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Sample records for petroleum derivatives avaliacao

  1. Metrological evaluation of petroleum, his derivatives, natural gas and alcohol flow computers; Avaliacao metrologica de computadores de vazao de petroleo, seus derivados, gas natural e alcool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orlando, A.F.; Callegario, E. [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC/Rio), RJ (Brazil)], Emails: afo@puc-rio.br, callegario@puc-rio.br; Ferreira, A.; Pinheiro, J.A.; Oliveira, T.B.V. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], Emails: andref@petrobras.com.br, jose.pinheiro@petrobras.com.br, thiagovidal@petrobras.com.br

    2009-07-01

    This work presents results of petroleum flow computers, his derivatives, natural gas and alcohol, used on fiscal measurements, appropriation and custodial transfer system. It is intended that the used proceed give subsides for the model approval and verify initially the flow computers, besides the periodic verification of installed flow computers. The test procedures are focused at the algorithm deviations, at the A/D (analog - digital) and D/D (digital-digital)conversion deviations, simulating static pressure transmitters, pressure differential, temperature, specific mass, BSW (Basic Sediment and Waste), and at the pulse counting deviations of the flow computer. The presented methodology is based on specific document for certification and initial verification of flow computers for the WELMEC (European Cooperation in Legal Metrology), and improved to attend the measurement requirements in Brazil. The test show various no conformities among the performance of tested flow computers compared with allowed values by the developed procedure.

  2. Comparative acute toxicity of shale and petroleum derived distillates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, C R; Ferguson, P W; Katchen, M A; Dennis, M W; Craig, D K

    1989-12-01

    In anticipation of the commercialization of its shale oil retorting and upgrading process, Unocal Corp. conducted a testing program aimed at better defining potential health impacts of a shale industry. Acute toxicity studies using rats and rabbits compared the effects of naphtha, Jet-A, JP-4, diesel and "residual" distillate fractions of both petroleum derived crude oils and hydrotreated shale oil. No differences in the acute oral (greater than 5 g/kg LD50) and dermal (greater than 2 g/kg LD50) toxicities were noted between the shale and petroleum derived distillates and none of the samples were more than mildly irritating to the eyes. Shale and petroleum products caused similar degrees of mild to moderate skin irritation. None of the materials produced sensitization reactions. The LC50 after acute inhalation exposure to Jet-A, shale naphtha, (greater than 5 mg/L) and JP-4 distillate fractions of petroleum and shale oils was greater than 5 mg/L. The LC50 of petroleum naphtha (greater than 4.8 mg/L) and raw shale oil (greater than 3.95 mg/L) also indicated low toxicity. Results demonstrate that shale oil products are of low acute toxicity, mild to moderately irritating and similar to their petroleum counterparts. The results further demonstrate that hydrotreatment reduces the irritancy of raw shale oil.

  3. Comparative dermal carcinogenesis of shale and petroleum-derived distillates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, C R; Walter, M K; Ferguson, P W; Katchen, M

    1988-03-01

    Ten test materials derived from petroleum or hydrotreated shale oils were applied 3 times/week for up to 105 weeks to the shaved skin of 25 male and 25 female C3H/HeN mice per group. Mineral oil and benzo(a) pyrene (0.15%) were control materials. Clinical observations were recorded during the study. At death, histopathologic examination was conducted on skin, internal organs and any gross lesions. Exposures to some materials were ended midway in the study due to severe irritation. Chronic toxicity of all materials was limited to inflammatory and degenerative skin changes. Significant increases over control incidence of skin tumors (squamous cell carcinoma and fibrosarcoma) occurred with both petroleum and shale-derived naphtha (21%, 50%), Jet A (26%, 28%), JP-4 (26%, 50%), and crude oils (84%, 54%). Severely hydrotreated shale oil and petroleum and shale-derived diesel distillates were not considered tumorigenic. Results indicate that toxicity of comparable petroleum and shale-derived fractions was qualitatively similar and confirm earlier findings that hydrotreating reduces or eliminates carcinogenicity of raw shale oil.

  4. Gas geochemistry: a new technology to evaluate petroleum systems; Geoquimica de gases: uma nova tecnologia em avaliacao de sistemas petroliferos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos Neto, Eugenio Vaz dos [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas. Gerencia de Geoquimica]. E-mail: eugenioneto@petrobras.com.br

    2004-11-01

    In the last decade hydrocarbon gas geochemistry has significantly evolved especially regarding to the widespread use of GC-C-IRMS (Gas chromatography-combustion-ion ratio monitoring system) techniques that allowed accurate measurements of {delta}{sup 13} C in the C{sub 1}-C{sub 4} fraction. Also, due to the improvement of the sampling procedures, sample collection - relatively small amounts of gas samples at low pressure - has become easier, sample transportation has become safer - the risk of accidents has been reduced - and analysis has become faster. The 'state-of-the-art' of the use of gas geochemistry to study processes within petroleum systems is discussed in this paper. The discussion is mainly focused on the identification of the hydrocarbon gas origin (biogenesis versus thermo genesis, mixing) and hydrocarbon gas generation (primary versus secondary cracking), including the inference of the relative thermal evolution and possible secondary alterations caused by biodegradation, secondary migration and eventually leakage from petroleum accumulations. Brief comments were also made about the new technologies involving noble gases and their potential use as tracers of processes in petroleum systems. Additionally, the origin of non-hydrocarbon gases in petroleum accumulations is succinctly discussed, as well as their possible economic impacts. The use of gas geochemistry techniques has brought a significant improvement in the understanding of petroleum systems under exploration in Brazil and in other parts of the world. Besides, on-going research projects suggest that there is a great potential for technological advances, e.g., adding the hydrogen isotopic composition of hydrocarbons to the interpretations, and also integrating the available results to the isotopic variations of noble gases. (author)

  5. Petroleum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2000-01-01

    Here are briefly summarized 1)the OPEC decisions and their consequences concerning the production of petroleum in the world 2)some news about the petroleum industry in Chad and in Iraq 3)some news about the new pipelines constructed or to be constructed in the world 4)some news about the LPG industry (start of a LPG extraction unit in Argentina, legislation in France for LPG vehicles) 4)and some news about the petroleum distribution in France. (O.M.)

  6. Petroleum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2000-01-01

    Here are gathered the results of the year 1999 concerning the petroleum industry in France ('UFIP' data), the market quotations of crude oil, the prices of fuels in France and in Portugal and some news about the petroleum industry in Algeria (privatization, exploration-offshore, repurchase), in Iraq (exports, contracts with foreign companies), in Russian Federation (petroleum pipelines and oil ports constructions) and in Chad (production sharing, offshore sites discoveries). (O.M.)

  7. Petroleum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, T. R.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    This review of petroleum covers: crude oil; fuels, gaseous and liquid; lubricants, oils, and greases; asphalts, bitumens, tars, and pitches; hydrocarbons; physical properties; metals in oil; nonmetallic elements and heterocompounds; and analytical methods and apparatus. (MVL)

  8. Improvement of hydrodenitrogenation (HDN) in co-refining of coal-derived liquid and petroleum fraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machida, M.; Ono, S. [Idemitsu Kosan Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Hattori, H. [Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan). Center for Advanced Research of Energy Technology

    1997-09-01

    The improvement in hydrodenitrogenation (HDN) of coal-derived liquids by co-refining with a petroleum fraction results principally from lowering the nitrogen content of the feedstock (coal-derived liquid) by blending with a nitrogen-free petroleum fraction. Effects of different fractions of coal-derived liquids on HDN and hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) were also examined. The HDN improvement by co-refining could be interpreted in terms of Langmuir-Hinshelwood mechanism. 38 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Petroleum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chautard, S.

    2008-01-01

    While petroleum has become an indispensable product in our everyday life, it is more and more question of an oil shortage. This book makes a status of the real situation. Starting from the industrial revolution and the history of oil exploitation, it explains the main present day stakes: the depletion of reserves, the environmental aspects and the search for alternative energy solutions. (J.S.)

  10. Bioremediation potential of microorganisms derived from petroleum reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dellagnezze, Bruna Martins; Vasconcelos de Sousa, Gabriel; Lopes Martins, Laercio; Ferreira Domingos, Daniela; Limache, Elmer E.G.; Pantaroto de Vasconcellos, Suzan; Feitosa da Cruz, Georgiana; Oliveira, Valéria Maia de

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Metagenomic clones could degrade saturated hydrocarbons up to 47% in petroleum. • Metagenomic clones consumed more than 90% of some aromatic portion after 21 days. • Isolated strains could degrade n-alkanes with rates up to 99% after 21 days. • Bacterial strains and metagenomic clones showed high petroleum degradation potential. - Abstract: Bacterial strains and metagenomic clones, both obtained from petroleum reservoirs, were evaluated for petroleum degradation abilities either individually or in pools using seawater microcosms for 21 days. Gas Chromatography–Flame Ionization Detector (GC–FID) and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC–MS) analyses were carried out to evaluate crude oil degradation. The results showed that metagenomic clones 1A and 2B were able to biodegrade n-alkanes (C14 to C33) and isoprenoids (phytane and pristane), with rates ranging from 31% to 47%, respectively. The bacteria Dietzia maris CBMAI 705 and Micrococcus sp. CBMAI 636 showed higher rates reaching 99% after 21 days. The metagenomic clone pool biodegraded these compounds at rates ranging from 11% to 45%. Regarding aromatic compound biodegradation, metagenomic clones 2B and 10A were able to biodegrade up to 94% of phenanthrene and methylphenanthrenes (3-MP, 2-MP, 9-MP and 1-MP) with rates ranging from 55% to 70% after 21 days, while the bacteria Dietzia maris CBMAI 705 and Micrococcus sp. CBMAI 636 were able to biodegrade 63% and up to 99% of phenanthrene, respectively, and methylphenanthrenes (3-MP, 2-MP, 9-MP and 1-MP) with rates ranging from 23% to 99% after 21 days. In this work, isolated strains as well as metagenomic clones were capable of degrading several petroleum compounds, revealing an innovative strategy and a great potential for further biotechnological and bioremediation applications

  11. Petroleum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lugg, W G

    1967-07-01

    This discussion of the Canadian petroleum industry for the year 1966 includes production statistics and operating procedures, reserve estimates, exploration and development, transportation, refining, and marketing. Most sectors of the Canadian industry had an excellent year in 1966, featured by continued exploration and development successes in the Rainbow Lake-Zama Lake region of northwestern Alberta and a record value of production that exceeded $900 million for all liquid hydrocarbons. Production of crude oil and natural gas liquids exceeded one million bopd. Crude oil producers supplied 58% of the total crude oil requirements for Canadian refineries. Oil reserves increased due primarily to the application of secondary recovery and the discovery of new reserves. Total pipeline construction decreased, and there was a small increase in refinery capacity.

  12. Importance of evaluation of uncertainties on the measurement of natural gas and petroleum volumes; Importancia da avaliacao das incertezas na medicao dos volumes de petroleo e gas natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva Filho, Jose Alberto Pinheiro da; Oliveira, Thiago Barra Vidal de; Mata, Josaphat Dias da [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], Emails: jose.pinheiro@petrobras.com.br, thiagovidal@petrobras.com.br, josaphat@petrobras.com.br; Val, Luiz Gustavo do [Instituto de Qualidade e Metrologia (IQM), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], E-mail: gdoval.iqm@petrobras.com.br

    2009-07-01

    The measurement is considered as the 'cash register' of the enterprises, increasing the accuracy and the exigence at each step when come close to the delivery points, where the 0.1 % of differences are discussed. The work presents the approach used in the evaluation of measurement uncertainties in the volumes obtained of petroleum and natural gas at the processes of production in Brazil, and in the international level as well.

  13. Resistance and Resilience of Soil Microbial Communities Exposed to Petroleum-Derived Compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Modrzynski, Jakub Jan

    Functioning of soil microbial communities is generally considered resilient to disturbance, including chemical stress. Activities of soil microbial communities are often sustained in polluted environments due to exceptional plasticity of microbial communities and functional redundancy. Pollution......-induced community tolerance (PICT) often develops following chemical stress. Nonetheless, environmental pollution may severely disturb functioning of soil microbial communities, thereby threatening provision of important ecosystem services provided by microorganisms. Pollution with petroleum and petroleum......-derived compounds (PDCs) is a significant environmental problem on a global scale. Research addressing interactions between microorganisms and PDC pollution is dominated by studies of biodegradation, with less emphasis on microbial ecotoxicology. Soil microbial communities are generally considered highly resilient...

  14. Spectrometric methods for the determination of chlorine in crude oil and petroleum derivatives — A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doyle, Adriana; Saavedra, Alvaro; Tristão, Maria Luiza B.; Mendes, Luiz A.N.; Aucélio, Ricardo Q.

    2013-01-01

    Chlorine determination in crude oil is made in order to guarantee that the oil does not contain levels of this element that might cause damages in the oil processing equipment. In petroleum products, the determination of chlorine is made, for instance, to evaluate if there are proper concentrations of organochloride compounds, which are used as additives. Such determinations are currently performed following official guidelines from the ASTM International and from the United States Environmental Protection Agency as well as protocols indicated by the Universal Oil Products. X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy plays an important role in many of these official methods. In contrast, other spectrometric methods based on optical and mass detection are plagued by limitations related to both the fundamental characteristics of non-metals and to the complex sample matrices, which reflects in the small number of articles devoted to these applications. In this review, the current status of the spectrometric methods, especially the role played by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, is evaluated in terms of the determination of chlorine in crude oil and petroleum derivatives. Comparison of the performance of the methods, limitations and potential new approaches to ensure proper spectrometric determinations of chlorine is indicated. - Highlights: • Critical evaluation of spectrometric methods for chlorine in petroleum products. • Reviews on element determination in petroleum have not address the case of chlorine. • Peculiarities of the spectrometric determination of Cl in petroleum are discussed. • The spectrometric approaches are detailed and compared to the official methods. • New trends in chlorine determination in petroleum products are indicated

  15. Physicochemical determinations of petroleum, heavy fuel derivative and combustion nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frias Bullain, Jorge; Padron Rodriguez, M.; Perez Barcala, B.; Lopez Guerra, S.

    2016-01-01

    In the investigation, a crude from Cuban Northern Heavy Oil Belt and its fuel oil fraction was characterized by chemical and physical techniques. Subsequent to the characterization of the derivative, MSI gas analyzer was performed, to identify and quantify concentrations of chemical species, in correspondence with EPA (2007) for external sources. Total suspended particles collected in filter holder were identified using the gravimetric method (ISO 9096). With the intention of knowing the magnitude of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons reported in literature were chosen the higher and lower molecular mass and measured on the basis of its polar covalent radii. Total aromatic hydrocarbons were identified using activated charcoal with subsequent elution with nhexane for analysis by ultraviolet spectroscopy in a Genesys 10 UV spectrophotometer. Environmental pollution control in the oil sector, is evaluated in three states. The particles in the states mentioned above, whose dimensions are between (1-100) x10-9 meters are called nanoparticles. Nanotechnology currently offers firm steps in the development of different nanoparticles, which are applied directly to the mineralogical industry. Contributions stand out sharply operations: exploration, drilling and refining oil. (Author)

  16. Market information and price volatility in petroleum derivatives spot and future markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalid Nainar, S.M.

    1993-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between petroleum futures trading, market information and spot prices. It tests the hypothesis that there is increased spot market information with futures trading of various petroleum derivatives for weekly data during the period January 1970 to July 1985 at the new York Mercantile Exchange. Increased market information with futures trading is indicated by the insignificance of coefficients of past prices in spot price regressions in periods with futures trading. However, the estimates of the coefficient of variation indicate that price volatility tends to increase with futures trading. Thus, traders seem better informed with futures trading although the advantages of increased market information might potentially be undermined by increased price volatility as in the case of regular gasoline. (author)

  17. Synthesis and evaluation of antimalarial activity of curcumin derivatives; Sintese e avaliacao da atividade antimalarica de compostos derivados da curcumina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes, Patricia Ramos; Miguel, Fabio Balbino; Almeida, Mauro Vieira de; Couri, Mara Rubia Costa [Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora (UFSJ), MG (Brazil). Instituto de Ciencias Exatas. Departamento de Quimica; Oliveira, Michael Eder de; Ferreira, Vanessa Viana; Guimaraes, Daniel Silqueira Martins; Lima, Aline Brito de; Barbosa, Camila de Souza; Oliveira, Mariana Amorim de; Almeida, Mauro Vieira de; Viana, Gustavo Henrique Ribeiro; Varotti, Fernando de Pilla, E-mail: varotti@ufsj.edu.br [Universidade Federal de Sao Joao Del Rei (UFSJ), MG (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias da Saude; others, and

    2014-05-15

    ne of the main challenges in the development of new antimalarial drugs is to achieve a viable lead candidate with good pharmacokinetic properties. Curcumin has a broad range of biological activities, including antimalarial activity. Herein, we report the antimalarial activity of six curcumin derivatives (6-12) and an initial analysis of their pharmacokinetic properties. Five compounds have demonstrated potent activity against the P. falciparum in vitro (IC{sub 50} values ranging from 1.7 to 15.2 μg mL{sup -1}), with moderate or low cytotoxicity against the HeLa cell line. The substitution of the carbonyl group in 6 by a 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazone group (to afford 11) increases the Selective Index. These preliminary results indicate curcumin derivatives as potential antimalarial compounds. (author)

  18. Characterization and Differentiation of Petroleum-Derived Products by E-Nose Fingerprints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Ferreiro-González

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Characterization of petroleum-derived products is an area of continuing importance in environmental science, mainly related to fuel spills. In this study, a non-separative analytical method based on E-Nose (Electronic Nose is presented as a rapid alternative for the characterization of several different petroleum-derived products including gasoline, diesel, aromatic solvents, and ethanol samples, which were poured onto different surfaces (wood, cork, and cotton. The working conditions about the headspace generation were 145 °C and 10 min. Mass spectroscopic data (45–200 m/z combined with chemometric tools such as hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA, later principal component analysis (PCA, and finally linear discriminant analysis (LDA allowed for a full discrimination of the samples. A characteristic fingerprint for each product can be used for discrimination or identification. The E-Nose can be considered as a green technique, and it is rapid and easy to use in routine analysis, thus providing a good alternative to currently used methods.

  19. Hierarchical porous carbon materials derived from petroleum pitch for high-performance supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abudu, Patiman; Wang, Luxiang; Xu, Mengjiao; Jia, Dianzeng; Wang, Xingchao; Jia, Lixia

    2018-06-01

    In this work, a honeycomb-like carbon material derived from petroleum pitch was synthesized by a simple one-step carbonization/activation method using silica nanospheres as the hard templates. The obtained hierarchical porous carbon materials (HPCs) with a large specific surface area and uniform macropore distribution provide abundant active sites and sufficient ion migration channels. When used as an electrode material for supercapacitors, the HPCs exhibit a high specific capacitance of 341.0 F g-1 at 1 A g-1, excellent rate capability with a capacitance retention of 55.6% at 50 A g-1 (189.5 F g-1), and outstanding cycling performance in the three-electrode system.

  20. Yeasts and bacterial biosurfactants as demulsifiers for petroleum derivative in seawater emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha E Silva, Fernanda Cristina P; Roque, Bruno Augusto C; Rocha E Silva, Nathalia Maria P; Rufino, Raquel D; Luna, Juliana M; Santos, Valdemir A; Banat, Ibrahim M; Sarubbo, Leonie A

    2017-11-15

    Oil sludge or waste generated in transport, storage or refining forms highly stable mixtures due to the presence and additives with surfactant properties and water forming complex emulsions. Thus, demulsification is necessary to separate this residual oil from the aqueous phase for oil processing and water treatment/disposal. Most used chemical demulsifiers, although effective, are environmental contaminants and do not meet the desired levels of biodegradation. We investigated the application of microbial biosurfactants as potential natural demulsifiers of petroleum derivatives in water emulsions. Biosurfactants crude extracts, produced by yeasts (Candida guilliermondii, Candida lipolytica and Candida sphaerica) and bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas cepacia and Bacillus sp.) grown in industrial residues, were tested for demulsification capacity in their crude and pure forms. The best results obtained were for bacterial biosurfactants, which were able to recover about 65% of the seawater emulsified with motor oil compared to 35-40% only for yeasts products. Biosurfactants were also tested with oil-in-water (O/W) and water-in-oil (W/O) kerosene model emulsions. No relationship between interfacial tension, cell hydrophobicity and demulsification ratios was observed with all the biosurfactants tested. Microscopic illustrations of the emulsions in the presence of the biosurfactants showed the aspects of the emulsion and demulsification process. The results obtained demonstrate the potential of these agents as demulsifiers in marine environments.

  1. Hydrocarbons derived from petroleum in bottled drinking water from Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, Salvador; Gutiérrez, Rey; Ortiz, Rutilio; Schettino, Beatriz; Ramírez, Maria de Lourdes; Pérez, José Jesus

    2011-06-01

    This paper describes the concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and aliphatic hydrocarbons (AHs) derived from petroleum in bottled drinking water samples that were collected over 1 year from Mexico City in two bottle sizes (1.5 and 19 L), all brought in supermarkets. The analysis was by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection. -Concentrations of AHs (9.26-1.74 μg/L) were greater than PAHs (20.15-12.78 ng/L). Individual concentrations of PAHs such as fluoranthene, benzo(b)fluoranthene, benzo(k)fluoranthene, indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene and benzo(ghi)perylene were comparable with data reported by the World Health Organization (WHO). Total concentrations of PAHs for all samples (BDW1: 12.78 μg/L, BDW2: 16.72 μg/L, BDW3: 14.62 μg/L, BDW4: 20.15 μg/L and BDW5: 13.23 ng/L) were below the maximum permissible European level of 100 ng/L; no regulations exist for AHs although their values were greater than PAHs (BDW1: 3.11 μg/L, BDW2: 8.45 μg/L, BDW3: 1.74 μg/L, BDW4: 4.75 μg/L and BDW5: 9.26 μg/L).

  2. Integrated report on the toxicological mitigation of coal liquids by hydrotreatment and other processes. [Petroleum and coal-derived products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerin, M.R.; Griest, W.H.; Ho, C.H.; Smith, L.H.; Witschi, H.P.

    1986-06-01

    Research here on the toxicological properties of coal-derived liquids focuses on characterizing the refining process and refined products. Principle attention is given to the potential tumorigenicity of coal-derived fuels and to the identification of means to further reduce tumorigenicity should this be found necessary. Hydrotreatment is studied most extensively because it will be almost certainly required to produce commercial products and because it is likely to also greatly reduce tumorigenic activity relative to that of crude coal-liquid feedstocks. This report presents the results of a lifetime C3H mouse skin tumorigenicity assay of an H-Coal series of oils and considers the relationships between tumorigenicity, chemistry, and processing. Lifetime assay results are reported for an H-Coal syncrude mode light oil/heavy oil blend, a low severity hydrotreatment product, a high severity hydrotreatment product, a naphtha reformate, a heating oil, a petroleum-derived reformate, and a petroleum derived heating oil. Data are compared with those for an earlier study of an SRC-II blend and products of its hydrotreatment. Adequate data are presented to allow an independent qualitative assessment of the conclusions while statistical evaluation of the data is being completed. The report also documents the physical and chemical properties of the oils tested. 33 refs., 14 figs., 53 tabs.

  3. Crude oil derived petroleum products in the aquatic environment: priorities for control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimwood, M.J.

    2001-01-01

    The available data on the environmental fate, behaviour and toxicity of five groups of petroleum products is reviewed and the information used to identify the priority of oil products for pollution control to protect the aquatic environment. The oil product groups comprise gasolines, kerosenes, other light fuel oil distillates, residual heavy fuel oils and lubricating oils. (author)

  4. Proposal of criterium for valuation of damages accused by petroleum and its derivatives spills on marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcelino, Adalberto; Haddad, Edson; Aventurato, Helvio; Campos, Marcos Antonio V. de; Serpa, Ricardo Rodrigues

    1994-01-01

    Answering to a Prosecuting Council request, CETESB-Environmental Protection Agency for the State of Sao Paulo, Brazil, developed the above proposal, which aim is to have the valuation for damages caused by petroleum and its derivatives spill on the sea. The proposal criterium takes into account the quality of oil spilled, the affected area sensibility, the product toxicity, the product persistence in the environment and the organism mortality. There is a mathematical formula through which it is possible to value the amount to be paid by the polluter. (author). 16 refs., 2 figs., 8 tabs

  5. Direct determination of arsenic in petroleum derivatives by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry: A comparison between filter and platform atomizers

    OpenAIRE

    Becker, Emilene M.; Rampazzo, Roger T.; Dessuy, Morgana B.; Vale, Maria Goreti R.; Silva, Márcia M. da; Welz, Bernhard; Katskov, Dmitri A.

    2011-01-01

    Acesso restrito: Texto completo. In the present work a direct method for the determination of arsenic in petroleum derivatives has been developed, comparing the performance of a commercial transversely heated platform atomizer (THPA) with that of a transversely heated filter atomizer (THFA). The THFA results in a reduction of background absorption and an improved sensitivity as has been reported earlier for this atomizer. The mixture of 0.1% (m/v) Pd+0.03% (m/v) Mg+0.05% (v/v) Triton X-...

  6. Application of NMR Spectroscopy in the Analysis of Petroleum Derivatives and Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parlov Vuković, J.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Complex chemical composition and physical properties of oil and fuel make their complete cha racterization very difficult. Components present in oil and oil products differ in structure, size, po larity and functionality. The presence and structure of specific hydrocarbons in final products depend on the processing procedure and type of the fuel. In order to predict or improve fuel pro perties it is necessary to determine its composition. Thus, new and more sophisticated analytical methods and procedures are constantly being developed. NMR spectroscopy plays a significant role in analysis and identification of complex hydrocarbon mixtures of petroleum and petroleum products. In this review, we describe the application of NMR spectroscopy for analyzing gasoline and diesel fuels. Hence, by using NMR spectroscopy it is possible to determine gasoline composition and presence of benzene and oxygenates, as well as some important physical characteristics of gasoli ne such as the research octane number. An application of different NMR techniques made it pos sible to characterize diesel fuels and middle oil distillates from various refineries. Data so obtained can be used in combination with statistical methods to predict fuel properties and to monitor pro- duction processes in the petroleum industry. NMR spectroscopy has proven useful in analysis of FAME which has recently been used as an ecologically acceptable alternative fuel. Furthermore, techniques such as CP/MAS for characterization of solid state oil-geochemical samples are inclu- ded. Also, possibilities of using NMR spectroscopy in the analysis of polymeric additives are di- scussed.

  7. A framework for assessing ecological risks of petroleum-derived materials in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suter, G.W. II

    1997-05-01

    Ecological risk assessment estimates the nature and likelihood of effects of human actions on nonhuman organisms, populations, and ecosystems. It is intended to be clearer and more rigorous in its approach to estimation of effects and uncertainties than previously employed methods of ecological assessment. Ecological risk assessment is characterized by a standard paradigm that includes problem formulation, analysis of exposure and effects, risk characterization, and communication with a risk manager. This report provides a framework that applies the paradigm to the specific problem of assessing the ecological risks of petroleum in soil. This type of approach requires that assessments be performed in phases: (1) a scoping assessment to determine whether there is a potential route of exposure for potentially significant ecological receptors; (2) a screening assessment to determine whether exposures could potentially reach toxic levels; and (3) a definitive assessment to estimate the nature, magnitude, and extent of risks. The principal technical issue addressed is the chemically complex nature of petroleum--a complexity that may be dealt with by assessing risks on the basis of properties of the whole material, properties of individual chemicals that are representative of chemical classes, distributions of properties of the constituents of chemical classes, properties of chemicals detected in the soil, and properties of indicator chemicals. The advantages and feasibility of these alternatives are discussed. The report concludes with research recommendations for improving each stage in the assessment process

  8. Molecular analysis of petroleum derived compounds that adsorb onto gas hydrate surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borgund, Anna E.; Hoiland, Sylvi; Barth, Tanja; Fotland, Per; Askvik, Kjell M.

    2009-01-01

    Field observations have shown that some streams of water, gas and crude oil do not form gas hydrate plugs during petroleum production even when operating within thermodynamic conditions for hydrate formation. Also, when studied under controlled laboratory conditions, some oils are found to form hydrate dispersed systems whereas others form plugs. Oils with low tendency to form hydrate plugs are believed to contain natural hydrate plug inhibiting components (NICs) that adsorb onto the hydrate surface, making them less water-wet and preventing the particles from agglomerating into large hydrate clusters. The molecular structure of the NICs is currently unknown. In this work, hydrate adsorbing components were extracted from crude oils using freon hydrates as an extraction phase. The fractions were found to be enriched in polar material, and more polar material is associated with hydrates generated in biodegraded crude oils than in non-biodegraded oils. Various fractionation schemes and analytical techniques have been applied in the search for molecular characterisation. The average molecular weights were found to be approximately 500 g/mole. GC-MS chromatograms show a large UCM (Unresolved Complex Mixture). Thus, GC-MS has a limited potential for identification of compounds. A commercial biosurfactant was used as a model compound in the search for similar structures in the extracts. The results from analysis of the hydrate adsorbing components suggest that the type and structure are more important for hydrate morphology than the amount of material adsorbed.

  9. Determination of the specific heat petroleum derivates; Determinacao do calor especifico de derivados ultrapesados de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballesteros Hernandez, Julie A.; Zuniga Linan, Lamia; Jardini, Andre; Maciel, Maria Regina Wolf; Maciel Filho, Rubens Maciel [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Quimica; Medina, Lilian Carmen [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES)

    2008-07-01

    In the development of the specific mathematical modeling for heavy and ultra heavy petroleum fractions in a molecular distiller is very important the definition of physical and chemical parameters as density and specific heat of the mixture, the enthalpy of vaporization, among others, since they are used in the energy balance. Information on these properties and their variation with temperature are found in the open literature for mixture with few components (simple mixtures). However, for multicomponent solutions consisting of complex mixtures such as oil and its heavy and ultraheavy fractions, available data are few, or are limited to low temperatures. The specific heat is an important property in the energy balance. This property can be measured by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), which gives results with great sensitivity and accuracy. This paper presents the variation of specific heat with the temperature of ultra-heavy oil fractions in the range from 80 deg to 350 deg C . Through the study of this variation, the equation nowadays used can be adjusted, in order to determine the specific heat. New values of the constants are determined, so that the equation can be used for these complex products, optimizing the estimative of Cp and so no experimental data are always necessary for simulations. (author)

  10. Evaluation of glycerol derivative as emulsifier for oil based drilling fluids; Avaliacao de derivados de glicerina como emulsificante para fluidos de perfuracao de base oleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Susan A. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Escola de Quimica; Cavalcanti, Milena Y.; Rodrigues Junior, Jorge; Lachter, Elizabeth R.; Nascimento, Regina Sandra V. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica

    2008-07-01

    In view of the growing search for new applications for the surplus glycerine of biodiesel production, the use of a glycerine derivative as emulsifier in oil based muds is proposed in this work. Glycerine monooleate was synthesized through esterification reaction, and characterized by NMR{sup 13}C. Its applicability as emulsifier was verified through electric stability tests performed on inverted phase drilling fluids. The obtained results were compared with two formulations containing different emulsifiers (sorbitol monooleate and trimethylolpropane monooleate). It was also evaluated the rheological properties of the formulated fluids through standard tests. It was verified that the fluid that contained the glycerine derivative showed considerably better electric stability results than the other systems. It also presented rheological properties similar to the ones shown by the system that contained the commercial emulsifier (sorbitol monooleate). Thus, it was found that glycerine monooleate is a potential substitute to the currently emulsifiers (author)

  11. Effects of operating conditions on compositional characteristics and reaction kinetics of liquid derived by delayed coking of nigerian petroleum residue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. O. Bello

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The thermal upgrading of Nigerian petroleum residue was studied at relatively low pressure in a delayed coking reactor system. In this work, the intent was to investigate the effects of process variables such as reaction temperature (200(0C to 600(0C, reaction time (0 to 120min, additive concentration loading and additive-to-residue ratio on the amounts and quality of organic liquid product (OLP. The liquid products derived from the delayed coking process were characterized by means of instrumental analysis of gas-liquid chromatography. Results obtained from the analyses of the OLP revealed an upward trend of the conversion process and the selectivity of the aromatic compounds with additive-to-residue ratio (ARR and increase in temperature. This led to maximum yield of 37.2% achieved with ARR of 5 compared to 31% achieved with ordinary thermal conversion. The selectivity for aromatic hydrocarbons was maximum at 83.1wt% the selectivity towards aromatics and aliphatic hydrocarbons were highest for methanol-potassium hydroxide and methanol respectively. In all additive system cases, maximum OLP was produced at an optimum reaction temperature of 370(0C in the delayed coking reactor and at higher residence time. The gaseous product consisted of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide and C1 - C6 hydrocarbons, which amounted to about 20 to 30 wt% of liquid distillate. The information obtained in this study show that the organic liquid products are amenable to characterization procedure and provided the basis for the identification of processes for upgrading Nigerian petroleum residue and such other starting materials such as bitumen or fossil fuel coal liquids.

  12. Synthesis and antimicrobial activities of new 4-thiazolidones derived from formipyridine thiosemicarbazones; Sintese e avaliacao da atividade antimicrobiana de novas 4-tiazolidinonas obtidas a partir de formilpiridina tiossemicarbazonas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vercoza, George Leonardo; Feitoza, Danniel Delmondes; Alves, Antonio Jose; Aquino, Thiago Mendonca de; Lima, Jose Gildo de [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Farmaceuticas], e-mail: jgildolima@gmail.com; Araujo, Janete Magali; Cunha, Ivana Glaucia B.; Goes, Alexandre Jose da Silva [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Antibioticos

    2009-07-01

    Twelve novel 4-thiazolidinone derivatives (2a-l) have been synthesized by reacting formylpyridine thiosemicarbazones (1a-l) and anhydride maleic in toluene. Their chemical structures were confirmed by IR, {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR. The new compounds were submitted to in vitro evaluation against pathogenic Gram-positive, Gram-negative bacteria and yeasts. The findings obtained showed that the compounds 2a, 2d, 2e and 2g were effective against some of the bacterial strains used, whereas the compounds 2d, 2e and 2i exhibited a moderate antifungal activity against the yeast strains evaluated. An initial structure activity relationship (SAR) was established. (author)

  13. Analysis of alkane-dependent methanogenic community derived from production water of a high-temperature petroleum reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mbadinga, Serge Maurice; Li, Kai-Ping; Zhou, Lei; Wang, Li-Ying; Yang, Shi-Zhong; Liu, Jin-Feng; Mu, Bo-Zhong [East China Univ. of Science and Technology, Shanghai (China). State Key Lab. of Bioreactor Engineering and Inst. of Applied Chemistry; Gu, Ji-Dong [Hong Kong Univ. (China). School of Biological Sciences

    2012-10-15

    Microbial assemblage in an n-alkanes-dependent thermophilic methanogenic enrichment cultures derived from production waters of a high-temperature petroleum reservoir was investigated in this study. Substantially higher amounts of methane were generated from the enrichment cultures incubated at 55 C for 528 days with a mixture of long-chain n-alkanes (C{sub 15}-C{sub 20}). Stoichiometric estimation showed that alkanes-dependent methanogenesis accounted for about 19.8% of the total amount of methane expected. Hydrogen was occasionally detected together with methane in the gas phase of the cultures. Chemical analysis of the liquid cultures resulted only in low concentrations of acetate and formate. Phylogenetic analysis of the enrichment revealed the presence of several bacterial taxa related to Firmicutes, Thermodesulfobiaceae, Thermotogaceae, Nitrospiraceae, Dictyoglomaceae, Candidate division OP8 and others without close cultured representatives, and Archaea predominantly related to uncultured members in the order Archaeoglobales and CO{sub 2}-reducing methanogens. Screening of genomic DNA retrieved from the alkanes-amended enrichment cultures also suggested the presence of new alkylsuccinate synthase alpha-subunit (assA) homologues. These findings suggest the presence of poorly characterized (putative) anaerobic n-alkanes degraders in the thermophilic methanogenic enrichment cultures. Our results indicate that methanogenesis of alkanes under thermophilic condition is likely to proceed via syntrophic acetate and/or formate oxidation linked with hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis. (orig.)

  14. Direct determination of arsenic in petroleum derivatives by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry: A comparison between filter and platform atomizers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, Emilene; Rampazzo, Roger T.; Dessuy, Morgana B. [Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Goncalves, 9500, 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Vale, Maria Goreti R., E-mail: mgrvale@ufrgs.br [Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Goncalves, 9500, 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Instituto Nacional de Ciencia e Tecnologia do CNPq - INCT de Energia e Ambiente, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Salvador, BA (Brazil); Silva, Marcia M. da [Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Goncalves, 9500, 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Welz, Bernhard [Instituto Nacional de Ciencia e Tecnologia do CNPq - INCT de Energia e Ambiente, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Salvador, BA (Brazil); Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 88040-900, Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Katskov, Dmitri A. [Tshwane University of Technology (TUT), Faculty of Science, Chemistry Department, Pretoria 0001 (South Africa)

    2011-05-15

    In the present work a direct method for the determination of arsenic in petroleum derivatives has been developed, comparing the performance of a commercial transversely heated platform atomizer (THPA) with that of a transversely heated filter atomizer (THFA). The THFA results in a reduction of background absorption and an improved sensitivity as has been reported earlier for this atomizer. The mixture of 0.1% (m/v) Pd + 0.03% (m/v) Mg + 0.05% (v/v) Triton X-100 was used as the chemical modifier for both atomizers. The samples (naphtha, gasoline and petroleum condensate) were stabilized in the form of a three-component solution (detergentless microemulsion) with the sample, propan-1-ol and 0.1% (v/v) HNO{sub 3} in a ratio of 3.0:6.4:0.6. The characteristic mass of 13 pg found in the THFA was about a factor of two better than that of 28 pg obtained with the THPA; however, the limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) were essentially the same for both atomizers (1.9 and 6.2 {mu}g L{sup -1}, respectively, for THPA, and 1.8 and 5.9 {mu}g L{sup -1}, respectively, for THFA) due to the increased noise observed with the THFA. A possible explanation for that is a partial blockage of the radiation from the hollow cathode lamp by the narrow inner diameter of this tube and the associated loss of radiation energy. Due to the lack of an appropriate certified reference material, recovery tests were carried out with inorganic and organic arsenic standards and the results were between 89% and 111%. The only advantage of the THFA found in this work was a reduction of the total analysis time by about 20% due to the 'hot injection' that could be realized with this furnace. The arsenic concentrations varied from < LOQ to 43.3 {mu}g L{sup -1} in the samples analyzed in this work.

  15. Crude petroleum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    Crude petroleum statistics by country of production, export values and import values from 1983 to 1988 are given. Table A.1 of the Annex includes free market prices and price indices for crude petroleum based on average of Dubai, United Kingdom Brent and Alaska N Slope crude prices (price expressed in dollars/barrel). The data sources are: Crude petroleum United Nations Statistical Office; OPEC Annual Statistical Bulletin, and Petroleum Economist. For trade the sources of data are: National trade statistics; United Nations international trade statistics; International Moneytary Fund (IMF); Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC); UNCTAD secretariat estimates. Tabs

  16. Petroleum price

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chevallier, B.

    2009-01-01

    The 'AFTP' conference on 'petroleum prices' organized by Total last March, tries to explain the different aspects of the crisis we undergo for July 2007 and its consequential effects on the petroleum markets (supply, demand evolvements, impacts on reserves, prices, refining...). (O.M.)

  17. Non-Petroleum Oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    These include synthetics such as silicone fluids and tung oils, wood-derivative oils such as resin/rosin, animal fats/oil, and seed oils. Many have similar physical properties to petroleum-based, such as water insolubility and formation of slicks.

  18. The EED [Emergencies Engineering Division] solvent extraction process for the removal of petroleum-derived hydrocarbons from soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastien, C.Y.

    1994-03-01

    Research was conducted to investigate the ability of hexane and natural gas condensate (NGC) to extract three different types of hydrocarbon contaminant (light crude oil, diesel fuel, and bunker C oil) from three types of soil (sand, peat, and clay). A separate but related study determined the efficiency of solvent extraction (using hexane and five other solvents but not NGC) for removal of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) from contaminated soil. The process developed for this research includes stages of mixing, extraction, separation, and solvent recovery, for eventual implementation as a mobile solvent extraction unit. In experiments on samples created in the laboratory, extraction efficiencies of hydrocarbons often rose above 95%. On samples from a petroleum contaminated site, average extraction efficiency was ca 82%. Sandy soils contaminated in the laboratory were effectively cleaned of all hydrocarbons tested but only diesel fuel was successfully extracted from peat soils. No significant differences were observed in the effectiveness of hexane and NGC for contamination levels above 3%. Below this number, NGC seems more effective at removing oil from peat while hexane is slightly more effective on clay soils. Sand is equally cleaned by both solvents at all contamination levels. Safety considerations, odor, extra care needed to deal with light ends and aromatics, and the fact that only 26% of the solvent is actually usable make NGC an unfeasible option in spite of its significantly lower cost compared to hexane. For extracting PCBs, a hexane/acetone mixture proved to have the best removal efficiency. 14 refs., 14 figs., 7 tabs

  19. Photochemical Degradation of Petroleum-Derived Water-Soluble Organics into the Background Dissolved Organic Carbon Pool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podgorski, D. C.; Ray, P. Z.; Roland, N. V.; Corilo, Y. E.; Tarr, M. A.; Guillemette, F.; Spencer, R. G.

