that the process of complex formation is realized practically without an induction period, and paraffin yield is increased by 27% on the potential with a simultaneous decrease in reagent consumption: KA by 20% and MeOH by 35%. Example -- 100 g of diesel fuel (a 200-360/sup 0/ fraction) is mixed with MeOH (1.3% on the feedstock), which in the obtained mixture is found in a liquid droplet state. To the mixture 40 g KA is added (2/3 of the total amount of KA to be added). The complex formation temperature is held at 35/sup 0/. To the PKC practically forming at once 260 g of solvent (an 85-120/sup 0/ gasoline fraction) and then 20 g KA are added. The temperature is held at 20/sup 0/. The forming suspension of the complex is distinguished by uniformity and the absence of coarse conglomerates. The paraffin yield amounts to 11.8% on the feedstock or 74% on the potential. The melting point of the paraffin is 22/sup 0/. In the described deparaffination scheme according to the proposed process complex formation is carried out in two steps; in a third step the suspension of KA and centrifuged paraffin is separated; the KA is returned to the complex formation reactor, and the centrifuged paraffin --- for solvent regeneration.

  10. Petroleum resources assessment (I)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    On the basis of diverse microfossils such as foraminifers, ostracods, micromulluscs, fossil spores and pollen and calcareous nannofossils derived from 14 drill holes, the sediments are divided into two part, the upper marine part and the lower nonmarine one. Marine part is subdivided into 4 foraminiferal zones and 3 nannofossil zones of Plio-Pleistocene age. In the lower part ranging from Oligocene to Late Miocene 4 palynomoph assemblages are established, which reflect climatic changes fluctuating between subtropical and cool temperate. Some fine sediments occurring in the South Sea continental shelf are rich in organic matter to be hydrocarbon source rock. The organic matter is mainly compared to type 3. However, lower part of the Geobuk-1 and Okdom-1 shows more oil prone geochemical characteristics than other wells. The kerosene is mixture type 1 and type 3 organic matter. The main oil generation zone located between 2,500 m and 3,000 m and gas generation zone from 3,500 m to 4,000 m approximately. Hydrocarbon accumulation could be expected in the trap formed in the period earlier than 10 Ma. as the hydrocarbon started to be expelled at 10 Ma. according to the modeling. Approximately 13,000 Line-km of multichannel seismic data integrated with 14 wells and gravity and magnetic data were analyzed to investigate the structural and stratigraphic evolution of southern part of offshore Korea. The northeast-southwest trending Taiwan-Sinzi Uplift Belt separates the area into two regions with different tectonic features, northwestern and southwestern regions. The potential hydrocarbon traps associated with anticline, tilted fault block, fault, unconformity, and rollover structure exist. This project is consisted of two main subjects. 1) Petroleum resources assessment on the continental shelf basin of the south sea. 2) Petroliferous basin analysis in Taegu area (1). (author). refs., tabs., figs.

  11. Petroleum resources assessment (I)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    This report consists of 2 subjects. 1) Petroleum resources assessment of the Kunsan Basin : Kunsan Basin is mainly filled with Cretaceous and Tertiary clastic sediments, and divided into Southwest Sub-basin, Central Sub-basin and Northeast Sub-basin by uplifts and faults developed in the basin. Microfossils were studied for the biostratigraphic works of drill wells in the Kunsan Basin. The microfossils include organic-walled microfossils such as spores, pollen and nonmarine dinoflagellates and calcareous microfossils such as ostracods, charophytes and gastropods. The fossil assemblages of the Kunsan Basin reveal nonmarine environments ranging from alluvial fan to shallow lacustrine and climatic variation between subtropical and cool temperate temperature in the arid/humid alternating conditions. According to the paleontological data, the Kunsan Basin was initiated in the Early Cretaceous and expanded during Paleogene followed by regional erosion at the closing time of Paleogene on which Neogene sediments have been accumulated. The Paleogene strata show laterally irregular thickness in each Epoch due to migrating depocenter. 2) Petroliferous basin analysis in Hapcheon area (I) : The Cretaceous Gyeongsang Supergroup consists of more than 9 Km sequences of sedimentary and volcanic rocks in Hapcheon-Changyong-Euiryong-Haman area and occupies the middle part of the Milyang subbasin. The Supergroup can be divided into three group; Sindong, Hayang and Yuchon groups in ascending order. Based on rock color, the Sindong Group can be subdivided into Nakdong, Hasandong and Jinju Formations. The Hayang Group can be subdivided into Chilgok, Silla Conglomerate, Haman and Jindong Formations. The Chilgok Formation includes basaltic lava and tuffs in the upper part. The Haman Formation has Kusandong tuff (keybed) in the uppermost part in the Changyong area, whereas the tuff is intercalated below the vocaniclastics in the Haman area. (author). 60 refs., 22 tabs., 61 figs.

  12. Introduction of Functional Structures in Nano-Scales into Engineering Polymer Films Using Radiation Technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maekawa, Y., E-mail: maekawa.yasunari@jaea.go.jp [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Quantum Beam Science Directorate, High Performance Polymer Group, 1233 Watanuki-Machi, Takasaki, Gunma-ken 370-1292 (Japan)

    2010-07-01

    Introduction of functional regions in nanometer scale in polymeric films using γ-rays, EB, and ion beams are proposed. Two approaches to build nano-scale functional domains in polymer substrates are proposed: 1) Radiation-induced grafting to transfer nano-scale polymer crystalline structures (morphology), acting as a nano-template, to nano-scale graft polymer regions. The obtained polymers with nano structures can be applied to high performance polymer membranes. 2) Fabrication of nanopores and functional domains in engineering plastic films using ion beams, which deposit the energy in very narrow region of polymer films. Hydrophilic grafting polymers are introduced into hydrophobic fluorinated polymers, cross-linked PTFE (cPTFE) and aromatic hydrocarbon polymer, poly(ether ether ketone (PEEK), which is known to have lamella and crystallite in the polymer films. Then, the hierarchical structures of graft domains are analyzed by a small angle neutron scattering (SANS) experiment. From these analyses, the different structures and the different formation of graft domains were observed in fluorinated and hydrocarbon polymer substrates. the grafted domains in the cPTFE film, working as an ion channel, grew as covering the crystallite and the size of domain seems to be similar to that of crystallite. On the other hand, the PEEK-based PEM has a smaller domain size and it seems to grow independently on the crystallites of PEEK substrate. For nano-fabrication of polymer films using heavy ion beams, the energy distribution in radial direction, which is perpendicular to ion trajectory, is mainly concerned. For penumbra, we re-estimated effective radius of penumbra, in which radiation induced grafting took place, for several different ion beams. We observed the different diameters of the ion channels consisting of graft polymers. The channel sizes were quite in good agreement with the effective penumbra which possess the absorption doses more than 1 kGy. (author)

