WorldWideScience

Sample records for petroleum analysis vol

  1. Petroleum product refining: plant level analysis of costs and competitiveness. Implications of greenhouse gas emission reductions. Vol 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, S.J.; Crandall, G.R.; Houlton, G.A.; Kromm, R.B.

    1999-01-01

    Implications on the Canadian refining industry of reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to meet Canada's Kyoto commitment are assessed, based on a plant-level analysis of costs, benefits and economic and competitive impacts. It was determined on the basis of demand estimates prepared by Natural Resources Canada that refining industry carbon dioxide emissions could be as much a 38 per cent higher than 1990 levels in 2010. Achieving a six per cent reduction below 1990 levels from this business-as-usual case is considered a very difficult target to achieve, unless refinery shutdowns occur. This would require higher imports to meet Canada's petroleum products demand, leaving total carbon dioxide emissions virtually unchanged. A range of options, classified as (1) low capital, operating efficiency projects, (2) medium capital, process/utility optimization projects, (3) high capital, refinery specific projects, and (4) high operating cost GHG projects, were evaluated. Of these four alternatives, the low capital or operating efficiency projects were the only ones judged to have the potential to be economically viable. Energy efficiency projects in these four groups were evaluated under several policy initiatives including accelerated depreciation and a $200 per tonne of carbon tax. Result showed that an accelerated depreciation policy would lower the hurdle rate for refinery investments, and could achieve a four per cent reduction in GHG emissions below 1990 levels, assuming no further shutdown of refinery capacity. The carbon tax was judged to be potentially damaging to the Canadian refinery industry since it would penalize cracking refineries (most Canadian refineries are of this type); it would provide further uncertainty and risk, such that industry might not be able to justify investments to reduce emissions. The overall assessment is that the Canadian refinery industry could not meet the pro-rata Kyoto GHG reduction target through implementation of economically

  2. SWOT ANALYSIS - CHINESE PETROLEUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunlan Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article was written in early December 2013,combined with the historical development andthe latest data on the Chinese Petroleum carried SWOT- analysis. This paper discusses corporate resources, cost, management and external factorssuch as the political environment and the marketsupply and demand, conducted a comprehensiveand profound analysis.

  3. SWOT ANALYSIS - CHINESE PETROLEUM

    OpenAIRE

    Chunlan Wang; Lei Zhang; Qi Zhong

    2014-01-01

    This article was written in early December 2013, combined with the historical development and the latest data on the Chinese Petroleum carried SWOTanalysis. This paper discusses corporate resources, cost, management and external factors such as the political environment and the market supply and demand, conducted a comprehensive and profound analysis.

  4. Isotope analysis in petroleum exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, R.

    1982-01-01

    The study about isotopic analysis in petroleum exploration performed at Petrobras Research Center is showed. The results of the petroleum recuperation in same Brazilian basin and shelves are comented. (L.H.L.L.) [pt

  5. Analysis of foreign petroleum contracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moran, S.S.

    1991-01-01

    Most foreign exploration and production contracts are of two basic types: Production-Sharing contracts in which a portion of oil revenues, 'cost oil,' is available to the contractor for recoupment of exploration and production costs with the remainder, 'profit oil,' being shared according to an agreed-upon formula, and the familiar Tax-Royalty contract in which a share of petroleum revenues goes to the host country 'off the top' as royalties, and operating profits are taxed at the going rate. Bottom line splits of profits between host governments and contractors, which are approximately 50-50 in the United States, are typically in the 60-40 to 85-15 range elsewhere, with lower profit shares being offset by the higher volume potential and lower costs that may be associated with less mature exploration areas. Foreign contract qualities can be grossly compared by walking typical field models through the contracts to arrive at the bottom line profit splits. Variations within the contract forms include government participation, sliding scale contract elements, special taxes related to rates of return, etc. Often, contract terms are subject to negotiation and the tradeoffs between contract elements must be understood. Contract life, amortization schedules, fund repatriation, currency exchange rates, and the interaction of foreign and United States tax regimens are among the other factors that must be considered. Final decisions on foreign ventures must combine consideration of contracts, economic projections, hydrocarbon volumes, exploration cost estimates, and the estimated probability of success into an overall project assessment

  6. Petroleum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2000-01-01

    Here are briefly summarized 1)the OPEC decisions and their consequences concerning the production of petroleum in the world 2)some news about the petroleum industry in Chad and in Iraq 3)some news about the new pipelines constructed or to be constructed in the world 4)some news about the LPG industry (start of a LPG extraction unit in Argentina, legislation in France for LPG vehicles) 4)and some news about the petroleum distribution in France. (O.M.)

  7. Petroleum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2000-01-01

    Here are gathered the results of the year 1999 concerning the petroleum industry in France ('UFIP' data), the market quotations of crude oil, the prices of fuels in France and in Portugal and some news about the petroleum industry in Algeria (privatization, exploration-offshore, repurchase), in Iraq (exports, contracts with foreign companies), in Russian Federation (petroleum pipelines and oil ports constructions) and in Chad (production sharing, offshore sites discoveries). (O.M.)

  8. Petroleum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, T. R.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    This review of petroleum covers: crude oil; fuels, gaseous and liquid; lubricants, oils, and greases; asphalts, bitumens, tars, and pitches; hydrocarbons; physical properties; metals in oil; nonmetallic elements and heterocompounds; and analytical methods and apparatus. (MVL)

  9. Analysis of petroleum oily sludge producing in petroleum field of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Cicero de Souza; Lima, Regineide Oliveira; Silva, Edjane Fabiula Buriti da; Castro, Kesia Kelly Vieira de; Chiavone Filho, Osvaldo; Araujo, Antonio Souza de [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), RN (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    In exploration and production of petroleum is generated solid waste different and components other. The petroleum oily sludge is a complex mix of components different (water, oil and solid). The petroleum oily sludge generally has other residues and is formed during production and operations, transport, storage and petroleum refining (atmospheric residue, vacuum residue and catalytic cracking residue). However, according to its origin, the compositions can be found quite varied for sludge. Observing the process steps production and refining is possible to locate its main sources and percentage contributions in terms of waste generation. The elemental analysis was performed with oily sludge from region and it showed different composition. For carbon element and hydrogen, small differences was observed, but for was observed greater differences for Oxygen element. The sludge has different inorganic and organic composition. The sludge from oil water separator (OWS) 2 showed a greater amount of oil (94.88%), this may indicate a residue of aggregate high for petroleum industry. In analysis of Saturates, Aromatics, Resins and Asphaltenes (SARA), the sludge from unloading showed amount high of saturates. The inorganic material separated from sludge was characterized and sludge from OWS 2 had high amount sulfur (41.57%). The sludge analyzed showed organic components high values, so it can be treated and reprocessed in process units petroleum industry. The analysis thermal degradation had a better setting for treated oily sludge. (author)

  10. Petroleum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chautard, S.

    2008-01-01

    While petroleum has become an indispensable product in our everyday life, it is more and more question of an oil shortage. This book makes a status of the real situation. Starting from the industrial revolution and the history of oil exploitation, it explains the main present day stakes: the depletion of reserves, the environmental aspects and the search for alternative energy solutions. (J.S.)

  11. A background to risk analysis. Vol. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, J.R.

    1979-01-01

    This 4-volumes report gives a background of ideas, principles, and examples which might be of use in developing practical methods for risk analysis. Some of the risk analysis techniques described are somewhat experimental. The report is written in an introductory style, but where some point needs further justifi- cation or evaluation, this is given in the form of a chapter appenix. In this way, it is hoped that the report can serve two purposes, - as a basis for starting risk analysis work and as a basis for discussing effectiveness of risk analysis procedures. The report should be seen as a preliminary stage, prior to a program of industrial trials of risk analysis methods. Vol. 3 contains chapters on quantification of risk, failure and accident probability, risk analysis and design, and examles of risk analysis for process plant. (BP)

  12. A background risk analysis. Vol. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, J.R.

    1979-01-01

    This 4-volumes report gives a background of ideas, principles, and examples which might be of use in developing practical methods for risk analysis. Some of the risk analysis techniques, described are somewhat experimental. The report is written in an introductory style, but where some point needs further justification or evaluation, this is given in the form of a chapter appendix. In this way, it is hoped that the report can serve two purposes, - as a basis for starting risk analysis work and as a basis for discussing effectiveness of risk analysis procedures. The report should be seen as a preliminary stage, prior to a program of industrial trials of risk analysis methods. Vol. 1 contains a short history of risk analysis, and chapters on risk, failures, errors and accidents, and general procedures for risk analysis. (BP)

  13. A background to risk analysis. Vol. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, J.R.

    1979-01-01

    This 4-volumes report gives a background of ideas, principles and examples which might be of use in developing practical methods for risk analysis. Some of the risk analysis techniques described are somewhat experimental. The report is written in an introductory style, but where some point needs further justification or evaluation, this is given in the form of a chapter appendix. In this way, it is hoped that the report can serve two purposes, - as a basis for starting risk analysis work and as a basis for discussing effectiveness of risk analysis procedures. The report should be seen as a preliminary stage, prior to a program of industrial trials of risk analysis methods. Vol. 2 treats generic methods of qualitative failure analysis. (BP)

  14. Analysis of soils contaminated with petroleum constituents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Shay, T.A.; Hoddinott, K.

    1994-01-01

    This symposium was held in Atlanta, Georgia on June 24, 1993. The purpose of the symposium was to provide a forum for exchange of information on petroleum contaminated soils. When spilled on the ground, petroleum products can cause massive problems in the environment. In this Special Technical Publication (STP), papers were selected in two categories; the analytical procedures for soil contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons and the behavior of hydrocarbon contaminated soils. Individual papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases

  15. A background to risk analysis. Vol. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, J.R.

    1979-01-01

    This 4-volumes report gives a background of ideas, principles, and examples which might be of use in developing practical methods for risk analysis. Some of the risk analysis techniques described are somewhat experimental. The report is written in an introductory style, but where some point needs further justification or evaluation, this is given in the form of a chapter appendix. In this way, it is hoped that the report can serve two purposes, - as a basis for starting risk analysis work and as a basis for discussing effectiveness of risk analysis procedures. The report should be seen as a preliminary stage, prior to a program of industrial trials of risk analysis methods. Vol. 4 treats human error in plant operation. (BP)

  16. Petroleum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lugg, W G

    1967-07-01

    This discussion of the Canadian petroleum industry for the year 1966 includes production statistics and operating procedures, reserve estimates, exploration and development, transportation, refining, and marketing. Most sectors of the Canadian industry had an excellent year in 1966, featured by continued exploration and development successes in the Rainbow Lake-Zama Lake region of northwestern Alberta and a record value of production that exceeded $900 million for all liquid hydrocarbons. Production of crude oil and natural gas liquids exceeded one million bopd. Crude oil producers supplied 58% of the total crude oil requirements for Canadian refineries. Oil reserves increased due primarily to the application of secondary recovery and the discovery of new reserves. Total pipeline construction decreased, and there was a small increase in refinery capacity.

  17. [Analysis of fluorescence spectrum of petroleum-polluted water].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Miao-Fen; Song, Qing-Jun; Xing, Xu-Feng; Jian, Wei-Jun; Liu, Yuan; Zhao, Zu-Long

    2014-09-01

    In four ratio experiments, natural waters, sampled from the mountain reservoir and the sea water around Dalian city, were mixed with the sewage from petroleum refinery and petroleum exploitation plants. The fluorescence spectra of water samples containing only chromophoric dissolved organic matters(CDOM), samples containing only petroleum, and samples containing a mixture of petroleum and CDOM were analyzed, respectively. The purpose of this analysis is to provide a basis for determining the contribution of petroleum substances and CDOM to the total absorption coefficient of the petroleum-contaminated water by using fluorescence technique. The results showed that firstly, CDOM in seawater had three main fluorescence peaks at Ex: 225-230 nm/Em: 320-330 nm, Ex: 280 nm/Em: 340 nm and Ex: 225-240 nm/Em: 430-470 nm, respectively, and these may arise from the oceanic chlorophyll. CDOM in natural reservoir water had two main fluorescence peaks at EX: 240- 260 nm/Em: 420-450 nm and Ex: 310~350 nm/Em: 420--440 nm, respectively, and these may arise from the terrestrial sources; secondly, the water samples containing only petroleum extracted with n-hexane had one to three fluorescence spectral peaksat Ex: 220-240 nm/Em: 320-340 nm, Ex: 270-290 nm/Em: 310-340 nm and Ex: 220-235 nm/Em: 280-310 nm, respectively, caused by their hydrocarbon component; finally, the water samples containing both petroleum and CDOM showed a very strong fluorescence peak at Ex: 230-250 nm/Em: 320-370 nm, caused by the combined effect of CDOM and petroleum hydrocarbons.

  18. Comparative analysis of petroleum exploration contracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    A principal mandate of the UNCTAD's Division on Transnational Corporations and Investment (DTCI) is to provide advisory and training services to requesting Governments aimed at strengthening their capabilities in dealing with the whole range of issues which arise in relationships between the Governments of host countries and transnational corporations (TNCs) in any natural resource, manufacturing or service sector. One of the areas in which DTCI has assisted many Governments and has accumulated considerable knowledge and experience is on matters related to the involvement of TNCs in the exploration, development and production of national petroleum resources. In this context, DTCI has provided advisory and training services related to formulating or reviewing national petroleum policies, laws and regulations, including taxation in the petroleum sector; assessing the merits of alternative forms of contractual arrangements taking into account national objectives and resources; formulating or reviewing bidding arrangements and procedures; drafting or reviewing model contracts and undertaking related economic and computer analyses; evaluating the economic, financial, legal and operational aspects of specific proposed contractual arrangements with TNCs; evaluating bids received from TNCs M the context of specific projects; preparing for negotiation with TNCs, including the formulation of negotiating positions and strategies; and formulating or reviewing legislative, institutional and other arrangements related to the establishment, functions and operation of national petroleum companies. The objective of the present paper is to assist policy-makers, especially in developing countries, in taking full advantage of the changing and increasingly complex forms of relationship evolving between host Governments and TNCs in the petroleum sector. The paper takes into account the policies and arrangements adopted by Governments in their dealings with TNCs, as well as DTCI's own

  19. A cointegration analysis of petroleum futures prices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serletis, Apostolos (Calgary Univ., AB (Canada). Dept. of Economics)

    1994-04-01

    This paper presents evidence concerning the number of common stochastic trends in a system of three petroleum futures prices (crude oil, heating oil and unleaded gasoline) using daily data from 3 December 1984 to 30 April 1993. Johansen's maximum likelihood approach for estimating long-run relations in multivariate vector autoregressive models is used. The results indicate the presence of only one common trend. (author)

  20. Petroleum labour market information supply demand analysis 2009-2020

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-03-01

    Since 2006, the petroleum industry has been interested in collaboration to determine labour demand and supply/demand gaps for the upstream petroleum industry. In 2006, the petroleum industry experienced strong employment growth and was having difficulty finding workers. Comprehensive, up-to-date labour market information and analysis are the key foundation for addressing labour supply/demand issues. This document presented labour market information on the petroleum industry in order to inform company retention and recruitment offices; government departments involved in development of labour market policies and programs; education and training institutions; guidance counsellors, employment centres and organizations that work with youth and labour supply pools; and job seekers. Specific topics that were discussed included two industry scenarios (growth and base case) in determining the petroleum industry's medium-and long-term employment needs; labour supply/demand considerations for the industry as a whole and an industry-wide cost management; and an analysis of exploration and production, oil sands, services, and pipeline sectors to 2020. It was concluded that while new employment is not expected to lead to labour shortages within the pipeline sector, attrition due to requirements almost certainly would. In the growth scenario, it is likely the pipeline sector will be challenged by competition from the other petroleum industry sectors. tabs., figs., appendices.

  1. Petroleum labour market information supply demand analysis 2009-2020

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-03-15

    Since 2006, the petroleum industry has been interested in collaboration to determine labour demand and supply/demand gaps for the upstream petroleum industry. In 2006, the petroleum industry experienced strong employment growth and was having difficulty finding workers. Comprehensive, up-to-date labour market information and analysis are the key foundation for addressing labour supply/demand issues. This document presented labour market information on the petroleum industry in order to inform company retention and recruitment offices; government departments involved in development of labour market policies and programs; education and training institutions; guidance counsellors, employment centres and organizations that work with youth and labour supply pools; and job seekers. Specific topics that were discussed included two industry scenarios (growth and base case) in determining the petroleum industry's medium-and long-term employment needs; labour supply/demand considerations for the industry as a whole and an industry-wide cost management; and an analysis of exploration and production, oil sands, services, and pipeline sectors to 2020. It was concluded that while new employment is not expected to lead to labour shortages within the pipeline sector, attrition due to requirements almost certainly would. In the growth scenario, it is likely the pipeline sector will be challenged by competition from the other petroleum industry sectors. tabs., figs., appendices.

  2. Risk analysis associated with petroleum hydrocarbons: is everything running smoothly?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morin, D.

    1999-01-01

    Petroleum products represent one of the main sources of environmental contamination, and these products are complex, composed of several hundred individual hydrocarbons. The evaluation of the risks associated with petroleum products is often limited by certain specific parameters such as benzene. The petroleum hydrocarbons running from C(10) to C(50) are not often integrated in an analysis of the toxological risks since the toxological characterization of a complex mixture of hydrocarbons is difficult to carry out. There exist in the United States two approaches that were developed recently that allow the integration of various hydrocarbons comprising a mixture. In this presentation, two of these approaches are described and compared. An overview of these approaches related to Canadian regulatory bodies is included, and a case study completes the account. The two approaches that are most well known in this area are: 1) that of the Massachusetts Dept. of Environmental Protection, and 2) that of the Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon Criteria Working Group. The integration of petroleum hydrocarbons in a quantitative evaluation of their toxological risk is possible by present methods. This integration allows a reduction in the uncertainty associated with the use of an integrating parameter in the case of these petroleum hydrocarbons in the C(10) to the C(50) range

  3. Hybrid vehicle assessment. Phase 1: Petroleum savings analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, R.; Liddle, S.; Deshpande, G.; Trummel, M.; Vivian, H. C.

    1984-01-01

    The results of a comprehensive analysis of near term electric hybrid vehicles are presented, with emphasis on their potential to save significant amounts of petroleum on a national scale in the 1990s. Performance requirements and expected annual usage patterns of these vehicles are first modeled. The projected U.S. fleet composition is estimated, and conceptual hybrid vehicle designs are conceived and analyzed for petroleum use when driven in the expected annual patterns. These petroleum consumption estimates are then compared to similar estimates for projected 1990 conventional vehicles having the same performance and driven in the same patterns. Results are presented in the form of three utility functions and comparisons of sevral conceptual designs are made. The Hybrid Vehicle (HV) design and assessment techniques are discussed and a general method is explained for selecting the optimum energy management strategy for any vehicle mission battery combination. Conclusions and recommendations are presented, and development recommendations are identified.

  4. Neutron activation analysis for the determination of arsenic and mercury in petroleum and petroleum distillates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Resnizky, Sara M.

    1999-01-01

    A radiochemical separation procedure to determine As and Hg in petroleum and petroleum distillates is described. The procedure uses the formation of HgS to co-precipitate the As and Hg activities produced during the irradiation. (author)

  5. Analysis of the competitive strategies in the Spanish market petroleum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bello, A.; Cavero, S.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to present an in deep description and analysis of the main structural measures of the Spanish petroleum industry, with special attention paid on the segment of retail distribution of gasoline. Moreover, our interest is to develop a more detailed analysis of the competitive strategies of the main operators of the industry, focusing on determining the impact of differentiation strategies on the strength of competition of this industry. (Author)

  6. Curricula and Programmes in Petroleum Engineering for Higher Technical Education Institutions: Comparative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tymkiv, Nadiya

    2018-01-01

    The article states the analysis of the curriculum that regulates the main purposes, essence and directions for petroleum training. The importance and necessity of positive usage of Austrian, English and Norwegian experience at the time of petroleum engineers training in the petroleum industry has been stressed on. The structure and content of…

  7. Elemental analysis of Kuwaiti petroleum and combustion products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reid, J.S.; Cahill, T.A.; Gearhart, E.A.; Flocchini, R.G. (California Univ., Davis, CA (United States). Crocker Nuclear Lab.); Schweitzer, J.S.; Peterson, C.A. (Schlumberger-Doll Research Center, Ridgefield, CT (United States))

    1993-03-01

    Crude oil from eight Kuwaiti fields and aerosols generated by their combustion in the laboratory have been analyzed by composition and particulate size. Liquid petroleum and petroleum combustion products were subjected to elemental analysis by proton induced x-ray techniques and by x-ray fluorescence techniques. The mean sulfur content of the burning wells was weighted by their production rates to obtain the mean sulfur content of the burning oil, 2.66%. The liquid samples were also analyzed by neutron activation analyses. Results show that Kuwaiti oil and smoke aerosols from laboratory combustion generally contain very low amounts of chlorine, contrary to what is found in airborne samples above Kuwait. Trace element signatures were developed to aid in tracing smoke from the oil fires. (Author).

  8. Hybrid vehicle assessment. Phase I. Petroleum savings analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levin, R.; Liddle, S.; Deshpande, G.; Trummel, M.; Vivian, H.

    1984-03-01

    This report presents the results of a comprehensive analysis of near-term electric-hybrid vehicles. Its purpose was to estimate their potential to save significant amounts of petroleum on a national scale in the 1990s. Performance requirements and expected annual usage patterns of these vehicles were first modeled. The projected US fleet composition was estimated, and conceptual hybrid vehicle designs were conceived and analyzed for petroleum use when driven in the expected annual patterns. These petroleum consumption estimates were then compared to similar estimates for projected 1990 conventional vehicles having the same performance and driven in the same patterns. Results are presented in the form of three utility functions and comparisons of several conceptual designs are made. The Hybrid Vehicle (HV) design and assessment techniques are discussed and a general method is explained for selecting the optimum energy management strategy for any vehicle-mission-battery combination. A discussion of lessons learned during the construction and test of the General Electric Hybrid Test Vehicle is also presented. Conclusions and recommendations are presented, and development recommendations are identified.

  9. FASP, an analytic resource appraisal program for petroleum play analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crovelli, R.A.; Balay, R.H.

    1986-01-01

    An analytic probabilistic methodology for resource appraisal of undiscovered oil and gas resources in play analysis is presented in a FORTRAN program termed FASP. This play-analysis methodology is a geostochastic system for petroleum resource appraisal in explored as well as frontier areas. An established geologic model considers both the uncertainty of the presence of the assessed hydrocarbon and its amount if present. The program FASP produces resource estimates of crude oil, nonassociated gas, dissolved gas, and gas for a geologic play in terms of probability distributions. The analytic method is based upon conditional probability theory and many laws of expectation and variance. ?? 1986.

  10. Industry sector analysis, Mexico: Annual petroleum report. Export Trade Information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The comprehensive appraisal of the Mexican Petroleum industry was completed in July 1991. Some of the topics concerning the Mexican petroleum industry covered in the Annual Petroleum Report include: exploration efforts, oil reserves, pipelines, refining, finances, transportation, alternative energy sources, and others. The report also contains lists of petrochemicals produced in Mexico and extensive statistics on oil production and export prices

  11. Probability theory versus simulation of petroleum potential in play analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crovelli, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    An analytic probabilistic methodology for resource appraisal of undiscovered oil and gas resources in play analysis is presented. This play-analysis methodology is a geostochastic system for petroleum resource appraisal in explored as well as frontier areas. An objective was to replace an existing Monte Carlo simulation method in order to increase the efficiency of the appraisal process. Underlying the two methods is a single geologic model which considers both the uncertainty of the presence of the assessed hydrocarbon and its amount if present. The results of the model are resource estimates of crude oil, nonassociated gas, dissolved gas, and gas for a geologic play in terms of probability distributions. The analytic method is based upon conditional probability theory and a closed form solution of all means and standard deviations, along with the probabilities of occurrence. ?? 1987 J.C. Baltzer A.G., Scientific Publishing Company.

  12. Field portable petroleum analysis for validation of the site characterization and analysis penetrometer system petroleum, oil and lubricant sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, W.M.; Jones, P.; Porter, B.

    1995-01-01

    A petroleum, oil and lubricant (POL) sensor for the Site Characterization and Analysis Penetrometer System (SCAPS) has been developed by the Tri-Services (e.g. Army, Navy and Air Force) to characterize the distribution of POL contaminants on military sites. The sensor is based on the detection of POL contaminants using a laser induced fluorescence (LIF) spectrometer. The SCAPS POL sensor has been shown to be a valuable tool for the rapid screening of POL contamination in the subsurface. However, many factors can affect the LIF response of a particular fuel at a particular site. These include fuel type, age of spill (e.g. weathering) and soil type. The LIF sensor also detects fluorescence from any naturally occurring fluorophores, including humic substances and fluorescent minerals. These factors lead to the development of an independent procedure for the verification of the POL sensor response. This paper describes a field portable total recoverable petroleum hydrocarbon (TRPH) method based on EPA Method 418.1 and its application to on site validation of the SCAPS POL sensor response at a number of contaminated sites

  13. Analysis of Petroleum Downstream Industry Potential in Riau Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomi Erfando

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Petroleum downstream industry in Riau Province is still not optimal. The data shows that from 98,892,755 barrels lifting oil each year only 62,050,000 barrels could be processed in refinery unit II Dumai operated by PT Pertamina. There is a potential of 35-40% of downstream industry. Indonesian Government through The Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources declared the construction of a mini refinery to boost oil processing output in the downstream sector. A feasibility study of development plan mini refinery is needed. The study includes production capacity analysis, product analysis, development & operational refinery  analysis and economic analysis. The results obtained by the mini refinery capacity is planned to process crude oil 6000 BOPD with the products produced are gasoline, kerosene, diesel and oil. Investment cost consist of is capital cost US $ 104419784 and operating cost US $ 13766734 each year with net profit earned US $ 12330063/year and rate of return from investment 11.63%

  14. Study on the petroleum recovery technology: well testing analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huh, Dae Gee; Kim, Se Joon; Kim, Hyun Tae [Korea Inst. of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-12-01

    Well testing is one of the most widely used tools to characterize reservoirs throughout the entire life of petroleum exploration and production. In this study, we first try to set up a procedure of computer aided well test analysis and then attempt to characterize potential reservoirs by performing well test analysis for some of the exploratory wells in the Korean continental shelf. A couple of gas well testing data already published in the literature were also analyzed and compared. First task was to analyze the drill stem test(DST) in KCS-1 gas well. The second analysis was also DST data on multi-rate gas wells. The third case is a Devonian shale reservoir. The final problem is a multi-rate drawdown test without early time pressure data. It is now possible to analyze insufficient well test data with less accuracy. One remark should be pointed out on multi-rate gas well testing. It is recommended to have variable skins rather than a constant skin because rate dependent skins due to turbulence of gas flow must be considered in addition to the mechanical skin. (author). 14 refs.

  15. Study on the petroleum recovery technology : Analysis of pipeline flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Se Joon; Kim, Hyun Tae; Kim, In Kee; Huh, Dae Gee [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    The petroleum exploration activities have been performed by our own technology in the concession Block VI-I in Korean continental shelf for more than 10 years. Gas and gas condensate were discovered from several exploratory wells drilled in this block. This year, the news of another hit in the well of Gorae-V was very encouraging. Different from the previous gas discoveries, the reservoir properties and the productivity of Gorea-V well were excellent and the reserve estimate was very optimistic for the gas field development in this region. Gas consumption was very rapidly increased during recent years because of the image of cleaner fuel compared with other fossil fuels and convenience of usage. Korea is the fifth country in the world in terms of total quantity of petroleum consumption. This is the reason why the secure supply of oil and gas in the future is vital to our industry. The development of gas or gas condensate reservoir is different from that of oil reservoir. Especially sales contract must be made before the initiation of gas field exploitation. The production facilities including pipeline system must be selected and designed for further consideration. In this study, we have selected the 'K' offshore gas field where the water depth is 155 m and the distance from the shore is 50 km. The main purpose of this production system analysis is to select the optimum size and capacity of production facilities including pipeline in order to find the most appropriate production schedule. Production system analysis using nodal analysis includes deliverability calculation of the reservoir, production system optimization, recoverable reserve estimation, and performance forecast of the reservoir with three different production rate scenarios. The reservoir pressure is 4525 psia and the temperature is 248 deg.F. The OGIP of this reservoir was calculated as 24.64 BCF/well and the reservoir is expected to produce for up to 10 years. The porosity is 6% and the

  16. [Recent advances in analysis of petroleum geological samples by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xuanbo; Chang, Zhenyang; Dai, Wei; Tong, Ting; Zhang, Wanfeng; He, Sheng; Zhu, Shukui

    2014-10-01

    Abundant geochemical information can be acquired by analyzing the chemical compositions of petroleum geological samples. The information obtained from the analysis provides scientifical evidences for petroleum exploration. However, these samples are complicated and can be easily influenced by physical (e. g. evaporation, emulsification, natural dispersion, dissolution and sorption), chemical (photodegradation) and biological (mainly microbial degradation) weathering processes. Therefore, it is very difficult to analyze the petroleum geological samples and they cannot be effectively separated by traditional gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. A newly developed separation technique, comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC x GC), has unique advantages in complex sample analysis, and recently it has been applied to petroleum geological samples. This article mainly reviews the research progres- ses in the last five years, the main problems and the future research about GC x GC applied in the area of petroleum geology.

  17. United States petroleum pipelines: An empirical analysis of pipeline sizing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coburn, L. L.

    1980-12-01

    The undersizing theory hypothesizes that integrated oil companies have a strong economic incentive to size the petroleum pipelines they own and ship over in a way that means that some of the demand must utilize higher cost alternatives. The DOJ theory posits that excess or monopoly profits are earned due to the natural monopoly characteristics of petroleum pipelines and the existence of market power in some pipelines at either the upstream or downstream market. The theory holds that independent petroleum pipelines owned by companies not otherwise affiliated with the petroleum industry (independent pipelines) do not have these incentives and all the efficiencies of pipeline transportation are passed to the ultimate consumer. Integrated oil companies on the other hand, keep these cost efficiencies for themselves in the form of excess profits.

  18. Empirical analysis of optimal strategic petroleum reserve in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Yi-Ming; Wu, Gang; Liu, Lan-Cui; Fan, Ying

    2008-01-01

    The Chinese government began to prepare for the establishment of strategic petroleum reserve in March 2004. Therefore, answering the question of what level of strategic petroleum reserve would be suitable for China's future economic development becomes essential. Using a decision tree model based on a cost function, this paper quantifies China's optimal strategic petroleum reserve for the period 2005-2020. This approach provides a methodology reference for further quantified discussion on China's SPR. Our results show that: for economic development and security of the energy supply, the strategic petroleum reserve should be the equivalent of 30-60 days of net oil import for an optimal solution, when the oil price is $ 50/bbl; with a reserve of an equivalent of 60-90 days of net oil import to have an optimal solution when oil price is $20-35/bbl. (author)

  19. A review of modern instrumental methods of elemental analysis of petroleum related material. Part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadkarni, R.A.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper a review is presented of the state of the art in elemental analysis of petroleum-related materials (crude oil, gasoline, additives, and lubricants) using modern instrumental analysis techniques. The major instrumental techniques used for elemental analysis of petroleum products include atomic absorption spectrometry (both with flame and with graphite furnace atomizer), inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry, ion chromatography, microelemental methods, neutron activation, spark source mass spectrometry, and x-ray fluorescence. Each of these techniques is compared for its advantages, disadvantages, and typical applications in the petroleum field

  20. REGISTER ANALYSIS OF THE CONVERSATIONS AMONG PETROLEUM ENGINEERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Nurani

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This present research aims at identifying register used in the conversations among petroleum engineers by examining the linguistic feature which is viewed from the aspect of the field, the tenor and the mode of discourse of the Systemic Functional Linguistics (SFL approach. Findings show that in the field of discourse, all terms of register found in the experiential domain analysis function as technical terms, of which the two major forms of nouns and verbs (i.e., single-word and compound/phrasal word forms are the most frequent categories identified among other kinds of technical terms. The goal orientation appears to have both short and long term while the social activity results in exchanges among participants. In the tenor of discourse, the agentive role is said to be equal and the social role is considered as non-hierarchic. The social distance within the interaction is said to be minimal which is excessively characterized by the use of informal form of expressions. In the mode of discourse, the language role exists equally of both constitutive and ancillary identified by the use of present simple tense and non-present tenses, that is, future simple, past simple and present perfect. The channel is in phonic form. The medium is in spoken with visual contact as it is largely characterized by the use of endophoric reference as well as pronouns.

  1. Evaluation of clean-up agents for total petroleum hydrocarbon analysis in biota and sediments.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muijs, B.; Jonker, M.T.O.

    2009-01-01

    Petroleum hydrocarbons (oil) are common environmental contaminants. For risk assessment purposes, their concentrations in environmental matrixes, such as biota and soils/sediments are frequently determined by solvent extraction and subsequent analysis with gas chromatography (GC) equipped with flame

  2. Boom times : Canada's crude petroleum industry : analysis in brief

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowat, M.R.

    2006-01-01

    This document examined the trends in crude oil prices, the production and exports of Canada's crude petroleum industry, and Canada's imports of crude petroleum. As an exporter and importer of crude oil, Canada's petroleum industry is currently experiencing economic prosperity as a result of high oil prices combined with high global demand for oil. This document reviewed industry activity for 2005 and addressed the reasons for the first decline in Canadian crude oil production in 6 years. A quick review of soaring crude oil prices, supply and shortages was also presented. A review of exports revealed that since 1995, the United States has received 99 per cent of Canadian exports. Although production activity is occurring in 7 provinces, the biggest participant is Alberta, followed by Saskatchewan. In 2005, Canada produced 136.4 million cubic metres of crude petroleum, of which two-thirds came from Alberta. Saskatchewan contributed 18 per cent of total Canadian crude oil production, while offshore oil rigs in Newfoundland and Labrador contributed 13 per cent. The vast oil sands resource accounted for 42 per cent of the province's total production. Alberta oil export is piped entirely into the United States. In 2005, even with a slight drop in exports, Canadian oil exporters received $30 billion for their products, up from $25 billion the year before. Canada also supplied nearly 10 per cent of the American crude oil needs. According to the National Energy Board, Canadian refineries are approaching capacity. Canada's 19 refineries, which have a capacity of 320,000 cubic metres per day, operated at 92 per cent of capacity in 2005 to meet the needs of the domestic market. More imported petroleum was refined than Canadian sourced petroleum. In 2005, the gas and oil industry saw historically high profits, taxes paid and investments. 6 refs., 5 figs

  3. Characterization of ophiolites from northern Havana-Matanzas petroleum fields using instrumental neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montero Cabrera, M.E. E-mail: montero@yakko.cimav.edu.mx; Ortueta Milan, M.; Herrera Peraza, E.F.; Herrera Hernandez, H.; Rodriguez Martinez, N.; Olivares Rieumont, S.; Lopez Reyes, M.C

    2001-01-15

    Concentrations of 16 elements from 14 serpentinitic samples from Basilio and Cantel petroleum fields were obtained by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA): Cr, Co, Ni, La, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Ce Yb, Lu, Rb, Cs, Hf and Th. Relative INAA was performed using certified reference materials and laboratory standards. Average elemental concentrations showed that the ophiolites have a basic character, suggesting the use of a well-logging method designed for volcano-sedimentary petroleum fields.

  4. Characterization of ophiolites from northern Havana-Matanzas petroleum fields using instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montero Cabrera, M.E.; Ortueta Milan, M.; Herrera Peraza, E.F.; Herrera Hernandez, H.; Rodriguez Martinez, N.; Olivares Rieumont, S.; Lopez Reyes, M.C.

    2001-01-01

    Concentrations of 16 elements from 14 serpentinitic samples from Basilio and Cantel petroleum fields were obtained by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA): Cr, Co, Ni, La, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Ce Yb, Lu, Rb, Cs, Hf and Th. Relative INAA was performed using certified reference materials and laboratory standards. Average elemental concentrations showed that the ophiolites have a basic character, suggesting the use of a well-logging method designed for volcano-sedimentary petroleum fields

  5. Distribution of petroleum degrading genes and factor analysis of petroleum contaminated soil from the Dagang Oilfield, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qinglong; Tang, Jingchun; Bai, Zhihui; Hecker, Markus; Giesy, John P.

    2015-01-01

    Genes that encode for enzymes that can degrade petroleum hydrocarbons (PHs) are critical for the ability of microorganisms to bioremediate soils contaminated with PHs. Distributions of two petroleum-degrading genes AlkB and Nah in soils collected from three zones of the Dagang Oilfield, Tianjin, China were investigated. Numbers of copies of AlkB ranged between 9.1 × 105 and 1.9 × 107 copies/g dry mass (dm) soil, and were positively correlated with total concentrations of PHs (TPH) (R2 = 0.573, p = 0.032) and alkanes (C33 ~ C40) (R2 = 0.914, p < 0.01). The Nah gene was distributed relatively evenly among sampling zones, ranging between 1.9 × 107 and 1.1 × 108 copies/g dm soil, and was negatively correlated with concentrations of total aromatic hydrocarbons (TAH) (R2 = −0.567, p = 0.035) and ∑16 PAHs (R2 = −0.599, p = 0.023). Results of a factor analysis showed that individual samples of soils were not ordinated as a function of the zones. PMID:26086670

  6. Best Technical Approach for the Petroleum Quality Analysis (PQA) System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-08-01

    two test methods for determination of water content in a fuel. The Karl Fischer titration method (ASTM D 1744) measures for total water, both...difficult to automate. ASTM D 664, "Standard Test Method for Acid Number of Petroleum Products by Potentiometric Titration," is simple to automate...release. distribution unlimnied 13. ABSTRACT (Maximum 2C3 words) Recent U.S. militar-y operations have identified a need for improved methods of fuel and

  7. The world petroleum market in 2007. DIREM analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    2007: the world is becoming used to a high oil price. With an average price of 72.6 US$ per barrel for the ICE Brent, the crude rates show a 9.8% rise with respect to the 2006 ones (66.11 US$/b) following the 20% rise observed in 2006. Price rates show a sawtooth evolution but with a general rise over the full year. Thanks to a US$ change rate favorable to the euro, the 2007 average is of 52.76 euro/b with respect to 52.65 euro/b in 2006. At the end of the year 2007 the barrel price reached 93.85 US$/b with respect to 60.86 US$/b at the end of 2006. The document analyses the impact of these high prices on the economies of oil-consuming and oil-producing countries. It presents the 2007 highlights of the main OPEC countries (Saudi Arabia, Iran, Venezuela, Iraq, Nigeria, Angola), and then analyses the international quotations of petroleum products on the Rotterdam market and the prices of petroleum products in France. (J.S.)

  8. Analysis and control of odors from petroleum refineries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Brien, M.A.; Duffee, R.A.; Ostojic, N.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents a proven approach used to effectively solve odor problems associated with atmospheric emissions from petroleum refineries. A systematic evaluation is first conducted to identify all emissions with the potential for off-site odor impacts. Sampling is then conducted and dynamic dilution olfactometry is used to quantify the odor emission rates of each source. Community odor surveys are performed simultaneously with the source sampling to quantitatively document the downwind odor impacts. Atmospheric dispersion modeling specifically designed for odor is then used to predict instantaneous odor occurrences at various receptor sites under meteorological conditions not actually encountered during the field study. The findings make it possible to rank sources by their odor emission rates and potential for odor impacts in the community. It is then possible to determine how much odor reduction is required to bring the present odor impacts of the individual sources to an acceptable level under worst-case meteorological conditions. Once the degree of control required is determined, control alternatives are selected and evaluated. Case histories have been selected to illustrate the application of this approach at petroleum refineries. They provide descriptions of odor assessment and abatement studies conducted specifically for refinery effluent treatment plant sources as well as process unit emission sources. The sources identified as needing control and the odor abatement measures taken are discussed

  9. Analysis of corrosion in petroleum pipeline by laser shearography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Yusnisyam Yusof; Wan Saffiey Wan Abdullah; Khairul Anuar Mohd Salleh; Ahmad Nasruddin Ahmad Puad

    2008-08-01

    This paper aims at assessing of the corrosion defects in standard petroleum pipelines by using shearography method. Shearography technique reveals the stress-affected zone due to additional loading which utilized the laser speckle correlation on the subject inspected. In this study, the artificial corroded pipeline is modeled by different of corrosion depth and width. The pressure was subjected into the 7 mm thickness pipe wall to form an internal air pressure as the loading mechanism. The study shows that change of internal pressure is very effective mechanism to reveal corrosion activity in the pipe. The speckle correlation for corrosion of more than 3 mm depth with ΔP≤0.24 MPa can clearly be observed. For comparison the Radiography Technique is used to correlate the depth, size and shape of the corrosion and finally the location of corrosion area. (Author)

  10. Petroleum hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrington, J.W.; Teal, J.M.; Parker, P.L.

    1976-01-01

    Methods for analysis of petroleum hydrocarbons in marine samples are presented. Types of hydrocarbons present and their origins are discussed. Principles and methods of analysis are outlined. Infrared spectrometry, uv spectrometry, gas chromatography, mass spectroscopy, and carbon 14 measurements are described

  11. Joint production and corporate pricing: An empirical analysis of joint products in the petroleum industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karimnejad, H.

    1990-01-01

    This dissertation investigates the pricing mechanism of joint products in large multi-plant and multi-product corporations. The primary objective of this dissertation is to show the consistency of classical theories of production with corporate pricing of joint products. This dissertation has two major parts. Part One provides a theoretical framework for joint production and corporate pricing. In this part, joint production is defined and its historical treatment by classical and contemporary economists is analyzed. Part Two conducts an empirical analysis of joint products in the US petroleum industry. Methods of cost allocation are used in the pricing of each individual petroleum product. Three methods are employed to distribute joint production costs to individual petroleum products. These methods are, the sales value method, the barrel gravity method and the average unit cost method. The empirical findings of dissertation provide useful guidelines for pricing policies of large multi-product corporations

  12. ASPHALT-RESIN-WAX DEPOSITS ANALYSIS WITH PETROLEUM REFINERY EQUIPMENT USAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadejda Bondar

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The methodology and analysis of wax deposits formed in-water-cooling tower, cistern and tank from wax petroleum were developed. It was shown, that deposits consist of organic (>90% and inorganic components – the first one was enriched by high molecular wax hydrocarbons, the second one – by mechanical impurities. The methods of deposits utilization were proposed

  13. Elaboration of procedure for analysis of industrial and economic activities: the experience of LUKoil petroleum company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulanov, V.L.; Kirpichev, V.M.

    1996-01-01

    The research and engineering centre within LUKoil company for economic studies has elaborated a method permitting analysis of production and economic activities of the LUKOIL petroleum production complex. The method envisages the following trends of analysis: general assessment of production and economic activities, analysis of basic production assets, manpower and wages use, net cost of marketable products, the state of finances, as well as specific features in analyzing the activities undertaken by joint ventures

  14. Molecular analysis of the microbial community structures in water-flooding petroleum reservoirs with different temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L.-Y.; Duan, R.-Y.; Liu, J.-F.; Yang, S.-Z.; Gu, J.-D.; Mu, B.-Z.

    2012-04-01

    Temperature is one of the most important environmental factors regulating the activity and determining the composition of the microbial community. Analysis of microbial communities from six water-flooding petroleum reservoirs at temperatures from 20 to 63 °C by 16S rRNA gene clone libraries indicates the presence of physiologically diverse and temperature-dependent microorganisms in these subterrestrial ecosystems. In high-temperature petroleum reservoirs, most of the archaeal sequences belong to the thermophilic archaea including the genera Thermococcus, Methanothermobacter and Thermoplasmatales, most of the bacterial sequences belong to the phyla Firmicutes, Thermotogae and Thermodesulfobacteria; in low-temperature petroleum reservoirs, most of the archaeal sequences are affiliated with the genera Methanobacterium, Methanoculleus and Methanocalculus, most of the bacterial sequences to the phyla Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) revealed that temperature, mineralization, ionic type as well as volatile fatty acids showed correlation with the microbial community structures. These organisms may be adapted to the environmental conditions of these petroleum reservoirs over geologic time by metabolizing buried organic matter from the original deep subsurface environment and became the common inhabitants in subsurface environments.

  15. [Phytoremediation of Petroleum Contaminated Soils with Iris pseudacorus L. and the Metabolic Analysis in Roots].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ya-nan; Cheng, Li-juan; Zhou, Qi-xing

    2016-04-15

    In this study, we performed a greenhouse pot-culture experiment to investigate the potential of a wild ornamental plant Iris pseudacorus L. in remediating petroleum contaminated soils from the Dagang Oilfield in Tianjin, China. The results suggested that Iris pseudacorus L. had great resistance to ≤ 40,000 mg · kg(⁻¹ of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs). The removal rate of TPHs with concentrations of 10,000 mg · kg⁻¹, 20,000 mg · kg⁻¹ and 40,000 mg · kg⁻¹ in soils by Iris pseudacorus L. was 42.1%, 33.1% 31.2%, respectively, much higher than those in the corresponding controls (31.8%, 21.3% 11.9%, respectively) (P 1.2) with the root specific surface area from the PLS-DA model analysis, including ethanedioic acid, lactic acid, 2-butenedioic acid, phosphate and propanedioic acid, were positively correlated with the root specific surface area, but the others, gluconic acid, uridine, butanoic acid, maltose, 9,12-octadecadienoic acid, phenylalanine, were negatively correlated with it. In conclusion, using Iris pseudacorus L. to remediate petroleum contaminated soils is feasible, and the metabolic analysis in roots is useful to better understand the metabolic response of plants exposure to petroleum contaminated soils, and then reveals its remediated mechanisms.