    2016-02-01

    Water-soluble organic (WSO) photoproducts produced from Macondo crude oil (MC252) and a heavy fuel oil (HFO), a surrogate for that which was spilled into the San Francisco Bay by the M/V Cosco Busan, were isolated and irradiated with simulated sunlight to examine the photochemical fate of the products in aquatic ecosystems. Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) reveals marked transformations in the elemental composition of WSOs at specific irradiation periods across a time series that correspond with shifts in bulk properties determined with optical measurements. Blue shifts in EEMs spectra correlate with an increase in formulas classified as unsaturated, high oxygen while the polyphenols and unsaturated, low oxygen compounds decrease. The characteristic A and C humic- and fulvic-like FDOM signatures begin to appear in the EEM spectra of WSOs that were irradiated for as little as 8 to 12 hours, the equivalent of 2 to 3 days of natural sunlight. The presence of the A and C signatures correlate to elemental compositions that exhibit a further decrease in the unsaturated, low oxygen and subsequent increase of unsaturated, high oxygen and highly oxygenated aliphatic compounds. Furthermore, van Krevelen plots reveal a shift toward the compositional space associated with carboxyl-rich aromatic moieties (CRAM) as a function of irradiation period and the appearance of the humic- and fulvic-like FDOM signatures in the EEM spectra. Although the photodegraded WSO products show similarities in FDOM and elemental composition to representative natural dissolved organic matter from their respective pools, persistent petroleum signatures that are not photoactive are still detected. Future studies are required to examine the bioavailability of these photodegraded WSO products to determine if they degrade or persist in the environment.

  20. Evaluation of the influence of water and oil derivatives absorption on PVC pipes; Avaliacao da influencia da absorcao de agua e de derivados de petroleo em tubulacoes de PVC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpio, D.C.F. del; D' Almeida, J.R.M., E-mail: dalmeida@puc-rio.b [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio), RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Materiais

    2010-07-01

    PVC is the only polymer of large consume that is not totally obtained from petroleum, since it contains 57% of chlorine. As chlorine containing materials are resistant to bacteria rich environments, such as buried pipes, PVC is being used for fluid transportation, principally water, but it can also be considered as an alternative material for the transportation of other fluids. This work analyzes the aging behavior of PVC exposed to water, ethanol and diesel oil, using TGA, DSC, FT-IR and DR-X techniques. The results showed that the chemical structure of PVC is not affected by exposure to water and ethanol. For these fluids a dipolar interaction could be occurring, increasing at the beginning of the absorption process, the polymer thermal stability. The diesel oil caused plasticization, with reduction of the Tg since the beginning of the aging process. (author)

  1. Petroleum hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrington, J.W.; Teal, J.M.; Parker, P.L.

    1976-01-01

    Methods for analysis of petroleum hydrocarbons in marine samples are presented. Types of hydrocarbons present and their origins are discussed. Principles and methods of analysis are outlined. Infrared spectrometry, uv spectrometry, gas chromatography, mass spectroscopy, and carbon 14 measurements are described

  2. Petroleum apocalypse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cochet, Y.

    2005-09-01

    Oil prices are increasing while current explanations for this phenomenon are no longer satisfactory. The cheap petroleum era is ending and this problem can seriously convulse our lifestyles. Transports, agriculture, plastics, clothes, medicines: petroleum is everywhere. This is why the rise of hydrocarbons price will not be a simple economic shock but the end of the world like the one we know. However, it is still possible to postpone this event to a later date and to limit its effects by the implementation of a new oil sobriety era. This implies to already organize the decay of materials and energy consumption, together with keeping solidarity, democracy and peace up. In this condition only the transition will be less painful. (J.S.)

  3. Evaluation gamma radiation in composite sisal fiber- polyurethane derived of castor oil by bending test; Avaliacao da influencia da radiacao gama em compositos de fibra de sisal - poliuretano derivado de oleo de mamona atraves de ensaios de flexao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Felipe H. de; Geraldo, Ricardo R.; Vasco, Marina C.; Azevedo, Elaine, E-mail: helunica@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Claro Neto, Salvador [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Instituto de Quimica

    2015-07-01

    Materials used for making furniture and accessories or positioning in X -ray examination rooms should not exhale volatile organic compounds and are resistant to ionizing radiation. One solution is the use of vegetable fiber and polyurethane composites of vegetable origin, since they are biodegradable, derived from renewable raw materials and have no volatile organic compounds. The main difficulty in developing this material is fiber adhesion with the polymer. The objective of this study is to evaluate the mechanical properties of composite sisal fiber composite, without further treatment, and polyurethane derived from castor oil, with a dose of 25 kGy gamma radiation, subjected to 3 points bending tests. (author)

  4. Petroleum. [Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-01-01

    An introductory chapter of world wide petroleum history is followed by a comprehensive record of the petroliferous basins of Venezuela. Exploration, productivity, production statistics, reserves, geologic structures, and the distribution of oil and gas fields are described separately for the Maracaibo-Falcon basin, Apure-Barinas basin, E. Venezuela basin, and Tuy-Cariaco basin. The descriptions include geographic distribution, geomorphologic outline of the basins, lithology and thickness of sediments, structural development, present structural conditions in which oil and gas fields occur, and their distribution in the basins. Economic factors are discussed in an appendix. 145 references.

  5. Synthesis and evaluation of the plant growth regulator property of indolic compounds derived from safrole; Sintese e avaliacao da propriedade reguladora de crescimento vegetal de compostos indolicos derivados do safrol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchi, Irineu [Escola Agrotecnica Federal de Rio do Sul, Rio do Sul, SC (Brazil)]. E-mail: marchi@softhouse.com.br; Rebelo, Ricardo Andrade; Rosa, Flavia A. Fernandes da; Maiochi, Riceli A. [Universidade Regional de Blumenau, SC (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

    2007-07-15

    The present work describes the use of piperonal, a derivative of the secondary metabolite safrole, for the synthesis of new 5,6-methylenedioxy substituted indole carboxylic acids structurally related to the indol-3-yl-acetic acid (AIA, I). The route comprises six steps beginning with piperonal with an overall yield of 19%. Compound IX was tested towards its plant growth regulator properties in bioassays specific for auxine activity. The in vitro assays were performed in a germination chamber and were of two types: root growth in germinated seeds of Lactuca sativa, Cucumbis sativus and Raphanus sativus and peciole biotest using Phaseolus vulgaris. (author)

  6. Fractionation of stigmasterol derivative and study of the effects of Celsia coromandelina aerial parts petroleum ether extract on appearance of puberty and ovarian steroidogenesis in immature mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Dilipkumar; Mazumder, Upal Kanti; Gupta, Malaya

    2012-06-01

    Celsia coromandelina Vahl (Scrophulariaceae) is a shrub found throughout Bangladesh and India, and it is distributed widely in the plains of West Bengal. It is used by the tribal people to treat diarrhea, dysentery, insomnia, skin eruption, fever, syphilis, helminthes infection, and to control fertility. The objective of this study was to fractionate stigmasterol derivative and to investigate the effects of petroleum ether extract of C. coromandelina (PECC) aerial parts on the onset of reproductive maturity and the ovarian steroidogenesis in immature female mice. PECC was prepared by hot extraction process and one compound was isolated by preparative TLC from it. PECC was completely freed from solvent and administered in immature female mice intraperitoneally once on every alternate day for nine doses. The sexual maturity was observed by means of vaginal opening, first estrus (days), rate of body growth, changes in weight of ovary, uterus and pituitary. The content of ascorbic acid, cholesterol, Δ⁵-3β-hydroxy steroid dehydrogenase (Δ⁵-3β-HSD) and glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G 6-PDH) activities in ovaries and carbonic anhydrase activity in uterus were measured by means of biochemical technique in control and treated mice. The activity of PECC was compared with standard marker compound ethinyl estradiol. The isolated compound was characterized as stigmasterol derivative. PECC treatment caused a remarkable delay (30.27 and 18.56%, respectively, by low dose) in sexual maturity compared to vehicle control as evidenced by the age of vaginal opening and appearance of first estrus (cornified smear). PECC treatment also caused a significant fall (58.6 and 50.0%, respectively, by low dose) in Δ⁵-3β-HSD and G 6-PDH activities involved in ovarian steroidogenesis compared to vehicle control. Total cholesterol and ascorbic acid content in ovaries and carbonic anhydrase activity in uterus were increased significantly (low dose by 49.3, 424.6 and 82

  7. 15 CFR Supplement No. 1 to Part 754 - Petroleum and Petroleum Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... fuel (including tractor fuel and stationary turbine fuel). 2710.00.2000 Kerosene derived from petroleum... medicinal grade derived from petroleum, shale oil or both. 3819.00.0000 Hydraulic fluids, including... lubricating oil. 2710.00.3030 Turbine lubricating oil, including marine. 2710.00.3040 Automotive gear oils...

  8. Petroleum industry in 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This document presents a detailed outlook of the petroleum industry in the world and more particularly in France in 2005: evolution of crude oil prices; petroleum exploration and production in the world and in France; the French para-petroleum and petroleum industry; the oil supplies; the refining activities; the evolution of products quality and the substitution fuels; the domestic transports, the storage and consumption of petroleum products; the fiscality, prices and distribution of petroleum products. (J.S.)

  9. Evaluation of local tensions through finite elements applied to a large diameter pipe subjected to vacuum condition of a petroleum refinery; Avaliacao das tensoes locais atraves de elementos finitos aplicada a uma tubulacao de grande diametro sujeita a condicao de vacuo de uma dada refinaria de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neves, Julio C. Goes; Balbi, Diego J. G. [Promom Engenharia, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this paper is to present an evaluation of the results obtained in the study of local stress in wall of large diameter pipe. The case study consists of to analyze a pipeline system with 66 inch, which is responsible for transporting oil, oven to the Tower of vacuum distillation unit in a petroleum refining. The absence of internal pressure leads to a critical with respect to the collapse of the walls of the tube in long sections, without the presence of additional elements increase the rigidity of the geometry. The ASME Section VIII Division 1 advocates the use of additional plates, called stiffeners, which aim to curb the efforts from this condition. Thus, it is necessary structural assessment of critical portions of the system in implementing this solution. Therefore, complementary approaches have been proposed, passing by ASME B31.3, Section VIII Division 1, moreover, a computer simulation of stresses through the finite element method, which the results were analyzed according to criteria of tensions presents in ASME Code Section VIII Division 2. (author)

  10. Petroleum geophysics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-07-01

    The book is compiled from a series of e-learning modules. GeoCLASS is an e-learning system with contents from petroleum geophysics. It is the result of collaboration between professors at the University of Bergen and the University of Oslo, and its material has been used as curriculum in master program courses at these universities for several years. Using a unique feature to GeoCLASS, these advanced scientific topics are presented on multiple levels. The introductions open the door to this vast pool of knowledge, accessible even for high school students. Enter the door, and you enter the modules. Various levels of content are presented, and the more advanced levels can be shielded from the regular user, and only accessed by those with particular interest. The chapters in the book are: Elastic waves; Survey planning; Seismic acquisition; Basic seismic signal theory and processing; Seismic imaging; Seismic attributes; Rock physics; Reservoir monitoring. (AG)

  11. Evaluation of the potential application of 2-acetylpyridine N4- phenyl thiosemicarbazones derivatives for cancer therapy and diagnosis; Avaliacao da potencial aplicacao de derivados de 2-acetilpiridina N-4 fenil tiossemicarbazonas em terapia e diagnostico oncologico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Marcella Araugio

    2013-08-01

    Despite the wide range of antineoplastic agents available, resistance of some types of cancer and toxicity to normal cells have been identified as the main causes of treatment failure and death. The lack of early and precise diagnosis is also responsible for reducing survival of cancer patients. In this context, the development of substances with low toxicity and therapeutic potential and/or diagnosis purpose, is the major tool in an attempt to increase the survival of patients and assure the safety and efficacy of treatment. Thiosemicarbazones (TSC) are a class of synthetic compounds that have several biological activities, including antitumor. Although several studies have shown the great potential of TSC as therapeutic and / or diagnostic agents, different chemical modifications performed on this class of molecules indicate new possibilities for applications and still require further studies. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential applicability of 2-acetylpyridine N-4-phenyl thiosemicarbazones derivatives for cancer therapy and diagnosis. The results showed that all 13 TSC tested were cytotoxic to breast and glioblastoma tumor cell lines, presenting higher in vitro antitumor activity than etoposide, an antineoplastic and inhibitor of topoisomerase II frequently used for cancer therapy. The TSC that have halogen or nitro on ortho position showed higher antitumor activity in vitro than their isomers with halogen or nitro on meta or para position of the phenyl group. H2Ac4oFPh and H2Ac4oClPh compounds showed the highest antitumor activity among all tested compounds, with IC{sub 50} in nanomolar order. These TSC induced cell death by apoptosis and oxidative stress was responsible, at least in part, for this type of cell death. The 5 mg.kg{sup -1} H2Ac4oFPh dose, administered s.c., for 4 consecutive days, did not induce important toxicity; however, the same treatment protocol was not effective for tumor growth reduction in an animal model of brain

  12. Petroleum 2006. Statistical elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-06-01

    This document gathers in 5 parts, the main existing statistical data about petroleum industry in France and in the rest of the world, together with an insight on other energy sources: 1 - petroleum in the French economy (petroleum and other energies, petroleum and transports, petroleum and energy in the industry, the residential and tertiary sectors, environment: 42 pages); 2 - the French petroleum industry (exploration, production, foreign trade, transports, refining, storage, petrochemistry: 66 pages); 3 - the French market of petroleum products (evolution of sales by product and detail by region for the past year: 38 pages); 4 - prices and taxes of petroleum products (world prices and rates for crude and refined products, evolution of fret rates, retail prices and French taxes: 28 pages); 5 - petroleum in the world (world energy production and consumption, detailed petroleum activity by main areas and for the main countries: 112 pages). (J.S.)

  13. Figures on petroleum 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    This table taken out from the 1981 annual report 1981 contains an introductory remark on the reorganization of mineral oil statistics up to January 82. It is followed by the tables ranged as follows: refinery capacity and production, crude oil supply, GDR-coverings, import of petroleum products, petroleum consumption, export of petroleum products, transport, oil storage tanks, motor vehicle stock, taxes and tariffs, petroleum export trade, energy consumption and world petroleum numbers. In parts the tables contain comparative figures back to 1950.

  14. Proposal of criterium for valuation of damages accused by petroleum and its derivatives spills on marine environment; Proposta de criterio para valoracao monetaria de danos causados por derrames de petroleo ou de seus derivados no ambiente marinho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcelino, Adalberto; Haddad, Edson; Aventurato, Helvio; Campos, Marcos Antonio V. de; Serpa, Ricardo Rodrigues [Companhia de Tecnologia de Saneamento Ambiental, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    1994-12-31

    Answering to a Prosecuting Council request, CETESB-Environmental Protection Agency for the State of Sao Paulo, Brazil, developed the above proposal, which aim is to have the valuation for damages caused by petroleum and its derivatives spill on the sea. The proposal criterium takes into account the quality of oil spilled, the affected area sensibility, the product toxicity, the product persistence in the environment and the organism mortality. There is a mathematical formula through which it is possible to value the amount to be paid by the polluter. (author). 16 refs., 2 figs., 8 tabs.

  15. Petroleum Sector (NAICS 324)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Find relevant environmental regulations for the petroleum industry (NAICS 324), including National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP)s for petroleum refineries and gasoline dispensing & effluent guidelines for oil and gas extraction

  16. The petroleum industry in 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This 2004 edition of the petroleum industry activities presents results and data concerning the crude oil prices evolution, the petroleum exploration and production in france and in the world, the para-petroleum industry, the hydrocarbons supplies, the refining, the quality evolution of the substitution products and fuels, the internal transports of petroleum products, the petroleum products storage, the petroleum products consumption, the petroleum products prices and taxation, the petroleum products distribution. (A.L.B.)

  17. The world petroleum industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mons, L.

    2005-01-01

    This study proposes a global vision of the petroleum industry, a precise and well argued state of the art of the petroleum markets. It defines the strategical challenges which the petroleum companies are exposed and allows to anticipate the sector evolutions. It details the key acts of the last three years, the financial performances of the companies. (A.L.B.)

  18. Co-Processing of Jatropha-Derived Bio-Oil with Petroleum Distillates over Mesoporous CoMo and NiMo Sulfide Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Yuan Chen

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The co-processing of an unconventional type of Jatropha bio-oil with petroleum distillates over mesoporous alumina-supported CoMo and NiMo sulfide catalysts (denoted CoMo/γ-Al2O3 and NiMo/γ-Al2O3 was studied. Either a stainless-steel high-pressure batch-type reactor or an up-flow fixed-bed reaction system was used under severe reaction conditions (330–350 °C and 5–7 MPa, similar to the conditions of the conventional diesel hydrodesulfurization (HDS process. To understand the catalytic performance of the mesoporous sulfide catalysts for co-processing, we prepared two series of oil feedstocks. First, model diesel oils, consisting of hydrocarbons and model molecules with various heteroatoms (sulfur, oxygen, and nitrogen were used for the study of the reaction mechanisms. Secondly, low-grade oil feedstocks, which were prepared by dissolving of an unconventional type of Jatropha bio-oil (ca. 10 wt % in the petroleum distillates, were used to study the practical application of the catalysts. Surface characterization by gas sorption, spectroscopy, and electron microscopy indicated that the CoMo/γ-Al2O3 sulfide catalyst, which has a larger number of acidic sites and coordinatively unsaturated sites (CUS on the mesoporous alumina framework, was associated with small Co-incorporated MoS2-like slabs with high stacking numbers and many active sites at the edges and corners. In contrast, the NiMo/γ-Al2O3 sulfide catalyst, which had a lower number of acidic sites and CUS on mesoporous alumina framework, was associated with large Ni-incorporated MoS2-like slabs with smaller stacking numbers, yielding more active sites at the brims and corresponding to high hydrogenation (HYD activity. Concerning the catalytic performance, the mesoporous CoMo/γ-Al2O3 sulfide catalyst with large CUS number was highly active for the conventional diesel HDS process; unfortunately, it was deactivated when oxygen- and nitrogen-containing model molecules or Jatropha bio

  19. Petroleum marketing monthly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data.

  20. Petroleum fiscality indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-02-01

    This document presents the different taxes imposed to petroleum products in France: domestic tax on petroleum products (TIPP) and added value tax (TVA). A comparison is made with the fiscality into effect in other European countries for some petroleum products. Then, the fiscality is detailed for the different petroleum products and automotive fuels with its regional modulations. Finally, the fiscal measures adopted in 2007 are detailed. They concern the transposition of the European directive 2003-96/CE into French right and some fiscal regime changes given to some economical sectors particularly penalized by the rise of petroleum energy prices in 2007. (J.S.)

  1. Petroleum industry 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    A survey on petroleum industry activities in France and in the world in 1996 is presented. The different parts and themes of the study are: evolution of the petroleum market (international and French markets, supply and demand, prices, mark-up and taxation in France and in Europe); activities in the petroleum industries (exploration and production, maritime transportation, inland transportation and storage, refining, quality of petroleum products and substitution fuels, oil distribution); environment and safety (refining, distribution and evolution of products, pipeline and maritime transportation, exploration and production); situation of the sector's companies (oil groups, para-petroleum French industry, scientific and technical research)

  2. Petroleum Supply Monthly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major U.S. geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  3. Petroleum supply monthly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blends, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.

  4. Petroleum marketing annual 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-24

    The Petroleum Marketing Annual (PMA) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysis, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the fob and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Annual. For this production, all estimates have been recalculated since their earlier publication in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM). These calculations made use of additional data and corrections that were received after the PMM publication date.

  5. Petroleum marketing annual 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Annual (PMA) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysis, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the fob and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners' acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Annual. For this production, all estimates have been recalculated since their earlier publication in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM). These calculations made use of additional data and corrections that were received after the PMM publication date

  6. The petroleum industry in 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This document provides information on the petroleum industry for the year 2005. It discusses the world gas and petroleum markets, the world and french petroleum exploration and production, the petroleum and byproducts industry in France, the hydrocarbons supplying, the refining in France, the evolution of the products and fuels substitution quality, the internal transports of petroleum products, the storage consumption and taxes of petroleum products, the prices and distribution of the petroleum products. (A.L.B.)

  7. Application of diagnosis and monitoring area contaminated by petroleum derivatives; Aplicacao da tecnica de caminhamento eletrico em area contaminada por derivados de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Cesar Augusto [Pos-graduacao em Geociencias em Meio Ambiente, IGCE - UNESP, Rio Claro, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: cesargeologia@yahoo.com.br; Dourado, Joao Carlos; Braga, Antonio Celso de Oliveira [Dept. de Geologia Aplicada, IGCE - UNESP, Rio Claro, SP (Brazil)], E-mails: jdourado@rc.unesp.br, acobraga@rc.unesp.br

    2006-07-15

    Geophysical methods are useful technic of geological investigation, thoroughly employed to diagnosis and monitoring contaminated areas, in conjunction with direct techniques of investigation such as chemical analyses. Among these, electric resistivity is more usually used in studies of contaminants in soil and groundwater, due to the high contrast of electric properties between the soil and the pollutant types frequently found, essentially constituted of composed organic and inorganic. Geophysical studies in impacted areas by petroleum products may be describe by anomalies of both low resistivity and high resistivities, confirmed as contaminant by chemical analyses. This apparent contradiction can reflect processes of degradation of the contaminants, directly associated with its residence time in the soil, through the generation of by-products that change the physical properties of the soil and groundwater, principally for the mineral dissolution by action of organic acids and by formation of minerals of oxides and hydroxides minerals. Natural attenuation defines a series of physical, chemical and biological processes that allow the degradation, dispersion and dilution of contaminants in a natural form, in other words, free from human intervention. This paper presents the application of electrical profiling technique in a contaminated industrial area for benzene, toluene, xylene, 1,2 dichloroethene and inorganic salts and it discusses the physical alterations of the contaminated soil through the obtained results, under the optics of the Natural Attenuation in course in the area of study. (author)

  8. Petroleum marketing monthly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly.

  9. Petroleum marketing monthly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PPM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o. b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly.

  10. Petroleum marketing monthly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly.

  11. Petroleum industry in CIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaillaud, P.

    1992-01-01

    This paper gives statistical data on petroleum and natural gas industry in USSR and in Eastern Europe: crude oil and gas production, petroleum and natural gas deposits, exports, fuel consumption, pipelines network (total length, compressor or pump stations), petroleum refineries. This paper describes also air pollution (carbon dioxide and sulfur dioxide) and Environmental effects of coal and lignite using in fossil power plants in Eastern Europe. 17 figs., 7 tabs

  12. Petroleum and ethics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henn, N.; Train, E.; Chagnoux, H.; Heinzle, P.; Daubresse, M.; Bret-Rouzaut, N.; Fradin, J.

    2000-01-01

    7 articles in this data sheet, they concern: political stakes and stakes of the industrial petroleum sector towards ethical questions; establishment of associations attending to human and environmental questions; examples of of ethical, environmental and safety policy in an industrialized country (ExxonMobil) and in a developing country (TotalFina); synthesis of the ethical problems that the petroleum industry encounter in industrialized and developing countries; considerations on the communication stakes in petroleum companies with the general public. (O.M.)

  13. Canadian petroleum history bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cass, D.

    2003-09-27

    The Petroleum History Bibliography includes a list of more than 2,000 publications that record the history of the Canadian petroleum industry. The list includes books, theses, films, audio tapes, published articles, company histories, biographies, autobiographies, fiction, poetry, humour, and an author index. It was created over a period of several years to help with projects at the Petroleum History Society. It is an ongoing piece of work, and as such, invites comments and additions.

  14. Petroleum and geopolitics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaigneau, P.

    2004-01-01

    Todays, petroleum companies consider that despite the constant increase of petroleum consumption, petroleum will remain the main energy source for at least 40 years. However, after the Iraq conflict, new regional situations are changing. China, for instance, with its growing up demand, will change the physiognomy of the oil market. In parallel, from Indonesia to Africa, petroleum and religion interfere and explain the new conflict areas. As for the US strategy, which is not limited to the energy paradigm, it largely integrates energy in the main lines of its diplomacy, from the 'Wide Middle East' to the 'Sahel initiative', and in its position with respect to Venezuela

  15. Microscopical characterization of carbon materials derived from coal and petroleum and their interaction phenomena in making steel electrodes, anodes and cathode blocks for the Microscopy of Carbon Materials Working Group of the ICCP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Predeanu, G.; Panaitescu, C.; Bălănescu, M.; Bieg, G.; Borrego, A.G.; Diez, M. A.; Hackley, Paul C.; Kwiecińska, B.; Marques, M.; Mastalerz, Maria; Misz-Kennan, M.; Pusz, S.; Suarez-Ruiz, I.; Rodrigues, S.; Singh, A. K.; Varma, A. K.; Zdravkov, A.; Zivotić, D.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the evaluation of petrographic textures representing the structural organization of the organic matter derived from coal and petroleum and their interaction phenomena in the making of steel electrodes, anodes and cathode blocks.This work represents the results of the Microscopy of Carbon Materials Working Group in Commission III of the International Committee for Coal and Organic Petrology between the years 2009 and 2013. The round robin exercises were run on photomicrograph samples. For textural characterization of carbon materials the existing ASTM classification system for metallurgical coke was applied.These round robin exercises involved 15 active participants from 12 laboratories who were asked to assess the coal and petroleum based carbons and to identify the morphological differences, as optical texture (isotropic/anisotropic), optical type (punctiform, mosaic, fibre, ribbon, domain), and size. Four sets of digital black and white microphotographs comprising 151 photos containing 372 fields of different types of organic matter were examined. Based on the unique ability of carbon to form a wide range of textures, the results showed an increased number of carbon occurrences which have crucial role in the chosen industrial applications.The statistical method used to evaluate the results was based on the “raw agreement indices”. It gave a new and original view on the analysts' opinion by not only counting the correct answers, but also all of the knowledge and experience of the participants. Comparative analyses of the average values of the level of overall agreement performed by each analyst in the exercises during 2009–2013 showed a great homogeneity in the results, the mean value being 90.36%, with a minimum value of 83% and a maximum value of 95%.

  16. Financing petroleum agreements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robson, C.J.V.

    1994-01-01

    This chapter describes the typical type of financing agreements which are currently used to finance North Sea petroleum projects whether they are in the cause of development or have been developed and are producing. It deals with the agreements which are entered into to finance borrowings for petroleum projects on a non-resource or limited resource basis. (UK)

  17. Fundamentals of Petroleum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Naval Personnel, Washington, DC.

    Basic information on petroleum is presented in this book prepared for naval logistics officers. Petroleum in national defense is discussed in connection with consumption statistics, productive capacity, world's resources, and steps in logistics. Chemical and geological analyses are made in efforts to familiarize methods of refining, measuring,…

  18. Petroleum systems of Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doust, H.; Noble, R.A.

    2008-01-01

    Indonesia contains many Tertiary basins, several of which have proven to be very prolific producers of oil and gas. The geology and petroleum systems of these productive basins are reviewed, summarized and updated according to the most recent developments. We have linked the recognized petroleum

  19. Petroleum and international policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pertuzio, A.

    2002-01-01

    To illustrate the relation between the petroleum and the international policy, the author presents the place of the petroleum industry in the international relations by an analysis of the historical aspects, the states and international organizations interventions and the prices evolution. (A.L.B.)

  20. Petroleum supply monthly, April 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-01

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographical regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the US. The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the US.

  1. Validation of the extension of the range of application and of the single system of injection for the determination of total nitrogen in petroleum and its derivatives by chemiluminescence; Validacao da ampliacao da faixa de aplicacao e do sistema unico de injecao para a determinacao de nitrogenio total em petroleos e derivados por quimiluminescencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Maria de Fatima Pereira dos [Fundacao Gorceix, Ouro Preto, MG(Brazil)]. E-mail: santos@cenpes.petrobras.com.br; Tamanqueira, Juliana Boechat [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Magalhaes, Julio Cesar Dias [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas. Avaliacao de Petroleo; Oliveira, Elcio Cruz de [Transpetro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Logistica e Planejamento; Vaitsman, Delmo Santiago [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. Dept. de Quimica Analitica

    2003-12-01

    With the objectives of using a single system of injection and of extending the range of application for the method ASTM D4629/02 'Total Nitrogen in Petroleum Derivatives by the System of Injection with a Syringe and Detection by Chemo- Luminescence', it was studied a procedure by statistical validation with the objective of guaranteeing the analytical reliability of the assay and allowing the inclusion of samples of petroleum and heavy derivatives in one single methodology. The determination of total nitrogen for petroleum and derivatives is traditionally assayed using the method of Kjeldahl - a time-consuming methodology that requires a large amount of time for giving the final result, at the same time that is not recommended for concentrations below 0.1%w/w, which does not meet the requirements for the specifications of the product, in the petroleum industry. An alternative for the method of Kjeldahl is the pyro-chemo luminescence, which allows the achievement of more repetitive results for total nitrogen. In the detection of nitrogen, the technique combines the reliability of oxidative combustion with the sensitivity of chemiluminescence. Therefore, it was developed a protocol of validation in the methodology ASTM D4629/02 for the validation of the extension of the range of application and for the evaluation of the performance of the equipment in analytical conditions, according to the calibration curve. (author)

  2. Probabilistic assessment methodology for continuous-type petroleum accumulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crovelli, R.A.

    2003-01-01

    The analytic resource assessment method, called ACCESS (Analytic Cell-based Continuous Energy Spreadsheet System), was developed to calculate estimates of petroleum resources for the geologic assessment model, called FORSPAN, in continuous-type petroleum accumulations. The ACCESS method is based upon mathematical equations derived from probability theory in the form of a computer spreadsheet system. ?? 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The Comparison of Hydrotreated Vegetable Oils With Respect to Petroleum Derived Fuels and the Effects of Transient Plasma Ignition in a Compression-Ignition Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    Content per Combustion J FAME Fatty Acid Methyl Ester FMEP Friction Mean Effective Pressure PSI or Bar FT Fischer-Tropsch h Heat...recently, algae-derived oils. Biodiesel has gained popularity in North America over the past decade, but the ester content of Fatty Acid Methyl ... Ester ( FAME ) fuel creates both cold weather and water- based operational issues. The Fischer-Tropsch (FT) process produces liquid fuels from “syngas,” a

  4. Petroleum question. Die Oelfrage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mommer, B

    1983-01-01

    The author analyses the development of the world petroleum market and its pricing factors to the present on the basis of the theory of ground rent, in which the part played by absolute ground rent, differential rent, and free and national state property in the capitalist mode of production is determined. His investigation of economic policy traces the absorbing history of the petroleum production and policy of the United States of America, which for so long governed the world market, the development of Venezuela into a petroleum country (whose true history is here revealed for the first time), the penetration of the middle East by the international petroleum leaseholders' capital and their cartel, the formation of the OPEC, and finally the 'victory' of the lather over the petroleum combines in the international petroleum crisis of 1970-1973. The book closes with a survey at the start of the 80s and an outlook into the foreseeable future. What is really hidden behind the quarrels about prices, profit, taxes, royalties, franchise agreements, production quotas, nationalization and so forth and behind the economic, political, and even moral arguments of the parties concerned turns out to be the fight of the petroleum ground proprietors for the ground rent - but to win a victory in this fight means ultimately to face its limitations, too. Blindness to the economic and political importance of ground rent, right from the theoretical approach, also created a major cause of the false diagnoses and forecasts on the petroleum market western economic scientists were misled into, and thus of the surprise effect that came in the form of the petroleum crisis of the early 1970s.

  5. Caspian sea: petroleum challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The Caspian sea is one of the world areas the most promising in terms of investments and petroleum development. This study presents the petroleum challenges generated by this hydrocarbons reserve. The first part discusses the juridical status (sea or lake), the petroleum and the gas reserves, the ecosystem and the today environment (fishing and caviar), the geostrategic situation and the transport of gas and oil. It provides also a chronology from 1729 to 2005, a selection of Internet sites, books and reports on the subject and identity sheets of the countries around the Caspian sea. (A.L.B.)

  6. Petroleum investment in Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedrich, M.

    1994-01-01

    There is no specific petroleum legislation as such in place in Kazakhstan and tax legislation is unsophisticated. Regulation of operations is subject to generally applicable legislation. A brief account of the difficulties which exist for both sides in renegotiating a contract is given. Since the competence to enter into contracts with foreign companies has not been fully defined, the first problem when applying for petroleum rights is the identification of a negotiating partner. A summary of terms and conditions and a list of the main laws applicable to petroleum operations are included. (UK)

  7. Petroleum: the new deal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magalhaes, St.; Kan, E.

    2008-01-01

    The drop of oil prices imposes a revision of development and investment strategies of petroleum and para-petroleum companies, while technologies under study try to optimize the exploration and production costs. Following the financial and economical crises, the petroleum industry is preparing its restructuring: new profitability threshold of projects, slowing down of the activity, expected surge of mergers. Despite the crisis, the R and D for the exploitation of tar sands still goes on while on the offshore side, R and D has never been so active to take up the challenge of extreme deep sea conditions. (J.S.)

  8. Petroleum marketing annual, 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Annual contains statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the free-on-board and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners' acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented. (VC)

  9. Petroleum refining and air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raimbault, C.

    1992-01-01

    This paper studies the methods which may be developed in petroleum refineries or during petroleum products using for air pollution abatement: petroleum products desulfurization, lead elimination in gasoline and catalytic converters to reduce sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides in exhaust gases. Investments and costs estimation to adapt petroleum refineries for environment protection is also given. 1 ref., 6 figs., 6 tabs

  10. Figures of the petroleum industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    The statistic tables give informations about: Reserves and production of petroleum and natural gas, supply of crude petroleum in the Federal Republic of Germany, pipelines, tanker ships, petroleum refineries, petroleum consumption, storage and distribution, automobiles, prices, taxis and energy consumption. The data compilations are primarily given for the Federal Republic of Germany.

  11. Petroleum and derivatives emulsification by bacterial consortium of sea meeds from Enseada do Forno-Armacao de Buzios (RJ); Emulsificacao de petroleo e seus derivados pelos consorcios bacterianos de algas da Enseada do Forno-Armacao dos Buzios (RJ)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Frederico S. da; Crapez, Mirian A.C.; Krepsky, Natascha; Fontana, Luiz F.; Baptista-Neto, Jose Antonio [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: fred@igeo.uff.br

    2004-07-01

    Constant petroleum spill over natural habitats made necessary alternatives for environmental damage mitigation and recuperation. Bio surfactants can be used as an alternative for oil spill once they reduce surface oil tension, making them soluble in water or can make it available from the sediments. Bacterial consortia were isolated and bio amplified from Caulerpa (C), Laurencia (L) and Dictyota (D) algae biofilm. Bacterial carbon (CB); surface tension (TS); Emulsification index (E{sub 24}) and non-aqueous (A) and aqueous (B) emulsification of gasoline, kerosene and Arabian Light were estimated in 0, 7, 15 and 30 days of incubation. Results show a decrease of Laurencia and Caulerpa CB. However, Dictyota showed an increase at CB. Laurencia TS showed no significant reduction at days 7 and 15. For Dictyota and Caulerpa there was a increase at day 7 and reduction at day 15. E{sub 24} was higher than 70% for all the three substances and consortia tested. Laurencia bacteria consortia presented emulsification B for Arabian Light and emulsification A for gasoline and kerosene. Caulerpa consortia emulsified all compounds. All bacterial consortia isolated were surfactant producer, with emulsification A and B, being indicated for recuperation of environments contaminated with oil and its derivatives compounds. (author)

  12. Petroleum supply monthly, January 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    Data presented describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States. The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.

  13. Petroleum marketing annual, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-08-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Annual contains statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the free-on-board and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners' acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented. For this publication, all estimates have been recalculated since their earlier publication in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM). These calculations made use of additional data and corrections that were received after the PMM publication dates

  14. Apparatus for extracting petroleum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coogan, J

    1921-01-18

    An apparatus for extracting petroleum from petroleum bearing sand or shale is described comprising a container for liquids, the container being divided into a plurality of compartments, an agitator mounted within the container and below the liquid level and having its forward end opening into one of the compartments, means for delivering sand or shale to the forward end of the agitator, means for subjecting the sand or shale to the action of a solvent for the petroleum while the sand or shale is being agitated and is submerged, the first-mentioned compartment being adapted to receive the extracted petroleum and means for removing the treated sand or shale from adjacent the rear end of the agitator.

  15. Petroleum supply annual 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA) contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1992 through annual and monthly surveys. The PSA is divided into two volumes. The first volume contains four sections: Summary Statistics, Detailed Statistics, Refinery Capacity, and Oxygenate Capacity each with final annual data. This second volume contains final statistics for each month of 1992, and replaces data previously published in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM). The tables in Volumes 1 and 2 are similarly numbered to facilitate comparison between them. Explanatory Notes, located at the end of this publication, present information describing data collection, sources, estimation methodology, data quality control procedures, modifications to reporting requirements and interpretation of tables. Industry terminology and product definitions are listed alphabetically in the Glossary

  16. Petroleum marketing annual 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Annual (PMA) contains statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the free-on-board (f.o.b.) and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented. For this publication, all estimates have been recalculated since their earlier publication in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM). These calculations made use of additional data and corrections that were received after the PMM publication dates

  17. Petroleum marketing annual 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-01-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Annual (PMA) contains statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the free-on-board (f.o.b.) and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented. For this publication, all estimates have been recalculated since their earlier publication in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM). These calculations made use of additional data and corrections that were received after the PMM publication dates.

  18. Petroleum Vapor Intrusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    One type of vapor intrusion is PVI, in which vapors from petroleum hydrocarbons such as gasoline, diesel, or jet fuel enter a building. Intrusion of contaminant vapors into indoor spaces is of concern.

  19. Photolysis of petroleum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bobra, M.

    1992-05-01

    A study was conducted to examine the chemical and physical changes that occur in oils as a result of photooxidation. A literature review of recent studies in petroleum photochemistry revealed reported effects of photo-induced reactions in petroleum, including changes in color, polymerization, solidification, increases in solubility and toxicity, and changes in interfacial properties. A list of products reported as a result of photolysis of petroleum is presented, including such compounds as aldehydes, ketones, esters, and lactones. The photoreactivity of various petroleum components is discussed and mechanisms of photooxidation of petroleum are suggested. In the experimental portion of the study, a variety of crude oils and petroleum products were used to determine how different oils are affected by photolysis, and to examine the importance of photolysis as a weathering process. Photooxidation products from several oils were isolated and identified, including aliphatic and aromatic acids, alcohols, and phenols. Some physical manifestations attributed to photolysis included yellowing, formation of precipitates or crusts, increases in density and viscosity with time, increases of asphaltene content in some oils, changes in pH of the surrounding water, and emulsification. 51 refs., 38 figs., 18 tabs

  20. Managers' perception regarding information systems that provide decision making support: a case study in an organizational unit of a petroleum derivatives company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano Raldi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In a globalization scenario, uncertainty and high competitive edge between the companies, every manager needs to make decisions that bring competitive advantage to his/her organization. These decisions are increasingly complex, which demands more rapid and precise information to allow efficient decision-making. It is in this scenario that Information Systems (IS have gained importance in the decision-making process. Yet, many of these IS may not be adequate to the manager’s needs. This study aims to identify the perception of the managers of an Organizational Unit at an oil and derivatives company about the support given by ISs regarding their decision making. To obtain the expected results, a questionnaire based on the critical factors involved in IS quality and directed to the managers of the Organizational Unit. Results of this study will enable professionals responsible for developing ISs, as well as managers and those working with these systems to identify strengths and weaknesses of existing systems.

  1. Petroleum resources assessment (I)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    On the basis of diverse microfossils such as foraminifers, ostracods, micromulluscs, fossil spores and pollen and calcareous nannofossils derived from 14 drill holes, the sediments are divided into two part, the upper marine part and the lower nonmarine one. Marine part is subdivided into 4 foraminiferal zones and 3 nannofossil zones of Plio-Pleistocene age. In the lower part ranging from Oligocene to Late Miocene 4 palynomoph assemblages are established, which reflect climatic changes fluctuating between subtropical and cool temperate. Some fine sediments occurring in the South Sea continental shelf are rich in organic matter to be hydrocarbon source rock. The organic matter is mainly compared to type 3. However, lower part of the Geobuk-1 and Okdom-1 shows more oil prone geochemical characteristics than other wells. The kerosene is mixture type 1 and type 3 organic matter. The main oil generation zone located between 2,500 m and 3,000 m and gas generation zone from 3,500 m to 4,000 m approximately. Hydrocarbon accumulation could be expected in the trap formed in the period earlier than 10 Ma. as the hydrocarbon started to be expelled at 10 Ma. according to the modeling. Approximately 13,000 Line-km of multichannel seismic data integrated with 14 wells and gravity and magnetic data were analyzed to investigate the structural and stratigraphic evolution of southern part of offshore Korea. The northeast-southwest trending Taiwan-Sinzi Uplift Belt separates the area into two regions with different tectonic features, northwestern and southwestern regions. The potential hydrocarbon traps associated with anticline, tilted fault block, fault, unconformity, and rollover structure exist. This project is consisted of two main subjects. 1) Petroleum resources assessment on the continental shelf basin of the south sea. 2) Petroliferous basin analysis in Taegu area (1). (author). refs., tabs., figs.

  2. Petroleum marketing monthly, May 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-05-26

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly.

  3. A comparative evaluation of nitrogen compounds in petroleum distillates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Dheer; Chopra, Anju; Patel, Mitra Bhanu; Sarpal, Amarjit Singh [Indian Oil Corporation Limited, Faridabad (India). Research and Development Centre

    2011-07-15

    Although the concentration of nitrogen compounds in crude oil is relatively low, they can become more concentrated in petroleum distillates and poison the catalysts used in refining processes. They cause undesirable deposits, color formation and odor in products; they also contribute to air pollution and some are highly carcinogenic. The poisoned catalyst becomes deactivated for hydrodesulfurization and unable to remove sulfur from middle distillates. In order to understand the effect on catalytic processes, it is desirable to identify the nitrogen compounds in various petroleum distillates. This paper compares the nitrogen species profiles in different petroleum distillates using a nitrogen chemiluminescence detector. In addition, four different petroleum distillate samples from different refineries were analyzed to find the variation in their nitrogen profiles. The nitrogen compounds in petroleum distillate samples were identified as anilines, quinolines, indoles, and carbazoles and their alkyl derivatives. Quantitation was carried out against known reference standards. The quantitative data were compared to the total nitrogen content determined by elemental analysis. (orig.)

  4. Petroleum Marketing Annual, 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-18

    This report contains statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for us by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the free-on-board (f.o.b.) and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners' acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented. 13 figs., 51 tabs.