  13. Introduction of Functional Structures in Nano-Scales into Engineering Polymer Films Using Radiation Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maekawa, Y.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction of functional regions in nanometer scale in polymeric films using γ-rays, EB, and ion beams are proposed. Two approaches to build nano-scale functional domains in polymer substrates are proposed: 1) Radiation-induced grafting to transfer nano-scale polymer crystalline structures (morphology), acting as a nano-template, to nano-scale graft polymer regions. The obtained polymers with nano structures can be applied to high performance polymer membranes. 2) Fabrication of nanopores and functional domains in engineering plastic films using ion beams, which deposit the energy in very narrow region of polymer films. Hydrophilic grafting polymers are introduced into hydrophobic fluorinated polymers, cross-linked PTFE (cPTFE) and aromatic hydrocarbon polymer, poly(ether ether ketone (PEEK), which is known to have lamella and crystallite in the polymer films. Then, the hierarchical structures of graft domains are analyzed by a small angle neutron scattering (SANS) experiment. From these analyses, the different structures and the different formation of graft domains were observed in fluorinated and hydrocarbon polymer substrates. the grafted domains in the cPTFE film, working as an ion channel, grew as covering the crystallite and the size of domain seems to be similar to that of crystallite. On the other hand, the PEEK-based PEM has a smaller domain size and it seems to grow independently on the crystallites of PEEK substrate. For nano-fabrication of polymer films using heavy ion beams, the energy distribution in radial direction, which is perpendicular to ion trajectory, is mainly concerned. For penumbra, we re-estimated effective radius of penumbra, in which radiation induced grafting took place, for several different ion beams. We observed the different diameters of the ion channels consisting of graft polymers. The channel sizes were quite in good agreement with the effective penumbra which possess the absorption doses more than 1 kGy. (author)

  14. Application of electrochemical plasma techniques in surface engineering of iron based structural materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coaca, E.; Rusu, O.; Mihalache, M.; Minca, M.; Tacica, M.; Florea, S.; Oncioiu, G.; Andrei, V.

    2013-01-01

    The surface of austenitic stainless steels 304 L and 316 L was modified by various complex surface treatments: - plasma electrolytic carbo-nitriding by means of Plasma electrolytic saturation (PES); the saturation of cathodic surfaces with C, N was performed using suitable electrolytes (aqueous solutions of inorganic acids, appropriate salts containing the desired elements and certain organic compounds); -electrodeposition of Al from ChCl based Ionic Liquid. The coatings obtained in various experimental conditions have been investigated by means of electron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersion x-ray spectrometry, electrochemical techniques, and the properties of the thin films have been correlated with the microstructure and the composition of the surface layers which are strongly dependents of the different regimes of diffusion treatments. The preliminary results on Electrochemical Plasma Technology (EPT) treatments demonstrate that we can select the processing parameters for essential improvement of corrosion behaviour in some aggressive medium and high values of microhardness. (authors)

  15. Petroleum service projects in the Gulf of Guinea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ken-Worgu, Kenneth Chukwumeka

    2011-07-01

    The goal of this record of study is to examine the major facets involved in managing several petroleum service projects located in three different countries in the Gulf of Guinea simultaneously, while effectively engaging in business development activities for the Oil and Industrial Services Group (OIS). This work also furnishes adequate background on related subject matters to enable understanding of the projects presented. The petroleum services sector is the back bone of the oil and gas industry. Services companies are vital to the success of all petroleum and energy producers in the USA, the Gulf of Guinea and the world. There is a need and demand for these service companies because they play various roles such as logistics, drilling, construction, dredging, pipe laying, procurement, food supply, human resource supply, etc. The Gulf of Guinea comprises of countries from west and central Africa. This project was limited to Nigeria, Equatorial Guinea and Cameroon. This area holds the largest petroleum reserves in Africa and plays a vital role in the global supply of petroleum. The Oil and Industrial Services Group (OIS), plans to establish herself as one of the leading petroleum service companies in this gulf. To manage this expansion, I have taken the role of Gulf of Guinea manager to apply my background as a petroleum engineer as well as my business skills to build a successful division of the company. This work provides a record of study of the management of services, projects and contracts carried out by the OIS group in the gulf of Guinea. The following are the specific projects in the Gulf of Guinea that I participated in: Managing delivering, maintenance and marketing of offshore vessels, Offshore pipe laying project, Integrated pipeline maintenance project, Development a petroleum technical training facilities, Agbami pipe insulation project, Engineering lift project and Capital budgeting analysis for potential investments. The details of the specific

  16. Industrial application of nuclear techniques in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Easey, J.F.

    1981-01-01

    The applications of nuclear techniques in Australia was reviewed - the work has been to aid: mining and mineral sector, the manufacturing, chemical and petroleum industries, hydrology and sedimentology

  17. Registry of Mineral and Petroleum Titles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maclellan, I. M.; Kaizer, J. L.; McCulloch, P. D.; Ratcliffe, R.; Wenning, A. S. [Nova Scotia Dept. of Natural Resources, Halifax, NS (Canada)

    2000-07-01

    Activities of the Nova Scotia Registry of Mineral and Petroleum Titles are described, including statistical information about staking and mining activity in the province during 1999. In terms of activities, the Registry receives applications and issues licenses and leases for mineral and petroleum rights, receives statements of exploration expenditures and assessment reports that pertain to renewal of licenses and leases, maintains maps showing the disposition of lands under license or lease, and maintains a system of prospector registration. In addition, the Registry processes applications for underground gas storage rights and treasure trove rights and maintains a database of information concerning production and employment in Nova Scotia mines and quarries. At the end 1999 there were 230,660 hectares under exploration licence. Exploration expenditures, including engineering, economic and feasibility studies during 1999 totalled $4.2 million, mostly by junior mining companies searching for industrial mineral commodities. Mining activity during 1999 generated revenues of $340 million. Coal production dropped by 25 per cent, due mainly to the closure of the Phalen Mine. Gypsum production was up to 7.9 million tonnes; shipments of cement, barite and clay products also increased during 1999; salt production remained unchanged from 1998 with 842,000 tonnes. Production of construction aggregates totalled 10.6 million tonnes, down slightly from the year before. Mineral industry employment was roughly 2,500 persons, down by 24 per cent from 1998 levels, due primarily to the closure of the Phalen Mine.

  18. Exports of petroleum products, 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-04-01

    A summary is presented of exports of motor gasoline, middle distillate, aviation turbine fuel, heavy fuel oil, and partially processed oil from Canada for the 1987 calendar year. A discussion of petroleum product imports is included in order to put exports in the context of the overall trade. Exports of the above petroleum products averaged 22,200 m 3 /d in 1987, up 15% from 1986 levels. Exports of middle distillates and aviation fuel had the largest gains in 1987. Export prices for light petroleum products stayed relatively close to USA spot prices. The heavy fuel oil price was below the New York spot price in the beginning of 1987 but remained close for the rest of the year. Canada's petroleum products exports were made to 5 countries while imports came from at least 13 countries. The USA remained Canada's largest trading partner in petroleum products. Exports to Japan and the Far East rose ca 60% over 1986. Product outturns for export were 9% of total Canadian refinery throughput. Exports of aviation turbine fuel from Ontario began in April 1987. The top single exporter in Canada was Irving Oil Ltd. with 2,485,000 m 3 . Irving was also the top exporter in 1986. 11 figs., 4 tabs

  19. Exports of petroleum products, 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-04-01

    A summary is presented of exports of motor gasoline, middle distillate, aviation turbine fuel, heavy fuel oil, and partially processed oil from Canada for the 1989 calendar year. A discussion of petroleum product imports is included in order to put exports in the context of the overall trade. Exports of the above petroleum products averaged 30,400 m 3 /d in 1989, down 5% from 1988 levels. Motor gasoline shipments showed the largest decrease, down 1,500 m 3 to 7,700 m 3 /d. Export prices for light petroleum products stayed relatively close to USA spot prices except in June and July 1989, when attractive prices were obtained for shipments from the prairie provinces. The heavy fuel oil export price was similar to the USA east coast spot price in 1989, except in December. Canada's petroleum products imports in 1989 were 21,600 m 3 /d, compared to 18,400 m 3 /d in 1988. Imports of heavy fuel oil in eastern Canada rose 36% in 1989 because of industries switching from electricity and the high demand for thermal power generation. The USA remained Canada's largest trading partner in petroleum products. The top single exporter in 1989, as in 1988, was Newfoundland Processing, with a volume of 3,484,500 m 3 . 24 figs., 4 tabs