  16. Petroleum taxation under uncertainty: contingent claims analysis with an application to Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, D.

    1992-01-01

    Contingent claims analysis provides a useful tool for analysing the value of tax claims, and of companies' after-tax values, under uncertainty. The method is presented and applied to the analysis of how Norwegian petroleum taxes affect company behaviour. Few results can be derived analytically. A numerical approach is suggested, with a stylized description of production possibilities. The Norwegian taxes are found to have strong distortionary effects. The relation to other methods and problems connected with the application are discussed. (Author)

  17. Handbook of nuclear engineering: vol 1: nuclear engineering fundamentals; vol 2: reactor design; vol 3: reactor analysis; vol 4: reactors of waste disposal and safeguards

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    The Handbook of Nuclear Engineering is an authoritative compilation of information regarding methods and data used in all phases of nuclear engineering. Addressing nuclear engineers and scientists at all academic levels, this five volume set provides the latest findings in nuclear data and experimental techniques, reactor physics, kinetics, dynamics and control. Readers will also find a detailed description of data assimilation, model validation and calibration, sensitivity and uncertainty analysis, fuel management and cycles, nuclear reactor types and radiation shielding. A discussion of radioactive waste disposal, safeguards and non-proliferation, and fuel processing with partitioning and transmutation is also included. As nuclear technology becomes an important resource of non-polluting sustainable energy in the future, The Handbook of Nuclear Engineering is an excellent reference for practicing engineers, researchers and professionals.

  18. Shearography: An alternative method of NDE for analysis of corrosion in petroleum pipeline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Yusnisyam Yusof; Wan Saffiey Wan Abdullah

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the use of shearography as an alternative method of NDE for analysis of corrosion in petroleum pipeline. Shearography reveals direct information about defect induced stress which utilized the laser wave front pattern on the inspected object. In this study, the laser shearography technique was used to measure the derivative displacement of 7 mm thickness carbon steel pipe wall surface with simulated corrosion area at internal wall. The wave front pattern of internal wall corrosion in petroleum pipeline will be constructed to 3D image profiles in order to measure the severity and magnitude of material deformation. The process may involve of optical phase stepping procedure and the image processing algorithm for wrapped and unwrapped phase image at the deformation area. The unwrapped phase image can be meshed plot which finally lead to 3D image profiles. The phase stepping procedure in this analysis was selected by utilizing four phase stepping procedure using piezoelectric transducer (PZT) attached with optical mirror. (author)

  19. Forest fire situation analysis over forest reserve land in Tomsk petroleum province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasko, O A; Baranova, A V

    2015-01-01

    The paper delivers the analysis of space-time characteristics of forest fire ignition and spread in the North of Tomsk oblast, i.e. petroleum production area (Kargasok, Parabel and Teguldet districts). It also presents long-term and seasonal forest fire behavior including fire ignition and spread frequency (annual and seasonal), the fire season duration and their zonality. The main driving factors of forest fire ignition both human and natural ones are revealed

  20. Application of NMR Spectroscopy in the Analysis of Petroleum Derivatives and Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parlov Vuković, J.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Complex chemical composition and physical properties of oil and fuel make their complete cha racterization very difficult. Components present in oil and oil products differ in structure, size, po larity and functionality. The presence and structure of specific hydrocarbons in final products depend on the processing procedure and type of the fuel. In order to predict or improve fuel pro perties it is necessary to determine its composition. Thus, new and more sophisticated analytical methods and procedures are constantly being developed. NMR spectroscopy plays a significant role in analysis and identification of complex hydrocarbon mixtures of petroleum and petroleum products. In this review, we describe the application of NMR spectroscopy for analyzing gasoline and diesel fuels. Hence, by using NMR spectroscopy it is possible to determine gasoline composition and presence of benzene and oxygenates, as well as some important physical characteristics of gasoli ne such as the research octane number. An application of different NMR techniques made it pos sible to characterize diesel fuels and middle oil distillates from various refineries. Data so obtained can be used in combination with statistical methods to predict fuel properties and to monitor pro- duction processes in the petroleum industry. NMR spectroscopy has proven useful in analysis of FAME which has recently been used as an ecologically acceptable alternative fuel. Furthermore, techniques such as CP/MAS for characterization of solid state oil-geochemical samples are inclu- ded. Also, possibilities of using NMR spectroscopy in the analysis of polymeric additives are di- scussed.

  1. Automated multivariate analysis of comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatograms of petroleum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Søren Furbo

    of separated compounds makes the analysis of GCGC chromatograms tricky, as there are too much data for manual analysis , and automated analysis is not always trouble-free: Manual checking of the results is often necessary. In this work, I will investigate the possibility of another approach to analysis of GCGC...... impossible to find it. For a special class of models, multi-way models, unique solutions often exist, meaning that the underlying phenomena can be found. I have tested this class of models on GCGC data from petroleum and conclude that more work is needed before they can be automated. I demonstrate how...

  2. Petroleum marketing annual 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-24

    The Petroleum Marketing Annual (PMA) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysis, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the fob and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Annual. For this production, all estimates have been recalculated since their earlier publication in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM). These calculations made use of additional data and corrections that were received after the PMM publication date.

  3. Petroleum marketing annual 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Annual (PMA) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysis, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the fob and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners' acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Annual. For this production, all estimates have been recalculated since their earlier publication in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM). These calculations made use of additional data and corrections that were received after the PMM publication date

  4. Validation of an analytical methodology for the quantitative analysis of petroleum hydrocarbons in marine sediment samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eloy Yordad Companioni Damas

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This work describes a validation of an analytical procedure for the analysis of petroleum hydrocarbons in marine sediment samples. The proposed protocol is able to measure n-alkanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH in samples at concentrations as low as 30 ng/g, with a precision better than 15% for most of analytes. The extraction efficiency of fortified sediments varied from 65.1 to 105.6% and 59.7 to 97.8%, for n-alkanes and PAH in the ranges: C16 - C32 and fluoranthene - benzo(apyrene, respectively. The analytical protocol was applied to determine petroleum hydrocarbons in sediments collected from a marine coastal zone.

  5. A possibilistic analysis approach for environmental risk assessment of petroleum-contaminated sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, L.; Huang, G.H.; Fuller, G.A.

    1999-01-01

    A possibilistic approach for assessing risks associated with petroleum-contaminated sites is provided. The approach is applied to an illustrative case study in order to show its applicability and implementation for decision making in effective site remediation and management. The approach consists of three main parts: (1) the determination of fuzzy steady state contaminant concentrations in a aquifer based on an analytical solute transport model; (2) possibilistic analysis of fuzzy criteria for different risk levels; and (3) environmental risk assessment based on the Euclidian method. Based on results from an illustrative case study, environmental risks at a petroleum-contaminated site can be effectively evaluated using the developed methodology. The risk assessment framework can effectively handle uncertainities presented as fuzzy numbers. The fuzzy nature of water quality and risk level criteria were seen in the related simulation and evaluation models, and the framework is especially useful for situations in which probabilistic information is not available. This use of this approach is new in the area of petroleum waste management under uncertainty, and its results are useful for the related site remediation and management decisions. 36 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs

  6. Petroleum system of Northwest Java basin based on gravity data analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widianto, E.

    2018-01-01

    Energy management in the upstream oil and gas sector becomes very important for the country’s energy security. The renewal of energy resources and reserves becomes necessary and is a must. In the oil and gas industry, gravity data is usually used only for regional surveys, but with the development of instrumentation technology and gravity software development, this method can be used for assessing oil and gas survey stages from exploration to production. This study was conducted to evaluate aspects of petroleum system and exploration play concept in the part of Northwest Java Basin, covering source rock deposition regions (source kitchen area, migration direction), development of reservoirs, structural and stratigraphic trap, based on gravity data. This study uses data from Bouguer gravity anomaly map by filtering process to produce a residual map depicting sedimentation basin configuration. The mapping generated 20 sedimentary basins in Java Island with the total hydrocarbon resources of 113 BBOE (Billion Barrel of Oil Equivalent). The petroleum system analysis was conducted in the Northwest Basin section. The final map produced illustrates the condition of petroleum system and play concept that can be used as exploration direction, expectedly reducing the risk of drilling failure.

  7. Double-pulse laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy analysis of scales from petroleum pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    o – CEP 24210-346 – Niterói, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil))" data-affiliation=" (Physics Department of University Federal Fluminense, Av. Gal. Milton Tavares de Souza, s/no – CEP 24210-346 – Niterói, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil))" >Cavalcanti, G.H.; Rocha, A.A.; Damasceno, R.N.; Legnaioli, S.; Lorenzetti, G.; Pardini, L.; Palleschi, V.

    2013-01-01

    Pipeline scales from the Campos Bay Petroleum Field near Rio de Janeiro, Brazil have been analyzed by both Raman spectroscopy and by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) using a double-pulse, calibration-free approach. Elements that are characteristic of petroleum (e.g. C, H, N, O, Mg, Na, Fe and V) were detected, in addition to the Ca, Al, and Si which form the matrix of the scale. The LIBS results were compared with the results of micro-Raman spectroscopy, which confirmed the nature of the incrustations inferred by the LIBS analysis. Results of this preliminary study suggest that diffusion of pipe material into the pipeline intake column plays an important role in the growth of scale. Thanks to the simplicity and relative low cost of equipment and to the fact that no special chemical pre-treatment of the samples is needed, LIBS can offer very fast acquisition of data and the possibility of in situ measurements. LIBS could thus represent an alternative or complementary method for the chemical characterization of the scales by comparison to conventional analytical techniques, such as X-ray diffraction or X-ray fluorescence. - Highlights: • Samples of scales from petroleum pipelines were analyzed using double pulse LIBS. • LIBS is proposed as an alternative method to conventional analytical techniques. • The scale growth is influenced by the product of corrosion in the column of production. • The diffusion of pipe material into the inlay is important for the growth of scale

  8. An empirical analysis of lumpy investment. The case of US petroleum refining industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asano, Hirokatsu

    2002-01-01

    This paper employs five econometric models to examine lumpy investment and investigates the investment behavior of the US petroleum refining industry. Firms in the industry are classified into three groups by their size. All three groups show zero investment, disinvestment and investment in accordance with economic conditions. The analysis finds the minimum amount of investment and disinvestment for each group, which suggests that the size of fixed costs of investment is substantial, regardless of firm size. However, small firms adjust capital stock more slowly than medium or large firms. The analysis also suggests the existence of a convex adjustment cost

  9. Perspective analysis 2020. Hordaland future role as petroleum region; Perspektivanalyse 2020. Hordalands fremtidige rolle som petroleumsregion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berrefjord, Ole; Heum, Per

    2011-07-01

    The report compiles developments and challenges for the petroleum industry in Norway. It forms the context for assessing the Hordaland petroleum region. Scenarios are developed and discussed and Norway, Hordaland part by combining the scope of global trends in the extent to which national (and regional) are able to tackle the challenges that the petroleum industry must be prepared to meet.(eb)

  10. Intrinsic bacterial biodegradation of petroleum contamination demonstrated in situ using natural abundance, molecular-level 14C analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slater, G.F.; Nelson, R.K.; Kile, B.M.; Reddy, C.M.

    2006-01-01

    Natural abundance, molecular-level C 14 analysis was combined with comprehensive gas chromatography (GC x GC) to investigate, in situ, the role of intrinsic biodegradation in the loss of petroleum hydrocarbons from the rocky, inter-tidal zone impacted by the Bouchard 120 oil spill. GC x GC analysis indicated accelerated losses of n-alkane components of the residual petroleum hydrocarbons between day 40 and day 50 after the spill. 14 C analysis of bacterial phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA) from the impacted zone on day 44 showed that the polyunsaturated fatty acids attributed to the photoautotrophic component of the microbial community had the same ( 14 C as the local dissolved inorganic carbon (DIG), indicating that this DIG was their carbon source. In contrast there was significant (C depletion in the saturated and mono-unsaturated PLFA indicating incorporation of petroleum carbon. This correlation between the observed accelerated n-alkane losses and microbial incorporation of (C-depleted carbon directly demonstrated, in situ, that intrinsic biodegradation was affecting the petroleum. Since the majority of organic contaminants originate from petroleum feed-stocks, in situ molecular-level 14 C analysis of microbial PLFA can provide insights into the occurrence and pathways of biodegradation of a wide range of organic contaminants. (Author)

  11. Sedimentary basin analysis and petroleum potential of the Cretaceous and Tertiary strata in Korea.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Son, Jin-Dam; Kwak, Young-Hoon; Bong, Pil-Yoon [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (KR)] (and others)

    1999-12-01

    Since 1992 sedimentary basin analysis to assess petroleum potential of the Cretaceous and Tertiary strata in the Korean onshore and continental shelf have been carried out. The Cretaceous non-marine strata mainly occupy the Gyeongsang Basin in southeastern part of the Korean Peninsula and small basins such as Haenam and Gyeokpo depressions in western coastal areas. The Tertiary strata are mostly distributed in Domi, Cheju, Socotra subbasins, and Okinawa Trough in the South Continental Shelf, and Kunsan and Heuksan basins in the West. The basin evolution and petroleum potential for each basins are characterized as follow. The Cretaceous Gyeongsang sediments were deposited in three subbasins including Milyang, Euisung and Yongyang subbasins. The black shales in Nakdong and Jinju formations are interpreted to contain abundant organic matter during the deposition, thermal maturity reaching up to the zone of dry gas formation. Because porosity and permeability are too low, the sandstones can act as a tight gas reservoir rather than conventional oil and gas reservoir. The latest Cretaceous strata of Haenam and Kyeokpo depressions in western coastal area are correlated into the Yuchon Volcanic Group of the Gyeongsang Basin. Petroleum potential of the Early Cretaceous basin in the West Continental Shelf could be relatively high in terms of sedimentary basin filled with thick lacustrine sediments. The Kunsan basin in the West Continental Shelf originated in the Early Cretaceous time expanded during the Paleocene time followed by regional erosion at the end of Paleocene on which Neogene sediment have been accumulated. The Paleocene-Eocene sublacustrine shales may play an major role as a source and cap rocks. South Continental Shelf Basin is subdivided by Cheju subbasin in the center, Socotra Subbasin to the west, Domi Subbasin to the northeast and Okinawa Trough to the East. The potential hydrocarbon traps associated with anticline, titled fault blocks, fault, unconformity

  12. Petroleum and international policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pertuzio, A.

    2002-01-01

    To illustrate the relation between the petroleum and the international policy, the author presents the place of the petroleum industry in the international relations by an analysis of the historical aspects, the states and international organizations interventions and the prices evolution. (A.L.B.)

  13. Regulation and efficiency: an empirical analysis of the United Kingdom continental shelf petroleum industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashani, H.A.

    2005-01-01

    The petroleum industry of the United Kingdom Continental Shelf (UKCS) has been subject to various degrees of regulation. Self-sufficiency, security of supply and developing offshore supply industry triggered government regulations that were seen as interventionary and protectionist. This paper tests the extent to which regulations targeting involvement of British offshore supply industry in the UKCS activity created inefficiencies. Data envelopment analysis (DEA), stochastic frontier analysis (SFA), Malmquist Indices, and standard regression analysis are used to measure the amount and address the source of inefficiencies. We will show that such inefficiencies could not be ruled out. The results provide an important insight into the UKCS production techniques and, more generally, into governments' abilities to influence private sector behaviour through contracts and tendering

  14. Modern trends in activation analysis. Vols. 1 and 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henkelmann, R; Kim, J I; Lux, F; Staerk, H; Zeisler, R [eds.

    1976-01-01

    Two volumes contain 164 special papers presented at the international conference on activation analysis, including five plenary lectures which give a general survey of modern trends and possibilities of applications in fields where activation analysis is capable of solving problems which are hitherto unsolved. The emphasis during this meeting is put on applications, though other subjects (e.g. sampling, homogeneity of samples, instrumental development, computer evaluation of gamma spectra, comparisons with other analytical methods) are also dealt with. The proceedings contain lectures on applications in the fields of biology, biomedicine, archaeology, the arts, forensic sciences, environmental research, ecology, materials research, geo- and cosmo-sciences, and other individual applications.

  15. Analysis of measurements on wind turbine arrays. Vol. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoeg, E.

    1990-12-01

    In 1989 a Danish electric power company initiated an analysis of eight wind turbine arrays. Data from this project is presented together with the explained results of the analyses and the output variations for individual arrays and for systems within the arrays. The models for prognosis are compared and evaluated in order to find that which is most effective. (AB)

  16. Experiment data acquisition and analysis system. Vol. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busch, F.; Croome, D.; Goeringer, H.; Hartmann, V.; Lowsky, J.; Marinescu, D.; Richter, M.; Winkelmann, K.

    1983-08-01

    The Experiment Data Acquisition and Analysis System EDAS was created to acquire and analyze data collected in experiments carried out at the heavy ion accelerator UNILAC. It has been available since 1975 and has become the most frequently used system for evaluating experiments at GSI. EDAS has undergone constant development, and the many enhancements make this completely revised third edition of the EDAS manual necessary. EDAS consists of two sub-systems: GOLDA for experimental data acquisition on PDP-11's and SATAN mainly for off-line analysis in replay mode on large IBM mainframes. The capacity of one IBM 3081 CPU is mainly dedicated to EDAS processing and is almost fully utilized by this application. More than 200 users from GSI as well as from collaborating laboratories and universities use SATAN in more than 100 sessions daily needing 10 to 20 hours of user CPU time. EDAS is designed as an open system. (orig./HSI)

  17. Aerobic remediation of petroleum sludge through soil supplementation: Microbial community analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, M. Venkateswar; Devi, M. Prathima; Chandrasekhar, K.; Goud, R. Kannaiah [Bioengineering and Environmental Centre (BEEC), Indian Institute of Chemical Technology CSIR-IICT, Hyderabad 500 607 (India); Mohan, S. Venkata, E-mail: vmohan_s@yahoo.com [Bioengineering and Environmental Centre (BEEC), Indian Institute of Chemical Technology CSIR-IICT, Hyderabad 500 607 (India)

    2011-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Enhanced aerobic-degradation of PAHs was noticed with increasing soil concentration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Lower ring PAHs showed superior degradation over higher ring PAHs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Role of dehydrogenase activity, redox pattern and dissolved oxygen was investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Community analysis detected survival of efficient aromatic degrading microorganisms. - Abstract: The effect of soil concentration on the aerobic degradation of real-field petroleum sludge was studied in slurry phase reactor. Total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) showed effective removal but found to depend on the soil concentration. Aromatic fraction (48.12%) documented effective degradation compared to aliphatics (47.31%), NSO (28.69%) and asphaltenes (26.66%). PAHs profile showed efficient degradation of twelve individual aromatic compounds where lower ring compounds showed relatively higher degradation efficiency compared to the higher ring compounds. The redox behaviour and dehydrogenase activity showed a linear increment with the degradation pattern. Microbial community composition and changes during bioremediation were studied using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Among the 12 organisms identified, Proteobacteria was found to be dominant representing 50% of the total population (25% of {gamma}-proteobacteria; 16.6% of {beta}-proteobacteria; 8.3% of {alpha}-proteobacteria), while 33.3% were of uncultured bacteria and 16.6% were of firmicutes.

  18. Double-pulse laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy analysis of scales from petroleum pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalcanti, G. H.; Rocha, A. A.; Damasceno, R. N.; Legnaioli, S.; Lorenzetti, G.; Pardini, L.; Palleschi, V.

    2013-09-01

    Pipeline scales from the Campos Bay Petroleum Field near Rio de Janeiro, Brazil have been analyzed by both Raman spectroscopy and by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) using a double-pulse, calibration-free approach. Elements that are characteristic of petroleum (e.g. C, H, N, O, Mg, Na, Fe and V) were detected, in addition to the Ca, Al, and Si which form the matrix of the scale. The LIBS results were compared with the results of micro-Raman spectroscopy, which confirmed the nature of the incrustations inferred by the LIBS analysis. Results of this preliminary study suggest that diffusion of pipe material into the pipeline intake column plays an important role in the growth of scale. Thanks to the simplicity and relative low cost of equipment and to the fact that no special chemical pre-treatment of the samples is needed, LIBS can offer very fast acquisition of data and the possibility of in situ measurements. LIBS could thus represent an alternative or complementary method for the chemical characterization of the scales by comparison to conventional analytical techniques, such as X-ray diffraction or X-ray fluorescence.

  19. Crude petroleum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    Crude petroleum statistics by country of production, export values and import values from 1983 to 1988 are given. Table A.1 of the Annex includes free market prices and price indices for crude petroleum based on average of Dubai, United Kingdom Brent and Alaska N Slope crude prices (price expressed in dollars/barrel). The data sources are: Crude petroleum United Nations Statistical Office; OPEC Annual Statistical Bulletin, and Petroleum Economist. For trade the sources of data are: National trade statistics; United Nations international trade statistics; International Moneytary Fund (IMF); Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC); UNCTAD secretariat estimates. Tabs

  20. Analysis of solvent dyes in refined petroleum products by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostad, C.E.

    2010-01-01

    Solvent dyes are used to color refined petroleum products to enable differentiation between gasoline, diesel, and jet fuels. Analysis for these dyes in the hydrocarbon product is difficult due to their very low concentrations in such a complex matrix. Flow injection analysis/electrospray ionization/mass spectrometry in both negative and positive mode was used to optimize ionization of ten typical solvent dyes. Samples of hydrocarbon product were analyzed under similar conditions. Positive electrospray ionization produced very complex spectra, which were not suitably specific for targeting only the dyes. Negative electrospray ionization produced simple spectra because aliphatic and aromatic moieties were not ionized. This enabled screening for a target dye in samples of hydrocarbon product from a spill.

  1. Handbook of nuclear data for neutron activation analysis. Vol. I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hnatowicz, V.

    1986-01-01

    The first part of a two-volume book which is meant for experimentalists working in instrumental activation analysis and related fields, such as nuclear metrology, materials testing and environmental studies. The volume describes the basic processes of gamma-ray interaction with matter as well as the important phenomena affecting gamma-ray spectra formation in semiconductor spectrometers. A brief account is also given of computation methods commonly employed for spectra evaluation. The results rather than detailed derivations are stressed. A great deal of material si divided into five chapters and nine appendices. The inclusion of many tables of significant spectroscopic data should make the text a useful handbook for those dealing with multi-channel gamma-ray spectra. (author) 26 figs., 82 tabs., 334 refs

  2. Yugoslavian Petroleum Refinery development program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ocic, Ozren

    1999-01-01

    This paper shows the analysis of the world petroleum industry development, being an important factor in planning the development of the Yugoslav petroleum industry and Pancevo Petroleum Refinery, as well. Then Yugoslav petroleum industry development is analysed, including the appropriate balances of crude oil production and crude oil products consumption. The way of realizing the basic targets are also proposed. Likewise, the analysis of the condition within West European refineries has been conducted, from the aspects of technology, energy consumption and environmental protection and the same analysis for Pancevo Petroleum Refinery has been presented, too. The analysis of the condition within the refineries in the European Union countries and comparing it with the condition within Pancevo Petroleum Refinery, makes it mainly possible to recognize the development programmes which should be realized in order that Pancevo Petroleum Refinery could reach the refining level of the EU countries. (Original)

  3. The API methodology for risk-based inspection (RBI) analysis for the petroleum and petrochemical industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynolds, J.T.

    1998-01-01

    Twenty-one petroleum and petrochemical companies are currently sponsoring a project within the American Petroleum Institute (API) to develop risk-based inspection (RBI) methodology for application in the refining and petrochemical industry. This paper describes that particular RBI methodology and provides a summary of the three levels of RBI analysis developed by the project. Also included is a review of the first pilot project to validate the methodology by applying RBI to several existing refining units. The failure for pressure equipment in a process unit can have several undesirable effects. For the purpose of RBI analysis, the API RBI program categorizes these effects into four basic risk outcomes: flammable events, toxic releases, major environmental damage, and business interruption losses. API RBI is a strategic process, both qualitative and quantitative, for understanding and reducing these risks associated with operating pressure equipment. This paper will show how API RBI assesses the potential consequences of a failure of the pressure boundary, as well as assessing the likelihood (probability) of failure. Risk-based inspection also prioritizes risk levels in a systematic manner so that the owner-user can then plan an inspection program that focuses more resources on the higher risk equipment; while possibly saving inspection resources that are not doing an effective job of reducing risk. At the same time, if consequence of failure is a significant driving force for high risk equipment items, plant management also has the option of applying consequence mitigation steps to minimize the impact of a hazardous release, should one occur. The target audience for this paper is engineers, inspectors, and managers who want to understand what API Risk-Based Inspection is all about, what are the benefits and limitations of RBI, and how inspection practices can be changed to reduce risks and/or save costs without impacting safety risk. (Author)

  4. Analysis of the Linkage Effects of Venezuela’s Petroleum Sector and Political Risk Analysis of Venezuela’s Petroleum Sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-12-01

    34Petroleo e industrializacion," Comercio Exterior , Vol. 32, (Nov 1982), p. 1213. 52. Blutstein, p. 158. 53. Ministerio de Energia y Minas, Petroleo y...tion of Guyana), and the Empresa Nacional de Pesca (National Fishing Enterprise). As will be analyzed in the next chapter, Venezuela’s develop- ment...economia venezolana en los ultimos 35 anos, p. 273. Comercio Exterior , (Nov 1982), p. 1220. Rollins, Raw Materials Development and Economic Growth: A Study

  5. Petroleum price

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chevallier, B.

    2009-01-01

    The 'AFTP' conference on 'petroleum prices' organized by Total last March, tries to explain the different aspects of the crisis we undergo for July 2007 and its consequential effects on the petroleum markets (supply, demand evolvements, impacts on reserves, prices, refining...). (O.M.)

  6. Petroleum Pumps’ Current and Vibration Signatures Analysis Using Wavelet Coherence Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rmdan Shnibha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Vibration analysis is widely used for rotating machinery diagnostics; however measuring vibration of operational oil well pumps is not possible. The pump’s driver’s current signatures may provide condition-related information without the need for an access to the pump itself. This paper investigates the degree of relationship between the pump’s driver’s current signatures and its induced vibration. This relationship between the driver’s current signatures (DCS and its vibration signatures (DVS is studied by calculating magnitude-squared coherence and phase coherence parameters at a certain frequency band using continuous wavelet transform (CWT. The CWT coherence-based technique allows better analysis of temporal evolution of the frequency content of dynamic signals and areas in the time-frequency plane where the two signals exhibit common power or consistent phase behaviour indicating a relationship between the signals. This novel approach is validated by experimental data acquired from 3 kW petroleum pump’s driver. Both vibration and current signatures were acquired under different speed and load conditions. The outcomes of this research suggest the use of DCS analysis as reliable and inexpensive condition monitoring tool, which could be implemented for oil pumps, real-time monitoring associated with condition-based maintenance (CBM program.

  7. Management and analysis of data from petroleum refinery wastewater treatment plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, D T [Wastewater, Technology Centre, Burlington, ON (Canada); Grammas, J [SOHO, Lima, OH (USA)

    1989-01-01

    Current efforts to monitor trace contaminants in treated oil refinery wastewaters increase the need to implement systematic, clear, and consistent procedures for reporting and presenting all monitoring data. The ability to interpret trace contaminant data which is to be collected by the governments of the U.S. and Canada for regulations development will rely on information about operating procedures and the efficiency of removal of conventional pollutants. An overview is provided of the main issues which must be addressed in managing and analyzing data from wastewater treatment facilities. The objectives of enviromental data management and analysis are discussed from the point of view of both the plant operator or owner and the regulatory authority. Based on the examination of the 1985 records of flow and phenol concentrations from seven Canadian petroleum refineries, recommendations are made for improving existing databases. In analyzing environmental data to transform raw data into information, exploratory data analysis techniques should be used by engineers or operators who do not have formal statistical training. These methods employ simple statistical summaries and graphical data displays. The paper concludes with a brief discussion about future trends in environmental data management and analysis. 15 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Analysis of the cement clinker produced with incorporation of petroleum sludge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benlamoudi, A.; Kadir, A. Abdul; Khodja, M.; Nuruddin, M. F.

    2018-04-01

    Very limited researches have been conducted on the incorporation of petroleum sludge waste into cement clinker production even though this waste may contain similar components to those of clinker raw materials. In this research, petroleum sludge was integrated into cement plant as raw material to produce the cement clinker. As results, incorporation of 5% of this waste was able to produce an acceptable quality of cement. Despite the use of petroleum sludge has decreased the properties of the produced clinker, but it still fit the requirements.

  9. Analysis of the competitive strategies in the Spanish market petroleum; Estructura estrategica y competitiva en el mercado espanol de carburantes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bello, A.; Cavero, S.

    2007-07-01

    The objective of this paper is to present an in deep description and analysis of the main structural measures of the Spanish petroleum industry, with special attention paid on the segment of retail distribution of gasoline. Moreover, our interest is to develop a more detailed analysis of the competitive strategies of the main operators of the industry, focusing on determining the impact of differentiation strategies on the strength of competition of this industry. (Author)

  10. Bryan Mound InSAR Analysis U.S. Strategic petroleum Reserve.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lord, Anna C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-06-01

    The U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) is a stockpile of emergency crude oil to be tapped into if a disruption in the nation's oil supply occurs. The SPR is comprised of four salt dome sites. Subsidence surveys have been conducted either annually or biennially at all four sites over the life of the program. Monitoring of surface behavior is a first line defense to detecting possible subsurface cavern integrity issues. Over the life of the Bryan Mound site, subsidence rates over abandoned Cavern 3 have continuously been the highest at the site. In an effort to try and understand the subsurface dynamics, specifically over Bryan Mound Cavern 3, historic interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) data was acquired and processed by TRE Altamira. InSAR involves the processing of multiple satellite synthetic aperture radar scenes acquired across the same location of the Earth's surface at different times to map surface deformation. The analysis of the data has the ability to detect millimeters of motion spanning days, months, year and decades, across specific sites. The intent in regards to the Bryan Mound site was (1) to confirm the higher subsidence rates recorded over abandoned Cavern 3 indicated by land survey and (2) understand the regional surface behavior. This report describes the InSAR analysis results, how those results compare to the historical collection of land survey data, and what additional information the data has provided towards understanding the response recorded at the surface.

  11. New Developments in Mass Spectrometry for Group-Type Analysis of Petroleum Cuts (First Part

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fafet A.

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available Characterization of petroleum cuts constitutes a necessary stage to perfect understanding of the reaction mechanisms and to the description of the kinetics of certain refining processes such as hydrotreating or catalytic cracking. Mass spectrometry (MS, thanks to group-type quantitative analysis methods, enables to access detailed description of complex hydrocarbon mixtures such as middle distillates or heavy cuts such as vacuum distillates. But these methods are also subject to some drawbacks and we shall expose, thereunder, two examples of improvements. In a first part, the accuracy of MS quantification of thiophenic sulphured compounds in middle distillates is studied by intertechnique comparison with the results obtained by gas phase chromatography coupled to sulphur-specific detection by chemiluminescence (GC/SCD. Improving on the MS method is suggested. In the second part, a new system for introducing the sample in the spectrometer source, dedicated to group-type analysis of heavy cuts is described. Its validation, by comparison of the MS results to those of liquid chromatography (LC as well as its performances, is exposed.

  12. The characterization of petroleum and creosote-contaminated soils: Class component analysis by thin layer chromatography with flame ionization detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollard, S.J.T.; Hrudey, S.E.; Fuhr, B.J.; Alex, R.F.; Holloway, L.R.

    1992-01-01

    The assessment and reclamation of coal tar, creosote and petroleum-contaminated sites is emerging as a major challenge to industry and the federal and provincial Canadian governments. Contaminants frequently include polynuclear aromatic compounds (PAH), several high molecular weight analogues of which are documented carcinogens. Adaptation of thin layer chromatography with flame ionization detection for the analysis of hydrocarbon-contaminated soils is described. The method is directly applicable to the analysis of oily waste extracts from petroleum and creosote wood preservative site soils and is capable of distinguishing between the saturate, aromatic and polar components of waste residues. The method provides a rapid, low cost class component analysis of heavy hydrocarbon waste extracts and is particularly useful for estimating the extent of weathering experienced by chronically exposed hydrocarbon wastes in the soil environment. As such, it is useful as a screening tool for a preliminary assessment of the biotreatability or inherent recalcitrance of hydrocarbon waste mixtures. 11 refs., 5 figs

  13. Energetic and exergetic analysis of a new compact trigeneration system run with liquefied petroleum gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proenza Pérez, Nestor; Titosse Sadamitsu, Marlene; Luz Silveira, Jose; Santana Antunes, Julio; Eduardo Tuna, Celso; Erazo Valle, Atilio; Faria Silva, Natalia

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the first and second laws of thermodynamics are used to analyze the quantity and quality of energy in a small compact trigeneration system. This combined cycle is composed of a little reciprocating ICE model GM, 1.0 CORSA (internal combustion engine), using LPG (liquefied petroleum gas) as fuel, HE1 and HE2 (two heat exchangers) and an AM (absorption machine) using ammonia–water as working fluid mixture. The mass and energy balance equations of the engine and subsystems are reviewed in detail. Exergy of each involved stream is calculated and the exergetic balance of each subsystem is presented, as well as the global system, identifying where and why losses and irreversibilities occurs. Efficiencies based on the second law of thermodynamics are calculated for each subsystem and compared. Special attention is given to identification and quantification of second law efficiencies and the irreversibilities of various processes and subsystems. The determination of the irreversibilities in each subsystem is particularly important since they are not identified in traditional first law analysis. Furthermore, this study revealed that the combustion was the most important contributor to the system inefficiency representing 36.0% of the total exergy input and 73% of the total exergy destruction. The exergetic efficiency of the trigeneration system is determined to be 51.19%. - Highlights: • The energetic and exergetic performance of trigeneration system was studied. • The engine is the main exergetic destruction equipment. • The exergetic efficiency of the trigeneration system was 51.19%.

  14. Molecular analysis of petroleum derived compounds that adsorb onto gas hydrate surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borgund, Anna E.; Hoiland, Sylvi; Barth, Tanja; Fotland, Per; Askvik, Kjell M.

    2009-01-01

    Field observations have shown that some streams of water, gas and crude oil do not form gas hydrate plugs during petroleum production even when operating within thermodynamic conditions for hydrate formation. Also, when studied under controlled laboratory conditions, some oils are found to form hydrate dispersed systems whereas others form plugs. Oils with low tendency to form hydrate plugs are believed to contain natural hydrate plug inhibiting components (NICs) that adsorb onto the hydrate surface, making them less water-wet and preventing the particles from agglomerating into large hydrate clusters. The molecular structure of the NICs is currently unknown. In this work, hydrate adsorbing components were extracted from crude oils using freon hydrates as an extraction phase. The fractions were found to be enriched in polar material, and more polar material is associated with hydrates generated in biodegraded crude oils than in non-biodegraded oils. Various fractionation schemes and analytical techniques have been applied in the search for molecular characterisation. The average molecular weights were found to be approximately 500 g/mole. GC-MS chromatograms show a large UCM (Unresolved Complex Mixture). Thus, GC-MS has a limited potential for identification of compounds. A commercial biosurfactant was used as a model compound in the search for similar structures in the extracts. The results from analysis of the hydrate adsorbing components suggest that the type and structure are more important for hydrate morphology than the amount of material adsorbed.

  15. Elementary Analysis of Petroleum Distillates by Gc-Aed: Validation and Application to the Calculation of Distillation Profile Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baco F.

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the development of elementary analysis in the distillation profile of petroleum cuts by gas phase chromatography-atomic emission detection (GC-AED coupling and shows the application perspectives to characterisation of middle distillates of a piece of information unheard of until now on a routine basis. The performances of the analytical assembly used have been studied for carbon, hydrogen, sulphur and nitrogen analysis. Simulated distillation, a gas phase chromatography analysis which enables determining the weight percentage of distilled matter in relation to the boiling point of petroleum cuts, has been adapted to GC-AED coupling. We have developed a method giving access to three types of information: global elementary composition, simulated distillation and elementary composition in distillation profile, i. e. by fraction (% of the distilled product. The analysis of the atmospheric distillates has been assessed in terms of precision and bias for these various types of information. The validation was carried out notably by comparison with the results obtained using reference analytical methods, on preparative distillation cuts of representative samples. The application of GC-AED to characterisation of distillates is discussed, in particular for classification purposes and for predicting petroleum properties in the distillation profile. The cetane number of gas oils was taken as an example to illustrate the latter application.

  16. Reliability analysis of hydrologic containment of liquefied petroleum gas within unlined rock caverns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, X.; Yan, E. C.; Yeh, T. C. J.; Wang, Y.; Liang, Y.; Hao, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Notice that most of the underground liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) storage caverns are constructed in unlined rock caverns (URCs), where the variability of hydraulic properties (in particular, hydraulic conductivity) has significant impacts on hydrologic containment performance. However, it is practically impossible to characterize the spatial distribution of these properties in detail at the site of URCs. This dilemma forces us to cope with uncertainty in our evaluations of gas containment. As a consequence, the uncertainty-based analysis is deemed more appropriate than the traditional deterministic analysis. The objectives of this paper are 1) to introduce a numerical first order method to calculate the gas containment reliability within a heterogeneous, two-dimensional unlined rock caverns, and 2) to suggest a strategy for improving the gas containment reliability. In order to achieve these goals, we first introduced the stochastic continuum representation of saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks) of fractured rock and analyzed the spatial variability of Ks at a field site. We then conducted deterministic simulations to demonstrate the importance of heterogeneity of Ks in the analysis of gas tightness performance of URCs. Considering the uncertainty of the heterogeneity in the real world situations, we subsequently developed a numerical first order method (NFOM) to determine the gas tightness reliability at crucial locations of URCs. Using the NFOM, the effect of spatial variability of Ks on gas tightness reliability was investigated. Results show that as variance or spatial structure anisotropy of Ks increases, most of the gas tightness reliability at crucial locations reduces. Meanwhile, we compare the results of NFOM with those of Monte Carlo simulation, and we find the accuracy of NFOM is mainly affected by the magnitude of the variance of Ks. At last, for improving gas containment reliability at crucial locations at this study site, we suggest that vertical

  17. Analysis of Multi-Arm Caliper Data for the U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, Barry L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-03-01

    The U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) has an increasing reliance on mul t i - arm caliper surveys to assess the integrity of casing for cavern access wells and to determine priorities for casing remediation. Multi - arm caliper (MAC) surveys provide a view of well casing deformation by reporting radial measurements of the inner cas ing wall as the tool is drawn through the casing. Over the last several years the SPR has collected a large number of modern MAC surveys. In total, these surveys account for over 100 million individual measurements. The surveys were collected using diff ering survey vendors and survey hardware. This has resulted in a collection of disparate data sets which confound attempts to make well - to - well or time - dependent evaluations. In addition, the vendor supplied MAC interpretations often involve variables wh ich are not well defined or which may not be applicable to casings for cavern access wells. These factors reduce the usability of these detailed data sets. In order to address this issue and provide an independent analysis of multi - arm caliper survey data, Sandia National Labs has developed processing techniques and analysis variables which allow for the comparison of MAC survey data regardless of the source of the survey data. These techniques use the raw radial arm information and newly developed analysis variables to assess the casing status and provide a means for well - to - well and time - dependent analyses. Well - to - well and t ime - dependent investigation of the MAC survey data provide s information to prioritize well remediation activities and identify wells with integrity issues. This paper presents the challenges in using disparate MAC survey data, techniques developed to address these challenges and some o f the insights gained from these new techniques.

  18. Bacterial Utilization of Petroleum in Liquid and Simulated Soil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... by the weight of extracted residual oil indicated that the extents of oil removal in the stimulated and/or bioaugmented soils were significantly high in relation to unsupplemented and uninoculated controls. Keywords: Bacterial utilization, Petroleum in liquid, Petroleum in soil, Environments Bio-Research Vol. 6 (2) 2008: pp.

  19. Desulfurization of petroleum by Co-60 gamma irradiation and analysis of products using GC-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathuthu, M.; Tshivhase, V.M.; Olobatoke, R.Y.; Gaxela, N.N.

    2014-01-01

    Sulfur is an undesirable hetero-atom that has negative on motor engines if present in quantities between 50 and 180.000 ppm. Research has shown that sour petroleum can be 'sweetened' by gamma irradiation to de-sulfurize the crude oil. In this research we will report experimental results of desulfurizing petroleum locally procured. The objective is to improve the quality of product delivered to the motor market and also reduce the environmental pollution due to SO 2 emissions from engines. The gamma irradiated (de-sulfurized petroleum was chemically analyzed using GC-MS. The preliminary results show that the petroleum is polymerized by gamma radiation to higher molecular mass. The un-irradiated petroleum had a sulfur concentration of 3.24% and 0.020% wt after gamma irradiation. The sulfur content was reduced by a factor of about 160 when dose was increased from zero to 50 kGys. GC-MS Chromatographs are presented for the identified hydrocarbons after gamma irradiation. (authors)

  20. Global market trade policy analysis for petroleum oils and oils obtained from bituminous minerals, crude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bagheri, F.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is based on surveying the custom tariffs imposed on the world export market of Petroleum Oils and Oils Obtained from Bituminous Minerals, Crude. We obtained the data according to the most updated available data provided online by UNCTAD and World Bank. The results indicate that none of the 142 countries in the world market of this product have imposed non-tariff trade barriers on the import of Petroleum Oils and Oils Obtained from Bituminous Minerals, Crude. The developed countries and the countries with transition economies are the main world import partners. European Union, United States, China, Japan, South Korea, Canada, Singapore, Taiwan, Thailand, South Africa, Australia, Turkey, Brazil, Sweden and Belarus are the examples and have imposed low custom tariffs on Petroleum Oils and Oils Obtained from Bituminous Minerals, Crude.

  1. An empirical analysis of petroleum demand for Indonesia. An application of the cointegration approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sa' ad, Suleiman [Surrey Energy Economics Centre (SEEC), Department of Economics, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)

    2009-11-15

    This paper uses selection criteria from various models in a bounds testing approach to cointegration to estimate the price and income elasticities of demand for total petroleum products (gasoline and diesel) and gasoline share in total products in Indonesia. The results suggest that both total products and gasoline share estimates are more responsive to changes in income than changes in the real price of petroleum products. These results have important policy implications as they suggest that policy makers may need to use market-based pricing policies and other policies such as public enlightenment in addition to regulations like minimum energy efficiency standards to promote efficiency and conservation and curb the rising consumption of petroleum products in Indonesia. (author)

  2. An empirical analysis of petroleum demand for Indonesia. An application of the cointegration approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sa'ad, Suleiman

    2009-01-01

    This paper uses selection criteria from various models in a bounds testing approach to cointegration to estimate the price and income elasticities of demand for total petroleum products (gasoline and diesel) and gasoline share in total products in Indonesia. The results suggest that both total products and gasoline share estimates are more responsive to changes in income than changes in the real price of petroleum products. These results have important policy implications as they suggest that policy makers may need to use market-based pricing policies and other policies such as public enlightenment in addition to regulations like minimum energy efficiency standards to promote efficiency and conservation and curb the rising consumption of petroleum products in Indonesia. (author)

  3. INTEGRATED ASSESSMENT AND GEOSPATIAL ANALYSIS OF ACCUMULATION OF PETROLEUM HYDROCARBONS IN THE SOIL COVER OF SAKHALIN ISLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Dmitriev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the approach to the integral estimation of the assessment of petroleum hydrocarbons (PHc in the soil cover of Sakhalin Island. The soil map of Sakhalin was used as the cartographic base for this work. The soil map includes 103 soil polygons. An additional information on soils was also taken from The Soil Atlas of the Russian Federation. As an integral criterion for the accumulation of PHc, it is proposed to use an integral indicator calculated on the basis of 5 evaluation criteria. The choice of criteria for the assessment was based on the works of Russian scientists. The evaluation criteria on each of the polygons include information on the soil texture, the total thickness of the organic and humus horizons, the content of organic carbon in these horizons and the content of organic carbon in the mineral horizons, as well as the presence of a gley barrier.The calculation of the integral indicator is based on the principles of the ASPID methodology. On this basis, the authors compiled the map of the potential capacity of Sakhalin soils to accumulate petroleum hydrocarbons. On the basis of GIS-technology using the estimates of the integral indicator, the analysis has been performed revealing the features of spatial differentiation of PHc accumulation in the soil cover.The analysis and assessment of the accumulations of petroleum hydrocarbons has shown that peaty and peat boggy soil have the greatest ability to holding the PHc. The lowest ability to accumulate petroleum hydrocarbons is typical of illuvial-ferruginous podzols (illuvial low-humic podzols. The soils of this group occupy 1% of the island. In general, soils with low and very low hydrocarbon accumulation capacity occupy less than forty percent of the territory. 