  5. The business of petroleum exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinmetz, R.

    1992-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings of the Business of Petroleum Exploration. The following topics are included: Petroleum business; Economic aspects of the business; Managing business; and Legal, Political, Ethical and environment aspects of the business

  6. Petroleum marketing monthly, June 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. Monthly statistics on purchases of crude oil and sales of petroleum products are presented in five sections: Summary Statistics; Crude Oil Prices; Prices of Petroleum Products; Volumes of Petroleum Products; and Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Petroleum Products for Local Consumption. The feature article is entitled ``The Second Oxygenated Gasoline Season.`` 7 figs., 50 tabs.

  7. Petroleum marketing monthly, July 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. Monthly statistics on purchases of crude oil and sales of petroleum products are presented in five sections: summary statistics; crude oil prices; prices of petroleum products; volumes of petroleum products; and prime supplier sales volumes of petroleum products for local consumption. 7 figs., 50 tabs.

  8. Isotope analysis in petroleum exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, R.

    1982-01-01

    The study about isotopic analysis in petroleum exploration performed at Petrobras Research Center is showed. The results of the petroleum recuperation in same Brazilian basin and shelves are comented. (L.H.L.L.) [pt

  9. Petroleum supply monthly, August 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-26

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  10. The petroleum taxation in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-09-01

    This document details the french specificities of taxation concerning the petroleum products: the TIPP. It shows how this policy acts upon the petroleum products consumption behavior and how it allows the financing of the decentralization. (A.L.B.)

  11. Marks on the petroleum fiscality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-02-01

    This document offers some marks on the petroleum fiscality in France: the taxes as the 'accises' and the 'TVA', the part of the taxes in the sale price at the service station, the comparison with other countries of Europe, the tax revenues and the Government budget. It provides also marks on the fuels prices formation (margins), the world petroleum markets (supply and demand) and the part of the petroleum companies on the petroleum market. (A.L.B.)

  12. Petroleum supply monthly, April 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1990-06-26

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of three publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other two publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR) and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly describe (PSM) the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in Primary Supply.'' Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: (1) the Summary Statistics and (2) the Detailed Statistics.

  13. SWOT ANALYSIS - CHINESE PETROLEUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunlan Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article was written in early December 2013,combined with the historical development andthe latest data on the Chinese Petroleum carried SWOT- analysis. This paper discusses corporate resources, cost, management and external factorssuch as the political environment and the marketsupply and demand, conducted a comprehensiveand profound analysis.

  14. SWOT ANALYSIS - CHINESE PETROLEUM

    OpenAIRE

    Chunlan Wang; Lei Zhang; Qi Zhong

    2014-01-01

    This article was written in early December 2013, combined with the historical development and the latest data on the Chinese Petroleum carried SWOTanalysis. This paper discusses corporate resources, cost, management and external factors such as the political environment and the market supply and demand, conducted a comprehensive and profound analysis.

  15. Environmental pollution by petroleum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murata, T

    1974-06-01

    Pollution causes, cases, and remedies at various stages of petroleum production and usage are reviewed. Petroleum extraction (off-shore drilling and Arctic drilling) can be accompanied by mishaps. In 1971, IMCO (an international safety committee) proposed the partitioning of oil tanker holds into smaller compartments to minimize spillage in case of disaster. Although the solubility of oil in waste water from refineries is reckoned by ppM, the total amount dissolved is not negligible. Petroleum storage and transport on land is complicated by problems of safety in terms of population density as well as by pollution problems. Petroleum end-products such as plastic trash and automobile exhausts contribute to pollution. The role of aldehydes and peroxides in photochemical smog formation must be investigated further. Proper treatment of pollution at each specific point of occurrence, rather than at the end of a production line is recommended. Pollutant concentration for treatment, rather than pollutant dilution for dispersal, should be considered. Technology for pollution abatement is available, but not always economically feasible.

  16. Petroleum industry in 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    This book analyses the major facts and the numbers of 1992, in France and in foreign countries. Its purpose is to be as complete as possible and to present especially all the aspects on a national level: supply, domestic market, prices, exploration, production, stocks, petroleum refining, transports, retailing, financial data

  17. Petroleum: Price trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babusiaux, Denis; Pierru, Axel

    2010-01-01

    The Organization of Petroleum-Exporting Countries (OPEC), some political leaders and financiers have mainly attributed the price spike of oil in 2008 - followed by a just as spectacular drop in prices - to the speculative moves made by financial investors on the futures market instead of to market fundamentals

  18. Petroleum Vapor - Field Technical

    Science.gov (United States)

    The screening approach being developed by EPA OUST to evaluate petroleum vapor intrusion (PVI) requires information that has not be routinely collected in the past at vapor intrusion sites. What is the best way to collect this data? What are the relevant data quality issues and ...

  19. Petroleum product market outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-09-01

    The influence of petroleum market disturbances on price increases was discussed with particular reference to Hurricane Katrina and the loss of refinery production and damage to oil infrastructure in the United States. The supply of petroleum products in Canada will be very tight heading into the winter of 2006, despite the fact that Canadian refineries are operating at full capacity to ensure an adequate supply of gasoline and diesel fuel for consumers. In addition to refinery production, petroleum supplies are also determined by the adequacy of inventories and the efficiency of the infrastructure in place to deliver products to where they are needed. The lack of spare capacity has reduced the flexibility of the North American refining system to respond to further disruptions. Refiners were asked to provide information on 4 areas of their operations in order for Natural Resources Canada to analyze the short-term outlook for petroleum products markets. The 4 areas included refinery utilization rates and capability to increase production; any planned refinery turnaround that would affect petroleum product supplies; inventory levels compared to levels in previous years; and, any logistical problems that could affect product distribution. A graph depicting the relationship between Canadian production of gasoline and domestic sales clearly illustrated the seasonal nature of gasoline consumption and that production in Canada is much higher than consumption. Canada exports large volumes of gasoline, primarily to the United States eastern seabord from refineries in Atlantic Canada. The trend is similar for diesel fuel. Demand for both gasoline and diesel is expected to continue to grow in 2005 as high prices have had a limited impact on demand growth. In general, the Ontario/Quebec region is short of gasoline and must import gasoline during the summer months to cover the shortfall. It was noted that motorists and homeowners who heat with oil will bear the burden of higher

  20. Identification of petroleum pollution sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Begak, O.Yu.; Syroezhko, A.M.

    2001-01-01

    A possibility of preliminary identification of petroleum pollution sources was investigated on specimens of the Khanty-Mansi autonomous district six deposits and specimens of soil and water polluted by these petroleums. Investigations were conducted using IR Fourier spectroscopy and gamma spectrometry, as well as methods of chromato-mass spectrometry and capillary gas liquid chromatography. Every of studied samples of petroleum from different deposits have an individual radiation impression. Insignificant total content of radionuclides in samples is specific to the Khanty-Mansi petroleum region. Gamma spectrometry admits to identify potential source of petroleum pollution using radionuclides of uranium and thorium series [ru

  1. Industry of petroleum and its by-products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haddad, Antoine

    1989-01-01

    A comprehensive study of petroleum industry and its by-products is presented. Petroleum, since its origin and all steps of its industry including its detection, production and transportation is described. A historical description of the production and formation of fuels under the ground strates through million of years, as well as its chemical composition are presented. A full description of refining petrol and all by-products derived is given. Pictures and tables enhance the explanation

  2. Petroleum supply monthly, January 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-15

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  3. Petroleum supply monthly, October 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-26

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  4. Petroleum Supply Monthly, August 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-10-30

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of three publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other two publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR) and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) district movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in Primary Supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections (1) the Summary Statistics and (2) the Detailed Statistics.

  5. Petroleum supply monthly, September 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-09-30

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of three publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other two publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR) and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administrations for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 states and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in Primary Supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections (1) the Summary Statistics and (2) the Detailed Statistics. 65 tabs.

  6. Petroleum Supply Monthly, July 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-09-28

    Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 states and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in Primary Supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.

  7. Yugoslavian Petroleum Refinery development program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ocic, Ozren

    1999-01-01

    This paper shows the analysis of the world petroleum industry development, being an important factor in planning the development of the Yugoslav petroleum industry and Pancevo Petroleum Refinery, as well. Then Yugoslav petroleum industry development is analysed, including the appropriate balances of crude oil production and crude oil products consumption. The way of realizing the basic targets are also proposed. Likewise, the analysis of the condition within West European refineries has been conducted, from the aspects of technology, energy consumption and environmental protection and the same analysis for Pancevo Petroleum Refinery has been presented, too. The analysis of the condition within the refineries in the European Union countries and comparing it with the condition within Pancevo Petroleum Refinery, makes it mainly possible to recognize the development programmes which should be realized in order that Pancevo Petroleum Refinery could reach the refining level of the EU countries. (Original)

  8. Material-balance assessment of the New Albany-Chesterian petroleum system of the Illinois basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewan, M.D.; Henry, M.E.; Higley, D.K.; Pitman, Janet K.

    2002-01-01

    The New Albany-Chesterian petroleum system of the Illinois basin is a well-constrained system from which petroleum charges and losses were quantified through a material-balance assessment. This petroleum system has nearly 90,000 wells penetrating the Chesterian section, a single New Albany Shale source rock accounting for more than 99% of the produced oil, well-established stratigraphic and structural frameworks, and accessible source rock samples at various maturity levels. A hydrogen index (HI) map based on Rock-Eval analyses of source rock samples of New Albany Shale defines the pod of active source rock and extent of oil generation. Based on a buoyancy-drive model, the system was divided into seven secondary-migration catchments. Each catchment contains a part of the active pod of source rock from which it derives a petroleum charge, and this charge is confined to carrier beds and reservoirs within these catchments as accountable petroleum, petroleum losses, or undiscovered petroleum. A well-constrained catchment with no apparent erosional or leakage losses is used to determine an actual petroleum charge from accountable petroleum and residual migration losses. This actual petroleum charge is used to calibrate the other catchments in which erosional petroleum losses have occurred. Petroleum charges determined by laboratory pyrolysis are exaggerated relative to the actual petroleum charge. Rock-Eval charges are exaggerated by a factor of 4-14, and hydrouspyrolysis charges are exaggerated by a factor of 1.7. The actual petroleum charge provides a more meaningful material balance and more realistic estimates of petroleum losses and remaining undiscovered petroleum. The total petroleum charge determined for the New Albany-Chesterian system is 78 billion bbl, of which 11.4 billion bbl occur as a accountable in place petroleum, 9 billion bbl occur as residual migration losses, and 57.6 billion bbl occur as erosional losses. Of the erosional losses, 40 billion bbl

  9. Petroleum resources assessment 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    This report consists of two articles. (1) Petroleum resources assessment of the Okinawa Trough: The hydrocarbon potential has been evaluated for the Tertiary strata in the northwestern margin of the Okinawa Trough on the basis of the pale-ontological, petrological, geochemical data from two wells (Nikkan 8-9 and JDZ 7-3), and geophysical data. (2) Petroliferous basin analysis in Jinju area (2): Petroleum geological studies such as stratigraphy, sedimentology, petrology and organic geochemistry were carried out in the Gyeongsang Supergroup, Junju area. Based on lithofacies and rock color, the sequence can be divided into seven formations which can be organized into two groups (Sindong Group: Nagdong, Hasandong and Jinju formations in ascending order; Hayang Group: Chilgog, Silla Conglomerate, Haman and Jindong formations). (author). 57 refs.

  10. China's petroleum industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boykiw, A.; Katsuris, D.

    1997-01-01

    Petroleum and natural gas resources, industry organization, production, pipeline construction and other transportation issues, refining and business aspects of the Chinese petroleum and natural gas industries were reviewed. The need for large amounts of foreign capital and western technology to stem the deficit in domestic hydrocarbon supply were emphasized as being responsible for the creation in China of favourable conditions for foreign participation in oil and gas exploration, and for the growing confidence for Western investment in China. The most important considerations for successful participation in the economic development of China include: understanding the roles of networking, cultural affinity and reciprocity; hands-on management; finding an appropriate business partner, agent/distributor, or joint venture partner; and understanding local peculiarities and customs. 3 refs

  11. Geopolitics of petroleum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sebille-Lopez, Ph.

    2006-01-01

    The unexpected rise of oil prices since 2004 reveals some structural weaknesses of oil markets in front of the evolution of demand. It conceals considerable stakes, more political than strategic, like the securing of oil and petroleum product supplies of big consumers like the USA and China. This demand generates deep changes in the relations between the different actors, from Venezuela to Russia, from the Caspian sea to the Arab-Persian gulf, from the Mediterranean sea to the gulf of Guinea. Terrorists, who try to destabilize markets using threats on petroleum infrastructures, add-up a risk dimension to the uncertainties. The author proposes a world tour of the main production areas, along the 'oil roads' where the main strategic manoeuvres take place. He shades light on the main power stakes: pressure, tensions, threats and deals, alliances, ruptures and potential conflicts. The complex and multiple motivations are explained. (J.S.)

  12. India's Downstream Petroleum Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This study provides a holistic examination of pricing and investment dynamics in India's downstream petroleum sector. It analyses the current pricing practices, highlights the tremendous fiscal cost of current pricing and regulatory arrangements, and examines the sectoral investment dynamics. It also looks at potential paths towards market-based reform along which the Indian government may move, while at the same time protecting energy market access for India's large poor population.

  13. Deodorizing petroleum oils, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haller, A

    1906-06-14

    A process of purifying and deodorizing petroleum oils, gasolines, ethers, benzines, shale oils, resins, and similar products, consisting essentially in passing the vapors of the liquids with a current of hydrogen or of gases high in hydrogen over divided metals, such as nickel, copper, cobalt, iron, platinum, etc., heated to a temperature between 100/sup 0/C and 350/sup 0/C, the vapors passing before entering the apparatus through a column of copper heated to above 350/sup 0/C.

  14. Environmental hazard and risk characterisation of petroleum substances: a guided "walking tour" of petroleum hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierkens, Johan; Geerts, Lieve

    2014-05-01

    Petroleum substances are used in large quantities, primarily as fuels. They are complex mixtures whose major constituents are hydrocarbons derived from crude oil by distillation and fractionation. Determining the complete molecular composition of petroleum and its refined products is not feasible with current analytical techniques because of the huge number of molecular components. This complex nature of petroleum products, with their varied number of constituents, all of them exhibiting different fate and effect characteristics, merits a dedicated hazard and risk assessment approach. From a regulatory perspective they pose a great challenge in a number of REACH processes, in particular in the context of dossier and substance evaluation but also for priority setting activities. In order to facilitate the performance of hazard and risk assessment for petroleum substances the European oil company association, CONCAWE, has developed the PETROTOX and PETRORISK spreadsheet models. Since the exact composition of many petroleum products is not known, an underlying assumption of the PETROTOX and PETRORISK tools is that the behaviour and fate of a total petroleum substance can be simulated based on the physical-chemical properties of representative structures mapped to hydrocarbon blocks (HBs) and on the relative share of each HB in the total mass of the product. To assess how differing chemical compositions affect the simulated chemical fate and toxicity of hydrocarbon mixtures, a series of model simulations were run using an artificial petroleum substance, containing 386 (PETROTOX) or 160 (PETRORISK) HBs belonging to different chemical classes and molecular weight ranges, but with equal mass assigned to each of them. To this artificial petroleum substance a guided series of subsequent modifications in mass allocation to a delineated number of HBs belonging to different chemical classes and carbon ranges was performed, in what we perceived as a guided "walking tour

  15. Petroleum marketing monthly, August 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-15

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product Sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly.

  16. Petroleum marketing monthly, September 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum product sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly.

  17. 2005 yearly days of petroleum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constant, R.; Susbielles, G.

    2005-01-01

    14 articles are gathered in this data sheet; they deal with the opening address of the 2005 petroleum days; the hydrocarbons: the evolutive resource; the para-petroleum engineers and the Europe; the speech of Mr Francois Loos; the Shell global scenarios to 2025; the evolution of the gas resource and its uses; the French para-petroleum industry; Bernard Bensaid, Corinne Sagary, Armelle Saniere, economic studies, IFP; the contribution of the innovation and of the technology in the diversification of the hydrocarbons supply; innovation and diversification of the petroleum resource: the point of view of Total; research, development and diversification of the petroleum resource; innovation in services companies; innovation in study and development and engineering; the closing address of the 2005 petroleum days. (O.M.)

  18. Petroleum marketing monthly, December 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-05

    This publication provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. It presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include domestic first purchase price, f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude, and refiners` acquisition cost of crude. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane.

  19. Basic petroleum research. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roesjoe, Bjarne; Stiksrud, Helge

    2004-01-01

    An overview of projects in the field of basic petroleum research (PetroForsk) is presented. A brief presentation of some of the projects is included, as well as political comments on the value of these projects. The research program Basic Petroleum Research (PetroForsk) was established in 1998 and ended in 2004. The program has been part of the Research Council of Norway's long-term effort in petroleum research (ml)

  20. Indicators on the world petroleum markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-10-01

    This paper presents tendencies of the petroleum industry market. It analyses the petroleum demand and supply, the prices elaboration, the petroleum market and the OPEC objective, the third petroleum crisis of the year 2000 and gives some data concerning the petroleum market. (A.L.B.)

  1. Selling petroleum to the military

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uscher, R.H.

    1999-01-01

    This article examines what petroleum products and services the US military buys, the contracts awarded to Asian and European refiners for supplies outside the USA, and military specifications and test methods including the specifications of JP-8 battlefield fuel and the JP-8+100 additive package for military aircraft. The way in which the military buys petroleum products is described, and details are given of the types of military contracts, the bidding on Defense Energy Support Center (DESC) petroleum contracts, the performance of military petroleum contracts, socio-economic programmes, the Prompt Payment Act requiring contractors to be paid promptly, and procedures for claims and disputes

  2. Reference data about petroleum fiscality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This paper explains the different taxes existing in France for the petroleum products (domestic tax on petroleum products, added-value tax), the share of taxes in the retail price, the differences with other European countries, the French Government fiscal receipts and budget. Some information forms are attached to this document and concern: the formation of fuel prices (upstream, refining and transport-distribution margins), the evolution of annual average transport-distribution margins, some reference data about world petroleum markets (supply and demand, prices, market data), and some reference data about the role of oil companies on the petroleum market. (J.S.)

  3. 19 CFR 151.47 - Optional entry of net quantity of petroleum or petroleum products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Optional entry of net quantity of petroleum or petroleum products. 151.47 Section 151.47 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF... Petroleum and Petroleum Products § 151.47 Optional entry of net quantity of petroleum or petroleum products...

  4. Petroleum abundance until when

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appert, O.

    1996-01-01

    The petroleum demand goes on to increase. In front of this demand the non Opec supply increases because of new positive explorations, new technologies and a reduction of exploration-production prices. With 10% of worldwide reserves, OECD insures 30% of worldwide production. With 18% of reserves, the non-Opec world insures 48% of worldwide needs. But a return on Middle East where are 65% of reserves is inescapable but it can be all the more brutal since non Opec world consumes its own resources more quickly. 7 figs

  5. International petroleum statistics report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report is a monthly publication that provides current international oil data. This report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, exports and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world, in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries.

  6. Petroleum supply monthly, March 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-03-30

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics. The tables and figures in the Summary Statistics section of the PSM present a time series of selected petroleum data on a US level. Most time series include preliminary estimates for one month based on the Weekly Petroleum Supply Reporting System; statistics based on the most recent data from the Monthly Petroleum Supply Reporting System (MPSRS); and statistics published in prior issues of the PSM and PSA. The Detailed Statistics tables of the PSM present statistics for the most current month available as well as year-to-date. In most cases, the statistics are presented for several geographic areas -- the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia), five PAD Districts, and 12 Refining Districts. At the US and PAD District level, the total volume and the daily rate of activities are presented. The statistics are developed from monthly survey forms submitted by respondents to the EIA and from data provided from other sources.

  7. International petroleum statistics report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report is a monthly publication that provides current international oil data. This report is published for the use of Members of Congress, Federal agencies, State agencies, industry, and the general public. Publication of this report is in keeping with responsibilities given the Energy Information Administration in Public Law 95-91. The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1995; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1995; and OECD trade from 1985 through 1995.

  8. Canadian petroleum industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dagher, J.H.

    1969-12-01

    This study covers the following Canadian petroleum industry categories: (1) a brief history; (2) the demand for Alberta crude; (3) U.S. oil policies; (4) overseas exploration; (5) the national oil policy; (6) the Montreal pipeline and its targets; (7) a continental oil policy; and (8) the impact of Arctic reserves. It is noted that large potential benefits will improve from the Manhattan navigating the Northwest Passage. Without prejudging the analysis now applied to the information gathered on this voyage, the Manhattan has greatly contributed to the solution of the problem of access to the Arctic islands. The picture for natural gas is less fraught with uncertainties. Unlike oil, where domestic and international considerations may weigh in U.S. policy decision, Canadian natural gas is likely to be allowed to enjoy its full economic potential in bridging the foreseeable U.S. supply gap and, inasmuch as this potential is ultimately tied with that for crude oil markets, the anticipated U.S. needs for Canadian natural gas may be expected to enhance U.S. interest in the overall well-being of the Canadian petroleum industry.

  9. The future petroleum geologist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, R.R.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that in July 1985, AAPG President William L. Fisher appointed a select committee to determine the capabilities that will be required of petroleum geologists in the future. His charge to the committee was based on the profound changes and uncertainties that were beginning to be felt in the industry and would surely affect the employment of geologists and their professional practice. These changes are well known: the supply of oil had exceeded demand, the price of oil was unstable, many companies were threatened by debt and buy-outs, and corporate restructuring was underway to meet changing economic conditions. All contributed to great uncertainty about the need and requirements of geological employment and practice. Specifically, President Fisher charged the committee to distinguish those elements of recent times that are cyclic and those that are long-term in their effects; to characterize the state of the industry for the next 25 years; to predict the capabilities that the future petroleum geologist should posses to meet the challenges of the future; and most importantly, the define the role of AAPG and its commitments to the membership under these changing conditions

  10. Petroleum resources assessment (I)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    This report consists of 2 subjects. 1) Petroleum resources assessment on the western part of the Kunsan Basin: Palynomorphs including spores, pollen and organic-walled microfossils and calcareous microfossils such as ostracods, charophytes and gastropods were studied for the biostratigraphic work of Kachi-1 and IIH-1Xa wells. Based on available well data, the rifting probably began in the Cretaceous time had continued until Paleocene. It is considered that compressional force immediately after rifting event deformed sedimentary sections. During the period of Paleocene to middle Miocene, the sediments were deposited in stable environment without particular tectonic event. 2) Petroliferous basin analysis in Taegu area (II): The Nakdong and Jinju formations contain abundant black shales, and thermal maturity of the organic matter reached at the final stage of dry gas generation. These formations also contain thick sandstones which can act as a petroleum reservoir. However, reservoir quality of the sandstones is poor (porosity: < 5%; permeability: < 0.001 md). In these sandstones, secondary pores such as dissolution pores and micropores can act as a tight gas reservoir. (author). 56 refs., 24 tabs., 68 figs.

  11. Petroleum and natural gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    060,

    1965-02-01

    Substantial increases in demand for Canadian petroleum and natural gas in both domestic and export markets resulted in another good year throughout the main sectors of the industry. In February, production averaged 850,000 bpd, or about 8% more than 1963 output of crude oil and natural gas liquids. Construction began on the first full scale plant for the extraction of oil from the Athabasca bituminous sands. In 1964, exploratory and development drilling in western Canada increased 10% from the previous year. A total of 15.5 million ft was drilled, the largest since the record drilling year of 1956. The main oil field development areas in Alberta were the House Mountain, Deer Mountain and Goose River Fields, and the Bantry-Taber heavy oil region in southeastern Alberta. Oil reserves were increased substantially by waterflood pressure maintenance projects in many of the older oil fields. The largest oil accumulation discovered in 1964 was the Syvia-Honda Field in the Devonian Gilwood sandstone in N.-central Alberta. Two graphs illustrate the crude petroleum in Canada in millions of barrels from 1940 to 1964, and natural gas in Canada in billions of cu ft from 1950 to 1964. The outlook for the industry in 1965 is good.

  12. Facts 2010 - The Norwegian petroleum sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-07-01

    The publication provides a general overview of information regarding the petroleum activities on the Norwegian continental shelf. Content; Foreword; The petroleum sector - Norway's largest industry; Organisation of Norwegian petroleum activity; Government petroleum revenues; Exploration activities; Development and operations; Norwegian gas exports; Decommissioning; Research, technology and industrial development; Environmental considerations in the Norwegian petroleum sector; Petroleum resources; Fields in production; Fields under development; Future developments; Fields where production has ceased; Pipelines and onshore facilities. (AG)

  13. Facts 2010 - The Norwegian petroleum sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-07-01

    The publication provides a general overview of information regarding the petroleum activities on the Norwegian continental shelf. Content; Foreword; The petroleum sector - Norway's largest industry; Organisation of Norwegian petroleum activity; Government petroleum revenues; Exploration activities; Development and operations; Norwegian gas exports; Decommissioning; Research, technology and industrial development; Environmental considerations in the Norwegian petroleum sector; Petroleum resources; Fields in production; Fields under development; Future developments; Fields where production has ceased; Pipelines and onshore facilities. (AG)

  14. Facts 2011 - The Norwegian petroleum sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-07-15

    The publication provides a general overview of information regarding the petroleum activities on the Norwegian continental shelf. Content; Foreword; The petroleum sector - Norway's largest industry; Organisation of Norwegian petroleum activity; Government petroleum revenues; Exploration activities; Development and operations; Norwegian gas exports; Decommissioning; Research, technology and industrial development; Environmental considerations in the Norwegian petroleum sector; Petroleum resources; Fields in production; Fields under development; Future developments; Fields where production has ceased; Pipelines and onshore facilities. (AG)

  15. Petroleum industry assists hurricane relief

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that the petroleum industry is aiding victims of last month's Hurricane Andrew with cash, clothing, food, water, and other supplies. Cash contributions announced as of last week totaled more than $2.7 million for distribution in South Florida and South Louisiana. Petroleum industry employees were collecting relief items such as bottled water and diapers for distribution in those areas

  16. The para-petroleum industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-07-01

    The para-petroleum industry includes societies that realize studies and installations for the deposits exploitation. This document presents the situation of the para-petroleum industry in 2001, the world investment growth of the activity, the french societies financial results and an inventory of the main operations in the amalgamation domain. (A.L.B.)

  17. Petroleum Biotechnology. Developments and Perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vazquez-Duhalt, R.; Quintero-Ramirez, R.

    2004-01-01

    This book deals with the field of petroleum biorefining and biological upgrade of petroleum; it presents a critical review as well as an integrated overview of the potential biochemical processes, bridging the gap between academia and industry. It addresses today's demanding production challenges, taking into account energy efficient and environmentally friendly processes, and also looks at the future possibility of implementing new refinery systems

  18. Petroleum: An energy profile, 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    This report prepared by the Energy Information Administration covers the following topics: petroleum production and end-use sectors; resources and reserves; exploration and production; LPG sources and processing; motor gasoline octane enhancement; constructing pipelines; the strategic petroleum reserve; imports and exports; marketing; district descriptions and maps; and refinery processes and facilities. 33 figs., 7 tabs.

  19. Petroleum marketing monthly, March 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-10

    This report for March 1995, provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly. A glossary is included.

  20. The new challenges of petroleum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gernelle, E.

    2006-02-01

    Petroleum in in the center of our civilization: abundant, easy to use and energy powerful, it is used almost everywhere: transports, lighting, space heating, plastics, fertilizers, cloth industry etc. The 'black-gold' is the object of all stakes, from richness to power. However, petroleum is also at the origin of many evils: pollution, corruption, violence. Today, petroleum is a source of worries: how long will it last? How long will we be able to stand its impacts on environment? This book shades light on all these questions and supplies some concrete elements about this energy source. Content: technological challenges of petroleum; producers: powers and risks; consumers' dependence; to learn more about petroleum. (J.S.)

  1. Petroleum software profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    A profile of twenty-two software packages designed for petroleum exploration and production was provided. Some focussed on the oil and gas engineering industry, and others on mapping systems containing well history files and well data summaries. Still other programs provided accounting systems designed to address the complexities of the oil and gas industry. The software packages reviewed were developed by some of the best-known groups involved in software development for the oil and gas industry, including among others, Geoquest, the Can Tek Group, Applied Terravision Systems Inc., Neotechnology Consultants Ltd., (12) OGCI Software Inc., Oracle Energy, Production Revenue Information Systems Management, Virtual Computing Services Ltd., and geoLogic Systems Ltd

  2. Petroleum and the economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohi, D.R.

    1992-01-01

    In re-examining the effect of energy price shocks on the economy, this article applies several tests to show that the apparent coincidence between price shocks and poor economic performance may be misleading. For example, whereas macroeconomic analysis graphs of employment and GNP clearly indicate an apparent correlation between the 1979 petroleum price hike and economic downturn in the USA, Great Britain and Germany, Japan's performance stayed fairly constant during that period. Additional sectoral analyses of the performances of the western economies show that the impacts of the '74 and '79 oil price shocks were not equally distributed across the different industrial sectors of the various nations. The paper argues that a deeper understanding of the energy-economy relationship is required to reduce these ambiguities

  3. 1992 petroleum software directory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    This book is designed especially for the petroleum industry. Each program listing includes a description of the function, language and memory requirements, operating systems, special accessories required, compatibles and pricing information. A separate section lists the more than 600 companies that produce and sell the programs. Companies are listed alphabetically and include address, phone, fax and telex numbers as well as contact names for each location. Many company listings also include distributors. This book includes information on Accounting/Statistics, Design/Construction/Engineering Graphics, Drilling Engineering and Equipment, Economics/Financial Analysis, Engineering, Exploration, Land and Leasing, Maintenance and Repair/Quality Control/Monitoring, Manufacturing, Maps, Marketing, Pipelines/Shipping/Storage, Production Engineering and Recovery Methods, Synthetic/Alternate Resources and Fuels

  4. Petroleum Business in Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dublin-Green, W. F.

    1997-01-01

    The petroleum industry is vital to the health of the Nigerian economy as it accounts for over 80% of Nigeria's total export earnings and about 70% of total government revenue. Nigeria has an oil reserve base of 21 billion barrels and gas reserve of 120 trillion cubic feet. With natural gas becoming the worlds fastest growing energy resource, the Nigerian Government has put in place a program to grow her oil reserve base to over 25 billion barrels and significantly increase her gas reserves. An earlier commitment made in 1990 to increase Nigeria's oil reserve base from a level of 16 to 20 billion barrels by 1995 was achieved well ahead of time. This success was largely due to financial incentives offered investors. This healthy business climate still prevails. This paper presents the investment opportunities that Nigeria offers genuine investors in both the upstream and downstream sectors of the industry and defines the legal/regulatory requirements for doing business in Nigeria. We try to give an insight into specific government policies that help to create an enabling environment for investors in the upstream and downstream sectors of the petroleum industry. We showcase the 5 (five) major sedimentary basins with enormous oil and gas potential where exploration/exploitation risks are rated medium to low. We focus on the environment and government's efforts to enforce the rules and guidelines that govern the policy termed the Environment, Safety and Standards. We recognize that the business challenges of the third millennium will dictate new alliances and partnerships that will survive and thrive only in a climate that is safe for the investor. This is the business climate we throw open in Nigeria for investors to come in and do business with us

  5. Optimal drawdown patterns for strategic petroleum reserves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuenne, R E; Blankenship, J W; McCoy, P F

    1979-01-01

    An optimization model is described for determining optimal drawdown trajectories for strategic petroleum reserves during an embargo. Development of the model includes the derivation of a GNP response function which relates GNP (used as a measure of social welfare) and crude oil supply reductions. Two alternative forms of this function are used with the model. Simple algorithms are presented which give rapid solutions for the model. The pattern is one of saving some of the reserve to protect against a possible second embargo occurring beforee refill, and of allocating the remainder during the first embargo subperiod so as to equalize monthly marginal benefits. 6 references.

  6. Royal Dutch Petroleum Company annual report 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    The Royal Dutch Petroleum Company has no operations of its own and virtually the whole of its income derives from its 60% interest in the companies known collectively as the Royal Dutch/Shell Group of Companies; the other 40% is owned by the Shell Transport and Trading Company, p.l.c. The company is engaged in the oil, natural gas, chemicals, coal and metals businesses throughout the world. The annual report summarises the year's results and analyses earnings in each industry segment. Financial statements for the year ended 31 December 1992 are presented. The Group companies' estimated net quantities of crude oil, natural gas and coal are given

  7. Petroleum marketing monthly, November 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-09

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed costs of imported crude oil, and the refiner`s acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented.

  8. Petroleum marketing monthly, July 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-07-15

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented.

  9. Petroleum marketing monthly, January 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented.

  10. Petroleum marketing monthly, August 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-10

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented.

  11. Petroleum marketing monthly, February 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-25

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiner`s acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented.

  12. Petroleum marketing monthly, April 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-12

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented.

  13. Petroleum marketing monthly, March 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-03-22

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, education institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiner`s acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented.

  14. Lasers and petroleum in Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    da Costa, G.; Guerri, G.; Calatroni, J. (Universidad Simon Bolivar, Caracas (Venezuela). Lab. de Optica Cuantica)

    1978-06-01

    The viscosity of heavy hydrocarbons is one reason why conventional drilling methods are insufficient for petroleum extraction in Venezuela at a depth of 1000 m. The Quantum Optics Laboratory of Simon Bolivar University in Caracas is conducting a search for novel perforation and heating tools for petroleum extraction. Basic research is being carried out using a 10 MW TEA-CO/sub 2/ laser. The laser is not only a research tool but a matter of national interests, as petroleum is Venezuela's main export article.

  15. Petroleum marketing monthly, August 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-11-07

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners' acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented. 12 figs., 49 tabs.

  16. Petroleum marketing monthly, October 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-07

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase prices, the f.o b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented.

  17. Characterization of the anti tumoral activity of the thiosemicarbazones derived from N(4)-methyl-tolyl-2acetylpyridine And 2-pyridinoformamide and its metal complex: evaluation of the radiopharmaceutical potential; Caracterizacao da atividade antitumoral das tiossemicarbazonas derivadas de N(4)-metil-toluil-2-acetilpiridina e 2-piridinoformamida e seus complexos metalicos: avaliacao do potencial radiofarmaceutico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Paulo Roberto Ornelas da

    2008-07-01

    Thiosemicarbazones have attracted great pharmacological interest because of their biological properties, such as cytotoxic activity against multiple strains of human tumors. The most studied compounds are pyridine-based because of their resemblance to pyridoxal metabolites that attach to co-enzyme B{sub 6}-dependant enzymes. This work aimed the characterization of the anti tumoral effect of N(4)-methyl-tolyl-2-acetylpyridine and 2-pyridinoformamide-derived thiosemicarbazones and the development of a radiopharmaceutical based on a thiosemicarbazone metal complex for positron emission tomography. In the first phase of this study were synthesized twenty-one thiosemicarbazones, derived from N(4)methyl-2 acetylpyridine and 2-pyridine formamide, as well as their metal complexes (Sn, Ga and Cu). Their cytotoxic potential were evaluated against brain and breast tumor cells in vitro. Our results showed all of them presented powerful cytotoxic and antiproliferative activities against glioblastoma multiform and breast adenocarcinoma at very low concentrations (nanomolar range). Morphological alterations characteristic of apoptosis, such as cell shrinkage, chromatin condensation were observed. Copper chloride was used as control and has presented IC50 at millimolar range suggesting that copper complexation with thiosemicarbazone significantly increases (more than 1 million) the anti tumoral effect of this metal. Due to the potent anti tumoral activity of N(4)-methyl-tolyl-2-acetylpyridine derived thiosemicarbazones and the excellent properties of {sup 64}Cu (T{sub 1/2} = 12.7 hours, {beta}{sup +}, {beta}{sup -}, and EC decay), at the second part for this work it was developed a new imaging agent (radiopharmaceutical) for tumor detection by positron emission tomography (PET). The radiopharmaceuticals were produced in the nuclear reactor TRIGA-IPR-R1 from CDTN, via neutron capture reaction {sup 63}Cu (n,{gamma}) {sup 64}Cu, of the copper complex N(4)-ortho-toluyl-2

  18. Facts 2009 - The Norwegian petroleum sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-07-01

    The publication provides a general overview of information regarding the petroleum activities on the Norwegian continental shelf. Contents: Foreword; The petroleum sector; Norwegian resource management; Government petroleum revenues; Exploration activities; Development and operations; Norwegian gas exports; Decommissioning; Research, technology; Environmental considerations; Petroleum resources; Fields in production; Fields under development; Future developments; Fields where production has ceased; Pipelines and onshore facilities. (AG)

  19. Petroleum coke as energy source: an update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinelli, G.

    2008-01-01

    A previous review presented a critical evaluation of the use of petroleum coke as energy source. After some years, with reference to increased petroleum coke production, that paper is revised. In particular, the attention is now focused on world petroleum coke market trends and, in regard to petroleum coke used as fuel, on new Italian environment laws. [it

  20. 21 CFR 178.3710 - Petroleum wax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Petroleum wax. 178.3710 Section 178.3710 Food and... and Production Aids § 178.3710 Petroleum wax. Petroleum wax may be safely used as a component of nonfood articles in contact with food, in accordance with the following conditions: (a) Petroleum wax is a...

  1. Ex-USSR: petroleum activities in 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This paper gives statistical data on economy and petroleum industry in ex-USSR: Primary energy production and consumption (coal, petroleum, natural gas, primary power), petroleum and natural gas reserves, drilling activity, exports and imports of petroleum products, refining capacity. 2 figs., 14 tabs

  2. Logistics aspects of petroleum pipeline operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. J. Pienaar

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper identifies, assesses and describes the logistics aspects of the commercial operation of petroleum pipelines. The nature of petroleum-product supply chains, in which pipelines play a role, is outlined and the types of petroleum pipeline systems are described. An outline is presented of the nature of the logistics activities of petroleum pipeline operations. The reasons for the cost efficiency of petroleum pipeline operations are given. The relative modal service effectiveness of petroleum pipeline transport, based on the most pertinent service performance measures, is offered. The segments in the petroleum-products supply chain where pipelines can play an efficient and effective role are identified.

  3. Panorama of the petroleum industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-02-01

    This document provides tables and charts of statistical data concerning the petroleum industry activity in 2004: supply and demand, prices, consumption, service station number and the market. (A.L.B.)

  4. Gasoline from Kumkol deposit petroleum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadirov, A.N.; Zhizhin, N.I.; Musaeva, Z.G.

    1997-01-01

    Samples of gasoline from petroleum of Kumkol deposit are investigated by chromatographic analysis. It is found, that gasoline is characterizing by increased content of iso-paraffin hydrocarbons. (author)

  5. Dermal uptake of petroleum substances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jakasa, Ivone; Kezic, Sanja; Boogaard, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Petroleum products are complex substances comprising varying amounts of linear and branched alkanes, alkenes, cycloalkanes, and aromatics which may penetrate the skin at different rates. For proper interpretation of toxic hazard data, understanding their percutaneous absorption is of paramount

  6. Petroleum investment conditions in Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Schreck, M.

    1996-01-01

    This report focuses on the current petroleum investment conditions in Peru, and Peru's hydrocarbon potential. Investment conditions are examined, and political risk, internal security, the economic environment, and the legal framework for investment are considered. (UK)

  7. Petroleum and Water Logistics Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-06-19

    petroleum office ( SAPO ). The combatant commander JPO coordinates all agree- ments concerning bulk fuel support between com- ponent commands and HNs. For the...commander of the unified command through the JPO. The uni- fied command may also establish SAPOs at the subunified command level to provide in-country or...gency situations. PWRS are usually stored in theater and are monitored by the appropriate combatant commander JPO/ SAPO . MEF Petroleum War Reserve

  8. Colombian petroleum - A good business

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carta Petrolera

    1998-01-01

    A great interest exists for Colombia, a country in which the statistics of petroleum and gas production, have been shot to volumes record; where 15 new contracts are signed every year, arriving in December from 1997 to an effective figure record of 107, a country that see grow their exports of raw; a country that every time has more facilities of transport and commercialization of hydrocarbons and it receives to more companies interested in sharing the risk in petroleum search

  9. Canadian retail petroleum markets study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ervin, M.J.

    1998-02-01

    A retail petroleum market study was conducted to provide a comprehensive overview of the competitiveness of the downstream petroleum industry in Canada and to set a foundation for effective policy development. The downstream petroleum industry, which includes the petroleum refining and marketing sectors, faces a poor public image, competitive pressures from U.S. and offshore refiners, and a broad range of environmental challenges. In this study, 19 markets representing a wide range of conditions were chosen for a detailed review of outlet economics. A market-by-market and regional comparisons of key competitiveness indicators was made in order to identify market and regional competitive differences as potential issues or opportunities within the industry. The study also included a pump price/margin model and provided a general overview of the retail gasoline sub-sector in terms of infrastructure. A review of prices, margins and demand patterns over the past several years was also undertaken to show the relationship between consumer demand patterns and pump price fluctuations. The study presented 22 findings which led to several conclusions and recommendations regarding the competitiveness of Canada's petroleum marketing sector. Two of the key conclusions were that taxation is a significant factor in the price of retail gasoline (about 50 per cent) and that government intervention into petroleum marketing is likely to be a poor alternative to market-based regulation. 18 tabs., 37 figs

  10. International petroleum statistics report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report is a monthly publication that provides current international data. The report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent 12 months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1996; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1996; and OECD trade from 1986 through 1996.

  11. International petroleum statistics report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, exports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1994; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1994; and OECD trade from 1984 through 1994.

  12. International petroleum statistics report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. Word oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1995; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1995; and OECD trade from 1985 through 1995.

  13. Iran's petroleum industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebneyousef, M.H.; Bogart, A.J.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that during the past several years Iran's potentials have been forgotten or ignored by the outside world mainly due to misconceptions, fears, and political concerns attributed to the religious overtone. The intention of the authors is to introduction to the new realities of regional, as well as global geopolitics and the main political and economic aspects of Iran's huge and growing petroleum industry. The fact of the matter is that in the rapidly changing world order the need for a true stability in the region and a global cooperation has been recognized by Iran. The country, with a population of 60 million, is now preparing itself for the major political and economic role thrust upon the nation by the socio-economic changes in the integrating Europe; the outcome of the Iran-Iraq and the Persian Gulf wars, including the likely instability of the autocratic governments of Arab states of the region; the breakup of the former Soviet Union; and market changes in the Far East

  14. Petroleum product deparaffination process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martynenko, A.G.; Dorodnova, V.S.; Korzhov, Yu.A.