  20. Exports of petroleum products, 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-04-01

    A summary is presented of exports of motor gasoline, middle distillate, aviation turbine fuel, heavy fuel oil, and partially processed oil from Canada for the 1988 calendar year. A discussion of petroleum product imports is included in order to put exports in the context of the overall trade. Exports of the above petroleum products averaged 32,000 m 3 /d in 1988, up 44% from 1987 levels. Each product except aviation fuel registered increases in export volumes, which reached the highest total volume of the decade. The main reason for the large increase was the first full year of production from the export-directed refinery at Come By Chance, Newfoundland. Export prices for light petroleum products stayed relatively close to USA spot prices. The heavy fuel oil price was mostly above the USA east coast spot price during 1988. Attractive prices on the USA east coast resulted in a few cargoes of middle distillate and motor gasoline shipped from British Columbia. Petroleum products imports came from 12 countries; Quebec had the largest volume of imports in 1988. The USA remained Canada's largest trading partner in petroleum products. Western exporters view the Far East as an ongoing important market. The top single exporter in Canada was Newfoundland Processing, with 32% of the total export volume. 12 figs., 3 tabs

  1. The hidden face of the petroleum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laurent, E.

    2006-02-01

    For the first time, a book reveals what that was hidden to the public opinions: why the petroleum crisis of 1973 what only a manipulation, an arrangement between the OPEC and the petroleum companies, why the data concerning the petroleum reserves are wrong and increased by the producers countries, how Washington used the Saudi petroleum weapon to create the Soviet Union fall, and why from march 2001 maps of the Iraq (where were drawn the future petroleum explorations) were working documents for the vice President Cheney and petroleum managers for the ''secret society''. (A.L.B.)

  2. Realizing parameterless automatic classification of remote sensing imagery using ontology engineering and cyberinfrastructure techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ziheng; Fang, Hui; Di, Liping; Yue, Peng

    2016-09-01

    It was an untouchable dream for remote sensing experts to realize total automatic image classification without inputting any parameter values. Experts usually spend hours and hours on tuning the input parameters of classification algorithms in order to obtain the best results. With the rapid development of knowledge engineering and cyberinfrastructure, a lot of data processing and knowledge reasoning capabilities become online accessible, shareable and interoperable. Based on these recent improvements, this paper presents an idea of parameterless automatic classification which only requires an image and automatically outputs a labeled vector. No parameters and operations are needed from endpoint consumers. An approach is proposed to realize the idea. It adopts an ontology database to store the experiences of tuning values for classifiers. A sample database is used to record training samples of image segments. Geoprocessing Web services are used as functionality blocks to finish basic classification steps. Workflow technology is involved to turn the overall image classification into a total automatic process. A Web-based prototypical system named PACS (Parameterless Automatic Classification System) is implemented. A number of images are fed into the system for evaluation purposes. The results show that the approach could automatically classify remote sensing images and have a fairly good average accuracy. It is indicated that the classified results will be more accurate if the two databases have higher quality. Once the experiences and samples in the databases are accumulated as many as an expert has, the approach should be able to get the results with similar quality to that a human expert can get. Since the approach is total automatic and parameterless, it can not only relieve remote sensing workers from the heavy and time-consuming parameter tuning work, but also significantly shorten the waiting time for consumers and facilitate them to engage in image

  3. A Solvent-Free Surface Suspension Melt Technique for Making Biodegradable PCL Membrane Scaffolds for Tissue Engineering Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratima Suntornnond

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In tissue engineering, there is limited availability of a simple, fast and solvent-free process for fabricating micro-porous thin membrane scaffolds. This paper presents the first report of a novel surface suspension melt technique to fabricate a micro-porous thin membrane scaffolds without using any organic solvent. Briefly, a layer of polycaprolactone (PCL particles is directly spread on top of water in the form of a suspension. After that, with the use of heat, the powder layer is transformed into a melted layer, and following cooling, a thin membrane is obtained. Two different sizes of PCL powder particles (100 µm and 500 µm are used. Results show that membranes made from 100 µm powders have lower thickness, smaller pore size, smoother surface, higher value of stiffness but lower ultimate tensile load compared to membranes made from 500 µm powder. C2C12 cell culture results indicate that the membrane supports cell growth and differentiation. Thus, this novel membrane generation method holds great promise for tissue engineering.

  4. A simple measuring technique of surface flow velocity to analyze the behavior of velocity fields in hydraulic engineering applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellez, Jackson; Gomez, Manuel; Russo, Beniamino; Redondo, Jose M.

    2015-04-01

    An important achievement in hydraulic engineering is the proposal and development of new techniques for the measurement of field velocities in hydraulic problems. The technological advances in digital cameras with high resolution and high speed found in the market, and the advances in digital image processing techniques now provides a tremendous potential to measure and study the behavior of the water surface flows. This technique was applied at the Laboratory of Hydraulics at the Technical University of Catalonia - Barcelona Tech to study the 2D velocity fields in the vicinity of a grate inlet. We used a platform to test grate inlets capacity with dimensions of 5.5 m long and 4 m wide allowing a zone of useful study of 5.5m x 3m, where the width is similar of the urban road lane. The platform allows you to modify the longitudinal slopes from 0% to 10% and transversal slope from 0% to 4%. Flow rates can arrive to 200 l/s. In addition a high resolution camera with 1280 x 1024 pixels resolution with maximum speed of 488 frames per second was used. A novel technique using particle image velocimetry to measure surface flow velocities has been developed and validated with the experimental data from the grate inlets capacity. In this case, the proposed methodology can become a useful tools to understand the velocity fields of the flow approaching the inlet where the traditional measuring equipment have serious problems and limitations. References DigiFlow User Guide. (2012), (June). Russo, B., Gómez, M., & Tellez, J. (2013). Methodology to Estimate the Hydraulic Efficiency of Nontested Continuous Transverse Grates. Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering, 139(10), 864-871. doi:10.1061/(ASCE)IR.1943-4774.0000625 Teresa Vila (1), Jackson Tellez (1), Jesus Maria Sanchez (2), Laura Sotillos (1), Margarita Diez (3, 1), and J., & (1), M. R. (2014). Diffusion in fractal wakes and convective thermoelectric flows. Geophysical Research Abstracts - EGU General Assembly 2014

  5. The use of genetic engineering techniques to improve the lipid composition in meat, milk and fish products: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Świątkiewicz, S; Świątkiewicz, M; Arczewska-Włosek, A; Józefiak, D

    2015-04-01

    The health-promoting properties of dietary long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFAs) for humans are well-known. Products of animal-origin enriched with n-3 LCPUFAs can be a good example of functional food, that is food that besides traditionally understood nutritional value may have a beneficial influence on the metabolism and health of consumers, thus reducing the risk of various lifestyle diseases such as atherosclerosis and coronary artery disease. The traditional method of enriching meat, milk or eggs with n-3 LCPUFA is the manipulation of the composition of animal diets. Huge progress in the development of genetic engineering techniques, for example transgenesis, has enabled the generation of many kinds of genetically modified animals. In recent years, one of the aims of animal transgenesis has been the modification of the lipid composition of meat and milk in order to improve the dietetic value of animal-origin products. This article reviews and discusses the data in the literature concerning studies where techniques of genetic engineering were used to create animal-origin products modified to contain health-promoting lipids. These studies are still at the laboratory stage, but their results have demonstrated that the transgenesis of pigs, cows, goats and fishes can be used in the future as efficient methods of production of healthy animal-origin food of high dietetic value. However, due to high costs and a low level of public acceptance, the introduction of this technology to commercial animal production and markets seems to be a distant prospect.