  4. Experimental analysis on a spark ignition petrol engine fuelled with LPG (liquefied petroleum gas)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masi, Massimo

    2012-01-01

    The use of LPG (liquefied petroleum gas) as alternative fuel to petrol is common practise in spark ignition engines. While the main driving force to the use of LPG still remains the low cost for the end user, its favourable pollutant emissions, in particular carbon dioxide, will in the middle term probably increase interest in LPG as an IC engine fuel. In addition, there are both theoretical and technical reasons to consider LPG as an attractive fuel also in terms of engine performance. Despite the continuously increasing stock production of dual-fuel (petrol–LPG) passenger car models, doubts still exist about both real engine performance in LPG operation and the reliability of the dual-fuel feeding system. This paper deals with the theoretical advantages of using LPG as fuel for SI engines. Brake performance tests of a passenger car engine fed with petrol and LPG are analysed and compared. The stock engine has been equipped with a “third-generation” standard kit for dual-fuel operation. The performance reductions in LPG operation are discussed in both steady state and transient condition. The results of some modifications to the set-up of both the petrol and LPG metering devices, designed for a better justification of the measured performance, are also presented. -- Highlights: ► Experimental research on the actual performances of an SI engine fed with petrol and gaseous LPG. ► Theoretical advantages and drawbacks of fuelling SI ICE’s with LPG. ► Brake performance analysis shows a noticeable gap between LPG and petrol operation. ► Local measurements confirm that the thermodynamic operation of the evaporator-pressure reducer device is crucial for the engine performance. ► The performance of the up-to-date kit for petrol–LPG dual-fuel operation is greatly affected by the settings of the mechanical components of the LPG evaporator device.

  5. Worldwide Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) of Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions from Petroleum Jet Fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-09

    The main objective of this project was to calculate greenhouse gas emissions estimates for petroleum jet fuels for the recent past and for future scenarios in the coming decades. Results were reported globally and broken out by world regions, and the...

  6. Petroleum products price interactions on the world markets: an econometric analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maack, Laetitia de; Lantz, Frederic

    2012-09-01

    This study examines the relationship between crude oil and petroleum products prices in the European, Asian and North American markets. We develop an econometric model, based on the long term equilibrium between the prices, which takes into account the changes in the oil product demand trends. We explain price behaviors by the impact of the demand trends. Because the refining industry which transforms crude into petroleum products is a joint product industry, petroleum product pricing is affected by demand trends both in terms of quality and quantity. Consequently, the long term equilibrium between prices, estimated through a co-integration approach, are affected by several structural breaks. We also develop a panel econometric model which simultaneously takes into account the relative prices of ail world products towards one crude. Finally, the different results are compared to the marginal costs derived from an oil refining optimization model. This econometric modeling approach enables a better understanding of the long term equilibrium between prices of petroleum products and crude. (authors)

  7. BIOREMEDIATION OF A PETROLEUM-HYDROCARBON

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ES OBE

    under field conditions in the bioremediation of a petroleum- hydrocarbon polluted ... an accelerated biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in a polluted agricultural soil ..... 12) Jackson, M.L. Soil chemical analysis. ... biological assay. 3 rd.

  8. High-throughput metagenomic analysis of petroleum-contaminated soil microbiome reveals the versatility in xenobiotic aromatics metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Yun-Juan; Xu, Zixiang; Li, Yang; Yao, Zhi; Sun, Jibin; Song, Hui

    2017-06-01

    The soil with petroleum contamination is one of the most studied soil ecosystems due to its rich microorganisms for hydrocarbon degradation and broad applications in bioremediation. However, our understanding of the genomic properties and functional traits of the soil microbiome is limited. In this study, we used high-throughput metagenomic sequencing to comprehensively study the microbial community from petroleum-contaminated soils near Tianjin Dagang oilfield in eastern China. The analysis reveals that the soil metagenome is characterized by high level of community diversity and metabolic versatility. The metageome community is predominated by γ-Proteobacteria and α-Proteobacteria, which are key players for petroleum hydrocarbon degradation. The functional study demonstrates over-represented enzyme groups and pathways involved in degradation of a broad set of xenobiotic aromatic compounds, including toluene, xylene, chlorobenzoate, aminobenzoate, DDT, methylnaphthalene, and bisphenol. A composite metabolic network is proposed for the identified pathways, thus consolidating our identification of the pathways. The overall data demonstrated the great potential of the studied soil microbiome in the xenobiotic aromatics degradation. The results not only establish a rich reservoir for novel enzyme discovery but also provide putative applications in bioremediation. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. The Avenging Females: A Comparative Analysis of Kill Bill Vol.1-2, Death Proof and Sympathy for Lady Vengeance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basak Göksel Demiray

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a comparative analysis of Quentin Tarantino’s Kill Bill Vol.1-2 (2003, 2004, Death Proof (2007 and Park Chan Wook’s Sympathy for Lady Vengeance (Chinjeolhan Geumjassi, 2005. The primary objectives of this study are: (1 to reveal the gender-biases inherent to the fundamental discursive structures of the foregoing films; (2 to compare and contrast the films through an analysis of the ‘gaze(s’ and possible ‘pleasures’,  which are inherent in their narratives, in relation to Laura Mulvey’s and Carol Clover’s approaches; and (3 to distinguish Kill Bill Vol.1-2 from the foregoing two and the ‘avenging female’ clichés of the other horror/violence movies in the context of the replaced positionings of its protagonist and antagonist inherent in its distinct narrative style.

  10. The coupling of supercritical fluid chromatography and field ionization time-of-flight high-resolution mass spectrometry for rapid and quantitative analysis of petroleum middle distillates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Kuangnan; Diehl, John W; Dechert, Gary J; DiSanzo, Frank P

    2004-01-01

    We report the first coupling of supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) with field ionization time-of-flight high-resolution mass spectrometry (FI-ToF HRMS), in parallel with ultraviolet (UV) detection and flame ionization detection (FID), for rapid and quantitative analysis of petroleum middle distillates. SFC separates petroleum middle distillates into saturates and 1- to 3-ring aromatics. FI generates molecular ions for hydrocarbon species eluted from the SFC. The high resolution and exact mass measurements by ToF mass spectrometry provide elemental compositions of the molecules in the petroleum product. The amounts of saturates and aromatic ring types were quantified using the parallel SFC-FID assisted by SFC-UV. With a proper carbon-number calibration, the detailed composition of the petroleum middle distillate was rapidly determined.

  11. Exergetic analysis in petroleum primary separation plants; Analise exergetica em plantas de separacao primaria de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghiorzi, Telmo Machado

    1997-07-01

    This dissertation presents a method for evaluate the efficiency of primary petroleum separation plants off-shore, using the concept of exergy. This concept is presented as a thermodynamic property and one shows how to calculate its value. A bibliographic revision is done, as well as, the necessary adaptations and considerations foe exergy application on off-shore plants: It is presented a way to evaluate efficiency on plants which part of the products is used as the drive-force of the process and it is presented the exergy calculation for mixtures, through departure functions. This calculation deserves special attention due to Equilibrium-Liquid-Vapour behavior of the mixtures when brought to ambient conditions. Some hypothetical cases, carried out using the Process Simulator HYSIM, are analyzed. The conclusions and recommendations are related to design and operation of off-shore plants and perspectives to follow on the subject exergy and the petroleum industry. (author)

  12. Sustainability assessment of bioethanol and petroleum fuel production in Japan based on emergy analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Jin’e; Lin, Bin-Le; Sagisaka, Masayuki

    2012-01-01

    To promote the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, research and development of bioethanol technologies are encouraged in Japan and a plan to utilize untilled fields to develop rice for bioethanol production as a substitute for petroleum fuel is being devised. This study applies emergy methods to compare the sustainability of petroleum fuel production and two Japanese rice-to-ethanol production scenarios: (a) ethanol from rice grain, while straw and chaff are burned as energy and (b) ethanol from rice+straw+chaff. The major emergy indices, Emergy Yield Ratio (EYR), Environmental Loading Ratio (ELR), Emergy Investment Ratio (EIR), Emergy Sustainability Index (ESI), Environmental Impacts Ratio (EVR) and system transformity (Tr), are analyzed to assess the production processes. The results show that (1) petroleum fuel production presents higher ELR, EIR, EVR and lower EYR, ESI, Tr than rice-to-ethanol production, indicating rice-to-ethanol production makes sense for reduction of greenhouse gases (GHG); (2) scenario (a) performs similarly on major indicators (EYR, ESI, ELR, EIR and EVR) to scenario (b), yet the system efficiency indicator (Tr) of scenario (a, 7.572×10 5 semj/J) is much higher than (b, 4.573×10 5 semj/J), and therefore (b) is a better alternative for policy decisions; (3) both petroleum fuel production and rice-to-ethanol processes are mainly driven by purchased resources and are unsustainable and nonrenewable in the long run. - Highlights: ► We compare petrol fuel and rice-to-ethanol production using emergy indices. ► Rice-to-ethanol reduces green house gas emissions as a substitute for petrol fuel. ► Rice-to-ethanol production has better sustainability than that of petrol fuel. ► Neither petrol fuel nor biofuel production are sustainable in the long term. ► Bioethanol is not a renewable fuel.

  13. Analysis of petroleum hydrocarbons in soil from view of bioremediation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mracnova, R.; Sojak, L.; Kubinec, R.; Kraus, A.; Eszenyiova, A.; Ostrovsky, I.

    2002-01-01

    The pollution of the environment by petroleum hydrocarbons is the most often pollution of them all. Nevertheless, hydrocarbons present in environment can be not only of petroleum or anthropogenic origin, but of biogenic as well. Typically the hydrocarbons are presented in the environment as very complex mixtures of individual compounds with very different chemical structure, wide range of the boiling points (∼800 0 C) as well as with the wide range of the number of carbon atoms. Immediately they are spread in any environmental matrix the complex physical, chemical and biochemical reactions start. A lot of methods have been developed and new are permanently in progress for the monitoring and control of petroleum hydrocarbons contamination and/or soils bioremediation. Generally, all methods by whose the hydrocarbons contaminants are determined in GC-FID system do not satisfied recommendations for enough accurate and precise results. Hyphenation of capillary gas chromatography and mass selective detector operated in the selective ion monitoring mode essentially allows detailed specification of non-polar extractable hydrocarbons. Isoprenoid alkanes, alkylhomologues of aromatic hydrocarbons and polycyclic alkanes hopanes-like were investigated as markers for recognition of petroleum and biogenic contamination. C 30 17α(H)21β(H)-hopane (C 30 -hopane) seems to be a suitable marker to identify hydrocarbons origin, to determine composting rates for nonpolar extractable compounds and to calculate real content of non-polar extractable compounds in final composting status on the assumption that the contamination is of mineral oil type. This is the survey into the results obtained in this field published in the literature as well as reached in our laboratory. (author)

  14. Analysis of Oxidative Stress in Chronic Exposure to Petroleum Hydrocarbons in Karnataka, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suttur Malini

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background:Several studies have reported the toxicological implications of inhalation of petroleum hydrocarbon fumes in animal models. But, there is certainly little or no documentation of the exposure to petroleum hydrocarbon fuel on oxidative stress levels in humans, unlike the pulmonary physiology. The present study was carried out to evaluate the effects of constituents of the hydrocarbon fuels on oxidative stress levels of the petrol fillers and tanker drivers. Methods: The study involved 165 males divided into three groups were the petrol fillers, tanker drivers and the controls. Case control data set was established wherein the control subjects are not exposed to hydrocarbon fuels with similar age. Serum samples of the subjects were collected and subjected for various biochemical assays. The enzymatic antioxidants such as superoxide dismutase, malondialdehyde a byproduct of lipid peroxidation and total antioxidant capacity of the individuals along with non-enzymatic antioxidant Vitamin A was estimated. Results: The results showed a no significant differences for age, body mass index, superoxide dismutase and levels of Malondialdehyde and total antioxidant capacity. But on the other hand, there is significant changes observed for total antioxidant capacity and vitamin A when exposed group is compared with control subject. Conclusion: It is evidential from the present study that prolonged exposure to petroleum hydrocarbon fumes leads to an increase in their oxidative stress in turn resulting broad spectrum of diseases. Hence, there is a raised need for public awareness about the health hazards in order to enable petrol attendants.

  15. Characterization of crude oils and petroleum products: (I Elution liquid chromatographic separation and gas chromatographic analysis of crude oils and petroleum products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.O. Odebunmi

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Some physical and chemical properties of samples of light, medium and heavy Nigerian crude oils and petroleum products including gasoline, kerosene and engine oil have been measured and are reported in this paper. The crude oils and petroleum products have also been characterized by fractional distillation and elution liquid chromatography. The fractions obtained from elution liquid chromatography were analyzed using gas chromatography (GC. The GC fractions were identified by comparing the retention time of peaks in the unknown samples with those of components of calibration standard mixtures. The importance of the physico-chemical properties and the significance of the fractional distillation and chromatographic separation methods to industrial process operations have been discussed.

  16. The petroleum industry in 1999 (editorial)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This document deals with the petroleum activity in 1999. It provides three economic analysis. The first one concerns the petroleum industry activity in 1999 and the corresponding french energy policy. The second one presents the petroleum activity in the world. The third one presents the hydrocarbons market supplying in France. (A.L.B.)

  17. Petroleum apocalypse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cochet, Y.

    2005-09-01

    Oil prices are increasing while current explanations for this phenomenon are no longer satisfactory. The cheap petroleum era is ending and this problem can seriously convulse our lifestyles. Transports, agriculture, plastics, clothes, medicines: petroleum is everywhere. This is why the rise of hydrocarbons price will not be a simple economic shock but the end of the world like the one we know. However, it is still possible to postpone this event to a later date and to limit its effects by the implementation of a new oil sobriety era. This implies to already organize the decay of materials and energy consumption, together with keeping solidarity, democracy and peace up. In this condition only the transition will be less painful. (J.S.)

  18. Analysis of petroleum-contaminated soils by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and sequential ultrasonic solvent extraction–gas chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okparanma, Reuben N.; Coulon, Frederic; Mouazen, Abdul M.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we demonstrate that partial least-squares regression analysis with full cross-validation of spectral reflectance data estimates the amount of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in petroleum-contaminated tropical rainforest soils. We applied the approach to 137 field-moist intact soil samples collected from three oil spill sites in Ogoniland in the Niger Delta province (5.317°N, 6.467°E), Nigeria. We used sequential ultrasonic solvent extraction–gas chromatography as the reference chemical method. We took soil diffuse reflectance spectra with a mobile fibre-optic visible and near-infrared spectrophotometer (350–2500 nm). Independent validation of combined data from studied sites showed reasonable prediction precision (root-mean-square error of prediction = 1.16–1.95 mg kg −1 , ratio of prediction deviation = 1.86–3.12, and validation r 2 = 0.77–0.89). This suggests that the methodology may be useful for rapid assessment of the spatial variability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in petroleum-contaminated soils in the Niger Delta to inform risk assessment and remediation. -- Highlights: • We model NIR diffuse reflectance spectra for PAH prediction in contaminated soils. • Soil diffuse reflectance decreases with increasing PAH concentration. • Mechanism of prediction relies on co-variation of PAH with other soil properties. • Positions of important wavelengths are largely similar for studied sites. • Positive regression coefficients around 1647 nm show a link to PAH. -- This approach may be used to collect large spatial data at reduced cost and time to assess the variability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in petroleum release sites

  19. Vol draadwerk

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Owner

    Die motto van Marius Crous se derde bundel,. Vol draadwerk (2012) is ontleen aan die vader van die psigoanalise, Sigmund Freud, wat lui: “Everywhere I go I find a poet has been there before me.” Vol draadwerk verskyn ses jaar ná sy vorige bundel, Aan 'n beentjie sit en kluif. (2006). Vir sy bundel, Brief uit die kolonies ...

  20. Analysis of Petroleum Technology Advances Through Applied Research by Independent Oil Producers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brashear, Jerry P.; North, Walter B.; Thomas Charles P.; Becker, Alan B.; Faulder, David D.

    2000-01-12

    Petroleum Technology Advances Through Applied Research by Independent Oil Producers is a program of the National Oil Research Program, U.S. Department of Energy. Between 1995 and 1998, the program competitively selected and cost-shared twenty-two projects with small producers. The purpose was to involve small independent producers in testing technologies of interest to them that would advance (directly or indirectly) one or more of four national program objectives: (1) Extend the productive life of reservoirs; (2) Increase production and/or reserves; (3) Improve environmental performance; and (4) Broaden the exchange of technology information.

  1. Comparative analysis of on site bioremediation: Alternatives for petroleum contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, P.E.; Tremaine, S.C.

    1994-01-01

    Environmental Protection Systems, Inc. has developed a low maintenance, highly effective method to remediate petroleum and hazardous waste contamination of soils. This method combines the use of a slow release chemical oxygen source, along with nutrient amendments for the degradation of contaminants that require oxygen as a terminal electron acceptor. This method has been used successfully in bench and field experiments on creosote. The authors have performed laboratory experiments on diesel fuel. This paper describes rapid (site closure in 2.5 months in cold weather) field degradation of relatively freshly spilled diesel fuel using native bacteria and tailored nutrient amendments

  2. Preliminary fingerprinting analysis of Alberta oil sands and related petroleum products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, C.; Wang, Z.D.; Hollebone, B.; Brown, C.E.; Yang, Z.Y.; Landriault, M.; Fieldhouse, B.

    2009-01-01

    This paper reported on a study that presented a preliminary quantitative chemical characterization of Alberta oil sands and many other related Alberta oils such as oil sand bitumen, Cold Lake bitumen, Albian heavy synthetic crude, and Alberta Mixed sweet blend. The rapid increase in production of the Alberta oil sands has resulted in unprecedented environmental concern. The mining, extraction and production of oil sands such resulted in huge consumption of water resources, huge emission of greenhouse gas and large number of tailings ponds. In addition, accidental spills in the transportation and usage of oil sands will potentially cause considerable impact on the environment. It is therefore essential to have the ability to characterize Alberta oil sands and their oil products. The specific chemical properties of the oil sands bitumen must be known. Therefore, this study collected quantitative data on the concentration and distribution profiles of target compounds in Alberta oil sands and its petroleum products. The chemical fingerprints of 5 Alberta oil sands and their related petroleum products were studied using gas chromatography/flame ionization detection (GC/FID) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The characterized hydrocarbons were n-alkanes; target alkylated PAHs and other EPA priority PAHs; biomarker terpanes and steranes; and bicyclic sesquiterpanes. The information acquired during this study will provide the basis for oil-oil correlation and differentiation in future environmental applications relevant to oil sands. 24 refs., 6 tabs., 4 figs.

  3. Stratigraphic, regional unconformity analysis and potential petroleum plays of East Siberian Sea Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpov, Yury; Stoupakova, Antonina; Suslova, Anna; Agasheva, Mariia

    2017-04-01

    The East Siberian Sea basin (ESSB) one of the most unexplored part of the Russian Arctic shelf, extending for over 1000 km from New Siberian Islands archipelago to Wrangel Island. This region is considered as a region with probable high petroleum potential. Within the ESSB several phases of orogeny are recognized [1]: Elsmerian orogeny in Early Devonian, Early Brooks orogeny in Early Cretaceous, Late Brooks orogeny in Late Cretaceous. Two generations of the basins could be outlined. Both of these generations are controlled by the basement domains [1]: Paleozoic (post-Devonian) to Mesozoic basins preserved north of the Late Mesozoic frontal thrusts; Aptian-Albian to Quaternary basins, postdating the Verkhoyansk-Brookian orogeny, and evolving mainly over the New-Siberian-Chukchi Fold Belt. Basin is filled with siliclastic sediments and in the deepest depocentres sediments thickness exceeds 8-10 km in average. Seismic data was interpreted using methods of seismic stratigraphy. Finally, main seismic horizons were indicated and each horizon follows regional stratigraphic unconformities: mBU - in base of Cenozoic, BU - in base of Upper Cretaceous, LCU - in base of Cretaceous, JU - in middle of Jurassic, F - in top of Basement. In ESSB, we can identify Permian, Triassic, Jurassic, Cretaceous, Paleogene and Neogene seismic stratigraphy complexes. Perspective structures, investigated in ESSB were founded out by comparing seismogeological cross-sections with explored analogs in other onshore and offshore basins [2, 3, 4]. The majority of structures could be connected with stratigraphic and fault traps. The most perspective prospects are probably connected with grabens and depressions, where thickness of sediments exceed 10 km. Reservoirs in ESSB are proposed by regional geological explorations on New Siberian Islands Archipelago and Wrangel Island. Potential seals are predominantly assigned to Jurassic and Cretaceous periods. Thick clinoform units of various geometry and

  4. Gasoline from Kumkol deposit petroleum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadirov, A.N.; Zhizhin, N.I.; Musaeva, Z.G.

    1997-01-01

    Samples of gasoline from petroleum of Kumkol deposit are investigated by chromatographic analysis. It is found, that gasoline is characterizing by increased content of iso-paraffin hydrocarbons. (author)

  5. Report on the analysis of the quality assurance and quality control data for the petroleum refining sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorton, N.; Michajluk, S.; Powell, T.; Lee, G.

    1992-07-01

    The Ontario Municipal-Industrial Strategy for Abatement (MISA) program has the ultimate goal of virtual elimination of persistent toxic contaminants from all discharges to provincial waterways. MISA effluent monitoring regulations, first promulgated for the petroleum refining sector, require direct dischargers to monitor their effluents for a specified number of contaminants and a specified frequency over a one-year period. The refineries were also required to carry out a quality control program on all process effluent streams and for specified analytical test groups. Two types of quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) data were required: field QA/QC, which would indicate problems with field contamination or sampling, and laboratory QA/QC, which would indicate problems with the laboratory. The objectives of QA/QC analysis are to identify the significance of biases, chronic contamination, data variability, and false results, to assess data validity, and to allow data comparability among companies and laboratories. Of the 149 parameters monitored in the petroleum refining sector, 34 qualified as candidates for setting effluent limits. The QA/QC evaluation of monitoring data for the 34 parameters confirmed the presence of 18 parameters at such levels that they could be used to set statistically valid quantitative limits. 50 tabs

  6. An analysis of Science and Technology indicator by stages in the petroleum production chain; Analise de indicador de C e T nos elos da cadeia produtiva petrolifera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martini, Ana Amelia M.G.; Antunes, Adelaide M.S. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Escola de Quimica. Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Processos Quimicos e Bioquimicos

    2004-07-01

    Taking into account the global importance of the petroleum industry, the present work aims to present a study of this industry through the lens of its production chain, using bibliometric indicators of technological innovation in order to determine critical competitiveness factors. The concept of the production chain includes the set of activities undertaken progressively from raw material to the final product, including distribution and sales, with each segment being a link in the chain. The petroleum industry is composed of a production chain which may be divided into the following segments: exploration and production, transportation of crude oil and natural gas, refining, transportation of derivatives and distribution. The development of the present work involved the analysis of information about the petroleum production chain in Brazil and elsewhere, gathered through research in specialized database. The analysis of bibliometric indicators of technological innovation in each link of the production chain maps the technological trends existing in this chain. (author)

  7. Petroleum. [Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-01-01

    An introductory chapter of world wide petroleum history is followed by a comprehensive record of the petroliferous basins of Venezuela. Exploration, productivity, production statistics, reserves, geologic structures, and the distribution of oil and gas fields are described separately for the Maracaibo-Falcon basin, Apure-Barinas basin, E. Venezuela basin, and Tuy-Cariaco basin. The descriptions include geographic distribution, geomorphologic outline of the basins, lithology and thickness of sediments, structural development, present structural conditions in which oil and gas fields occur, and their distribution in the basins. Economic factors are discussed in an appendix. 145 references.

  8. Surface Sediment Analysis on Petroleum Hydrocarbon and Total Organic Carbon from Coastal Area of Papar to Tuaran, Sabah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siti Aishah Mohd Ali; Payus, C.; Masni Mohd Ali

    2015-01-01

    Total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) and total organic carbon (TOC) were investigated in surface sediments along coastal area of Papar to Tuaran, Sabah. Surface sediment samples were collected in 24 different stations in each area by using Ponar grab sampler. Samples were extracted for TPH using standard method sediment/ sludge APHA 5520E and analyzed using UV/VIS spectrophotometer while for TOC method analysis using United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)/ MAP Athens (2006). The range of TPH concentrations in surface sediments were recorded at 0.24 - 20.65 mg/ kg dw Miri crude oil equivalents, meanwhile the TOC percentage ranged from 0.03 - 4.02 %. In the mean time, the statistical analysis by Pearson correlation showed a positive correlation with coefficient, r = 0.790 which showing the TPH concentrations significantly have influence on the TOC accumulations in the surface sediment. (author)

  9. Analysis of root causes of major hazard precursors (hydrocarbon leaks) in the Norwegian offshore petroleum industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinnem, Jan Erik; Hestad, Jon Andreas; Kvaloy, Jan Terje; Skogdalen, Jon Espen

    2010-01-01

    The offshore petroleum industry in Norway reports major hazard precursors to the authorities, and data are available for the period 1996 through 2009. Barrier data have been reported since 2002, as have data from an extensive questionnaire survey covering working environment, organizational culture and perceived risk among all employees on offshore installations. Several attempts have been made to analyse different data sources in order to discover relations that may cast some light on possible root causes of major hazard precursors. These previous attempts were inconclusive. The study presented in this paper is the most extensive study performed so far. The data were analysed using linear regression. The conclusion is that there are significant correlations between number of leaks and safety climate indicators. The discussion points to possible root causes of major accidents.

  10. Desirable Strategic Petroleum Reserves policies in response to supply uncertainty: A stochastic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai, Yang; Zhou, Peng; Tian, Lixin; Meng, Fanyi

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A stochastic model is proposed to study Strategic Petroleum Reserves (SPR) policy. • The model aims to find desirable SPR size, acquisition, drawdown and refilling policy. • The impact of SPR policy and supply disruption on oil price has been examined. - Abstract: The paper proposes a survey on three issues related to Strategic Petroleum Reserves (SPR) policy. Firstly, what are the optimal SPR acquisition, drawdown and refilling policy in response to various market risks? Secondly, how SPR policy or actions will affect the market factors, i.e. oil demand or price. Thirdly, in what extend a disruption may induce price shock. For the purpose, the study proposed a Markov Decision Process model (SPR-MDP). In the model, oil supply, disruption size and duration are considered to be highly stochastic. Oil price is determined by market fundamentals exclusively. According to the empirical study, we come to some interesting conclusions. Firstly, oil price and disruption risk show different ways in influencing the desirable SPR size. It is found that the SPR size increases with the decrease of oil price while increase of disruption risk. Secondly, SPR acquisition may increase oil price slightly by influencing the basic fundamentals. In given case, we find acquisition of 7 million barrels per month increase the price by 2.6%. But the influence weakens with decrease of acquisition size. Thirdly, disruption duration shows significant impact on SPR drawdown policy. In a two-month disruption case, it is found that 51% of SPR should be released in the first month. Another 40% is released in the following month. The other 9% SPR is left for forthcoming disruptions. Meanwhile, SPR drawdown shows high efficient in damping oil price in the disruption. In given case, after drawdown of SPR, the oil prices only increases by 0.7% in the second month though continue disruption.

  11. Petroleum industry in 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This document presents a detailed outlook of the petroleum industry in the world and more particularly in France in 2005: evolution of crude oil prices; petroleum exploration and production in the world and in France; the French para-petroleum and petroleum industry; the oil supplies; the refining activities; the evolution of products quality and the substitution fuels; the domestic transports, the storage and consumption of petroleum products; the fiscality, prices and distribution of petroleum products. (J.S.)

  12. Shell Petroleum exploration and production 1980 to 1998: production profits, reserves analysis and key financial statistics in money and in real terms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents tables of Shell's earnings from oil and gas exploration and producing activities for the eastern and western hemispheres giving details of sales and net proceeds; Shell earnings analysis money of the day for worldwide oil and gas production between 1980 and 1998; key financial ratios for 1980-1998 for Shell petroleum exploration and production; Shell oil and natural gas liquids reserves changes by technical category (1980-1998); Shell natural gas reserves changes by technical category for 1989-1998; and finally Shell's petroleum exploration and production wells for 1980-1998

  13. Data integration for performance analysis of petroleum wells; Integracao de dados para analise de pocos de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arturo, Naisa Carrillo; Mendes, Jose Ricardo; Morooka, Celso [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil); Miura, Kazuo [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    In this work a new parameter called the System Performance Index is proposed, which allows a more profound study of the performance of petroleum wells. An outstanding characteristic of this parameter is that it uses a large amount of field data measured periodically. This index allows the assessing of the performance and technologies used in the wells. This study presents a comparison of the performance of vertical, directional and horizontal wells. The sand control technologies used in the wells are also evaluated. Finally, the proposed parameter enables a practical analysis that can be implemented as a strategic tool for oil field performance and optimization studies. Data used in this work were kindly supplied by PETROBRAS. (author)

  14. Analysis of the Causes of a Decline in the San Joaquin Kit Fox Population on the Elk Hills, Naval Petroleum Reserve #1, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is announcing the availability of the final report, Analysis of the Causes of a Decline in the San Joaquin Kit Fox Population on the Elk Hills, Naval Petroleum Reserve #1, California. This report describes a causal assessment of the decline in the abundance of San Joaq...

  15. Straightforward synthesis of 2,2,4,4,5,7,7-d{sub 7}-cholestane: a new deuterated standard in petroleum analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miranda, Maicon Guerra de; Albert, Andre Luis Mazzei; Cardoso, Jari Nobrega; Lopes, Rosangela Sabbatini Capella; Lopes, Claudio Cerqueira, E-mail: maicon_iq@yahoo.com [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica

    2013-10-01

    A short and efficient synthesis of heptadeuterated 2,2,4,4,5,7,7-d7-cholestane (1) from cholesterol (3) is described. The deuterated material will be useful for the analysis of different sources of petroleum in analytical geochemistry laboratories as internal standard for quantification of steranes via gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). (author)

  16. Petroleum geophysics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-07-01

    The book is compiled from a series of e-learning modules. GeoCLASS is an e-learning system with contents from petroleum geophysics. It is the result of collaboration between professors at the University of Bergen and the University of Oslo, and its material has been used as curriculum in master program courses at these universities for several years. Using a unique feature to GeoCLASS, these advanced scientific topics are presented on multiple levels. The introductions open the door to this vast pool of knowledge, accessible even for high school students. Enter the door, and you enter the modules. Various levels of content are presented, and the more advanced levels can be shielded from the regular user, and only accessed by those with particular interest. The chapters in the book are: Elastic waves; Survey planning; Seismic acquisition; Basic seismic signal theory and processing; Seismic imaging; Seismic attributes; Rock physics; Reservoir monitoring. (AG)

  17. Detailed analysis of petroleum cuts by multidimensional gas chromatography; Analyse detaillee de coupes petrolieres par chromatographie en phase gazeuse multidimensionnelle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vendeuvre, C.

    2006-01-15

    The limitations of petroleum resources implying a better valorisation of crude oil through the optimisation of production, refinery and petrochemistry processes, as well as the environmental regulations have strengthened the necessity of more detailed characterisation of petroleum products. In order to take up this challenge, efficient analytical tools have to be developed. This work demonstrates that comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GCxGC) constitutes a major advance compared to GC owing to its improved resolution power and to the structured chromatograms indicating the polarity and the volatility of hydrocarbons. The principle of GCxGC is based on the analysis of a whole sample in two independent dimensions of separation achieved using two GC columns of different selectivities; between the two columns a modulator device samples, focuses and re-injects small portions of the effluent from the first column into the second one. Since its introduction in 1991, GCxGC has known a rapid growth and has received a wide acceptance by the analytical science community. The competitive situation has considerably evolved during this thesis with the introduction of commercial systems and the two first sessions of an international symposium dedicated to this technique (Volendam, 2003 and Atlanta, 2004). The key points of the thesis concern the development of a GCxGC prototype system using dual jets CO{sub 2} technology and a data processing program; the evaluation of a retention model allowing a rational choice of operating conditions; and the application of this technique to various and complex issues. Thus, effluents from petrochemistry, refinery or pollution areas have been analysed according to the chemical classes of hydrocarbons and to their number of carbon atoms; a new method for obtaining distillation curves for each chemical group was also presented. Furthermore, the hyphenation of GCxGC with a specific sulphur detector revealed a great interest for

  18. Coloured Petri Nets: Basic Concepts, Analysis Methods and Practical Use. Vol. 2, Analysis Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt

    ideas behind the analysis methods are described as well as the mathematics on which they are based and also how the methods are supported by computer tools. Some parts of the volume are theoretical while others are application oriented. The purpose of the volume is to teach the reader how to use......This three-volume work presents a coherent description of the theoretical and practical aspects of coloured Petri nets (CP-nets). The second volume contains a detailed presentation of the analysis methods for CP-nets. They allow the modeller to investigate dynamic properties of CP-nets. The main...... the formal analysis methods, which does not require a deep understanding of the underlying mathematical theory....

  19. Analysis of petroleum company investments in nonpetroleum energy sources. Book I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan, P. Jr.; Ryan, T.C.

    1979-12-12

    The purpose of this report is to analyze the investment strategies of US oil companies and the depth of their present and future investments in nonpetroleum energy sources. For purposes of this study, the nonpetroleum energy sources to be discussed are coal, uranium/nuclear, synthetics from coal, oil shale, geothermal, and solar. To gather necessary subjective data, the authors interviewed the managements of more than forty companies, the majority of which are directly involved in the production of various forms of energy. Others are substantial energy users. Interviews were also held with various federal and state regulatory agencies, with federal legislative groups, and with representatives of industry associations. These interviews were not intended to be a survey; their purpose was rather to explore the perceptions of petroleum company managements concerning nonpetroleum energy sources and the reasons for their company's participation, or lack of participation, in the development of these resources. Quantitative data came from reports prepared by federal investigative and regulatory agencies, from testimony given before investigative and regulatory bodies, from public company reports (annual reports, quarterly reports, 10-K's, 8-K's, registration statements, press releases, etc.), from industry, research and investment organizations, from universities, and from a variety of publications.

  20. A Thermal Maturity Analysis of the Effective Cretaceous Petroleum System in the Southern Persian Gulf Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Alipour

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Commercial hydrocarbon discoveries in the Cretaceous of the southern Persian Gulf basin provide direct evidence that there is an effective petroleum system associated with the Cretaceous series. The revised models of thermal maturity in this region are needed to investigate lateral and stratigraphic variations of thermal maturity, which have not so far been addressed in detail for this part of the Persian Gulf. Such thermal maturity models are required to delineate the existing play assessment risks and to predict properties in more deeply buried undrilled sections. This study uses two dimensional basin modeling techniques to reconstruct maturity evolution of the Cenomanian Middle Sarvak source rock, presumably the most likely source for these hydrocarbons. The results indicate that an estimated 900 meter difference in the depth of burial between the southeastern high and the adjacent trough tends to be translated into noticeable variations at both temperature (135 °C versus 162 °C and vitrinite reflectance (0.91% versus 1.35%. Since the organic matter in the mentioned source rock is of reactive type II, these could cause a shift of about 18 million years in the onset of hydrocarbon generation over respective areas.

  1. Geomechanical analysis to predict the oil leak at the wellbores in Big Hill Strategic Petroleum Reserve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Byoung Yoon

    2014-02-01

    Oil leaks were found in wellbores of Caverns 105 and 109 at the Big Hill Strategic Petroleum Reserve site. According to the field observations, two instances of casing damage occurred at the depth of the interbed between the caprock bottom and salt top. A three dimensional finite element model, which contains wellbore element blocks and allows each cavern to be configured individually, is constructed to investigate the wellbore damage mechanism. The model also contains element blocks to represent interface between each lithology and a shear zone to examine the interbed behavior in a realistic manner. The causes of the damaged casing segments are a result of vertical and horizontal movements of the interbed between the caprock and salt dome. The salt top subsides because the volume of caverns below the salt top decrease with time due to salt creep closure, while the caprock subsides at a slower rate because the caprock is thick and stiffer. This discrepancy yields a deformation of the well. The deformed wellbore may fail at some time. An oil leak occurs when the wellbore fails. A possible oil leak date of each well is determined using the equivalent plastic strain failure criterion. A well grading system for a remediation plan is developed based on the predicted leak dates of each wellbore.

  2. Petroleum resources assessment 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    This report consists of two articles. (1) Petroleum resources assessment of the Okinawa Trough: The hydrocarbon potential has been evaluated for the Tertiary strata in the northwestern margin of the Okinawa Trough on the basis of the pale-ontological, petrological, geochemical data from two wells (Nikkan 8-9 and JDZ 7-3), and geophysical data. (2) Petroliferous basin analysis in Jinju area (2): Petroleum geological studies such as stratigraphy, sedimentology, petrology and organic geochemistry were carried out in the Gyeongsang Supergroup, Junju area. Based on lithofacies and rock color, the sequence can be divided into seven formations which can be organized into two groups (Sindong Group: Nagdong, Hasandong and Jinju formations in ascending order; Hayang Group: Chilgog, Silla Conglomerate, Haman and Jindong formations). (author). 57 refs.

  3. Petroleum 2006. Statistical elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-06-01

    This document gathers in 5 parts, the main existing statistical data about petroleum industry in France and in the rest of the world, together with an insight on other energy sources: 1 - petroleum in the French economy (petroleum and other energies, petroleum and transports, petroleum and energy in the industry, the residential and tertiary sectors, environment: 42 pages); 2 - the French petroleum industry (exploration, production, foreign trade, transports, refining, storage, petrochemistry: 66 pages); 3 - the French market of petroleum products (evolution of sales by product and detail by region for the past year: 38 pages); 4 - prices and taxes of petroleum products (world prices and rates for crude and refined products, evolution of fret rates, retail prices and French taxes: 28 pages); 5 - petroleum in the world (world energy production and consumption, detailed petroleum activity by main areas and for the main countries: 112 pages). (J.S.)

  4. Figures on petroleum 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    This table taken out from the 1981 annual report 1981 contains an introductory remark on the reorganization of mineral oil statistics up to January 82. It is followed by the tables ranged as follows: refinery capacity and production, crude oil supply, GDR-coverings, import of petroleum products, petroleum consumption, export of petroleum products, transport, oil storage tanks, motor vehicle stock, taxes and tariffs, petroleum export trade, energy consumption and world petroleum numbers. In parts the tables contain comparative figures back to 1950.

  5. Risk analysis applied to the development of petroleum fields; Analise de risco aplicada ao desenvolvimento de campos de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Ana Paula A. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Shiozer, Denis J. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    Decision analysis applied to the development phase of petroleum fields must take into account the risk associated to several types of uncertainties. In the transition of the appraisal to the development phase, the importance of risk associated to the recovery factor may increase significantly. The process is complex due to high investments, large number of uncertain variables, strong dependence of the results with the production strategy definition. This complexity may, in several cases, cause difficulties to establish reliable techniques to assess risk correctly or it demands great computational effort. Therefore, methodologies to quantify the impact of uncertainties are still not well established because simplifications are necessary and the impact of such simplifications is not well known. The propose work bring the main aspects related to the validation of the simplifications necessary to the quantification of the impact of uncertainties in the risk analysis process. The adopted techniques are divided in three groups: adoption of the automated process and use of parallel computing; simplifications techniques in the treatment of attributes; and integration techniques of geological uncertainties with the different types of uncertainties (economical, technological and related with the production strategy). The integration of the geological uncertainties with the others uncertainties is made through the concept of representative models. The results show that the criteria adopted are good indicators of the viability of the methodology, improving the performance and reliability of the risk analysis process. (author)

  6. Source identification of underground fuel spills in a petroleum refinery using fingerprinting techniques and chemo-metric analysis. A Case Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanellopoulou, G.; Gidarakos, E.; Pasadakis, N.

    2005-01-01

    Crude oil and its refining products are the most frequent contaminants, found in the environment due to spills. The aim of this work was the identification of spill source(s) in the subsurface of a petroleum refinery. Free phase samples were analyzed with gas chromatography and the analytical results were interpreted using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) method. The chemical analysis of groundwater samples from the refinery subsurface was also employed to obtain a comprehensive picture of the spill distribution and origin. (authors)

  7. Abundant and cheap petroleum until what date?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    Here is an economic analysis about the petroleum market. With the increasing demand in petroleum and the limited possibilities of supply, it should be obvious to increase the petroleum prices and to make investments in research and development to find new reserves or to increase the production capacities, without these options the demand could exceed the supply and strong tensions could appear in some years. (N.C.)

  8. Analysis of alkane-dependent methanogenic community derived from production water of a high-temperature petroleum reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mbadinga, Serge Maurice; Li, Kai-Ping; Zhou, Lei; Wang, Li-Ying; Yang, Shi-Zhong; Liu, Jin-Feng; Mu, Bo-Zhong [East China Univ. of Science and Technology, Shanghai (China). State Key Lab. of Bioreactor Engineering and Inst. of Applied Chemistry; Gu, Ji-Dong [Hong Kong Univ. (China). School of Biological Sciences

    2012-10-15

    Microbial assemblage in an n-alkanes-dependent thermophilic methanogenic enrichment cultures derived from production waters of a high-temperature petroleum reservoir was investigated in this study. Substantially higher amounts of methane were generated from the enrichment cultures incubated at 55 C for 528 days with a mixture of long-chain n-alkanes (C{sub 15}-C{sub 20}). Stoichiometric estimation showed that alkanes-dependent methanogenesis accounted for about 19.8% of the total amount of methane expected. Hydrogen was occasionally detected together with methane in the gas phase of the cultures. Chemical analysis of the liquid cultures resulted only in low concentrations of acetate and formate. Phylogenetic analysis of the enrichment revealed the presence of several bacterial taxa related to Firmicutes, Thermodesulfobiaceae, Thermotogaceae, Nitrospiraceae, Dictyoglomaceae, Candidate division OP8 and others without close cultured representatives, and Archaea predominantly related to uncultured members in the order Archaeoglobales and CO{sub 2}-reducing methanogens. Screening of genomic DNA retrieved from the alkanes-amended enrichment cultures also suggested the presence of new alkylsuccinate synthase alpha-subunit (assA) homologues. These findings suggest the presence of poorly characterized (putative) anaerobic n-alkanes degraders in the thermophilic methanogenic enrichment cultures. Our results indicate that methanogenesis of alkanes under thermophilic condition is likely to proceed via syntrophic acetate and/or formate oxidation linked with hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis. (orig.)

  9. Characterization of CRUDE OILS and petroleum products: (i) elution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Characterization of CRUDE OILS and petroleum products: (i) elution liquid chromatographic separation and gas chromatographic analysis of crude oils and petroleum products. E.O. Odebunmi, E.A. Ogunsakin, P.E.P. Ilukhor ...

  10. Fiscal 1999 research report. Simulation analysis on petroleum substituting energy; 1999 nendo sekiyu daitai energy keiryo bunseki chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    This report summarizes the fiscal 1999 research result on simulation analysis on petroleum substituting energy. The simulation model for analyzing social and energy supply and demand structures comprehensively was established by improving the China and Korea models developed in fiscal 1998 through a use of input-output tables. In simulation of the China model, the reference case showed that a primary energy demand in 2030 reaches 3.3 times as much as that in 1997 (2.9 times in CO{sub 2}), resulting in serious energy and environment problems. Reduction of primary energy and CO{sub 2} is possible by promotion of energy saving and introduction of a carbon tax. In simulation of the Korea model, the reference case showed that CO{sub 2} emission in 2030 reaches 2.2 times as much as that in 1997, showing an annual increase rate of 2.4%. The annual increase rate can be reduced by introducing a carbon tax. The simulation model for automobile energy was also established for major countries in Asia. Automobile energy consumption increases with diffusion of automobiles until 2030 gradually. In particular, the consumption in China reaches that in Japan in 2010. (NEDO)

  11. Pixel-based analysis of comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatograms (color plots) of petroleum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furbo, Søren; Hansen, Asger B.; Skov, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate how to process comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatograms (GC × GC chromatograms) to remove nonsample information (artifacts), including background and retention time shifts. We also demonstrate how this, combined with further reduction of the influence of irrelevant informati......, allows for data analysis without integration or peak deconvolution (pixelbased analysis)....

  12. Petroleum Sector (NAICS 324)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Find relevant environmental regulations for the petroleum industry (NAICS 324), including National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP)s for petroleum refineries and gasoline dispensing & effluent guidelines for oil and gas extraction

  13. Sustainability analysis in petroleum production facilities; Analise de sustentabilidade em instalacoes de producao de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pacheco, Jose Marcos Leite [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Santos, Adriano [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), RN (Brazil); Fernandes Junior, Wilaci Eutropio [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), RN (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    The global sustainability aspects are discussed and a method for sustainability analysis in oil and gas production surface facilities is presented. The proposed method requires a multidisciplinary viewpoint and considers social, economic and environmental sustainability aspects during the early design programming and planning phases. Traditionally, Feasibility (Technical and Economical), Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and risk (Hazop) analysis are performed separately. On the other hand, the proposed methodology merges economical, environmental and social sustainability analysis; which allows deciding the most globally sustainable scenario. A checklist containing global sustainability aspects (Economical, Social, Environmental, Health, Safety, etc.) and a qualitative analysis of these aspects is suggested. The first step for applying the proposed method consists in checking the aspects and the corresponding suggestions for improving the global sustainability. Secondly, the impact of each aspect on sustainability is verified. Finally, the most important aspects are selected and different scenarios are simulated allowing choosing the most sustainable scenario. The results and conclusions are then presented in a Global Sustainability Report. The proposed analysis was applied to study the sustainability of a small offshore platform design. In this case study, several aspects that could potentially improve sustainability were identified. The simulated scenarios showed that some critical aspects contributed decisively to the global sustainability. These critical aspects are not easily identified if only the traditional economical, environmental and risk analysis are applied. (author)

  14. The petroleum industry in 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This 2004 edition of the petroleum industry activities presents results and data concerning the crude oil prices evolution, the petroleum exploration and production in france and in the world, the para-petroleum industry, the hydrocarbons supplies, the refining, the quality evolution of the substitution products and fuels, the internal transports of petroleum products, the petroleum products storage, the petroleum products consumption, the petroleum products prices and taxation, the petroleum products distribution. (A.L.B.)

  15. Metals distribution in Kumkol deposit petroleum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musaeva, Z.G.; Nadirov, A.N.; Ajdarbaev, A.S.