    1980-12-23

    In the process for deparaffination of petroleum products (NP) by treatment of them with carbamide (KA) in the presence of an activator (AK) and solvent with subsequent separation of the forming paraffin-carbamide complex (PKC) the NP is mixed with the AK at a temperature of 5-40/sup 0/ in an NP:AK ratio of 1:0.01-0.03 with subsequent addition of portions of KA at a temperature of 5-20/sup 0/. The advantages of the process in comparison with the known one consists in the fact that the process of complex formation is realized practically without an induction period, and paraffin yield is increased by 27% on the potential with a simultaneous decrease in reagent consumption: KA by 20% and MeOH by 35%. Example -- 100 g of diesel fuel (a 200-360/sup 0/ fraction) is mixed with MeOH (1.3% on the feedstock), which in the obtained mixture is found in a liquid droplet state. To the mixture 40 g KA is added (2/3 of the total amount of KA to be added). The complex formation temperature is held at 35/sup 0/. To the PKC practically forming at once 260 g of solvent (an 85-120/sup 0/ gasoline fraction) and then 20 g KA are added. The temperature is held at 20/sup 0/. The forming suspension of the complex is distinguished by uniformity and the absence of coarse conglomerates. The paraffin yield amounts to 11.8% on the feedstock or 74% on the potential. The melting point of the paraffin is 22/sup 0/. In the described deparaffination scheme according to the proposed process complex formation is carried out in two steps; in a third step the suspension of KA and centrifuged paraffin is separated; the KA is returned to the complex formation reactor, and the centrifuged paraffin --- for solvent regeneration.

  15. Petroleum resources assessment (I)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    This report consists of 2 subjects. 1) Petroleum resources assessment of the Kunsan Basin : Kunsan Basin is mainly filled with Cretaceous and Tertiary clastic sediments, and divided into Southwest Sub-basin, Central Sub-basin and Northeast Sub-basin by uplifts and faults developed in the basin. Microfossils were studied for the biostratigraphic works of drill wells in the Kunsan Basin. The microfossils include organic-walled microfossils such as spores, pollen and nonmarine dinoflagellates and calcareous microfossils such as ostracods, charophytes and gastropods. The fossil assemblages of the Kunsan Basin reveal nonmarine environments ranging from alluvial fan to shallow lacustrine and climatic variation between subtropical and cool temperate temperature in the arid/humid alternating conditions. According to the paleontological data, the Kunsan Basin was initiated in the Early Cretaceous and expanded during Paleogene followed by regional erosion at the closing time of Paleogene on which Neogene sediments have been accumulated. The Paleogene strata show laterally irregular thickness in each Epoch due to migrating depocenter. 2) Petroliferous basin analysis in Hapcheon area (I) : The Cretaceous Gyeongsang Supergroup consists of more than 9 Km sequences of sedimentary and volcanic rocks in Hapcheon-Changyong-Euiryong-Haman area and occupies the middle part of the Milyang subbasin. The Supergroup can be divided into three group; Sindong, Hayang and Yuchon groups in ascending order. Based on rock color, the Sindong Group can be subdivided into Nakdong, Hasandong and Jinju Formations. The Hayang Group can be subdivided into Chilgok, Silla Conglomerate, Haman and Jindong Formations. The Chilgok Formation includes basaltic lava and tuffs in the upper part. The Haman Formation has Kusandong tuff (keybed) in the uppermost part in the Changyong area, whereas the tuff is intercalated below the vocaniclastics in the Haman area. (author). 60 refs., 22 tabs., 61 figs.

  16. The influence of petroleum products on the methane fermentation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choromański, Paweł; Karwowska, Ewa; Łebkowska, Maria

    2016-01-15

    In this study the influence of the petroleum products: diesel fuel and spent engine oil on the sewage sludge digestion process and biogas production efficiency was investigated. Microbiological, chemical and enzymatic analyses were applied in the survey. It was revealed that the influence of the petroleum derivatives on the effectiveness of the methane fermentation of sewage sludge depends on the type of the petroleum product. Diesel fuel did not limit the biogas production and the methane concentration in the biogas, while spent engine oil significantly reduced the process efficacy. The changes in physical-chemical parameters, excluding COD, did not reflect the effect of the tested substances. The negative influence of petroleum products on individual bacterial groups was observed after 7 days of the process, while after 14 days probably some adaptive mechanisms appeared. The dehydrogenase activity assessment was the most relevant parameter to evaluate the effect of petroleum products contamination. Diesel fuel was probably used as a source of carbon and energy in the process, while the toxic influence was observed in case of spent engine oil. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Exports of petroleum products, 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-04-01

    A summary is presented of exports of motor gasoline, middle distillate, aviation turbine fuel, heavy fuel oil, and partially processed oil from Canada for the 1987 calendar year. A discussion of petroleum product imports is included in order to put exports in the context of the overall trade. Exports of the above petroleum products averaged 22,200 m 3 /d in 1987, up 15% from 1986 levels. Exports of middle distillates and aviation fuel had the largest gains in 1987. Export prices for light petroleum products stayed relatively close to USA spot prices. The heavy fuel oil price was below the New York spot price in the beginning of 1987 but remained close for the rest of the year. Canada's petroleum products exports were made to 5 countries while imports came from at least 13 countries. The USA remained Canada's largest trading partner in petroleum products. Exports to Japan and the Far East rose ca 60% over 1986. Product outturns for export were 9% of total Canadian refinery throughput. Exports of aviation turbine fuel from Ontario began in April 1987. The top single exporter in Canada was Irving Oil Ltd. with 2,485,000 m 3 . Irving was also the top exporter in 1986. 11 figs., 4 tabs

  18. Exports of petroleum products, 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-04-01

    A summary is presented of exports of motor gasoline, middle distillate, aviation turbine fuel, heavy fuel oil, and partially processed oil from Canada for the 1989 calendar year. A discussion of petroleum product imports is included in order to put exports in the context of the overall trade. Exports of the above petroleum products averaged 30,400 m 3 /d in 1989, down 5% from 1988 levels. Motor gasoline shipments showed the largest decrease, down 1,500 m 3 to 7,700 m 3 /d. Export prices for light petroleum products stayed relatively close to USA spot prices except in June and July 1989, when attractive prices were obtained for shipments from the prairie provinces. The heavy fuel oil export price was similar to the USA east coast spot price in 1989, except in December. Canada's petroleum products imports in 1989 were 21,600 m 3 /d, compared to 18,400 m 3 /d in 1988. Imports of heavy fuel oil in eastern Canada rose 36% in 1989 because of industries switching from electricity and the high demand for thermal power generation. The USA remained Canada's largest trading partner in petroleum products. The top single exporter in 1989, as in 1988, was Newfoundland Processing, with a volume of 3,484,500 m 3 . 24 figs., 4 tabs

  19. Exports of petroleum products, 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-04-01

    A summary is presented of exports of motor gasoline, middle distillate, aviation turbine fuel, heavy fuel oil, and partially processed oil from Canada for the 1988 calendar year. A discussion of petroleum product imports is included in order to put exports in the context of the overall trade. Exports of the above petroleum products averaged 32,000 m 3 /d in 1988, up 44% from 1987 levels. Each product except aviation fuel registered increases in export volumes, which reached the highest total volume of the decade. The main reason for the large increase was the first full year of production from the export-directed refinery at Come By Chance, Newfoundland. Export prices for light petroleum products stayed relatively close to USA spot prices. The heavy fuel oil price was mostly above the USA east coast spot price during 1988. Attractive prices on the USA east coast resulted in a few cargoes of middle distillate and motor gasoline shipped from British Columbia. Petroleum products imports came from 12 countries; Quebec had the largest volume of imports in 1988. The USA remained Canada's largest trading partner in petroleum products. Western exporters view the Far East as an ongoing important market. The top single exporter in Canada was Newfoundland Processing, with 32% of the total export volume. 12 figs., 3 tabs

  20. The hidden face of the petroleum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laurent, E.

    2006-02-01

    For the first time, a book reveals what that was hidden to the public opinions: why the petroleum crisis of 1973 what only a manipulation, an arrangement between the OPEC and the petroleum companies, why the data concerning the petroleum reserves are wrong and increased by the producers countries, how Washington used the Saudi petroleum weapon to create the Soviet Union fall, and why from march 2001 maps of the Iraq (where were drawn the future petroleum explorations) were working documents for the vice President Cheney and petroleum managers for the ''secret society''. (A.L.B.)

  1. Microbiological evaluation on toxicity amelioration of soil samples contaminated with petroleum-based products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khairuddin Abdul Rahim; Pauline Liew Woan Ying; Ahmad Nazrul Abd Wahid; Shamsiah Abdul Rahman; Mohd Suhaimi Hamzah; Abdul Khalik Wood; Muhamat Omar

    2004-01-01

    Samples of soil materials from oil sludge landfarm in Melaka and petroleum sludge ready for disposal were analysed on their potentially toxic elements and compounds and their microbial population. These were compared against uncontaminated soil samples from agricultural plots and fresh crude petroleum samples obtained from an oil refinery in Kerteh, Terengganu. Enumeration and isolation of culturable microbial populations in the above samples were conducted using standard plate counts and screening methods. Populations of microorganisms from uncontaminated soils were tested on its potential to degrade petroleum derived products on contaminated soil samples and crude petroleum samples in a laboratory experiment. Microorganisms with great potential to degrade petroleum sludge will be further screened in further bioremediation studies in the field. (Author)

  2. Ireland unveils petroleum tax measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that Ireland's government has introduced detailed petroleum tax legislation designed to boost offshore exploration and development. The petroleum tax measures, published last week and included in the government's omnibus finance bill for 1992, will provide Ireland for the first time a comprehensive petroleum tax regime. They include elements which, in tax terms, will make Ireland a most attractive location for oil and gas exploration and development, the Irish Energy Minister Robert Molloy. He the, Exploration companies will now have the benefit of the certainty of a detailed tax framework and attractive tax rates. Debate on the finance bill has begun in the Irish Dail (parliament). Under Ireland's constitution, the budget bill must be approved and signed by the president by the end of May. Failure to approve a budget bill within that time would mean the current government's collapse

  3. Petroleum 1996 - issues and trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    Increasingly, users of the Energy Information Administration`s petroleum data and analytical reports have expressed an interest in a recurring report that takes a broad view of the petroleum sector. What is sought is some perspective on the complex interrelationships that comprise an industry and markets accounting for 40 percent of the energy consumed in the United States and ranging from the drilling rig in the oil field to the pump at the local gasoline station. This report comprehensively examines historical trends, and selectively focuses on major issues and the events they represent. It analyzes different dimensions of the industry and related markets in terms of how they relate to a common theme, in this case, the volatility in petroleum markets.

  4. Biological Remediation of Petroleum Contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhad, Ramesh Chander; Gupta, Rishi

    Large volumes of hazardous wastes are generated in the form of oily sludges and contaminated soils during crude oil transportation and processing. Although many physical, chemical and biological treatment technologies are available for petroleum contaminants petroleum contaminants in soil, biological methods have been considered the most cost-effective. Practical biological remediation methods typically involve direct use of the microbes naturally occurring in the contaminated environment and/or cultured indigenous or modified microorganisms. Environmental and nutritional factors, including the properties of the soil, the chemical structure of the hydrocarbon(s), oxygen, water, nutrient availability, pH, temperature, and contaminant bioavailability, can significantly affect the rate and the extent of hydrocarbon biodegradation hydrocarbon biodegradation by microorganisms in contaminated soils. This chapter concisely discusses the major aspects of bioremediation of petroleum contaminants.

  5. Recent Advances in Petroleum Microbiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hamme, Jonathan D.; Singh, Ajay; Ward, Owen P.

    2003-01-01

    Recent advances in molecular biology have extended our understanding of the metabolic processes related to microbial transformation of petroleum hydrocarbons. The physiological responses of microorganisms to the presence of hydrocarbons, including cell surface alterations and adaptive mechanisms for uptake and efflux of these substrates, have been characterized. New molecular techniques have enhanced our ability to investigate the dynamics of microbial communities in petroleum-impacted ecosystems. By establishing conditions which maximize rates and extents of microbial growth, hydrocarbon access, and transformation, highly accelerated and bioreactor-based petroleum waste degradation processes have been implemented. Biofilters capable of removing and biodegrading volatile petroleum contaminants in air streams with short substrate-microbe contact times (desulfurization processes with biodesulfurization methods through promotion of selective sulfur removal without degradation of associated carbon moieties. However, since microbes require an environment containing some water, a two-phase oil-water system must be established to optimize contact between the microbes and the hydrocarbon, and such an emulsion is not easily created with viscous crude oil. This challenge may be circumvented by application of the technology to more refined gasoline and diesel substrates, where aqueous-hydrocarbon emulsions are more easily generated. Molecular approaches are being used to broaden the substrate specificity and increase the rates and extents of desulfurization. Bacterial processes are being commercialized for removal of H2S and sulfoxides from petrochemical waste streams. Microbes also have potential for use in removal of nitrogen from crude oil leading to reduced nitric oxide emissions provided that technical problems similar to those experienced in biodesulfurization can be solved. Enzymes are being exploited to produce added-value products from petroleum substrates, and

  6. Mutagenicity and chemical characterization of two petroleum distillates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carver, J H; MacGregor, J A; King, R W

    1984-08-01

    To investigate if the Salmonella/microsome assay could reliably screen complex petroleum samples for their carcinogenic potential, two high boiling (700-1070 degrees F) petroleum distillates with known activity in a dermal carcinogenesis bioassay were fully characterized with respect to their hydrocarbon composition and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon (PNA) content and assayed for mutagenic activity. Mutagenicity assays were also carried out on the aromatic hydrocarbon aggregates separated from these oils by adsorption chromatography. The composition of the distillates differed substantially, and reflected the fact that they were derived from crude oils that were extremely divergent in hydrocarbon character. Both the distillate and aromatic samples consistently induced a very slight increase in revertant TA98 and TA100 colonies; however, an increase of 2-4-fold over background was observed when the S-9 concentration was increased 5-10 times that of the standard assay. The maximal response was less than that expected from the samples' known PNA content and observed potency in the dermal carcinogenesis bioassay. In the Salmonella/microsome assay, all samples inhibited the mutagenic activity of added benzo[a]pyrene. Discordance between the magnitude of the samples' mutagenic activity and their known PNA content may be related to direct or indirect inhibition of sample PNAs by other components of the complex petroleum fractions. Observed inhibitory effects support the use of elevated S-9 concentration in the in vitro assays assessing the carcinogenic potential of petroleum-derived materials.

  7. Petroleum industry opportunities in Guatemala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The investment opportunities that Guatemala has to offer in the petroleum sector are discussed, highlighting aspects of legislation as well as investment recovery. The increase in seismic and geological information that Guatemala has recently accumulated allows for an increased level of success in petroleum exploration, which coupled with an increase in basic infrastructure and the experience acquired in the administration of the hydrocarbons law, make it more attractive for foreign investment. An overview is presented of the sedimentary basins present, exploratory activity, surface reconnaissance permits, production sharing contracts, prices, taxation, royalties, and options. 7 figs

  8. The petroleum dilemma of Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roubinski, Y.

    2004-01-01

    Russia is confronted with major choices in the research of an optimum petroleum strategy. Now the first world exporter, Russia takes advantage of the Usa policy, first importer, which aim to diversify their supply sources since the 11 september 2001, to decrease their dependence from the Saudi Arabia and more generally from the instable Middle East. In another hand, Moscow wants to minimize the dependence of the petroleum benefit and the oils prices fluctuations, by a diversification of its economy structure. These choices define a part of the russian policy in the context of the presidential elections of march 2004. (A.L.B.)

  9. Petroleum marketing monthly, September 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-14

    This document designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and for the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented.

  10. Saudi Arabia: petroleum industry review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shammas, Pierre

    2000-01-01

    A comprehensive review is provided of Saudi Arabia's petroleum industry covering oil and gas exploration and production, refining, oil and gas trade, marketing and Saudi overseas investments. Profiles of key Saudi decision makers are provided. A statistical appendix includes data from the start of oil production in Saudi Arabia in 1938. Part I Geological potential; Part II The Saudi energy economy; Part III Production capacity; Part IV The oil refining sector ; Part V Exports and logistics; Part VI Overseas petroleum industry investments; Part VII The decision makers; Part VIII Statistical Appendix; Reserves, Production, Exports, Prices 1950 to 1999. (Author)

  11. Petroleum marketing monthly, June 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-06-10

    This publication is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented.

  12. Towards the end of full-petroleum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The experts agree on the petroleum reserves exhausting. Even if some disagreements subsist on the term, the years 2020 seem to be decisive. This paper takes stock on the governments policy facing the petroleum reserves decrease. (A.L.B.)

  13. Stable isotope mass spectrometry in petroleum exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathur, Manju

    1997-01-01

    The stable isotope mass spectrometry plays an important role to evaluate the stable isotopic composition of hydrocarbons. The isotopic ratios of certain elements in petroleum samples reflect certain characteristics which are useful for petroleum exploration

  14. BIOREMEDIATION OF A PETROLEUM-HYDROCARBON

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ES OBE

    under field conditions in the bioremediation of a petroleum- hydrocarbon polluted ... an accelerated biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in a polluted agricultural soil ..... 12) Jackson, M.L. Soil chemical analysis. ... biological assay. 3 rd.

  15. Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH): ToxFAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a state: This map displays locations where Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH) is known to be present. On ... I get more information? ToxFAQs TM for Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH) ( Hidrocarburos Totales de Petróleo (TPH) ) August ...

  16. Canadian Petroleum Products Inst. annual report, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The Canadian Petroleum Products Institute (CPPI) was created in 1989 as a nonprofit association of Canadian refiners and marketers of petroleum products. In 1991, the Atlantic Petroleum Association, the Quebec Petroleum Association, the Ontario Petroleum Association, the Canada West Petroleum Association, and the Petroleum Association for Conservation of the Canadian Environment (PACE) were integrated into the CPPI. The objective of the CPPI is to serve and represent the refining and marketing sectors of the petroleum industry with respect to environment, health and safety, and business issues. An industry overview is provided, as well as highlights of environmental achievements and challenges, and economics and operations for the year. Lists of CPPI publications, standing committees, and officers are also included. 9 figs

  17. FRACTURED PETROLEUM RESERVOIRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbas Firoozabadi

    1999-06-11

    different from that of gas displacement processes. The work is of experimental nature and clarifies several misconceptions in the literature. Based on experimental results, it is established that the main reason for high efficiency of solution gas drive from heavy oil reservoirs is due to low gas mobility. Chapter III presents the concept of the alteration of porous media wettability from liquid-wetting to intermediate gas-wetting. The idea is novel and has not been introduced in the petroleum literature before. There are significant implications from such as proposal. The most direct application of intermediate gas wetting is wettability alteration around the wellbore. Such an alteration can significantly improve well deliverability in gas condensate reservoirs where gas well deliverability decreases below dewpoint pressure. Part I of Chapter III studies the effect of gravity, viscous forces, interfacial tension, and wettability on the critical condensate saturation and relative permeability of gas condensate systems. A simple phenomenological network model is used for this study, The theoretical results reveal that wettability significantly affects both the critical gas saturation and gas relative permeability. Gas relative permeability may increase ten times as contact angle is altered from 0{sup o} (strongly liquid wet) to 85{sup o} (intermediate gas-wetting). The results from the theoretical study motivated the experimental investigation described in Part II. In Part II we demonstrate that the wettability of porous media can be altered from liquid-wetting to gas-wetting. This part describes our attempt to find appropriate chemicals for wettability alteration of various substrates including rock matrix. Chapter IV provides a comprehensive treatment of molecular, pressure, and thermal diffusion and convection in porous media Basic theoretical analysis is presented using irreversible thermodynamics.

  18. The role of the national petroleum company in petroleum development market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, B J [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-08-01

    The present century started with the creation of national petroleum companies, and it ends with those national petroleum companies exerting various types of efforts to increase the efficiency of their management. Especially, the efforts of these national petroleum companies are ever intensifying to adapt to new trends in the world petroleum market such as intensified competition, ever-deepening price unstableness, separation of structure between upstream and downstream portions, rapid development of petroleum development technologies, change of political systems and the demise of national borders, ever-increasing consciousness of environmental preservation, etc. Korea cannot be exempt from management rationalization efforts of national petroleum companies. Especially, Korea established its own national petroleum company in order to actively deal with these as its supply system is very weak. Therefore, the national petroleum company should create as many successful petroleum development businesses by actively carrying out petroleum development businesses domestically and overseas in order to establish a stable supply system of petroleum and to support the petroleum development businesses of civilian enterprises more effectively. The national petroleum company must, first of all, replace the bureaucracy with entrepreneurship. Esp., in order to enhance the efficiency of management, short- term outcome should not be emphasized over long-term tenure of petroleum development businesses, and excessive interference of government on the national petroleum company should be excluded. The entrepreneurship of the national petroleum company should be pursued in Positive-sum way, and its public image should be actively promoted through this. 35 refs., 11 figs., 32 tabs.

  19. 77 FR 56421 - Standards of Performance for Petroleum Refineries; Standards of Performance for Petroleum...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-12

    ... Parts 9 and 60 Standards of Performance for Petroleum Refineries; Standards of Performance for Petroleum...-9672-3] RIN 2060-AN72 Standards of Performance for Petroleum Refineries; Standards of Performance for Petroleum Refineries for Which Construction, Reconstruction, or Modification Commenced After May 14, 2007...

  20. 46 CFR 148.04-15 - Petroleum coke, uncalcined; petroleum coke, uncalcined and calcined (mixture).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Petroleum coke, uncalcined; petroleum coke, uncalcined and calcined (mixture). 148.04-15 Section 148.04-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Requirements for Certain Material § 148.04-15 Petroleum coke, uncalcined; petroleum coke, uncalcined and...

  1. The United States facing their petroleum dependence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noel, P.

    2002-06-01

    In the framework of ''the energy crisis of 2000-2001'', the Cheney report and the petroleum dependence, this study presents a critical examination of the United States petroleum situation, its perception in the american political milieu and the public policies implementing during the last ten years. The first section is devoted to the petroleum supply. In the second section, the american petroleum policy and the energy safety are studied. (A.L.B.)

  2. Fact sheet. Norwegian petroleum activity 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westgaard, T. [ed.

    1996-02-01

    The present report from the Royal Ministry of Industry and Energy deals with the Norwegian petroleum activity. Main topics are as follow: Historical overview; state organisation of petroleum activities; the economic impact of Norwegian oil and gas; state revenues; mainland activities; petroleum resources; production; marketing situation for petroleum products; environmental aspects; the legal and licence framework; licensing rounds; exploration; fields in production; fields under development; discoveries with development plan under consideration; transportation systems; licence interests; company interests. 36 refs., 24 figs., 15 tabs.

  3. On the Tengiz petroleum deposit previous study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nysangaliev, A.N.; Kuspangaliev, T.K.

    1997-01-01

    Tengiz petroleum deposit previous study is described. Some consideration about structure of productive formation, specific characteristic properties of petroleum-bearing collectors are presented. Recommendation on their detail study and using of experience on exploration and development of petroleum deposit which have analogy on most important geological and industrial parameters are given. (author)

  4. The petroleum industry in 1999 (editorial)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This document deals with the petroleum activity in 1999. It provides three economic analysis. The first one concerns the petroleum industry activity in 1999 and the corresponding french energy policy. The second one presents the petroleum activity in the world. The third one presents the hydrocarbons market supplying in France. (A.L.B.)

  5. 78 FR 40131 - National Petroleum Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY National Petroleum Council AGENCY: Office of Fossil Energy, Department of... Petroleum Council. The Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463, 86 Stat. 770) requires that public... Administrative Matters Discussion of Any Other Business Properly Brought Before the National Petroleum Council...

  6. Unit: Petroleum, Inspection Pack, National Trial Print.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Australian Science Education Project, Toorak, Victoria.

    This is a National Trial Print of a unit on petroleum developed for the Australian Science Education Project. The package contains the teacher's edition of the written material and a script for a film entitled "The Extraordinary Experience of Nicholas Nodwell" emphasizing the uses of petroleum and petroleum products in daily life and…

  7. 77 FR 42297 - National Petroleum Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY National Petroleum Council AGENCY: Department of Energy, Office of Fossil... National Petroleum Council. The Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463, 86 Stat. 770) requires that... Matters Discussion of Any Other Business Properly Brought Before the National Petroleum Council...

  8. 76 FR 53889 - National Petroleum Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY National Petroleum Council AGENCY: Department of Energy, Office of Fossil... Petroleum Council. The Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463, 86 Stat. 770) requires that public... Properly Brought Before the National, Petroleum Council, Adjournment. Public Participation: The meeting is...

  9. Panorama of the petroleum industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-05-01

    This document provides tables and charts of statistical data concerning the petroleum industry activity in 2002: supply and demand, prices, consumption, service station number and the market. A second part is devoted to the fuel quality and air quality: the constant improvement of the fuels and the investments refining/distribution. (A.L.B.)

  10. A Computerized Petroleum Geology Package.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Louise E.

    1983-01-01

    Describes a package of computer programs developed to implement an oil exploration game that gives undergraduate students practical experience in applying theoretical principles of petroleum geology. The programs facilitate management of the game by the instructor and enhance the learning experience. (Author/MBR)

  11. PETROLEUM BIOREFINING FOR POLLUTION PREVENTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John J. Kilbane II

    2002-03-01

    The objective of this project was to isolate and characterize thermophilic bacterial cultures that can be used for the selective removal of nitrogen, sulfur, and/or metals in the biorefining of petroleum. The project was completed on schedule and no major difficulties were encountered. Significant progress was made on multiple topics relevant to the development of a petroleum biorefining process capable of operating at thermophilic temperatures. New cultures capable of selectively cleaving C-N or C-S bonds in molecules relevant to petroleum were obtained, and the genes encoding the enzymes for these unique biochemical reactions were cloned and sequenced. Genetic tools were developed that enable the use of Thermus thermophilus as a host to express any gene of interest, and information was obtained regarding the optimum conditions for the growth of T. thermophilus. The development of a practical biorefining process still requires further research and the future research needs identified in this project include the development of new enzymes and pathways for the selective cleavage of C-N or C-S bonds that have higher specific activities, increased substrate range, and are capable of functioning at thermophilic temperatures. Additionally, there is a need for process engineering research to determine the maximum yield of biomass and cloned gene products that can be obtained in fed-batch cultures using T. thermophilus, and to determine the best configuration for a process employing biocatalysts to treat petroleum.

  12. Volatility Spillovers Across Petroleum Markets

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Baruník, Jozef; Kočenda, Evžen; Vácha, Lukáš

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 36, č. 3 (2015), s. 309-329 ISSN 0195-6574 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-24129S Keywords : Volatility spillovers * Asymmetry * Petroleum markets Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.662, year: 2015 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2014/E/barunik-0438407.pdf

  13. Petroleum business of high risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carta Petrolera

    2001-01-01

    The paper is about the economic risk and of the geologic risk that assist the industry of the petroleum; an analysis of these types of risk, possibilities of success and investments to carry out in the search of hydrocarbons are made

  14. Tumaco the other Petroleum face

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carta Petrolera

    1997-01-01

    The Tumaco City (Colombia), it is one of the exit points of the Colombian and Ecuadorian petroleum. To Tumaco port arrives 80.000 daily barrels coming from the south of Colombia and Ecuador on the average. Tumaco and Covenas (shipment Port for the Caribbean Sea) they conform the points of shipment of the international trade of hydrocarbons in the country

  15. The petroleum industry in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-06-01

    A review is presented of China's petroleum industry. In recent years China has ranked as the world's fifth or sixth largest oil producer, providing ca 20% of China's energy needs and generating US $45 billion in exports during 1988-89. However, domestic oil consumption is rapidly outpacing growth in production, and China may become a net oil importer as early as March 1994 if trends continue. In order to slow declining production rates, China must: introduce modern management techniques, equipment and technology; accelerate exploration to find new reserves; employ the latest equipment and technology, consulting services and foreign training to develop new reserves as quickly as possible; and improve the efficiency with which petroleum is used and traded. Key players including the China National Petroleum Corporation, China National Oil Development Corporation, China National United Oil Company, and China National Offshore Oil Corporation are described. Current Chinese petroleum industry priorities are discussed, together with Canadian capabilities relevant to these activities, and recent bilateral agreements in the sector

  16. Novel nanoporous sorbent for solid-phase extraction in petroleum fingerprinting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alayande, S. Oluwagbemiga; Hlengilizwe, Nyoni; Dare, E. Olugbenga; Msagati, Titus A. M.; Akinlabi, A. Kehinde; Aiyedun, P. O.

    2016-04-01

    Sample preparation is crucial in the analysis of petroleum and its derivatives. In this study, developing affordable sorbent for petroleum fingerprinting analysis using polymer waste such expanded polystyrene was explored. The potential of electrospun expanded polystyrene (EPS) as a sorbent for the solid-phase extraction (SPE) technique was investigated, and its efficiency was compared with commercial cartridges such as alumina, silica and alumina/silica hybrid commercial for petroleum fingerprinting analysis. The chromatograms showed that the packed electrospun EPS fibre demonstrated excellent properties for SPE applications relative to the hybrid cartridges.

  17. Application of Mineral Sorbents for Removal of Petroleum Substances: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Bandura

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Environmental pollution with petroleum products has become a major problem worldwide, and is a consequence of industrial growth. The development of sustainable methods for the removal of petroleum substances and their derivatives from aquatic and terrestrial environments and from air has therefore become extremely important today. Advanced technologies and materials dedicated to this purpose are relatively expensive; sorption methods involving mineral sorbents are therefore popular and are widely described in the scientific literature. Mineral materials are easily available, low-cost, universal adsorbents and have a number of properties that make them suitable for the removal of petroleum substances. This review describes recent works on the use of natural, synthetic and modified mineral adsorbents for the removal of petroleum substances and their derivatives from roads, water and air.

  18. Analysis of an in-line diesel production system through event driven simulation; Avaliacao do esquema de producao em linha de diesel atraves da simulacao por eventos discretos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monteiro, Gilsa P.; Naegeli, Guilherme S.T. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES); Santos, Nilza M.Q. [PETROBRAS S.A., Mataripe, Salvador, BA (Brazil). Refinaria Landulfo Alves (RLAM); Netto, Joaquim D.A. [DNV Energy Solutions, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The interactions between refining processes (such as distillation, hydrotreatment, etc.) and typical transfer and storage operations (mixtures, decantation, storage, etc.) provide a high complexity to the refineries production systems of petroleum derivatives. These production systems are characterized by many aspects, such as: blending rules, feed composition, petroleum campaigns, storage tanks limitations, continuous and batch processes interactions, etc. Besides these operational aspects, the equipment and systems' reliability has strong influence on the level of production goals achievement and petroleum derivatives quality specification. Looking for a higher economic efficiency and in order to provide refineries with orientation about resources optimization for their petroleum derivatives' production systems, the development of a methodology capable of being applied since the design phase to identify systems limitations and improvement opportunities, considering all the raised aspects, is a very important task. With this objective, this article presents the main points of an evaluation that was conducted during the conceptual design for a diesel in-line blending production system proposed by a Brazilian refinery, detailing the main steps of the methodology that was developed through this analysis, based on discrete event simulation. (author)

  19. Migrated hydrocarbons in outcrop samples: revised petroleum exploration directions in the Tarim Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Maowen; Snowdon, Lloyd [Geological Survey of Canada, Calgary, AB (Canada); Xiao, Zhongyao [CNPC Tarim Petroleum Exploration Bureau, Kuerle, Xinjiang (China); Lin, Renzi [Petroleum Univ., Changping, Beijing (China); Wang, Peirong; Hou, Dujie [Jianghan Petroleum Univ., Hubei (China); Zhang, Linye [SINOPEC Shengli Petroleum Bureau, Dongying, Shandong (China); Zhang, Shuichang; Liang, Digang [Research Inst. of Petroleum Exploration and Development, Beijing (China)

    2000-07-01

    The application of age-specific biomarker distributions established from mature exploration areas of the Tarim Basin, northwestern China, indicates that most Carboniferous-Permian outcrop samples in the eastern segment of the Southwest Depression, previously believed to have significant petroleum source potential, in fact contain migrated hydrocarbons derived from Cambrian-Lower Ordovician strata. New geochemical results have led to a major revision of petroleum exploration directions in this area. (Author)

  20. Petroleum Resins: Separation, Character, and Role in Petroleum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Simon Ivar; Speight, James

    2001-01-01

    are precipitated, adsorbents are added to the n-pentane solutions of the resins and oils, by which process the resins are adsorbed and subsequently recovered by the use of a more polar solvent, and the oils remain in solution. The resin fraction plays an important role in the stability of petroleum and prevents...... separation of the asphaltene constituents as a separate phase. Indeed, the absence of the resin fraction (produced by a variety of methods) from the maltenes influences the ability of the de-resined maltenes to accommodate the asphaltenes either in solution or as a stable part of a colloidal system. In spite....... Suggestions are also made regarding current thoughts of the role of these constituents on the structure and stability of petroleum....

  1. Petroleum Supply Monthly, September 1990. [Contains glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whited, D.; Jacobus, P. (eds.)

    1990-11-28

    Data presented in this PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in Primary Supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. 12 figs., 46 tabs.

  2. Petroleum supply monthly, October 1991. [Contains glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-30

    Data presented in this report describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in Primary Supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importer, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data are divided into two sections (1) the Summary Statistics and (2) the Detailed Statistics 14 figs., 56 tabs.

  3. Petroleum supply monthly, October 1990. [Contains Glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-27

    Data presented in this report describes the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in Primary Supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. 12 figs., 54 tabs.

  4. Canadian petroleum industry: 1988 monitoring report. First six months

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The Petroleum Monitoring Agency was established in 1980 to provide the federal government with comprehensive and objective information on and analysis of the financial performance of the petroleum industry in Canada. The Agency publishes a semi-annual and an annual report based on information received directly from all but the smallest oil and gas companies. Data published are mainly aggregate data derived from survey schedules prescribed by regulations. This report presents a summary and highlights of the activities of the first half of 1988. Information is presented on corporate mergers and acquisitions; financial performance by sector (upstream, downstream, foreign) and total operations as seen by net income and cash flow; sources and uses of funds; a comparative performance by the petroleum and other industries as seen by net income and capital expenditures; ownership and control trends; international flows of funds; capital structures; and data related to income taxes. New features added in this report include expansion of the table representing the financial performance and profit margins of the refining/marketing segment to incorporate net income as a component of the analysis; analysis of the industry's use of exploration and investment tax credits; and a chart showing Canadian crude oil acquisition costs vs petroleum product prices. 12 figs., 63 tabs

  5. Heavy metal extraction from produced water in the petroleum industry utilizing vegetal oil derivatives as the extractant; Extracao de metais pesados a partir de aguas produzidas na industria do petroleo utilizando derivados de oleo vegetal como extratante

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santana, Dulcineia de Castro [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica de Goias (CEFET/GO), Goiania (Brazil). Coordenacao de Mineracao], e-mail: dcs@cefetgo.br, e-mail: dcs@eq.ufrn.br; Paulo, Joao Bosco de Araujo [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia. Dept. de Engenharia Quimica], e-mail: jbosco@eq.ufrn.br; Lima, Raquel Franco de Souza [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Exatas e da Terra. Dept. de Geologia], e-mail: raquel@geologia.ufrn.br; Brandao, Paulo Roberto Gomes [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia], e-mail: pbrandao@demin.ufmg.br; Fernandes Junior, Wilaci Eutropio [PETROBRAS, RN/CE (Brazil). Unidade de Negocio de Exploracao e Producao do Rio Grande do Norte e Ceara. Gerencia de Desenvolvimento da Producao], e-mail: wilaci@petrobras.com.br

    2007-12-15

    It is well known today that, although being a renewable resource, potable water could also be finite. In the environmental context, very often due to operational costs, the development of new water recycling techniques become significant when faced with the simple adaptation of effluent treatment before final disposal. Produced water comes from exploration operations and/or the production of oil and gas and is generally treated. Following the treatment, part of the produced water is recycled in secondary re-injection operations or steam generation. The remainder, which is the biggest amount, is expelled into the sea through underwater outlets. Millions of liters of water are expelled per day, containing heavy metals such as lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd) and nickel (Ni) in low concentrations. Some of this volume could be recycled for use in the irrigation of oleaginous cultures after this water has been given a suitable post-treatment. This treatment being specified in agreement with Class 3, of CONAMA Resolution No 357 (Brazil, 2005), which establishes the contents as <0,033 mg/L for Pb, <0,01 mg/L for Cd and <0,025 mg/L for Ni. Liquid-liquid extraction is a well known technology for the recovery of metals in aqueous mediums. This work studies the extraction of Pb, Cd, and Ni from a synthetic solution, using QAV solvent (aviation kerosene); and vegetal oil derivatives as the extractant. It is well known that vegetal oil derivatives have a strong complexation power on metals. A bench test basic investigation was made with the objective of studying the selectivity of coconut oil derivatives in the extraction of metals from synthetic solutions. The determination of the heavy metal concentrations in a complex matrix was made by using the atomic absorption spectrometry technique (AAS). The results of the preliminary experiments were promising. (author)

  6. Environmental protection and petroleum business

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-03-01

    This report is a summary of panel discussion concerning environmental protection and petroleum business. Summarized here are country presentations from Iraq, Malaysia, Saudi Arabia, and Venezuela, comments by two Japanese panelists from petroleum companies, questions, answers, and discussions, and summary by the session moderator. The country presentation centered on pollution problems and environmental protection policies in each country, national policy regarding environmental problems, and comprehensive planning for environmental protection in specific industrial areas. The panelists' reports mainly concerned the legal framework for environmental protection in Japan and the importance of investment for environmental protection. Questions and answers clarified the problems. The moderator, when summarizing the panel discussion, stressed that environmental problems should be addressed on a global level and that early preventive measures should be taken, and also emphasized the polluter pays principle.

  7. Association models for petroleum applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kontogeorgis, Georgios

    2013-01-01

    Thermodynamics plays an important role in many applications in the petroleum industry, both upstream and downstream, ranging from flow assurance, (enhanced) oil recovery and control of chemicals to meet production and environmental regulations. There are many different applications in the oil & gas...... industry, thus thermodynamic data (phase behaviour, densities, speed of sound, etc) are needed to study a very diverse range of compounds in addition to the petroleum ones (CO2, H2S, water, alcohols, glycols, mercaptans, mercury, asphaltenes, waxes, polymers, electrolytes, biofuels, etc) within a very....... Such association models have been, especially over the last 20 years, proved to be very successful in predicting many thermodynamic properties in the oil & gas industry. They have not so far replaced cubic equations of state, but the results obtained by using these models are very impressive in many cases, e...

  8. Types of international petroleum contracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katz, S.B.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on history and development of International Petroleum Contracts. The emphasis in petroleum exploration has steadily shifted away from the domestic oil patch and toward the international arena. Today an estimated 577.3 billion bbl, or approximately 83% of the world's proven oil reserves, lie outside the western hemisphere. The distribution of these proven oil reserves can be broken down into three major socioeconomic categories - developed market economies, centrally planned economies, and developing countries - indicating that fully 76.7% of the world's proven oil reserves occur in developing countries. As multinational oil companies come into contact with the various host countries around the world, their course of action, and the course of the host country's reaction to them, are unfortunately colored by events that proceeded the initial contact

  9. Bolivian petroleum privatization taking shape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    Bolivia is boldly embracing a free market philosophy that extends to liberalization of the country's petroleum sector. Although petroleum industry privatization is being considered by several South American countries, only Argentina has so far completely opened its oil sector and fully privatized its state oil company. The Bolivian government's own version of privatization, capitalization, is a groundbreaking attempt to attract massive investment from the private sector without leaving the government open to accusations of stripping the country's assets for short term electoral gain. The paper discusses the government's strategy to sell the state owned company either as a single unit or to split it into upstream and downstream units. Questions still to be resolved, international interest in the move, bolivian potential, and the gas supply infrastructure are also discussed

  10. Petroleum refining industry in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walls, W.D.

    2010-01-01

    The oil refining industry in China has faced rapid growth in oil imports of increasingly sour grades of crude with which to satisfy growing domestic demand for a slate of lighter and cleaner finished products sold at subsidized prices. At the same time, the world petroleum refining industry has been moving from one that serves primarily local and regional markets to one that serves global markets for finished products, as world refining capacity utilization has increased. Globally, refined product markets are likely to experience continued globalization until refining investments significantly expand capacity in key demand regions. We survey the oil refining industry in China in the context of the world market for heterogeneous crude oils and growing world trade in refined petroleum products. (author)

  11. Petroleum tax and financial decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stensland, G.; Sunnevaag, K.

    1993-03-01

    The work presented in this report focuses on tax motivated financial incentives in the Norwegian petroleum tax system. Of particular concern is the effects of the reserve fund requirement in the Joint Stock Companies Act. Our prime concern is the Norwegian petroleum tax system as applicable from January 1992, but for the sake of comparison, we have also examined the ''old'' Norwegian petroleum tax system. The findings presented in this report can be divided in two parts. Based on an overview over the development in debt and equity for the major part of companies operating on the Norwegian continental shelf it seems reasonable to divide the companies in three groups. The first group is companies which is not in a tax paying position, both ''foreign'' and domestic. These companies seem to use debt as their most important capital source. The second group is Norwegian companies in a tax paying position. These companies also seem to use debt as the most important capital source. The last group is ''foreign'' companies in a tax paying position. This is a group of companies that mainly use equity to finance their investments in the offshore sector. The second part of the report tries to explain these observations. In the report we compare the incentive effects in the new petroleum tax system to the old tax system. The incentives to finance investments with debt is stronger in the new tax system. Several explanations emerge. Firstly, in the old tax system the investor got an effective tax deduction of 12.8% for dividends. This is removed in the new system. Secondly, in the new system 78% tax is included in the financial statements after tax profit calculation and the maximum dividend calculation, while in the old tax system the withholding tax was excluded. 31 refs., 13 figs. 2 tabs

  12. Shell petroleum handbook. [Glossary included

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-01-01

    The present edition has been completely updated and revised, reflecting the very great changes which have come about in the oil industry over the last 18 years, since the last edition appeared. The expressed aim of the Handbook is to combine explanations of the processes of today's petroleum industry, from crude oil exploration to product end-use, with some historical background and explanation of the economic context in which the oil, gas and petrochemical industries operate. It is therefore intended as a technical reference manual, although it will be of interest both to specialists in search of information outside their expertise and to the more general reader. Chapter 3, entitled Exploration and Production, is concerned with structural geology, exploration methods and theory, and reservoir engineering, although the economic and financial aspects of drilling, project management and communication logistics are also considered. Other chapters are devoted to the distribution, consumption and end use of natural gas and NGL, the chemistry of petroleum, the manufacture of oil products, marketing, supply and trading, petrochemicals, synfuels, R and D, environmental conservation, and introduction to the world petroleum industry, and a review of oil and gas in the centrally planned economies, although only the Soviet Union is considered in any detail.

