WorldWideScience

Sample records for pesticide residue analysis

  1. MULTI-RESIDUE ANALYSIS OF PESTICIDES IN GRAPES IN BIJAPUR DISTRICT

    OpenAIRE

    Pujeri, U. S.; A.S.Pujari; S. C. Hiremath; M.S.Yadawe

    2010-01-01

    Fruit samples of grapes were analyzed for pesticide residues, employing multi-residue analysis by gas- liquid chromatography-mass spectrography (GC-MS/ LCMS/ MS). All the fruit samples showed the presence of pesticide residues with one or other group of pesticides. Some of the grape samples contain more than the minimum residue limit. The increasing interest in the study of pesticides in grapes is justified from an enological point of view, since some pesticides can interfere with fermentativ...

  2. Fast gas chromatography for pesticide residues analysis using analyte protectants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchner, Michal; Húsková, Renáta; Matisová, Eva; Mocák, Ján

    2008-04-01

    Fast GC-MS with narrow-bore columns combined with effective sample preparation technique (QuEChERS method) was used for evaluation of various calibration approaches in pesticide residues analysis. In order to compare the performance of analyte protectants (APs) with matrix-matched standards calibration curves of selected pesticides were searched in terms of linearity of responses, repeatability of measurements and reached limit of quantifications utilizing the following calibration standards in the concentration range 1-500 ng mL(-1)(the equivalent sample concentration 1-500 microg kg(-1)): in neat solvent (acetonitrile) with/without addition of APs, matrix-matched standards with/without addition of APs. For APs results are in a good agreement with matrix-matched standards. To evaluate errors of determination of concentration synthetic samples at concentration level of pesticides 50 ng mL(-1) (50 microg kg(-1)) were analyzed and quantified using the above given standards. For less troublesome pesticides very good estimation of concentration was obtained utilizing APs, while for more troublesome pesticides such as methidathion, malathion, phosalone and deltamethrin significant overestimation reaching up to 80% occurred. According to presented results APs can be advantegously used for "easy" pesticides determination. For "difficult" pesticides an alternative calibration approach is required for samples potentially violating MRLs. An example of real sample measurement is shown. In this paper also the use of internal standards (triphenylphosphate (TPP) and heptachlor (HEPT)) for peak areas normalization is discussed in terms of repeatability of measurements and quantitative data obtained. TPP normalization provided slightly better results than the use of absolute peak areas measurements on the contrary to HEPT. PMID:17920613

  3. A perspective on high throughput analysis of pesticide residues in foods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kai ZHANG; Jon W WONG; Perry G WANG

    2011-01-01

    The screening of pesticide residues plays a vital role in food safety. Applications of high throughput analytical procedures are desirable for screening a large number of pesticides and food samples in a time-effi- cient and cost-effective manner. This review discusses how sample throughput of pesticide analysis could be improved with an emphasis on sample preparation, instrumentation and data analysis.

  4. MULTI-RESIDUE ANALYSIS OF PESTICIDES IN GRAPES IN BIJAPUR DISTRICT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U.S.Pujeri

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Fruit samples of grapes were analyzed for pesticide residues, employing multi-residue analysis by gas- liquid chromatography-mass spectrography (GC-MS/ LCMS/ MS. All the fruit samples showed the presence of pesticide residues with one or other group of pesticides. Some of the grape samples contain more than the minimum residue limit. The increasing interest in the study of pesticides in grapes is justified from an enological point of view, since some pesticides can interfere with fermentative microflora used in wine production, as well as affect consumer safety. There were no significant differences between some pesticide levels found in the whole grape (skin and pulp and in the grape skin. Chlorpyriphos, captan, dichlorovos, oxyfluorfen, fipronoil, 4- bromo-2-chlorophenol and indoxycarb were detected. Nevertheless, consumer intake of pesticides from grapes studied in this work should be decreased as a result of water washing of the grapes. In this paper, multiresidue determination of pesticides using GCMS/ LC-MS/MS are discussed.