  6. Design and manufacturing of patient-specific orthodontic appliances by computer-aided engineering techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barone, Sandro; Neri, Paolo; Paoli, Alessandro; Razionale, Armando Viviano

    2018-01-01

    Orthodontic treatments are usually performed using fixed brackets or removable oral appliances, which are traditionally made from alginate impressions and wax registrations. Among removable devices, eruption guidance appliances are used for early orthodontic treatments in order to intercept and prevent malocclusion problems. Commercially available eruption guidance appliances, however, are symmetric devices produced using a few standard sizes. For this reason, they are not able to meet all the specific patient's needs since the actual dental anatomies present various geometries and asymmetric conditions. In this article, a computer-aided design-based methodology for the design and manufacturing of a patient-specific eruption guidance appliances is presented. The proposed approach is based on the digitalization of several steps of the overall process: from the digital reconstruction of patients' anatomies to the manufacturing of customized appliances. A finite element model has been developed to evaluate the temporomandibular joint disks stress level caused by using symmetric eruption guidance appliances with different teeth misalignment conditions. The developed model can then be used to guide the design of a patient-specific appliance with the aim at reducing the patient discomfort. At this purpose, two different customization levels are proposed in order to face both arches and single tooth misalignment issues. A low-cost manufacturing process, based on an additive manufacturing technique, is finally presented and discussed.

  7. Hybrid vehicle assessment. Phase 1: Petroleum savings analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, R.; Liddle, S.; Deshpande, G.; Trummel, M.; Vivian, H. C.

    1984-01-01

    The results of a comprehensive analysis of near term electric hybrid vehicles are presented, with emphasis on their potential to save significant amounts of petroleum on a national scale in the 1990s. Performance requirements and expected annual usage patterns of these vehicles are first modeled. The projected U.S. fleet composition is estimated, and conceptual hybrid vehicle designs are conceived and analyzed for petroleum use when driven in the expected annual patterns. These petroleum consumption estimates are then compared to similar estimates for projected 1990 conventional vehicles having the same performance and driven in the same patterns. Results are presented in the form of three utility functions and comparisons of sevral conceptual designs are made. The Hybrid Vehicle (HV) design and assessment techniques are discussed and a general method is explained for selecting the optimum energy management strategy for any vehicle mission battery combination. Conclusions and recommendations are presented, and development recommendations are identified.

  8. Overview of soil and groundwater research activities of the American Petroleum Institute (API)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauman, B.

    1992-01-01

    The American Petroleum Institute (API) is a trade association for the domestic petroleum industry in the USA, with over 2000 corporate and 5000 individual members. Subsurface research activities are managed by the API soil/groundwater technical task force, a committee made up of over 25 member company engineers, hydrologists, soil scientists, and chemists representing both the research and operations sectors of the petroleum industry. The research areas of the group have been divided into five principle areas: biodegradation processes, fate and transport, remediation, decision making tools for remediation, and detection/analytical methods. A summary of each of the current projects in these subject areas is presented

  9. Determination of the ecological connectivity between landscape patches obtained using the knowledge engineer (expert) classification technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selim, Serdar; Sonmez, Namik Kemal; Onur, Isin; Coslu, Mesut

    2017-10-01

    Connection of similar landscape patches with ecological corridors supports habitat quality of these patches, increases urban ecological quality, and constitutes an important living and expansion area for wild life. Furthermore, habitat connectivity provided by urban green areas is supporting biodiversity in urban areas. In this study, possible ecological connections between landscape patches, which were achieved by using Expert classification technique and modeled with probabilistic connection index. Firstly, the reflection responses of plants to various bands are used as data in hypotheses. One of the important features of this method is being able to use more than one image at the same time in the formation of the hypothesis. For this reason, before starting the application of the Expert classification, the base images are prepared. In addition to the main image, the hypothesis conditions were also created for each class with the NDVI image which is commonly used in the vegetation researches. Besides, the results of the previously conducted supervised classification were taken into account. We applied this classification method by using the raster imagery with user-defined variables. Hereupon, to provide ecological connections of the tree cover which was achieved from the classification, we used Probabilistic Connection (PC) index. The probabilistic connection model which is used for landscape planning and conservation studies via detecting and prioritization critical areas for ecological connection characterizes the possibility of direct connection between habitats. As a result we obtained over % 90 total accuracy in accuracy assessment analysis. We provided ecological connections with PC index and we created inter-connected green spaces system. Thus, we offered and implicated green infrastructure system model takes place in the agenda of recent years.

  10. Ireland unveils petroleum tax measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that Ireland's government has introduced detailed petroleum tax legislation designed to boost offshore exploration and development. The petroleum tax measures, published last week and included in the government's omnibus finance bill for 1992, will provide Ireland for the first time a comprehensive petroleum tax regime. They include elements which, in tax terms, will make Ireland a most attractive location for oil and gas exploration and development, the Irish Energy Minister Robert Molloy. He the, Exploration companies will now have the benefit of the certainty of a detailed tax framework and attractive tax rates. Debate on the finance bill has begun in the Irish Dail (parliament). Under Ireland's constitution, the budget bill must be approved and signed by the president by the end of May. Failure to approve a budget bill within that time would mean the current government's collapse

  11. Petroleum 1996 - issues and trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    Increasingly, users of the Energy Information Administration`s petroleum data and analytical reports have expressed an interest in a recurring report that takes a broad view of the petroleum sector. What is sought is some perspective on the complex interrelationships that comprise an industry and markets accounting for 40 percent of the energy consumed in the United States and ranging from the drilling rig in the oil field to the pump at the local gasoline station. This report comprehensively examines historical trends, and selectively focuses on major issues and the events they represent. It analyzes different dimensions of the industry and related markets in terms of how they relate to a common theme, in this case, the volatility in petroleum markets.

  12. Biological Remediation of Petroleum Contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhad, Ramesh Chander; Gupta, Rishi

    Large volumes of hazardous wastes are generated in the form of oily sludges and contaminated soils during crude oil transportation and processing. Although many physical, chemical and biological treatment technologies are available for petroleum contaminants petroleum contaminants in soil, biological methods have been considered the most cost-effective. Practical biological remediation methods typically involve direct use of the microbes naturally occurring in the contaminated environment and/or cultured indigenous or modified microorganisms. Environmental and nutritional factors, including the properties of the soil, the chemical structure of the hydrocarbon(s), oxygen, water, nutrient availability, pH, temperature, and contaminant bioavailability, can significantly affect the rate and the extent of hydrocarbon biodegradation hydrocarbon biodegradation by microorganisms in contaminated soils. This chapter concisely discusses the major aspects of bioremediation of petroleum contaminants.