  13. Dermal uptake of petroleum substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakasa, Ivone; Kezic, Sanja; Boogaard, Peter J

    2015-06-01

    Petroleum products are complex substances comprising varying amounts of linear and branched alkanes, alkenes, cycloalkanes, and aromatics which may penetrate the skin at different rates. For proper interpretation of toxic hazard data, understanding their percutaneous absorption is of paramount importance. The extent and significance of dermal absorption of eight petroleum substances, representing different classes of hydrocarbons, was evaluated. Literature data on the steady-state flux and permeability coefficient of these substances were evaluated and compared to those predicted by mathematical models. Reported results spanned over 5-6 orders of magnitude and were largely dependent on experimental conditions in particular on the type of the vehicle used. In general, aromatic hydrocarbons showed higher dermal absorption than more lipophilic aliphatics with similar molecular weight. The results showed high variation and were largely influenced by experimental conditions emphasizing the need of performing the experiments under "in use" scenario. The predictive models overestimated experimental absorption. The overall conclusion is that, based on the observed percutaneous penetration data, dermal exposure to petroleum hydrocarbons, even of aromatics with highest dermal absorption is limited and highly unlikely to be associated with health risks under real use scenarios. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Optimization Models for Petroleum Field Exploitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonsbraaten, Tore Wiig

    1998-12-31

    This thesis presents and discusses various models for optimal development of a petroleum field. The objective of these optimization models is to maximize, under many uncertain parameters, the project`s expected net present value. First, an overview of petroleum field optimization is given from the point of view of operations research. Reservoir equations for a simple reservoir system are derived and discretized and included in optimization models. Linear programming models for optimizing production decisions are discussed and extended to mixed integer programming models where decisions concerning platform, wells and production strategy are optimized. Then, optimal development decisions under uncertain oil prices are discussed. The uncertain oil price is estimated by a finite set of price scenarios with associated probabilities. The problem is one of stochastic mixed integer programming, and the solution approach is to use a scenario and policy aggregation technique developed by Rockafellar and Wets although this technique was developed for continuous variables. Stochastic optimization problems with focus on problems with decision dependent information discoveries are also discussed. A class of ``manageable`` problems is identified and an implicit enumeration algorithm for finding optimal decision policy is proposed. Problems involving uncertain reservoir properties but with a known initial probability distribution over possible reservoir realizations are discussed. Finally, a section on Nash-equilibrium and bargaining in an oil reservoir management game discusses the pool problem arising when two lease owners have access to the same underlying oil reservoir. Because the oil tends to migrate, both lease owners have incentive to drain oil from the competitors part of the reservoir. The discussion is based on a numerical example. 107 refs., 31 figs., 14 tabs.

  15. Nigeria National Petroleum Reserves Asset: Looking Beyond the Niger Delta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obaje, P. N.

    2002-01-01

    Nigeria's current national petroleum reserves asset (proven) put at 28 billion barrels of oil and 150 trillion standard cubic feet of gas derives mainly from the Niger Delta onshore and offshore.However, there are opportunities to tremendously add to this asset from the inland basins. These inland basins have continued to frustrate the efforts of many explorers, principally because of their virginity and far distance from existing infrastructure, and for these reasons, many international companies have turned their focus away from frontier onshore to frontier deep-water and ultra deep-water offshore.Petroleum exploration, particularly in the Sudan and Chad Republics has shown that commercial success can be achieved in our own sector, even if it may take some time to put all the elements together. Some pointers have been found from the successes in the other rifted inland basins and the strategies adopted there have been examined in this paper. Congnizance has also been taken of the relative success of Shell's Kolmani River-1 well (33 billion cubit feet of gas) in the Gongola Basin. The paper went ahead to highlight potential petroleum systems in the different sectors of Nigeria's inland basins.Recommendations have also been put forward, which include amongst others (i) the introduction of a JV arrangement that allows State Governments on the inland basins to participate in the exploration for hydrocarbons in their domains (ii) tie future allocation of offshore blocks to acquisition of at least a block in any of the inland basins (iii) initiate a programme of deep drilling and coring of at least one research well to penetrate the entire sedimentary rock successions in each of the inland basins to facilitate a better understanding of their petroleum geology and benefit future exploration campaigns; to be funded and supervised by the Petroleum Technology Development Fund (PTDF)

  16. Neutron activation analysis for the determination of arsenic and mercury in petroleum and petroleum distillates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Resnizky, Sara M.

    1999-01-01

    A radiochemical separation procedure to determine As and Hg in petroleum and petroleum distillates is described. The procedure uses the formation of HgS to co-precipitate the As and Hg activities produced during the irradiation. (author)

  17. Abundant and cheap petroleum until what date?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    Here is an economic analysis about the petroleum market. With the increasing demand in petroleum and the limited possibilities of supply, it should be obvious to increase the petroleum prices and to make investments in research and development to find new reserves or to increase the production capacities, without these options the demand could exceed the supply and strong tensions could appear in some years. (N.C.)

  18. Petroleum Prices, Taxation and Subsidies in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    The current Indian system of effectively subsidised petroleum product prices has significant implications for the emergence of India as a major global energy consumer, for the integrity of India's Central Government budget and for investment in India's growing oil and petroleum sector. This paper is part one of a broader study that looks at the current system of petroleum pricing and the macroeconomic, microeconomic, regional and global effects of this system.

  19. The three R's of petroleum exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, M.L.

    1992-01-01

    Petroleum exploration comprises a many-faceted activity. It is a complex mix of science and technology, operating in a complex economic and political matrix. In this paper, the authors will review some of the basic aspects of petroleum geology, economics and politics which influence this world-wide activity. The authors hope that such a review may be of some value to some of you, especially in viewing exploration in the context of changing world supplies and demands for petroleum

  20. Petroleum Prices, Taxation and Subsidies in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    The current Indian system of effectively subsidised petroleum product prices has significant implications for the emergence of India as a major global energy consumer, for the integrity of India's Central Government budget and for investment in India's growing oil and petroleum sector. This paper is part one of a broader study that looks at the current system of petroleum pricing and the macroeconomic, microeconomic, regional and global effects of this system.

  1. Petroleum hydrocarbons and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Hong Kong marine sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, G.J.; Richardson, B.J.

    1999-01-01

    A total of 20 surficial sediment samples, obtained from Hong Kong coastal waters, were analysed for petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs) and a suite of 15 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The results indicate that Hong Kong coastal sediments are often seriously polluted with petroleum related hydrocarbons. This is especially so in heavily urbanised or industrialized localities, such as Kowloon Bay (Victoria Harbour), Tsing Yi North and Tolo Harbour. Petroleum hydrocarbon pollutants in marine sediments are believed to be mainly derived from the transportation of oil, shipping activities, spillages, and industrial, stormwater and waste wastewater discharge. The ratio of unresolved complex mixture (UCM) to n-alkanes, carbon preference index (CPI), and n-C 16 values indicate that the main contribution to petroleum hydrocarbon contamination is via oil and its products. Pollutant sources appear to be stable and continuing when compared with previous data. (author)

  2. Effects of the petroleum tax reform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stensland, G.; Sunnevaag, K.; Tennfjord, B.S.

    1992-04-01

    The report evaluates the effects of the petroleum taxation in Norway. In connection with the general reform of the Norwegian industry taxation, changes are proposed in the petroleum tax law. The report gives a survey of the development in the Norwegian petroleum taxation, and analyses the effects of changing the tax revenue both for the Government and for the companies concerned. The effects of incentives caused by changing the taxation are looked upon. In the appendix the depreciation rules in connection with petroleum taxation are discussed. 18 refs., 17 figs

  3. Petroleum supply annual, 1997. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-06-01

    The Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA) contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1997 through annual and monthly surveys. The PSA is divided into two volumes. This first volume contains three sections: Summary Statistics, Detailed Statistics, and Refinery Statistics; each with final annual data. The second volume contains final statistics for each month of 1997, and replaces data previously published in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM). The tables in Volumes 1 and 2 are similarly numbered to facilitate comparison between them. 16 figs., 48 tabs.

  4. Petroleum supply annual 1994. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA) contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1994 through annual and monthly surveys. The PSA is divided into two volumes. This first volume contains four sections: Summary Statistics, Detailed Statistics, Refinery Capacity, and Oxygenate Capacity each with final annual data. The second volume contains final statistics for each month of 1994, and replaces data previously published in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM). The tables in Volumes 1 and 2 are similarly numbered to facilitate comparison between them. Below is a description of each section in Volume 1 of the PSA

  5. Petroleum supply annual 1992: Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA) contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1992 through annual and monthly surveys. The PSA is divided into two volumes. This first volume contains four sections: Summary Statistics, Detailed Statistics, Refinery Capacity and Oxygenate Capacity each with final annual data. The second volume contains final statistics for each month of 1992, and replaces data previously published in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM). The tables in Volumes 1 and 2 are similarly numbered to facilitate comparison between them

  6. Petroleum supply annual, 1997. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-06-01

    The Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA) contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1997 through annual and monthly surveys. The PSA is divided into two volumes. This first volume contains three sections: Summary Statistics, Detailed Statistics, and Refinery Statistics; each with final annual data. The second volume contains final statistics for each month of 1997, and replaces data previously published in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM). The tables in Volumes 1 and 2 are similarly numbered to facilitate comparison between them. 16 figs., 48 tabs

  7. Petroleum formation by Fischer-Tropsch synthesis in plate tectonics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szatmari, P. (Petrobras Research Center, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil))

    1989-08-01

    A somewhat speculative hypothesis of petroleum genesis in the upper lithosphere is proposed, based on Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. This hypothesis is distinct from both the organic (biogenic) model and the inorganic model of hydrocarbon degassing from the Earth's interior. The hypothesis presented in this paper proposes that petroleum liquids form by Fischer-Tropsch synthesis on magnetite and hematite catalysts when carbon dioxide (derived by massive metamorphic or igneous decarbonation of subducted sedimentary carbonates) reacts with hydrogen generated by the serpentinization (in the absence of air) of shallow-mantle lithosphere and ophiolite thrust sheets. Oblique plate movements may favor hydrocarbon formation by creating deep faults that aid fluid flow and serpentinization. The world's richest oil provinces, including those of the Middle East, may be tentatively interpreted to have formed by this mechanism. 8 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Environmental impact of petroleum products in the soil. Part II: Petroleum products composition and key properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zerlia, T.

    2001-01-01

    The fate of petroleum hydrocarbons in the soil depends on the chemical-physic properties of each hydrocarbon, as well as on the soil characteristics. The mean composition of various petroleum products, the key chemical compounds and their characteristics are focused in order to outline the environmental behaviour of petroleum hydrocarbons in the soil [it

  9. Hydrothermal Liquefaction Biocrude Compositions Compared to Petroleum Crude and Shale Oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarvis, Jacqueline M.; Billing, Justin M.; Hallen, Richard T.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Schaub, Tanner M.

    2017-02-17

    We provide a direct and detailed comparison of the chemical composition of petroleum crude oil (from the Gulf of Mexico), shale oil, and three biocrudes (i.e., clean pine, microalgae Chlorella sp., and sewage sludge feedstocks) generated by hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL). Ultrahigh resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) reveals that HTL biocrudes are compositionally more similar to shale oil than petroleum crude oil and that only a few heteroatom classes (e.g., N1, N2, N1O1, and O1) are common to organic sediment- and biomass-derived oils. All HTL biocrudes contain a diverse range of oxygen-containing compounds when compared to either petroleum crude or shale oil. Overall, petroleum crude and shale oil are compositionally dissimilar to HTL oils, and >85% of the elemental compositions identified within the positive-ion electrospray (ESI) mass spectra of the HTL biocrudes were not present in either the petroleum crude or shale oil (>43% for negative-ion ESI). Direct comparison of the heteroatom classes that are common to both organic sedimentand biomass-derived oils shows that HTL biocrudes generally contain species with both smaller core structures and a lower degree of alkylation relative to either the petroleum crude or the shale oil. Three-dimensional plots of carbon number versus molecular double bond equivalents (with observed abundance as the third dimension) for abundant molecular classes reveal the specific relationship of the composition of HTL biocrudes to petroleum and shale oils to inform the possible incorporation of these oils into refinery operations as a partial amendment to conventional petroleum feeds.

  10. Energy use in petroleum refineries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haynes, V.O.

    1976-09-01

    Refining petroleum accounts for about 4 percent of the total energy consumed in the United States and about 15 percent of all industrial consumption. The kinds of energy used and the manner in which energy is used are discussed on a process-by-process basis. Emphasis is placed on existing processes to identify and quantify process and equipment substitutions which might significantly conserve energy. General industry and process information is given and estimates of potential savings are made. A few research and development opportunities are identified and nontechnical factors are discussed. Nearly one-half the energy consumed by refineries is obtained from by-product refinery gas and coke, and about one-third is supplied by natural gas. On a regional basis, refineries were found to vary by a factor of two in the amount of energy used to refine a unit of crude oil. Refineries in regions traditionally abundant in inexpensive natural gas were found to use relatively more natural gas and energy. About 36 percent of the energy used by petroleum refineries is consumed in the distillation units to separate the refinery streams into their basic components. Including energy for manufacturing hydrogen, about 24 percent of the total is used for cracking of the heavier components. Most of the remainder is used for reforming, hydrogen treating, and alkylation, distributed about 11, 17, and 6 percent respectively. Potential energy savings discussed in this report total 61 x 10/sup 13/ Btu/yr based on 1974 capacities, a figure which represents about 20 percent of the energy consumed to refine petroleum.

  11. Surfactants from petroleum paraffin wax

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kassem, T.M.; Hussein, M.H.; El Sayed, A.S.

    Paraffin wax from Egyptian petroleum was purified and then oxidized to fatty acids which were esterified to form their methyl esters, fractionated and then hydrolysed. The obtained fatty acids were converted into the corresponding primary amines which were converted with ethylene oxide to form nonionic surfactants. The prepared primary amines were also converted into tertiary amines and then converted into cationic surfactants through condensation with benzyl chloride or 1-chloromethylnaphthalene. Also, amine oxide surfactants were prepared by oxidation of the tertiary amines with hydrogen peroxide. The surface active properties of all the prepared surfactants were determined, and the effect of their chemical structure on the surfactant properties are discussed in this paper.

  12. India's petroleum privatization gathering speed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    Privatization of India's petroleum industry is seen as inevitable, even by the staunchest supporters of the state owned sector there. What has become clear is that the huge investments required for Indian exploration, refining, and marketing are beyond the scope of even the biggest state owned firms, such as Oil and Natural Gas Commission (ONGC) and Indian Oil Corp. (IOC). A proposal was put forth last fall to offer Bombay High offshore oil fields to leading multinationals for redevelopment to stem the production slide in India's mainstay producing area. Some of those projects could entail capital outlays of as much as $1 billion. In another step to attract foreign investment to the petroleum sector, India last month decided to take steps for phased decontrol of domestic crude oil prices to bring them in line with world market levels and help set the stage for privatization of ONGC. The paper describes major projects, the slide in oil production, price changes, the need for privatization, and the lukewarm interest in exploration

  13. Exports of petroleum products, 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-04-01

    A summary is presented of exports of motor gasoline, middle distillate, aviation turbine fuel, heavy fuel oil, and partially processed oil from Canada for the 1990 calendar year. Exports of the above petroleum products averaged 34,000 m 3 /d in 1990, up 12% from 1989 levels. The increase reflects increased output from the Come By Chance refinery in Newfoundland. Motor gasoline exports increased 35% to 10,500 m 3 /d, reflecting refinery upgrading in eastern Canada. Export prices were generally in line with spot product prices in the USA. Spot prices rose sharply following the Kuwait crisis in August 1990 but fell again in November. The spot price for jet fuel rose more dramatically in that period than for other products, reflecting increased military demand. In winter 1989/90 and during the Kuwait conflict, the export price of heating oil tended to track the USA spot price. Petroleum products imports in 1990 were 18,500 m 3 /d, compared to 21,900 m 3 /d in 1988. Imports were lower partially as a result of higher crude runs in Quebec and a Quebec refinery expansion. Imports of heavy fuel oil in eastern Canada continued to be strong in comparison to the mid-1980s. The top single exporter in 1990, as in 1989, was Newfoundland Processing, with a volume of 4,506,400 m 3 . 13 figs., 5 tabs

  14. Bioremediation of petroleum contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Autry, A.R.; Ellis, G.M.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on bioremediation, which offers a cost-competitive, effective remediation alternative for soil contaminated with petroleum products. These technologies involve using microorganisms to biologically degrade organic constituents in contaminated soil. All bioremediation applications must mitigate various environmental rate limiting factors so that the biodegradation rates for petroleum hydrocarbons are optimized in field-relevant situations. Traditional bioremediation applications include landfarming, bioreactors, and composting. A more recent bioremediation application that has proven successful involves excavation of contaminated soil. The process involves the placement of the soils into a powerscreen, where it is screened to remove rocks and larger debris. The screened soil is then conveyed to a ribbon blender, where it is mixed in batch with nutrient solution containing nitrogen, phosphorus, water, and surfactants. Each mixed soil batch is then placed in a curing pile, where it remains undisturbed for the remainder of the treatment process, during which time biodegradation by naturally occurring microorganisms, utilizing biochemical pathways mediated by enzymes, will occur

  15. Facts 2011 - The Norwegian petroleum sector; Fakta 2011 - norsk petroleumsverksemd

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-07-15

    The publication provides a general overview of information regarding the petroleum activities on the Norwegian continental shelf. Content; Foreword; The petroleum sector - Norway's largest industry; Organisation of Norwegian petroleum activity; Government petroleum revenues; Exploration activities; Development and operations; Norwegian gas exports; Decommissioning; Research, technology and industrial development; Environmental considerations in the Norwegian petroleum sector; Petroleum resources; Fields in production; Fields under development; Future developments; Fields where production has ceased; Pipelines and onshore facilities. (AG)

  16. Facts 2010 - The Norwegian petroleum sector; Fakta 2010 - norsk petroleumsverksemd

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-07-01

    The publication provides a general overview of information regarding the petroleum activities on the Norwegian continental shelf. Content; Foreword; The petroleum sector - Norway's largest industry; Organisation of Norwegian petroleum activity; Government petroleum revenues; Exploration activities; Development and operations; Norwegian gas exports; Decommissioning; Research, technology and industrial development; Environmental considerations in the Norwegian petroleum sector; Petroleum resources; Fields in production; Fields under development; Future developments; Fields where production has ceased; Pipelines and onshore facilities. (AG)

  17. Primary biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in seawater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comber, M.I.H.; Den Haan, K.H.; Djemel, N.; Eadsforth, C.V.; King, D.; Paumen, M.L.; Parkerton, T.; Dmytrasz, B.

    2012-12-15

    This report describes primary biodegradation experiments performed to determine the persistence of higher molecular weight petroleum hydrocarbons in seawater. Results from the biodegradation experiments show that the majority of tested petroleum hydrocarbons have half-lives in seawater less than 60 days.

  18. Petroleum-hydrocarbons biodegradation by Pseudomonas strains ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The capability of these isolates to degrade petroleum was performed by measuring the optical density, colony forming unit counts (CFU/ml) and concentration of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH). Degradation of Isomerate by these isolates was analyzed by gas chromatography with flame ionization detector (FID). Results ...

  19. Metals distribution in Kumkol deposit petroleum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musaeva, Z.G.; Nadirov, A.N.; Ajdarbaev, A.S.

    1997-01-01

    Metals content in samples of Kumkol deposit petroleum is determined by the method of X-ray diffraction and neutron activation analysis. Specific consideration was devoted to nickel and vanadium. It is possible, that sources of these metals are various petroleum formation as well as both the absorbed or the got in stratum microelements. (author)

  20. The Suez Canal and the petroleum harbors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    The Suez Canal is the second longest channel in the world and allows to save 60% of the travel time between the petroleum harbors of the Arabic peninsula and Europe. This short paper gives a summary of the main petroleum harbors activity along the channel from the Red sea to the Mediterranean sea. (J.S.)

  1. Petroleum supply annual 1993. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    This publication contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1993 through annual and monthly surveys. This second volume contains final statistics for each month of 1993.

  2. Petroleum and Political Change in Mexico,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    and exploitation of our petroleum resources." The argument continued that "private entrepreneurs are disposed to work in this area under the control of...membership was designed to jar the non-petroleum export sector into a more competitive posture, thereby incresing exports from that sector and diminishing

  3. Petroleum market instability and enterprise rule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vacca', S.; Citterio, G.; Pesce, P.

    2000-01-01

    Special importance is given to some producer country (Saudi Arabia, Iraq, Kuwait, Iran, United Arab Emirate, Venezuela) that determine the trend of petroleum price. These countries have about the 70% of world petroleum reserves against the 3% of world population [it

  4. French petroleum demand stable since thirteen years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauvot, M.

    2005-01-01

    The French union of petroleum industries (Ufip) has presented a globally satisfactory status of the French petroleum situation. However, the refining capacities are not always well adapted to the evolution of the demand and the production of diesel fuels remains insufficient while France exports gasoline. Short paper. (J.S.)

  5. 77 FR 2714 - National Petroleum Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY National Petroleum Council AGENCY: Office of Fossil Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of Renewal. SUMMARY: Pursuant to Section 14(a)(2)(A) of the Federal Advisory... Services Administration, notice is hereby given that the National Petroleum Council has been renewed for a...

  6. Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    During fiscal year 1992, the reserves generated $473 million in revenues, a $181 million decrease from the fiscal year 1991 revenues, primarily due to significant decreases in oil and natural gas prices. Total costs were $200 million, resulting in net cash flow of $273 million, compared with $454 million in fiscal year 1991. From 1976 through fiscal year 1992, the Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves generated more than $15 billion in revenues and a net operating income after costs of $12.5 billion. In fiscal year 1992, production at the Naval Petroleum Reserves at maximum efficient rates yielded 26 million barrels of crude oil, 119 billion cubic feet of natural gas, and 164 million gallons of natural gas liquids. From April to November 1992, senior managers from the Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves held a series of three workshops in Boulder, Colorado, in order to build a comprehensive Strategic Plan as required by Secretary of Energy Notice 25A-91. Other highlights are presented for the following: Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1--production achievements, crude oil shipments to the strategic petroleum reserve, horizontal drilling, shallow oil zone gas injection project, environment and safety, and vanpool program; Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 2--new management and operating contractor and exploration drilling; Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 3--steamflood; Naval Oil Shale Reserves--protection program; and Tiger Team environmental assessment of the Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming

  7. 75 FR 48320 - National Petroleum Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY National Petroleum Council AGENCY: Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy. ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a meeting of the National Petroleum Council. The Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463, 86 Stat. 770) requires that public...

  8. Microbial dynamics in petroleum oilfields and their relationship with physiological properties of petroleum oil reservoirs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varjani, Sunita J; Gnansounou, Edgard

    2017-12-01

    Petroleum is produced by thermal decay of buried organic material over millions of years. Petroleum oilfield ecosystems represent resource of reduced carbon which favours microbial growth. Therefore, it is obvious that many microorganisms have adapted to harsh environmental conditions of these ecosystems specifically temperature, oxygen availability and pressure. Knowledge of microorganisms present in ecosystems of petroleum oil reservoirs; their physiological and biological properties help in successful exploration of petroleum. Understanding microbiology of petroleum oilfield(s) can be used to enhance oil recovery, as microorganisms in oil reservoirs produce various metabolites viz. gases, acids, solvents, biopolymers and biosurfactants. The aim of this review is to discuss characteristics of petroleum oil reservoirs. This review also provides an updated literature on microbial ecology of these extreme ecosystems including microbial origin as well as various types of microorganisms such as methanogens; iron, nitrate and sulphate reducing bacteria, and fermentative microbes present in petroleum oilfield ecosystems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Large Fleets Lead in Petroleum Reduction (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Proc, H.

    2011-03-01

    Fact sheet describes Clean Cities' National Petroleum Reduction Partnership, an initiative through which large private fleets can receive support from Clean Cities to reduce petroleum consumption.

  10. EVALUATION OF PETROLEUM HYDROCARBONS ELUTION FROM SOIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janina Piekutin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents studies on oil removal from soil by means of water elution with a help of shaking out the contaminants from the soil. The tests were performed on simulated soil samples contaminated with a mixture of petroleum hydrocarbons. The study consisted in recording the time influence and the number of elution cycles to remove contaminants from the soil. The samples were then subject to the determination of petroleum hydrocarbons, aliphatic hydrocarbons, and BTEX compounds (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene. Due to adding various concentrations of petroleum into particular soil samples and applying different shaking times, it was possible to find out the impact of petroleum content and sample shaking duration on the course and possibility of petroleum substances removal by means of elution process.

  11. Petroleum systems of the Upper Magdalena Valley, Colombia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarmiento, L.F.; Rangel, A. [Instituto Colombiano del Petroleo, Bucaramanga (Colombia). ECOPETROL

    2004-03-01

    In the Upper Magdalena Valley, Colombia, four petroleum systems were identified. Two petroleum systems are located in the Girardot sub-basin and the other two in the Neiva sub- basin. Limestones laterally changing to shales of the lower part of the Villeta Gp, deposited during Albian and Turonian marine flooding events, constitutes the main source rocks of the oil families. These rocks contain 1-4% TOC and type II kerogen. The littoral quartz arenites of the Caballos (Albian) and Monserrate (Maastrichtian) Fms. are the main reservoir rocks. Seal rocks are Cretaceous and Paleocene shales. Overburden includes the Cretaceous rocks and the Tertiary molasse deposited simultaneously with development of two opposite verging thrust systems during Cenozoic time. These deformation events were responsible for trap creation. Except for the Villarrica area, where the source rock reached maturity during the Paleocene, generation occurred during Miocene. Two oil families are identified, each in both sub-basins: One derived from a clay-rich source and the second from a carbonate-rich source rock lithofacies of the lower part of Villeta Gp. Geochemical source-rock to oil correlations are demonstrated for the three of the petroleum systems. Up-dip lateral migration distances are relatively short and faults served as vertical migration pathways. A huge amount of oil was probably degraded at surface, as a result of Miocene deformation and erosion. (author)

  12. Petroleum marketing monthly with data for April 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-05

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data on the Petroleum Marketing Monthly. Monthly statistics on purchases of crude oil and sales of petroleum products are presented in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly in five sections: Summary statistics; crude oil prices; prices of petroleum products; volumes of petroleum products; and prime supplier sales volumes of petroleum products for local consumption.

  13. Petroleum marketing monthly, June 1995 with data for March 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-16

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly. Monthly statistics on purchases of crude oil and sales of petroleum products are presented in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly in five sections: Summary Statistics Crude Oil Prices; Prices of Petroleum Products; Volumes of Petroleum Products; and Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Petroleum Products for Local Consumption.

  14. Application of polyester derived from biomass in petroleum asphalt cement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando de Araújo

    Full Text Available Abstract This study evaluated the effects of the incorporation of a new additive to asphalt cement oil (CAP. A polyol product was obtained through the oxypropylation reaction of sugarcane bagasse. This polyol was polymerised with pyromellitic anhydride in order to obtain a polyester (BCP to test its suitability in terms of the material properties to be applied as additives. FTIR spectra of the polymerised material (BCP confirmed the occurrence of chemical modification due to the appearance of a new band at 1750 cm-1, characteristic of ester groups. The TGA data showed that the BCP product had higher thermal stability than the polyol. According to the softening point and elastic recovery tests, the incorporation of 11% and 16% w/w BCP in conventional CAP met the specifications of regulatory standards.

  15. Multispectral fluorometric sensor for real time in-situ detection of marine petroleum spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrews, J.M.; Lieberman, S.H.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a fluorescence based in-situ sensor system for real time monitoring and detection of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminants in the marine environment. The system consists of an array of underwater sensors deployed just below the water surface. The sensors can detect floating product (surface sheen) from below the surface as well as detect emulsified or dissolved phase petroleum in the water column. Data from each of the sensors is transmitted to a central base station computer for display, logging, and analysis. The primary intended use of the system is to protect marine facilities from accidental, petroleum discharges by providing responding authorities with immediate notification of the occurrence of a leak or spill. The detection of petroleum is based upon the fluorescence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons found within petroleum derived products. The sensors utilize broadband ultraviolet excitation from a pulsed xenon lamp to generate fluorescence in contaminated sea water. The intensity of the resulting fluorescence emission is proportional to both the oil concentration in water, and/or the oil film thickness on the water surface. Multispectral fluorescence emission information is used to distinguish between several possible petroleum classes and eliminate false positive interference from non-petroleum based fluorophores such as chlorophyll. Real time qualitative identification yields an important advantage in terms of rapidly resolving questions of spill origin or in determining an appropriate response. To enable long term underwater deployment, the optical energy of the ultraviolet excitation source also serves to prevent the occurrence of biofouling on the surface of the optical window. The results of initial testing in San Diego Harbor and at the Ohmsett wave tank facility in New Jersey demonstrate the system's ability to detect petroleum products under a variety of conditions, including the presence of strong harbor

  16. Petroleum R and D collaboration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerr, R.

    1995-01-01

    Conditions for collaboration in research and development (R and D) were developed based on a decision-tree analysis. A key requirement for effective R and D collaboration was stated to be the company's ability to internalize a significant portion of the benefits. This was seen as the principal factor that determined good collaborators and good industries for collaboration. It was noted that collaboration benefits can also be improved through R and D exchanges in collaborative associations. Simple decision-tree analysis tended to understate the advantages of collaboration. Portfolio risk reduction and inter-project synergies were significant additional advantages. Collaborative R and D was said to be the preferred route for the development of a broad base of petroleum-related technologies. 5 tabs., 2 figs

  17. Phillips Petroleum -- Capitalizing on technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perdue, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    Phillips Petroleum Co., one of the largest international oil companies and the largest producer of natural gas liquids in the US, recently reported that first half 1996 net income was $916 million, up from $224 million for the same period the year before. During the past 5 years, reserves have increased 11% and production by 8%. Exploration expenses are down 32% and production costs per boe are down 24%. Compared to other majors involved in worldwide E and P, Phillips has the second highest 5-year percentage of reserves replacement--117%--and the second lowest finding and development cost/boe--$3.46--in the industry. How did the company do this while decreasing headcount by 5,300? The paper discusses focused growth, paring down assets, E and P projects, research and development, and electronic document management

  18. The southern cone petroleum market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pisani, W.

    1992-01-01

    The Argentine oil sector has been moving strongly toward complete deregulation since 1989. Price controls on byproducts has been lifted, old petroleum contracts became into concessions, and the state oil company, YPF, is under process of privatization. In this context, the international companies scouting for opportunities can find an important menu of potential investments But here remain some problems connected with this deregulation, too. The lack of a reference crude and product market price is one of them. This paper focuses how to overcome this trouble with the establishment of an institutional market for crude and products, not only for Argentina but also for the entire Southern Cone Region (Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Paraguay and Uruguay), inquiring into the benefits of its creation

  19. Studies on extraction of uranium (VI) with petroleum sulfoxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Yanzhao; Sun Sixiu; Bao Borong

    1999-01-01

    The extraction of uranium(VI) with petroleum sulfoxides(PSO) in different diluents is studied. The extraction ability of U(VI) decreases in the following order: benzene, toluene, cyclohexane, heptane, kerosene, carbon tetrachloride and chloroform. The influence of the concentrations of nitric acid, PSO, salting out agent, complexing anion and temperature on the extraction equilibrium is also investigated, and the enthalpy of the extraction reaction is obtained. The relationship between the extraction equilibrium constants K ex and the physical parameters of diluents is derived. The extraction mechanism and equilibrium are examined by measurement of IR spectrophotometry

  20. Treatment of products from petroleum, shale, coal, lignite, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jevanoff, V

    1952-06-20

    An improved process is described for treating with sodium plumbite all the products derived from crude petroleum, bituminous shale, coal, lignite, peat, etc., such as gasoline, solvents, lamp oil, gas oil, fuels, etc; the process being essentially characterized by the fact that it consists first in washing the product to be refined with a soda wash; submitting it to a treatment with sodium plumbite, without addition of sulfur, then to eliminate the sulfur plumbite compounds resulting in the treated product, using either redistillation to eliminate products remaining in the residue or filtration over an absorbing material such as active carbon, decolorizing earths.

  1. Norwegian Petroleum Activity 97. Fact Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This report is the official governmental review of the offshore operations on the Norwegian Continental Shelf in 1996. It covers the following topics: (1) Summary, (2) Historical overview, (3) State organization of petroleum activities, (4) The economic impact of Norwegian oil and gas, (5) State revenues, (6) Mainland activities, (7) Petroleum resources, (8) Production, (9) Marketing situation for petroleum products, (10) Environmental aspects, (11) The legal and license framework, (12) Licensing rounds, (13) Exploration, (14) Fields in production, (15) Fields under development, (16) Discoveries with development plan under consideration, (17) Transportation systems, (18) License interests, (19) Company interests, (20) White papers, (21) Useful postal addresses. 24 figs., 16 tabs.

  2. Petroleum supply annual 1998: Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-06-01

    The ``Petroleum Supply Annual`` (PSA) contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1998 through annual and monthly surveys. The PSA is divided into two volumes. This first volume contains three sections: Summary Statistics, Detailed Statistics, and Refinery Statistics; each with final annual data. The second volume contains final statistics for each month of 1998, and replaces data previously published in the PSA. The tables in Volumes 1 and 2 are similarly numbered to facilitate comparison between them. 16 figs., 59 tabs.

  3. Petroleum supply annual 1998: Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-06-01

    The ''Petroleum Supply Annual'' (PSA) contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1998 through annual and monthly surveys. The PSA is divided into two volumes. This first volume contains three sections: Summary Statistics, Detailed Statistics, and Refinery Statistics; each with final annual data. The second volume contains final statistics for each month of 1998, and replaces data previously published in the PSA. The tables in Volumes 1 and 2 are similarly numbered to facilitate comparison between them. 16 figs., 59 tabs

  4. Saudi Arabia: Petroleum and new economic trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarkis, N.

    1996-01-01

    The new economic trends of Saudi Arabia are detailed in this article. This country can take an important place on the world petroleum market in the future; he has the quarter of world petroleum reserves, and is determined to keep its place of first petroleum exporter. New developments projects are arising: electric power, telecommunications, civil aviation, seawater desalination. In terms of financing, as the state cannot finance all these new projects, new means are used: privatisation, BOT (build-operate-transfer) contracts, and offset programs. (N.C.)

  5. Analysis of soils contaminated with petroleum constituents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Shay, T.A.; Hoddinott, K.

    1994-01-01

    This symposium was held in Atlanta, Georgia on June 24, 1993. The purpose of the symposium was to provide a forum for exchange of information on petroleum contaminated soils. When spilled on the ground, petroleum products can cause massive problems in the environment. In this Special Technical Publication (STP), papers were selected in two categories; the analytical procedures for soil contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons and the behavior of hydrocarbon contaminated soils. Individual papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases

  6. Petroleum marketing monthly, November 1991. [Contains glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-11-07

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners' acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented. 12 figs., 53 tabs.

  7. Petroleum Marketing Monthly, January 1991. [Contains Glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-09

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners' acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented. 12 figs., 55 tabs.

  8. Petroleum and Health Care: Evaluating and Managing Health Care's Vulnerability to Petroleum Supply Shifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednarz, Daniel; Bae, Jaeyong; Pierce, Jessica

    2011-01-01

    Petroleum is used widely in health care—primarily as a transport fuel and feedstock for pharmaceuticals, plastics, and medical supplies—and few substitutes for it are available. This dependence theoretically makes health care vulnerable to petroleum supply shifts, but this vulnerability has not been empirically assessed. We quantify key aspects of petroleum use in health care and explore historical associations between petroleum supply shocks and health care prices. These analyses confirm that petroleum products are intrinsic to modern health care and that petroleum supply shifts can affect health care prices. In anticipation of future supply contractions lasting longer than previous shifts and potentially disrupting health care delivery, we propose an adaptive management approach and outline its application to the example of emergency medical services. PMID:21778473

  9. Taxation of petroleum products: theory and empirical evidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, S.; Mahler, W.

    1995-01-01

    The domestic taxation of petroleum products is an important source of revenue in most countries. However, there is a wide variation of tax rates on petroleum products across countries, which cannot be explained by economic theory alone. This paper surveys different considerations advanced for taxing petroleum and presents petroleum tax rate data in 120countries. (author)

  10. Facts 2009 - The Norwegian petroleum sector; Fakta 2009 - norsk petroleumsverksemd

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-07-01

    The publication provides a general overview of information regarding the petroleum activities on the Norwegian continental shelf. Contents: Foreword; The petroleum sector; Norwegian resource management; Government petroleum revenues; Exploration activities; Development and operations; Norwegian gas exports; Decommissioning; Research, technology; Environmental considerations; Petroleum resources; Fields in production; Fields under development; Future developments; Fields where production has ceased; Pipelines and onshore facilities. (AG)

  11. 21 CFR 172.888 - Synthetic petroleum wax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Synthetic petroleum wax. 172.888 Section 172.888... CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.888 Synthetic petroleum wax. Synthetic petroleum wax may be safely used in or on foods in accordance with the following conditions: (a) Synthetic petroleum wax is a...

  12. Deleterious effects of water-soluble fraction of petroleum, diesel and gasoline on marine pejerrey Odontesthes argentinensis larvae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, Ricardo Vieira [Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Aquicultura, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, Laboratorio de Piscicultura Estuarina e Marinha, CEP 96201-900, Rio Grande, RS (Brazil); Miranda-Filho, Kleber Campos, E-mail: kleber08@gmail.com [Instituto de Oceanografia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, Laboratorio de Piscicultura Estuarina e Marinha, CEP 96210-030, Rio Grande, RS (Brazil); Gusmao, Emeline Pereira; Moreira, Caue Bonucci [Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Aquicultura, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, Laboratorio de Piscicultura Estuarina e Marinha, CEP 96201-900, Rio Grande, RS (Brazil); Romano, Luis Alberto; Sampaio, Luis Andre [Instituto de Oceanografia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, Laboratorio de Piscicultura Estuarina e Marinha, CEP 96210-030, Rio Grande, RS (Brazil)

    2010-04-01

    Accidental discharges and oil spills are frequent around the world. Petroleum-derived hydrocarbons are considered one of the main pollutants of aquatic ecosystem. The importance of petroleum and refined fuels is notorious because today's society depends on them. Researches related to the toxic water-soluble fraction (WSF) of petroleum and derivatives to aquatic biota are scarce. For this reason, deleterious effects of WSF of Brazilian petroleum, automotive diesel and unleaded gasoline to marine pejerrey Odontesthes argentinensis larvae were studied employing toxicity tests and histopathological examination. Each WSF was generated in a laboratory by mixing four parts of seawater with one part of pollutant by approximately 22 h. Larvae were exposed during 96 h to different concentrations of WSF of petroleum, diesel, and gasoline, plus a control. After 96 h of exposure to the different WSFs, three larvae were sampled for histopathological studies. The median lethal concentration after 96 h (LC50) of exposure for WSF of petroleum was equal to 70.68%, it was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than the values for WSF of diesel and gasoline, which were 13.46% and 5.48%, respectively. The histological examination of pejerrey larvae exposed to WSF of petroleum, diesel and gasoline after 96 h revealed a variety of lesions in the larvae. The gills, pseudobranchs and esophagus presented epithelial hyperplasia, and the liver presented dilatation of hepatic sinusoids, hepatocitomegaly, bi-nucleated and nuclear degeneration of hepatocytes, such as pyknotic nuclei. The acute toxicity of diesel and gasoline is at least fivefold higher than Brazilian petroleum. However, all toxicants induced histopathological abnormalities in pejerrey larvae. The results are of importance since much attention has been paid to large visible surfaces of petroleum spills instead of potential toxic effects of dissolved aromatic hydrocarbons, which are more available to marine biota.

  13. Deleterious effects of water-soluble fraction of petroleum, diesel and gasoline on marine pejerrey Odontesthes argentinensis larvae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, Ricardo Vieira; Miranda-Filho, Kleber Campos; Gusmao, Emeline Pereira; Moreira, Caue Bonucci; Romano, Luis Alberto; Sampaio, Luis Andre

    2010-01-01

    Accidental discharges and oil spills are frequent around the world. Petroleum-derived hydrocarbons are considered one of the main pollutants of aquatic ecosystem. The importance of petroleum and refined fuels is notorious because today's society depends on them. Researches related to the toxic water-soluble fraction (WSF) of petroleum and derivatives to aquatic biota are scarce. For this reason, deleterious effects of WSF of Brazilian petroleum, automotive diesel and unleaded gasoline to marine pejerrey Odontesthes argentinensis larvae were studied employing toxicity tests and histopathological examination. Each WSF was generated in a laboratory by mixing four parts of seawater with one part of pollutant by approximately 22 h. Larvae were exposed during 96 h to different concentrations of WSF of petroleum, diesel, and gasoline, plus a control. After 96 h of exposure to the different WSFs, three larvae were sampled for histopathological studies. The median lethal concentration after 96 h (LC50) of exposure for WSF of petroleum was equal to 70.68%, it was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than the values for WSF of diesel and gasoline, which were 13.46% and 5.48%, respectively. The histological examination of pejerrey larvae exposed to WSF of petroleum, diesel and gasoline after 96 h revealed a variety of lesions in the larvae. The gills, pseudobranchs and esophagus presented epithelial hyperplasia, and the liver presented dilatation of hepatic sinusoids, hepatocitomegaly, bi-nucleated and nuclear degeneration of hepatocytes, such as pyknotic nuclei. The acute toxicity of diesel and gasoline is at least fivefold higher than Brazilian petroleum. However, all toxicants induced histopathological abnormalities in pejerrey larvae. The results are of importance since much attention has been paid to large visible surfaces of petroleum spills instead of potential toxic effects of dissolved aromatic hydrocarbons, which are more available to marine biota.