    1997-01-01

    Metals content in samples of Kumkol deposit petroleum is determined by the method of X-ray diffraction and neutron activation analysis. Specific consideration was devoted to nickel and vanadium. It is possible, that sources of these metals are various petroleum formation as well as both the absorbed or the got in stratum microelements. (author)

  16. The world petroleum industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mons, L.

    2005-01-01

    This study proposes a global vision of the petroleum industry, a precise and well argued state of the art of the petroleum markets. It defines the strategical challenges which the petroleum companies are exposed and allows to anticipate the sector evolutions. It details the key acts of the last three years, the financial performances of the companies. (A.L.B.)

  17. After oil: Analysis of poetic projections into post-petroleum political ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper subjects a forty-three-line poem titled After Oil to critical analysis within the novel intellectual framework of “poetry and politics.” It focuses on the poem's projections into the political economy and environment of the Niger Delta at the inevitable exhaustion of the deposits of fossil fuel that is currently the mainstay of

  18. Analysis of petroleum contaminated soils by spectral modeling and pure response profile recovery of n-hexane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakraborty, Somsubhra; Weindorf, David C.; Li, Bin; Ali, Md. Nasim; Majumdar, K.; Ray, D.P.

    2014-01-01

    This pilot study compared penalized spline regression (PSR) and random forest (RF) regression using visible and near-infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (VisNIR DRS) derived spectra of 164 petroleum contaminated soils after two different spectral pretreatments [first derivative (FD) and standard normal variate (SNV) followed by detrending] for rapid quantification of soil petroleum contamination. Additionally, a new analytical approach was proposed for the recovery of the pure spectral and concentration profiles of n-hexane present in the unresolved mixture of petroleum contaminated soils using multivariate curve resolution alternating least squares (MCR-ALS). The PSR model using FD spectra (r 2  = 0.87, RMSE = 0.580 log 10  mg kg −1 , and residual prediction deviation = 2.78) outperformed all other models tested. Quantitative results obtained by MCR-ALS for n-hexane in presence of interferences (r 2  = 0.65 and RMSE 0.261 log 10  mg kg −1 ) were comparable to those obtained using FD (PSR) model. Furthermore, MCR ALS was able to recover pure spectra of n-hexane. - Highlights: • We predicted soil petroleum contamination with VisNIR DRS spectra. • We examined 2 spectral pretreatments and 2 multivariate models. • MCR-ALS was used for compositional and spectral resolution of n-hexane. • Penalized spline regression performed best for quantifying soil TPH. • MCR-ALS was promising for resolution of complex soil–petroleum mixture. - Use of VisNIR DRS for rapid quantification of soil TPH and resolution of complex soil petroleum mixtures

  19. Petroleum marketing monthly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data.

  20. Petroleum fiscality indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-02-01

    This document presents the different taxes imposed to petroleum products in France: domestic tax on petroleum products (TIPP) and added value tax (TVA). A comparison is made with the fiscality into effect in other European countries for some petroleum products. Then, the fiscality is detailed for the different petroleum products and automotive fuels with its regional modulations. Finally, the fiscal measures adopted in 2007 are detailed. They concern the transposition of the European directive 2003-96/CE into French right and some fiscal regime changes given to some economical sectors particularly penalized by the rise of petroleum energy prices in 2007. (J.S.)

  1. Petroleum industry 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    A survey on petroleum industry activities in France and in the world in 1996 is presented. The different parts and themes of the study are: evolution of the petroleum market (international and French markets, supply and demand, prices, mark-up and taxation in France and in Europe); activities in the petroleum industries (exploration and production, maritime transportation, inland transportation and storage, refining, quality of petroleum products and substitution fuels, oil distribution); environment and safety (refining, distribution and evolution of products, pipeline and maritime transportation, exploration and production); situation of the sector's companies (oil groups, para-petroleum French industry, scientific and technical research)

  2. Price Relationships in the Petroleum Market: An Analysis of Crude Oil and Refined Product Prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asche, Frank; Gjoelberg, Ole; Voelker, Teresa

    2001-08-01

    In this paper the relationships between crude oil and refined product prices are investigated in a multivariate framework. This allows us to test several (partly competing) assumptions of earlier studies. In particular, we find that the crude oil price is weakly exogenous and that the spread is constant in some but not all relationships. Moreover, the multivariate analysis shows that the link between crude oil prices and several refined product prices implies market integration for these refined products. This is an example of supply driven market integration and producers will change the output mix in response to price changes. (author)

  3. Price relationships in the petroleum market. An analysis of crude oil and refined product prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asche, Frank; Gjoelberg, Ole; Volker, Teresa

    2003-01-01

    In this paper the relationships between crude oil and refined product prices are investigated in a multivariate framework. This allows us to test several (partly competing) assumptions of earlier studies. In particular, we find that the crude oil price is weakly exogenous and that the spread is constant in some but not all relationships. Moreover, the multivariate analysis shows that the link between crude oil prices and several refined product prices implies market integration for these refined products. This is an example of supply driven market integration and producers will change the output mix in response to price changes

  4. Price relationships in the petroleum market: an analysis of crude oil and refined product prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asche, F.; Gjoelberg, O.; Voelker, T.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper the relationships between crude oil and refined product prices are investigated in a multivariate framework. This allows us to test several (partly competing) assumptions of earlier studies. In particular, we find that the crude oil price is weakly exogenous and that the spread is constant in some but not all relationships. Moreover, the multivariate analysis shows that the link between crude oil prices and several refined product prices implies market integration for these refined products. This is an example of supply driven market integration and producers will change the output mix in response to price changes. (author)

  5. Exergy and exergoeconomic analysis of a petroleum refinery utilities plant using the condensing to power method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendes da Silva, Julio Augusto; Pellegrini, Luiz Felipe; Oliveira Junior, Silvio [Polytechnic School of the University of Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], e-mails: jams@usp.br, luiz.pellegrini@usp.br, soj@usp.br; Plaza, Claudio; Rucker, Claudio [Petrobras - Petroleo Brasileiro S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], e-mails: claudioplaza@petrobras.com.br, rucker@petrobras.com.br

    2010-07-01

    In this paper a brief description of the main processes present in a modern high capacity refinery is done. The methodology used to evaluate, through exergy analysis, the performance of the refinery's utilities plant since it is responsible for a very considerable amount of the total exergy destruction in a refinery is presented. The utilities plant products: steam, electricity, shaft power and high pressure water had their exergy unit cost determined using exergoeconomic approach. A simple and effective method called condensing to power was used to define the product of the condensers in exergy basis. Using this method it is possible to define the product of the condenser without the use of negentropy concept nor the aggregation of condensers to the steam turbines. By using this new approach, the costs obtained for the plant's products are exactly the same costs obtained when the condenser is aggregated to the steam turbine but with the advantage that the information about the stream between condenser and the steam turbine is not lost and the condenser can be evaluated singly. The analysis shows that the equipment where attention and resources should be focused are the boilers followed by the gas turbine, that together, are responsible for 80% of total exergy destruction in the utilities plant. The total exergy efficiency found for the utilities plant studied is 35% while more than 280 MW of exergy is destroyed in the utilities processes. (author)

  6. Analysis of heavy oils: Method development and application to Cerro Negro heavy petroleum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1989-12-01

    On March 6, 1980, the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ministry of Energy and Mines of Venezuela (MEMV) entered into a joint agreement which included analysis of heavy crude oils from the Venezuelan Orinoco oil belt. The purpose of this report is to present compositional data and describe new analytical methods obtained from work on the Cerro Negro Orinoco belt crude oil since 1980. Most of the chapters focus on the methods rather than the resulting data on Cerro Negro oil, and results from other oils obtained during the verification of the method are included. In addition, published work on analysis of heavy oils, tar sand bitumens, and like materials is reviewed, and the overall state of the art in analytical methodology for heavy fossil liquids is assessed. The various phases of the work included: distillation and determination of routine'' physical/chemical properties (Chapter 1); preliminary separation of >200{degrees} C distillates and the residue into acid, base, neutral, saturated hydrocarbon and neutral-aromatic concentrates (Chapter 2); further separation of acid, base, and neutral concentrates into subtypes (Chapters 3--5); and determination of the distribution of metal-containing compounds in all fractions (Chapter 6).

  7. Analysis of heavy oils: Method development and application to Cerro Negro heavy petroleum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carbognani, L.; Hazos, M.; Sanchez, V. (INTEVEP, Filial de Petroleos de Venezuela, SA, Caracas (Venezuela)); Green, J.A.; Green, J.B.; Grigsby, R.D.; Pearson, C.D.; Reynolds, J.W.; Shay, J.Y.; Sturm, G.P. Jr.; Thomson, J.S.; Vogh, J.W.; Vrana, R.P.; Yu, S.K.T.; Diehl, B.H.; Grizzle, P.L.; Hirsch, D.E; Hornung, K.W.; Tang, S.Y.

    1989-12-01

    On March 6, 1980, the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ministry of Energy and Mines of Venezuela (MEMV) entered into a joint agreement which included analysis of heavy crude oils from the Venezuelan Orinoco oil belt.The purpose of this report is to present compositional data and describe new analytical methods obtained from work on the Cerro Negro Orinoco belt crude oil since 1980. Most of the chapters focus on the methods rather than the resulting data on Cerro Negro oil, and results from other oils obtained during the verification of the method are included. In addition, published work on analysis of heavy oils, tar sand bitumens, and like materials is reviewed, and the overall state of the art in analytical methodology for heavy fossil liquids is assessed. The various phases of the work included: distillation and determination of routine'' physical/chemical properties (Chapter 1); preliminary separation of >200{degree}C distillates and the residue into acid, base, neutral, saturated hydrocarbon and neutral-aromatic concentrates (Chapter 2); further separation of acid, base, and neutral concentrates into subtypes (Chapters 3-5); and determination of the distribution of metal-containing compounds in all fractions (Chapter 6).

  8. Petroleum Supply Monthly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major U.S. geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  9. Petroleum supply monthly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blends, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.

  10. A Consequence Analysis of the Explosion of Spherical Tanks Containing Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Zareei

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A consequence analysis was performed in one of the gas refineries in Iran to investigate the risks andpotential losses resulted from accidents. Specifically, the consequences of an explosion in LPGspherical tanks were modeled using PHAST and MATLAB software. In this paper, three methods ofcalculation of PHAST software TNT, multi-energy, and BST were used. The results showed thatmulti energy method is the best method to evaluate overpressure. It was 0.150 bar and 0.159 bar in adistance of 1000 m far from the blast using PHAST and MATLAB respectively. This overpressurecan damage a wall with 30 cm thickness. It also affects the human threshold (1% ruptured eardrum.Finally, it was found that 100% lethality in a minute happened at 285.5 m and 37.5 kW/m2 when theexplosion happened.

  11. Raising energy efficiency and cutting greenhouse gas emissions : an analysis of publicly funded petroleum research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-11-01

    From the preface: This brochure is based on an analysis study that ascertained that since 2004 the Research Council's PETROMAKS and DEMO 2000 programmes have allocated funding to more than 80 projects carried out by the research community and private industry relating to climate challenges. Once these projects have been concluded, they will have received a total of over half a billion kroner in public funding. There is no doubt that many of the measures recommended by these projects will have positive impacts on the environment. Many of these research findings can contribute to making processes more energy efficient or to directly reducing emissions of greenhouse gases. The brochure presents a selection of these projects. A complete list of projects under the PETROMAKS and DEMO 2000 programmes which address raising energy efficiency may be found at the end of the brochure.(eb)

  12. Biofuels in West Africa: prospective analysis of substitution for petroleum products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonato, A.

    1993-01-01

    Is it viable and realistic to believe that biofuels can relieve the energy bill for certain countries in West Africa, restimulate whole areas often cut off from the development process, and diversify the outlets of the agricultural sector, hard struck as it is by the price drop in raw materials. The answer here is drawn from a micro-economic analysis of Benin, Burkina Faso, the Ivory Coast, and Niger, concerning the competitiveness of the three main products considered: - ethanol, produced from cane sugar; - methanol, obtained from eucalyptus by cryogenic oxygen gasification process; methyl ester, from palm oil. The result of this study is a forecast, for the year 2010, of conditions under which methyl alcohols and ester might be substituted for refined gasoline and fuel oil, and a hierarchical classification of the various biofuels in West Africa. (author). 15 refs., 8 tabs

  13. Geopolitical problems bond to the petroleum production and exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-12-01

    The persistent interest of States for the petroleum shows, always today, that it is a specific raw material. The petroleum specificity comes from the supply and demand character, which the prospective study is presented in the first part of this analysis. From this presentation the authors discuss the petroleum ''great fear'' which leads to the dependence and then the interdependence of the petroleum States in an international cooperation. (A.L.B.)

  14. Petroleum business of high risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carta Petrolera

    2001-01-01

    The paper is about the economic risk and of the geologic risk that assist the industry of the petroleum; an analysis of these types of risk, possibilities of success and investments to carry out in the search of hydrocarbons are made

  15. Thermodynamic analysis of an upstream petroleum plant operated on a mature field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Tuong-Van [Section of Thermal Energy, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Building 403, Nils Koppels Allé, 2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark); Jacyno, Tomasz [Faculty of Mechanical and Power Engineering, Wrocław University of Technology, Building A-1, ul. Wybrzeże Wyspiańskiego 27, 50-370 Wrocław (Poland); Breuhaus, Peter [Department of Energy, International Research Institute of Stavanger, Professor Olav Hanssens vei 15, 4021 Stavanger (Norway); Voldsund, Mari [Department of Chemistry, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Høgskoleringen 5, 7491 Trondheim (Norway); Elmegaard, Brian [Section of Thermal Energy, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Building 403, Nils Koppels Allé, 2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark)

    2014-04-01

    Oil and gas processing on offshore platforms operates under changing boundary conditions over a field lifespan, as the hydrocarbon production declines and the water extraction increases. In this paper, the processing plant of the Draugen platform is evaluated by performing an energy and exergy analysis. This facility exploits an end-life oilfield and runs at conditions deviating significantly from its optimal operating specifications. Two different operating modes were assessed, and process models were developed using the simulation tools Aspen Plus{sup ®} and Aspen HYSYS{sup ®}, based on measured and reconciliated process data. The total energy demand is moderately sensitive to daily and monthly variations: it ranges between 22 and 30 MW, of which 18–26 MW and about 3–4 MW are in electrical and thermal energy forms. The greatest exergy destruction takes place in the gas treatment (51%), recompression (12%) and production manifold (10%) modules. The separation work performed on this platform is greater than in similar facilities because of higher propane and water fractions of the well-streams. These findings emphasise the differences between peak and end-life productions: they suggest (i) to set focus on processes including gas expansion and compression, (ii) to investigate possibilities for an improved energy integration, and (iii) to consider and evaluate alternative system designs. - Highlights: • The thermodynamic performance of an upstream oil and gas processing plant is assessed. • Energy and exergy analyses are performed, and the plant inefficiencies are depicted. • The effects of end-life field conditions are evaluated.

  16. Thermodynamic analysis of an upstream petroleum plant operated on a mature field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Tuong-Van; Jacyno, Tomasz; Breuhaus, Peter; Voldsund, Mari; Elmegaard, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Oil and gas processing on offshore platforms operates under changing boundary conditions over a field lifespan, as the hydrocarbon production declines and the water extraction increases. In this paper, the processing plant of the Draugen platform is evaluated by performing an energy and exergy analysis. This facility exploits an end-life oilfield and runs at conditions deviating significantly from its optimal operating specifications. Two different operating modes were assessed, and process models were developed using the simulation tools Aspen Plus ® and Aspen HYSYS ® , based on measured and reconciliated process data. The total energy demand is moderately sensitive to daily and monthly variations: it ranges between 22 and 30 MW, of which 18–26 MW and about 3–4 MW are in electrical and thermal energy forms. The greatest exergy destruction takes place in the gas treatment (51%), recompression (12%) and production manifold (10%) modules. The separation work performed on this platform is greater than in similar facilities because of higher propane and water fractions of the well-streams. These findings emphasise the differences between peak and end-life productions: they suggest (i) to set focus on processes including gas expansion and compression, (ii) to investigate possibilities for an improved energy integration, and (iii) to consider and evaluate alternative system designs. - Highlights: • The thermodynamic performance of an upstream oil and gas processing plant is assessed. • Energy and exergy analyses are performed, and the plant inefficiencies are depicted. • The effects of end-life field conditions are evaluated

  17. Unsupervised classification of petroleum Certified Reference Materials and other fuels by chemometric analysis of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho Rocha, Werickson Fortunato; Schantz, Michele M; Sheen, David A; Chu, Pamela M; Lippa, Katrice A

    2017-06-01

    As feedstocks transition from conventional oil to unconventional petroleum sources and biomass, it will be necessary to determine whether a particular fuel or fuel blend is suitable for use in engines. Certifying a fuel as safe for use is time-consuming and expensive and must be performed for each new fuel. In principle, suitability of a fuel should be completely determined by its chemical composition. This composition can be probed through use of detailed analytical techniques such as gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). In traditional analysis, chromatograms would be used to determine the details of the composition. In the approach taken in this paper, the chromatogram is assumed to be entirely representative of the composition of a fuel, and is used directly as the input to an algorithm in order to develop a model that is predictive of a fuel's suitability. When a new fuel is proposed for service, its suitability for any application could then be ascertained by using this model to compare its chromatogram with those of the fuels already known to be suitable for that application. In this paper, we lay the mathematical and informatics groundwork for a predictive model of hydrocarbon properties. The objective of this work was to develop a reliable model for unsupervised classification of the hydrocarbons as a prelude to developing a predictive model of their engine-relevant physical and chemical properties. A set of hydrocarbons including biodiesel fuels, gasoline, highway and marine diesel fuels, and crude oils was collected and GC-MS profiles obtained. These profiles were then analyzed using multi-way principal components analysis (MPCA), principal factors analysis (PARAFAC), and a self-organizing map (SOM), which is a kind of artificial neural network. It was found that, while MPCA and PARAFAC were able to recover descriptive models of the fuels, their linear nature obscured some of the finer physical details due to the widely varying composition of the

  18. The petroleum industry in 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This document provides information on the petroleum industry for the year 2005. It discusses the world gas and petroleum markets, the world and french petroleum exploration and production, the petroleum and byproducts industry in France, the hydrocarbons supplying, the refining in France, the evolution of the products and fuels substitution quality, the internal transports of petroleum products, the storage consumption and taxes of petroleum products, the prices and distribution of the petroleum products. (A.L.B.)

  19. Canadian petroleum industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dagher, J.H.

    1969-12-01

    This study covers the following Canadian petroleum industry categories: (1) a brief history; (2) the demand for Alberta crude; (3) U.S. oil policies; (4) overseas exploration; (5) the national oil policy; (6) the Montreal pipeline and its targets; (7) a continental oil policy; and (8) the impact of Arctic reserves. It is noted that large potential benefits will improve from the Manhattan navigating the Northwest Passage. Without prejudging the analysis now applied to the information gathered on this voyage, the Manhattan has greatly contributed to the solution of the problem of access to the Arctic islands. The picture for natural gas is less fraught with uncertainties. Unlike oil, where domestic and international considerations may weigh in U.S. policy decision, Canadian natural gas is likely to be allowed to enjoy its full economic potential in bridging the foreseeable U.S. supply gap and, inasmuch as this potential is ultimately tied with that for crude oil markets, the anticipated U.S. needs for Canadian natural gas may be expected to enhance U.S. interest in the overall well-being of the Canadian petroleum industry.

  20. Petroleum resources assessment (I)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    This report consists of 2 subjects. 1) Petroleum resources assessment on the western part of the Kunsan Basin: Palynomorphs including spores, pollen and organic-walled microfossils and calcareous microfossils such as ostracods, charophytes and gastropods were studied for the biostratigraphic work of Kachi-1 and IIH-1Xa wells. Based on available well data, the rifting probably began in the Cretaceous time had continued until Paleocene. It is considered that compressional force immediately after rifting event deformed sedimentary sections. During the period of Paleocene to middle Miocene, the sediments were deposited in stable environment without particular tectonic event. 2) Petroliferous basin analysis in Taegu area (II): The Nakdong and Jinju formations contain abundant black shales, and thermal maturity of the organic matter reached at the final stage of dry gas generation. These formations also contain thick sandstones which can act as a petroleum reservoir. However, reservoir quality of the sandstones is poor (porosity: < 5%; permeability: < 0.001 md). In these sandstones, secondary pores such as dissolution pores and micropores can act as a tight gas reservoir. (author). 56 refs., 24 tabs., 68 figs.

  1. Petroleum marketing monthly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly.

  2. Petroleum marketing monthly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PPM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o. b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly.

  3. Petroleum marketing monthly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly.

  4. Petroleum industry in CIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaillaud, P.

    1992-01-01

    This paper gives statistical data on petroleum and natural gas industry in USSR and in Eastern Europe: crude oil and gas production, petroleum and natural gas deposits, exports, fuel consumption, pipelines network (total length, compressor or pump stations), petroleum refineries. This paper describes also air pollution (carbon dioxide and sulfur dioxide) and Environmental effects of coal and lignite using in fossil power plants in Eastern Europe. 17 figs., 7 tabs

  5. Petroleum and ethics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henn, N.; Train, E.; Chagnoux, H.; Heinzle, P.; Daubresse, M.; Bret-Rouzaut, N.; Fradin, J.

    2000-01-01

    7 articles in this data sheet, they concern: political stakes and stakes of the industrial petroleum sector towards ethical questions; establishment of associations attending to human and environmental questions; examples of of ethical, environmental and safety policy in an industrialized country (ExxonMobil) and in a developing country (TotalFina); synthesis of the ethical problems that the petroleum industry encounter in industrialized and developing countries; considerations on the communication stakes in petroleum companies with the general public. (O.M.)

  6. Canadian petroleum history bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cass, D.

    2003-09-27

    The Petroleum History Bibliography includes a list of more than 2,000 publications that record the history of the Canadian petroleum industry. The list includes books, theses, films, audio tapes, published articles, company histories, biographies, autobiographies, fiction, poetry, humour, and an author index. It was created over a period of several years to help with projects at the Petroleum History Society. It is an ongoing piece of work, and as such, invites comments and additions.

  7. BASIN ANALYSIS AND PETROLEUM SYSTEM CHARACTERIZATION AND MODELING, INTERIOR SALT BASINS, CENTRAL AND EASTERN GULF OF MEXICO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernest A. Mancini; Donald A. Goddard; Ronald K. Zimmerman

    2005-05-10

    The principal research effort for Year 2 of the project has been data compilation and the determination of the burial and thermal maturation histories of the North Louisiana Salt Basin and basin modeling and petroleum system identification. In the first nine (9) months of Year 2, the research focus was on the determination of the burial and thermal maturation histories, and during the remainder of the year the emphasis has basin modeling and petroleum system identification. Existing information on the North Louisiana Salt Basin has been evaluated, an electronic database has been developed, regional cross sections have been prepared, structure and isopach maps have been constructed, and burial history, thermal maturation history and hydrocarbon expulsion profiles have been prepared. Seismic data, cross sections, subsurface maps and related profiles have been used in evaluating the tectonic, depositional, burial and thermal maturation histories of the basin. Oil and gas reservoirs have been found to be associated with salt-supported anticlinal and domal features (salt pillows, turtle structures and piercement domes); with normal faulting associated with the northern basin margin and listric down-to-the-basin faults (state-line fault complex) and faulted salt features; and with combination structural and stratigraphic features (Sabine and Monroe Uplifts) and monoclinal features with lithologic variations. Petroleum reservoirs are mainly Upper Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous fluvial-deltaic sandstone facies and Lower Cretaceous and Upper Cretaceous shoreline, marine bar and shallow shelf sandstone facies. Cretaceous unconformities significantly contribute to the hydrocarbon trapping mechanism capacity in the North Louisiana Salt Basin. The chief petroleum source rock in this basin is Upper Jurassic Smackover lime mudstone beds. The generation of hydrocarbons from Smackover lime mudstone was initiated during the Early Cretaceous and continued into the Tertiary

  8. Petroleum and geopolitics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaigneau, P.

    2004-01-01

    Todays, petroleum companies consider that despite the constant increase of petroleum consumption, petroleum will remain the main energy source for at least 40 years. However, after the Iraq conflict, new regional situations are changing. China, for instance, with its growing up demand, will change the physiognomy of the oil market. In parallel, from Indonesia to Africa, petroleum and religion interfere and explain the new conflict areas. As for the US strategy, which is not limited to the energy paradigm, it largely integrates energy in the main lines of its diplomacy, from the 'Wide Middle East' to the 'Sahel initiative', and in its position with respect to Venezuela

  9. The petroleum industry in 2001; L'industrie petroliere en 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This economic analysis presents the 2001 highlights and key-data of the world petroleum industry: evolution of crude prices, exploration and production worldwide, petroleum exploration and production in France, para-petroleum industry, hydrocarbon supplies, refining activity, evolution of quality of products and fuel substitutes, domestic transports, storage, consumption, fiscality, prices and distribution of petroleum products. (J.S.)

  10. Petroleum and the economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohi, D.R.

    1992-01-01

    In re-examining the effect of energy price shocks on the economy, this article applies several tests to show that the apparent coincidence between price shocks and poor economic performance may be misleading. For example, whereas macroeconomic analysis graphs of employment and GNP clearly indicate an apparent correlation between the 1979 petroleum price hike and economic downturn in the USA, Great Britain and Germany, Japan's performance stayed fairly constant during that period. Additional sectoral analyses of the performances of the western economies show that the impacts of the '74 and '79 oil price shocks were not equally distributed across the different industrial sectors of the various nations. The paper argues that a deeper understanding of the energy-economy relationship is required to reduce these ambiguities

  11. 1992 petroleum software directory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    This book is designed especially for the petroleum industry. Each program listing includes a description of the function, language and memory requirements, operating systems, special accessories required, compatibles and pricing information. A separate section lists the more than 600 companies that produce and sell the programs. Companies are listed alphabetically and include address, phone, fax and telex numbers as well as contact names for each location. Many company listings also include distributors. This book includes information on Accounting/Statistics, Design/Construction/Engineering Graphics, Drilling Engineering and Equipment, Economics/Financial Analysis, Engineering, Exploration, Land and Leasing, Maintenance and Repair/Quality Control/Monitoring, Manufacturing, Maps, Marketing, Pipelines/Shipping/Storage, Production Engineering and Recovery Methods, Synthetic/Alternate Resources and Fuels

  12. Petroleum marketing in Africa. Issues in pricing, taxation and investment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhagavan, M.R.

    1999-01-01

    This four part book examines and compares the liberalised petroleum marketing in Kenya with petroleum marketing in Ethiopia which has just begun the transition from state control to liberalisation. The petroleum sub-sector in both countries is put into context, and petroleum pricing and taxation issues, financing, marketing issues and policy are reviewed, and policy recommendations for both countries are given. The comparative analysis of the Ethiopian and Kenyan situations presented highlights some lessons for sub-Saharan Africa. Information and statistics on petroleum, marketing, and investment in sub-Saharan Africa are given in the appendix. (UK)

  13. Balance of the uranium market. Contribution to an economic analysis. Vol. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehsani, J.

    1983-11-01

    The second volume of this thesis on the economic analysis of the uranium market contrains all the technical decriptions concerning reactors and fuel cycle and also detailed results of the two models on uranium supply and demand [fr

  14. Financing petroleum agreements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robson, C.J.V.

    1994-01-01

    This chapter describes the typical type of financing agreements which are currently used to finance North Sea petroleum projects whether they are in the cause of development or have been developed and are producing. It deals with the agreements which are entered into to finance borrowings for petroleum projects on a non-resource or limited resource basis. (UK)

  15. Fundamentals of Petroleum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Naval Personnel, Washington, DC.

    Basic information on petroleum is presented in this book prepared for naval logistics officers. Petroleum in national defense is discussed in connection with consumption statistics, productive capacity, world's resources, and steps in logistics. Chemical and geological analyses are made in efforts to familiarize methods of refining, measuring,…

  16. Petroleum systems of Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doust, H.; Noble, R.A.

    2008-01-01

    Indonesia contains many Tertiary basins, several of which have proven to be very prolific producers of oil and gas. The geology and petroleum systems of these productive basins are reviewed, summarized and updated according to the most recent developments. We have linked the recognized petroleum

  17. Petroleum supply monthly, April 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-01

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographical regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the US. The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the US.

  18. The interlaboratory experiment IDA-72 on mass spectrometric isotope dilution analysis. Vol. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyrich, W.; Drosselmeyer, E.

    1975-07-01

    Volume II of the report on the IDA-72 experiment contains papers written by different authors on a number of special topics connected with the preparation, performance and evaluation of the interlaboratory test. In detail the sampling procedures for active samples of the reprocessing plant and the preparation of inactive reference and spike solution from standard material are described as well as new methods of sample conditioning by evaporation. An extra chapter is devoted to the chemical sample treatment as a preparation for mass spectrometric analysis of the U and Pu content of the solutions. Special topics are also methods for mass discrimination corrections, α-spectrometer measurements as a supplement for the determination of Pu-238 and the comparison of concentration determinations by mass spectrometric isotope dilution analysis with those performed by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. The last part of this volume contains papers connected with the computerized statistical evaluation of the high number of data. (orig.) [de

  19. Information manager-2011-Vol 11

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Library _info_Sc_ 1

    The Information Manager Vol. ... extent while carrying out their duties on a daily basis. ... It concluded by admonishing librarians to brace up and keep pace ... Proper training should be given to .... used to information and communication technologies .... proficiency Skills .... analysis of the workplace and implementation of.

  20. Coloured Petri Nets: Basic Concepts, Analysis Methods and Practical Use. Vol. 1, Basic Concepts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt

    This three-volume work presents a coherent description of the theoretical and practical aspects of coloured Petri nets. These CP-nets are shown to be a full-fledged language for the design, specification, simulation, validation and implementation of large software systems. The introductory first...... volume contains the formal definition of CP-nets and the mathematical theory behind their analysis methods. It gives a detailed presentation of many small examples and a brief overview of some industrial applications. The purpose of the book is to teach the reader how to construct CP-net models...

  1. Balance of the uranium market. Contribution to an economic analysis. Vol. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehsani, J.

    1983-11-01

    The evolution of the economic and the energetic world situation for these last 40 years are first described stressing electricity production. Place of nuclear energy in the energy market is analyzed taking into account socio-political factors. In a second part, cost for electricity production from different sources: coal, nuclear power, fuel-oil are compared. Two models for uranium world supply and demand are developed. In the third part the uranium market balance, is examined. The analysis includes 3 steps: determination of total uranium demand from 1983 to 2000, determination of total uranium supply by portion of production cost, supply and demand are compared for future evolution with different hypothesis [fr

  2. The interlaboratory experiment IDA-72 on mass spectrometric isotope dilution analysis. Vol. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyrich, W.; Drosselmeyer, E.

    1975-07-01

    Within the framework of the Safeguards Project of the Federal Republic of Germany at the Nuclear Research Center Karlsruhe an analytical intercomparison program was carried out in cooperation with 22 laboratories of 13 countries or international organizations. The main objective was the acquisition of basic data on the errors involved in the mass spectrometric isotope dilution analysis if it is applied to the determination of uranium and plutonium in diluted active feed solutions of reprocessing plants in routine operation. The results were evaluated by statistical methods mainly in regard to the calculation of the estimates of the variances for the different error components contributing to the total error of this analytical technique. Furthermore, the performance of two new methods for sample conditioning suggested by the International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, and the European Institute for Transuranium Elements (EURATOM), Karlsruhe, was successfully tested. The results of some investigations on the stability of diluted high active feed solutions and on comparison analysis by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry are also included. Data on the analytical efforts (manhours) invested in this study are reported as well as general experiences made in the organization and performance of an experiment on such an extended international level. (orig.) [de

  3. Neutron flux calculations for criticality safety analysis using the narrow resonance approximations. Vol. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hathout, A M [National Center for Nuclear Safety and Radiation Control, NC-NSRC, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt)

    1996-03-01

    The narrow resonance approximation is applicable for all low-energy resonances and the heaviest nuclides. It is of great importance in neutron calculations, hence, fertile isotopes do not undergo fission at resonance energies. The effect of overestimating the self shielded group averaged cross-section data for a given resonance nuclide can be fairly serious. In the present work, a detailed study, and derivation of the problem of self-shielding are carried-out through the information of Hansen-roach library which is used for criticality safety analysis. The intermediate neutron flux spectrum is analyzed, using the narrow resonance approximation. The resonance self-shielded values of various cross-sections are determined. 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. An empirical analysis of the dynamic programming model of stockpile acquisition strategies for China's strategic petroleum reserve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Gang; Fan, Ying; Wei, Yi-Ming; Liu, Lan-Cui

    2008-01-01

    The world's future oil price is affected by many factors. The challenge, therefore, is how to select optimal stockpile acquisition strategies to minimize the cost of maintaining a reserve. This paper provides a new method for analyzing this problem using an uncertain dynamic programming model to analyze stockpile acquisition strategies for strategic petroleum reserve. Using this model, we quantify the impact of uncertain world oil price on optimal stockpile acquisition strategies of China's strategic petroleum reserve for the period 2007-2010 and 2011-2020. Our results show that the future stockpile acquisition is related to oil prices and their probability and, if not considering the occurrence of oil supply shortage, China should at least purchase 25 million barrels when world oil price is at an optimal level. The optimal price of stockpile acquisition of every year has a stronger relationship with the probability of high price; and the optimal expected price and size of stockpile acquisition is different in each year. (author)

  5. The world petroleum market in 2007. DIREM analysis; Le marche petrolier mondial en 2007. Analyse de la DIREM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    2007: the world is becoming used to a high oil price. With an average price of 72.6 US$ per barrel for the ICE Brent, the crude rates show a 9.8% rise with respect to the 2006 ones (66.11 US$/b) following the 20% rise observed in 2006. Price rates show a sawtooth evolution but with a general rise over the full year. Thanks to a US$ change rate favorable to the euro, the 2007 average is of 52.76 euro/b with respect to 52.65 euro/b in 2006. At the end of the year 2007 the barrel price reached 93.85 US$/b with respect to 60.86 US$/b at the end of 2006. The document analyses the impact of these high prices on the economies of oil-consuming and oil-producing countries. It presents the 2007 highlights of the main OPEC countries (Saudi Arabia, Iran, Venezuela, Iraq, Nigeria, Angola), and then analyses the international quotations of petroleum products on the Rotterdam market and the prices of petroleum products in France. (J.S.)

  6. A locally designed mobile laboratory for radiation analysis and monitoring in qatar. Vol. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abou-Leila, H.; El-Samman, H.; Mahmoud, H.

    1996-01-01

    A description of a mobile laboratory for radiation analysis and monitoring, completely designed in qatar and equipped at qatar university, is given. It consists of a van equipped with three scintillation detectors mounted on the front bumper. The detectors can monitor gamma radiations along the path of the laboratory over an angle range 120 degree. One Eberline radiation monitoring station is mounted on the roof. The laboratory is also equipped with several, and neutron survey meters in addition to some sampling equipment. All equipment used are powered with solar panels. The characteristics and performance of solar power/stabilized A C conversion is given. Data acquisition from the three scintillation detectors is performed by adding the outputs of the three detectors and storing the total as a function of time in a computer based multi-channel analyzer (MCA) operated in the MSC mode. The acquisition can be switched easily to the PHA mode to analyze gamma spectra from any possible contamination source. The laboratory was used in several environmental and possible contamination missions. Some results obtained during some of these missions are given. 4 figs

  7. A locally designed mobile laboratory for radiation analysis and monitoring in qatar. Vol. 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abou-Leila, H; El-Samman, H; Mahmoud, H [Physics Department, University of qatar, Doha (Qatar)

    1996-03-01

    A description of a mobile laboratory for radiation analysis and monitoring, completely designed in qatar and equipped at qatar university, is given. It consists of a van equipped with three scintillation detectors mounted on the front bumper. The detectors can monitor gamma radiations along the path of the laboratory over an angle range 120 degree. One Eberline radiation monitoring station is mounted on the roof. The laboratory is also equipped with several, and neutron survey meters in addition to some sampling equipment. All equipment used are powered with solar panels. The characteristics and performance of solar power/stabilized A C conversion is given. Data acquisition from the three scintillation detectors is performed by adding the outputs of the three detectors and storing the total as a function of time in a computer based multi-channel analyzer (MCA) operated in the MSC mode. The acquisition can be switched easily to the PHA mode to analyze gamma spectra from any possible contamination source. The laboratory was used in several environmental and possible contamination missions. Some results obtained during some of these missions are given. 4 figs.

  8. Analytical tool for the periodic safety analysis of NPP according to the PSA guideline. Vol. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balfanz, H.P.; Boehme, E.; Musekamp, W.; Hussels, U.; Becker, G.; Behr, H.; Luettgert, H.

    1994-01-01

    The SAIS (Safety Analysis and Informationssystem) Programme System is based on an integrated data base, which consists of a plant-data and a PSA related data part. Using SAIS analyses can be performed by special tools, which are connected directly to the data base. Two main editors, RISA+ and DEDIT, are used for data base management. The access to the data base is done via different types of pages, which are displayed on a displayed on a computer screen. The pages are called data sheets. Sets of input and output data sheets were implemented, such as system or component data sheets, fault trees or event trees. All input information, models and results needed for updated results of PSA (Living PSA) can be stored in the SAIS. The programme system contains the editor KVIEW which guarantees consistency of the stored data, e.g. with respect to names and codes of components and events. The information contained in the data base are called in by a standardized users guide programme, called Page Editor. (Brunsbuettel on reference NPP). (orig./HP) [de

  9. Petroleum question. Die Oelfrage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mommer, B

    1983-01-01

    The author analyses the development of the world petroleum market and its pricing factors to the present on the basis of the theory of ground rent, in which the part played by absolute ground rent, differential rent, and free and national state property in the capitalist mode of production is determined. His investigation of economic policy traces the absorbing history of the petroleum production and policy of the United States of America, which for so long governed the world market, the development of Venezuela into a petroleum country (whose true history is here revealed for the first time), the penetration of the middle East by the international petroleum leaseholders' capital and their cartel, the formation of the OPEC, and finally the 'victory' of the lather over the petroleum combines in the international petroleum crisis of 1970-1973. The book closes with a survey at the start of the 80s and an outlook into the foreseeable future. What is really hidden behind the quarrels about prices, profit, taxes, royalties, franchise agreements, production quotas, nationalization and so forth and behind the economic, political, and even moral arguments of the parties concerned turns out to be the fight of the petroleum ground proprietors for the ground rent - but to win a victory in this fight means ultimately to face its limitations, too. Blindness to the economic and political importance of ground rent, right from the theoretical approach, also created a major cause of the false diagnoses and forecasts on the petroleum market western economic scientists were misled into, and thus of the surprise effect that came in the form of the petroleum crisis of the early 1970s.

  10. Quantitative analysis of properties of petroleum mixtures by near infrared spectroscopy; Analise quantitativa de propriedades de misturas de petroleos via espectrofotometria no infravermelho proximo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Leila M.; Silva, Elisangela B.; Fortuny, Montserrat; Dariva, Claudio; Santos, Alexandre F. [Universidade Tiradentes (UNIT), Aracaju, SE (Brazil). Instituto de Tecnologia e Pesquisa (ITP); Araujo, Augusto M. [Siemens Brazil, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Coutinho, Raquel C.C. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES)

    2008-07-01

    An experimental study is carried out aiming to develop a method of quantitative analysis of properties of petroleum mixtures, such as water and asphaltene contents, heavy oil concentration and viscosity based on the use of a NIR spectrophotometer. A strategy of generation of crude oil mixtures with known properties was developed to help calibrating the NIR spectrophotometer. Petroleum mixtures involving 2 or 3 oils under known ratios were prepared based on a set of different light and heavy Brazilian crude oil samples. Moreover, experimental data of 5 binary mixtures were also assembled into a data set named multi-compound. Results indicated that excellent calibration models can be obtained for binary mixtures with correlation coefficient (R{sup 2}) greater than 99% for water and asphaltene contents, viscosity and heavy oil concentration. For ternary systems, excellent correlations (R{sup 2}>99%) can be attained for asphaltene and heavy oil contents. Finally for the multi-compound data set, the asphaltene content was the only property that resulted in R{sup 2}>99%, which demonstrates the adequacy of the NIR technique for assessing this property. (author)

  11. Caspian sea: petroleum challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The Caspian sea is one of the world areas the most promising in terms of investments and petroleum development. This study presents the petroleum challenges generated by this hydrocarbons reserve. The first part discusses the juridical status (sea or lake), the petroleum and the gas reserves, the ecosystem and the today environment (fishing and caviar), the geostrategic situation and the transport of gas and oil. It provides also a chronology from 1729 to 2005, a selection of Internet sites, books and reports on the subject and identity sheets of the countries around the Caspian sea. (A.L.B.)

  12. Petroleum investment in Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedrich, M.

    1994-01-01

    There is no specific petroleum legislation as such in place in Kazakhstan and tax legislation is unsophisticated. Regulation of operations is subject to generally applicable legislation. A brief account of the difficulties which exist for both sides in renegotiating a contract is given. Since the competence to enter into contracts with foreign companies has not been fully defined, the first problem when applying for petroleum rights is the identification of a negotiating partner. A summary of terms and conditions and a list of the main laws applicable to petroleum operations are included. (UK)

  13. Petroleum: the new deal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magalhaes, St.; Kan, E.

    2008-01-01

    The drop of oil prices imposes a revision of development and investment strategies of petroleum and para-petroleum companies, while technologies under study try to optimize the exploration and production costs. Following the financial and economical crises, the petroleum industry is preparing its restructuring: new profitability threshold of projects, slowing down of the activity, expected surge of mergers. Despite the crisis, the R and D for the exploitation of tar sands still goes on while on the offshore side, R and D has never been so active to take up the challenge of extreme deep sea conditions. (J.S.)

  14. Petroleum marketing annual, 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Annual contains statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the free-on-board and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners' acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented. (VC)

  15. Petroleum refining and air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raimbault, C.

    1992-01-01

    This paper studies the methods which may be developed in petroleum refineries or during petroleum products using for air pollution abatement: petroleum products desulfurization, lead elimination in gasoline and catalytic converters to reduce sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides in exhaust gases. Investments and costs estimation to adapt petroleum refineries for environment protection is also given. 1 ref., 6 figs., 6 tabs

  16. Figures of the petroleum industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    The statistic tables give informations about: Reserves and production of petroleum and natural gas, supply of crude petroleum in the Federal Republic of Germany, pipelines, tanker ships, petroleum refineries, petroleum consumption, storage and distribution, automobiles, prices, taxis and energy consumption. The data compilations are primarily given for the Federal Republic of Germany.

  17. Petroleum supply monthly, January 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    Data presented describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States. The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.

  18. Quantitative Analysis of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons in Soils: Comparison between Reflectance Spectroscopy and Solvent Extraction by 3 Certified Laboratories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy Schwartz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The commonly used analytic method for assessing total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH in soil, EPA method 418.1, is usually based on extraction with 1,1,2-trichlorotrifluoroethane (Freon 113 and FTIR spectroscopy of the extracted solvent. This method is widely used for initial site investigation, due to the relative low price per sample. It is known that the extraction efficiency varies depending on the extracting solvent and other sample properties. This study’s main goal was to evaluate reflectance spectroscopy as a tool for TPH assessment, as compared with three commercial certified laboratories using traditional methods. Large variations were found between the results of the three commercial laboratories, both internally (average deviation up to 20%, and between laboratories (average deviation up to 103%. Reflectance spectroscopy method was found be as good as the commercial laboratories in terms of accuracy and could be a viable field-screening tool that is rapid, environmental friendly, and cost effective.

  19. Petroleum marketing annual, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-08-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Annual contains statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the free-on-board and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners' acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented. For this publication, all estimates have been recalculated since their earlier publication in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM). These calculations made use of additional data and corrections that were received after the PMM publication dates

  20. Apparatus for extracting petroleum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coogan, J

    1921-01-18

    An apparatus for extracting petroleum from petroleum bearing sand or shale is described comprising a container for liquids, the container being divided into a plurality of compartments, an agitator mounted within the container and below the liquid level and having its forward end opening into one of the compartments, means for delivering sand or shale to the forward end of the agitator, means for subjecting the sand or shale to the action of a solvent for the petroleum while the sand or shale is being agitated and is submerged, the first-mentioned compartment being adapted to receive the extracted petroleum and means for removing the treated sand or shale from adjacent the rear end of the agitator.

  1. Petroleum supply annual 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA) contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1992 through annual and monthly surveys. The PSA is divided into two volumes. The first volume contains four sections: Summary Statistics, Detailed Statistics, Refinery Capacity, and Oxygenate Capacity each with final annual data. This second volume contains final statistics for each month of 1992, and replaces data previously published in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM). The tables in Volumes 1 and 2 are similarly numbered to facilitate comparison between them. Explanatory Notes, located at the end of this publication, present information describing data collection, sources, estimation methodology, data quality control procedures, modifications to reporting requirements and interpretation of tables. Industry terminology and product definitions are listed alphabetically in the Glossary

  2. Petroleum marketing annual 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Annual (PMA) contains statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the free-on-board (f.o.b.) and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented. For this publication, all estimates have been recalculated since their earlier publication in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM). These calculations made use of additional data and corrections that were received after the PMM publication dates

  3. Petroleum marketing annual 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-01-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Annual (PMA) contains statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the free-on-board (f.o.b.) and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented. For this publication, all estimates have been recalculated since their earlier publication in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM). These calculations made use of additional data and corrections that were received after the PMM publication dates.