  13. Biodegradation and chemical characterization of petroleum diesel hydrocarbons in seawater at low temperatures

    OpenAIRE

    Bausch, Alexandre Renee

    2010-01-01

    Master's thesis in Environmental engineering Petroleum hydrocarbons are a major source of marine contamination. Biodegradation, which is fundamental for the natural attenuation of these hydrocarbons in nature, involves mineralization or transformation of organic compounds by autochthonous microorganism communities. Various limiting factors characteristic of the petroleum, the external environment, and the microbial community determine the fate of oil (e.g., diesel) in the marine environmen...

  14. Determination of radioactivity in petroleum products and wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hrichi, Hajer

    2009-01-01

    At this end engineering study, we determined the activities of gamma- emitting radionuclides belonging to the families of 238 U, 235 U, 232 Th and 40K in the petroleum products and wastes of the refinery S.T.I.R. The activities of radionuclides which exceed that of crude oil prove that it's a technologically enhanced natural radioactivity since several chemical products were injected during the refining process. (Author)

  15. Fire and explosion safety in the petroleum sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    The conference has 13 presentations in topics on LNG projects nationally and internationally, simulations of gas dispersion due to LNG discharges, transports of pressurized natural gas, technological aspects of fire protection and combat equipment, safety aspects of offshore installations and transportation systems, offshore platform and transportation systems design and various examples of safety design and management. Some experiences within safety engineering in the petroleum exploitation are included.

  16. Novel development of carbonate apatite-chitosan scaffolds based on lyophilization technique for bone tissue engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maretaningtias Dwi Ariani

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The natural biopolymer chitosan (Ch is currently regarded as a candidate for bone tissue engineering. However, Ch is poor for cell adhesion and low bone formation ability. In order to enhance cell adhesion and bone formation ability, combination of Ch with carbonate apatite (CA was developed. Purpose: The aim of this study was to make carbonate apatite-chitosan scaffolds (CAChSs and evaluate its osteoconductivity in terms of cell proliferation. Methods: Chitosan scaffolds (ChSs were made by the following procedure. Twenty-five, 50, 100, 200 and 400 mg Ch was dissolved into 5 ml of 2% acetic acid (CH3COOH, shaked for 15 min and neutralized with 15 ml of 0.1 M sodium hydroxide (NaOH solution. After centrifugation, Ch gel was packed into the molds then frozen at -80°C for 2h and dried in a freeze dry machine for 24h. The sponges were subjected to UV radiation for 2h. To make CA-ChSs, 200 mg Ch was selected. After neutralization, 50 mg of 0.06 M CA were added into the 200 mg Ch gel. The structure of CA-ChSs was observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM. Mouse osteoblast-like cell (MC3T3-E1 proliferation in these scaffolds was investigated at 1, 7, 14 and 21 days. Results: Three dimensional porous structures of CA-ChSs were clearly observed by SEM. Proliferated cell numbers in CA-ChSs was significantly higher than those in ChSs (control at each stage (p<0.05. Conclusion: It can be concluded that newly developed CA-ChSs had three-dimensional interconnected porous structure, good handling property and supporting ability of proliferation of osteoblasts. It is suggested that newly developed CA-ChSs could be considered as a scaffolds material for bone tissue enginearing.Latar belakang: Kitosan yang merupakan biopolimer alami dianggap sebagai salah satu kandidat untuk rekayasa jaringan tulang. Namun, kitosan memiliki kelemahan terhadap adhesi sel dan kurang mampu membentuk tulang yang cukup. Untuk meningkatkan adhesi sel dan kemampuan

  17. Petroleum industry opportunities in Guatemala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The investment opportunities that Guatemala has to offer in the petroleum sector are discussed, highlighting aspects of legislation as well as investment recovery. The increase in seismic and geological information that Guatemala has recently accumulated allows for an increased level of success in petroleum exploration, which coupled with an increase in basic infrastructure and the experience acquired in the administration of the hydrocarbons law, make it more attractive for foreign investment. An overview is presented of the sedimentary basins present, exploratory activity, surface reconnaissance permits, production sharing contracts, prices, taxation, royalties, and options. 7 figs

  18. The petroleum dilemma of Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roubinski, Y.

    2004-01-01

    Russia is confronted with major choices in the research of an optimum petroleum strategy. Now the first world exporter, Russia takes advantage of the Usa policy, first importer, which aim to diversify their supply sources since the 11 september 2001, to decrease their dependence from the Saudi Arabia and more generally from the instable Middle East. In another hand, Moscow wants to minimize the dependence of the petroleum benefit and the oils prices fluctuations, by a diversification of its economy structure. These choices define a part of the russian policy in the context of the presidential elections of march 2004. (A.L.B.)

  19. Petroleum marketing monthly, September 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-14

    This document designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and for the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented.

  20. Saudi Arabia: petroleum industry review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shammas, Pierre

    2000-01-01

    A comprehensive review is provided of Saudi Arabia's petroleum industry covering oil and gas exploration and production, refining, oil and gas trade, marketing and Saudi overseas investments. Profiles of key Saudi decision makers are provided. A statistical appendix includes data from the start of oil production in Saudi Arabia in 1938. Part I Geological potential; Part II The Saudi energy economy; Part III Production capacity; Part IV The oil refining sector ; Part V Exports and logistics; Part VI Overseas petroleum industry investments; Part VII The decision makers; Part VIII Statistical Appendix; Reserves, Production, Exports, Prices 1950 to 1999. (Author)

  1. Petroleum marketing monthly, June 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-06-10

    This publication is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented.

  2. Proceedings of the Canadian International Petroleum Conference 2005 and the 56. Annual Technical Meeting of the Petroleum Society of CIM : Because Technology Changes Everything. CD ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This conference and trade show outlined the latest technologies associated with hydrocarbon exploration, petroleum geology, resource development, and enhanced recovery. It was attended by local and international participants in the petroleum sector. The 31 sessions highlighted the challenges facing the petroleum industry in terms of maturing basins and focused on issues such as business development and risk management; cold production of heavy oil; health, safety and regulatory issues; and environmental concerns regarding oil and gas development. The presentations were targeted for managers, engineers, technologists, geologists, and other petroleum industry specialists dealing with topical issues such as: well completion; well stimulation; well test analysis; thermal recovery; reservoir characterization; fluid characterization; numerical simulation; computerized simulation; emerging technology; thermal field projects; production operations; business development; and refining facilities. A total of 122 papers have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. (author)

  3. Towards the end of full-petroleum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The experts agree on the petroleum reserves exhausting. Even if some disagreements subsist on the term, the years 2020 seem to be decisive. This paper takes stock on the governments policy facing the petroleum reserves decrease. (A.L.B.)

  4. Stable isotope mass spectrometry in petroleum exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathur, Manju

    1997-01-01

    The stable isotope mass spectrometry plays an important role to evaluate the stable isotopic composition of hydrocarbons. The isotopic ratios of certain elements in petroleum samples reflect certain characteristics which are useful for petroleum exploration

  5. BIOREMEDIATION OF A PETROLEUM-HYDROCARBON

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ES OBE

    under field conditions in the bioremediation of a petroleum- hydrocarbon polluted ... an accelerated biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in a polluted agricultural soil ..... 12) Jackson, M.L. Soil chemical analysis. ... biological assay. 3 rd.