  14. The 1999 MWV petroleum consumption forecast: Petroleum still in the lead in the German energy market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1999-01-01

    Petroleum consumption in Germany has been stagnant over the last few years. Since in 1998 the decline in light heating oil sales was balanced out by an increase in fuel consumption and petroleum sales to the petrochemical industry, total domestic supplies of petroleum products amounted to 127.4 million tonnes and thus remained at last year's level. According to the latest forecast of the Mineraloelwirtschaftsverband e.V., extending to the year 2010, stagnation will continue for some years, but petroleum consumption is expected to then take a clear downward trend and fall off by 11 million tonnes (or 9%) until 2010. (orig./CB) [de

  15. Petroleum supply annual, 1997. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-06-01

    The Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA) contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1997 through monthly surveys. The PSA is divided into two volumes. The first volume contains three sections: Summary Statistics, Detailed Statistics, and Refinery Statistics; each with final annual data. The second volume contains final statistics for each month of 1997, and replaces data previously published in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM). The tables in Volumes 1 and 2 are similarly numbered to facilitate comparison between them. Explanatory Notes, located at the end of this publication, present information describing data collection, sources, estimation methodology, data quality control procedures, modifications to reporting requirements and interpretation of tables. Industry terminology and product definitions are listed alphabetically in the Glossary. 35 tabs

  16. Petroleum supply annual 1996: Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    The Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA) contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1996 through monthly surveys. The PSA is divided into two volumes. The first volume contains three sections: Summary Statistics, Detailed Statistics, and Refinery Capacity; each with final annual data. The second volume contains final statistics for each month of 1996, and replaces data previously published in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM). The tables in Volumes 1 and 2 are similarly numbered to facilitate comparison between them. Explanatory Notes, located at the end of this publication, present information describing data collection, sources, estimation methodology, data quality control procedures, modifications to reporting requirements and interpretation of tables. Industry terminology and product definitions are listed alphabetically in the Glossary. 35 tabs.

  17. Petroleum supply annual, 1997. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-06-01

    The Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA) contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1997 through monthly surveys. The PSA is divided into two volumes. The first volume contains three sections: Summary Statistics, Detailed Statistics, and Refinery Statistics; each with final annual data. The second volume contains final statistics for each month of 1997, and replaces data previously published in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM). The tables in Volumes 1 and 2 are similarly numbered to facilitate comparison between them. Explanatory Notes, located at the end of this publication, present information describing data collection, sources, estimation methodology, data quality control procedures, modifications to reporting requirements and interpretation of tables. Industry terminology and product definitions are listed alphabetically in the Glossary. 35 tabs.

  18. Petroleum supply annual 1998: Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-06-01

    The Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA) contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1998 through monthly surveys. The PSA is divided into two volumes. The first volume contains three sections: Summary Statistics, Detailed Statistics, and Refinery Statistics; each with final annual data. This second volume contains final statistics for each month of 1998, and replaces data previously published in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM). The tables in Volumes 1 and 2 are similarly numbered to facilitate comparison between them. Explanatory Notes, located at the end of this publication, present information describing data collection, sources, estimation methodology, data quality control procedures, modifications to reporting requirements and interpretation of tables. Industry terminology and product definitions are listed alphabetically in the Glossary. 35 tabs.

  19. Petroleum supply annual 1994, Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-06-01

    The Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA) contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1994 through annual and monthly surveys. The PSA is divided into two volumes. This first volume contains four sections: Summary Statistics, Detailed Statistics, Refinery Capacity, and Oxygenate Capacity each with final annual data. The second volume contains final statistics for each month of 1994, and replaces data previously published in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM). The tables in Volumes 1 and 2 are similarly numbered to facilitate comparison between them. Explanatory Notes, located at the end of this publication, present information describing data collection, sources, estimation methodology, data quality control procedures, modifications to reporting requirements and interpretation of tables. Industry terminology and product definitions are listed alphabetically in the Glossary

  20. Petroleum supply annual 1996: Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-06-01

    The Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA) contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1996 through monthly surveys. The PSA is divided into two volumes. The first volume contains three sections: Summary Statistics, Detailed Statistics, and Refinery Capacity; each with final annual data. The second volume contains final statistics for each month of 1996, and replaces data previously published in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM). The tables in Volumes 1 and 2 are similarly numbered to facilitate comparison between them. Explanatory Notes, located at the end of this publication, present information describing data collection, sources, estimation methodology, data quality control procedures, modifications to reporting requirements and interpretation of tables. Industry terminology and product definitions are listed alphabetically in the Glossary. 35 tabs

  1. Petroleum and geopolitics; Petrole et geopolitique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaigneau, P. [Centre d' etudes diplomatiques et strategiques de Paris, 75 (France)

    2004-04-01

    Todays, petroleum companies consider that despite the constant increase of petroleum consumption, petroleum will remain the main energy source for at least 40 years. However, after the Iraq conflict, new regional situations are changing. China, for instance, with its growing up demand, will change the physiognomy of the oil market. In parallel, from Indonesia to Africa, petroleum and religion interfere and explain the new conflict areas. As for the US strategy, which is not limited to the energy paradigm, it largely integrates energy in the main lines of its diplomacy, from the 'Wide Middle East' to the 'Sahel initiative', and in its position with respect to Venezuela.

  2. PETROLEUM-COLLECTING AND DISPERSING CHEMICALS FOR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    Films of petroleum origin reflecting sunlight rays hinder absorption of energy by water necessary for life ... Dispersing chemicals like mechanical clean-up methods have their own place in fighting oil spills. They are ... yellow color, and filtered.

  3. Petroleum supply annual 1995: Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-06-01

    The Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA) contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1995 through monthly surveys. The PSA is divided into two volumes. This first volume contains three sections: Summary Statistics, Detailed Statistics, and selected Refinery Statistics each with final annual data. The second volume contains final statistics for each month of 1995, and replaces data previously published in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM). The tables in Volumes 1 and 2 are similarly numbered to facilitate comparison between them. Explanatory Notes, located at the end of this publication, present information describing data collection, sources, estimation methodology, data quality control procedures, modifications to reporting requirements and interpretation of tables. Industry terminology and product definitions are listed alphabetically in the Glossary

  4. Petroleum supply annual 1998. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-06-01

    The Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA) contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1998 through monthly surveys. The PSA is divided into two volumes. The first volume contains three sections: Summary Statistics, Detailed Statistics, and Refinery Statistics; each with final annual data. This second volume contains final statistics for each month of 1998, and replaces data previously published in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM). The tables in Volumes 1 and 2 are similarly numbered to facilitate comparison between them. Explanatory Notes, located at the end of this publication, present information describing data collection, sources, estimation methodology, data quality control procedures, modifications to reporting requirements and interpretation of tables. Industry terminology and product definitions are listed alphabetically in the Glossary. 35 tabs

  5. Canadian Petroleum Products Inst. annual report, 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Canadian Petroleum Products Institute (CPPI) was created in 1989 as a nonprofit association of Canadian refiners and marketers of petroleum products. The objective of the CPPI is to serve and represent the refining and marketing sectors of the petroleum industry with respect to environment, health and safety, and business issues. CPPI conducts research to develop industry policy on a wide variety of environmental, health, safety and business issues. Key activities include: developing guidelines for the safe handling of petroleum products, establishing environmental policies, managing a national environmental protection network of over 100 centers across Canada; providing information on industry activities to the public; and developing working partnerships with government and public interest groups to address issues of common concern. An overview is provided of industry operations, economics and financial performance, and environmental protection and safety. Lists of CPPI publications, awards, standing committees, and officers are also included. 9 figs

  6. Predicting the environmental fate properties of petroleum hydrocarbon mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pisigan, R.A. Jr.; Tucker, W.A.

    1995-01-01

    The environmental fate and transport of petroleum products for risk assessment can be evaluated based on the physico-chemical properties of an indicator chemical or a surrogate compound, or the whole mixture. A study was conducted to develop a simple representation of the hydrocarbon mixture as if it contained only few constituents, each of which represents a large number of compounds. The products considered are gasoline, diesel fuel, and jet fuel (JP4). Each petroleum hydrocarbon was characterized as a mixture of six constituents: short chain alkanes, long chain alkanes, short chain cycloalkanes and alkenes, long chain cycloalkanes and alkenes, BTEX, and other aromatics. The carbon number used as a cut-off between short and long chain alkanes, alkenes, and cycloalkanes varies with the type of product. Each mixture has different average molecular weight, water solubility, vapor pressure, organic carbon partition coefficient, and air diffusivity. The properties of each constituent of gasoline were derived from the weighted average of all compounds belonging to each constituent group. For diesel fuel and JP4, the properties of each constituent were generated from the properties of the component most representative of the group. Any property that is missing or not available from common literature sources was derived from regression equations developed from the data base for gasoline. These regression equations express the property as function of the number of carbon atoms. The R 2 values of the regression equations range from 0.82--0.92. Some case studies involving petroleum product contamination in which the estimated properties were applied are presented

  7. PETRORISK: a risk assessment framework for petroleum substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redman, Aaron D; Parkerton, Thomas F; Comber, Mike H I; Paumen, Miriam Leon; Eadsforth, Charles V; Dmytrasz, Bhodan; King, Duncan; Warren, Christopher S; den Haan, Klaas; Djemel, Nadia

    2014-07-01

    PETRORISK is a modeling framework used to evaluate environmental risk of petroleum substances and human exposure through these routes due to emissions under typical use conditions as required by the European regulation for the Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH). Petroleum substances are often complex substances comprised of hundreds to thousands of individual hydrocarbons. The physicochemical, fate, and effects properties of the individual constituents within a petroleum substance can vary over several orders of magnitude, complicating risk assessment. PETRORISK combines the risk assessment strategies used on single chemicals with the hydrocarbon block approach to model complex substances. Blocks are usually defined by available analytical characterization data on substances that are expressed in terms of mass fractions for different structural chemical classes that are specified as a function of C number or boiling point range. The physicochemical and degradation properties of the blocks are determined by the properties of representative constituents in that block. Emissions and predicted exposure concentrations (PEC) are then modeled using mass-weighted individual representative constituents. Overall risk for various environmental compartments at the regional and local level is evaluated by comparing the PECs for individual representative constituents to corresponding predicted no-effect concentrations (PNEC) derived using the Target Lipid Model. Risks to human health are evaluated using the overall predicted human dose resulting from multimedia environmental exposure to a substance-specific derived no-effect level (DNEL). A case study is provided to illustrate how this modeling approach has been applied to assess the risks of kerosene manufacture and use as a fuel. © 2014 SETAC.

  8. Generation and characterization of diesel engine combustion emissions from petroleum diesel and soybean biodiesel fuels and application for inhalation exposure studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biodiesel made from the transesterification of plant- and anmal-derived oils is an important alternative fuel source for diesel engines. Although numerous studies have reported health effects associated with petroleum diesel emissions, information on biodiesel emissions are more ...

  9. Petroleum development offers way out of poverty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mollet, P.

    1996-01-01

    The North African states of Algeria, Libya, Tunisia and Egypt are starting to explore the possibility of fuelling their economic development using their petroleum reserves which have not, as yet, been exploited. Poverty and Islamic extremism is widespread, leading to political difficulties domestically and a reluctance on the part of international oil companies to reinvest in the region. Despite these problems, growth in the local petroleum industry may yet offer a path to economic growth. (UK)

  10. Environment 2002. The Norwegian petroleum sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    The Ministry of Petroleum and Energy produces an annual environmental review in cooperation with the Norwegian Petroleum Directorate. The purpose of this publication is threefold: (1) to increase knowledge about the environmental aspects of Norwegian oil and gas activities, (2) to take a more detailed look at a specific topic which particularly concerns both the industry and the authorities, and identify the challenges and options faced, (3) to emphasise the governments goal of ensuring that Norway reconciles its role as a large energy producer with a pioneering position on environmental issues. This year's edition focuses on the topic of ''oil and fish - common sea''. Both the petroleum and fishing industries depend on the waters off Norway. Ever since petroleum activities began on the Norwegian continental shelf more than 30 years ago, the authorities have been keen to ensure that these two sectors can work in the same sea areas. What challenges and opportunities face the petroleum industry over discharges to the sea and living marine resources? How can the authorities ensure that this sector is able to coexist with the fisheries? These and similar questions about the relationship between the petroleum and fishing industries in their shared seas are covered in section two of this publication. Environment 2002 also incorporates a factual section, which covers the status of emissions/discharges, environmental impacts and measures to reduce discharges to the sea and emissions to the air from petroleum activities. The MPE hopes that a publication of this kind can enhance basic knowledge about petroleum activities and environmental issues.

  11. Guam Transportation Petroleum-Use Reduction Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, C.

    2013-04-01

    The island of Guam has set a goal to reduce petroleum use 20% by 2020. Because transportation is responsible for one-third of on-island petroleum use, the Guam Energy Task Force (GETF), a collaboration between the U.S. Department of Energy and numerous Guam-based agencies and organizations, devised a specific plan by which to meet the 20% goal within the transportation sector. This report lays out GETF's plan.

  12. The petroleum economy of the Congo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gualbert-Brice Massengo, Ph.D.

    2005-01-01

    The author aims to explain the petroleum phenomena in Congo as a contribution to the truth. The Congo petroleum experience can be seen as a lesson for the next generations and for the other african countries. The Congo Brazzaville, a little country by its population and well equipped in natural and human resources, is become meanwhile a non security area for its inhabitants because of a decreasing economy and a continuous political crisis. (A.L.B.)

  13. Rare and expensive petroleum: impact on careers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, E.; Krasowski, T.; Kerdraon, Y.; Drevet, R.; Andreis, D.; Pouille, J.P.; Villoslada Prado, P.; Sigaud, J.B.

    2006-01-01

    Oil peak, reserves depletion, greenhouse effect, pollution, uncertain future and international insecurity could be negative arguments to discourage candidates to start up a career in the petroleum industry. This press kit presents testimonies of young professionals who explain their motivations for committing themselves in this way. Testimonies are chosen in various domains of the petroleum industry: geophysics, exploration, processes, refining, and engines technology. (J.S.)

  14. Environment 2002. The Norwegian petroleum sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The Ministry of Petroleum and Energy produces an annual environmental review in cooperation with the Norwegian Petroleum Directorate. The purpose of this publication is threefold: (1) to increase knowledge about the environmental aspects of Norwegian oil and gas activities, (2) to take a more detailed look at a specific topic which particularly concerns both the industry and the authorities, and identify the challenges and options faced, (3) to emphasise the governments goal of ensuring that Norway reconciles its role as a large energy producer with a pioneering position on environmental issues. This year's edition focuses on the topic of ''oil and fish - common sea''. Both the petroleum and fishing industries depend on the waters off Norway. Ever since petroleum activities began on the Norwegian continental shelf more than 30 years ago, the authorities have been keen to ensure that these two sectors can work in the same sea areas. What challenges and opportunities face the petroleum industry over discharges to the sea and living marine resources? How can the authorities ensure that this sector is able to coexist with the fisheries? These and similar questions about the relationship between the petroleum and fishing industries in their shared seas are covered in section two of this publication. Environment 2002 also incorporates a factual section, which covers the status of emissions/discharges, environmental impacts and measures to reduce discharges to the sea and emissions to the air from petroleum activities. The MPE hopes that a publication of this kind can enhance basic knowledge about petroleum activities and environmental issues

  15. Natural analogs in the petroleum industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, J.R.

    1995-01-01

    This article describes the use of natural analogues in petroleum exploration and includes numerous geologic model descriptions which have historically been used in the prediction of geometries and location of oil and gas accumulations. These geologic models have been passed down to and used by succeeding generations of petroleum geologists. Some examples of these geologic models include the Allan fault-plane model, porosity prediction, basin modelling, prediction of basin compartmentalization, and diagenesis

  16. Ideas: the column of: about the petroleum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sachs, J.D.

    2004-01-01

    Two energy problems will modify the economical and geopolitical future the next ten years: the petroleum supply insecurity from the Middle East and the climatic change. In this context the energy future depends on many solutions: the exploration and the development of new petroleum sources (without the Middle East), a better energy efficiency, the development of renewable energies sources and the use of fossil fuels respectful of the environment. (A.L.B.)

  17. Petroleum as a raw material resource for sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egorov, O.I.

    1996-01-01

    Author notes that for economic and social region development it is necessary has been created large petroleum chemical plants near by Atyrau city (initial raw material - Tengiz, Korolev and other petroleum deposits of this region) and Aktau (Mangistau and Bazuchin petroleum). Realization of projects for structure changes of petroleum and gas region demands a great investments. It is noted that growing scales of petroleum and gas resources mastering calls already a considerable environmental complications because of Caspian Sea's level marking rise

  18. Petroleum industry of Korea seen from industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, H.P. [SK Co, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-05-01

    The domestic petroleum industry faced with outward opening and exchange crisis is put under the most difficult period so far, and costs reduction and securing international competitive power in software field are emerging as important assignments on which the life and death of national key industries depends not only as a restructuring issue of each petroleum company. Required strategy of petroleum industry to solve this effectively this year must be the thorough revamping through restructuring and reform of management standards not the survival exercise through price competition. For this, each petroleum company and distributor should open a new petroleum industry in which fair rules of the game are developed as well as costs reduction through joint efforts and value creation in overall industry. For this, government should support the domestic petroleum industry to stand up straight as a keeper of domestic energy industry by helping it to arm with international competitive power within a short period of time through overall needed system and legal scheme. It is because nobody can deny that energy industry is the key industry on which national existence is at stake.

  19. Petroleum industry: Development strategies to year 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curcio, E.

    1993-01-01

    During the last two years, the petroleum industry has undergone a period of modest demand increase on the international market, normal consumption rates by consuming countries and, faced with a growing supply base, a progressive per barrel unit price depreciation. In the refinery sector, margins have been reduced due to strong petroleum products price reductions. New anti-pollution laws have necessitated substantial investment in the development of cleaner fuels and pollution control technologies. The reorganization of the former USSR petroleum and gas sector should give rise to technology transfer opportunities for Western nations and spur gradual production increases especially in natural gas. Petroleum and gas demand increases are expected due to the modernization of China's industries. While it is clear that for the next decade their won't be any shortages in supply, forecasting petroleum prices to the year 2000 will remain clouded with uncertainty until such time as the national European petroleum industries decide to go ahead with their long awaited privatization and adjustments are made to current government and private sector energy strategies

  20. Risk behavior in petroleum exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose, P.R.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, the author uses the term risk aversion, which weighs the magnitude of investment against four factors: size of available budget, potential gain, potential loss, and probabilities of each outcome. Modern petroleum exploration consists of a series of investment decisions on whether to acquire additional technical data (geological, geophysical, engineering, drilling, or economic) and/or additional mineral interests. Each decision should allow a progressively clearer perception of project risk versus reward and should support timely management action concerning the inferred accumulation. Companies searching for oil and natural gas make hundreds of such exploration decisions each year. So the problem in serial exploration decision making is twofold: to be consistent in the way we deal with risk and uncertainty and to perceive risk and uncertainty accurately and reduce them where possible. Risk aversion is not just a hypothetical nuisance. It causes explorationists to make inconsistent investment decisions, and it costs exploration companies millions of dollars annually in lost opportunities, bad choices, and wasted investment dollars

  1. Analysis of foreign petroleum contracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moran, S.S.

    1991-01-01

    Most foreign exploration and production contracts are of two basic types: Production-Sharing contracts in which a portion of oil revenues, 'cost oil,' is available to the contractor for recoupment of exploration and production costs with the remainder, 'profit oil,' being shared according to an agreed-upon formula, and the familiar Tax-Royalty contract in which a share of petroleum revenues goes to the host country 'off the top' as royalties, and operating profits are taxed at the going rate. Bottom line splits of profits between host governments and contractors, which are approximately 50-50 in the United States, are typically in the 60-40 to 85-15 range elsewhere, with lower profit shares being offset by the higher volume potential and lower costs that may be associated with less mature exploration areas. Foreign contract qualities can be grossly compared by walking typical field models through the contracts to arrive at the bottom line profit splits. Variations within the contract forms include government participation, sliding scale contract elements, special taxes related to rates of return, etc. Often, contract terms are subject to negotiation and the tradeoffs between contract elements must be understood. Contract life, amortization schedules, fund repatriation, currency exchange rates, and the interaction of foreign and United States tax regimens are among the other factors that must be considered. Final decisions on foreign ventures must combine consideration of contracts, economic projections, hydrocarbon volumes, exploration cost estimates, and the estimated probability of success into an overall project assessment

  2. Evaluation of the chemical modifications in petroleum asphalt cement with the addition of polypropylene; Avaliacao das modificacoes quimicas no cimento asfaltico de petroleo com a adicao de polipropileno

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcondes, C.P.; Sales, M.J.A.; Resck, I.S., E-mail: mjsales@unb.b [Universidade de Brasilia (LabPol/UnB), DF (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. Lab. de Pesquisa em Polimeros; Farias, M.M.; Souza, M.V.R. [Universidade de Brasilia (UnB), DF (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Civil e Ambiental

    2010-07-01

    Studies show that the common distress mode in the Brazilian highway network are fatigue cracks and plastic deformation, which are associated with the type of material used in the pavement layers, structural project, excessive traffic load and weathering. To minimize these defects, research on modifiers such as polymers, added to asphalt binders have been developed to provide physical, chemical and rheological improvement. This paper investigates chemical modifications of the binders with the addition of PP by FTIR, NMR and DSC. FTIR spectra of pure and modified binder showed no differences in absorption. NMR analysis showed no strong chemical bonds between the binder and PP. DSC curve of PP showed a melting temperature of 160 deg C ({Delta}H = 94J/g) and the pure binder presented an endothermic transition between 20 and 40 deg C ({Delta}H = 2J/g). In the DSC curves of mixtures, these transitions are not significant, indicating possible interactions between asphalt binder and PP. (author)

  3. Soybean-derived biofuels and home heating fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushrush, George W; Wynne, James H; Willauer, Heather D; Lloyd, Christopher L

    2006-01-01

    It is environmentally enticing to consider replacing or blending petroleum derived heating fuels with biofuels for many reasons. Major considerations include the soaring worldwide price of petroleum products, especially home heating oil, the toxicity of the petroleum-derived fuels and the environmental damage that leaking petroleum tanks afford. For these reasons, it has been suggested that domestic renewable energy sources be considered as replacements, or at the least, as blending stocks for home heating fuels. If recycled soy restaurant cooking oils could be employed for this purpose, this would represent an environmental advantage. Renewable plant sources of energy tend to be less toxic than their petroleum counterparts. This is an important consideration when tank leakage occurs. Home fuel oil storage tanks practically always contain some bottom water. This water environment has a pH value that factors into heating fuel stability. Therefore, the question is: would the biofuel help or exacerbate fuel stability and furnace maintenance issues?

  4. Estimating the capability of microalgae to physiological acclimatization and genetic adaptation to petroleum and diesel oil contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero-Lopez, Julia; Lopez-Rodas, Victoria [Genetica, Facultad de Veterinaria, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Avda. Puerta de Hierro s/n, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Costas, Eduardo, E-mail: ecostas@vet.ucm.es [Genetica, Facultad de Veterinaria, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Avda. Puerta de Hierro s/n, E-28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Microalgae are able to physiological acclimatization low doses of petroleum and diesel oil. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer When petroleum or oil concentration exceeds these limits, survival depend of rare mutations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Petroleum-resistant and diesel oil mutants occur spontaneously prior to oil exposure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer After 300 generations of artificial selection resistant strains were obtained. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cyanobacteria has more difficulties to achieve petroleum resistance than Chlorophyta. - Abstract: There is increasing scientific interest in how phytoplankton reacts to petroleum contamination, since crude oil and its derivatives are generating extensive contamination of aquatic environments. However, toxic effects of short-term petroleum exposure are more widely known than the adaptation of phytoplankton to long-term petroleum exposure. An analysis of short-term and long-term effects of petroleum exposure was done using experimental populations of freshwater (Scenedesmus intermedius and Microcystis aeruginosa) and marine (Dunaliella tertiolecta) microalgae isolated from pristine sites without crude oil product contamination. These strains were exposed to increased levels of petroleum and diesel oil. Short-term exposure to petroleum or diesel oil revealed a rapid inhibition of photosynthetic performance and cell proliferation in freshwater and marine phytoplankton species. A broad degree of inter-specific variation in lethal contamination level was observed. When different strains were exposed to petroleum or diesel oil over the long-term, the cultures showed massive destruction of the sensitive cells. Nonetheless, after further incubation, some cultures were able to grow again due to cells that were resistant to the toxins. By means of a fluctuation analysis, discrimination between cells that had become resistant due to physiological acclimatization and resistant

  5. Estimating the capability of microalgae to physiological acclimatization and genetic adaptation to petroleum and diesel oil contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero-Lopez, Julia; Lopez-Rodas, Victoria; Costas, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Microalgae are able to physiological acclimatization low doses of petroleum and diesel oil. ► When petroleum or oil concentration exceeds these limits, survival depend of rare mutations. ► Petroleum-resistant and diesel oil mutants occur spontaneously prior to oil exposure. ► After 300 generations of artificial selection resistant strains were obtained. ► Cyanobacteria has more difficulties to achieve petroleum resistance than Chlorophyta. - Abstract: There is increasing scientific interest in how phytoplankton reacts to petroleum contamination, since crude oil and its derivatives are generating extensive contamination of aquatic environments. However, toxic effects of short-term petroleum exposure are more widely known than the adaptation of phytoplankton to long-term petroleum exposure. An analysis of short-term and long-term effects of petroleum exposure was done using experimental populations of freshwater (Scenedesmus intermedius and Microcystis aeruginosa) and marine (Dunaliella tertiolecta) microalgae isolated from pristine sites without crude oil product contamination. These strains were exposed to increased levels of petroleum and diesel oil. Short-term exposure to petroleum or diesel oil revealed a rapid inhibition of photosynthetic performance and cell proliferation in freshwater and marine phytoplankton species. A broad degree of inter-specific variation in lethal contamination level was observed. When different strains were exposed to petroleum or diesel oil over the long-term, the cultures showed massive destruction of the sensitive cells. Nonetheless, after further incubation, some cultures were able to grow again due to cells that were resistant to the toxins. By means of a fluctuation analysis, discrimination between cells that had become resistant due to physiological acclimatization and resistant cells arising from rare spontaneous mutations was accomplished. In addition, an analysis was done as to the maximum capacity of

  6. Types of Refined Petroleum Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    These are derived from crude oils through processes such as catalytic cracking and fractional distillation. Examples described here are gasoline, kerosene, no. 2 fuel oil, no. 4 fuel oil, no. 5 fuel oil, no. 6 fuel oil, and lubricating oil.

  7. High paraffin Kumkol petroleum processing under fuel and lubricant petroleum scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadirov, N.K.; Konaev, Eh.N.

    1997-01-01

    Technological opportunity of high paraffin Kumkol petroleum processing under the fuel and lubricant scheme with production of lubricant materials in short supply, combustible materials and technical paraffin is shown. Mini petroleum block putting into operation on Kumkol deposit is reasonable economically and raises profitableness of hydrocarbon raw material production. (author)

  8. Facts 2006. The Norwegian petroleum sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dokka, Ane; Midttun, Oeyvind

    2006-01-01

    The petroleum sector is extremely important to Norway. The industry is responsible for one fourth of all value creation in the country and more than one fourth of the state's revenues. It is currently Norway's largest industry, and the spillover effects to other industries are substantial. Norway ranks as the world's third largest exporter of oil and the eighth largest oil producer. Less than one third of the estimated petroleum reserves Norway has have been produced. The level of activity on the Norwegian continental shelf was very high in 2005. The number of producing fields was 50, and these fields produced 3 million barrels of oil (including NGL and condensate) per day and 85 billion standard cubic metres (scm) gas, for a total production saleable petroleum of 257 million scm of oil equivalents. Resource management is conducted through the models of cooperation and competition. Annual licensing rounds are held by the authorities where companies are given access to new exploration areas. The interest in the 19th licensing round in 2005 was considerable, indicating a continuous high interest in the Norwegian continental shelf. The Norwegian Petroleum Directorate estimates for the future a gradual increase in the petroleum production up until 2011, and a gradual fall thereafter. Gas production is expected to increase until 2013. Gas production represents 35 percent of the total production in 2006. It is expected that by 2013 it will represent 50 percent of the total. Other aspects accounted for include government petroleum revenues, environmental considerations, petroleum resources and overviews of fields in production, fields where production has ceased and fields under development

  9. Petroleum marketing monthly, June 1999, with data for March 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-06-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. Monthly statistics on purchases of crude oil and sales of petroleum products are presented in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly in five sections: Initial Estimates; Summary Statistics; Crude Oil Prices; Prices of Petroleum Products; Volumes of Petroleum Products; and Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Petroleum Products for Local Consumption. 7 figs., 50 tabs.

  10. Petroleum marketing monthly, May 1998, with data for February 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-05-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides Information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. Monthly statistics on purchases of crude oil and sales of petroleum products are presented in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly in five sections: summary statistics; crude oil prices; prices of petroleum products; volumes of petroleum products; prime supplier sales volumes of petroleum products for local consumption. 7 figs., 50 tabs.

  11. Petroleum marketing monthly, July 1998 with data for April 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. Monthly statistics on purchases of crude oil and sales of petroleum products are presented in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly in five sections: summary statistics; crude oil prices; prices of petroleum products; volumes of petroleum products; and prime supplier sales volumes of petroleum products for local consumption. 7 figs., 50 tabs.

  12. Petroleum marketing monthly: August 1998, with data for May 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-08-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. Monthly statistics on purchases of crude oil and sales of petroleum products are presented in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly in five sections: Summary Statistics; Crude Oil Prices; Prices of Petroleum Products; Volumes of Petroleum Products; and Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Petroleum Products for Local Consumption. 7 figs., 50 tabs.

  13. Petroleum marketing monthly, September 1998, with data for June 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. Monthly statistics on purchases of crude oil and sales of petroleum products are presented in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly in five sections: summary statistics; crude oil prices; prices of petroleum products; volumes of petroleum products; prime supplier sales volumes of petroleum products for local consumption. 7 figs., 50 tabs.

  14. Petroleum marketing monthly, December 1998 with data for September 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. Monthly statistics on purchases of crude oil and sales of petroleum products are presented in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly in five sections: summary statistics; crude oil prices; prices of petroleum products; volumes of petroleum products; and prime supplier sales volumes of petroleum products for local consumption. 7 figs., 50 tabs.

  15. Petroleum marketing monthly, May 1999, with data for February 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. Monthly statistics on purchases of crude oil and sales of petroleum products are presented in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly in five sections: Initial Estimates; Summary Statistics; Crude Oil Prices; Prices of Petroleum Products; Volumes of Petroleum Products; and Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Petroleum Products for Local Consumption. 7 figs., 50 tabs.

  16. Petroleum marketing monthly, January 1999 with data for October 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-01-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. Monthly statistics on purchases of crude oil and sales of petroleum products are presented in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly in five sections: summary statistics; crude oil prices; prices of petroleum products; volumes of petroleum products; and prime supplier sales volumes of petroleum products for local consumption. 7 figs., 50 tabs.

  17. Petroleum marketing monthly, July 1999, with data for April 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. Monthly statistics on purchases of crude oil and sales of petroleum products are presented in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly in five sections: initial estimates; summary statistics; crude oil prices; prices of petroleum products; volumes of petroleum products; and prime supplier sales volumes of petroleum products for local consumption. 7 figs., 70 tabs.

  18. Petroleum marketing monthly, November 1998, with data for August 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-11-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. Monthly statistics on purchases of crude oil and sales of petroleum products are presented in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly in five sections: Summary statistics; Crude oil prices; Prices of petroleum products; Volumes of petroleum products; and Prime supplier sales volumes of petroleum products for local consumption. 7 figs., 50 tabs.

  19. Petroleum marketing monthly, October 1998, with data for July 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-10-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. Monthly statistics on purchases of crude oil and sales of petroleum products are presented in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly in five sections: Summary statistics; Crude oil prices; Prices of petroleum products; Volumes of petroleum products; and Prime supplier sales volumes of petroleum products for local consumption. 7 figs., 50 tabs.

  20. Petroleum marketing monthly, June 1998, with data from March 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-06-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. Monthly statistics on purchases of crude oil and sales of petroleum products are presented in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly in five sections: summary statistics; crude oil prices; prices of petroleum products; volumes of petroleum products and prime supplier sales volumes of petroleum products for local consumption. 7 figs., 50 tabs.

  1. Petroleum marketing monthly, March 1999 with data for December 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. Monthly statistics on purchases of crude oil and sales of petroleum products are presented in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly in five sections: summary statistics; crude oil prices; prices of petroleum products; volumes of petroleum products; and prime supplier sales volumes of petroleum products for local consumption. 7 figs., 50 tabs.

  2. Petroleum marketing monthly, February 1999 with data for November 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-02-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. Monthly statistics on purchases of crude oil and sales of petroleum products are presented in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly in six sections: Initial Estimates; Summary Statistics; Crude Oil Prices; Prices of Petroleum Products; Volumes of Petroleum Products; and Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Petroleum Products for Local Consumption. 7 figs., 50 tabs.

  3. Petroleum supply monthly with data from January 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.

  4. Petroleum supply monthly with data for March 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major U.S. geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 states and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.

  5. Petroleum supply annual 1996: Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    The Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA) contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1996 through annual and monthly surveys. The PSA is divided into two volumes. This first volume contains three sections: Summary Statistics, Detailed Statistics, and Refinery Capacity; each with final annual data. The summary statistics section show 16 years of data depicting the balance between supply, disposition and ending stocks for various commodities including crude oil, motor gasoline, distillate fuel oil, residual fuel oil, jet fuel propane/propylene, and liquefied petroleum gases. The detailed statistics section provide 1996 detailed statistics on supply and disposition, refinery operations, imports and exports, stocks, and transportation of crude oil and petroleum products. The refinery capacity contain listings of refineries and associated crude oil distillation and downstream capacities by State, as of January 1, 1997, as well as summaries of corporate refinery capacities and refinery storage capacities. In addition, refinery receipts of crude oil by method of transportation for 1996 are provided. Also included are fuels consumed at refineries, and lists of shutdowns, sales, reactivations, and mergers during 1995 and 1996. 16 figs., 59 tabs.

  6. Fact sheet. Norwegian petroleum activity 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harv, M.R.

    1995-02-01

    This report on the Norwegian petroleum activity in 1994 is published by the Royal Ministry of Industry and Energy. Production to the end of 1994 totaled 1.63 billion scm oe. At 31 Dec 1994, total reserves on the Norwegian continental shelf comprised 1.34 billion scm oe of oil, 1.35 billion scm oe of gas and 0.1 billion scm oe of NGLs. The net increment in oil and gas during 1994 was about 115 million scm oe. Twenty-seven exploration wells, including 22 wildcats and five appraisal wells, were completed or temporarily abandoned on the Norwegian continental shelf in 1994. Governmental approval was given for developing the second phase of the Ekofisk field, the Vigdis and Snorre Lunde oil fields, and two smaller formations on the Veslefrikk field. Investment in petroleum operations totaled about NOK 50 billion. Norwegian oil and gas production came to about 180 million scm oe. At present levels of output, Norway's petroleum resources are sufficient to support production of oil for 20 years and of gas for 115 years. The estimated value of Norwegian petroleum exports in 1994 is NOK 114 billion, representing about 34% of the country's total export earnings. State revenues from taxes and royalties on petroleum operations came to about NOK 23.7 billion, or eight per cent of total government revenues. 24 figs., 13 tabs

  7. Making petroleum equipment safe, a priority

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Changes to the 'Act respecting the use of petroleum products' have been announced effective May 1, 1999. The changes have been made to reduce problems which can be attributed to petroleum product leaks. The new regulations will make owners and users of petroleum equipment, including underground and above-ground storage equipment and commercial storage tanks, more accountable for the use of their own equipment. The emphasis in the new regulations is based upon the storage capacity of petroleum equipment and the risks associated with this equipment, rather than the on the activities of the owners concerned. Accordingly, the new regulations call for stricter requirements for high-risk equipment, a private equipment inspection plan, a two-year operating permit, replacing the current permits and certificates, a tariff structure based on the risks associated with the equipment, and deregulation of commercial activities involving petroleum products that require no equipment. Additionally, the amendments to the Act transfer responsibility for administration to the Regie du batiment and to the Ministere des Transports. Details of each of these changes are explained

  8. Petroleum supply annual 1996: Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-06-01

    The Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA) contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1996 through annual and monthly surveys. The PSA is divided into two volumes. This first volume contains three sections: Summary Statistics, Detailed Statistics, and Refinery Capacity; each with final annual data. The summary statistics section show 16 years of data depicting the balance between supply, disposition and ending stocks for various commodities including crude oil, motor gasoline, distillate fuel oil, residual fuel oil, jet fuel propane/propylene, and liquefied petroleum gases. The detailed statistics section provide 1996 detailed statistics on supply and disposition, refinery operations, imports and exports, stocks, and transportation of crude oil and petroleum products. The refinery capacity contain listings of refineries and associated crude oil distillation and downstream capacities by State, as of January 1, 1997, as well as summaries of corporate refinery capacities and refinery storage capacities. In addition, refinery receipts of crude oil by method of transportation for 1996 are provided. Also included are fuels consumed at refineries, and lists of shutdowns, sales, reactivations, and mergers during 1995 and 1996. 16 figs., 59 tabs

  9. Real-time petroleum spill detection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dakin, D.T.

    2001-01-01

    A real-time autonomous oil and fuel spill detection system has been developed to rapidly detect of a wide range of petroleum products floating on, or suspended in water. The system consists of an array of spill detection buoys distributed within the area to be monitored. The buoys are composed of a float and a multispectral fluorometer, which looks up through the top 5 cm of water to detect floating and suspended petroleum products. The buoys communicate to a base station computer that controls the sampling of the buoys and analyses the data from each buoy to determine if a spill has occurred. If statistically significant background petroleum levels are detected, the system raises an oil spill alarm. The system is useful because early detection of a marine oil spill allows for faster containment, thereby minimizing the contaminated area and reducing cleanup costs. This paper also provided test results for biofouling, various petroleum product detection, water turbidity and wave tolerance. The technology has been successfully demonstrated. The UV light source keeps the optic window free from biofouling, and the electronics are fully submerged so there is no risk that the unit could ignite the vapours of a potential oil spill. The system can also tolerate moderately turbid waters and can therefore be used in many rivers, harbours, water intakes and sumps. The system can detect petroleum products with an average thickness of less than 3 micrometers floating on the water surface. 3 refs., 15 figs

  10. Canadian Petroleum Products Institute 1996 annual review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The Canadian Petroleum Products Institute (CPPI) is an association of Canadian companies involved in the downstream sector of the petroleum industry which includes refining, distributing and marketing of petroleum products. CPPI's mandate includes: (1) establishing environmental policies, (2) establishing working relationships with governments to develop public policy, (3) developing guidelines for the safe handling of petroleum products, and (4) providing information about the petroleum industry to the public. Canada's 19 refineries processed an average of 1.5 million barrels of crude oil per day in 1996. Domestic sources of crude made up 61 per cent of crude oil processed in 1996. Total exports during the year amounted to 105 million barrels. Some of the issues that the CPPI focused on during 1996 included the controversy over the future of the octane enhancing fuel additive MMT, fuel quality standards for transportation fuels and reformulated fuels, gasoline pricing, air quality and workplace safety. CPPI members' participation in the Voluntary Challenge and Registry (VCR) program towards reducing greenhouse gas emissions was also discussed. The industry was also actively involved in seeking to improve its refinery wastewater discharges

  11. The use of nuclear energy for obtaining petroleum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waldmann, H.; Koch, C.; Thelen, H.J.; Kappe, P.

    1982-01-01

    After some basic considerations of petroleum demand, petroleum supply and petroleum reserves, the article gives a survey of the various methods of obtaining petroleum. The use of energy in the form of steam and electricity in the previously used processes and in conventional deposits requires up to 50% of the energy contained in the oil obtained. Now unconventional sources of petroleum (tertiary petroleum, heavy fractions and shale oil) could become of interest to West Germany in the near future. The economy of production can be determined by the energy source used, to a large extent. A series of possibilities are discussed for using nuclear steam raising systems for this purpose. (UA) [de

  12. Characterization of catalytically hydrotreated coal liquid produced by solvolytic liquefaction in petroleum asphalt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mochida, I.; Oishi, T.; Korai, Y.; Fujitsu, H.; Takeshita, K.

    1983-03-01

    A hydrotreated coal liquid produced by solvolytic liquefaction of a feed originally consisting of 66% petroleum asphalt and 34% coal liquid was characterized. The hydrotreatment was carried out over a Co-Mo catalyst in order to upgrade moderately and selectively the coal-derived fraction. The present process was found very effective to depolymerize rather selectively the coal-derived fraction, originally benzene insoluble, to be soluble in benzene in the dominant presence of petroleum asphalt, while 20% of the asphalt was converted to be distillable with ..cap alpha..-methylnaphthalene (the hydrotreatment solvent). Structural analyses of the fractions before and after hydrotreatment were compared to reveal what kinds of chemical reactions had taken place during hydro treatment. The major reactions of the coal derived fraction are hydrodeoxygenation and hydrodealkylation, both of which are effective for depolymerization. No significant hydrogenation on aromatic rings was observed. Hydrotreated liquid was further pyrolyzed to obtain oils and cokes of high quality. (14 refs.)

  13. Taxation of petroleum companies possessing private information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osmundsen, P.