  4. Petroleum Vapor Intrusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    One type of vapor intrusion is PVI, in which vapors from petroleum hydrocarbons such as gasoline, diesel, or jet fuel enter a building. Intrusion of contaminant vapors into indoor spaces is of concern.

  5. Photolysis of petroleum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bobra, M.

    1992-05-01

    A study was conducted to examine the chemical and physical changes that occur in oils as a result of photooxidation. A literature review of recent studies in petroleum photochemistry revealed reported effects of photo-induced reactions in petroleum, including changes in color, polymerization, solidification, increases in solubility and toxicity, and changes in interfacial properties. A list of products reported as a result of photolysis of petroleum is presented, including such compounds as aldehydes, ketones, esters, and lactones. The photoreactivity of various petroleum components is discussed and mechanisms of photooxidation of petroleum are suggested. In the experimental portion of the study, a variety of crude oils and petroleum products were used to determine how different oils are affected by photolysis, and to examine the importance of photolysis as a weathering process. Photooxidation products from several oils were isolated and identified, including aliphatic and aromatic acids, alcohols, and phenols. Some physical manifestations attributed to photolysis included yellowing, formation of precipitates or crusts, increases in density and viscosity with time, increases of asphaltene content in some oils, changes in pH of the surrounding water, and emulsification. 51 refs., 38 figs., 18 tabs

  6. Identification, mapping, and analysis of possible evidences of active petroleum systems in the Colorado Basin, offshore Argentina, South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loegering, Markus; Anka, Zahie; Rodriguez, Jorge; Marchal, Denis; di Primio, Rolando; Vallejo, Eduardo; Kohler, Guillermina; Pangaro, Francisco

    2010-05-01

    The analysis of a dense 2D seismic reflection dataset and 12 exploration wells data, allowed us to reconstruct the geological evolution of the Colorado Basin, offshore Argentina. We identified and mapped the major syn- and post-rift seismic sequences, and their boundaries such as unconformities and regional seismic markers, present on the continental shelf and slope (water depths from 50 to 1800 m) of the Colorado Basin. Seismic-to-well log correlations, as well as integration with biostratigraphic data provided a chrono-stratigraphic framework for the interpreted horizons. The construction of isochronal (twt) maps provided a 3D spatial visualisation of the stratigraphic relationship among the sequences. The maps show a change in configuration from the break-up unconformity (130 Ma) to the present-day seafloor. The break-up unconformity displays a central EW-elongated graben which prevails on the overlying sequences up to the Miocene. The EW Colorado basin turns NW-SE towards the East, going perpendicular to the present-day continental margin (oriented NE-SW). The strong obliquity of the basin orientation related to the direction corresponding to the opening of the South Atlantic (NE-SW) suggests a structural control from the pre-rift basement on the rift and post-rift sequences. Starting from the break-up unconformity, the history of basin filling is illustrated up to the flat seafloor. The basin sag phase is represented by the sequences deposited between the break-up unconformity and the Colorado discontinuity (Aptian to Campanian). The Campanian to Eocene successions are more or less parallel- layered suggesting sequence aggradation. The distribution of liquid/gas hydrocarbon-leakage features (i.e. gas chimneys, mud volcanoes, and seabed pockmarks) should allow the definition of potential migration pathways. In this sense, a systematic mapping of these paleo- and present-day features observed in the seismic profiles has been performed and their distribution was

  7. Sol-gel formed spherical nanostructured titania based liquefied petroleum gas sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabhajeet, S. R.; Yadav, B. C.; Sonker, Rakesh K.

    2018-05-01

    The present work reports the preparation of Titania(TiO2) thin film by sol-gel technique and its Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) sensing. TiO2 exists in numerous phases possessing different structural properties like amorphous, anatase or anatase/rutile mixed phases. The structural analysis confirmed the formation of TiO2 having an average crystallite size 21 nm. SEM showed the regular and porous surface morphology. The band gap of the material was found as 3.65 eV. This film was employed for LPG sensing and variations in resistance with exposure of LPG were observed. Sensor response (S) as a function of time was calculated and its maximum value was found as 2.8 for 4% vol. of LPG with a response and recovery times of 240 sec and 248 sec respectively.

  8. Nigerian Journal of Technology - Vol 36, No 1 (2017)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RELIABILITY ANALYSIS OF A TWO SPAN FLOOR DESIGNED ACCORDING TO EUROCODE ... Materials, Mechanical, Metallurgical, Petroleum & Production Engineering .... FEASIBILITY STUDY ON SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT IN PORT ...

  9. Technological geological and mathematical models of petroleum stratum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhumagulov, B.T.; Monakhov, V.N.

    1997-01-01

    The comparative analysis of different mathematical methods of petroleum stratum, the limit of their applicability and hydrodynamical analysis of numerical calculation's results is carried out. The problem of adaptation of the mathematical models and the identification of petroleum stratum parameters are considered. (author)

  10. Development, optimization, validation and application of faster gas chromatography - flame ionization detector method for the analysis of total petroleum hydrocarbons in contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubair, Abdulrazaq; Pappoe, Michael; James, Lesley A; Hawboldt, Kelly

    2015-12-18

    This paper presents an important new approach to improving the timeliness of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon (TPH) analysis in the soil by Gas Chromatography - Flame Ionization Detector (GC-FID) using the CCME Canada-Wide Standard reference method. The Canada-Wide Standard (CWS) method is used for the analysis of petroleum hydrocarbon compounds across Canada. However, inter-laboratory application of this method for the analysis of TPH in the soil has often shown considerable variability in the results. This could be due, in part, to the different gas chromatography (GC) conditions, other steps involved in the method, as well as the soil properties. In addition, there are differences in the interpretation of the GC results, which impacts the determination of the effectiveness of remediation at hydrocarbon-contaminated sites. In this work, multivariate experimental design approach was used to develop and validate the analytical method for a faster quantitative analysis of TPH in (contaminated) soil. A fractional factorial design (fFD) was used to screen six factors to identify the most significant factors impacting the analysis. These factors included: injection volume (μL), injection temperature (°C), oven program (°C/min), detector temperature (°C), carrier gas flow rate (mL/min) and solvent ratio (v/v hexane/dichloromethane). The most important factors (carrier gas flow rate and oven program) were then optimized using a central composite response surface design. Robustness testing and validation of model compares favourably with the experimental results with percentage difference of 2.78% for the analysis time. This research successfully reduced the method's standard analytical time from 20 to 8min with all the carbon fractions eluting. The method was successfully applied for fast TPH analysis of Bunker C oil contaminated soil. A reduced analytical time would offer many benefits including an improved laboratory reporting times, and overall improved clean up

  11. Basin Analysis and Petroleum System Characterisation of Western Bredasdorp Basin, Southern Offshore of South Africa: Insights from a 3d Crust-Scale Basin Model - (Phase 1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonibare, W. A.; Scheck-Wenderoth, M.; Sippel, J.; Mikeš, D.

    2012-04-01

    + (Interactive Gravity and Magnetic Assistant System; Götze et al., 2010 and Schmidt et al., 2011). The ensuing model will be applied to predict the present-day deep crustal configuration and thermal field characteristics of the basin. Thereafter, 3D volumetric backstripping analysis will be performed to predict basin subsidence mechanisms (i.e. tectonic, thermal and sediment load) through time as well as to estimate paleo-water depths for paleogeographic reconstruction. The information gathered from crust-scale basin dynamics will be subsequently used at the petroleum system modelling stage to holistically assess the hydrocarbon potential of the basin in terms of source rock maturity and hydrocarbon generation, migration, timing and accumulation.

  12. Improved abundance sensitivity of molecular ions in positive-ion APCI MS analysis of petroleum in toluene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Hwan; Kim, Sunghwan

    2010-03-01

    Positive-ion atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) analyses of petroleum sample were performed with higher sensitivity by switching the solvent composition from toluene and methanol or acetonitrile to a one-component system consisting only of toluene. In solvent blends, molecular ions were more abundant than were protonated ions with increasing percentages of toluene. In 100% toluene, the double-bond equivalence (DBE) distributions of molecular ions obtained by APCI MS for each compound class were very similar to those obtained in dopant assisted atmospheric pressure photo ionization (APPI) MS analyses. Therefore, it was concluded that charge-transfer reaction, which is important in toluene-doped APPI processes, also plays a major role in positive-ion APCI. In the DBE distributions of S(1), S(2), and SO heteroatom classes, a larger enhancement in the relative abundance of molecular ions at fairly specific DBE values was observed as the solvent was progressively switched to toluene. This enhanced abundance of molecular ions was likely dependent on molecular structure. Copyright 2010 American Society for Mass Spectrometry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. 75 FR 18607 - Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases: Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-12

    ...: Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems; Proposed Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 75 , No. 69 / Monday, April... Natural Gas Systems AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: EPA is... natural gas systems. Specifically, the proposed supplemental rulemaking would require emissions reporting...

  14. 75 FR 74457 - Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases: Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-30

    ...: Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 75 , No. 229 / Tuesday, November... Natural Gas Systems AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: EPA is... natural gas systems. This action adds this source category to the list of source categories already...

  15. Petroleum marketing monthly, May 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-05-26

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly.

  16. U.S. Virgin Islands Transportation Petroleum Reduction Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, C.

    2011-09-01

    This NREL technical report determines a way for USVI to meet its petroleum reduction goal in the transportation sector. It does so first by estimating current petroleum use and key statistics and characteristics of USVI transportation. It then breaks the goal down into subordinate goals and estimates the petroleum impacts of these goals with a wedge analysis. These goals focus on reducing vehicle miles, improving fuel economy, improving traffic flow, using electric vehicles, using biodiesel and renewable diesel, and using 10% ethanol in gasoline. The final section of the report suggests specific projects to achieve the goals, and ranks the projects according to cost, petroleum reduction, time frame, and popularity.

  17. Elemental analysis of soil and plant samples at El-Manzala lake neutron activation analysis technique. Vol. 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eissa, E A; Rofail, N B; Hassan, A M [Reactor and Neutron Physics Department, Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt); Abd El-Haleem, A S [Radiactive Environment Pollution Department, Hot Laboratories Center, Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt); El-Abbady, W H [Phsics Department, Faculty of Science , Al-Azhar University, (Egypt)

    1996-03-01

    Soil and plant samples were collected from from two locations, Bahr El-Baker, and Bahr kados at the manzala lake, where, where high pollution is expected. The samples were especially treated and prepared for investigation by thermal neutron activation analysis (NAA). The irradiation facilities of the first egyptian research reactor (ET-R R-1), and the hyper pure germanium (HPGe) detection system were used for analysis. Among the 34 identified Fe, Co, As, Cd, Te, La, Sm, Rb, Hg, Th, and U are of a special significance because of the their toxic deleterious impact on living organisms. This work is part of a research project concerning pollution studies on the river Nile and some lakes of egypt. The data obtained in the present work stands as a reference basic record for any future follow up of contamination level. 1 tab.

  18. Elemental analysis of soil and plant samples at El-Manzala lake neutron activation analysis technique. Vol. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eissa, E.A.; Rofail, N.B.; Hassan, A.M.; Abd El-Haleem, A.S.; El-Abbady, W.H.

    1996-01-01

    Soil and plant samples were collected from from two locations, Bahr El-Baker, and Bahr kados at the manzala lake, where, where high pollution is expected. The samples were especially treated and prepared for investigation by thermal neutron activation analysis (NAA). The irradiation facilities of the first egyptian research reactor (ET-R R-1), and the hyper pure germanium (HPGe) detection system were used for analysis. Among the 34 identified Fe, Co, As, Cd, Te, La, Sm, Rb, Hg, Th, and U are of a special significance because of the their toxic deleterious impact on living organisms. This work is part of a research project concerning pollution studies on the river Nile and some lakes of egypt. The data obtained in the present work stands as a reference basic record for any future follow up of contamination level. 1 tab

  19. The integrated feasibility analysis of water reuse management in the petroleum exploration performances of unconventional shale reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davarpanah, Afshin

    2018-05-01

    Regarding the dramatic increase of water additional resource administration in numerous drilling industries' operational performances and oil/gas extractions, water supply plays a significant role in their performances as efficient as optimum operations, in respect of the way, this utilization is often invisible to the public eye. The necessity of water in a wide variety of drilling operation due to its vast applicant in several functions is widely reported in the literature that has been required to remain these procedures plateau. The objective of this comprehensive study is to conduct an investigation into the studied field and analyze the assessment of necessary water and produced water which is provided in the surface for reinjection procedures in the hydraulic fracturing and water injectivity; in respect of the way, petroleum and drilling industries will push themselves into limits to find suitable water sources from a local source to encapsulate their economic prosperities and virtually eliminate extra expenditures. In comparison to other industries and consumers, oil and gas development is not a significant water consumer, and its water demands can exert profound impacts on local water resources, and this is why it imposes particular challenges among water users in a vast majority of fields and areas in times of drought. Moreover, water has become an increasingly scarce and costly commodity over the past decades, and operators are being beneficially noted that awareness of recycling and reusing phenomenon that has treated effluent is both costs competent and socially responsible. Consequently, energy, environmental situation, and economic prosperity considerations should be analytically and preferably investigated to cover every eventuality and each possibility of disposal and water reuse options.

  20. Petroleum Marketing Annual, 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-18

    This report contains statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for us by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the free-on-board (f.o.b.) and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners' acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented. 13 figs., 51 tabs.

  1. Taxation and regulation of petroleum companies under asymmetric information; a monograph

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osmundsen, P

    1994-12-01

    The report relates to the taxation and regulation of petroleum companies. The main topics of this report are as follow: Taxation and regulation of petroleum companies under asymmetric information. A discussion of incentive problems and the principles for applying principal-agent analysis; taxation and regulation of petroleum companies under asymmetric information. A static adverse selection model; Petroleum Taxation with adverse selection. Interactions of dynamics in costs and information; Adverse selection and moral hazard in the petroleum industry, repeated auctions of incentive contracts; Petroleum taxation and regulation. Policy implications from principal-agent theory, and a comparison with the current Norwegian system. 54 refs., 7 figs.

  2. Taxation and regulation of petroleum companies under asymmetric information; a monograph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osmundsen, P.

    1994-12-01

    The report relates to the taxation and regulation of petroleum companies. The main topics of this report are as follow: Taxation and regulation of petroleum companies under asymmetric information. A discussion of incentive problems and the principles for applying principal-agent analysis; taxation and regulation of petroleum companies under asymmetric information. A static adverse selection model; Petroleum Taxation with adverse selection. Interactions of dynamics in costs and information; Adverse selection and moral hazard in the petroleum industry, repeated auctions of incentive contracts; Petroleum taxation and regulation. Policy implications from principal-agent theory, and a comparison with the current Norwegian system. 54 refs., 7 figs

  3. The business of petroleum exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinmetz, R.

    1992-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings of the Business of Petroleum Exploration. The following topics are included: Petroleum business; Economic aspects of the business; Managing business; and Legal, Political, Ethical and environment aspects of the business

  4. Petroleum marketing monthly, June 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. Monthly statistics on purchases of crude oil and sales of petroleum products are presented in five sections: Summary Statistics; Crude Oil Prices; Prices of Petroleum Products; Volumes of Petroleum Products; and Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Petroleum Products for Local Consumption. The feature article is entitled ``The Second Oxygenated Gasoline Season.`` 7 figs., 50 tabs.

  5. Petroleum marketing monthly, July 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. Monthly statistics on purchases of crude oil and sales of petroleum products are presented in five sections: summary statistics; crude oil prices; prices of petroleum products; volumes of petroleum products; and prime supplier sales volumes of petroleum products for local consumption. 7 figs., 50 tabs.

  6. Petroleum supply monthly, August 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-26

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  7. The petroleum taxation in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-09-01

    This document details the french specificities of taxation concerning the petroleum products: the TIPP. It shows how this policy acts upon the petroleum products consumption behavior and how it allows the financing of the decentralization. (A.L.B.)

  8. Petroleum resources assessment (I)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    On the basis of diverse microfossils such as foraminifers, ostracods, micromulluscs, fossil spores and pollen and calcareous nannofossils derived from 14 drill holes, the sediments are divided into two part, the upper marine part and the lower nonmarine one. Marine part is subdivided into 4 foraminiferal zones and 3 nannofossil zones of Plio-Pleistocene age. In the lower part ranging from Oligocene to Late Miocene 4 palynomoph assemblages are established, which reflect climatic changes fluctuating between subtropical and cool temperate. Some fine sediments occurring in the South Sea continental shelf are rich in organic matter to be hydrocarbon source rock. The organic matter is mainly compared to type 3. However, lower part of the Geobuk-1 and Okdom-1 shows more oil prone geochemical characteristics than other wells. The kerosene is mixture type 1 and type 3 organic matter. The main oil generation zone located between 2,500 m and 3,000 m and gas generation zone from 3,500 m to 4,000 m approximately. Hydrocarbon accumulation could be expected in the trap formed in the period earlier than 10 Ma. as the hydrocarbon started to be expelled at 10 Ma. according to the modeling. Approximately 13,000 Line-km of multichannel seismic data integrated with 14 wells and gravity and magnetic data were analyzed to investigate the structural and stratigraphic evolution of southern part of offshore Korea. The northeast-southwest trending Taiwan-Sinzi Uplift Belt separates the area into two regions with different tectonic features, northwestern and southwestern regions. The potential hydrocarbon traps associated with anticline, tilted fault block, fault, unconformity, and rollover structure exist. This project is consisted of two main subjects. 1) Petroleum resources assessment on the continental shelf basin of the south sea. 2) Petroliferous basin analysis in Taegu area (1). (author). refs., tabs., figs.

  9. Petroleum resources assessment (I)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    This report consists of 2 subjects. 1) Petroleum resources assessment of the Kunsan Basin : Kunsan Basin is mainly filled with Cretaceous and Tertiary clastic sediments, and divided into Southwest Sub-basin, Central Sub-basin and Northeast Sub-basin by uplifts and faults developed in the basin. Microfossils were studied for the biostratigraphic works of drill wells in the Kunsan Basin. The microfossils include organic-walled microfossils such as spores, pollen and nonmarine dinoflagellates and calcareous microfossils such as ostracods, charophytes and gastropods. The fossil assemblages of the Kunsan Basin reveal nonmarine environments ranging from alluvial fan to shallow lacustrine and climatic variation between subtropical and cool temperate temperature in the arid/humid alternating conditions. According to the paleontological data, the Kunsan Basin was initiated in the Early Cretaceous and expanded during Paleogene followed by regional erosion at the closing time of Paleogene on which Neogene sediments have been accumulated. The Paleogene strata show laterally irregular thickness in each Epoch due to migrating depocenter. 2) Petroliferous basin analysis in Hapcheon area (I) : The Cretaceous Gyeongsang Supergroup consists of more than 9 Km sequences of sedimentary and volcanic rocks in Hapcheon-Changyong-Euiryong-Haman area and occupies the middle part of the Milyang subbasin. The Supergroup can be divided into three group; Sindong, Hayang and Yuchon groups in ascending order. Based on rock color, the Sindong Group can be subdivided into Nakdong, Hasandong and Jinju Formations. The Hayang Group can be subdivided into Chilgok, Silla Conglomerate, Haman and Jindong Formations. The Chilgok Formation includes basaltic lava and tuffs in the upper part. The Haman Formation has Kusandong tuff (keybed) in the uppermost part in the Changyong area, whereas the tuff is intercalated below the vocaniclastics in the Haman area. (author). 60 refs., 22 tabs., 61 figs.

  10. Marks on the petroleum fiscality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-02-01

    This document offers some marks on the petroleum fiscality in France: the taxes as the 'accises' and the 'TVA', the part of the taxes in the sale price at the service station, the comparison with other countries of Europe, the tax revenues and the Government budget. It provides also marks on the fuels prices formation (margins), the world petroleum markets (supply and demand) and the part of the petroleum companies on the petroleum market. (A.L.B.)

  11. Petroleum and international policy; Petrole et politique internationale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pertuzio, A

    2002-07-01

    To illustrate the relation between the petroleum and the international policy, the author presents the place of the petroleum industry in the international relations by an analysis of the historical aspects, the states and international organizations interventions and the prices evolution. (A.L.B.)

  12. Analysis of the sector petroleum refineries in energy scenarios for The Netherlands. Analyse van de sector raffinaderijen voor de Nationale Energie Verkenningen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Oostvoorn, F

    1926-07-01

    The calculations with regard to the oil sector in general and the petroleum refineries in particular of the energy scenarios for The Netherlands are described. Calculations have been made with the help of the energy models SELPE and SERUM, developed for the total energy scene of The Netherlands and the petroleum refineries respectively. The results of the calculations with respect to the petroleum refineries are compared. This resulted in adjustment of the parameters for the oil sector in the SELPE energy model and the consequences of these adjustments for the energy scenarios for The Netherlands. 3 figs., 15 tabs., 10 refs.

  13. Petroleum supply monthly, April 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1990-06-26

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of three publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other two publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR) and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly describe (PSM) the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in Primary Supply.'' Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: (1) the Summary Statistics and (2) the Detailed Statistics.

  14. Environmental pollution by petroleum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murata, T

    1974-06-01

    Pollution causes, cases, and remedies at various stages of petroleum production and usage are reviewed. Petroleum extraction (off-shore drilling and Arctic drilling) can be accompanied by mishaps. In 1971, IMCO (an international safety committee) proposed the partitioning of oil tanker holds into smaller compartments to minimize spillage in case of disaster. Although the solubility of oil in waste water from refineries is reckoned by ppM, the total amount dissolved is not negligible. Petroleum storage and transport on land is complicated by problems of safety in terms of population density as well as by pollution problems. Petroleum end-products such as plastic trash and automobile exhausts contribute to pollution. The role of aldehydes and peroxides in photochemical smog formation must be investigated further. Proper treatment of pollution at each specific point of occurrence, rather than at the end of a production line is recommended. Pollutant concentration for treatment, rather than pollutant dilution for dispersal, should be considered. Technology for pollution abatement is available, but not always economically feasible.

  15. Petroleum industry in 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    This book analyses the major facts and the numbers of 1992, in France and in foreign countries. Its purpose is to be as complete as possible and to present especially all the aspects on a national level: supply, domestic market, prices, exploration, production, stocks, petroleum refining, transports, retailing, financial data

  16. Petroleum: Price trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babusiaux, Denis; Pierru, Axel

    2010-01-01

    The Organization of Petroleum-Exporting Countries (OPEC), some political leaders and financiers have mainly attributed the price spike of oil in 2008 - followed by a just as spectacular drop in prices - to the speculative moves made by financial investors on the futures market instead of to market fundamentals

  17. Petroleum Vapor - Field Technical

    Science.gov (United States)

    The screening approach being developed by EPA OUST to evaluate petroleum vapor intrusion (PVI) requires information that has not be routinely collected in the past at vapor intrusion sites. What is the best way to collect this data? What are the relevant data quality issues and ...

  18. Non-Petroleum Oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    These include synthetics such as silicone fluids and tung oils, wood-derivative oils such as resin/rosin, animal fats/oil, and seed oils. Many have similar physical properties to petroleum-based, such as water insolubility and formation of slicks.

  19. Petroleum product market outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-09-01

    The influence of petroleum market disturbances on price increases was discussed with particular reference to Hurricane Katrina and the loss of refinery production and damage to oil infrastructure in the United States. The supply of petroleum products in Canada will be very tight heading into the winter of 2006, despite the fact that Canadian refineries are operating at full capacity to ensure an adequate supply of gasoline and diesel fuel for consumers. In addition to refinery production, petroleum supplies are also determined by the adequacy of inventories and the efficiency of the infrastructure in place to deliver products to where they are needed. The lack of spare capacity has reduced the flexibility of the North American refining system to respond to further disruptions. Refiners were asked to provide information on 4 areas of their operations in order for Natural Resources Canada to analyze the short-term outlook for petroleum products markets. The 4 areas included refinery utilization rates and capability to increase production; any planned refinery turnaround that would affect petroleum product supplies; inventory levels compared to levels in previous years; and, any logistical problems that could affect product distribution. A graph depicting the relationship between Canadian production of gasoline and domestic sales clearly illustrated the seasonal nature of gasoline consumption and that production in Canada is much higher than consumption. Canada exports large volumes of gasoline, primarily to the United States eastern seabord from refineries in Atlantic Canada. The trend is similar for diesel fuel. Demand for both gasoline and diesel is expected to continue to grow in 2005 as high prices have had a limited impact on demand growth. In general, the Ontario/Quebec region is short of gasoline and must import gasoline during the summer months to cover the shortfall. It was noted that motorists and homeowners who heat with oil will bear the burden of higher

  20. Energy and exergy analysis of LPG (liquefied petroleum gas) as a drop in replacement for R134a in domestic refrigerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Morsi, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    This study presents a comparison of energetic and exergetic performance of a vapour compression refrigeration system using pure HC (hydrocarbon) refrigerants. In this study, three different pure HCs propane (R290), butane (R600) and commercial LPG (liquefied petroleum gas) are used in the theoretical analysis. R134a is also used in the analysis as a reference refrigerant. The evaporator temperature ranges from −30 to 0 °C while the condenser ranges from 30 to 50 °C. MATLAB software is used for solving the thermodynamic equations, while the thermo-physical properties are calculated using REFPROP software. The results show that R600 has the highest COP c and exergetic efficiency, while LPG has the lowest. When compared to R134a, the COP c for R134a is higher than that for LPG by 10%. Also, the exergetic efficiency is higher by 5%. However, LPG has the advantage of being not expensive, available in large amounts and zero ozone depletion potential and low global warming potential. - Highlights: • The results show that R600 has the highest COP c & exergy efficiency, and the lowest irreversibility. • LPG has the lowest COP c & exergy efficiency, and the highest irreversibility. • Compared to R134a, LPG has a lower COP c and exergy efficiency by an average of 10% and 5%, respectively

  1. Identification of petroleum pollution sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Begak, O.Yu.; Syroezhko, A.M.

    2001-01-01

    A possibility of preliminary identification of petroleum pollution sources was investigated on specimens of the Khanty-Mansi autonomous district six deposits and specimens of soil and water polluted by these petroleums. Investigations were conducted using IR Fourier spectroscopy and gamma spectrometry, as well as methods of chromato-mass spectrometry and capillary gas liquid chromatography. Every of studied samples of petroleum from different deposits have an individual radiation impression. Insignificant total content of radionuclides in samples is specific to the Khanty-Mansi petroleum region. Gamma spectrometry admits to identify potential source of petroleum pollution using radionuclides of uranium and thorium series [ru

  2. Toxicological characteristics of petroleum products repeated exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.M. Rubin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The ability of petroleum products to initiate cumulative effects was assessed in experimental intragastric admission to male albino rats for one month. The analysis of skin-resorptive effects was performed using "test-tube" method on the skin of rats’ tails. It has been established that petroleum products can penetrate the intact skin and, with repeated admission, cause a general toxic effect. There were reductions bodyweights, the negative effect on the function of the kidneys and liver, changes of hematological parameters, as well as activation of the antioksidatnoy system. Repeated intragastric administration does not lead to the death of the animals testifying to the lack of accumulation capacity for petroleum products at the level of functional mortal effects, the cumulation coefficient being > 5.1. Negative impact on urinary function and hepatobiliary system, changes in hematological parameters and activation of the «lipid peroxidation – antioksidant defense» were observed.

  3. Petroleum supply monthly, January 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-15

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  4. Petroleum supply monthly, October 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-26

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  5. Petroleum Supply Monthly, August 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-10-30

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of three publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other two publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR) and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) district movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in Primary Supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections (1) the Summary Statistics and (2) the Detailed Statistics.

  6. Petroleum supply monthly, September 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-09-30

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of three publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other two publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR) and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administrations for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 states and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in Primary Supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections (1) the Summary Statistics and (2) the Detailed Statistics. 65 tabs.

  7. Petroleum Supply Monthly, July 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-09-28

    Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 states and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in Primary Supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.

  8. Hydrocarbons biodegradation and evidence of mixed petroleum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chromatographic analysis of extracts from the Cross River system show evidence of variable composition of biogenic n-alkane profile with dominance of terrigenous over aquatic organic matter present (LHC/SHC-0.36-10.57) at upstream location reflecting the natural background levels and marked levels of petroleum ...

  9. China's petroleum industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boykiw, A.; Katsuris, D.

    1997-01-01

    Petroleum and natural gas resources, industry organization, production, pipeline construction and other transportation issues, refining and business aspects of the Chinese petroleum and natural gas industries were reviewed. The need for large amounts of foreign capital and western technology to stem the deficit in domestic hydrocarbon supply were emphasized as being responsible for the creation in China of favourable conditions for foreign participation in oil and gas exploration, and for the growing confidence for Western investment in China. The most important considerations for successful participation in the economic development of China include: understanding the roles of networking, cultural affinity and reciprocity; hands-on management; finding an appropriate business partner, agent/distributor, or joint venture partner; and understanding local peculiarities and customs. 3 refs

  10. Geopolitics of petroleum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sebille-Lopez, Ph.

    2006-01-01

    The unexpected rise of oil prices since 2004 reveals some structural weaknesses of oil markets in front of the evolution of demand. It conceals considerable stakes, more political than strategic, like the securing of oil and petroleum product supplies of big consumers like the USA and China. This demand generates deep changes in the relations between the different actors, from Venezuela to Russia, from the Caspian sea to the Arab-Persian gulf, from the Mediterranean sea to the gulf of Guinea. Terrorists, who try to destabilize markets using threats on petroleum infrastructures, add-up a risk dimension to the uncertainties. The author proposes a world tour of the main production areas, along the 'oil roads' where the main strategic manoeuvres take place. He shades light on the main power stakes: pressure, tensions, threats and deals, alliances, ruptures and potential conflicts. The complex and multiple motivations are explained. (J.S.)

  11. India's Downstream Petroleum Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This study provides a holistic examination of pricing and investment dynamics in India's downstream petroleum sector. It analyses the current pricing practices, highlights the tremendous fiscal cost of current pricing and regulatory arrangements, and examines the sectoral investment dynamics. It also looks at potential paths towards market-based reform along which the Indian government may move, while at the same time protecting energy market access for India's large poor population.

  12. Deodorizing petroleum oils, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haller, A

    1906-06-14

    A process of purifying and deodorizing petroleum oils, gasolines, ethers, benzines, shale oils, resins, and similar products, consisting essentially in passing the vapors of the liquids with a current of hydrogen or of gases high in hydrogen over divided metals, such as nickel, copper, cobalt, iron, platinum, etc., heated to a temperature between 100/sup 0/C and 350/sup 0/C, the vapors passing before entering the apparatus through a column of copper heated to above 350/sup 0/C.

  13. International petroleum investment and policies: green, privatising, and moving eastward?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waelde, T.W.; Ndi, G.K.

    1994-01-01

    Some of the issues currently shaping transnational investment in the petroleum industry are examined. These include; the re-defining of the role of the state in petroleum development strategy; the evolution of contractual practice; the introduction of more liberal investment legislation; the restructuring of state petroleum enterprises with a view to commercialisation, corporatisation or privatisation; the increasing significance of petroleum production in emerging nations; and heightened international awareness of the environmental impacts of energy development. The discussion includes an analysis of the implications of these issues for developing countries in terms of inward foreign investment, some reflections on the development versus environment debate and some consideration of the influence of current trends on the future of the international petroleum industry. (UK)

  14. A comparative evaluation of nitrogen compounds in petroleum distillates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Dheer; Chopra, Anju; Patel, Mitra Bhanu; Sarpal, Amarjit Singh [Indian Oil Corporation Limited, Faridabad (India). Research and Development Centre

    2011-07-15

    Although the concentration of nitrogen compounds in crude oil is relatively low, they can become more concentrated in petroleum distillates and poison the catalysts used in refining processes. They cause undesirable deposits, color formation and odor in products; they also contribute to air pollution and some are highly carcinogenic. The poisoned catalyst becomes deactivated for hydrodesulfurization and unable to remove sulfur from middle distillates. In order to understand the effect on catalytic processes, it is desirable to identify the nitrogen compounds in various petroleum distillates. This paper compares the nitrogen species profiles in different petroleum distillates using a nitrogen chemiluminescence detector. In addition, four different petroleum distillate samples from different refineries were analyzed to find the variation in their nitrogen profiles. The nitrogen compounds in petroleum distillate samples were identified as anilines, quinolines, indoles, and carbazoles and their alkyl derivatives. Quantitation was carried out against known reference standards. The quantitative data were compared to the total nitrogen content determined by elemental analysis. (orig.)

  15. Petroleum R and D collaboration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerr, R.

    1995-01-01

    Conditions for collaboration in research and development (R and D) were developed based on a decision-tree analysis. A key requirement for effective R and D collaboration was stated to be the company's ability to internalize a significant portion of the benefits. This was seen as the principal factor that determined good collaborators and good industries for collaboration. It was noted that collaboration benefits can also be improved through R and D exchanges in collaborative associations. Simple decision-tree analysis tended to understate the advantages of collaboration. Portfolio risk reduction and inter-project synergies were significant additional advantages. Collaborative R and D was said to be the preferred route for the development of a broad base of petroleum-related technologies. 5 tabs., 2 figs

  16. Dynamics of actual aggregation of petroleum products in snow cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begunova, L. A.; Kuznetsova, O. V.; Begunov, D. A.; Kuznetsova, A. N.

    2017-11-01

    The paper presents issues of snow cover pollution by petroleum products. Petroleum products content was determined using the fluorimetric method of analysis. The samples of snow were selected on the territory of Angarsk and Irkutsk cities. According to the obtained data, the content of petroleum products in the analyzed samples exceeds the background value up to 6 times. Analysis of the reference data for similar research confirms need for creation of an environmental monitoring centralized system to monitor atmospheric precipitation and, particularly, snow cover.

  17. Petroleum marketing monthly, August 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-15

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product Sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly.

  18. Petroleum marketing monthly, September 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum product sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly.

  19. 2005 yearly days of petroleum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constant, R.; Susbielles, G.

    2005-01-01

    14 articles are gathered in this data sheet; they deal with the opening address of the 2005 petroleum days; the hydrocarbons: the evolutive resource; the para-petroleum engineers and the Europe; the speech of Mr Francois Loos; the Shell global scenarios to 2025; the evolution of the gas resource and its uses; the French para-petroleum industry; Bernard Bensaid, Corinne Sagary, Armelle Saniere, economic studies, IFP; the contribution of the innovation and of the technology in the diversification of the hydrocarbons supply; innovation and diversification of the petroleum resource: the point of view of Total; research, development and diversification of the petroleum resource; innovation in services companies; innovation in study and development and engineering; the closing address of the 2005 petroleum days. (O.M.)

  20. Analiza primene tečnog naftnog gasa kao pogonskog energenta motora SUS / Analysis of application of liquefied petroleum gas as an IC engine fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavko Rakić

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available U svetu su izražene tendencije razvoja motornih vozila koja koriste ekološki čista i dovoljno raspoloživa goriva. Jedan od načina rešavanja aktuelnih zadataka automobilske industrije jeste korišćenje alternativnih goriva, odnosno alternativnih energetskih potencijala. U radu je analiziran tečni naftni gas (TNG kao alternativno gorivo za pogon motornih vozila. Nakon iznošenja osnovnih fizičko -kemijskih karakteristika TNG-a i analize upotrebe gasa kao pogonskog goriva motora SUS, prikazane su i komponente sistema za pogon motora na TNG. Navedeni su i primeri razvijenih zemalja koje pokušavaju da povećaju procenat primene alternativnih goriva u drumskom saobraćaju. Analizirani su, takođe, osnovni pokazatelji motora (snaga, ekonomičnost i ekološke karakteristike pri pogonu na TNG, koji potvrđuju daje ovo gorivo ekonomičnije i ekološki čistije od benzina i dizel goriva. / Global trends in automotive industry worldwide include development of environment-friendly vehicles which use 'clean' and attainable fuels. Alternative fuels and alternative energy sources represent one solution to the problem. In this paper Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG is analyzed as an alternative fuel for motor vehicle engines. After bringing up basic physical and chemical properties of LPG and the analysis of gas usage as a fuel for internal combustion engines, the general picture of the system components for LPG engine fuels is given. The paper also presents examples of how developed countries try to increase the percentage of alternative fuel usage in the road transportation. Finally, the analysis of the main LPG-powered engine indicators (power, economical and environmental properties confirms that LPG is more economical and more environment-friendly than standard engine fuels.

  1. Petroleum marketing monthly, December 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-05

    This publication provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. It presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include domestic first purchase price, f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude, and refiners` acquisition cost of crude. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane.

  2. Basic petroleum research. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roesjoe, Bjarne; Stiksrud, Helge

    2004-01-01

    An overview of projects in the field of basic petroleum research (PetroForsk) is presented. A brief presentation of some of the projects is included, as well as political comments on the value of these projects. The research program Basic Petroleum Research (PetroForsk) was established in 1998 and ended in 2004. The program has been part of the Research Council of Norway's long-term effort in petroleum research (ml)

  3. Indicators on the world petroleum markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-10-01

    This paper presents tendencies of the petroleum industry market. It analyses the petroleum demand and supply, the prices elaboration, the petroleum market and the OPEC objective, the third petroleum crisis of the year 2000 and gives some data concerning the petroleum market. (A.L.B.)

  4. Selling petroleum to the military

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uscher, R.H.

    1999-01-01

    This article examines what petroleum products and services the US military buys, the contracts awarded to Asian and European refiners for supplies outside the USA, and military specifications and test methods including the specifications of JP-8 battlefield fuel and the JP-8+100 additive package for military aircraft. The way in which the military buys petroleum products is described, and details are given of the types of military contracts, the bidding on Defense Energy Support Center (DESC) petroleum contracts, the performance of military petroleum contracts, socio-economic programmes, the Prompt Payment Act requiring contractors to be paid promptly, and procedures for claims and disputes

  5. Reference data about petroleum fiscality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This paper explains the different taxes existing in France for the petroleum products (domestic tax on petroleum products, added-value tax), the share of taxes in the retail price, the differences with other European countries, the French Government fiscal receipts and budget. Some information forms are attached to this document and concern: the formation of fuel prices (upstream, refining and transport-distribution margins), the evolution of annual average transport-distribution margins, some reference data about world petroleum markets (supply and demand, prices, market data), and some reference data about the role of oil companies on the petroleum market. (J.S.)

  6. 19 CFR 151.47 - Optional entry of net quantity of petroleum or petroleum products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Optional entry of net quantity of petroleum or petroleum products. 151.47 Section 151.47 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF... Petroleum and Petroleum Products § 151.47 Optional entry of net quantity of petroleum or petroleum products...

  7. Petroleum industry. 1997 activity report; L`industrie Petroliere. Rapport d`activite 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-05-01

    This activity report from the direction of hydrocarbons of the French general direction of energy and raw materials (ministry of economy, finances and industry) presents an economic analysis of the activities of the French petroleum industry for 1997. After a recall of the missions of the direction of hydrocarbons, the report analyses successively: 1- the evolution of the petroleum market: the international petroleum market in 1997, the hydrocarbon supplies and external trade (natural gas, crude oil, condensates), the French petroleum market (primary energy consumption, final energy consumption, French petroleum consumption, the petroleum logistics in overseas departments and territories), the prices, margins and fiscal policy in France and Europe (crude oil and refined product prices in the international market, retail prices in France and Europe, the French petroleum fiscal policy, statistics of petroleum prices in France and Europe; 2- the petroleum industry activities: exploration and production in France and worldwide, the maritime and domestic transports and the storage (French commercial fleet, domestic transports, storage facilities, strategic stocks), the refining activity and the quality of products and fuel substitutes (refining, automotive fuels quality, bio-fuels), the distribution of petroleum products (automotive and diesel fuels, LPG, aircraft fuels, lubricants); 3- the environmental and safety aspects of refining, transportation (pipelines, tanker-ships) and exploration-production; 4- the economic situation of the companies: petroleum groups, French para-petroleum industry, scientific and technical research. (J.S.)

  8. FY 1998 survey report. Petroleum substituting energy metering analysis survey; 1998 nendo chosa hokokusho. Sekiyu daitai energy keiryo bunseki chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    In this survey, metering models in the Asian/Pacific region where energy demand is rapidly increasing were constructed which are used for the comprehensive analysis of the relations between changes in social structure such as economic growth, change in industrial structure, and progress in energy conservation technology and new energy technology, and the energy supply/demand structure. The survey was carried out aiming at contributing to the international development of Japan's energy policy in future by quantitatively analyzing/evaluating influences of various energy policies/economic policies on the economy and energy supply/demand, through various kinds of simulation models. In FY 1998, information collection for modeling was made in China and Korea out of the Asian/Pacific region. At the same time, pilot models were constructed, and simulation was made for the standard case. Moreover, an analysis was conducted of the relation between economic growth and motorization in each country of the world as the basic data preparation on energy consumption in the transportation sector. (NEDO)

  9. FY 1998 survey report. Petroleum substituting energy metering analysis survey; 1998 nendo chosa hokokusho. Sekiyu daitai energy keiryo bunseki chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    In this survey, metering models in the Asian/Pacific region where energy demand is rapidly increasing were constructed which are used for the comprehensive analysis of the relations between changes in social structure such as economic growth, change in industrial structure, and progress in energy conservation technology and new energy technology, and the energy supply/demand structure. The survey was carried out aiming at contributing to the international development of Japan's energy policy in future by quantitatively analyzing/evaluating influences of various energy policies/economic policies on the economy and energy supply/demand, through various kinds of simulation models. In FY 1998, information collection for modeling was made in China and Korea out of the Asian/Pacific region. At the same time, pilot models were constructed, and simulation was made for the standard case. Moreover, an analysis was conducted of the relation between economic growth and motorization in each country of the world as the basic data preparation on energy consumption in the transportation sector. (NEDO)

  10. Petroleum abundance until when

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appert, O.

    1996-01-01

    The petroleum demand goes on to increase. In front of this demand the non Opec supply increases because of new positive explorations, new technologies and a reduction of exploration-production prices. With 10% of worldwide reserves, OECD insures 30% of worldwide production. With 18% of reserves, the non-Opec world insures 48% of worldwide needs. But a return on Middle East where are 65% of reserves is inescapable but it can be all the more brutal since non Opec world consumes its own resources more quickly. 7 figs

  11. International petroleum statistics report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report is a monthly publication that provides current international oil data. This report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, exports and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world, in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries.

  12. FRACTURED PETROLEUM RESERVOIRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbas Firoozabadi

    1999-06-11

    different from that of gas displacement processes. The work is of experimental nature and clarifies several misconceptions in the literature. Based on experimental results, it is established that the main reason for high efficiency of solution gas drive from heavy oil reservoirs is due to low gas mobility. Chapter III presents the concept of the alteration of porous media wettability from liquid-wetting to intermediate gas-wetting. The idea is novel and has not been introduced in the petroleum literature before. There are significant implications from such as proposal. The most direct application of intermediate gas wetting is wettability alteration around the wellbore. Such an alteration can significantly improve well deliverability in gas condensate reservoirs where gas well deliverability decreases below dewpoint pressure. Part I of Chapter III studies the effect of gravity, viscous forces, interfacial tension, and wettability on the critical condensate saturation and relative permeability of gas condensate systems. A simple phenomenological network model is used for this study, The theoretical results reveal that wettability significantly affects both the critical gas saturation and gas relative permeability. Gas relative permeability may increase ten times as contact angle is altered from 0{sup o} (strongly liquid wet) to 85{sup o} (intermediate gas-wetting). The results from the theoretical study motivated the experimental investigation described in Part II. In Part II we demonstrate that the wettability of porous media can be altered from liquid-wetting to gas-wetting. This part describes our attempt to find appropriate chemicals for wettability alteration of various substrates including rock matrix. Chapter IV provides a comprehensive treatment of molecular, pressure, and thermal diffusion and convection in porous media Basic theoretical analysis is presented using irreversible thermodynamics.

  13. Petroleum supply monthly, March 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-03-30

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics. The tables and figures in the Summary Statistics section of the PSM present a time series of selected petroleum data on a US level. Most time series include preliminary estimates for one month based on the Weekly Petroleum Supply Reporting System; statistics based on the most recent data from the Monthly Petroleum Supply Reporting System (MPSRS); and statistics published in prior issues of the PSM and PSA. The Detailed Statistics tables of the PSM present statistics for the most current month available as well as year-to-date. In most cases, the statistics are presented for several geographic areas -- the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia), five PAD Districts, and 12 Refining Districts. At the US and PAD District level, the total volume and the daily rate of activities are presented. The statistics are developed from monthly survey forms submitted by respondents to the EIA and from data provided from other sources.

  14. Current developments in the assessment of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated sites: Analysis, interpretation, and use of the TPH parameter for quantitative risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Surette, M.; Maynard, P.; Lamie, P.O.; Kaslick, C.

    1995-01-01

    In 1994, the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection (MDEP) estimated that petroleum-only cases comprised approximately one-half of the state's hazardous waste sites currently under investigation and/or remediation. Because of this significant percentage, it became clear that assessing petroleum sites more efficiently in terms of risk and cleanup alternatives was necessary. One of these key MDEP policies describes an alternative risk assessment approach enabling the quantitative characterization of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH)-related health risks. The approach relies on the use of an analytical technique by which the mass of petroleum hydrocarbons within specified carbon ranges is quantified. MDEP's TPH risk assessment approach was successfully employed at a residential site contaminated with No. 2 fuel oil. The combined use of MDEP's suggested analytical methods, alternative reference compounds and toxicity values, as well as chromatograms, standard dose equations, and an EPA-approved box model, facilitated the performance of a more realistic and cost-effective assessment of risk. Such assessment provided key management information to regulatory agencies, and project managers, as well as property owners concerned with potential property value loss

  15. The analysis of semi-volatile and non-volatile petroleum hydrocarbons in a soil/sediment matrix by capillary column gas chromatography/flame ionization detection (GC/FID)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, J.E. III; Thoma, J.J.; Hastings, M.