  6. Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH): ToxFAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a state: This map displays locations where Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH) is known to be present. On ... I get more information? ToxFAQs TM for Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH) ( Hidrocarburos Totales de Petróleo (TPH) ) August ...

  7. Canadian Petroleum Products Inst. annual report, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The Canadian Petroleum Products Institute (CPPI) was created in 1989 as a nonprofit association of Canadian refiners and marketers of petroleum products. In 1991, the Atlantic Petroleum Association, the Quebec Petroleum Association, the Ontario Petroleum Association, the Canada West Petroleum Association, and the Petroleum Association for Conservation of the Canadian Environment (PACE) were integrated into the CPPI. The objective of the CPPI is to serve and represent the refining and marketing sectors of the petroleum industry with respect to environment, health and safety, and business issues. An industry overview is provided, as well as highlights of environmental achievements and challenges, and economics and operations for the year. Lists of CPPI publications, standing committees, and officers are also included. 9 figs

  8. Military Petroleum Pipeline Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-06-01

    The alternative to line power is to use engine-generator sets to F ~ gene ~rate the clectrical power. This is ani impractical approach bCcause...1094 BlIP (Eq. 7) 39 Ul(11atlons 4, 5, 6. and 7 are grupheJId in Figure 12. These dutaallow a gene •l’l enl•pairisonl of𔃻 puLIi costs over thi...mies. Thus, to obtain the d’sired construction rate of 1 8,6 miles per day, al )east six crcws wuMld hfe required. 78 Badsed oil fiirt hor aintlysis

  9. FRACTURED PETROLEUM RESERVOIRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbas Firoozabadi

    1999-06-11

    different from that of gas displacement processes. The work is of experimental nature and clarifies several misconceptions in the literature. Based on experimental results, it is established that the main reason for high efficiency of solution gas drive from heavy oil reservoirs is due to low gas mobility. Chapter III presents the concept of the alteration of porous media wettability from liquid-wetting to intermediate gas-wetting. The idea is novel and has not been introduced in the petroleum literature before. There are significant implications from such as proposal. The most direct application of intermediate gas wetting is wettability alteration around the wellbore. Such an alteration can significantly improve well deliverability in gas condensate reservoirs where gas well deliverability decreases below dewpoint pressure. Part I of Chapter III studies the effect of gravity, viscous forces, interfacial tension, and wettability on the critical condensate saturation and relative permeability of gas condensate systems. A simple phenomenological network model is used for this study, The theoretical results reveal that wettability significantly affects both the critical gas saturation and gas relative permeability. Gas relative permeability may increase ten times as contact angle is altered from 0{sup o} (strongly liquid wet) to 85{sup o} (intermediate gas-wetting). The results from the theoretical study motivated the experimental investigation described in Part II. In Part II we demonstrate that the wettability of porous media can be altered from liquid-wetting to gas-wetting. This part describes our attempt to find appropriate chemicals for wettability alteration of various substrates including rock matrix. Chapter IV provides a comprehensive treatment of molecular, pressure, and thermal diffusion and convection in porous media Basic theoretical analysis is presented using irreversible thermodynamics.

  10. The role of the national petroleum company in petroleum development market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, B J [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-08-01

    The present century started with the creation of national petroleum companies, and it ends with those national petroleum companies exerting various types of efforts to increase the efficiency of their management. Especially, the efforts of these national petroleum companies are ever intensifying to adapt to new trends in the world petroleum market such as intensified competition, ever-deepening price unstableness, separation of structure between upstream and downstream portions, rapid development of petroleum development technologies, change of political systems and the demise of national borders, ever-increasing consciousness of environmental preservation, etc. Korea cannot be exempt from management rationalization efforts of national petroleum companies. Especially, Korea established its own national petroleum company in order to actively deal with these as its supply system is very weak. Therefore, the national petroleum company should create as many successful petroleum development businesses by actively carrying out petroleum development businesses domestically and overseas in order to establish a stable supply system of petroleum and to support the petroleum development businesses of civilian enterprises more effectively. The national petroleum company must, first of all, replace the bureaucracy with entrepreneurship. Esp., in order to enhance the efficiency of management, short- term outcome should not be emphasized over long-term tenure of petroleum development businesses, and excessive interference of government on the national petroleum company should be excluded. The entrepreneurship of the national petroleum company should be pursued in Positive-sum way, and its public image should be actively promoted through this. 35 refs., 11 figs., 32 tabs.

  11. 77 FR 56421 - Standards of Performance for Petroleum Refineries; Standards of Performance for Petroleum...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-12

    ... Parts 9 and 60 Standards of Performance for Petroleum Refineries; Standards of Performance for Petroleum...-9672-3] RIN 2060-AN72 Standards of Performance for Petroleum Refineries; Standards of Performance for Petroleum Refineries for Which Construction, Reconstruction, or Modification Commenced After May 14, 2007...

  12. 46 CFR 148.04-15 - Petroleum coke, uncalcined; petroleum coke, uncalcined and calcined (mixture).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Petroleum coke, uncalcined; petroleum coke, uncalcined and calcined (mixture). 148.04-15 Section 148.04-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Requirements for Certain Material § 148.04-15 Petroleum coke, uncalcined; petroleum coke, uncalcined and...

  13. The United States facing their petroleum dependence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noel, P.

    2002-06-01

    In the framework of ''the energy crisis of 2000-2001'', the Cheney report and the petroleum dependence, this study presents a critical examination of the United States petroleum situation, its perception in the american political milieu and the public policies implementing during the last ten years. The first section is devoted to the petroleum supply. In the second section, the american petroleum policy and the energy safety are studied. (A.L.B.)

  14. Fact sheet. Norwegian petroleum activity 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westgaard, T. [ed.

    1996-02-01

    The present report from the Royal Ministry of Industry and Energy deals with the Norwegian petroleum activity. Main topics are as follow: Historical overview; state organisation of petroleum activities; the economic impact of Norwegian oil and gas; state revenues; mainland activities; petroleum resources; production; marketing situation for petroleum products; environmental aspects; the legal and licence framework; licensing rounds; exploration; fields in production; fields under development; discoveries with development plan under consideration; transportation systems; licence interests; company interests. 36 refs., 24 figs., 15 tabs.

  15. On the Tengiz petroleum deposit previous study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nysangaliev, A.N.; Kuspangaliev, T.K.

    1997-01-01

    Tengiz petroleum deposit previous study is described. Some consideration about structure of productive formation, specific characteristic properties of petroleum-bearing collectors are presented. Recommendation on their detail study and using of experience on exploration and development of petroleum deposit which have analogy on most important geological and industrial parameters are given. (author)

  16. The petroleum industry in 1999 (editorial)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This document deals with the petroleum activity in 1999. It provides three economic analysis. The first one concerns the petroleum industry activity in 1999 and the corresponding french energy policy. The second one presents the petroleum activity in the world. The third one presents the hydrocarbons market supplying in France. (A.L.B.)

  17. 78 FR 40131 - National Petroleum Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY National Petroleum Council AGENCY: Office of Fossil Energy, Department of... Petroleum Council. The Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463, 86 Stat. 770) requires that public... Administrative Matters Discussion of Any Other Business Properly Brought Before the National Petroleum Council...

  18. Unit: Petroleum, Inspection Pack, National Trial Print.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Australian Science Education Project, Toorak, Victoria.