    1995-01-01

    For countries having petroleum resources, a common objective of the Ministry of Energy is to maximise the net total government take from the petroleum industry. Most models of petroleum taxation, assuming symmetric information, recommended neutral taxation. A royalty is not optimal in this case as it gives disincentives for extraction, causing too much of the reservoir to remain unexploited. Through the operating activities, however, the companies obtain private information about the costs. A low cost company may conceal its information by imitating a high cost company, and must therefore be given an economic compensation (information rent) to be induced to reveal its true costs. An optimal regulatory response to asymmetric information may involve royalties, as these enable the government to capture a larger fraction of the economic rent. 17 refs., 2 figs

  14. Environment and petroleum exploration in Madagascar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratsimandresy, R.; Raveloson, E.A.; Lalaharisaina, J.V.

    1991-01-01

    This paper deals with the environmental problems related to Petroleum Exploration Programs (PEP) in Madagascar and measures taken, in short terms, to minimize environment degradation resulting from these. PEP concerns the three main western sedimentary basins (Ambilobe Basin - Majunga Basin - Morodava basin) of which 12% of the surface are classified as protected area (forests, parks, reserves) in respect of the richness and rareness of wildlife species. PEP's operations (seismic survey and drilling wells), when conducted in these zones, affect the system (access road, people migration), leading to the degradation of the wildlife. For petroleum companies working in those zones, some appropriate measures (adequacy of equipment, engagement to restore damages, environment study) were required before concerned administration could grant the agreement. One example of specific environment damages caused by Petroleum Exploration Operations is mentioned in this paper

  15. Petroleum demand continues to grow but slowly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1998-01-01

    While it is always entertaining and intellectually stimulating to look at all the marvelous technological alternatives just around the corner for transport, the transport task in Australia continues to grow and so does petroleum consumption. Australia presently consumes more than 750,000 barrels per day of petroleum products. Latest figures are given for petroleum consumption up to the end of August 1998. They indicate that total demand for petrol has continued to grow, but very slowly. Growth in 1997-1998 compared with 1996-1997 was only 0.3%. This trend for very low growth has been continued into July and August, perhaps indicative of a slow down in the economy

  16. Bioremediation of petroleum-contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearce, K.; Snyman, H.G.; Oellermann, R.A.; Gerber, A.

    1995-01-01

    A pilot-scale study was conducted to evaluate the application of land-farming techniques in bioremediating a soil highly contaminated with petroleum products. A commercial biosupplement, and one prepared with indigenous microorganisms from the contaminated soil, were tested. Application of either of the biosupplements, in addition to the control of pH, moisture, and oxygen levels, resulted in a 94% reduction of the initial total petroleum hydrocarbon concentration (TPHC) (32% mass/mass) over a 70-day period. Implementation of these findings at full scale to bioremediate highly weathered petroleum products showed an average reduction of 89% over 5.5 months. Target levels of 1,400 mg/kg soil were reached from an initial average TPHC concentration of 12,200 mg/kg soil

  17. Canadian petroleum history bibliography. Release update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cass, D.

    2010-01-07

    The petroleum history bibliography was created over several years as a record dedicated to preserving the history of the Canadian petroleum industry. It comprises a list of more than 5000 publications, including books, theses, films, audio tapes, published articles and stories of the many companies that have come and gone. It aims to include all publications and audio visual products from the Social Sciences and Humanities on company histories, biographies, autobiographies, fiction, poetry and humour. An author index is included. Most government documents are excluded as they are accessible through Library and Archives Canada. This bibliography is an ongoing piece of work, and welcomes any additions relating to the study and preservation of Canadian petroleum industry history.

  18. Document imaging finding niche in petroleum industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cisco, S.L.

    1992-01-01

    Optical disk-based document imaging systems can reduce operating costs, save office space, and improve access to necessary information for petroleum companies that have extensive records in various formats. These imaging systems help solve document management problems to improve technical and administrative operations. Enron Gas Pipeline Group has installed a document imaging system for engineering applications to integrate records stored on paper, microfilm, or computer-aided drafting (CAD) systems. BP Exploration Inc. recently implemented a document imaging system for administrative applications. The company is evaluating an expansion of the system to include engineering and technical applications. The petroleum industry creates, acquires, distributes, and retrieves enormous amounts of data and information, which are stored on multiple media, including paper, microfilm, and electronic formats. There are two main factors responsible for the immense information storage requirements in the petroleum industry

  19. Toxicological characteristics of petroleum products repeated exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.M. Rubin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The ability of petroleum products to initiate cumulative effects was assessed in experimental intragastric admission to male albino rats for one month. The analysis of skin-resorptive effects was performed using "test-tube" method on the skin of rats’ tails. It has been established that petroleum products can penetrate the intact skin and, with repeated admission, cause a general toxic effect. There were reductions bodyweights, the negative effect on the function of the kidneys and liver, changes of hematological parameters, as well as activation of the antioksidatnoy system. Repeated intragastric administration does not lead to the death of the animals testifying to the lack of accumulation capacity for petroleum products at the level of functional mortal effects, the cumulation coefficient being > 5.1. Negative impact on urinary function and hepatobiliary system, changes in hematological parameters and activation of the «lipid peroxidation – antioksidant defense» were observed.

  20. Petroleum and natural gas in Illinois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-01-01

    Presentations made at the 7th Annual Illinois Energy Conference are compiled and reported. Specific topics include: Illinois petroleum and natural gas supply; energy use patterns for Illinois and the nation; impacts of the National Energy Act on the natural gas industry; natural gas for North America; natural gas supply under the Natural Gas Policy; US access to international oil; deregulation and its impact on the US petroleum supply; the US Energy Policy; petroleum pricing and taxation policies in Illinois; the high cost of energy and its impact on the poor; impact of increased fuel prices on Illinois' industrial future; energy prices and inflation; opportunities for energy conservation in transportaton; overview of energy and synfuels from biomass and wastes; an inventory of energy potential from biomass in Illinois; problems and potential of alcohol from agriculture; liquid and gaseous fuels from coal; and alternatives to liquid and gaseous fuels.

  1. Angola: source rock control for Lower Congo Coastal and Kwanza Basin petroleum systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burwood, R. [Fina Exploration Ltd, Epsom (United Kingdom)

    1999-07-01

    , yielding petroleums of unique, and/or mixed Pre-Salt hybrid, source provenance. A less attractive Pre-Salt source system is reflected in the Kwanza habitat. Consequential effects of salt movement have proved important for halkinetic induced structuration, Cretaceous block rafting and pseudograben (Tertiary trough) source deposition. Marginal reserves of Infra-Cuvo and Cuvo derived petroleums are known. With limitations in charge potential at this level, the modest Kwanza reserves (0.1 GBOR) have a Post-Salt provenance deriving primarily from the Eocene Margas Negras and subordinate Aptian Middle Binga sourced petroleum systems. Cases of multi-sourced hybrid petroleums abound. In addition to the organic-rich Albian micrites, Upper Cretaceous black shales provide unproven possible offshore potential.

  2. Prospective of petroleum products 2002-2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This prospective provides a complete panorama of the requirements in the refining industry of Mexico at short, medium and long terms. Here subjects such as: fuels quality, historical and expected investments and prices, International situation of the installed refining capacity, the demand and regional balance of petroleum products at year 2001, the regulatory framework and the organization of the petroleum sector, the realized investments in the last nine years, Saving programs and efficient use of energy and the applicable regulations to this sector for its optimum use are treated. At the end of this book there are annexes with the abbreviations, acronyms and, conversion factors as well as the fundamental definitions. (Author)

  3. Taking the petroleum out of petrochemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, T

    1982-01-01

    It is thought to be inevitable that world production of petroleum will start declining in the not too distant future. When this happens, the only feedstock for the organic chemicals industry and the polymer chemistry industry will be coal. It is emphasized that the best way of substituting coal for petroleum fractions as an alternative energy source is the technologically easy conversion of economic coal to methanol. There are explanations of the problems involved in obtaining fuel methanol as an energy source, as feedstock for the chemical industry, and as a raw material for chemistry. (13 refs.)

  4. 34. annual conference Ontario Petroleum Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    A total of 18 papers, dealing with a variety of issues relevant to the petroleum industry, such as marketing strategies, feasibility studies and exploration technologies, were combined in this volume of proceedings of the 34th annual conference of the Ontario Petroleum Institute. Some of the papers presented case studies of hydrocarbon reserves in North America, along with their depositional histories. Oil yields and resource potential of fractured reservoirs was the subject of some presentations. Studies of cores from drilling sites and complete stratigraphic columns of some oil fields were also presented. (Papers are paged individually). refs., tabs., figs

  5. Norway: the traps of the petroleum wealth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastien, D.

    2006-01-01

    Thanks to petroleum, the Norwegian population is the richness in the world. The petroleum profits have been always carefully managed and stored in a special fund. However, this richness has now a disastrous impact on the Norwegian society which is progressively falling asleep in its comfort while the economy shows signs of overheating. Oil production has started its decline and will accelerate by 2010. The strategy of Norway is now to massively invest in gas exportation and to saturate the gas pipelines towards Europe. In the future Norway has planned to export LNG to the US and Spain. (J.S.)

  6. Effect of petroleum hydrocarbons on algae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhadauria, S.; Sengar, R.M.S.; Mittal, S.; Bhattacharjee, S.

    1992-01-01

    Algal species (65) were isolated from oil refinery effluent. Twenty-five of these species were cultured in Benecke's medium in a growth chamber, along with controls. Retardation in algal growth, inhibition in algal photosynthesis, and discoloration was observed in petroleum enriched medium. Few forms, viz. Cyclotella sp., Cosmarium sp., and Merismopedia sp. could not survive. The lag phase lengthened by several days and slope of exponential phase was also depressed. Chlamydomonas sp., Scenedesmus sp., Ankistrodesmus sp., Nitzschia sp. and Navicula sp. were comparatively susceptible to petroleum. Depression in carbon fixation, cell numbers, and total dry algal mass was noticeable, showing toxicity to both diatoms and green algae

  7. Domestic demand for petroleum in OPEC countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakravorty, U.; Fesharaki, F.; Zhou, S.

    2000-01-01

    The literature on OPEC energy policy has focused primarily on its production and export potential. The rapidly increasing domestic demand for petroleum products in OPEC countries has often been ignored. This study estimates domestic demand for petroleum products by the major OPEC economies and forecasts consumption trends under alternative assumptions regarding economic growth and price deregulation. It concludes that product demand is generally price and income inelastic and thus domestic consumption in OPEC will continue to grow rapidly, even if domestic prices are raised closer to world levels in the near future

  8. Converting petroleum into acids, soaps, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imray, J

    1883-06-19

    The conversion of petroleum and hydrocarbons resulting from distillation of lignite, coal, peat, shale, etc., into organic acids by treating the hydrocarbons in the presence of caustic alkalies, alkaline earths, alkaline carbonates, or other bodies with alkaline reaction, with a current of air or oxygen, with or without pressure, at a raised temperature, and decomposing the soaps formed, the free acid being removed from the compound which is then separated into single fractions by fractional distillation or by taking advantage of the unequal solubility in petroleum or similar solvents is described.

  9. Petroleum marketing monthly, September 1990. [Contains Glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-11

    This report is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, education institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners' acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented. 12 figs., 55 tabs.

  10. New contractual trends in world petroleum industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arzu, M.; Clerici, C.

    1992-01-01

    Oil industry contractual practices have gone through a rapid evolution starting from the 1970's, mainly determined by a change in the relationship between producer and consumer countries. Current steady price trends have led to a new equilibrium causing the petroleum companies and producer countries to re-examine their contractual strategies. This article highlights the new contractual trends in the petroleum industry by tracing the evolution of international business relationships and by comparing the main types of contractual schemes, e.g., concession, production sharing, services and services support, adopted today by the key hydrocarbon producing countries of the world

  11. The mirage of higher petroleum prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynch, M.C.

    1996-01-01

    Most petroleum industry price forecasters do not possess a record of which they can be proud. Long-term petroleum market forecasting has been so inaccurate that it has often been described as virtually impossible. To avoid criticism of their performance, many organizations no longer circulate their forecasts. Why have the forecasts been so wrong? Because of failure to predict supply. This paper reviews the erroneous methods used to predict price trends in the oil and gas industry and identifies methods to correct the problem

  12. Petroleum marketing monthly, October 1991. [Contains glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-10

    This report is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiner's acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented. 12 figs., 55 tabs.

  13. Petroleum hydrocarbon toxicity to corals: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Nicholas R; Renegar, D Abigail

    2017-06-30

    The proximity of coral reefs to coastal urban areas and shipping lanes predisposes corals to petroleum pollution from multiple sources. Previous research has evaluated petroleum toxicity to coral using a variety of methodology, including monitoring effects of acute and chronic spills, in situ exposures, and ex situ exposures with both adult and larval stage corals. Variability in toxicant, bioassay conditions, species and other methodological disparities between studies prevents comprehensive conclusions regarding the toxicity of hydrocarbons to corals. Following standardized protocols and quantifying the concentration and composition of toxicant will aid in comparison of results between studies and extrapolation to actual spills. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The microbiology of hydorcarbon degradation in subsurface petroleum reservoirs: perspectives and prospects.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roling, W.F.M.; Head, I.M.; Larter, S.R.

    2003-01-01

    The majority of the Earth's petroleum resource is partly biodegraded. This is of considerable practical significance and can limit economic exploitation of petroleum reserves and lead to problems during petroleum production. Knowledge of the microorganisms present in petroleum reservoirs, their

  15. Life-cycle assessment of biodiesel versus petroleum diesel fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coulon, R.; Camobreco, V.; Sheehan, J.; Duffield, J.

    1995-01-01

    The US Department of Energy's Office of Transportation Technologies, DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory, the US Department of Agriculture's Office of Energy, and Ecobalance are carrying out a comprehensive Life-Cycle Assessment of soy-based diesel fuel (biodiesel) to quantify the environmental aspects of the cradle-to-grave production and use of biodiesel. The purpose of the project is to produce an analytical tool and database for use by industry and government decision makers involved in alternative fuel use and production. The study also includes a parallel effort to develop a life-cycle model for petroleum diesel fuel. The two models are used to compare the life-cycle energy and environmental implications of petroleum diesel and biodiesel derived from soybean. Several scenarios are studied, analyzing the influence of transportation distances, agricultural practice and allocation rules used. The project also includes effort to integrate spatial data into the inventory analysis and probabilistic uncertainty considerations into the impact assessment stage. Traditional life-cycle inventory analysis includes an aggregation process that eliminates spatial, temporal, and threshold information. This project will demonstrate an approach to life-cycle inventory analysis that retains spatial data for use in impact assessment. Explicit probabilistic treatment of uncertainty in impact assessment will take account of scientific uncertainties, and will attempt to identify the level of spatial detail that most efficiently reduces impact assessment uncertainties

  16. Soil bioremediation approaches for petroleum hydrocarbon polluted environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman Koshlaf

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing industrialisation, continued population growth and heavy demand and reliance on petrochemical products have led to unprecedented economic growth and development. However, inevitably this dependence on fossil fuels has resulted in serious environmental issues over recent decades. The eco-toxicity and the potential health implications that petroleum hydrocarbons pose for both environmental and human health have led to increased interest in developing environmental biotechnology-based methodologies to detoxify environments impacted by petrogenic compounds. Different approaches have been applied for remediating polluted sites with petroleum derivatives. Bioremediation represents an environmentally sustainable and economical emerging technology for maximizing the metabolism of organic pollutants and minimizing the ecological effects of oil spills. Bioremediation relies on microbial metabolic activities in the presence of optimal ecological factors and necessary nutrients to transform organic pollutants such as petrogenic hydrocarbons. Although, biodegradation often takes longer than traditional remediation methods, the complete degradation of the contaminant is often accomplished. Hydrocarbon biodegradation in soil is determined by a number of environmental and biological factors varying from site to site such as the pH of the soil, temperature, oxygen availability and nutrient content, the growth and survival of hydrocarbon-degrading microbes and bioavailability of pollutants to microbial attack. In this review we have attempted to broaden the perspectives of scientists working in bioremediation. We focus on the most common bioremediation technologies currently used for soil remediation and the mechanisms underlying the degradation of petrogenic hydrocarbons by microorganisms.

  17. Petroleum producers and Canada's north : an industry moving forward

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-11-01

    Efforts were made by northern industries over the last 20 years to reduce their impact on the environment. The minimization of the footprint on the environment was researched and new exploration and production techniques were developed by petroleum companies, so that clean air, clear water, healthy land and abundant wildlife could be maintained in the north. An example of such techniques is provided by directional drilling technology, which enables oil and gas producers to assess reserves under lakes or other sensitive areas without leaving an impact. Everyone in the north benefits from the oil and gas industry as a result of local employment policies, increased government revenues. Job creation is probably the most obvious benefit derived from oil and gas activities in the north. At present, the jobs are mainly concentrated in the seismic field, drilling and support services sector, as the industry is in the exploration stage. As the industry evolves into the development phase, the jobs and business opportunities will also mature. Training programs are being created by the governments of the Northwest Territories and Canada in partnership with the petroleum industry to enable northern residents to take advantage of the new opportunities. The traditional economies of the north will be strengthened by a strong oil and gas industry. Industry and communities must be ready to share their vision of the north to develop a sustainable northern oil and gas industry. Abundant oil and gas resources are located in the Northwest Territories, and numerous challenges make getting the resources and moving them to market difficult. The Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers has a vision of a strong industry in the north employing local people and where the respect of local knowledge and traditions dominates. The members companies are responsible for the production of 95 per cent of the crude oil and natural gas in Canada. The Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers has a

  18. The petroleum taxation in France; La fiscalite petroliere en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-09-15

    This document details the french specificities of taxation concerning the petroleum products: the TIPP. It shows how this policy acts upon the petroleum products consumption behavior and how it allows the financing of the decentralization. (A.L.B.)

  19. Petroleum supply monthly with data for December 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-02-01

    This report presents statistical data on the production, imports, exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States.

  20. Petroleum supply monthly, November 1996 with data for September 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    Data presented in this report describes the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the US and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products fin the US (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the US. The tables and figures in the Summary Statistics section present a time series of selected petroleum data on a US level. The Detailed Statistics tables present statistics for the most current month available as well as year-to-date. 16 figs., 66 tabs.

  1. Petroleum supply monthly with data from October 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    This publication provides information on the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United states and major geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports, exports, PAD district movements, and inventories by major suppliers of petroleum products.

  2. Petroleum supply monthly: September 1996, with data for July 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    Data presented in this report describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the US and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the US (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the US. The tables and figures in the Summary Statistics section of the PSM present a time series of selected petroleum data on a US level. The Detailed Statistics tables of the PSM present statistics for the most current month available as well as year-to-date. 56 tabs.

  3. Petroleum supply monthly, December 1998 with data for October 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the US and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the US (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the US. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics. 82 tabs.

  4. Occupational exposure to chlorinated and petroleum solvents and mycosis fungoides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morales-Suárez-Varela, Maria M; Olsen, Jørn; Villeneuve, Sara

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the potential association between occupational exposure to chlorinated and petroleum solvents and mycosis fungoides (MF).......To evaluate the potential association between occupational exposure to chlorinated and petroleum solvents and mycosis fungoides (MF)....

  5. A REVIEW OF THE KEY PROVISIONS OF THE PETROLEUM ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    safety measures relating to all aspects of upstream petroleum operations, publish reports and ... Nigerian Petroleum Assets Management Company Limited12 ..... the demand” will apply and the public will be protected against monopolies,.

  6. Characterization of CRUDE OILS and petroleum products: (i) elution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Characterization of CRUDE OILS and petroleum products: (i) elution liquid chromatographic separation and gas chromatographic analysis of crude oils and petroleum products. E.O. Odebunmi, E.A. Ogunsakin, P.E.P. Ilukhor ...

  7. Petroleum: fate of mankind. [in German]. Oel - Schicksal der Menschheit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konzelmann, G

    1976-01-01

    The author reports on the history, exploratio, exploitation, transport, and refining of petroleum, and on the policies in the petroleum business, concentrating on the oil-exporting countries. Many impressive color pictures supplement the text.

  8. Petroleum Release Assessment and Impacts of Weather Extremes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contaminated ground water and vapor intrusion are two major exposure pathways of concern at petroleum release sites. EPA has recently developed a model for petroleum vapor intrusion, called PVIScreen, which incorporates variability and uncertainty in input parameters. This ap...

  9. Nonequilibrium Segregation in Petroleum Reservoirs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shapiro, Alexander; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    1999-01-01

    We analyse adsorption of a multicomponent mixture at high pressure on the basis of the potential theory of adsorption. The adsorbate is considered as a segregated mixture in the external field produced by a solid adsorbent. we derive an analytical equation for the thickness of a multicomponent fi...... close to a dew point. This equation (asymptotic adsorption equation, AAE) is a first order approximation with regard to the distance from a phase envelope....

  10. The petroleum industry in 2003; L'industrie petroliere en 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This 2004 edition of the petroleum industry activities presents results and data concerning the crude oil prices evolution, the petroleum exploration and production in france and in the world, the para-petroleum industry, the hydrocarbons supplies, the refining, the quality evolution of the substitution products and fuels, the internal transports of petroleum products, the petroleum products storage, the petroleum products consumption, the petroleum products prices and taxation, the petroleum products distribution. (A.L.B.)

  11. Petroleum Gases Market in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bumin, S.; Ozyoruk, B.

    2007-01-01

    and Europe. Therefore, Turkey is widely called as 'The Energy Bridge between the East and the West'. Turkey's natural energy resources are quite diversified; hard coal, lignite, asphaltite, oil, natural gas, hydro, geothermal, wood, animal and plant wastes, solar and secondary energy resources such as coke and briquettes are produced and consumed. Although Turkey's oil and natural gas reserves are limited, coal reserves are quite abundant. Energy forecasts show that primary energy demand would be 117 million TOE in 2005 and 156 million TOE in 2010. Turkey has a large LPG (Liquefied Petroleum Gas) consumption, which ranks third in Europe and within the top ten in the world. Turkey's LPG market structure depends largely on imports. At the end of 2005, the LPG consumption was around 3.7 billion tonnes and about 80 % of this, which amounts to 2.8 billion tonnes, has been provided through imports.(author)

  12. The after petroleum. When the wells dried up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefevre-Balleydier, A.

    2006-01-01

    Facing the petroleum crisis of the years 70 and the today petroleum reserves problems, the author wonders on a society without cheap petroleum. Which energies will take over: gas, coal, nuclear of renewable energies? In seven chapters the following topics are discussed: the petroleum in our life, for how long, the alternative energies, the environmental impacts, the socio-economic impacts, the possible actions today. (A.L.B.)

  13. Geopolitical problems bond to the petroleum production and exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-12-01

    The persistent interest of States for the petroleum shows, always today, that it is a specific raw material. The petroleum specificity comes from the supply and demand character, which the prospective study is presented in the first part of this analysis. From this presentation the authors discuss the petroleum ''great fear'' which leads to the dependence and then the interdependence of the petroleum States in an international cooperation. (A.L.B.)

  14. The role of the Arctic in future global petroleum supply

    OpenAIRE

    Lars Lindholt; Solveig Glomsrød

    2011-01-01

    The Arctic has a substantial share of global petroleum resources, but at higher costs than in most other petroleum provinces. Arctic states and petroleum companies are carefully considering the potential for future extraction in the Arctic. This paper studies the oil and gas supply from 6 arctic regions during 2010-2050 along with global economic growth and different assumptions regarding petroleum prices and resource endowments. Supply is calculated based on a global model of oil and gas mar...

  15. Necessities and constraints of petroleum exploration in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fetah, M.

    1991-01-01

    In spite of the petroleum low prices, persisting since 1986, many developing countries, non-producing petroleum, are facing growing energy problems: fall of petroleum exploration activities, quasi stoppage of projects for energy substitute development, consecutively to the lowering of the crude oil prices. This communication shows the necessity for these countries to resume petroleum exploration and proposes solutions in order to release constraints: international cooperation, fiscal incentives, access to the financial market, etc. Morocco is taken as an example

  16. REDUCING POWER PRODUCTION COSTS BY UTILIZING PETROLEUM COKE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin C. Galbreath; Donald L. Toman; Christopher J. Zygarlicke

    1999-09-01

    Petroleum coke, a byproduct of the petroleum-refining process, is an attractive primary or supplemental fuel for power production primarily because of a progressive and predictable increase in the production volumes of petroleum coke (1, 2). Petroleum coke is most commonly blended with coal in proportions suitable to meet sulfur emission compliance. Petroleum coke is generally less reactive than coal; therefore, the cofiring of petroleum coke with coal typically improves ignition, flame stability, and carbon loss relative to the combustion of petroleum coke alone. Although petroleum coke is a desirable fuel for producing relatively inexpensive electrical power, concerns about the effects of petroleum coke blending on combustion and pollution control processes exist in the coal-fired utility industry (3). The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) completed a 2-year technical assessment of petroleum coke as a supplemental fuel. A survey questionnaire was sent to seven electric utility companies that are currently cofiring coal and petroleum coke in an effort to solicit specific suggestions on research needs and fuel selections. An example of the letter and survey questionnaire is presented in Appendix A. Interest was expressed by most utilities in evaluating the effects of petroleum coke blending on grindability, combustion reactivity, fouling, slagging, and fly ash emissions control. Unexpectedly, concern over corrosion was not expressed by the utilities contacted. Although all seven utilities responded to the question, only two utilities, Northern States Power Company (NSP) and Ameren, sent fuels to the EERC for evaluation. Both utilities sent subbituminous coals from the Power River Basin and petroleum shot coke samples. Petroleum shot coke is produced unintentionally during operational upsets in the petroleum refining process. This report evaluates the effects of petroleum shot coke blending on grindability, fuel reactivity, fouling/slagging, and

  17. Characteristics of petroleum contaminants and their distribution in Lake Taihu, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jixiang; Fang, Jia; Cao, Jingjing

    2012-08-31

    Taihu Lake is a typical plain eutrophic shallow lake. With rapidly economic development of the lake area, the petroleum products and oil wastewater produced in various processes have been inevitably discharged into Taihu Lake. As the major fresh water resource in the economically developed region of Yangtze River Delta, the water quality and environmental condition of Taihu Lake have the direct bearing on the natural environment and sustainable development of economy in this region. For this reason we carried out the study to explore the composition, distribution characteristics and sources of petroleum contaminants in Taihu Lake. The aim of this study was to provide the basis for standard management and pollution control of the Taihu Lake environment. The result showed that water samples from near industrial locations were of relatively higher petroleum contaminants concentrations. The oil pollutants concentrations in different areas of Lake Taihu ranged from 0.106 mg/L to 1.168 mg/L, and the sequence of total contents distribution characteristics of petroleum pollutants from high to low in different regions of Taihu Lake was: "Dapu", "Xiaomeikou", "Zhushan Bay", "Lake center", "Qidu". The results showed that total concentrations of n-alkanes and PAHs ranged from 0.045 to 0.281 mg/L and from 0.011 to 0.034 mg/L respectively. In the same region, the concentrations of hydrocarbon pollutants in the surface and bottom of the lake were higher than that in the middle. This paper reached a conclusion that the petroleum contaminants in Taihu Lake mainly derived from petroleum pollution caused by human activities as indicated by OEP, bimodal distribution, CPI, Pr/Ph ratio, the LMW/HMW ratio and other evaluation indices for sources of n-alkanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs).

  18. 10 CFR 490.804 - Eligible reductions in petroleum consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Eligible reductions in petroleum consumption. 490.804... Alternative Compliance § 490.804 Eligible reductions in petroleum consumption. (a) Motor vehicles. Demonstrated reductions in petroleum consumption during the model year for which a waiver is requested that are...

  19. Uranium content of petroleum by fission track technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paschoa, A.S.; Mafra, O.Y.; Oliveira, C.A.N. de; Pinto, L.R.

    1981-03-01

    The feasibility of the fission track registration technique to investigate the natural uranium concentration in petroleum is examined. The application of this technique to petroleum is briefly described and discussed critically. The results obtained so far indicate uranium concentrations in samples of Brazilian petroleum which are over the detect ion limit of fission track technique. (Author) [pt

  20. Petroleum supply monthly, March 1999, with data for January 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four petroleum supply publications produced by the Petroleum Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the US and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the US (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the US. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  1. Industry sector analysis, Mexico: Annual petroleum report. Export Trade Information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The comprehensive appraisal of the Mexican Petroleum industry was completed in July 1991. Some of the topics concerning the Mexican petroleum industry covered in the Annual Petroleum Report include: exploration efforts, oil reserves, pipelines, refining, finances, transportation, alternative energy sources, and others. The report also contains lists of petrochemicals produced in Mexico and extensive statistics on oil production and export prices

  2. 40 CFR 52.1931 - Petroleum storage tank controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Petroleum storage tank controls. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Oklahoma § 52.1931 Petroleum... plan, the petroleum storage tanks listed in paragraphs (b) through (e) of this section shall be subject...

  3. 29 CFR 794.132 - “Petroleum products”.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false âPetroleum productsâ. 794.132 Section 794.132 Labor... WHOLESALE OR BULK PETROLEUM DISTRIBUTORS UNDER SECTION 7(b)(3) OF THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Exemption... § 794.132 “Petroleum products”. A sale by an enterprise engaged in the wholesale or bulk distribution of...

  4. 75 FR 63200 - Petroleum Wax Candles From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-14

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 731-TA-282 (Third Review)] Petroleum Wax Candles... five-year review concerning the antidumping duty order on petroleum wax candles from China. SUMMARY... antidumping duty order on petroleum wax candles from China would be likely to lead to continuation or...

  5. 48 CFR 908.7109 - Fuels and packaged petroleum products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fuels and packaged petroleum products. 908.7109 Section 908.7109 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY....7109 Fuels and packaged petroleum products. Acquisitions of fuel and packaged petroleum products by DOE...

  6. 49 CFR 192.11 - Petroleum gas systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Petroleum gas systems. 192.11 Section 192.11... BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS General § 192.11 Petroleum gas systems. (a) Each plant that supplies petroleum gas by pipeline to a natural gas distribution system must meet the requirements...

  7. 75 FR 80843 - Petroleum Wax Candles From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-23

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 731-TA-282 (Third Review)] Petroleum Wax Candles... Tariff Act of 1930 (19 U.S.C. 1675(c)), that revocation of the antidumping duty order on petroleum wax... contained in USITC Publication 4207 (December 2010), entitled Petroleum Wax Candles from China...

  8. Petroleum: the new challenges. Market pressure and technological lever

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boy de la Tour, X.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the forecasting of petroleum demand during the next years, the state of petroleum reserves and recognized oil fields in the whole world at the present time. The challenge to obtain a sufficient petroleum production, facing an increased energy demand, requires to have recourse to new exploration and oil recovery techniques. 8 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  9. 46 CFR 105.05-2 - Prohibitions regarding petroleum products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Prohibitions regarding petroleum products. 105.05-2... VESSELS COMMERCIAL FISHING VESSELS DISPENSING PETROLEUM PRODUCTS Application § 105.05-2 Prohibitions regarding petroleum products. (a) Commercial fishing vessels shall not transport Grade A flammable liquids...

  10. Dissolved petroleum hydrocarbons in the Andaman Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Topgi, R.S.; Noronha, R.J.; Fondekar, S.P.

    Mean dissolved petroleum hydrocarbons, measured using UV-spectrophotometry, at 0 and 10m were 51 plus or minus 1 and 55 plus or minus 1.2 mu g/litre respectively; range of variation being between 28 and 83 mu g/litre. Very little difference...

  11. Facts 2000. The Norwegian Petroleum Sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-02-01

    Petroleum production on the Norwegian continental shelf (NCS) in the North Sea, the Norwegian Sea and the Barents Sea totalled 2.7 bn scm oil equivalents (oe) up to 1998. Per December 1999, remaining reserves totalled 1.5 bn scm of oil, 1.2 bn scm oe gas and 0.2 bn scm oe of NGL/condensate. Twenty-eight exploration wells were completed or temporarily abandoned on the NCS in 1999. By 31 December 1999, 967 exploration wells had been completed or temporarily abandoned off Norway. Discoveries totalled 45-60 mill scm of oil and 45-70 bn scm of gas. Governmental approval was given in 1999 for the Tune, Borg and Sygna developments. Investment in exploration, field development and pipeline transport totalled about NOK 67 bn in 1998. Oil and gas production in 1999 was roughly on the par with 1998, while NGL/condensate sales rose by 19 per cent. The Balder, Gullfaks South, Jotun, Oseberg East, Visund and Aasgard projects came on stream during 1999. It is estimated that, with the present production rate, Norway's remaining discovered oil resources will last for 17 years, and gas, 93 years. The estimated value of Norwegian petroleum export in 1999 was NOK 168 bn, which is about 36% of the country's total earnings from foreign sales. Published by the Norwegian Ministry of Petroleum and Energy, the book is a major source of information on the Norwegian offshore petroleum activities

  12. Facts 2000. The Norwegian Petroleum Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-02-01

    Petroleum production on the Norwegian continental shelf (NCS) in the North Sea, the Norwegian Sea and the Barents Sea totalled 2.7 bn scm oil equivalents (oe) up to 1998. Per December 1999, remaining reserves totalled 1.5 bn scm of oil, 1.2 bn scm oe gas and 0.2 bn scm oe of NGL/condensate. Twenty-eight exploration wells were completed or temporarily abandoned on the NCS in 1999. By 31 December 1999, 967 exploration wells had been completed or temporarily abandoned off Norway. Discoveries totalled 45-60 mill scm of oil and 45-70 bn scm of gas. Governmental approval was given in 1999 for the Tune, Borg and Sygna developments. Investment in exploration, field development and pipeline transport totalled about NOK 67 bn in 1998. Oil and gas production in 1999 was roughly on the par with 1998, while NGL/condensate sales rose by 19 per cent. The Balder, Gullfaks South, Jotun, Oseberg East, Visund and Aasgard projects came on stream during 1999. It is estimated that, with the present production rate, Norway's remaining discovered oil resources will last for 17 years, and gas, 93 years. The estimated value of Norwegian petroleum export in 1999 was NOK 168 bn, which is about 36% of the country's total earnings from foreign sales. Published by the Norwegian Ministry of Petroleum and Energy, the book is a major source of information on the Norwegian offshore petroleum activities.

  13. Biosurfactants: Promising Molecules for Petroleum Biotechnology Advances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DARNE GERMANO DE ALMEIDA

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The growing global demand for sustainable technologies that improves the efficiency of petrochemical processes in the oil industry has driven advances in petroleum biotechnology in recent years. Petroleum industry uses substantial amounts of petrochemical-based synthetic surfactants in its activities as mobilizing agents to increase the availability or recovery of hydrocarbons as well as many other applications related to extraction, treatment, cleaning and transportation. However, biosurfactants have several potential applications for use across the oil processing chain and in the formulations of petrochemical products such as emulsifying/demulsifying agents, anticorrosive, biocides for sulphate-reducing bacteria, fuel formulation, extraction of bitumen from tar sands and many other innovative applications. Due to their versatility and proven efficiency, biosurfactants are often presented as valuable versatile tools that can transform and modernise petroleum biotechnology in an attempt to provide a true picture of state of the art and directions or use in the oil industry. We believe that biosurfactants are going to have a significant role in many future applications in the oil industries and in this review therefore, we highlight recent important relevant applications, patents disclosures and potential future applications for biosurfactants in petroleum and related industries.

  14. Biosurfactants: Promising Molecules for Petroleum Biotechnology Advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Almeida, Darne G; Soares Da Silva, Rita de Cássia F; Luna, Juliana M; Rufino, Raquel D; Santos, Valdemir A; Banat, Ibrahim M; Sarubbo, Leonie A

    2016-01-01

    The growing global demand for sustainable technologies that improves the efficiency of petrochemical processes in the oil industry has driven advances in petroleum biotechnology in recent years. Petroleum industry uses substantial amounts of petrochemical-based synthetic surfactants in its activities as mobilizing agents to increase the availability or recovery of hydrocarbons as well as many other applications related to extraction, treatment, cleaning, and transportation. However, biosurfactants have several potential applications for use across the oil processing chain and in the formulations of petrochemical products such as emulsifying/demulsifying agents, anticorrosive, biocides for sulfate-reducing bacteria, fuel formulation, extraction of bitumen from tar sands, and many other innovative applications. Due to their versatility and proven efficiency, biosurfactants are often presented as valuable versatile tools that can transform and modernize petroleum biotechnology in an attempt to provide a true picture of state of the art and directions or use in the oil industry. We believe that biosurfactants are going to have a significant role in many future applications in the oil industries and in this review therefore, we highlight recent important relevant applications, patents disclosures and potential future applications for biosurfactants in petroleum and related industries.

  15. Geochemical Investigation of Vertical Migration of Petroleum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. K.J. Umar

    chimneys over faults in an overpressured zone in the western part of ... Haltenbanken area is part of a passive continental margin between the Møre Basin and the Trøndelag. Platform ... The petroleum accumulations in the Heidrun field and in.

  16. The petroleum in the postwar period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez Ortiz, Astrid

    2003-01-01

    This paper analyzes some antecedents and are answers formulated to questions as: how is the oil world after Iraq? Which is the future of the OPEC, how are evolved the prices of the petroleum and repercussions of these facts in Colombia

  17. Earthworm-assisted bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ameh

    The use of earthworms (Eudrilus eugenia) for vermi-assisted bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated mechanic workshop soils ... not always result in complete neutrali- zation of pollutants (Yerushalmi et al., 2003). ..... Screening of biofouling activity in marine bacterial isolate from ship hull. Int. J. Environ. Sci.

  18. Effect of petroleum products on mangrove seedlings

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jagtap, T.G.; Untawale, A.G.

    The effect of petrol, diesel and motor oil was studied on the fruits of Rhizophora mucronata and Avicennia officinalis. The former species was found to be more resistant to these petroleum products than the latter, in which more toxic effect were...

  19. Liquefied petroleum gas overexposure in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) contains propane and butane gas and is ... source of energy, there are specific health risks to the uninformed user. In SA, LPG is ... the collateral history indicated the gas as the possible agent. • the patient had a ...

  20. Mathematical modelling on transport of petroleum hydrocarbons

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A brief theory has been included on the composition and transport of petroleum hydrocarbons following an onshore oil spill in order to demonstrate the level of complexity associated with the LNAPL dissolution mass transfer even in a classical porous medium. However, such studies in saturated fractured rocks are highly ...

  1. The oil and petroleum industry. 20. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This financial survey is a compilation of financial and marketing data on oil and petroleum industry companies in the United Kingdom. It includes quoted companies in the production and distribution industry, unquoted companies in the exploration and production industry, unquoted companies in the refining and distribution industry, a geographical index and an alphabetical index. (UK)

  2. Biosurfactants: Promising Molecules for Petroleum Biotechnology Advances

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Almeida, Darne G.; Soares Da Silva, Rita de Cássia F.; Luna, Juliana M.; Rufino, Raquel D.; Santos, Valdemir A.; Banat, Ibrahim M.; Sarubbo, Leonie A.

    2016-01-01

    The growing global demand for sustainable technologies that improves the efficiency of petrochemical processes in the oil industry has driven advances in petroleum biotechnology in recent years. Petroleum industry uses substantial amounts of petrochemical-based synthetic surfactants in its activities as mobilizing agents to increase the availability or recovery of hydrocarbons as well as many other applications related to extraction, treatment, cleaning, and transportation. However, biosurfactants have several potential applications for use across the oil processing chain and in the formulations of petrochemical products such as emulsifying/demulsifying agents, anticorrosive, biocides for sulfate-reducing bacteria, fuel formulation, extraction of bitumen from tar sands, and many other innovative applications. Due to their versatility and proven efficiency, biosurfactants are often presented as valuable versatile tools that can transform and modernize petroleum biotechnology in an attempt to provide a true picture of state of the art and directions or use in the oil industry. We believe that biosurfactants are going to have a significant role in many future applications in the oil industries and in this review therefore, we highlight recent important relevant applications, patents disclosures and potential future applications for biosurfactants in petroleum and related industries. PMID:27843439

  3. Facts 2000. The Norwegian Petroleum Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-02-01

    Petroleum production on the Norwegian continental shelf (NCS) in the North Sea, the Norwegian Sea and the Barents Sea totalled 2.7 bn scm oil equivalents (oe) up to 1998. Per December 1999, remaining reserves totalled 1.5 bn scm of oil, 1.2 bn scm oe gas and 0.2 bn scm oe of NGL/condensate. Twenty-eight exploration wells were completed or temporarily abandoned on the NCS in 1999. By 31 December 1999, 967 exploration wells had been completed or temporarily abandoned off Norway. Discoveries totalled 45-60 mill scm of oil and 45-70 bn scm of gas. Governmental approval was given in 1999 for the Tune, Borg and Sygna developments. Investment in exploration, field development and pipeline transport totalled about NOK 67 bn in 1998. Oil and gas production in 1999 was roughly on the par with 1998, while NGL/condensate sales rose by 19 per cent. The Balder, Gullfaks South, Jotun, Oseberg East, Visund and Aasgard projects came on stream during 1999. It is estimated that, with the present production rate, Norway's remaining discovered oil resources will last for 17 years, and gas, 93 years. The estimated value of Norwegian petroleum export in 1999 was NOK 168 bn, which is about 36% of the country's total earnings from foreign sales. Published by the Norwegian Ministry of Petroleum and Energy, the book is a major source of information on the Norwegian offshore petroleum activities.

  4. Petroleum Independence: A Business Case and Strategy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gallant, Robin

    2006-01-01

    .... All of which have contributed to the erosion of our pole position in international affairs. This paper argues the business case that the US has arrived at the point in its history where it is now too expensive to pursue petroleum-based energy...

  5. The petroleum industry and environment law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bond, Richard

    1992-01-01

    A brief review is given of certain aspects of the petroleum industry's operation in the context of the growth in European Community environmental law. Topics covered include exploration and production, transportation by both pipeline and tanker, oil terminals, refineries and the abandonment and decommissioning of offshore installations. (UK)

  6. hydrocarbons biodegradation and evidence of mixed petroleum

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DJFLEX

    MIXED PETROLEUM SOURCE INPUTS TO SURFACE. SEDIMENTS ... environmental risk assessment and remediation efforts. ... (station CR10), a distance of approximately 95km ... Cross River –near Oku Iboku beach area and ... extraction, and evapourated to near dryness ..... Ecological parameters of the mangrove.