    1990-01-01

    A comprehensive analysis for semi-volatile and non-volatile fractions of petroleum hydrocarbons can be achieved by a solvent extraction/concentration techniques that will effectively extract these high molecular weight fractions from a soil matrix. The prepared extract is then injected directly into a gas chromatograph equipped with a capillary column and flame ionization detector. This technique applies to the following types of commercially available petroleum hydrocarbons: Diesel Nos. 2,4,5, and 6, fuel oils and several grades of lubrication oil. The identification of a particular petroleum hydrocarbon is determined visually by comparison of the samples with known hydrocarbon standards. Accurate quantitation of the chromatograms is possible by using peak area summation and the presence of an internal standard. The practical quantitation limit for the method is 10 mg/Kg for most fuel types. This paper presents a method for determining the concentration of these fuel types in soil. Data will be presented only on 10W40 lubrication oil in terms of method validation, calibration, percent recovery, and method detection limits. A discussion of the quatitation techniques used will also be included

  16. International petroleum statistics report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report is a monthly publication that provides current international oil data. This report is published for the use of Members of Congress, Federal agencies, State agencies, industry, and the general public. Publication of this report is in keeping with responsibilities given the Energy Information Administration in Public Law 95-91. The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1995; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1995; and OECD trade from 1985 through 1995.

  17. The future petroleum geologist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, R.R.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that in July 1985, AAPG President William L. Fisher appointed a select committee to determine the capabilities that will be required of petroleum geologists in the future. His charge to the committee was based on the profound changes and uncertainties that were beginning to be felt in the industry and would surely affect the employment of geologists and their professional practice. These changes are well known: the supply of oil had exceeded demand, the price of oil was unstable, many companies were threatened by debt and buy-outs, and corporate restructuring was underway to meet changing economic conditions. All contributed to great uncertainty about the need and requirements of geological employment and practice. Specifically, President Fisher charged the committee to distinguish those elements of recent times that are cyclic and those that are long-term in their effects; to characterize the state of the industry for the next 25 years; to predict the capabilities that the future petroleum geologist should posses to meet the challenges of the future; and most importantly, the define the role of AAPG and its commitments to the membership under these changing conditions

  18. Petroleum and natural gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    060,

    1965-02-01

    Substantial increases in demand for Canadian petroleum and natural gas in both domestic and export markets resulted in another good year throughout the main sectors of the industry. In February, production averaged 850,000 bpd, or about 8% more than 1963 output of crude oil and natural gas liquids. Construction began on the first full scale plant for the extraction of oil from the Athabasca bituminous sands. In 1964, exploratory and development drilling in western Canada increased 10% from the previous year. A total of 15.5 million ft was drilled, the largest since the record drilling year of 1956. The main oil field development areas in Alberta were the House Mountain, Deer Mountain and Goose River Fields, and the Bantry-Taber heavy oil region in southeastern Alberta. Oil reserves were increased substantially by waterflood pressure maintenance projects in many of the older oil fields. The largest oil accumulation discovered in 1964 was the Syvia-Honda Field in the Devonian Gilwood sandstone in N.-central Alberta. Two graphs illustrate the crude petroleum in Canada in millions of barrels from 1940 to 1964, and natural gas in Canada in billions of cu ft from 1950 to 1964. The outlook for the industry in 1965 is good.

  19. Facts 2010 - The Norwegian petroleum sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-07-01

    The publication provides a general overview of information regarding the petroleum activities on the Norwegian continental shelf. Content; Foreword; The petroleum sector - Norway's largest industry; Organisation of Norwegian petroleum activity; Government petroleum revenues; Exploration activities; Development and operations; Norwegian gas exports; Decommissioning; Research, technology and industrial development; Environmental considerations in the Norwegian petroleum sector; Petroleum resources; Fields in production; Fields under development; Future developments; Fields where production has ceased; Pipelines and onshore facilities. (AG)

  20. Facts 2010 - The Norwegian petroleum sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-07-01

    The publication provides a general overview of information regarding the petroleum activities on the Norwegian continental shelf. Content; Foreword; The petroleum sector - Norway's largest industry; Organisation of Norwegian petroleum activity; Government petroleum revenues; Exploration activities; Development and operations; Norwegian gas exports; Decommissioning; Research, technology and industrial development; Environmental considerations in the Norwegian petroleum sector; Petroleum resources; Fields in production; Fields under development; Future developments; Fields where production has ceased; Pipelines and onshore facilities. (AG)

  1. Facts 2011 - The Norwegian petroleum sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-07-15

    The publication provides a general overview of information regarding the petroleum activities on the Norwegian continental shelf. Content; Foreword; The petroleum sector - Norway's largest industry; Organisation of Norwegian petroleum activity; Government petroleum revenues; Exploration activities; Development and operations; Norwegian gas exports; Decommissioning; Research, technology and industrial development; Environmental considerations in the Norwegian petroleum sector; Petroleum resources; Fields in production; Fields under development; Future developments; Fields where production has ceased; Pipelines and onshore facilities. (AG)

  2. Petroleum industry assists hurricane relief

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that the petroleum industry is aiding victims of last month's Hurricane Andrew with cash, clothing, food, water, and other supplies. Cash contributions announced as of last week totaled more than $2.7 million for distribution in South Florida and South Louisiana. Petroleum industry employees were collecting relief items such as bottled water and diapers for distribution in those areas

  3. The para-petroleum industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-07-01

    The para-petroleum industry includes societies that realize studies and installations for the deposits exploitation. This document presents the situation of the para-petroleum industry in 2001, the world investment growth of the activity, the french societies financial results and an inventory of the main operations in the amalgamation domain. (A.L.B.)

  4. Petroleum Biotechnology. Developments and Perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vazquez-Duhalt, R.; Quintero-Ramirez, R.

    2004-01-01

    This book deals with the field of petroleum biorefining and biological upgrade of petroleum; it presents a critical review as well as an integrated overview of the potential biochemical processes, bridging the gap between academia and industry. It addresses today's demanding production challenges, taking into account energy efficient and environmentally friendly processes, and also looks at the future possibility of implementing new refinery systems

  5. Petroleum: An energy profile, 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    This report prepared by the Energy Information Administration covers the following topics: petroleum production and end-use sectors; resources and reserves; exploration and production; LPG sources and processing; motor gasoline octane enhancement; constructing pipelines; the strategic petroleum reserve; imports and exports; marketing; district descriptions and maps; and refinery processes and facilities. 33 figs., 7 tabs.

  6. Environmental analysis of plastic production processes: comparing petroleum-based polypropylene and polyethylene with biologically-based poly-beta-hydroxybutyric acid using life cycle analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, K G; Dennis, J S; von Blottnitz, H; Harrison, S T L

    2007-05-31

    Polymers based on olefins have wide commercial applicability. However, they are made from non-renewable resources and are characterised by difficulty in disposal where recycle and re-use is not feasible. Poly-beta-hydroxybutyric acid (PHB) provides one example of a polymer made from renewable resources. Before motivating its widespread use, the advantages of a renewable polymer must be weighed against the environmental aspects of its production. Previous studies relating the environmental impacts of petroleum-based and bio-plastics have centred on the impact categories of global warming and fossil fuel depletion. Cradle-to-grave studies report equivalent or reduced global warming impacts, in comparison to equivalent polyolefin processes. This stems from a perceived CO(2) neutral status of the renewable resource. Indeed, no previous work has reported the results of a life cycle assessment (LCA) giving the environmental impacts in all major categories. This study investigates a cradle-to-gate LCA of PHB production taking into account net CO(2) generation and all major impact categories. It compares the findings with similar studies of polypropylene (PP) and polyethylene (PE). It is found that, in all of the life cycle categories, PHB is superior to PP. Energy requirements are slightly lower than previously observed and significantly lower than those for polyolefin production. PE impacts are lower than PHB values in acidification and eutrophication.

  7. Vol 41 No 2

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Esem

    3 Centre for Primary Care Research. Medical Journal of Zambia, Vol. 41, No. 2: 59 - 64 (2014) ... pollutants by inhaling second-hand tobacco smoke are at risk of adverse health ..... To put the measured PM levels into perspective, a. 2.5. 5.

  8. Petroleum marketing monthly, March 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-10

    This report for March 1995, provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly. A glossary is included.

  9. The new challenges of petroleum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gernelle, E.

    2006-02-01

    Petroleum in in the center of our civilization: abundant, easy to use and energy powerful, it is used almost everywhere: transports, lighting, space heating, plastics, fertilizers, cloth industry etc. The 'black-gold' is the object of all stakes, from richness to power. However, petroleum is also at the origin of many evils: pollution, corruption, violence. Today, petroleum is a source of worries: how long will it last? How long will we be able to stand its impacts on environment? This book shades light on all these questions and supplies some concrete elements about this energy source. Content: technological challenges of petroleum; producers: powers and risks; consumers' dependence; to learn more about petroleum. (J.S.)

  10. Applications of T-ray spectroscopy in the petroleum field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Douseri, Fatemah M.

    2005-11-01

    Because of heavy usage of petroleum products, which are the main source of energy in daily life and industry, a fast, reliable, and portable analysis system is needed to complement traditional techniques. Terahertz (THz) radiation, or T-rays, is electromagnetic radiation in the 0.1 to 10 THz frequency range. One unique attribute of T-rays is their ability to sensitively measure the induced molecular dipole moments in non-polar liquids such as aromatics, which make up the majority of the contents of many petroleum products. This information can lead to several applications in petroleum analysis. The application of T-rays to petroleum product analysis has the potential to make a significant impact in the petroleum field. In this dissertation, I show the first use of T-ray time-domain spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy techniques for petroleum product analysis. I report on the feasibility of analyzing selected petroleum products, including gasoline, diesel, lubricating oil, and selected compounds of toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX). With the use of a T-ray time-domain spectrometer. I demonstrate that gasolines with different octane numbers and diesel all show specific absorption coefficients and refractive indexes in the spectral range from 0.5 to 2.0 THz. Furthermore, I report the qualitative and quantitative analysis of selected BTEX components in gasoline and diesel using FTIR spectroscopy in the 50 to 650 cm-1 region. I distinguish gasolines with different octane numbers from diesel and lubricating oil according to their different spectral features. I also determine the concentration of (o, m, p) xylene isomers in gasoline according to their specific absorption bands. The experimental results in this thesis, imply that linking between the knowledge of petroleum products and the development of T-ray spectrometer with the cooperation of industry might translate the T-ray spectroscopic system into a real world application in

  11. Petroleum software profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    A profile of twenty-two software packages designed for petroleum exploration and production was provided. Some focussed on the oil and gas engineering industry, and others on mapping systems containing well history files and well data summaries. Still other programs provided accounting systems designed to address the complexities of the oil and gas industry. The software packages reviewed were developed by some of the best-known groups involved in software development for the oil and gas industry, including among others, Geoquest, the Can Tek Group, Applied Terravision Systems Inc., Neotechnology Consultants Ltd., (12) OGCI Software Inc., Oracle Energy, Production Revenue Information Systems Management, Virtual Computing Services Ltd., and geoLogic Systems Ltd

  12. Weathering of a petroleum spill in a tropical mangrove swamp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, S.J.; Alexander, R.; Kagi, R.I. [Curtin Univ., Perth (Australia)

    1996-12-31

    In August 1987, an indeterminate amount of petroleum condensate was released from a buried pipe leading to contamination of a tropical mangrove swamp surrounding a tidal creek in North Western Australia. Since no bioremediation was attempted at this site, we have monitored the natural weathering of the condensate by detailed analysis of the petroleum hydrocarbons extracted from sediment samples collected on 11 occasions over a 3 year period.

  13. Relative potency estimation for synthetic petroleum skin carcinogens.

    OpenAIRE

    Holland, J M; Wolf, D A; Clark, B R

    1981-01-01

    A procedure for quantitative analysis of skin carcinogenesis data, for the purpose of establishing carcinogenic potency, has been applied to observations obtained from C3H mice exposed continuously to synthetic and natural petroleums. The importance of total polynuclear aromatic (PNA) content to the skin carcinogenic activity of the crude materials was also examined. Of three synthetic petroleums evaluated, all were shown capable of inducing skin neoplasms within a two-year exposure period. U...

  14. Forecasting the demand for petroleum industrial equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buvailo, I A; Koval' chuk, V M; Yakovlev, Yu D

    1977-01-01

    An examination is made of a broad method of future industrial planning which yields optimal results and is based on the fact that the need for new technology stems from the number of operations which must be completed within the period being analyzed and from the productivity of the machinery slated for use. Formulas are presented for determining the need for several types of new petroleum industrial machinery, and an analysis is made of the components of a mathematical model. 3 references.

  15. Appearance and substance: World petroleum market review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ronchi, M.

    1992-01-01

    This review of supply and demand trends in the world petroleum market includes comments on the influence of the Brent quotations, political unrest in the Middle East and OPEC's reaction to the carbon tax proposed during the Rio Earth's Summit on global environmental protection. Overall, the analysis suggests increases in surplus, following a 15 month period of stagnant demand, with increases in Asiatic countries balanced by decreases in the Eastern Bloc nations currently periencing difficulties with their transition economies

  16. Petroleum Business in Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dublin-Green, W. F.

    1997-01-01

    The petroleum industry is vital to the health of the Nigerian economy as it accounts for over 80% of Nigeria's total export earnings and about 70% of total government revenue. Nigeria has an oil reserve base of 21 billion barrels and gas reserve of 120 trillion cubic feet. With natural gas becoming the worlds fastest growing energy resource, the Nigerian Government has put in place a program to grow her oil reserve base to over 25 billion barrels and significantly increase her gas reserves. An earlier commitment made in 1990 to increase Nigeria's oil reserve base from a level of 16 to 20 billion barrels by 1995 was achieved well ahead of time. This success was largely due to financial incentives offered investors. This healthy business climate still prevails. This paper presents the investment opportunities that Nigeria offers genuine investors in both the upstream and downstream sectors of the industry and defines the legal/regulatory requirements for doing business in Nigeria. We try to give an insight into specific government policies that help to create an enabling environment for investors in the upstream and downstream sectors of the petroleum industry. We showcase the 5 (five) major sedimentary basins with enormous oil and gas potential where exploration/exploitation risks are rated medium to low. We focus on the environment and government's efforts to enforce the rules and guidelines that govern the policy termed the Environment, Safety and Standards. We recognize that the business challenges of the third millennium will dictate new alliances and partnerships that will survive and thrive only in a climate that is safe for the investor. This is the business climate we throw open in Nigeria for investors to come in and do business with us

  17. Petroleum marketing monthly, November 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-09

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed costs of imported crude oil, and the refiner`s acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented.

  18. Petroleum marketing monthly, July 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-07-15

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented.

  19. Petroleum marketing monthly, January 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented.

  20. Petroleum marketing monthly, August 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-10

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented.

  1. Petroleum marketing monthly, February 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-25

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiner`s acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented.

  2. Petroleum marketing monthly, April 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-12

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented.

  3. Petroleum marketing monthly, March 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-03-22

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, education institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiner`s acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented.

  4. Lasers and petroleum in Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    da Costa, G.; Guerri, G.; Calatroni, J. (Universidad Simon Bolivar, Caracas (Venezuela). Lab. de Optica Cuantica)

    1978-06-01

    The viscosity of heavy hydrocarbons is one reason why conventional drilling methods are insufficient for petroleum extraction in Venezuela at a depth of 1000 m. The Quantum Optics Laboratory of Simon Bolivar University in Caracas is conducting a search for novel perforation and heating tools for petroleum extraction. Basic research is being carried out using a 10 MW TEA-CO/sub 2/ laser. The laser is not only a research tool but a matter of national interests, as petroleum is Venezuela's main export article.

  5. Petroleum marketing monthly, August 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-11-07

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners' acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented. 12 figs., 49 tabs.

  6. Petroleum marketing monthly, October 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-07

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase prices, the f.o b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented.

  7. Geopolitical problems bond to the petroleum production and exchange; Problemes geopolitiques lies a la production et aux echanges de petrole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-12-15

    The persistent interest of States for the petroleum shows, always today, that it is a specific raw material. The petroleum specificity comes from the supply and demand character, which the prospective study is presented in the first part of this analysis. From this presentation the authors discuss the petroleum ''great fear'' which leads to the dependence and then the interdependence of the petroleum States in an international cooperation. (A.L.B.)

  8. Geopolitical problems bond to the petroleum production and exchange; Problemes geopolitiques lies a la production et aux echanges de petrole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-12-15

    The persistent interest of States for the petroleum shows, always today, that it is a specific raw material. The petroleum specificity comes from the supply and demand character, which the prospective study is presented in the first part of this analysis. From this presentation the authors discuss the petroleum ''great fear'' which leads to the dependence and then the interdependence of the petroleum States in an international cooperation. (A.L.B.)

  9. Facts 2009 - The Norwegian petroleum sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-07-01

    The publication provides a general overview of information regarding the petroleum activities on the Norwegian continental shelf. Contents: Foreword; The petroleum sector; Norwegian resource management; Government petroleum revenues; Exploration activities; Development and operations; Norwegian gas exports; Decommissioning; Research, technology; Environmental considerations; Petroleum resources; Fields in production; Fields under development; Future developments; Fields where production has ceased; Pipelines and onshore facilities. (AG)

  10. Petroleum coke as energy source: an update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinelli, G.

    2008-01-01

    A previous review presented a critical evaluation of the use of petroleum coke as energy source. After some years, with reference to increased petroleum coke production, that paper is revised. In particular, the attention is now focused on world petroleum coke market trends and, in regard to petroleum coke used as fuel, on new Italian environment laws. [it

  11. 21 CFR 178.3710 - Petroleum wax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Petroleum wax. 178.3710 Section 178.3710 Food and... and Production Aids § 178.3710 Petroleum wax. Petroleum wax may be safely used as a component of nonfood articles in contact with food, in accordance with the following conditions: (a) Petroleum wax is a...

  12. Ex-USSR: petroleum activities in 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This paper gives statistical data on economy and petroleum industry in ex-USSR: Primary energy production and consumption (coal, petroleum, natural gas, primary power), petroleum and natural gas reserves, drilling activity, exports and imports of petroleum products, refining capacity. 2 figs., 14 tabs

  13. Future petroleum energy resources of the world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlbrandt, T.S.

    2002-01-01

    Is the world running out of oil? Where will future oil and gas supplies come from? To help answer these questions, in 2000 the U.S. Geological Survey completed a new world assessment, exclusive of the United States, of the undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources and potential additions to reserves from field growth.2 One hundred and twenty-eight provinces were assessed in a 100 man-year effort from 1995-2000. The assessed provinces included 76 priority provinces containing 95% of the world's discovered oil and gas and an additional 52 "boutique" provinces, many of which may be highly prospective. Total Petroleum Systems (TPS) were identified and described for each of these provinces along with associated Assessment Units (AU) that are the basic units for assessing undiscovered petroleum. The assessment process coupled geologic analysis with a probabilistic methodology to estimate remaining potential. Within the 128 assessed provinces were 159 TPS and 274 AU. For these provinces, the endowment of recoverable oil-which includes cumulative production, remaining reserves, reserve growth, and undiscovered resources-is estimated at about 3 trillion barrels of oil (TBO). The natural gas endowment is estimated at 2.6 trillion barrels of oil equivalent (TBOE). Oil reserves are currently 1.1 TBO; world consumption is about .028 TBO per year. Natural gas reserves are about 0.8 TBOE; world consumption is about 0.014 TBOE per year. Thus, without any additional discoveries of oil, gas or natural gas liquids, we have about 2 TBOE of proved petroleum reserves. Of the oil and gas endowment of about 5.6 TBOE, we estimate that the world has consumed about 1 TBOE, or 18%, leaving about 82% of the endowment to be utilized or found. Half of the world's undiscovered potential is offshore. Arctic basins with about 25% of undiscovered petroleum resources make up the next great frontier. An additional 279 provinces contain some oil and gas and, if considered, would increase the oil

  14. Logistics aspects of petroleum pipeline operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. J. Pienaar

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper identifies, assesses and describes the logistics aspects of the commercial operation of petroleum pipelines. The nature of petroleum-product supply chains, in which pipelines play a role, is outlined and the types of petroleum pipeline systems are described. An outline is presented of the nature of the logistics activities of petroleum pipeline operations. The reasons for the cost efficiency of petroleum pipeline operations are given. The relative modal service effectiveness of petroleum pipeline transport, based on the most pertinent service performance measures, is offered. The segments in the petroleum-products supply chain where pipelines can play an efficient and effective role are identified.

  15. Panorama of the petroleum industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-02-01

    This document provides tables and charts of statistical data concerning the petroleum industry activity in 2004: supply and demand, prices, consumption, service station number and the market. (A.L.B.)

  16. Dermal uptake of petroleum substances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jakasa, Ivone; Kezic, Sanja; Boogaard, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Petroleum products are complex substances comprising varying amounts of linear and branched alkanes, alkenes, cycloalkanes, and aromatics which may penetrate the skin at different rates. For proper interpretation of toxic hazard data, understanding their percutaneous absorption is of paramount

  17. Petroleum investment conditions in Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Schreck, M.

    1996-01-01

    This report focuses on the current petroleum investment conditions in Peru, and Peru's hydrocarbon potential. Investment conditions are examined, and political risk, internal security, the economic environment, and the legal framework for investment are considered. (UK)

  18. Petroleum and Water Logistics Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-06-19

    petroleum office ( SAPO ). The combatant commander JPO coordinates all agree- ments concerning bulk fuel support between com- ponent commands and HNs. For the...commander of the unified command through the JPO. The uni- fied command may also establish SAPOs at the subunified command level to provide in-country or...gency situations. PWRS are usually stored in theater and are monitored by the appropriate combatant commander JPO/ SAPO . MEF Petroleum War Reserve

  19. Colombian petroleum - A good business

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carta Petrolera

    1998-01-01

    A great interest exists for Colombia, a country in which the statistics of petroleum and gas production, have been shot to volumes record; where 15 new contracts are signed every year, arriving in December from 1997 to an effective figure record of 107, a country that see grow their exports of raw; a country that every time has more facilities of transport and commercialization of hydrocarbons and it receives to more companies interested in sharing the risk in petroleum search

  20. Advances in boundary elements. Vol. 1-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brebbia, C.A.; Connor, J.J.

    1989-01-01

    This book contains some of the edited papers presented at the 11th Boundary Element Conference, held in Cambridge, Massachusetts, during August 1989. The papers are arranged in three different books comprising the following topics: Vol. 1: Computations and Fundamentals - comprises sections on fundamentals, adaptive techniques, error and convergence, numerical methods and computational aspects. (283 p.). Vol. 2: Field and fluid flow solutions - includes the following topics: potential problems, thermal studies, electrical and electromagnetic problems, wave propagation, acoustics and fluid flow. (484 p.). Vol. 3: Stress analysis - deals with advances in linear problems, nonlinear problems, fracture mechanics, contact mechanics, optimization, geomechanics, plates and shells, vibrations and industrial applications. (450 p). (orig./HP)

  1. Canadian retail petroleum markets study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ervin, M.J.

    1998-02-01

    A retail petroleum market study was conducted to provide a comprehensive overview of the competitiveness of the downstream petroleum industry in Canada and to set a foundation for effective policy development. The downstream petroleum industry, which includes the petroleum refining and marketing sectors, faces a poor public image, competitive pressures from U.S. and offshore refiners, and a broad range of environmental challenges. In this study, 19 markets representing a wide range of conditions were chosen for a detailed review of outlet economics. A market-by-market and regional comparisons of key competitiveness indicators was made in order to identify market and regional competitive differences as potential issues or opportunities within the industry. The study also included a pump price/margin model and provided a general overview of the retail gasoline sub-sector in terms of infrastructure. A review of prices, margins and demand patterns over the past several years was also undertaken to show the relationship between consumer demand patterns and pump price fluctuations. The study presented 22 findings which led to several conclusions and recommendations regarding the competitiveness of Canada's petroleum marketing sector. Two of the key conclusions were that taxation is a significant factor in the price of retail gasoline (about 50 per cent) and that government intervention into petroleum marketing is likely to be a poor alternative to market-based regulation. 18 tabs., 37 figs

  2. International petroleum statistics report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report is a monthly publication that provides current international data. The report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent 12 months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1996; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1996; and OECD trade from 1986 through 1996.

  3. International petroleum statistics report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, exports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1994; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1994; and OECD trade from 1984 through 1994.

  4. International petroleum statistics report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. Word oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1995; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1995; and OECD trade from 1985 through 1995.

  5. Iran's petroleum industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebneyousef, M.H.; Bogart, A.J.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that during the past several years Iran's potentials have been forgotten or ignored by the outside world mainly due to misconceptions, fears, and political concerns attributed to the religious overtone. The intention of the authors is to introduction to the new realities of regional, as well as global geopolitics and the main political and economic aspects of Iran's huge and growing petroleum industry. The fact of the matter is that in the rapidly changing world order the need for a true stability in the region and a global cooperation has been recognized by Iran. The country, with a population of 60 million, is now preparing itself for the major political and economic role thrust upon the nation by the socio-economic changes in the integrating Europe; the outcome of the Iran-Iraq and the Persian Gulf wars, including the likely instability of the autocratic governments of Arab states of the region; the breakup of the former Soviet Union; and market changes in the Far East

  6. The change of cerebral blood flow after heart transplantation in congestive heart failure: a voxel-based and automatic VOl analysis of Tc-99m ECD SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, I. K.; Kim, J. J.; Lee, C. H.; Lim, K. C.; Moon, D. H.; Rhu, J. S.; Kim, J. S. [Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    To investigate the change of global and regional cerebral blood flow after heart transplantation (HT) in congestive heart failure (CHF) patients. Twenty-one patients with CHF who underwent HT (45{+-}12 yrs, M/F=19/2) and 10 healthy volunteers (39{+-}13 yrs, M/F = 7/3) were prospectively included. All patients underwent echocardiography and radionuclide angiography including brain and aorta with brain SPECT which was performed after iv bolus injection of Tc-99m ECD (740MBq) before (175{+-}253 days) and after (129{+-}82 days) HT. Patients were divided into two groups according to the interval between HT and postoperative SPECT [early follow-up (f/u): <6 mo, n=14; late f/u: >6 mo, n=7]. Global CBF (gCBF) of bilateral hemispheres were calculated by Patlak graphical analysis. Absolute rCBF map was obtained from brain SPECT by Lassen's correction algorithm. Age-corrected voxel-based analysis using SPM2 and automatic VOl analysis were performed to assess the rCBF change. Cardiac ejection fraction of all patients improved after HT (20.8%{yields}64.0%). gCBF was reduced compared to normal before HT (35.7{+-}3.9 vs. 49.1{+-}3.0 ml/100g/min; p<0.001) and improved postoperatively (46.6{+-}5.4, p<0.001). The preoperative gCBFs of early and late f/u group were not different (34.6{+-}3.2 vs. 38.0{+-}4.4, p=0.149) but postoperative gCBF (43.9{+-}3.7) of late f/u group was higher than those (52.0{+-}4.0) of early f/u group (p<0.001). On voxel-based analysis, preoperative rCBF was reduced in entire brain but most severely in bilateral superior and inferior frontal cortex, supplementary motor area, precuneus and anterior cingulum, compared to normals (uncorrected p<0.001). After HT, rCBF of these areas improved more significantly in late f/u group than in early f/u group but still lower than normals. Global CBF was significantly reduced in CHF patients and improved after HT. rCBFs of the frontal cortex, precuneus and cingulum were most severely reduced and slowly improved after

  7. The IDA-80 measurement evaluation programme on mass spectrometric isotope dilution analysis of uranium and plutonium. Vol. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyrich, W.; Golly, W.; Spannagel, G.; Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe G.m.b.H.; Bievre, P. de; Wolters, W.

    1984-12-01

    The main objective was the acquisition of basic data on the uncertainties involved in the mass spectrometric isotope dilution analysis as applied to the determination of uranium and plutonium in active feed solutions of reprocessing plants. The element concentrations and isotopic compositions of all test materials used were determined by CBNM and NBS with high accuracy. The more than 60000 analytical data reported by the participating laboratories were evaluated by statistical methods applied mainly to the calculation of estimates of the variances for the different uncertainty components contributing to the total uncertainty of this analytical technique. Attention was given to such topics as sample ageing, influence of fission products, spike calibration, ion fractionation, Pu-241 decay correction, minor isotope measurement and errors in data transfer. Furthermore, the performance of the 'dried sample' technique and the 'in-situ' spiking method of undiluted samples of reprocessing fuel solution with U-235/Pu-242 metal alloy spikes, were tested successfully. Considerable improvement of isotope dilution analysis in this safeguards relevant application during the last decade is shown as compared to the results obtained in the IDA-72 interlaboratory experiment, organized by KfK in 1972 on the same subject. (orig./HP) [de

  8. Analysis of Maceaene and Macamide Contents of Petroleum Ether Extract of Black, Yellow, and Purple Lepidium Meyenii (Maca and Their Antioxidant Effect on Diabetes Mellitus Rat Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Congyang Qiu

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Maceaene and macamide contents as well as antioxidant effect of petroleum ether extract of black maca (BM, yellow maca (YM, and purple maca (PM on diabetes mellitus (DM rats were investigated. The results showed that seven, six, and five analogues of macamides were identified from the petroleum ether extracts of BM, YM, and PM, respectively. BM extract exhibited the highest contents of total macamides. Comparatively, the PM extract has the lowest macamide quantity. The maceaene contents in all the extracts showed no significant difference (p>0.05. Macamide contents in maca with the same color were not statistically different. Pharmacological results showed that 60-day oral administration of the petroleum ether extract of maca (100 mg/kg.d can significantly decrease lipid oxidation as indicated by the decreased thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS and carbonylated proteins (CP concentrations on DM rat model (P<0.05. Among them, oral administration of PM extract showed the lowest TBRAS and CP concentrations. All maca extracts can enhance antioxidant enzyme (SOD, superoxide dismutase; CAT, catalase activity of liver and red blood cells (RBC of DM rat. However, only oral administration of PM extract can increase SOD and CAT activity of both RBC and liver. The glutathion (GSH contents in plasma were significantly increased in DM rats treated with PM extract (p<0.05. But, oral administration of BM and YM extracts did not enhance GSH levels. Take together, the data suggested that PM extract exhibited the most potent antioxidant activity on DM rat model. And, maceaene and macamide in maca extract was not correlated with its antioxidant ability.

  9. Scientific interests of petroleum specialists in the area of biodiversity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wasserman, Julio C. [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias; Lima, Gilson Brito A.; Barros, Sergio R.S. [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia

    2008-07-01

    The environmental risks of the petroleum industry have driven most of the companies to proceed for the mitigation of its impacts. In this sense, the choice of methods and processes that are better adapted to the petroleum business depends on the improving of the knowledge of most recent technologies. This article aims to identify the technological and knowledge needs of the petroleum industries in the area of biodiversity. For the last few years, the authors have been working with the biodiversity corporate department of a petroleum company and throughout this period, the researchers were able to identify the staff focus and interests for the generation of knowledge. The identification of the desired knowledge was constructed based on the selection of scientific papers that were sent to the company staff, who evaluated its concern. Over 400 articles were sent to the company staff that were published between 2004 and 2007 and about 190 were selected. From the selected pool of articles an analysis of the keywords, name of journals and most frequently selected authors. It is concluded that the petroleum company focused its scientific interests in applied subjects. It was further verified that a considerable amount of work has been carried out by petroleum companies that, sometimes make their reports available in their home pages, but it is probable that many works remain unpublished. (author)

  10. Short term forecasting of petroleum product demand in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadren, M.

    1998-01-01

    The analysis of petroleum product demand became a privileged thrust of research following the modifications in terms of structure and level of the petroleum markets since eighties. The greatest importance to econometrics models of Energy demand, joint works about nonstationary data, explained the development of error-correction models and the co-integration. In this context, the short term econometrics modelling of petroleum product demand does not only focus on forecasts but also on the measure of the gain acquired from using error-correction techniques and co-integration. It's filling to take the influence of technical improvement and environment pressures into account in econometrics modelling of petroleum products demand. The first part presents the evolution of Energy Demand in France and more particularly the petroleum product demand since 1986. The objective is to determine the main characteristics of each product, which will help us to analyse and validate the econometrics models. The second part focus on the recent developments in times series modelling. We study the problem of nonstationary data and expose different unit root tests. We examine the main approaches to univariate and multivariate modelling with nonstationary data and distinguish the forecasts of the latter's. The third part is intended to applications; its objective is to illustrate the theoretic developments of the second part with a comparison between the performances of different approaches (approach Box and Jenkins, Johansen approach's and structural approach). The models will be applied to the main French petroleum market. The observed asymmetrical demand behaviour is also considered. (author)

  11. The United Nations Framework Classification for World Petroleum Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlbrandt, T.S.; Blystad, P.; Young, E.D.; Slavov, S.; Heiberg, S.

    2003-01-01

    The United Nations has developed an international framework classification for solid fuels and minerals (UNFC). This is now being extended to petroleum by building on the joint classification of the Society of Petroleum Engineers (SPE), the World Petroleum Congresses (WPC) and the American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG). The UNFC is a 3-dimansional classification. This: Is necessary in order to migrate accounts of resource quantities that are developed on one or two of the axes to the common basis; Provides for more precise reporting and analysis. This is particularly useful in analyses of contingent resources. The characteristics of the SPE/WPC/AAPG classification has been preserved and enhanced to facilitate improved international and national petroleum resource management, corporate business process management and financial reporting. A UN intergovernmental committee responsible for extending the UNFC to extractive energy resources (coal, petroleum and uranium) will meet in Geneva on October 30th and 31st to review experiences gained and comments received during 2003. A recommended classification will then be delivered for consideration to the United Nations through the Committee on Sustainable Energy of the Economic Commission for Europe (UN ECE).

  12. Geomatic Methods for the Analysis of Data in the Earth Sciences: Lecture Notes in Earth Sciences, Vol. 95

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlis, Nikolaos K.

    Geomatics is a trendy term that has been used in recent years to describe academic departments that teach and research theories, methods, algorithms, and practices used in processing and analyzing data related to the Earth and other planets. Naming trends aside, geomatics could be considered as the mathematical and statistical “toolbox” that allows Earth scientists to extract information about physically relevant parameters from the available data and accompany such information with some measure of its reliability. This book is an attempt to present the mathematical-statistical methods used in data analysis within various disciplines—geodesy, geophysics, photogrammetry and remote sensing—from a unifying perspective that inverse problem formalism permits. At the same time, it allows us to stretch the relevance of statistical methods in achieving an optimal solution.

  13. Petroleum product deparaffination process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martynenko, A.G.; Dorodnova, V.S.; Korzhov, Yu.A.

    1980-12-23

    In the process for deparaffination of petroleum products (NP) by treatment of them with carbamide (KA) in the presence of an activator (AK) and solvent with subsequent separation of the forming paraffin-carbamide complex (PKC) the NP is mixed with the AK at a temperature of 5-40/sup 0/ in an NP:AK ratio of 1:0.01-0.03 with subsequent addition of portions of KA at a temperature of 5-20/sup 0/. The advantages of the process in comparison with the known one consists in the fact that the process of complex formation is realized practically without an induction period, and paraffin yield is increased by 27% on the potential with a simultaneous decrease in reagent consumption: KA by 20% and MeOH by 35%. Example -- 100 g of diesel fuel (a 200-360/sup 0/ fraction) is mixed with MeOH (1.3% on the feedstock), which in the obtained mixture is found in a liquid droplet state. To the mixture 40 g KA is added (2/3 of the total amount of KA to be added). The complex formation temperature is held at 35/sup 0/. To the PKC practically forming at once 260 g of solvent (an 85-120/sup 0/ gasoline fraction) and then 20 g KA are added. The temperature is held at 20/sup 0/. The forming suspension of the complex is distinguished by uniformity and the absence of coarse conglomerates. The paraffin yield amounts to 11.8% on the feedstock or 74% on the potential. The melting point of the paraffin is 22/sup 0/. In the described deparaffination scheme according to the proposed process complex formation is carried out in two steps; in a third step the suspension of KA and centrifuged paraffin is separated; the KA is returned to the complex formation reactor, and the centrifuged paraffin --- for solvent regeneration.

  14. Method for quantifying the fate of petroleum in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, M.A.; McDonald, T.J.; Bonner, J.S.; Simon, M.A.; Autenrieth, R.L.

    1999-01-01

    Petroleum is a complex mixture of a wide range of hydrocarbon and non-hydrocarbon compounds of various physical and chemical properties. In recent years, the research on the fate of petroleum in the environment has required analytical methods that can provide more detailed information on the components of petroleum than traditional standard methods. The analytical method presented for aqueous, sediment, and soil samples provides several levels of information on petroleum in the environment. The Total Extractable Materials (TEM) analysis provides a gross measure of petroleum in the environment using methylene chloride extraction and gravimetric analysis. Gross composition analysis separates the methylene chloride extract into a saturate hydrocarbon, an aromatic hydrocarbon, and a polar fraction each measured gravimetrically. In contrast, the target compound analysis provides a detailed measure by GC-MS of 62 specific compounds. Normalization to the conservative compound, 17α, 21β-(H)Hopane, is incorporated into the method to reduce the effects of sample and site heterogeneity. Quality control and quality assurance procedures are integral parts of these analyses to assure the validity of the resulting data. (author)

  15. Environmental issues of petroleum exploration and production: Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharaka, Yousif K.; Dorsey, Nancy S.

    2005-01-01

    Energy is the lifeblood of our planet Earth, an essential commod- ity that powers the expanding global economy. Starting in the 1950s, oil and natural gas became the main sources of primary energy for the increasing world population, and this dominance is expected to continue for several more decades (Edwards, 1997; Energy Information Administration (EIA), 2004). In the United States, petroleum production started in 1859 when Drake's well was drilled near Titusville, Pennsylvania, and oil and natural gas currently supply approximately 63% of the energy consumption; forecasts indicate that by 2025, their use will increase by about 40% to 28.3 million bbl/day and to 31.4 tcf/yr (EIA, 2004). The clear benefits of petroleum consumption, however, can carry major environmental impacts that may be regional or global in scale, in- cluding air pollution, global climate change, and oil spills. This vol- ume of Environmental Geosciences, covering environmental impacts of petroleum exploration and production, does not address these major impacts directly because air pollution and global warming are issues related primarily to petroleum and coal uses, and major oil spills are generally attributed to marine petroleum transportation, such as the Exxon Valdez's 1989 spill of 260,000 bbl of oil into Prince William Sound, Alaska. Exploration for and production of petroleum, however, have caused local detrimental impacts to soils, surface and groundwa- ters, and ecosystems in the 36 producing states in the United States (Richter and Kreitler, 1993; Kharaka and Hanor, 2003). These im- pacts arose primarily from the improper disposal of some of the large volumes (presently estimated at 20 billion bbl/yr total pro- duced) of saline water produced with oil and gas, from accidental hydrocarbon and produced-water releases, and from abandoned oil wells that were orphaned or not correctly plugged (Kharaka et al., 1995; Veil et al., 2004). Impacts and ground-surface disturbances, in the order

  16. Petroleum - as far as available. Analysis and critical model calculation up to the year 2200. Erdoel - soweit verfuegbar. Analyse und kritische Modellrechnung bis zum Jahr 2200

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stahmer, A M

    1979-01-01

    An outline is given on the most important oil producing countries and on the petroleum reserves available there as they developed from 1960 to 1978. For the last few years, the figures at hand show a distinct decline of new discoveries i.e. of proved reserves, compared with consumption. Prospective development factors are critically examined, and a model of potential petroleum supply is developed covering the period up to the year 2200 and requiring the adjustment of production and consumption. Until 1986, the model shows a plateau of international oil production (and of consumption) amounting to 3 billion tons per year on an average, and subsequently a constant decline of output. The international average consumption being kept at a relatively high level is to give the world economy the opportunity to develop alternative energy sources. From this detailed statement follows automatically the demand to increase exploratory activities and to lead an optimal consumption policy. In a separate section deposits of heavy oil sands and oil shales and respective production technologies are dealt with as well as their potential contribution to meet energy needs.

  17. Exports of petroleum products, 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-04-01

    A summary is presented of exports of motor gasoline, middle distillate, aviation turbine fuel, heavy fuel oil, and partially processed oil from Canada for the 1987 calendar year. A discussion of petroleum product imports is included in order to put exports in the context of the overall trade. Exports of the above petroleum products averaged 22,200 m 3 /d in 1987, up 15% from 1986 levels. Exports of middle distillates and aviation fuel had the largest gains in 1987. Export prices for light petroleum products stayed relatively close to USA spot prices. The heavy fuel oil price was below the New York spot price in the beginning of 1987 but remained close for the rest of the year. Canada's petroleum products exports were made to 5 countries while imports came from at least 13 countries. The USA remained Canada's largest trading partner in petroleum products. Exports to Japan and the Far East rose ca 60% over 1986. Product outturns for export were 9% of total Canadian refinery throughput. Exports of aviation turbine fuel from Ontario began in April 1987. The top single exporter in Canada was Irving Oil Ltd. with 2,485,000 m 3 . Irving was also the top exporter in 1986. 11 figs., 4 tabs

  18. Exports of petroleum products, 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-04-01

    A summary is presented of exports of motor gasoline, middle distillate, aviation turbine fuel, heavy fuel oil, and partially processed oil from Canada for the 1989 calendar year. A discussion of petroleum product imports is included in order to put exports in the context of the overall trade. Exports of the above petroleum products averaged 30,400 m 3 /d in 1989, down 5% from 1988 levels. Motor gasoline shipments showed the largest decrease, down 1,500 m 3 to 7,700 m 3 /d. Export prices for light petroleum products stayed relatively close to USA spot prices except in June and July 1989, when attractive prices were obtained for shipments from the prairie provinces. The heavy fuel oil export price was similar to the USA east coast spot price in 1989, except in December. Canada's petroleum products imports in 1989 were 21,600 m 3 /d, compared to 18,400 m 3 /d in 1988. Imports of heavy fuel oil in eastern Canada rose 36% in 1989 because of industries switching from electricity and the high demand for thermal power generation. The USA remained Canada's largest trading partner in petroleum products. The top single exporter in 1989, as in 1988, was Newfoundland Processing, with a volume of 3,484,500 m 3 . 24 figs., 4 tabs

  19. Exports of petroleum products, 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-04-01

    A summary is presented of exports of motor gasoline, middle distillate, aviation turbine fuel, heavy fuel oil, and partially processed oil from Canada for the 1988 calendar year. A discussion of petroleum product imports is included in order to put exports in the context of the overall trade. Exports of the above petroleum products averaged 32,000 m 3 /d in 1988, up 44% from 1987 levels. Each product except aviation fuel registered increases in export volumes, which reached the highest total volume of the decade. The main reason for the large increase was the first full year of production from the export-directed refinery at Come By Chance, Newfoundland. Export prices for light petroleum products stayed relatively close to USA spot prices. The heavy fuel oil price was mostly above the USA east coast spot price during 1988. Attractive prices on the USA east coast resulted in a few cargoes of middle distillate and motor gasoline shipped from British Columbia. Petroleum products imports came from 12 countries; Quebec had the largest volume of imports in 1988. The USA remained Canada's largest trading partner in petroleum products. Western exporters view the Far East as an ongoing important market. The top single exporter in Canada was Newfoundland Processing, with 32% of the total export volume. 12 figs., 3 tabs

  20. The hidden face of the petroleum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laurent, E.

    2006-02-01

    For the first time, a book reveals what that was hidden to the public opinions: why the petroleum crisis of 1973 what only a manipulation, an arrangement between the OPEC and the petroleum companies, why the data concerning the petroleum reserves are wrong and increased by the producers countries, how Washington used the Saudi petroleum weapon to create the Soviet Union fall, and why from march 2001 maps of the Iraq (where were drawn the future petroleum explorations) were working documents for the vice President Cheney and petroleum managers for the ''secret society''. (A.L.B.)

  1. Mexico's petroleum and US policy: implications for the 1980s

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronfeldt, D.; Nehring, R.; Gandara, A.

    1980-06-01

    This report examines selected factor affecting Mexico's future petroleum policies, and then assesses various implications of Mexico's petroleum for US interests and policies. After a brief introduction, the report is divided into three sections. The first offers a detailed analysis of Mexico's petroleum resources and production possibilities. The second considers petroleum as a symbolic issue of profound significance for Mexican nationalism. The final section provides an assessment of these and other factors for US interests, objectives, and policy options during the 1980s.

  2. Climate change issue table : petroleum downstream sector industry foundation paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crandall, G.R.; Kelly, S.J.; Kromm, R.B.; Prime, M.G.