    This is a National Trial Print of a unit on petroleum developed for the Australian Science Education Project. The package contains the teacher's edition of the written material and a script for a film entitled "The Extraordinary Experience of Nicholas Nodwell" emphasizing the uses of petroleum and petroleum products in daily life and…

  19. 77 FR 42297 - National Petroleum Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY National Petroleum Council AGENCY: Department of Energy, Office of Fossil... National Petroleum Council. The Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463, 86 Stat. 770) requires that... Matters Discussion of Any Other Business Properly Brought Before the National Petroleum Council...

  20. 76 FR 53889 - National Petroleum Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY National Petroleum Council AGENCY: Department of Energy, Office of Fossil... Petroleum Council. The Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463, 86 Stat. 770) requires that public... Properly Brought Before the National, Petroleum Council, Adjournment. Public Participation: The meeting is...

  1. [Recent advances in analysis of petroleum geological samples by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xuanbo; Chang, Zhenyang; Dai, Wei; Tong, Ting; Zhang, Wanfeng; He, Sheng; Zhu, Shukui

    2014-10-01

    Abundant geochemical information can be acquired by analyzing the chemical compositions of petroleum geological samples. The information obtained from the analysis provides scientifical evidences for petroleum exploration. However, these samples are complicated and can be easily influenced by physical (e. g. evaporation, emulsification, natural dispersion, dissolution and sorption), chemical (photodegradation) and biological (mainly microbial degradation) weathering processes. Therefore, it is very difficult to analyze the petroleum geological samples and they cannot be effectively separated by traditional gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. A newly developed separation technique, comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC x GC), has unique advantages in complex sample analysis, and recently it has been applied to petroleum geological samples. This article mainly reviews the research progres- ses in the last five years, the main problems and the future research about GC x GC applied in the area of petroleum geology.

  2. Panorama of the petroleum industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-05-01

    This document provides tables and charts of statistical data concerning the petroleum industry activity in 2002: supply and demand, prices, consumption, service station number and the market. A second part is devoted to the fuel quality and air quality: the constant improvement of the fuels and the investments refining/distribution. (A.L.B.)

  3. A Computerized Petroleum Geology Package.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Louise E.

    1983-01-01

    Describes a package of computer programs developed to implement an oil exploration game that gives undergraduate students practical experience in applying theoretical principles of petroleum geology. The programs facilitate management of the game by the instructor and enhance the learning experience. (Author/MBR)

  4. Volatility Spillovers Across Petroleum Markets

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Baruník, Jozef; Kočenda, Evžen; Vácha, Lukáš

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 36, č. 3 (2015), s. 309-329 ISSN 0195-6574 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-24129S Keywords : Volatility spillovers * Asymmetry * Petroleum markets Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.662, year: 2015 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2014/E/barunik-0438407.pdf

  5. Petroleum business of high risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carta Petrolera

    2001-01-01

    The paper is about the economic risk and of the geologic risk that assist the industry of the petroleum; an analysis of these types of risk, possibilities of success and investments to carry out in the search of hydrocarbons are made

  6. Tumaco the other Petroleum face

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carta Petrolera

    1997-01-01

    The Tumaco City (Colombia), it is one of the exit points of the Colombian and Ecuadorian petroleum. To Tumaco port arrives 80.000 daily barrels coming from the south of Colombia and Ecuador on the average. Tumaco and Covenas (shipment Port for the Caribbean Sea) they conform the points of shipment of the international trade of hydrocarbons in the country

  7. Environmental remote sensing for the petroleum industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, R.N.

    1991-01-01

    Remote sensing techniques developed for exploration programs can often be used to address environmental issues facing the petroleum industry. While this industry becomes increasingly more environmentally conscious, budgets remain tight, requiring any technology used in environmental applications to be cost effective, widely available and reliable. In this paper a three-fold analysis of environmental issues facing the petroleum industry concludes: major areas of concern included environmental mapping natural habitats, surface cover, change through time, pollution monitoring (hazardous wastes, oil seeps and spills on and offshore), earth hazards assessment, baseline studies, facilities sitting and crisis response. options matrices were developed plotting current and near future RS technology vs environmental concerns, and each sensor/platform combination subjectively evaluated to determine which combination could best address the problem. While presently available RS technology (both airborne and spaceborne) has significant capability toward environmental mapping, hazards detection and other concerns, the anticipated launches of ERS-1, JERS-1, Landsat-6 and other systems will provide environmentally useful data available today only from relatively expensive and local airborne surveys. Low altitude airborne surveys and ground/sea truth will continue to be critical to any quantitative studies

  8. Bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons in soil environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowell, M.J.; Ashworth, J.; Qureshi, A.A.

    1992-12-01

    The bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons in soil environments was reviewed via a literature survey and discussions with workers in relevant disciplines. The impacts of hydrocarbons on soil are discussed along with a range of methods available to assist in their decomposition by soil microorganisms. The range of petroleum-based materials considered includes conventional and synthetic crude oils, refined oils, sludges, asphalts and bitumens, drilling mud residues, creosote tars, and some pesticides. The degradability of hydrocarbons largely depends upon their aqueous solubility and their adsorption on soil surfaces and, therefore, is related to their molecular structures. The ease of decomposition decreases with increasing complexity of structure, in the order aliphatics > aromatics > heterocyclics and asphaltenes (most recalcitrant). Most soils contain an adequate population of microorganisms and hence bioaugmentation may only be needed in special circumstances. Decomposition is fastest in soils where the hydrocarbon loading rate, aeration, nutrition, moisture, and pH are all optimized. At spill sites there is little control over the application rate, although containment measures can assist in either limiting contamination or distributing it more evenly. The enhancement of bioremediation is discussed in light of all these factors. Other techniques such as enhanced aeration, hydrocarbon decomposition by anaerobic processes, surfactants, and burning are also discussed. 211 refs., 11 figs., 10 tabs

  9. Bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons in soil environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowell, M J; Ashworth, J; Qureshi, A A

    1992-12-01

    The bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons in soil environments was reviewed via a literature survey and discussions with workers in relevant disciplines. The impacts of hydrocarbons on soil are discussed along with a range of methods available to assist in their decomposition by soil microorganisms. The range of petroleum-based materials considered includes conventional and synthetic crude oils, refined oils, sludges, asphalts and bitumens, drilling mud residues, creosote tars, and some pesticides. The degradability of hydrocarbons largely depends upon their aqueous solubility and their adsorption on soil surfaces and, therefore, is related to their molecular structures. The ease of decomposition decreases with increasing complexity of structure, in the order aliphatics > aromatics > heterocyclics and asphaltenes (most recalcitrant). Most soils contain an adequate population of microorganisms and hence bioaugmentation may only be needed in special circumstances. Decomposition is fastest in soils where the hydrocarbon loading rate, aeration, nutrition, moisture, and pH are all optimized. At spill sites there is little control over the application rate, although containment measures can assist in either limiting contamination or distributing it more evenly. The enhancement of bioremediation is discussed in light of all these factors. Other techniques such as enhanced aeration, hydrocarbon decomposition by anaerobic processes, surfactants, and burning are also discussed. 211 refs., 11 figs., 10 tabs.