  7. Hydrocarbons biodegradation and evidence of mixed petroleum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chromatographic analysis of extracts from the Cross River system show evidence of variable composition of biogenic n-alkane profile with dominance of terrigenous over aquatic organic matter present (LHC/SHC-0.36-10.57) at upstream location reflecting the natural background levels and marked levels of petroleum ...

  8. Radiation Emergency Planning in Petroleum Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Shinawy, R.M.K.; El-Naggar, M.A.; Abdel-Fattah, A.T.; Gomaa, A.M.

    2001-01-01

    Similar to all industrial activities utilizing radiation sources, or dealing with radioactive materials in its operations, petroleum industry requires the organization of a Radiation Emergency Plan. This plan should be based on a comprehensive and subtle understanding of the extensive multidisciplinary operations involved in petroleum processing and the dangers that threaten human health, environment and property; both from ordinary emergency situations common to petroleum industry activities and also from radiation emergency events. Radiation emergencies include radiological source accidents involving occurrence of high dose exposures. Radioactive contamination or spill are also major problems that may cause low dose exposures and environmental radioactive contamination. The simultaneous occurrence of other industrial emergency events such as fires or structural collapses will add to the seriousness of the emergency situation. The essential aspects of Radiation Emergency Planning include notification, assessment of situation, foresight, definition of roles and responsibilities including health safety and environmental concepts. An important contribution to the Emergency Planning is the proper intelligent medical response. Another essential parameter is the training of personnel that will undertake the responsibility of executing the emergency procedures according to the various emergency situations. The main features of the radiation Emergency Plan in Petroleum industry is presented in the text

  9. Online Petroleum Industry Bibliographic Databases: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Margaret B.

    This paper discusses the present status of the bibliographic database industry, reviews the development of online databases of interest to the petroleum industry, and considers future developments in online searching and their effect on libraries and information centers. Three groups of databases are described: (1) databases developed by the…

  10. Facts 2002. The Norwegian petroleum sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    The petroleum sector is highly significant for the Norwegian economy. Its share of gross domestic product, exports and total government revenues has been substantial over the past two decades, reaching a particularly high level in 2000 and 2001. The principal reason why revenues were so high in these two years is a combination of high oil prices, a strong USD against the NOK and historically high petroleum production. The share of petroleum investment in total capital spending in the Norwegian economy was at its highest in the early 1990s. Total investment in the petroleum sector has been above NOK 40 bn every year since 1992, and peaked in 1998 at roughly NOK 80 bn. Capital spending declined to around NOK 56.9 bn in 2001. The government's most important revenue sources in recent years have been cash flow from the state's direct financial interest (SDFI) and from taxes. Production of crude oil has averaged around three mill barrels per day since 1996. The figure for 2001 was 3.1 mill barrels. Including natural gas liquids (NGL) and condensate raises the 2001 average to 3.4 mill barrels oe per day. At 53 mill scm oe, gas production was also high in 2001. Oil production is expected to remain more or less unchanged over the next few years, and then to go into a gradual decline. Gas output, on the other hand, should expand substantially over the coming decade and is expected to be increasingly significant in Norwegian petroleum output in future. The petroleum sector is also a substantial player internationally. Norway ranks as the world's sixth largest producer and third largest net exporter of oil. It is also the world's third largest exporter of pipeline gas, and Norwegian foreign sales of this commodity accounted for about two per cent of global consumption in 2001. Roughly 10 per cent of west European gas consumption is covered from Norway. Several changes were made to state participation in the petroleum sector during 2001. The government sold 15 per cent of the

  11. Facts 2002. The Norwegian petroleum sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The petroleum sector is highly significant for the Norwegian economy. Its share of gross (domestic product, exports and total government revenues has been substantial over the past two decades, reaching a particularly high level in 2000 and 2001. The principal reason why revenues were so high in these two years is a combination of high oil prices, a strong USD against the NOK and historically high petroleum production. The share of petroleum investment in total capital spending in the Norwegian economy was at its highest in the early 1990s. Total investment in the petroleum sector has been above NOK 40 bn every year since 1992, and peaked in 1998 at roughly NOK 80 bn. Capital spending declined to around NOK 56.9 bn in 2001. The government's most important revenue sources in recent years have been cash flow from the state's direct financial interest (SDFI) and from taxes. Production of crude oil has averaged around three mill barrels per day since 1996. The figure for 2001 was 3.1 mill barrels. Including natural gas liquids (NGL) and condensate raises the 2001 average to 3.4 mill barrels oe per day. At 53 mill scm oe, gas production was also high in 2001. Oil production is expected to remain more or less unchanged over the next few years, and then to go into a gradual decline. Gas output, on the other hand, should expand substantially over the coming decade and is expected to be increasingly significant in Norwegian petroleum output in future. The petroleum sector is also a substantial player internationally. Norway ranks as the world's sixth largest producer and third largest net exporter of oil. It is also the world's third largest exporter of pipeline gas, and Norwegian foreign sales of this commodity accounted for about two per cent of global consumption in 2001. Roughly 10 per cent of west European gas consumption is covered from Norway. Several changes were made to state participation in the petroleum sector during 2001. The government sold 15 per cent of the

  12. Facts 2002. The Norwegian petroleum sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    The petroleum sector is highly significant for the Norwegian economy. Its share of gross domestic product, exports and total government revenues has been substantial over the past two decades, reaching a particularly high level in 2000 and 2001. The principal reason why revenues were so high in these two years is a combination of high oil prices, a strong USD against the NOK and historically high petroleum production. The share of petroleum investment in total capital spending in the Norwegian economy was at its highest in the early 1990s. Total investment in the petroleum sector has been above NOK 40 bn every year since 1992, and peaked in 1998 at roughly NOK 80 bn. Capital spending declined to around NOK 56.9 bn in 2001. The government's most important revenue sources in recent years have been cash flow from the state's direct financial interest (SDFI) and from taxes. Production of crude oil has averaged around three mill barrels per day since 1996. The figure for 2001 was 3.1 mill barrels. Including natural gas liquids (NGL) and condensate raises the 2001 average to 3.4 mill barrels oe per day. At 53 mill scm oe, gas production was also high in 2001. Oil production is expected to remain more or less unchanged over the next few years, and then to go into a gradual decline. Gas output, on the other hand, should expand substantially over the coming decade and is expected to be increasingly significant in Norwegian petroleum output in future. The petroleum sector is also a substantial player internationally. Norway ranks as the world's sixth largest producer and third largest net exporter of oil. It is also the world's third largest exporter of pipeline gas, and Norwegian foreign sales of this commodity accounted for about two per cent of global consumption in 2001. Roughly 10 per cent of west European gas consumption is covered from Norway. Several changes were made to state participation in the petroleum sector during 2001. The government sold

  13. Petroleum and mineral resources of Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovar, Karel; Behrendt, John Charles

    1983-01-01

    No known petroleum or mineral resources occur in Antarctica. The data on these subjects have been collected, mainly since the IGY (International Geophysical Year), 1957-58, as a part of other research carried out by geologists and geophysicists from a number of countries. Specific resource-related studies have not been made. Wright and Williams (1974) summarized what was known of Antarctic mineral resources a decade ago.The U.S. Geological Survey has been actively pursuing various investigations in Antarctica since 194 7. In the course of this work and that of our colleagues elsewhere in the United States and in other countries, much information relevant to petroleum and mineral resources has been obtained. Since 1976, modern state-of-the-art multichannel seismic reflection and aeromagnetic surveys by several countries over the continental margin of Antarctica have indicated thick sedimentary basins. However, no offshore drilling beneath the continental shelf has taken place since the DSDP (Deep Sea Drilling Project) holes in the Ross Sea in 1973. Geologic field investigations begun at the turn of the twentieth century have been intensified in the past two decades; most rock outcrops have been visited and samples collected. Technology to exploit resources, particularly in the Arctic, has been developing at a rapid rate, and much of it could be applied to Antarctica. As a result of the petroleum price increases of the past decade, the attention of a number of countries has turned to Antarctica, but under the policy of "voluntary restraint" adopted by the Antarctic Treaty nations, no active petroleum or mineral exploration is taking place. The Antarctic treaty countries are in the process of negotiating an Antarctic mineral resources regime that is anticipated to be completed within the next several years. Therefore it seemed timely to us to readdress the question of petroleum and mineral resources. These reports review and summarize the available information. The

  14. Fact Sheet 1999. Norwegian Petroleum Activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breivik, Jan

    1999-10-01

    As discussed in this publication, petroleum resources in the order of 9.5 billion (bn) standard cubic metres (scm) oil equivalents (oe) have been discovered on the Norwegian continental shelf (NCS), 77 per cent in the North Sea, 19 per cent in the Norwegian Sea and four per cent in the Barents Sea. By the end of 1998, remaining reserves on the NCS totalled 1.6 bn scm of oil, 1.2 bn scm oe gas and 160 mill scm oe of natural gas liquids. Thirty-two exploration wells, including 21 wildcats and 11 for appraisal, were completed or temporarily abandoned on the NCS in 1998. 939 exploration wells had been completed or temporarily abandoned off Norway. In 1998 governmental approval was given for the Huldra, Snorre B phase II, Gullfaks satellites phase II and Yme Beta West. Norwegian offshore petroleum production in 1998 totalled 222.5 scm oe, including 168.9 mill scm oe of oil, 43.6 mill scm oe of gas and 10 mill scm oe of NGL/condensate. Oil production declined by 4 per cent compared with 1997, while gas sales rose by 2 per cent. The estimated value of Norwegian petroleum exports in 1998 was NOK 123 bn, or about 30 per cent of the country`s total earnings from foreign sales. Petroleum production and pipeline transport accounted for 12 per cent of Norway`s gross national product. Net government revenues from taxes and royalties on petroleum operations is put at 27.6 billion NOK. The publication also includes a list of white papers and a list of useful postal addresses. 23 figs., 14 tabs.

  15. The Chuar Petroleum System, Arizona and Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillis, Paul G.

    2016-01-01

    The Neoproterozoic Chuar Group consists of marine mudstone, sandstone and dolomitic strata divided into the Galeros and Kwagunt Formations, and is exposed only in the eastern Grand Canyon, Arizona. Research by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in the late 1980s identified strata within the group to be possible petroleum source rocks, and in particular the Walcott Member of the Kwagunt Formation. Industry interest in a Chuar oil play led to several exploratory wells drilled in the 1990s in southern Utah and northern Arizona to test the overlying Cambrian Tapeats Sandstone reservoir, and confirm the existence of the Chuar in subcrop. USGS geochemical analyses of Tapeats oil shows in two wells have been tentatively correlated to Chuar bitumen extracts. Distribution of the Chuar in the subsurface is poorly constrained with only five well penetrations, but recently published gravity/aeromagnetic interpretations provide further insight into the Chuar subcrop distribution. The Chuar petroleum system was reexamined as part of the USGS Paradox Basin resource assessment in 2011. A map was constructed to delineate the Chuar petroleum system that encompasses the projected Chuar source rock distribution and all oil shows in the Tapeats Sandstone, assuming that the Chuar is the most likely source for such oil shows. Two hypothetical plays were recognized but not assessed: (1) a conventional play with a Chuar source and Tapeats reservoir, and (2) an unconventional play with a Chuar source and reservoir. The conventional play has been discouraging because most surface structures have been tested by drilling with minimal petroleum shows, and there is some evidence that petroleum may have been flushed by CO2 from Tertiary volcanism. The unconventional play is untested and remains promising even though the subcrop distribution of source facies within the Chuar Group is largely unknown.

  16. Analysis of petroleum oily sludge producing in petroleum field of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Cicero de Souza; Lima, Regineide Oliveira; Silva, Edjane Fabiula Buriti da; Castro, Kesia Kelly Vieira de; Chiavone Filho, Osvaldo; Araujo, Antonio Souza de [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), RN (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    In exploration and production of petroleum is generated solid waste different and components other. The petroleum oily sludge is a complex mix of components different (water, oil and solid). The petroleum oily sludge generally has other residues and is formed during production and operations, transport, storage and petroleum refining (atmospheric residue, vacuum residue and catalytic cracking residue). However, according to its origin, the compositions can be found quite varied for sludge. Observing the process steps production and refining is possible to locate its main sources and percentage contributions in terms of waste generation. The elemental analysis was performed with oily sludge from region and it showed different composition. For carbon element and hydrogen, small differences was observed, but for was observed greater differences for Oxygen element. The sludge has different inorganic and organic composition. The sludge from oil water separator (OWS) 2 showed a greater amount of oil (94.88%), this may indicate a residue of aggregate high for petroleum industry. In analysis of Saturates, Aromatics, Resins and Asphaltenes (SARA), the sludge from unloading showed amount high of saturates. The inorganic material separated from sludge was characterized and sludge from OWS 2 had high amount sulfur (41.57%). The sludge analyzed showed organic components high values, so it can be treated and reprocessed in process units petroleum industry. The analysis thermal degradation had a better setting for treated oily sludge. (author)

  17. Petroleum product scarcity: a review of the supply and distribution of petroleum products in Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akpoghomeh, Osi S.; Badejo, Dele

    2006-01-01

    Nigeria ranks high among the comity of oil producers both at the world level and among the OPEC eleven. It is, therefore, paradoxical that the supply of all petroleum products is erratic and has declined sharply in the recent past. This paper thus reviews the petroleum product supply and distribution systems in the country to ascertain the extent to which the system may have contributed to the present product scarcity in Nigeria and, by extension, identify the causes of the present regime of petroleum product scarcity. The paper observes that the network density and connectivity of petroleum product distribution pipelines are low and both indicators consequently show the inadequacy/deficiency of the network in ensuring an efficient distribution system. The supply mode, on the other hand, has, over the years, demonstrated its inability to guarantee adequate supply due to factors including sabotage, vandalism, banditry and poorly maintained infrastructure. Further, the federal government and the major and independent marketers could not sustain the importation of petroleum products because of the shortfall between the landed cost of imported products and their selling prices in Nigeria, which made the business unprofitable. Finally, the paper examines the withdrawal by the federal government of subsidies on the price of petroleum products consumed locally. All the above factors together occasioned increases in the cost of products. In conclusion, this paper supports the call for the privatization of refineries and the depot/pipeline system as a viable option to end the supply problems. (Author)

  18. Petroleum supply monthly with data for September 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    Data presented in this document describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major U.S. geographic regions. This document contains information on oil production, imports, exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 states and the District of Columbia). When aggregated, the data reported by the various petroleum sectors in this report approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the U.S.

  19. Petroleum industry 1996; L`industrie petroliere 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    A survey on petroleum industry activities in France and in the world in 1996 is presented. The different parts and themes of the study are: evolution of the petroleum market (international and French markets, supply and demand, prices, mark-up and taxation in France and in Europe); activities in the petroleum industries (exploration and production, maritime transportation, inland transportation and storage, refining, quality of petroleum products and substitution fuels, oil distribution); environment and safety (refining, distribution and evolution of products, pipeline and maritime transportation, exploration and production); situation of the sector`s companies (oil groups, para-petroleum French industry, scientific and technical research)

  20. Petroleum industry 1996; L`industrie petroliere 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    A survey on petroleum industry activities in France and in the world in 1996 is presented. The different parts and themes of the study are: evolution of the petroleum market (international and French markets, supply and demand, prices, mark-up and taxation in France and in Europe); activities in the petroleum industries (exploration and production, maritime transportation, inland transportation and storage, refining, quality of petroleum products and substitution fuels, oil distribution); environment and safety (refining, distribution and evolution of products, pipeline and maritime transportation, exploration and production); situation of the sector`s companies (oil groups, para-petroleum French industry, scientific and technical research)

  1. BIODEGRADATION OF PETROLEUM-WASTE BY BIOSURFACTANT-PRODUCING BACTERIA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brigmon, R; Grazyna A. Plaza, G; Kamlesh Jangid, K; Krystyna Lukasik, K; Grzegorz Nalecz-Jawecki, G; Topher Berry, T

    2007-05-16

    The degradation of petroleum waste by mixed bacterial cultures which produce biosurfactants: Ralstonia pickettii SRS (BP-20), Alcaligenes piechaudii SRS (CZOR L-1B), Bacillus subtilis (1'- 1a), Bacillus sp. (T-1) and Bacillus sp. (T'-1) was investigated. The total petroleum hydrocarbons were degraded substantially (91 %) by the mixed bacterial culture in 30 days (reaching up to 29 % in the first 72 h). Similarly, the toxicity of the biodegraded petroleum waste decreased 3 times after 30 days as compared to raw petroleum waste. Thus, the mixed bacterial strains effectively clean-up the petroleum waste and they can be used in other bioremediation processes.

  2. Petroleum marketing in Africa. Issues in pricing, taxation and investment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhagavan, M.R.

    1999-01-01

    This four part book examines and compares the liberalised petroleum marketing in Kenya with petroleum marketing in Ethiopia which has just begun the transition from state control to liberalisation. The petroleum sub-sector in both countries is put into context, and petroleum pricing and taxation issues, financing, marketing issues and policy are reviewed, and policy recommendations for both countries are given. The comparative analysis of the Ethiopian and Kenyan situations presented highlights some lessons for sub-Saharan Africa. Information and statistics on petroleum, marketing, and investment in sub-Saharan Africa are given in the appendix. (UK)

  3. Petroleum fiscality indicators; Reperes sur la fiscalite petroliere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-02-15

    This document presents the different taxes imposed to petroleum products in France: domestic tax on petroleum products (TIPP) and added value tax (TVA). A comparison is made with the fiscality into effect in other European countries for some petroleum products. Then, the fiscality is detailed for the different petroleum products and automotive fuels with its regional modulations. Finally, the fiscal measures adopted in 2007 are detailed. They concern the transposition of the European directive 2003-96/CE into French right and some fiscal regime changes given to some economical sectors particularly penalized by the rise of petroleum energy prices in 2007. (J.S.)

  4. Petroleum taxation under uncertainty: contingent claims analysis with an application to Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, D.

    1992-01-01

    Contingent claims analysis provides a useful tool for analysing the value of tax claims, and of companies' after-tax values, under uncertainty. The method is presented and applied to the analysis of how Norwegian petroleum taxes affect company behaviour. Few results can be derived analytically. A numerical approach is suggested, with a stylized description of production possibilities. The Norwegian taxes are found to have strong distortionary effects. The relation to other methods and problems connected with the application are discussed. (Author)

  5. Petroleum Supply Monthly, March 1996 (with data for January 1996)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-04

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  6. Petroleum supply monthly, September 1995 with data for July 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-27

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  7. Petroleum supply monthly - with data for May 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major U.S. geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. This document contains a glossary.

  8. Petroleum supply monthly, May 1995 with data for March 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-25

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  9. Petroleum supply monthly with data from April 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-06-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major U.S. geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.

  10. Petroleum Supply Monthly, September 1998, with data for July 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-28

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the suppiy and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major U.S. geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics

  11. Future petroleum energy resources of the world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlbrandt, T.S.

    2002-01-01

    Is the world running out of oil? Where will future oil and gas supplies come from? To help answer these questions, in 2000 the U.S. Geological Survey completed a new world assessment, exclusive of the United States, of the undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources and potential additions to reserves from field growth.2 One hundred and twenty-eight provinces were assessed in a 100 man-year effort from 1995-2000. The assessed provinces included 76 priority provinces containing 95% of the world's discovered oil and gas and an additional 52 "boutique" provinces, many of which may be highly prospective. Total Petroleum Systems (TPS) were identified and described for each of these provinces along with associated Assessment Units (AU) that are the basic units for assessing undiscovered petroleum. The assessment process coupled geologic analysis with a probabilistic methodology to estimate remaining potential. Within the 128 assessed provinces were 159 TPS and 274 AU. For these provinces, the endowment of recoverable oil-which includes cumulative production, remaining reserves, reserve growth, and undiscovered resources-is estimated at about 3 trillion barrels of oil (TBO). The natural gas endowment is estimated at 2.6 trillion barrels of oil equivalent (TBOE). Oil reserves are currently 1.1 TBO; world consumption is about .028 TBO per year. Natural gas reserves are about 0.8 TBOE; world consumption is about 0.014 TBOE per year. Thus, without any additional discoveries of oil, gas or natural gas liquids, we have about 2 TBOE of proved petroleum reserves. Of the oil and gas endowment of about 5.6 TBOE, we estimate that the world has consumed about 1 TBOE, or 18%, leaving about 82% of the endowment to be utilized or found. Half of the world's undiscovered potential is offshore. Arctic basins with about 25% of undiscovered petroleum resources make up the next great frontier. An additional 279 provinces contain some oil and gas and, if considered, would increase the oil

  12. Energy and public health: the challenge of peak petroleum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frumkin, Howard; Hess, Jeremy; Vindigni, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    Petroleum is a unique and essential energy source, used as the principal fuel for transportation, in producing many chemicals, and for numerous other purposes. Global petroleum production is expected to reach a maximum in the near future and to decline thereafter, a phenomenon known as "peak petroleum." This article reviews petroleum geology and uses, describes the phenomenon of peak petroleum, and reviews the scientific literature on the timing of this transition. It then discusses how peak petroleum may affect public health and health care, by reference to four areas: medical supplies and equipment, transportation, energy generation, and food production. Finally, it suggests strategies for anticipating and preparing for peak petroleum, both general public health preparedness strategies and actions specific to the four expected health system impacts.

  13. Petroleum supply monthly, March 1995 with data for January 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-30

    Data presented in this report for March 1995, describes the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.

  14. Laws of the electrochemical soils remediation from petroleum pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korolev, V.A. [Moscow State Univ. (Russian Federation)

    2001-07-01

    The man-caused petroleum pollution of humus and soils in places of oil production, and also the pollution of geological environment by petroleum is carried out in growing scales. Very much frequently of ground and soils become soiled by petroleum at failures during transportation of petroleum. The humus and clay soils polluted by petroleum causes destruction ecosystems and landscapes. Therefore finding - out of the nature and mechanisms of interaction water-saturated dispersed soils with the liquid hydrocarbons becomes one of priority problems in the field of ecological geology. The development of methods of electrochemical clearing soils from the liquid hydrocarbons pollution is the important task too. Therefore, the study of dependences of a double electrical layer (DEL) parameters of the water-petroleum-saturated caolinite clay and electrochemical migration in it of petroleum was the purpose of the present work. (orig.)

  15. Petroleum marketing monthly with data for January 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-04-01

    This publication provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. Statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales are presented. Data on crude oil include the domestic purchase price, the free on board and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. Monthly statistics on purchases of crude oils and sales of petroleum products are presented in five sections: (1) summary statistics, (2) crude oil prices, (3) prices of petroleum products, (4) volumes of petroleum products, and (5) prime supplier sales volumes of petroleum products for local consumption. 50 tabs.

  16. Treatment of petroleum hydrocarbon polluted environment through bioremediation: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kriti; Chandra, Subhash

    2014-01-01

    Bioremediation play key role in the treatment of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated environment. Exposure of petroleum hydrocarbon into the environment occurs either due to human activities or accidentally and cause environmental pollution. Petroleum hydrocarbon cause many toxic compounds which are potent immunotoxicants and carcinogenic to human being. Remedial methods for the treatment of petroleum contaminated environment include various physiochemical and biological methods. Due to the negative consequences caused by the physiochemical methods, the bioremediation technology is widely adapted and considered as one of the best technology for the treatment of petroleum contaminated environment. Bioremediation utilizes the natural ability of microorganism to degrade the hazardous compound into simpler and non hazardous form. This paper provides a review on the role of bioremediation in the treatment of petroleum contaminated environment, discuss various hazardous effects of petroleum hydrocarbon, various factors influencing biodegradation, role of various enzymes in biodegradation and genetic engineering in bioremediation.

  17. Petroleum supply monthly, August 1995 with data for June 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-25

    Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  18. Do plants modulate biomass allocation in response to petroleum pollution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Ming; Yang, Qiang; Jiang, Li-Fen; Fang, Chang-Ming; Chen, Jia-Kuan; Li, Bo

    2010-01-01

    Biomass allocation is an important plant trait that responds plastically to environmental heterogeneities. However, the effects on this trait of pollutants owing to human activities remain largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the response of biomass allocation of Phragmites australis to petroleum pollution by a 13CO2 pulse-labelling technique. Our data show that plant biomass significantly decreased under petroleum pollution, but the root–shoot ratio for both plant biomass and 13C increased with increasing petroleum concentration, suggesting that plants could increase biomass allocation to roots in petroleum-polluted soil. Furthermore, assimilated 13C was found to be significantly higher in soil, microbial biomass and soil respiration after soils were polluted by petroleum. These results suggested that the carbon released from roots is rapidly turned over by soil microbes under petroleum pollution. This study found that plants can modulate biomass allocation in response to petroleum pollution. PMID:20484231

  19. The petroleum industry in 2002; L'industrie petroliere en 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    This document presents the petroleum industry situation in 2002 on the following topics: the evolution of the crude oil prices, the world petroleum exploration and production, the french petroleum exploration and production, the para-petroleum industry, the supplies in hydrocarbons, the refining, the evolution of the products quality and the substitution fuels, the internal transportation of petroleum products, the petroleum products storage and the crisis management, the petroleum products consumption, the taxation of the petroleum products, the prices of the petroleum products, the distribution of the petroleum products. (A.L.B.)

  20. Development of a hybrid proximal sensing method for rapid identification of petroleum contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakraborty, Somsubhra [Ramakrishna Mission Vivekananda University, Kolkata (India); Weindorf, David C., E-mail: david.weindorf@ttu.edu [Department of Plant and Soil Science, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX (United States); Li, Bin [Department of Experimental Statistics, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA (United States); Ali Aldabaa, Abdalsamad Abdalsatar [Desert Research Center, Cairo (Egypt); Ghosh, Rakesh Kumar [National Institute of Research on Jute and Allied Fibre Technology, Kolkata (India); Paul, Sathi; Nasim Ali, Md. [Ramakrishna Mission Vivekananda University, Kolkata (India)

    2015-05-01

    Using 108 petroleum contaminated soil samples, this pilot study proposed a new analytical approach of combining visible near-infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (VisNIR DRS) and portable X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (PXRF) for rapid and improved quantification of soil petroleum contamination. Results indicated that an advanced fused model where VisNIR DRS spectra-based penalized spline regression (PSR) was used to predict total petroleum hydrocarbon followed by PXRF elemental data-based random forest regression was used to model the PSR residuals, it outperformed (R{sup 2} = 0.78, residual prediction deviation (RPD) = 2.19) all other models tested, even producing better generalization than using VisNIR DRS alone (RPD's of 1.64, 1.86, and 1.96 for random forest, penalized spline regression, and partial least squares regression, respectively). Additionally, unsupervised principal component analysis using the PXRF + VisNIR DRS system qualitatively separated contaminated soils from control samples. Capsule: Fusion of PXRF elemental data and VisNIR derivative spectra produced an optimized model for total petroleum hydrocarbon quantification in soils. - Highlights: • PXRF elemental data and VisNIR DRS spectra were correlated to soil TPH. • VisNIR + PSR was used to predict TPH followed by PXRF + RF to predict the residuals. • The fused model produced better results than other multivariate models tested.

  1. The effects of perennial ryegrass and alfalfa on microbial abundance and diversity in petroleum contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirk, Jennifer L.; Klironomos, John N.; Lee, Hung; Trevors, Jack T.

    2005-01-01

    Enhanced rhizosphere degradation uses plants to stimulate the rhizosphere microbial community to degrade organic contaminants. We measured changes in microbial communities caused by the addition of two species of plants in a soil contaminated with 31,000 ppm of total petroleum hydrocarbons. Perennial ryegrass and/or alfalfa increased the number of rhizosphere bacteria in the hydrocarbon-contaminated soil. These plants also increased the number of bacteria capable of petroleum degradation as estimated by the most probable number (MPN) method. Eco-Biolog plates did not detect changes in metabolic diversity between bulk and rhizosphere samples but denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis of PCR-amplified partial 16S rDNA sequences indicated a shift in the bacterial community in the rhizosphere samples. Dice coefficient matrices derived from DGGE profiles showed similarities between the rhizospheres of alfalfa and perennial ryegrass/alfalfa mixture in the contaminated soil at week seven. Perennial ryegrass and perennial ryegrass/alfalfa mixture caused the greatest change in the rhizosphere bacterial community as determined by DGGE analysis. We concluded that plants altered the microbial population; these changes were plant-specific and could contribute to degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in contaminated soil. - Plant-specific changes in microbial populations on roots affect degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in contaminated soil

  2. Petroleum products price interactions on the world markets: an econometric analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maack, Laetitia de; Lantz, Frederic

    2012-09-01

    This study examines the relationship between crude oil and petroleum products prices in the European, Asian and North American markets. We develop an econometric model, based on the long term equilibrium between the prices, which takes into account the changes in the oil product demand trends. We explain price behaviors by the impact of the demand trends. Because the refining industry which transforms crude into petroleum products is a joint product industry, petroleum product pricing is affected by demand trends both in terms of quality and quantity. Consequently, the long term equilibrium between prices, estimated through a co-integration approach, are affected by several structural breaks. We also develop a panel econometric model which simultaneously takes into account the relative prices of ail world products towards one crude. Finally, the different results are compared to the marginal costs derived from an oil refining optimization model. This econometric modeling approach enables a better understanding of the long term equilibrium between prices of petroleum products and crude. (authors)

  3. Comparative analysis of petroleum exploration contracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    A principal mandate of the UNCTAD's Division on Transnational Corporations and Investment (DTCI) is to provide advisory and training services to requesting Governments aimed at strengthening their capabilities in dealing with the whole range of issues which arise in relationships between the Governments of host countries and transnational corporations (TNCs) in any natural resource, manufacturing or service sector. One of the areas in which DTCI has assisted many Governments and has accumulated considerable knowledge and experience is on matters related to the involvement of TNCs in the exploration, development and production of national petroleum resources. In this context, DTCI has provided advisory and training services related to formulating or reviewing national petroleum policies, laws and regulations, including taxation in the petroleum sector; assessing the merits of alternative forms of contractual arrangements taking into account national objectives and resources; formulating or reviewing bidding arrangements and procedures; drafting or reviewing model contracts and undertaking related economic and computer analyses; evaluating the economic, financial, legal and operational aspects of specific proposed contractual arrangements with TNCs; evaluating bids received from TNCs M the context of specific projects; preparing for negotiation with TNCs, including the formulation of negotiating positions and strategies; and formulating or reviewing legislative, institutional and other arrangements related to the establishment, functions and operation of national petroleum companies. The objective of the present paper is to assist policy-makers, especially in developing countries, in taking full advantage of the changing and increasingly complex forms of relationship evolving between host Governments and TNCs in the petroleum sector. The paper takes into account the policies and arrangements adopted by Governments in their dealings with TNCs, as well as DTCI's own

  4. Norwegian petroleum technology. A success story

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    In many ways, the Norwegian petroleum industry is an economic and technological fairy tale. In the course of a little more than 30 years Norway has developed a petroleum industry with world class products and solutions. This book highlights some of the stories behind this Norwegian success. A strong Norwegian home market has helped Norwegian industries to develop technologies in the absolute forefront. In some important areas, like the subsea market, the Norwegian 'oil cluster' became world leaders through companies like Vetco, Aker Kvaerner and FMC Technologies. Advanced products for the domestic market, with cost effective and flexible solutions, are also sought after in the international market place. Norwegian companies are now involved in some of the world's foremost projects, from Sakhalin in the east to Brazil in the west and Angola in the south. Norway, with its 4.5 million inhabitants, is a very small country indeed. As an energy supplier, however, Norway will play an increasingly important role. This will require an even stronger emphasis on research, competence and technology development. Today some 75.000 highly qualified people are working directly in the Norwegian petroleum industry, where the domestic market is still strong with large field developments like Snoehvit and Ormen Lange. Norway has established a unique Petroleum Fund, which currently is passing $ 160 billion, and political leaders in resource rich oil countries are looking to Norway for inspiration and guidance. This book describes some of the best technology stories that have emerged from Norwegian research institutions. Financial support, text and illustrations from the companies and institutions presented in the book have made its publication possible and are gratefully acknowledged. An editorial committee has been responsible for producing the book under the chairmanship of Research Director Ole Lindefjeld of ConocoPhillips, who once demonstrated a multiplier effect of at least 15

  5. Petroleum software and the road ahead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heggelund, D.G.

    1996-01-01

    Regardless of what software vendors want to do, in the end, it is the user, through his/her choices of software products, who will decide what the software of the petroleum-engineering industry will look like. In this article, the author has looked at several items that will impact the future of petroleum-engineering software. Out of these, two will stand out: (1) the adoption of a single integrated dynamic reservoir model and (2) the move to a client/server architecture. However, the biggest challenge for both vendors and users will be to manage change. This will require users to participate more actively in the development of new technology and to be willing to pay for it, and it will require vendors to adopt standards more readily

  6. Petroleum biodegradation and oil spill bioremediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atlas, R.M.

    1995-01-01

    Hydrocarbon-utilizing microorganisms are ubiquitously distributed in the marine environment following oil spills. These microorganisms naturally biodegrade numerous contaminating petroleum hydrocarbons, thereby cleansing the oceans of oil pullutants. Bioremediation, which is accomplished by adding exogenous microbial populations or stimulating indigenous ones, attempts to raise the rates of degradation found naturally to significantly higher rates. Seeding with oil degraders has not been demonstrated to be effective, but addition of nitrogenous fertilizers has been shown to increase rates of petroleum biodegradation. In the case of the Exxon Valdez spill, the largest and most thoroughly studied application of bioremediation, the application of fertilizer (slow release or oleophilic) increased rates of biodegradation 3-5 times. Because of the patchiness of oil, an internally conserved compound, hopane, was critical for demonstrating the efficacy of bioremediation. Multiple regression models showed that the effectiveness of bioremediation depended upon the amount of nitrogen delivered, the concentration of oil, and time. (author)

  7. Innovations in petroleum and mining licensing?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waelde, T.W.

    1992-01-01

    Issues are presented which could be regarded as recent innovations, relatively speaking, in petroleum and mining operations licensing practice. Six examples of such innovations are given. They are: the encouragement rather than restriction of private investment reflected in policies, legislation and the details of foreign investment arrangements; de-bureaucratisation and a declining emphasis on the role of the state in resource development; the gradual transition towards the role model of international resource companies which is damaging the nature of state owned petroleum and mining companies; greater flexibility in fiscal regimes; the introduction of and much greater emphasis upon, environment protection provisions; and finally, a possible change towards standardized bidding and bid evaluation in negotiations. (UK)

  8. Handling process disturbances in petroleum production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sten, T; Bodsberg, L; Ingstad, O; Ulleberg, T

    1988-06-01

    Factors of importance in successful handling of major disturbances and crisis situations in petroleum production are discussed. Case studies based on interviews, questionnaires and systematic observations have been undertaken to identify critical factors in human computer design, in operator competence and attitudes and in work organization. It is shown that certain features of the humancomputer interaction become critical when serious disturbances are encountered. Likewise focusing on requirements during disturbances in particular has highlighted some new aspects of operator competence and of the work organization. The results are considered to be useful input to safety management in petroleum process plants, in formation of design specifications and in identifying need for further research regarding safety in offshore production.

  9. USGS Methodology for Assessing Continuous Petroleum Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy A.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has developed a new quantitative methodology for assessing resources in continuous (unconventional) petroleum deposits. Continuous petroleum resources include shale gas, coalbed gas, and other oil and gas deposits in low-permeability ("tight") reservoirs. The methodology is based on an approach combining geologic understanding with well productivities. The methodology is probabilistic, with both input and output variables as probability distributions, and uses Monte Carlo simulation to calculate the estimates. The new methodology is an improvement of previous USGS methodologies in that it better accommodates the uncertainties in undrilled or minimally drilled deposits that must be assessed using analogs. The publication is a collection of PowerPoint slides with accompanying comments.

  10. Environmental protection systems for the petroleum industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowe, G.B.

    1996-01-01

    The transportation of petroleum products and other chemicals can involve spillage and leaks despite being closely controlled. Human error in the loading of road tankers or consumers refuelling their vehicles at service stations can lead to spillage accidents. Seepage through permeable concrete and its expansion joints can occur for diesel underground tanks with serious environmental consequences. This article describes methods which could be adopted by the petroleum industry to prevent these accidental incidents from causing environmental pollution. Service station forecourts could be constructed, using precast concrete hexagonal blocks with dry sand between them and then have a coating of sealant to prevent spills from seeping into ground water. Secondary containment for underground tanks should be given an elastomeric membrane coating. (UK)

  11. Geopolitics of petroleum; Geopolitiques du petrole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sebille-Lopez, Ph

    2006-01-15

    The unexpected rise of oil prices since 2004 reveals some structural weaknesses of oil markets in front of the evolution of demand. It conceals considerable stakes, more political than strategic, like the securing of oil and petroleum product supplies of big consumers like the USA and China. This demand generates deep changes in the relations between the different actors, from Venezuela to Russia, from the Caspian sea to the Arab-Persian gulf, from the Mediterranean sea to the gulf of Guinea. Terrorists, who try to destabilize markets using threats on petroleum infrastructures, add-up a risk dimension to the uncertainties. The author proposes a world tour of the main production areas, along the 'oil roads' where the main strategic manoeuvres take place. He shades light on the main power stakes: pressure, tensions, threats and deals, alliances, ruptures and potential conflicts. The complex and multiple motivations are explained. (J.S.)

  12. The petroleum industry in 1998 - 1999 edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The drop of the oil quotations, which reached up to 50 % of their 1997 average value, was the outstanding event of the year 1998. A comparable event was observed more than 25 years ago before the first oil crack. 1998 was also the year of major changes in the petroleum industry with the BP-Amoco fusion, followed by the Exxon-Mobil fusion (the biggest fusion of the worldwide history of industry), and finally followed by the Total-Petrofina one. This document presents, in the form of thematic articles, the impact of the 1998 events on the entire petroleum activities. It comprises the most recent reference data, necessary for the understanding of the economy of this sector. (J.S.)

  13. Compatibility of agriculture and petroleum industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, W.C.

    1992-01-01

    Problems observed in the interaction of agriculture and the petroleum industry are discussed. A wide variety of chemicals are used at drill sites. Caustic soda, chromates, asbestos, crude oil, and thread collar compound (30-50% lead) can all cause cattle poisoning. Cattle can fall into mud pits and drown. Well fracking can lead to spillage of acids onto pasture or crop land. After well production, animal poisonings can occur from salt water or lead from oil and grease, and injuries can be caused by the moving parts of the pumper unit. Salt water ingestion is a common problem, and salt concentrations >1% in drinking water can cause salt poisoning. Arsenic- and chromate-based corrosion inhibitors can cause poisoning of cattle. Broken transmission lines and leakage of petroleums allow cattle access to these substances

  14. Guide about petroleum strategic stockpiles in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-03-01

    The strategic character of petroleum products has been perceived since the first world war. It has led France to impose the petroleum operators to make stockpiles to provide against the consequences of a serious disruption of supplies. As a difference with some other industrialized countries like the USA or Japan, French stockpiles are made of finite products. A balanced geographical distribution of these stocks over the whole national territory increases their efficiency. Stockpiles of IEA member states must represent 90 days of net imports while those of European Union member states must represent 90 days of average domestic consumption. In France, each chartered operator contributes to the strategic storage and the stored volumes are defined by the law no 92-1443 from December 31, 1992. These stocks are permanently controlled and financial sanctions are applied in case of infraction. Particular dispositions are applied in overseas departments which are summarized in this paper. (J.S.)

  15. Petroleum term markets and OPEC producers countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bensarsa, F.

    1994-01-01

    The situation of petroleum producers countries in front of term markets is described. With an economics liberalization, policy configuration changing the energetic balance (increasing of american imports, of asiatic demand and developing countries; decreasing of russian production), a more efficient technology, a right management of energetic resources with energy economy, renewable energies and non polluting energies, it is difficult for producers countries to resist at the pressure of financing tools, more and more modern and efficient as they are term markets

  16. Prices of petroleum decreased, but only awhile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debnar, M.

    2003-01-01

    Development of world prices of petroleum of first six months of 2003 is analysed. The influence of oil production in Iraq on oil world price is discussed. Considerations of representatives of various countries about the possibility of using Euro as currency for oil are presented. OPEC representatives stated that they are not thinking about accounting in another currency as US dollars for the time being. (Author)

  17. India's Downstream Petroleum Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This study provides a holistic examination of pricing and investment dynamics in India's downstream petroleum sector. It analyses the current pricing practices, highlights the tremendous fiscal cost of current pricing and regulatory arrangements, and examines the sectoral investment dynamics. It also looks at potential paths towards market-based reform along which the Indian government may move, while at the same time protecting energy market access for India's large poor population.

  18. A cointegration analysis of petroleum futures prices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serletis, Apostolos (Calgary Univ., AB (Canada). Dept. of Economics)

    1994-04-01

    This paper presents evidence concerning the number of common stochastic trends in a system of three petroleum futures prices (crude oil, heating oil and unleaded gasoline) using daily data from 3 December 1984 to 30 April 1993. Johansen's maximum likelihood approach for estimating long-run relations in multivariate vector autoregressive models is used. The results indicate the presence of only one common trend. (author)

  19. Forecasting the demand for petroleum industrial equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buvailo, I A; Koval' chuk, V M; Yakovlev, Yu D

    1977-01-01

    An examination is made of a broad method of future industrial planning which yields optimal results and is based on the fact that the need for new technology stems from the number of operations which must be completed within the period being analyzed and from the productivity of the machinery slated for use. Formulas are presented for determining the need for several types of new petroleum industrial machinery, and an analysis is made of the components of a mathematical model. 3 references.

  20. It is necessary to find more petroleum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The paper analyze the importance of the petroleum in the world economy, where the crude will be for several decades more, the fuel of the world economy and that the task for Colombia is to find new reserves. To complete it, the country has the necessary time and a high probability that it comes off of the signature of about sixty association contracts in two years and the perforation of seven prospecting of great impact