    1999-01-01

    An analysis of the impact of the Kyoto Protocol on the Canadian downstream petroleum industry is presented. The downstream sector includes petroleum refining, plus all activities regarding distribution, marketing and retailing of petroleum products. In 1990, the carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions resulting from the production and consumption of petroleum products were about 207 megatons which is about 45 per cent of total Canadian CO 2 emissions. This report includes the analysis of the Base Case and the Kyoto Case. The Base Case is premised on the implementation of fuel sulphur reductions to meet cleaner fuels requirements and an enhanced program of refinery efficiency initiatives. Under the Base Case assumptions the CO 2 emissions from refinery operations in 2010 would be about 3.4 below 1990 levels. The Kyoto Case was developed on the basis of reductions in Canadian petroleum product demand that would be sufficient to achieve a 6 per cent reduction in GHG emissions from the production and consumption of petroleum products relative to 1990 levels. The model demonstrates the dramatic economic impact of the Kyoto Case reductions on the Canadian downstream petroleum sector. Investment requirements for capital improvements to further distillate production and to further desulphurization are estimated at $ 1.5 billion between 2005 and 2015. The reduced volume of gasoline sales would be expected to result in rationalization of retail outlets, resulting in the closure of some 2,000 retail outlets with a combined loss of about 12,000 jobs. It is suggested that similar impact in other countries that are signatory to the Kyoto Protocol could result in the shift of refining, refining industry jobs and related economic benefits to countries which are not participants in the Kyoto Protocol. 14 tabs., 6 figs., 5 appendices

  3. Ireland unveils petroleum tax measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that Ireland's government has introduced detailed petroleum tax legislation designed to boost offshore exploration and development. The petroleum tax measures, published last week and included in the government's omnibus finance bill for 1992, will provide Ireland for the first time a comprehensive petroleum tax regime. They include elements which, in tax terms, will make Ireland a most attractive location for oil and gas exploration and development, the Irish Energy Minister Robert Molloy. He the, Exploration companies will now have the benefit of the certainty of a detailed tax framework and attractive tax rates. Debate on the finance bill has begun in the Irish Dail (parliament). Under Ireland's constitution, the budget bill must be approved and signed by the president by the end of May. Failure to approve a budget bill within that time would mean the current government's collapse

  4. Petroleum 1996 - issues and trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    Increasingly, users of the Energy Information Administration`s petroleum data and analytical reports have expressed an interest in a recurring report that takes a broad view of the petroleum sector. What is sought is some perspective on the complex interrelationships that comprise an industry and markets accounting for 40 percent of the energy consumed in the United States and ranging from the drilling rig in the oil field to the pump at the local gasoline station. This report comprehensively examines historical trends, and selectively focuses on major issues and the events they represent. It analyzes different dimensions of the industry and related markets in terms of how they relate to a common theme, in this case, the volatility in petroleum markets.

  5. Biological Remediation of Petroleum Contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhad, Ramesh Chander; Gupta, Rishi

    Large volumes of hazardous wastes are generated in the form of oily sludges and contaminated soils during crude oil transportation and processing. Although many physical, chemical and biological treatment technologies are available for petroleum contaminants petroleum contaminants in soil, biological methods have been considered the most cost-effective. Practical biological remediation methods typically involve direct use of the microbes naturally occurring in the contaminated environment and/or cultured indigenous or modified microorganisms. Environmental and nutritional factors, including the properties of the soil, the chemical structure of the hydrocarbon(s), oxygen, water, nutrient availability, pH, temperature, and contaminant bioavailability, can significantly affect the rate and the extent of hydrocarbon biodegradation hydrocarbon biodegradation by microorganisms in contaminated soils. This chapter concisely discusses the major aspects of bioremediation of petroleum contaminants.

  6. Recent Advances in Petroleum Microbiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hamme, Jonathan D.; Singh, Ajay; Ward, Owen P.

    2003-01-01

    Recent advances in molecular biology have extended our understanding of the metabolic processes related to microbial transformation of petroleum hydrocarbons. The physiological responses of microorganisms to the presence of hydrocarbons, including cell surface alterations and adaptive mechanisms for uptake and efflux of these substrates, have been characterized. New molecular techniques have enhanced our ability to investigate the dynamics of microbial communities in petroleum-impacted ecosystems. By establishing conditions which maximize rates and extents of microbial growth, hydrocarbon access, and transformation, highly accelerated and bioreactor-based petroleum waste degradation processes have been implemented. Biofilters capable of removing and biodegrading volatile petroleum contaminants in air streams with short substrate-microbe contact times (desulfurization processes with biodesulfurization methods through promotion of selective sulfur removal without degradation of associated carbon moieties. However, since microbes require an environment containing some water, a two-phase oil-water system must be established to optimize contact between the microbes and the hydrocarbon, and such an emulsion is not easily created with viscous crude oil. This challenge may be circumvented by application of the technology to more refined gasoline and diesel substrates, where aqueous-hydrocarbon emulsions are more easily generated. Molecular approaches are being used to broaden the substrate specificity and increase the rates and extents of desulfurization. Bacterial processes are being commercialized for removal of H2S and sulfoxides from petrochemical waste streams. Microbes also have potential for use in removal of nitrogen from crude oil leading to reduced nitric oxide emissions provided that technical problems similar to those experienced in biodesulfurization can be solved. Enzymes are being exploited to produce added-value products from petroleum substrates, and

  7. Chemical fingerprinting of petroleum biomakers using time warping and PCA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jan H.; Tomasi, Giorgio; Hansen, Asger B.

    2005-01-01

    A new method for chemical fingerprinting of petroleum biomakers is described. The method consists of GC-MS analysis, preprocessing of GC-MS chromatograms, and principal component analysis (PCA) of selected regions. The preprocessing consists of baseline removal by derivatization, normalization...

  8. Petroleum industry opportunities in Guatemala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The investment opportunities that Guatemala has to offer in the petroleum sector are discussed, highlighting aspects of legislation as well as investment recovery. The increase in seismic and geological information that Guatemala has recently accumulated allows for an increased level of success in petroleum exploration, which coupled with an increase in basic infrastructure and the experience acquired in the administration of the hydrocarbons law, make it more attractive for foreign investment. An overview is presented of the sedimentary basins present, exploratory activity, surface reconnaissance permits, production sharing contracts, prices, taxation, royalties, and options. 7 figs

  9. The petroleum dilemma of Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roubinski, Y.

    2004-01-01

    Russia is confronted with major choices in the research of an optimum petroleum strategy. Now the first world exporter, Russia takes advantage of the Usa policy, first importer, which aim to diversify their supply sources since the 11 september 2001, to decrease their dependence from the Saudi Arabia and more generally from the instable Middle East. In another hand, Moscow wants to minimize the dependence of the petroleum benefit and the oils prices fluctuations, by a diversification of its economy structure. These choices define a part of the russian policy in the context of the presidential elections of march 2004. (A.L.B.)

  10. Petroleum marketing monthly, September 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-14

    This document designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and for the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented.

  11. Saudi Arabia: petroleum industry review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shammas, Pierre

    2000-01-01

    A comprehensive review is provided of Saudi Arabia's petroleum industry covering oil and gas exploration and production, refining, oil and gas trade, marketing and Saudi overseas investments. Profiles of key Saudi decision makers are provided. A statistical appendix includes data from the start of oil production in Saudi Arabia in 1938. Part I Geological potential; Part II The Saudi energy economy; Part III Production capacity; Part IV The oil refining sector ; Part V Exports and logistics; Part VI Overseas petroleum industry investments; Part VII The decision makers; Part VIII Statistical Appendix; Reserves, Production, Exports, Prices 1950 to 1999. (Author)

  12. Petroleum marketing monthly, June 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-06-10

    This publication is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented.

  13. Spatial and temporal analysis of the risks posed by total petroleum hydrocarbon and trace element contaminants in coastal waters of Kuwait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolaus, E E M; Wright, S R; Barry, J; Bolam, T P C; Ghareeb, K; Ghaloom, M; Al-Kanderi, N; Harley, B F M; Le Quesne, W J F; Devlin, M J; Lyons, B P

    2017-07-15

    Nine trace elements including As, Cd, Cu, Fe, Hg, Ni, Pb, V and Zn, and total petroleum hydrocarbons were analysed from water samples collected from 23 stations since 1984 from Kuwaiti coastal waters. Here it was investigated whether concentrations of these determinants are at levels above Kuwaiti and internationally established assessment criteria (AC). The results indicate that Cu and Cd had the most Kuwaiti AC breaches over time. Comparing the data of the last sampled year to the least stringent international AC, then Cu and Cd showed breaches at all stations. The trends for trace metals are significantly downwards, especially for Cd and Hg. No determinant measured showed a significant upward trend, indicating that water pollution for these contaminants is not a worsening situation. However, further sampling should be carried out to confirm these findings, especially at shoreline locations, where routine monitoring ceased in 2011 to investigate any recent changes. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Towards the end of full-petroleum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The experts agree on the petroleum reserves exhausting. Even if some disagreements subsist on the term, the years 2020 seem to be decisive. This paper takes stock on the governments policy facing the petroleum reserves decrease. (A.L.B.)

  15. Stable isotope mass spectrometry in petroleum exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathur, Manju

    1997-01-01

    The stable isotope mass spectrometry plays an important role to evaluate the stable isotopic composition of hydrocarbons. The isotopic ratios of certain elements in petroleum samples reflect certain characteristics which are useful for petroleum exploration

  16. Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH): ToxFAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a state: This map displays locations where Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH) is known to be present. On ... I get more information? ToxFAQs TM for Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH) ( Hidrocarburos Totales de Petróleo (TPH) ) August ...

  17. Canadian Petroleum Products Inst. annual report, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The Canadian Petroleum Products Institute (CPPI) was created in 1989 as a nonprofit association of Canadian refiners and marketers of petroleum products. In 1991, the Atlantic Petroleum Association, the Quebec Petroleum Association, the Ontario Petroleum Association, the Canada West Petroleum Association, and the Petroleum Association for Conservation of the Canadian Environment (PACE) were integrated into the CPPI. The objective of the CPPI is to serve and represent the refining and marketing sectors of the petroleum industry with respect to environment, health and safety, and business issues. An industry overview is provided, as well as highlights of environmental achievements and challenges, and economics and operations for the year. Lists of CPPI publications, standing committees, and officers are also included. 9 figs

  18. The role of the national petroleum company in petroleum development market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, B J [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-08-01

    The present century started with the creation of national petroleum companies, and it ends with those national petroleum companies exerting various types of efforts to increase the efficiency of their management. Especially, the efforts of these national petroleum companies are ever intensifying to adapt to new trends in the world petroleum market such as intensified competition, ever-deepening price unstableness, separation of structure between upstream and downstream portions, rapid development of petroleum development technologies, change of political systems and the demise of national borders, ever-increasing consciousness of environmental preservation, etc. Korea cannot be exempt from management rationalization efforts of national petroleum companies. Especially, Korea established its own national petroleum company in order to actively deal with these as its supply system is very weak. Therefore, the national petroleum company should create as many successful petroleum development businesses by actively carrying out petroleum development businesses domestically and overseas in order to establish a stable supply system of petroleum and to support the petroleum development businesses of civilian enterprises more effectively. The national petroleum company must, first of all, replace the bureaucracy with entrepreneurship. Esp., in order to enhance the efficiency of management, short- term outcome should not be emphasized over long-term tenure of petroleum development businesses, and excessive interference of government on the national petroleum company should be excluded. The entrepreneurship of the national petroleum company should be pursued in Positive-sum way, and its public image should be actively promoted through this. 35 refs., 11 figs., 32 tabs.

  19. 77 FR 56421 - Standards of Performance for Petroleum Refineries; Standards of Performance for Petroleum...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-12

    ... Parts 9 and 60 Standards of Performance for Petroleum Refineries; Standards of Performance for Petroleum...-9672-3] RIN 2060-AN72 Standards of Performance for Petroleum Refineries; Standards of Performance for Petroleum Refineries for Which Construction, Reconstruction, or Modification Commenced After May 14, 2007...

  20. 46 CFR 148.04-15 - Petroleum coke, uncalcined; petroleum coke, uncalcined and calcined (mixture).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Petroleum coke, uncalcined; petroleum coke, uncalcined and calcined (mixture). 148.04-15 Section 148.04-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Requirements for Certain Material § 148.04-15 Petroleum coke, uncalcined; petroleum coke, uncalcined and...

  1. Proceedings of the Seventh Conference of Nuclear Sciences and Applications. Vol.1,2,3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aly, H.F.

    2000-01-01

    The publication has been set up as a textbook for nuclear sciences and applications vol.1: (1) radiochemistry; (2) radiation chemistry; (3) isotope production; (4) waste management; vol.2: (1) nuclear and reactor; (2) physics; (3) plasma physics; (4) instrumentation and devices; (5) trace and ultra trace analysis; (6) environmental; vol.3: (1) radiation protection; (2) radiation health hazards; (3) nuclear safety; (4) biology; (5) agriculture

  2. Proceedings of the Seventh Conference of Nuclear Sciences and Applications. Vol.1,2,3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aly, H F [ed.

    2000-07-01

    The publication has been set up as a textbook for nuclear sciences and applications vol.1: (1) radiochemistry; (2) radiation chemistry; (3) isotope production; (4) waste management; vol.2: (1) nuclear and reactor; (2) physics; (3) plasma physics; (4) instrumentation and devices; (5) trace and ultra trace analysis; (6) environmental; vol.3: (1) radiation protection; (2) radiation health hazards; (3) nuclear safety; (4) biology; (5) agriculture.

  3. The United States facing their petroleum dependence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noel, P.

    2002-06-01

    In the framework of ''the energy crisis of 2000-2001'', the Cheney report and the petroleum dependence, this study presents a critical examination of the United States petroleum situation, its perception in the american political milieu and the public policies implementing during the last ten years. The first section is devoted to the petroleum supply. In the second section, the american petroleum policy and the energy safety are studied. (A.L.B.)

  4. Fact sheet. Norwegian petroleum activity 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westgaard, T. [ed.

    1996-02-01

    The present report from the Royal Ministry of Industry and Energy deals with the Norwegian petroleum activity. Main topics are as follow: Historical overview; state organisation of petroleum activities; the economic impact of Norwegian oil and gas; state revenues; mainland activities; petroleum resources; production; marketing situation for petroleum products; environmental aspects; the legal and licence framework; licensing rounds; exploration; fields in production; fields under development; discoveries with development plan under consideration; transportation systems; licence interests; company interests. 36 refs., 24 figs., 15 tabs.

  5. Metals distribution in Kumkol deposit petroleum; Raspredelenie metallov v nefti Kumkol`skogo mestorozhdeniya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musaeva, Z G; Nadirov, A N; Ajdarbaev, A S

    1997-11-04

    Metals content in samples of Kumkol deposit petroleum is determined by the method of X-ray diffraction and neutron activation analysis. Specific consideration was devoted to nickel and vanadium. It is possible, that sources of these metals are various petroleum formation as well as both the absorbed or the got in stratum microelements. (author) 10 refs., 1 tab. Suppl. Neft` i gaz Kazakhstana

  6. On the Tengiz petroleum deposit previous study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nysangaliev, A.N.; Kuspangaliev, T.K.

    1997-01-01

    Tengiz petroleum deposit previous study is described. Some consideration about structure of productive formation, specific characteristic properties of petroleum-bearing collectors are presented. Recommendation on their detail study and using of experience on exploration and development of petroleum deposit which have analogy on most important geological and industrial parameters are given. (author)

  7. 78 FR 40131 - National Petroleum Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY National Petroleum Council AGENCY: Office of Fossil Energy, Department of... Petroleum Council. The Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463, 86 Stat. 770) requires that public... Administrative Matters Discussion of Any Other Business Properly Brought Before the National Petroleum Council...

  8. Unit: Petroleum, Inspection Pack, National Trial Print.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Australian Science Education Project, Toorak, Victoria.

    This is a National Trial Print of a unit on petroleum developed for the Australian Science Education Project. The package contains the teacher's edition of the written material and a script for a film entitled "The Extraordinary Experience of Nicholas Nodwell" emphasizing the uses of petroleum and petroleum products in daily life and…

  9. 77 FR 42297 - National Petroleum Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY National Petroleum Council AGENCY: Department of Energy, Office of Fossil... National Petroleum Council. The Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463, 86 Stat. 770) requires that... Matters Discussion of Any Other Business Properly Brought Before the National Petroleum Council...

  10. 76 FR 53889 - National Petroleum Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY National Petroleum Council AGENCY: Department of Energy, Office of Fossil... Petroleum Council. The Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463, 86 Stat. 770) requires that public... Properly Brought Before the National, Petroleum Council, Adjournment. Public Participation: The meeting is...

  11. Documentation of the petroleum market model (PMM). Appendix: Model developer's report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The Office of Integrated Analysis and Forecasting (OIAF) is required to provide complete model documentation to meet the EIA Model Acceptance Standards. The EIA Model Documentation: Petroleum Market Model of the National Energy Modeling System provides a complete description of the Petroleum Market Model's (PMM) methodology, and relation to other modules in the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS). This Model Developer's Report (MDR) serves as an appendix to the methodology documentation and provides an assessment of the sensitivity of PMM results to changes in input data. The MDR analysis for PMM is performed by varying several sets of input variables one-at-a-time and examining the effect on a set of selected output variables. The analysis is based on stand-alone, rather than integrated, National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) runs. This means that other NEMS modules are not responding to PMM outputs. The PMM models petroleum refining and marketing. The purpose of the PMM is to project petroleum product prices, refining activities, and movements of petroleum into the United States and among domestic regions. In addition, the PMM estimates capacity expansion and fuel consumption in, the refining industry. The PMM is also used to analyze a wide variety of petroleum-related issues and policies, in order to foster better understanding of the petroleum refining and marketing industry and the effects of certain policies and regulations. The PMM simulates the operation of petroleum refineries in the United States, including the supply and transportation of crude oil to refineries, the regional processing of these raw materials into petroleum products, and the distribution of petroleum products to meet regional demands. The essential outputs of this model are product prices, a petroleum supply/demand balance, demands for refinery fuel use, and capacity expansion

  12. Offshore petroleum engineering task force report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruelokke, M.

    1999-05-01

    The Offshore Petroleum Engineering Task Force was established in July 1998 in response to concerns about Newfoundland and Labrador's share of offshore petroleum engineering activity, with the aim of determining the current capability of the local sector, the demand for such companies and individuals until the year 2010, their capability to grow over that time-frame, and requirements in order to achieve that growth. The report summarizes the analysis undertaken by the Task Force as well as the conclusions it reached and associated recommendations. Section two provides an overview of the offshore engineering activity, including its origins, structure, and key success factors, and its also provides a profile of the industry, internationally, in Canada and in Newfoundland. Section three presents an analysis of the future demand for offshore engineering in Newfoundland until 2010, based on three development scenarios. Section four based on a Consulting Engineers of Newfoundland and Labrador (CENL) survey, establishes the present offshore engineering capacity and capabilities within the province. Section five examines current education and training programs and their ability to respond to future demands. Section six summarizes the conclusions of the analysis and presents recommendations designed to facilitate and promote the development of the local offshore engineering industry. 6 figs

  13. Panorama of the petroleum industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-05-01

    This document provides tables and charts of statistical data concerning the petroleum industry activity in 2002: supply and demand, prices, consumption, service station number and the market. A second part is devoted to the fuel quality and air quality: the constant improvement of the fuels and the investments refining/distribution. (A.L.B.)

  14. A Computerized Petroleum Geology Package.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Louise E.

    1983-01-01

    Describes a package of computer programs developed to implement an oil exploration game that gives undergraduate students practical experience in applying theoretical principles of petroleum geology. The programs facilitate management of the game by the instructor and enhance the learning experience. (Author/MBR)

  15. PETROLEUM BIOREFINING FOR POLLUTION PREVENTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John J. Kilbane II

    2002-03-01

    The objective of this project was to isolate and characterize thermophilic bacterial cultures that can be used for the selective removal of nitrogen, sulfur, and/or metals in the biorefining of petroleum. The project was completed on schedule and no major difficulties were encountered. Significant progress was made on multiple topics relevant to the development of a petroleum biorefining process capable of operating at thermophilic temperatures. New cultures capable of selectively cleaving C-N or C-S bonds in molecules relevant to petroleum were obtained, and the genes encoding the enzymes for these unique biochemical reactions were cloned and sequenced. Genetic tools were developed that enable the use of Thermus thermophilus as a host to express any gene of interest, and information was obtained regarding the optimum conditions for the growth of T. thermophilus. The development of a practical biorefining process still requires further research and the future research needs identified in this project include the development of new enzymes and pathways for the selective cleavage of C-N or C-S bonds that have higher specific activities, increased substrate range, and are capable of functioning at thermophilic temperatures. Additionally, there is a need for process engineering research to determine the maximum yield of biomass and cloned gene products that can be obtained in fed-batch cultures using T. thermophilus, and to determine the best configuration for a process employing biocatalysts to treat petroleum.

  16. Volatility Spillovers Across Petroleum Markets

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Baruník, Jozef; Kočenda, Evžen; Vácha, Lukáš

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 36, č. 3 (2015), s. 309-329 ISSN 0195-6574 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-24129S Keywords : Volatility spillovers * Asymmetry * Petroleum markets Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.662, year: 2015 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2014/E/barunik-0438407.pdf

  17. Tumaco the other Petroleum face

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carta Petrolera

    1997-01-01

    The Tumaco City (Colombia), it is one of the exit points of the Colombian and Ecuadorian petroleum. To Tumaco port arrives 80.000 daily barrels coming from the south of Colombia and Ecuador on the average. Tumaco and Covenas (shipment Port for the Caribbean Sea) they conform the points of shipment of the international trade of hydrocarbons in the country

  18. The petroleum industry in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-06-01

    A review is presented of China's petroleum industry. In recent years China has ranked as the world's fifth or sixth largest oil producer, providing ca 20% of China's energy needs and generating US $45 billion in exports during 1988-89. However, domestic oil consumption is rapidly outpacing growth in production, and China may become a net oil importer as early as March 1994 if trends continue. In order to slow declining production rates, China must: introduce modern management techniques, equipment and technology; accelerate exploration to find new reserves; employ the latest equipment and technology, consulting services and foreign training to develop new reserves as quickly as possible; and improve the efficiency with which petroleum is used and traded. Key players including the China National Petroleum Corporation, China National Oil Development Corporation, China National United Oil Company, and China National Offshore Oil Corporation are described. Current Chinese petroleum industry priorities are discussed, together with Canadian capabilities relevant to these activities, and recent bilateral agreements in the sector

  19. Petroleum reservoir fault reactivation problem analysis through finite element viscodamage model; Analise de problema de reativacao de falha em reservatorio de petroleo por modelo de viscodano via metodo dos elementos finitos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, Julliana de P.V.; Guimaraes, Leonardo J. do N.; Gomes, Igor F.; Pontes Filho, Ivaldo Dario da S. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Recently, many new constitutive models for geomechanical materials were developed taking into account its complex behavior. The continuum damage mechanics, formulated according to irreversible thermodynamics principles, can be used to model materials subjected to degradation of its mechanical properties. Reservoir depletion may result in compaction and subsidence that induces fault reactivation, among others consequences. The fault reactivation problem in petroleum reservoirs has been widely studied as its changes completely the flow regime in subsurface. Isotropic damage model can be used to model the fault reactivation process, where its hydro-mechanical properties (stiffness and permeability) are affected during the reservoir production. In this paper, a fault reactivation case in a synthetic reservoir is presented and a sensibility analysis is carried out to identify the main variables that influence this process. (author)

  20. Vol 12, No 1 (2014)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Egyptian Journal of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology (The) - Vol 12, No 1 (2014) ... The effect of serum angiotensin II and angiotensin II type 1 receptor gene ... with diabetic ketoacidosis · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  1. Zede Journal - Vol 29 (2012)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal Home > Archives > Vol 29 (2012) ... Leakage aware hardware and stochastic power scheduling for smart mobile devices ... Energy efficient topology for Wireless Mesh Networks · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  2. Nuclear techniques in the prospecting and exploitation of petroleum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balcazar, M.; Lopez, A.; Castellanos, J.P.

    2003-01-01

    The apatite is a mineral that is found in the perforation nucleus of petroleum exploration whose natural content of Uranium is of around 10 ppm. This uranium is spontaneously fissioned producing fission traces whose number it is proportional to the age of the apatite and whose longitudes remained stable to temperatures smaller than 60 C, they decreased partially in the temperature range of 60 to 120 C and they faded totally if the nucleus of perforation was to temperatures bigger than 120 C. This agreement in the call 'thermal formation window' of the petroleum among 60 and 120 C and the partial erased of the longitudes of fission traces in the apatite, it allows to use this to determine not only the age of the petroleum field, but also their geologic thermal history (paleo temperature), it also allows to model the formation of the petroleum field and to contribute to outline to PEMEX on exploitation and exploration strategies. In this work it is presented: the visualization of the fission traces in the apatite of Cerro de Mercado, Durango, considered as an international standard of dating; the basic principles of this nuclear technique that allow to determine the age of the apatite; the formation of horizontal fission traces inside the apatite, by irradiation with fission fragments; and as the analysis of the thermal instability of the lengths of the fission traces it provides information of the paleo temperature of the petroleum basin. (Author)

  3. Petroleum resources assessment (II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    This report consists of 4 subjects. 1) An interactive seismic velocity analysis, 2) AVO analysis for direct hydrocarbon detection, 3) 3D seismic data processing, 4) Study of structural(syncline) effect of the near surface on the resolution of anticline oil trap structure by seismic modeling. (author). 36 refs., 3 tabs., 97 figs.

  4. Panorama 2001 energy and petroleum, the new international deal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giannesini, J.F.

    2001-01-01

    This document analyses the main events of the petroleum and gas industries, in year 2000. A great importance is given to the petroleum price which governs the industry activity. A second part deals with the impacts of exploration-production investments. The environmental impacts of the hydrocarbons consumption is also discussed with the analysis of the carbon dioxide emission and the associated climatic change. The green book on the energy supplying safety is presented and discussed as the forecasting scenario concerning the energy policy. (A.L.B.)

  5. Petroleum contamination movement into permafrost in the high Arctic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biggar, K.W.

    1997-01-01

    The extent of petroleum hydrocarbon contamination that has penetrated the active layer into the permafrost at sites where spills have occurred in Canada's Arctic was discussed. There was evidence to suggest that hydrocarbon contamination may enter the permafrost layer through gravity drainage and cap suction through fissures in the frozen soil, and perhaps by diffusion through the unfrozen water of fine-grained soils. Core samples were taken in frozen silty clay to be sectioned and analyzed for total petroleum hydrocarbons, using ultrasonic solvent extraction and gas chromatography and mass spectrometry analysis. It was concluded that it is possible for petroleum contamination in permafrost to migrate by gravity drainage down soil fissures and then diffuse into surrounding soil. 2 figs

  6. [Effect of occupational stress on neurotransmitters in petroleum workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yu; Lian, Yulong; Tao, Ning; Ge, Hua; Liu, Jiwen

    2015-09-01

    To explore the effects of occupational stress on neurotransmitters in petroleum workers. 178 petroleum workers with the length of service ≥ 1 year were recruited to the subjects by the questionnaire of OSI-R. The levels of 5-hydroxy tryptamine (5-HT), norepinephrine (NE), neuropeptide Y (NPY) and substance P (SP) in serum were measured. The subjects were classified into 3 groups according to the scores of occupational stress. The levels of 5-HT NE and SP for over 15 working years were higher than those of less than 15 years (P occupational stress degree groups, multiple comparison showed high. occupational stress group was higher than those of low occupational stress group. Multivariate correlation analysis showed that the occupational stress and sleep quality component scores correlated positively with the 5-HT, NE and SP (P Occupational stress in petroleum workers is correlated with serum monoamine and neuropeptides neurotransmitters, and it may affect serum levels of monoamine and neuropeptides neurotransmitters.

  7. Petroleum taxation under uncertainty - contingent claims

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, D.

    1990-01-01

    A workable method for the analysis of incentive effects of petroleum taxes under uncertainty is presented. The main advantage of the method is that it concludes with a single number for the after-tax value of any development plan, and thus allows for a quantification of incentive effects for any given description of production possibilities. It is, however, not possible to describe tax effects under uncertainty by simple magnitudes independent of production possibilities, such as wedges in rates of return. The theoretical basis is the contingent claims analysis from finance theory, which is applicable in particular to companies that are owned by well-diversified shareholders. It is not obvious that the tax authorities of poorly diversified countries should value uncertain income streams by the same method. The Norwegian petroleum taxation is shown to have strongly distortionary effects compared to a no-tax situation or a cash flow tax. These distortions were reduced by the tax changes that followed the 1986 decreases in crude oil prices. A weakness of the model of the Norwegian system is that an exactly optimal financial policy for the company has not been found. 30 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs

  8. Petroleum Resins: Separation, Character, and Role in Petroleum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Simon Ivar; Speight, James

    2001-01-01

    are precipitated, adsorbents are added to the n-pentane solutions of the resins and oils, by which process the resins are adsorbed and subsequently recovered by the use of a more polar solvent, and the oils remain in solution. The resin fraction plays an important role in the stability of petroleum and prevents...... separation of the asphaltene constituents as a separate phase. Indeed, the absence of the resin fraction (produced by a variety of methods) from the maltenes influences the ability of the de-resined maltenes to accommodate the asphaltenes either in solution or as a stable part of a colloidal system. In spite....... Suggestions are also made regarding current thoughts of the role of these constituents on the structure and stability of petroleum....

  9. Governance and regulation in the Venezuelan petroleum industry: an analysis of the evolution of the relations between the State and the oil companies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benhassine, A.A.

    2008-12-01

    Oil is an extremely desired strategic resource which is in the center of the cooperation, the tensions and the conflicts between the producing States and the consumers, between the owners of deposits and oil companies and also between oil companies and consumers. The preoccupation of the political economy is exactly to report the interweaving of the economic and political factors in the formation and in the evolution of the structures of the national petroleum industries. Any change concerning the access to the oil resource and to its rent engenders a redefining of the behaviour, the strategies and the objectives of the main actors. So, by analyzing the process of structuralization of the industry of hydrocarbons in Venezuela, the author attempts to explain the evolution of his mode of organization according to his strategy of regulation. The functional relation which stands out from it becomes identified as a balance of power enters the Venezuelan State, the leaders of the national oil company PDVSA, the international oil companies, the consumers and the international organizations. The thesis reconstitutes the interaction between the maximization of the profits pursued by the oil companies and the forms of appropriation of the rents by the State. The control of the mechanisms of creation and appropriation of the rents allows then the main actors of the oil system to direct the oil Venezuelan policy according to their own interests. (author)

  10. Effect of Three-spot Seahorse Petroleum Ether Extract on Lipopolysaccharide Induced Macrophage RAW264.7 Inflammatory Cytokine Nitric Oxide and Composition Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, LiPing; Shen, XuanRi; Chen, GuoHua; Cao, XianYing; Yang, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Three-Spot seahorse is a traditional medicine in Asian countries. However, the alcohol extract is largely unknown for its anti-inflammatory activity. This study aimed at elucidating fraction of potent anti-inflammatory activity of seahorse. A systematic solvent extraction method of liquid-liquid fractionation of ethanol crude extract gave four fractions petroleum ether (PE), and ethyl acetate (EtOAc), water saturated butanol (n-BuOH), water (H2O). In this study, PE extract was selected for further study after preliminary screening test, and was connected to silica column chromatography and eluted with different polarity of mobile phases, and obtained four active fractions (Fr I, Fr II, Fr III, Fr IV). Effect of separated fractions on inflammation was investigated in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated murine RAW264.7 cells in vitro. The result shows that seahorse extract was capable of inhibiting the production of nitric oxide (NO) significantly in a dose dependent manner and exhibited no notable cytotoxicity on cell viability. IC50 of fraction IV was 36.31 μg/mL, indicating that separated fraction possessed potent NO inhibitory activity against LPS-induced inflammatory response, thus, demonstrated its in vitro anti-inflammatory potentiality, it may be at least partially explained by the presence of anti-inflammation active substances, phenolic compounds, phospholipids and polyunsaturated fatty acids, especially phospholipids and polyunsaturated fatty acids. It could be suggested that seahorse lipid-soluble components could be used in functional food and anti-inflammatory drug preparations.

  11. Petroleum Supply Monthly, September 1990. [Contains glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whited, D.; Jacobus, P. (eds.)

    1990-11-28

    Data presented in this PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in Primary Supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. 12 figs., 46 tabs.

  12. Petroleum supply monthly, October 1991. [Contains glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-30

    Data presented in this report describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in Primary Supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importer, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data are divided into two sections (1) the Summary Statistics and (2) the Detailed Statistics 14 figs., 56 tabs.

  13. Petroleum supply monthly, October 1990. [Contains Glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-27

    Data presented in this report describes the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in Primary Supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. 12 figs., 54 tabs.

  14. Petroleum is getting out of breath, quickly the hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    Facing the petroleum reserves problems, many research programs are developed to use the hydrogen as energy substitution. This paper presents briefly an economic analysis of the energy policies in Usa and Europe and the advantages of the hydrogen as the future energy. (A.L.B.)

  15. About the petroleum taxation, evaluation at October 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This analysis provides information and data on the petroleum taxation in France at October 2004, on the excises and the additional value tax, the part of the taxes in the selling price. It presents also a comparison with the Europe and the tax revenue in the state budget. (A.L.B.)

  16. Structure and properties of compositions based on petroleum sulfonic acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tutorskii, I.A.; Sultanova, A.S.; Belkina, E.V.; Fomin, A.G. [Lomonosov Academy of Fine Chemical Technology, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1995-03-01

    Colloidal characteristics of compositions based on petroleum sulfonic acids were studied. Neutralized heavy oil residue exhibits surface-active properties and contains an ultradisperse filler. Analysis of the compositions by size-exclusion-chromatography shows deep structural changes in the heavy acid residue upon neutralization with calcium carbonate.

  17. Novel nanoporous sorbent for solid-phase extraction in petroleum fingerprinting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alayande, S. Oluwagbemiga; Hlengilizwe, Nyoni; Dare, E. Olugbenga; Msagati, Titus A. M.; Akinlabi, A. Kehinde; Aiyedun, P. O.

    2016-04-01

    Sample preparation is crucial in the analysis of petroleum and its derivatives. In this study, developing affordable sorbent for petroleum fingerprinting analysis using polymer waste such expanded polystyrene was explored. The potential of electrospun expanded polystyrene (EPS) as a sorbent for the solid-phase extraction (SPE) technique was investigated, and its efficiency was compared with commercial cartridges such as alumina, silica and alumina/silica hybrid commercial for petroleum fingerprinting analysis. The chromatograms showed that the packed electrospun EPS fibre demonstrated excellent properties for SPE applications relative to the hybrid cartridges.

  18. Environmental protection and petroleum business

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-03-01

    This report is a summary of panel discussion concerning environmental protection and petroleum business. Summarized here are country presentations from Iraq, Malaysia, Saudi Arabia, and Venezuela, comments by two Japanese panelists from petroleum companies, questions, answers, and discussions, and summary by the session moderator. The country presentation centered on pollution problems and environmental protection policies in each country, national policy regarding environmental problems, and comprehensive planning for environmental protection in specific industrial areas. The panelists' reports mainly concerned the legal framework for environmental protection in Japan and the importance of investment for environmental protection. Questions and answers clarified the problems. The moderator, when summarizing the panel discussion, stressed that environmental problems should be addressed on a global level and that early preventive measures should be taken, and also emphasized the polluter pays principle.

  19. Association models for petroleum applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kontogeorgis, Georgios

    2013-01-01

    Thermodynamics plays an important role in many applications in the petroleum industry, both upstream and downstream, ranging from flow assurance, (enhanced) oil recovery and control of chemicals to meet production and environmental regulations. There are many different applications in the oil & gas...... industry, thus thermodynamic data (phase behaviour, densities, speed of sound, etc) are needed to study a very diverse range of compounds in addition to the petroleum ones (CO2, H2S, water, alcohols, glycols, mercaptans, mercury, asphaltenes, waxes, polymers, electrolytes, biofuels, etc) within a very....... Such association models have been, especially over the last 20 years, proved to be very successful in predicting many thermodynamic properties in the oil & gas industry. They have not so far replaced cubic equations of state, but the results obtained by using these models are very impressive in many cases, e...

  20. Types of international petroleum contracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katz, S.B.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on history and development of International Petroleum Contracts. The emphasis in petroleum exploration has steadily shifted away from the domestic oil patch and toward the international arena. Today an estimated 577.3 billion bbl, or approximately 83% of the world's proven oil reserves, lie outside the western hemisphere. The distribution of these proven oil reserves can be broken down into three major socioeconomic categories - developed market economies, centrally planned economies, and developing countries - indicating that fully 76.7% of the world's proven oil reserves occur in developing countries. As multinational oil companies come into contact with the various host countries around the world, their course of action, and the course of the host country's reaction to them, are unfortunately colored by events that proceeded the initial contact

  1. Bolivian petroleum privatization taking shape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    Bolivia is boldly embracing a free market philosophy that extends to liberalization of the country's petroleum sector. Although petroleum industry privatization is being considered by several South American countries, only Argentina has so far completely opened its oil sector and fully privatized its state oil company. The Bolivian government's own version of privatization, capitalization, is a groundbreaking attempt to attract massive investment from the private sector without leaving the government open to accusations of stripping the country's assets for short term electoral gain. The paper discusses the government's strategy to sell the state owned company either as a single unit or to split it into upstream and downstream units. Questions still to be resolved, international interest in the move, bolivian potential, and the gas supply infrastructure are also discussed

  2. Petroleum refining industry in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walls, W.D.

    2010-01-01

    The oil refining industry in China has faced rapid growth in oil imports of increasingly sour grades of crude with which to satisfy growing domestic demand for a slate of lighter and cleaner finished products sold at subsidized prices. At the same time, the world petroleum refining industry has been moving from one that serves primarily local and regional markets to one that serves global markets for finished products, as world refining capacity utilization has increased. Globally, refined product markets are likely to experience continued globalization until refining investments significantly expand capacity in key demand regions. We survey the oil refining industry in China in the context of the world market for heterogeneous crude oils and growing world trade in refined petroleum products. (author)

  3. Petroleum tax and financial decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stensland, G.; Sunnevaag, K.

    1993-03-01

    The work presented in this report focuses on tax motivated financial incentives in the Norwegian petroleum tax system. Of particular concern is the effects of the reserve fund requirement in the Joint Stock Companies Act. Our prime concern is the Norwegian petroleum tax system as applicable from January 1992, but for the sake of comparison, we have also examined the ''old'' Norwegian petroleum tax system. The findings presented in this report can be divided in two parts. Based on an overview over the development in debt and equity for the major part of companies operating on the Norwegian continental shelf it seems reasonable to divide the companies in three groups. The first group is companies which is not in a tax paying position, both ''foreign'' and domestic. These companies seem to use debt as their most important capital source. The second group is Norwegian companies in a tax paying position. These companies also seem to use debt as the most important capital source. The last group is ''foreign'' companies in a tax paying position. This is a group of companies that mainly use equity to finance their investments in the offshore sector. The second part of the report tries to explain these observations. In the report we compare the incentive effects in the new petroleum tax system to the old tax system. The incentives to finance investments with debt is stronger in the new tax system. Several explanations emerge. Firstly, in the old tax system the investor got an effective tax deduction of 12.8% for dividends. This is removed in the new system. Secondly, in the new system 78% tax is included in the financial statements after tax profit calculation and the maximum dividend calculation, while in the old tax system the withholding tax was excluded. 31 refs., 13 figs. 2 tabs

  4. Environmental remote sensing for the petroleum industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, R.N.

    1991-01-01

    Remote sensing techniques developed for exploration programs can often be used to address environmental issues facing the petroleum industry. While this industry becomes increasingly more environmentally conscious, budgets remain tight, requiring any technology used in environmental applications to be cost effective, widely available and reliable. In this paper a three-fold analysis of environmental issues facing the petroleum industry concludes: major areas of concern included environmental mapping natural habitats, surface cover, change through time, pollution monitoring (hazardous wastes, oil seeps and spills on and offshore), earth hazards assessment, baseline studies, facilities sitting and crisis response. options matrices were developed plotting current and near future RS technology vs environmental concerns, and each sensor/platform combination subjectively evaluated to determine which combination could best address the problem. While presently available RS technology (both airborne and spaceborne) has significant capability toward environmental mapping, hazards detection and other concerns, the anticipated launches of ERS-1, JERS-1, Landsat-6 and other systems will provide environmentally useful data available today only from relatively expensive and local airborne surveys. Low altitude airborne surveys and ground/sea truth will continue to be critical to any quantitative studies

  5. Canadian petroleum industry: 1988 monitoring report. First six months

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The Petroleum Monitoring Agency was established in 1980 to provide the federal government with comprehensive and objective information on and analysis of the financial performance of the petroleum industry in Canada. The Agency publishes a semi-annual and an annual report based on information received directly from all but the smallest oil and gas companies. Data published are mainly aggregate data derived from survey schedules prescribed by regulations. This report presents a summary and highlights of the activities of the first half of 1988. Information is presented on corporate mergers and acquisitions; financial performance by sector (upstream, downstream, foreign) and total operations as seen by net income and cash flow; sources and uses of funds; a comparative performance by the petroleum and other industries as seen by net income and capital expenditures; ownership and control trends; international flows of funds; capital structures; and data related to income taxes. New features added in this report include expansion of the table representing the financial performance and profit margins of the refining/marketing segment to incorporate net income as a component of the analysis; analysis of the industry's use of exploration and investment tax credits; and a chart showing Canadian crude oil acquisition costs vs petroleum product prices. 12 figs., 63 tabs

  6. Shell petroleum handbook. [Glossary included

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-01-01

    The present edition has been completely updated and revised, reflecting the very great changes which have come about in the oil industry over the last 18 years, since the last edition appeared. The expressed aim of the Handbook is to combine explanations of the processes of today's petroleum industry, from crude oil exploration to product end-use, with some historical background and explanation of the economic context in which the oil, gas and petrochemical industries operate. It is therefore intended as a technical reference manual, although it will be of interest both to specialists in search of information outside their expertise and to the more general reader. Chapter 3, entitled Exploration and Production, is concerned with structural geology, exploration methods and theory, and reservoir engineering, although the economic and financial aspects of drilling, project management and communication logistics are also considered. Other chapters are devoted to the distribution, consumption and end use of natural gas and NGL, the chemistry of petroleum, the manufacture of oil products, marketing, supply and trading, petrochemicals, synfuels, R and D, environmental conservation, and introduction to the world petroleum industry, and a review of oil and gas in the centrally planned economies, although only the Soviet Union is considered in any detail.

  7. Dermal uptake of petroleum substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakasa, Ivone; Kezic, Sanja; Boogaard, Peter J

    2015-06-01

    Petroleum products are complex substances comprising varying amounts of linear and branched alkanes, alkenes, cycloalkanes, and aromatics which may penetrate the skin at different rates. For proper interpretation of toxic hazard data, understanding their percutaneous absorption is of paramount importance. The extent and significance of dermal absorption of eight petroleum substances, representing different classes of hydrocarbons, was evaluated. Literature data on the steady-state flux and permeability coefficient of these substances were evaluated and compared to those predicted by mathematical models. Reported results spanned over 5-6 orders of magnitude and were largely dependent on experimental conditions in particular on the type of the vehicle used. In general, aromatic hydrocarbons showed higher dermal absorption than more lipophilic aliphatics with similar molecular weight. The results showed high variation and were largely influenced by experimental conditions emphasizing the need of performing the experiments under "in use" scenario. The predictive models overestimated experimental absorption. The overall conclusion is that, based on the observed percutaneous penetration data, dermal exposure to petroleum hydrocarbons, even of aromatics with highest dermal absorption is limited and highly unlikely to be associated with health risks under real use scenarios. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Karakterisasi Sensor Gas Lpg (Liquefied Petroleum Gas) Dari Bahan Komposit Semikonduktor Tio2(cuo)

    OpenAIRE

    Dewi, Ratna Sari; -, Elvaswer

    2015-01-01

    The Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG's) sensor in the form of composite has been characterized. The steps of manufacturing processes are the mixing of materials, calcinations at 500ºC for 4 hours, blended, compacted and sintered at 700ºC for 4 hours. The sensor was tested at room temperature through current (I)-voltage (V) characteristics, sensitivity, and conductivity. Based on measurement I-V characteristic it's known that sample with 10% addition of CuO have sensitivity of 10 at 10 volt vol...

  9. STECH VOL5 (1) FEBRUARY, 2016

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Copyright 1AARR 2012-2016: www.afrrevjo.net

    STECH VOL 5 (1) FEBRUARY, 2016. Vol. 5 (1), S/No11, February, 2016: 1-13 ..... Knowledge produce is an act of discovery which involves exploring, analyzing .... Architectural Research, Elsevier: Higher Education Press Limited Company.