  10. Engineering Encounters: Reverse Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Veronica Cassone; Ventura, Marcia; Bell, Philip

    2017-01-01

    This column presents ideas and techniques to enhance your science teaching. This month's issue shares information on how students' everyday experiences can support science learning through engineering design. In this article, the authors outline a reverse-engineering model of instruction and describe one example of how it looked in our fifth-grade…

  11. Site characterization and petroleum hydrocarbon plume mapping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravishankar, K. [Harding Lawson Associates, Houston, TX (United States)

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents a case study of site characterization and hydrocarbon contamination plume mapping/delineation in a gas processing plant in southern Mexico. The paper describes innovative and cost-effective use of passive (non-intrusive) and active (intrusive) techniques, including the use of compound-specific analytical methods for site characterization. The techniques used, on a demonstrative basis, include geophysical, geochemical, and borehole drilling. Geochemical techniques used to delineate the horizontal extent of hydrocarbon contamination at the site include soil gas surveys. The borehole drilling technique used to assess the vertical extent of contamination and confirm geophysical and geochemical data combines conventional hollow-stem auguring with direct push-probe using Geoprobe. Compound-specific analytical methods, such as hydrocarbon fingerprinting and a modified method for gasoline range organics, demonstrate the inherent merit and need for such analyses to properly characterize a site, while revealing the limitations of noncompound-specific total petroleum hydrocarbon analysis. The results indicate that the techniques used in tandem can properly delineate the nature and extent of contamination at a site; often supplement or complement data, while reducing the risk of errors and omissions during the assessment phase; and provide data constructively to focus site-specific remediation efforts. 7 figs.

  12. Petroleum Resins: Separation, Character, and Role in Petroleum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Simon Ivar; Speight, James

    2001-01-01

    are precipitated, adsorbents are added to the n-pentane solutions of the resins and oils, by which process the resins are adsorbed and subsequently recovered by the use of a more polar solvent, and the oils remain in solution. The resin fraction plays an important role in the stability of petroleum and prevents...... separation of the asphaltene constituents as a separate phase. Indeed, the absence of the resin fraction (produced by a variety of methods) from the maltenes influences the ability of the de-resined maltenes to accommodate the asphaltenes either in solution or as a stable part of a colloidal system. In spite....... Suggestions are also made regarding current thoughts of the role of these constituents on the structure and stability of petroleum....

  13. Petroleum Supply Monthly, September 1990. [Contains glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whited, D.; Jacobus, P. (eds.)

    1990-11-28

    Data presented in this PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in Primary Supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. 12 figs., 46 tabs.

  14. Petroleum supply monthly, October 1991. [Contains glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-30

    Data presented in this report describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in Primary Supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importer, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data are divided into two sections (1) the Summary Statistics and (2) the Detailed Statistics 14 figs., 56 tabs.

  15. Petroleum supply monthly, October 1990. [Contains Glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-27

    Data presented in this report describes the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in Primary Supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. 12 figs., 54 tabs.

  16. The para-petroleum industry. International context and results of the 2005 French inquiry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bensaid, B.; Sagary, C.; Saniere, A.

    2005-01-01

    Oil companies rarely carry out themselves the important works planned in the framework of their investments or of the exploitation of their facilities. In most cases, they act as prime contractor and generate a huge market of equipments, services and engineering needs in which many companies of various size are involved and make the overall para-petroleum industry. The French position on this market was asserted very early thanks to the continuation of ambitious R and D programs, very often carried out in the framework of the CEP and M and of the COPREP, which have permitted to build and maintain a solid technological knowledge. In this context, the lack of regular statistical data about the French para-petroleum industry has led, since 1978, the group of para-petroleum and para-gas companies, the CEP and M and the former COPREP (now the Committee of petroleum and marine studies - CEP and M), and the French institute of petroleum (IFP), to launch an annual inquiry at the national scale. This document makes a brief overview of the international context of the petroleum industry and then presents the last results of the 2004 inquiry about the French para-petroleum industry. Some data are foreseen for 2005, based on the estimations supplied by the companies themselves. (J.S.)

  17. ETRAN 1999: Society for Electronics,Telecommunications, Computers, Automation and Nuclear Engineering. Section for Nuclear Techniques and Technology. Proceedings of the XLIII Conference. Vol IV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spasojevic, D.; Smiljanic, M.; Bozic, D.; Stankovic, D.

    1999-01-01

    The XLIII ETRAN Conference of the Society for Electronic, Telecommunications, Computers, Automation and Nuclear Engineering was held on 20-22 Sep, 1999. In the Proceedings of the Conference The Commission of the Nuclear Technique and Technology has 19 papers presented in three sessions.

  18. ETRAN 2002: Society for Electronics,Telecommunications, Computers, Automation and Nuclear Engineering. Section for Nuclear Techniques and Technology. Proceedings of the XLVI Conference. Vol IV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milosevic, M.; Jaksic, Z.; Bozic, D.; Potkonjak, V.

    2002-01-01

    The XLVI ETRAN Conference of the Society for Electronic, Telecommunications, Computers, Automation and Nuclear Engineering was held on 4-7 June, 2002. In the Proceedings of the Conference The Commission of the Nuclear Technique and Technology has 14 papers presented in three following sessions: 1. Actual problems in nuclear technologies; 2. Accelerator and reactor systems; and 3. Radiation protection and ionizing radiation uses

  19. Surface active agents from Egyptian petroleum distillates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kassem, T.M.

    Kerosene and solar distillates from local crude petroleum 'Morgan' were fractionated. These fractions were refined with oleum and then distilled. The normal paraffins were separated from the refined fractions by the urea adduction technique. These paraffin cuts were subjected to 50% chlorination and the obtained monochlorinated paraffins were used in the synthesis of alkylbenzenes and alkyldiphenyls which were converted to anionic surfactants by sulphonation with 95% sulphuric acid. The sulphonyl chlorides of alkylbenzenes and of alkyldiphenyls were prepared and then converted to the corresponding sulphonamides. The prepared sulphonamides were then processed to nonionic surfactants through condensation with ethylene oxide. The ethoxylates were sulphated with chlorosulphonic acid and phosphated with phosphorus pentoxide to anionic surfactants. The surface active properties and the biodegradability of all the prepared surfactants were determined.

  20. Optimization Models for Petroleum Field Exploitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonsbraaten, Tore Wiig

    1998-12-31

    This thesis presents and discusses various models for optimal development of a petroleum field. The objective of these optimization models is to maximize, under many uncertain parameters, the project`s expected net present value. First, an overview of petroleum field optimization is given from the point of view of operations research. Reservoir equations for a simple reservoir system are derived and discretized and included in optimization models. Linear programming models for optimizing production decisions are discussed and extended to mixed integer programming models where decisions concerning platform, wells and production strategy are optimized. Then, optimal development decisions under uncertain oil prices are discussed. The uncertain oil price is estimated by a finite set of price scenarios with associated probabilities. The problem is one of stochastic mixed integer programming, and the solution approach is to use a scenario and policy aggregation technique developed by Rockafellar and Wets although this technique was developed for continuous variables. Stochastic optimization problems with focus on problems with decision dependent information discoveries are also discussed. A class of ``manageable`` problems is identified and an implicit enumeration algorithm for finding optimal decision policy is proposed. Problems involving uncertain reservoir properties but with a known initial probability distribution over possible reservoir realizations are discussed. Finally, a section on Nash-equilibrium and bargaining in an oil reservoir management game discusses the pool problem arising when two lease owners have access to the same underlying oil reservoir. Because the oil tends to migrate, both lease owners have incentive to drain oil from the competitors part of the reservoir. The discussion is based on a numerical example. 107 refs., 31 figs., 14 tabs.