  10. Petroleum service projects in the Gulf of Guinea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ken-Worgu, Kenneth Chukwumeka

    2011-07-01

    The goal of this record of study is to examine the major facets involved in managing several petroleum service projects located in three different countries in the Gulf of Guinea simultaneously, while effectively engaging in business development activities for the Oil and Industrial Services Group (OIS). This work also furnishes adequate background on related subject matters to enable understanding of the projects presented. The petroleum services sector is the back bone of the oil and gas industry. Services companies are vital to the success of all petroleum and energy producers in the USA, the Gulf of Guinea and the world. There is a need and demand for these service companies because they play various roles such as logistics, drilling, construction, dredging, pipe laying, procurement, food supply, human resource supply, etc. The Gulf of Guinea comprises of countries from west and central Africa. This project was limited to Nigeria, Equatorial Guinea and Cameroon. This area holds the largest petroleum reserves in Africa and plays a vital role in the global supply of petroleum. The Oil and Industrial Services Group (OIS), plans to establish herself as one of the leading petroleum service companies in this gulf. To manage this expansion, I have taken the role of Gulf of Guinea manager to apply my background as a petroleum engineer as well as my business skills to build a successful division of the company. This work provides a record of study of the management of services, projects and contracts carried out by the OIS group in the gulf of Guinea. The following are the specific projects in the Gulf of Guinea that I participated in: Managing delivering, maintenance and marketing of offshore vessels, Offshore pipe laying project, Integrated pipeline maintenance project, Development a petroleum technical training facilities, Agbami pipe insulation project, Engineering lift project and Capital budgeting analysis for potential investments. The details of the specific

  11. Environmental impact of the largest petroleum terminal in SE Brazil: A multiproxy analysis based on sediment geochemistry and living benthic foraminifera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wânia Duleba

    Full Text Available The Dutos e Terminais do Centro Sul (DTCS is one of the largest petroleum terminals of the South America located in the São Sebastião Channel (SSC on the southeastern Brazilian coast. The aims of this study were to compare the sediment quality near the DTCS with that of several sites in the SSC region including the Araçá (AR domestic sewage outfall and to assess the efficiency of the DTCS wastewater treatment plant. To achieve these goals, textural, geochemical, and living benthic foraminifera results were analyzed for the DTCS, AR, and SSC regions. Sediments in the DTCS area were silty with high concentrations of total organic carbon (1.7-2.4%, total nitrogen (0.2-0.3%, total sulfur (0.4-0.6%, and total (0.12-0.18% and inorganic phosphorous (0.07-0.11%. These values were higher than those in sediments collected in the SSC and Araçá regions. The sediments' concentrations of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, and Zn in the SSC and AR regions were lower than their corresponding probable effect levels (PELs. However, sediments near the DTCS were enriched with As, Cu, and Ni, whose concentrations exceeded their corresponding threshold effect levels (TELs. Around the DTCS outfall diffusers, living foraminiferal densities and diversities were lower than those for the other areas studied. In the DTCS area, it was necessary to search 50 to 190 cm3 of sediment to find 100 live specimens. In the SSC and Araçá areas, a maximum of 40 cm3 of sediment was enough to locate 100 live specimens. The lower density and diversity of living foraminifera around the DTCS than around the other areas illustrates the impact of the environmental stress caused by the presence of pollutants. These results indicate that the wastewater treatment plant efficiency is low and its discharge of pollutants from petrochemical waste liquids affects the benthic fauna around the DTCS in a potentially harmful manner.

  12. Environmental impact of the largest petroleum terminal in SE Brazil: A multiproxy analysis based on sediment geochemistry and living benthic foraminifera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duleba, Wânia; Teodoro, Andreia C.; Debenay, Jean-Pierre; Gubitoso, Silas; Pregnolato, Leonardo Antônio; Lerena, Laura Misailidis; Prada, Silvio Miranda; Bevilacqua, José Eduardo

    2018-01-01

    The Dutos e Terminais do Centro Sul (DTCS) is one of the largest petroleum terminals of the South America located in the São Sebastião Channel (SSC) on the southeastern Brazilian coast. The aims of this study were to compare the sediment quality near the DTCS with that of several sites in the SSC region including the Araçá (AR) domestic sewage outfall and to assess the efficiency of the DTCS wastewater treatment plant. To achieve these goals, textural, geochemical, and living benthic foraminifera results were analyzed for the DTCS, AR, and SSC regions. Sediments in the DTCS area were silty with high concentrations of total organic carbon (1.7–2.4%), total nitrogen (0.2–0.3%), total sulfur (0.4–0.6%), and total (0.12–0.18%) and inorganic phosphorous (0.07–0.11%). These values were higher than those in sediments collected in the SSC and Araçá regions. The sediments’ concentrations of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, and Zn in the SSC and AR regions were lower than their corresponding probable effect levels (PELs). However, sediments near the DTCS were enriched with As, Cu, and Ni, whose concentrations exceeded their corresponding threshold effect levels (TELs). Around the DTCS outfall diffusers, living foraminiferal densities and diversities were lower than those for the other areas studied. In the DTCS area, it was necessary to search 50 to 190 cm3 of sediment to find 100 live specimens. In the SSC and Araçá areas, a maximum of 40 cm3 of sediment was enough to locate 100 live specimens. The lower density and diversity of living foraminifera around the DTCS than around the other areas illustrates the impact of the environmental stress caused by the presence of pollutants. These results indicate that the wastewater treatment plant efficiency is low and its discharge of pollutants from petrochemical waste liquids affects the benthic fauna around the DTCS in a potentially harmful manner. PMID:29432425

  13. Petroleum Prices, Taxation and Subsidies in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    The current Indian system of effectively subsidised petroleum product prices has significant implications for the emergence of India as a major global energy consumer, for the integrity of India's Central Government budget and for investment in India's growing oil and petroleum sector. This paper is part one of a broader study that looks at the current system of petroleum pricing and the macroeconomic, microeconomic, regional and global effects of this system.

  14. The three R's of petroleum exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, M.L.

    1992-01-01

    Petroleum exploration comprises a many-faceted activity. It is a complex mix of science and technology, operating in a complex economic and political matrix. In this paper, the authors will review some of the basic aspects of petroleum geology, economics and politics which influence this world-wide activity. The authors hope that such a review may be of some value to some of you, especially in viewing exploration in the context of changing world supplies and demands for petroleum

  15. Petroleum Prices, Taxation and Subsidies in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    The current Indian system of effectively subsidised petroleum product prices has significant implications for the emergence of India as a major global energy consumer, for the integrity of India's Central Government budget and for investment in India's growing oil and petroleum sector. This paper is part one of a broader study that looks at the current system of petroleum pricing and the macroeconomic, microeconomic, regional and global effects of this system.

  16. Gasoline from Kumkol deposit petroleum; Benzin nefti Kumkol`skogo mestorozhdeniya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nadirov, A N; Zhizhin, N I; Musaeva, Z G

    1997-11-04

    Samples of gasoline from petroleum of Kumkol deposit are investigated by chromatographic analysis. It is found, that gasoline is characterizing by increased content of iso-paraffin hydrocarbons. (author) 2 tabs., 1 fig. Suppl. Neft` i gaz Kazakhstana

  17. Effects of the petroleum tax reform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stensland, G.; Sunnevaag, K.; Tennfjord, B.S.

    1992-04-01

    The report evaluates the effects of the petroleum taxation in Norway. In connection with the general reform of the Norwegian industry taxation, changes are proposed in the petroleum tax law. The report gives a survey of the development in the Norwegian petroleum taxation, and analyses the effects of changing the tax revenue both for the Government and for the companies concerned. The effects of incentives caused by changing the taxation are looked upon. In the appendix the depreciation rules in connection with petroleum taxation are discussed. 18 refs., 17 figs

  18. Petroleum supply annual, 1997. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-06-01

    The Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA) contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1997 through annual and monthly surveys. The PSA is divided into two volumes. This first volume contains three sections: Summary Statistics, Detailed Statistics, and Refinery Statistics; each with final annual data. The second volume contains final statistics for each month of 1997, and replaces data previously published in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM). The tables in Volumes 1 and 2 are similarly numbered to facilitate comparison between them. 16 figs., 48 tabs.

  19. Petroleum supply annual 1994. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA) contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1994 through annual and monthly surveys. The PSA is divided into two volumes. This first volume contains four sections: Summary Statistics, Detailed Statistics, Refinery Capacity, and Oxygenate Capacity each with final annual data. The second volume contains final statistics for each month of 1994, and replaces data previously published in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM). The tables in Volumes 1 and 2 are similarly numbered to facilitate comparison between them. Below is a description of each section in Volume 1 of the PSA

  20. Petroleum supply annual 1992: Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA) contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1992 through annual and monthly surveys. The PSA is divided into two volumes. This first volume contains four sections: Summary Statistics, Detailed Statistics, Refinery Capacity and Oxygenate Capacity each with final annual data. The second volume contains final statistics for each month of 1992, and replaces data previously published in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM). The tables in Volumes 1 and 2 are similarly numbered to facilitate comparison between them

  1. Petroleum supply annual, 1997. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-06-01

    The Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA) contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1997 through annual and monthly surveys. The PSA is divided into two volumes. This first volume contains three sections: Summary Statistics, Detailed Statistics, and Refinery Statistics; each with final annual data. The second volume contains final statistics for each month of 1997, and replaces data previously published in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM). The tables in Volumes 1 and 2 are similarly numbered to facilitate comparison between them. 16 figs., 48 tabs

  2. Environmental impact of petroleum products in the soil. Part II: Petroleum products composition and key properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zerlia, T.

    2001-01-01

    The fate of petroleum hydrocarbons in the soil depends on the chemical-physic properties of each hydrocarbon, as well as on the soil characteristics. The mean composition of various petroleum products, the key chemical compounds and their characteristics are focused in order to outline the environmental behaviour of petroleum hydrocarbons in the soil [it

  3. Petroleum refining and the national priorities list: The preemption of CERCLA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, D.G.

    1991-01-01

    The petroleum refining industry has preempted aspects of the implementation of CERCLA through a clause in the original legislation that makes the listing of petroleum refining sites on the NPL more difficult than it would be otherwise. The NPL, which was mandated in CERCLA, is a list of sites open-quotes where a hazardous substance has been deposited, stored, disposed of, placed, or otherwise come to be located. The petroleum exclusion clause, Section 101(14)(F) of CERCLA, states that the term hazardous substance open-quotes does not include petroleum, including crude oil or any fraction thereof which is not otherwise specifically listed or designated as a hazardous substance.close quotes This clause has been interpreted to mean that a site where petroleum products are found may not be listed on the NPL on the basis of the petroleum products; a hazardous substance that is not a normal constituent of petroleum products also must be found at the site. Regression analysis shows that the petroleum refining industry is significantly positively correlated with discovered sites (where a possibility exists that hazardous substances may be present) and significantly negatively correlated with sites that are proposed to the NPL. These, findings suggest that sites that meet the technical criteria for NPL listing are not proposed because of the petroleum exclusion clause. Although the chemical industry also produces substances that are considered hazardous, it is significantly correlated only with proposed sites, and that correlation is positive. The purpose of this paper is to present evidence suggesting that this clause was a response by Congress to an organized interest-the petroleum refining industry, which possessed a political power not available to the less-focused chemical industry

  4. Energy use in petroleum refineries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haynes, V.O.

    1976-09-01

    Refining petroleum accounts for about 4 percent of the total energy consumed in the United States and about 15 percent of all industrial consumption. The kinds of energy used and the manner in which energy is used are discussed on a process-by-process basis. Emphasis is placed on existing processes to identify and quantify process and equipment substitutions which might significantly conserve energy. General industry and process information is given and estimates of potential savings are made. A few research and development opportunities are identified and nontechnical factors are discussed. Nearly one-half the energy consumed by refineries is obtained from by-product refinery gas and coke, and about one-third is supplied by natural gas. On a regional basis, refineries were found to vary by a factor of two in the amount of energy used to refine a unit of crude oil. Refineries in regions traditionally abundant in inexpensive natural gas were found to use relatively more natural gas and energy. About 36 percent of the energy used by petroleum refineries is consumed in the distillation units to separate the refinery streams into their basic components. Including energy for manufacturing hydrogen, about 24 percent of the total is used for cracking of the heavier components. Most of the remainder is used for reforming, hydrogen treating, and alkylation, distributed about 11, 17, and 6 percent respectively. Potential energy savings discussed in this report total 61 x 10/sup 13/ Btu/yr based on 1974 capacities, a figure which represents about 20 percent of the energy consumed to refine petroleum.

  5. Petroleum production at Maximum Efficient Rate Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1 (Elk Hills), Kern County, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-07-01

    This document provides an analysis of the potential impacts associated with the proposed action, which is continued operation of Naval Petroleum Reserve No. I (NPR-1) at the Maximum Efficient Rate (MER) as authorized by Public law 94-258, the Naval Petroleum Reserves Production Act of 1976 (Act). The document also provides a similar analysis of alternatives to the proposed action, which also involve continued operations, but under lower development scenarios and lower rates of production. NPR-1 is a large oil and gas field jointly owned and operated by the federal government and Chevron U.SA Inc. (CUSA) pursuant to a Unit Plan Contract that became effective in 1944; the government's interest is approximately 78% and CUSA's interest is approximately 22%. The government's interest is under the jurisdiction of the United States Department of Energy (DOE). The facility is approximately 17,409 acres (74 square miles), and it is located in Kern County, California, about 25 miles southwest of Bakersfield and 100 miles north of Los Angeles in the south central portion of the state. The environmental analysis presented herein is a supplement to the NPR-1 Final Environmental Impact Statement of that was issued by DOE in 1979 (1979 EIS). As such, this document is a Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS)

  6. Applying petroleum biomarkers as a tool for confirmation of petroleum hydrocarbons in high organic content soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Sullivan, G.; Martin, E.J.; Waddell, J.; Sandau, C.D. [TRIUM Environmental Solutions, Cochrane, AB (Canada); Denham, G. [Nexen Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada); Samis, M.W. [Great Plains Environmental Management Ltd., Medecine Hat, AB (Canada)

    2009-10-01

    It is often difficult to separate naturally occurring phytogenic organic materials from petrogenic sources in routine gas chromatography flame ionization detection (GC-FID) analyses. Phytogenic compounds include tannins, waxes, terpenes, fats and oils. This study examined the use of petroleum biomarkers as a means of determining the nature, sources, type and geological conditions of the formation of petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs). The analysis was conducted at a former well site consisting of low-lying peat marshlands that had the potential to interfere with the delineation of PHC impacts. Fourteen boreholes and 8 hand auger holes were placed at the site. Soil samples were analyzed for salinity, metals, and PHC constituents. Biomarker targets included acyclic isoprenoid compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds, terpanes, hopanes, and triaromatic steranes. A grain-size analysis showed the presence of peat materials within the saturated zone. Results of the study demonstrated the presence of PHC constituents that exceeded applicable guidelines. The biomarker analysis was used to statistically determine site-specific background levels of hydrocarbons. Nearly 3000 tonnes of soil were excavated from the site. It was concluded that site-specific conditions should be taken into consideration when evaluating reclamation targets. 3 refs., 6 figs.

  7. Statistics for Petroleum Engineers and Geoscientists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, J.L.; Lake, L.W.; Corbett, P.W.M.; Goggin, D.J.

    2000-01-01

    Geostatistics is a common tool in reservoir characterisation. Several texts discuss the subject, however this book differs in its approach and audience from currently available material. Written from the basics of statistics it covers only those topics that are needed for the two goals of the text: to exhibit the diagnostic potential of statistics and to introduce the important features of statistical modeling. This revised edition contains expanded discussions of some materials, in particular conditional probabilities, Bayes Theorem, correlation, and Kriging. The coverage of estimation, variability, and modeling applications have been updated. Seventy examples illustrate concepts and show the role of geology for providing important information for data analysis and model building. Four reservoir case studies conclude the presentation, illustrating the application and importance of the earlier material. This book can help petroleum professionals develop more accurate models, leading to lower sampling costs

  8. Surfactants from petroleum paraffin wax

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kassem, T.M.; Hussein, M.H.; El Sayed, A.S.

    Paraffin wax from Egyptian petroleum was purified and then oxidized to fatty acids which were esterified to form their methyl esters, fractionated and then hydrolysed. The obtained fatty acids were converted into the corresponding primary amines which were converted with ethylene oxide to form nonionic surfactants. The prepared primary amines were also converted into tertiary amines and then converted into cationic surfactants through condensation with benzyl chloride or 1-chloromethylnaphthalene. Also, amine oxide surfactants were prepared by oxidation of the tertiary amines with hydrogen peroxide. The surface active properties of all the prepared surfactants were determined, and the effect of their chemical structure on the surfactant properties are discussed in this paper.

  9. [Effects and Biological Response on Bioremediation of Petroleum Contaminated Soil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qian; Wu, Man-li; Nie, Mai-qian; Wang, Ting-ting; Zhang, Ming-hui

    2015-05-01

    Bioaugmentation and biostimulation were used to remediate petroleum-contaminated soil which were collected from Zichang city in North of Shaanxi. The optimal bioremediation method was obtained by determining the total petroleum hydrocarbon(TPH) using the infrared spectroscopy. During the bioremediation, number of degrading strains, TPH catabolic genes, and soil microbial community diversity were determined by Most Probable Number (MPN), polymerase chain reaction (PCR) combined agarose electrophoresis, and PCR-denaturing gradient electrophoresis (DGGE). The results in different treatments showed different biodegradation effects towards total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH). Biostimulation by adding N and P to soils achieved the best degradation effects towards TPH, and the bioaugmentation was achieved by inoculating strain SZ-1 to soils. Further analysis indicated the positive correlation between catabolic genes and TPH removal efficiency. During the bioremediation, the number of TPH and alkanes degrading strains was higher than the number of aromatic degrading strains. The results of PCR-DGGE showed microbial inoculums could enhance microbial community functional diversity. These results contribute to understand the ecologically microbial effects during the bioremediation of petroleum-polluted soil.

  10. Proceedings of the Canadian International Petroleum Conference 2005 and the 56. Annual Technical Meeting of the Petroleum Society of CIM : Because Technology Changes Everything. CD ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This conference and trade show outlined the latest technologies associated with hydrocarbon exploration, petroleum geology, resource development, and enhanced recovery. It was attended by local and international participants in the petroleum sector. The 31 sessions highlighted the challenges facing the petroleum industry in terms of maturing basins and focused on issues such as business development and risk management; cold production of heavy oil; health, safety and regulatory issues; and environmental concerns regarding oil and gas development. The presentations were targeted for managers, engineers, technologists, geologists, and other petroleum industry specialists dealing with topical issues such as: well completion; well stimulation; well test analysis; thermal recovery; reservoir characterization; fluid characterization; numerical simulation; computerized simulation; emerging technology; thermal field projects; production operations; business development; and refining facilities. A total of 122 papers have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. (author)

  11. South African Journal of Education - Vol 31, No 1 (2011)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal of Education - Vol 31, No 1 (2011) ... How an analysis of reviewers' reports can enhance the quality of submissions to a journal of education ... Doctoral learning: a case for a cohort model of supervision and support ...

  12. India's petroleum privatization gathering speed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    Privatization of India's petroleum industry is seen as inevitable, even by the staunchest supporters of the state owned sector there. What has become clear is that the huge investments required for Indian exploration, refining, and marketing are beyond the scope of even the biggest state owned firms, such as Oil and Natural Gas Commission (ONGC) and Indian Oil Corp. (IOC). A proposal was put forth last fall to offer Bombay High offshore oil fields to leading multinationals for redevelopment to stem the production slide in India's mainstay producing area. Some of those projects could entail capital outlays of as much as $1 billion. In another step to attract foreign investment to the petroleum sector, India last month decided to take steps for phased decontrol of domestic crude oil prices to bring them in line with world market levels and help set the stage for privatization of ONGC. The paper describes major projects, the slide in oil production, price changes, the need for privatization, and the lukewarm interest in exploration

  13. Exports of petroleum products, 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-04-01

    A summary is presented of exports of motor gasoline, middle distillate, aviation turbine fuel, heavy fuel oil, and partially processed oil from Canada for the 1990 calendar year. Exports of the above petroleum products averaged 34,000 m 3 /d in 1990, up 12% from 1989 levels. The increase reflects increased output from the Come By Chance refinery in Newfoundland. Motor gasoline exports increased 35% to 10,500 m 3 /d, reflecting refinery upgrading in eastern Canada. Export prices were generally in line with spot product prices in the USA. Spot prices rose sharply following the Kuwait crisis in August 1990 but fell again in November. The spot price for jet fuel rose more dramatically in that period than for other products, reflecting increased military demand. In winter 1989/90 and during the Kuwait conflict, the export price of heating oil tended to track the USA spot price. Petroleum products imports in 1990 were 18,500 m 3 /d, compared to 21,900 m 3 /d in 1988. Imports were lower partially as a result of higher crude runs in Quebec and a Quebec refinery expansion. Imports of heavy fuel oil in eastern Canada continued to be strong in comparison to the mid-1980s. The top single exporter in 1990, as in 1989, was Newfoundland Processing, with a volume of 4,506,400 m 3 . 13 figs., 5 tabs

  14. Bioremediation of petroleum contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Autry, A.R.; Ellis, G.M.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on bioremediation, which offers a cost-competitive, effective remediation alternative for soil contaminated with petroleum products. These technologies involve using microorganisms to biologically degrade organic constituents in contaminated soil. All bioremediation applications must mitigate various environmental rate limiting factors so that the biodegradation rates for petroleum hydrocarbons are optimized in field-relevant situations. Traditional bioremediation applications include landfarming, bioreactors, and composting. A more recent bioremediation application that has proven successful involves excavation of contaminated soil. The process involves the placement of the soils into a powerscreen, where it is screened to remove rocks and larger debris. The screened soil is then conveyed to a ribbon blender, where it is mixed in batch with nutrient solution containing nitrogen, phosphorus, water, and surfactants. Each mixed soil batch is then placed in a curing pile, where it remains undisturbed for the remainder of the treatment process, during which time biodegradation by naturally occurring microorganisms, utilizing biochemical pathways mediated by enzymes, will occur

  15. Facts 2011 - The Norwegian petroleum sector; Fakta 2011 - norsk petroleumsverksemd

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-07-15

    The publication provides a general overview of information regarding the petroleum activities on the Norwegian continental shelf. Content; Foreword; The petroleum sector - Norway's largest industry; Organisation of Norwegian petroleum activity; Government petroleum revenues; Exploration activities; Development and operations; Norwegian gas exports; Decommissioning; Research, technology and industrial development; Environmental considerations in the Norwegian petroleum sector; Petroleum resources; Fields in production; Fields under development; Future developments; Fields where production has ceased; Pipelines and onshore facilities. (AG)

  16. Facts 2010 - The Norwegian petroleum sector; Fakta 2010 - norsk petroleumsverksemd

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-07-01

    The publication provides a general overview of information regarding the petroleum activities on the Norwegian continental shelf. Content; Foreword; The petroleum sector - Norway's largest industry; Organisation of Norwegian petroleum activity; Government petroleum revenues; Exploration activities; Development and operations; Norwegian gas exports; Decommissioning; Research, technology and industrial development; Environmental considerations in the Norwegian petroleum sector; Petroleum resources; Fields in production; Fields under development; Future developments; Fields where production has ceased; Pipelines and onshore facilities. (AG)

  17. West Hackberry Strategic Petroleum Reserve site brine disposal monitoring, Year I report. Volume V. Supporting data for estuarine hydrology, discharge plume analysis, chemical oceanography, biological oceanography, and data management. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeRouen, L.R.; Hann, R.W.; Casserly, D.M.; Giammona, C.; Lascara, V.J. (eds.)

    1983-02-01

    This project centers around the Strategic Petroleum Site (SPR) known as the West Hackberry salt dome which located in southwestern Louisiana, and which is designed to store 241 million barrels of crude oil. Oil storage caverns are formed by injecting water into salt deposits, and pumping out the resulting brine. Studies described in this report were designed as follow-on studies to three months of pre-discharge characterization work, and include data collected during the first year of brine leaching operations. The objectives were to: (1) characterize the environment in terms of physical, chemical and biological attributes; (2) determine if significant adverse changes in ecosystem productivity and stability of the biological community are occurring as a result of brine discharge; and (3) determine the magnitude of any change observed. Volume V contains appendices for the following: supporting data for estuarine hydrology and hydrography; supporting data analysis of discharge plume; supporting data for water and sediment chemistry; CTD/DO and pH profiles during biological monitoring; supporting data for nekton; and supporting data for data management.

  18. Source identification of petroleum hydrocarbons in soil and sediments from Iguaçu River Watershed, Paraná, Brazil using the CHEMSIC method (CHEMometric analysis of Selected Ion Chromatograms).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallotta, Fabiana D C; Christensen, Jan H

    2012-04-27

    A chemometric method based on principal component analysis (PCA) of pre-processed and combined sections of selected ion chromatograms (SICs) is used to characterise the hydrocarbon profiles in soil and sediment from Araucária, Guajuvira, General Lúcio and Balsa Nova Municipalities (Iguaçu River Watershed, Paraná, Brazil) and to indicate the main sources of hydrocarbon pollution. The study includes 38 SICs of polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) and four of petroleum biomarkers in two separate analyses. The most contaminated samples are inside the Presidente Getúlio Vargas Refinery area. These samples represent a petrogenic pattern and different weathering degrees. Samples from outside the refinery area are either less or not contaminated, or contain mixtures of diagenetic, pyrogenic and petrogenic inputs where different proportions predominate. The locations farthest away from industrial activity (Balsa Nova) contains the lowest levels of PAC contamination. There are no evidences to conclude positive matches between the samples from outside the refinery area and the Cusiana spilled oil. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Primary biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in seawater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comber, M.I.H.; Den Haan, K.H.; Djemel, N.; Eadsforth, C.V.; King, D.; Paumen, M.L.; Parkerton, T.; Dmytrasz, B.

    2012-12-15

    This report describes primary biodegradation experiments performed to determine the persistence of higher molecular weight petroleum hydrocarbons in seawater. Results from the biodegradation experiments show that the majority of tested petroleum hydrocarbons have half-lives in seawater less than 60 days.

  20. Petroleum-hydrocarbons biodegradation by Pseudomonas strains ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The capability of these isolates to degrade petroleum was performed by measuring the optical density, colony forming unit counts (CFU/ml) and concentration of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH). Degradation of Isomerate by these isolates was analyzed by gas chromatography with flame ionization detector (FID). Results ...

  1. The Suez Canal and the petroleum harbors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    The Suez Canal is the second longest channel in the world and allows to save 60% of the travel time between the petroleum harbors of the Arabic peninsula and Europe. This short paper gives a summary of the main petroleum harbors activity along the channel from the Red sea to the Mediterranean sea. (J.S.)

  2. Petroleum supply annual 1993. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    This publication contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1993 through annual and monthly surveys. This second volume contains final statistics for each month of 1993.

  3. Petroleum and Political Change in Mexico,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    and exploitation of our petroleum resources." The argument continued that "private entrepreneurs are disposed to work in this area under the control of...membership was designed to jar the non-petroleum export sector into a more competitive posture, thereby incresing exports from that sector and diminishing

  4. Petroleum market instability and enterprise rule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vacca', S.; Citterio, G.; Pesce, P.

    2000-01-01

    Special importance is given to some producer country (Saudi Arabia, Iraq, Kuwait, Iran, United Arab Emirate, Venezuela) that determine the trend of petroleum price. These countries have about the 70% of world petroleum reserves against the 3% of world population [it

  5. French petroleum demand stable since thirteen years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauvot, M.

    2005-01-01

    The French union of petroleum industries (Ufip) has presented a globally satisfactory status of the French petroleum situation. However, the refining capacities are not always well adapted to the evolution of the demand and the production of diesel fuels remains insufficient while France exports gasoline. Short paper. (J.S.)

  6. 77 FR 2714 - National Petroleum Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY National Petroleum Council AGENCY: Office of Fossil Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of Renewal. SUMMARY: Pursuant to Section 14(a)(2)(A) of the Federal Advisory... Services Administration, notice is hereby given that the National Petroleum Council has been renewed for a...

  7. Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    During fiscal year 1992, the reserves generated $473 million in revenues, a $181 million decrease from the fiscal year 1991 revenues, primarily due to significant decreases in oil and natural gas prices. Total costs were $200 million, resulting in net cash flow of $273 million, compared with $454 million in fiscal year 1991. From 1976 through fiscal year 1992, the Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves generated more than $15 billion in revenues and a net operating income after costs of $12.5 billion. In fiscal year 1992, production at the Naval Petroleum Reserves at maximum efficient rates yielded 26 million barrels of crude oil, 119 billion cubic feet of natural gas, and 164 million gallons of natural gas liquids. From April to November 1992, senior managers from the Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves held a series of three workshops in Boulder, Colorado, in order to build a comprehensive Strategic Plan as required by Secretary of Energy Notice 25A-91. Other highlights are presented for the following: Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1--production achievements, crude oil shipments to the strategic petroleum reserve, horizontal drilling, shallow oil zone gas injection project, environment and safety, and vanpool program; Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 2--new management and operating contractor and exploration drilling; Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 3--steamflood; Naval Oil Shale Reserves--protection program; and Tiger Team environmental assessment of the Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming

  8. 75 FR 48320 - National Petroleum Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY National Petroleum Council AGENCY: Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy. ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a meeting of the National Petroleum Council. The Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463, 86 Stat. 770) requires that public...

  9. Microbial dynamics in petroleum oilfields and their relationship with physiological properties of petroleum oil reservoirs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varjani, Sunita J; Gnansounou, Edgard

    2017-12-01

    Petroleum is produced by thermal decay of buried organic material over millions of years. Petroleum oilfield ecosystems represent resource of reduced carbon which favours microbial growth. Therefore, it is obvious that many microorganisms have adapted to harsh environmental conditions of these ecosystems specifically temperature, oxygen availability and pressure. Knowledge of microorganisms present in ecosystems of petroleum oil reservoirs; their physiological and biological properties help in successful exploration of petroleum. Understanding microbiology of petroleum oilfield(s) can be used to enhance oil recovery, as microorganisms in oil reservoirs produce various metabolites viz. gases, acids, solvents, biopolymers and biosurfactants. The aim of this review is to discuss characteristics of petroleum oil reservoirs. This review also provides an updated literature on microbial ecology of these extreme ecosystems including microbial origin as well as various types of microorganisms such as methanogens; iron, nitrate and sulphate reducing bacteria, and fermentative microbes present in petroleum oilfield ecosystems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Large Fleets Lead in Petroleum Reduction (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Proc, H.

    2011-03-01

    Fact sheet describes Clean Cities' National Petroleum Reduction Partnership, an initiative through which large private fleets can receive support from Clean Cities to reduce petroleum consumption.

  11. Radioanalytical chemistry. Vol. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toelgyessy, J.; Kyrs, M.

    1989-01-01

    This volume of the monograph covers the following topics: activation analysis, non-activation interaction analysis (elastic scattering of charged particles, absorption and backscattering of beta radiation and photons, radionuclide X-ray fluorescence analysis, thermalization, scattering and absorption of neutrons, use of ionization caused by nuclear radiation, use of ionization by alpha or beta radiation for the measurement of pressure, density and flow rate of gases), and automation in radioanalytical chemistry. (P.A.)

  12. EVALUATION OF PETROLEUM HYDROCARBONS ELUTION FROM SOIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janina Piekutin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents studies on oil removal from soil by means of water elution with a help of shaking out the contaminants from the soil. The tests were performed on simulated soil samples contaminated with a mixture of petroleum hydrocarbons. The study consisted in recording the time influence and the number of elution cycles to remove contaminants from the soil. The samples were then subject to the determination of petroleum hydrocarbons, aliphatic hydrocarbons, and BTEX compounds (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene. Due to adding various concentrations of petroleum into particular soil samples and applying different shaking times, it was possible to find out the impact of petroleum content and sample shaking duration on the course and possibility of petroleum substances removal by means of elution process.

  13. PGPR enhanced phytoremediation of petroleum contaminated soil and rhizosphere microbial community response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Jinyu; Liu, Wuxing; Wang, Beibei; Wang, Qingling; Luo, Yongming; Franks, Ashley E

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate petroleum phytoremediation enhancement by plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPR), specifically the correlation between petroleum hydrocarbon fractions and bacterial community structure affected by remediation and PGPR inocula. Aged petroleum contaminated soil was remediated by tall fescue (Testuca arundinacea L.) inoculated with two PGPR strains. Hydrocarbon degradation was measured by GC-MS (Gas-chromatography Mass-spectrometer) based on carbon fraction numbers (C8-C34). Changes in bacterial community structure were analyzed by high-throughput pyrosequencing of 16s rRNA. PGPR inoculation increased tall fescue biomass and petroleum hydrocarbons were removed in all the treatments. Maximum hydrocarbon removal, particular high molecular weight (C21-C34) aliphatic hydrocarbons (AHs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), was observed in tall fescue inoculated with PGPR. The relative abundance of phyla γ-proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes increased after different treatments compared with controls. Moreover, a bacterial guild mainly comprising the genera Lysobacter, Pseudoxanthomonas, Planctomyces, Nocardioides, Hydrogenophaga, Ohtaekwangia was found to be positively correlated with C21-C34 petroleum hydrocarbons fractions removal by RDA analysis, implying that petroleum degradation was unrelated to bacterial community diversity but positively correlated with specific petroleum degraders and biosurfactant producers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Conservation and reuse of water in Brazilian petroleum refineries; Conservacao e reuso de agua em refinarias de petroleo no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pombo, Felipe Ramalho; Magrini, Alessandra; Szklo, Alexandre Salem [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (PPE/COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Planejamento Energetico], Emails: frpombo@ppe.ufrj.br, ale@ppe.ufrj.br, szklo@ppe.ufrj.br

    2010-07-01

    This paper views to present the main technologies for effluent treatment of petroleum refineries having as target the reuse. An analysis of international and Brazilian experiences of water reuse in petroleum refineries is performed viewing to support the proposition of recommendations for Brazilian refineries.

  15. Egyptian Journal of Medical Human Genetics - Vol 14, No 3 (2013)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Egyptian Journal of Medical Human Genetics - Vol 14, No 3 (2013) ... Comparative study: Parameters of gait in Down syndrome versus matched obese and ... episodes in a Japanese child: Clinical, radiological and molecular genetic analysis ...

  16. Journal of Computer Science and Its Application - Vol 20, No 2 (2013)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Computer Science and Its Application - Vol 20, No 2 (2013) ... Fuzzy analysis and adaptive anthropometry model for object identification in surveillance system ... Natural language processing techniques for automatic test questions ...

  17. Petroleum marketing monthly with data for April 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-05

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data on the Petroleum Marketing Monthly. Monthly statistics on purchases of crude oil and sales of petroleum products are presented in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly in five sections: Summary statistics; crude oil prices; prices of petroleum products; volumes of petroleum products; and prime supplier sales volumes of petroleum products for local consumption.

  18. Petroleum marketing monthly, June 1995 with data for March 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-16

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly. Monthly statistics on purchases of crude oil and sales of petroleum products are presented in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly in five sections: Summary Statistics Crude Oil Prices; Prices of Petroleum Products; Volumes of Petroleum Products; and Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Petroleum Products for Local Consumption.

  19. About water. Vol. 81

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The conference papers discuss the following subjects: pollution of soil and groundwater from landfills or agricultural fertilizers, waste water analysis and treatment, water treatment technology, analytical procedures. (EF) [de

  20. Phillips Petroleum -- Capitalizing on technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perdue, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    Phillips Petroleum Co., one of the largest international oil companies and the largest producer of natural gas liquids in the US, recently reported that first half 1996 net income was $916 million, up from $224 million for the same period the year before. During the past 5 years, reserves have increased 11% and production by 8%. Exploration expenses are down 32% and production costs per boe are down 24%. Compared to other majors involved in worldwide E and P, Phillips has the second highest 5-year percentage of reserves replacement--117%--and the second lowest finding and development cost/boe--$3.46--in the industry. How did the company do this while decreasing headcount by 5,300? The paper discusses focused growth, paring down assets, E and P projects, research and development, and electronic document management

  1. The southern cone petroleum market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pisani, W.

    1992-01-01

    The Argentine oil sector has been moving strongly toward complete deregulation since 1989. Price controls on byproducts has been lifted, old petroleum contracts became into concessions, and the state oil company, YPF, is under process of privatization. In this context, the international companies scouting for opportunities can find an important menu of potential investments But here remain some problems connected with this deregulation, too. The lack of a reference crude and product market price is one of them. This paper focuses how to overcome this trouble with the establishment of an institutional market for crude and products, not only for Argentina but also for the entire Southern Cone Region (Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Paraguay and Uruguay), inquiring into the benefits of its creation

  2. The challenge of finding substitutes for 'classical' petroleum products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandil, Claude; )

    2011-01-01

    What are petroleum products used for? Mainly for transportation - 53% of worldwide consumption in 2009 according to the International Energy Agency (IEA) - but also, significantly, as raw products for the petrochemical industry and, to a lesser degree, for the production of heat and electricity. There is practically no substitute that can compete with petroleum on a wide scale for the purpose of transportation; but several substitutes are possible in the two other cases. This analysis focuses on transportation

  3. Environmental regulatory framework for the upstream petroleum industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    In order to provide its member companies with a useful reference document in environmental analysis and compliance, CAPP compiled a list of Canadian legislation, regulations and guidelines which relate to the upstream petroleum industry. Text of all federal, Alberta, British Columbia and Saskatchewan legislation, regulations, guidelines and related documents were provided. Pending legislation, regulations and government policy have been identified. Annual updates will be provided to all subscribers

  4. Analysis and initialisation of starting meteorologic information and parameters of effluents of sources of harmful substances of Karachaganak petroleum condensate deposit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajdosov, A.; Zaurbekova, N.D.

    1999-01-01

    Initial meteorologic information for mathematical simulation conducting is presented in form of standard meteorologic tables for district of the gas condensate deposit. Analysis of meteorologic data confirms the hypothesis about horizontal heterogeneity of meteorologic regime above near Earth surface in the region and allows to carry out typification of principal meteorologic situation by year seasons

  5. Agrosearch 1 Vol. 1

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines the socio-economic status of women in group ... The results of the multiple regression analysis showed that the variables (age, ... Oluwasola and Alimi, (2007) found that one of the major problems of an average .... business or financial management and business record keeping skills resulting from their ...

  6. IJAAAR 2011 VOL 7

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Faculty of Agricultural Sciences Lautech Ogbomoso

    In improving indigenous sesame seed yield, there is reliability in selecting for number of capsule and seed per capsule as these traits recorded highest selection index using heritability and genetic advance parameters. Key words: Variation, selection index, indigenous sesame, year effect, path analysis. Introduction.

  7. Norwegian Petroleum Activity 97. Fact Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This report is the official governmental review of the offshore operations on the Norwegian Continental Shelf in 1996. It covers the following topics: (1) Summary, (2) Historical overview, (3) State organization of petroleum activities, (4) The economic impact of Norwegian oil and gas, (5) State revenues, (6) Mainland activities, (7) Petroleum resources, (8) Production, (9) Marketing situation for petroleum products, (10) Environmental aspects, (11) The legal and license framework, (12) Licensing rounds, (13) Exploration, (14) Fields in production, (15) Fields under development, (16) Discoveries with development plan under consideration, (17) Transportation systems, (18) License interests, (19) Company interests, (20) White papers, (21) Useful postal addresses. 24 figs., 16 tabs.

  8. Petroleum supply annual 1998: Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-06-01

    The ``Petroleum Supply Annual`` (PSA) contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1998 through annual and monthly surveys. The PSA is divided into two volumes. This first volume contains three sections: Summary Statistics, Detailed Statistics, and Refinery Statistics; each with final annual data. The second volume contains final statistics for each month of 1998, and replaces data previously published in the PSA. The tables in Volumes 1 and 2 are similarly numbered to facilitate comparison between them. 16 figs., 59 tabs.

  9. Petroleum supply annual 1998: Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-06-01

    The ''Petroleum Supply Annual'' (PSA) contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1998 through annual and monthly surveys. The PSA is divided into two volumes. This first volume contains three sections: Summary Statistics, Detailed Statistics, and Refinery Statistics; each with final annual data. The second volume contains final statistics for each month of 1998, and replaces data previously published in the PSA. The tables in Volumes 1 and 2 are similarly numbered to facilitate comparison between them. 16 figs., 59 tabs

  10. Saudi Arabia: Petroleum and new economic trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarkis, N.

    1996-01-01

    The new economic trends of Saudi Arabia are detailed in this article. This country can take an important place on the world petroleum market in the future; he has the quarter of world petroleum reserves, and is determined to keep its place of first petroleum exporter. New developments projects are arising: electric power, telecommunications, civil aviation, seawater desalination. In terms of financing, as the state cannot finance all these new projects, new means are used: privatisation, BOT (build-operate-transfer) contracts, and offset programs. (N.C.)

  11. Petroleum marketing monthly, November 1991. [Contains glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-11-07

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners' acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented. 12 figs., 53 tabs.

  12. Petroleum Marketing Monthly, January 1991. [Contains Glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-09

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners' acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented. 12 figs., 55 tabs.

  13. Petroleum and Health Care: Evaluating and Managing Health Care's Vulnerability to Petroleum Supply Shifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednarz, Daniel; Bae, Jaeyong; Pierce, Jessica

    2011-01-01

    Petroleum is used widely in health care—primarily as a transport fuel and feedstock for pharmaceuticals, plastics, and medical supplies—and few substitutes for it are available. This dependence theoretically makes health care vulnerable to petroleum supply shifts, but this vulnerability has not been empirically assessed. We quantify key aspects of petroleum use in health care and explore historical associations between petroleum supply shocks and health care prices. These analyses confirm that petroleum products are intrinsic to modern health care and that petroleum supply shifts can affect health care prices. In anticipation of future supply contractions lasting longer than previous shifts and potentially disrupting health care delivery, we propose an adaptive management approach and outline its application to the example of emergency medical services. PMID:21778473

  14. The US petroleum refining industry in the 1980's

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-10-11

    As part of the EIA program on petroleum, The US Petroleum Refining Industry in the 1980's, presents a historical analysis of the changes that took place in the US petroleum refining industry during the 1980's. It is intended to be of interest to analysts in the petroleum industry, state and federal government officials, Congress, and the general public. The report consists of six chapters and four appendices. Included is a detailed description of the major events and factors that affected the domestic refining industry during this period. Some of the changes that took place in the 1980's are the result of events that started in the 1970's. The impact of these events on US refinery configuration, operations, economics, and company ownership are examined. 23 figs., 11 tabs.

  15. Approach of fuzzy logic in the preliminary risk analysis of the upstream and downstream lines of an offshore petroleum production unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Claudio B. [PETROBRAS Transporte S.A. (TRANSPETRO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Pinho, Edson [Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ), Seropedica, RJ (Brazil); Maia Neto, Luiz

    2009-07-01

    This work consists of the application of a model of qualitative risk assessment based in fuzzy logic for the judgment of criticality of the scenarios of accident identified through the technique of preliminary hazard analysis in the upstream and downstream of an offshore oil production unit already in operation. The model based on fuzzy logic acts as substitute to the traditional Risks Matrix that uses subjective concepts for the categories of expected severity and frequency of the accidents. The structure of the employed model consists of 7 input variables, an internal variable and an output variable, all linked in accordance with the modules of analysis for each type of accident. The developed base of knowledge, that complete the expert system consists of membership functions developed for each one of the variables and a set of 219 distributed inference rules in the 7 different modules. The developed knowledge base, which incorporates the mechanisms of logical reasoning of specialists, assists and guides, with efficiency, the teams that carry through the preliminary hazard analyses with the use of a computer program having previously inserted routines. The employed model incorporates in the knowledge base of the program the existing concepts in the categories of frequency and severity, under the form of membership functions of the linguistic variable and the set of rules. With this, scales subdivided in ranges, defined on the basis of the existing direction present in the risks matrices are used to define the actions to be taken for the analyzed accident scenarios. (author)

  16. Taxation of petroleum products: theory and empirical evidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, S.; Mahler, W.

    1995-01-01

    The domestic taxation of petroleum products is an important source of revenue in most countries. However, there is a wide variation of tax rates on petroleum products across countries, which cannot be explained by economic theory alone. This paper surveys different considerations advanced for taxing petroleum and presents petroleum tax rate data in 120countries. (author)

  17. Facts 2009 - The Norwegian petroleum sector; Fakta 2009 - norsk petroleumsverksemd

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-07-01

    The publication provides a general overview of information regarding the petroleum activities on the Norwegian continental shelf. Contents: Foreword; The petroleum sector; Norwegian resource management; Government petroleum revenues; Exploration activities; Development and operations; Norwegian gas exports; Decommissioning; Research, technology; Environmental considerations; Petroleum resources; Fields in production; Fields under development; Future developments; Fields where production has ceased; Pipelines and onshore facilities. (AG)

  18. 21 CFR 172.888 - Synthetic petroleum wax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Synthetic petroleum wax. 172.888 Section 172.888... CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.888 Synthetic petroleum wax. Synthetic petroleum wax may be safely used in or on foods in accordance with the following conditions: (a) Synthetic petroleum wax is a...

  19. The Petroleum resources on the Norwegian Continental Shelf. 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    This resource report provides a survey of petroleum resources on the NCS. Content: Resource account; Unconventional oil and gas resources; Future oil and gas production; Challenges for producing fields; Discoveries; Undiscovered resources; Curbing greenhouse gas emissions; Technology and talent; Exploration and new areas; How undiscovered resources are calculated; The NPD's project database; Play analysis; Changes to and reductions in estimated undiscovered resources; Unconventional petroleum resources; Many wells, Increased exploration, Every little helps; Varied discovery success; Sub-basalt in the Norwegian Sea; High exploration costs; Profitable exploration; Unopened areas - mostly in the far north; Resource base; Small discoveries; Location; Development solutions, Profitability of discoveries; Things may take time; Area perspective; Development of production; Remaining reserves and resources in fields; Target for reserve growth; Existing technology; Water and gas injection; Drilling and wells; Infrastructure challenges; New methods and technology; Challenges for pilot projects; Long-term thinking and creativity. (eb)

  20. Petroleum production: the nature of the development activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-09-01

    The French Petroleum Institute has studied not only the technological aspects of petroleum exploration and development, but also the economic and managerial aspects. The development strategy for a given company is determined by these economic and political factors: cooperation with other companies, exchange of information concerning the market, study of the economic situation in other countries, and current analysis of the available technical information. Also important are the availability of raw materials and of competent technical personnel. Beside the general field in which the company is active, the decision to undertake a given project will depend on the chances of commercialization and on the particular talents and expertise of the technical personnel. The latter can be enhanced by a development program of human resources. It should be mentioned that practically all such work requires teamwork.