  5. Meta-analysis of food processing on pesticide residues in fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Y; Liu, Y; Ding, Y; Liu, X J

    2014-01-01

    The combining and quantifying effects of food processing on pesticide residues in fruits were analysed by a meta-analysis approach. Data were collected from many publications and used to calculate response ratios, confidence intervals and intra-assay coefficients of variation. The response ratios for washing by tap water, boiling and sun drying were 0.59, 0.71 and 0.65, respectively, indicating that they could reduce the pesticide residues effectively. Peeling and juicing, where response ratios were 0.11 and 0.14, respectively, showed they could reduce the pesticide residues to a very small extent. An increase of pesticide residues was indicated by oven drying with a response ratio of more than 1. Oven drying and sun drying indicated both a reduction and an increase at the 99.5% confidence interval. The response ratios given by a meta-analysis approach could be used as processing factors in food safety risk assessment and as a guide for consumers on how to reduce pesticides effectively in fruit.

  6. Residue analysis of multi-class pesticides in watermelon by LC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Semin; Lee, Sung Joong; Kim, Hae Gyeong; Jeong, Won Young; Shim, Jae-Han; Abd El-Aty, A M; Jeong, Sung Woo; Lee, Won Sup; Kim, Soo Taek; Shin, Sung Chul

    2010-03-01

    As watermelon is farmed primarily by protected and successive cultivation techniques, a number of pesticides are required for the control of pests and diseases. To evaluate the harmful effects of pesticides in watermelon and to guarantee consumers' safety, a rapid screening process for pesticides is required. A LC-MS/MS method was applied for the direct quantitation of 44 pesticide residues in watermelon. A Zorbax XDB-C(18) column was selected for analysis, with a mobile phase consisting of a gradient system of water and 5 mM methanolic ammonium formate. MS/MS experiments were performed in ESI positive ion and multiple reaction monitoring modes. The LOQs were in the range of 1-26 microg/kg, thereby indicating good sensitivity. Most of the recoveries ranged between 70-131% with RSDs watermelon samples. No pesticide residues were detected in any of the surveyed watermelons obtained from eight local markets in the Republic of Korea. Statistical analysis of the recoveries classified the 44 pesticides into nine groups and three overall categories. PMID:20175086

  7. Statistical Analysis of Regularity of Pesticide Residues in Vegetables Produced in Inner Mongoli

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fujin ZHANG; Dekun HOU; Jiang HE; Tianyun GAO; Hong LUO; Songyan LANG; Xinxin ZHANG; Yiping YAO

    2013-01-01

    [Objective] The paper was to study regularity of pesticide residues in veg-etables produced in Inner Mongolia. [Method] Mathematical statistic analysis was carried out on 6 800 samples of veggies, fruits, leguminous vegetables, nuts and seeds produced in Inner Mongolia. [Result] The dominated vegetables in Inner Mon-golia were green leafy vegetables, solanaceous vegetables and melon vegetables, and their yields accounted for 70% of the total vegetables production. Since 2003, with the rapid increase of detected vegetable numbers, the status of vegetable qual-ity safety had entered into a new stage of sustainable steady after a rapid decline or periodic fluctuation, and the differences in safety levels were obvious, of which the range of exceeding standard rate of pesticide residues in solanaceous vegeta-bles, melon vegetables and leguminous vegetables (about 55% of the total vegeta-bles) was under 2%, with average values of 1.1%, 1.6% and 3.1%, respectively. They belonged to stable type. The exceeding standard rate of pesticide residues in green leafy vegetables and Chinese cabbage group (about 30% of total vegetables) presented a decreasing trend year by year, wondering in the range of 7%-10%. They belonged to main risk type. The time period of exceeding standard of pesticide residues in root vegetables and cole vegetables was under predictable, and its ex-ceeding standard rate in some years was over 5% (amplitude variation is over 15 percentage points). They belonged to random risk type. The kinds of pesticides, which exceeding standard rate in vegetables were relatively intensive, presented vari-ance in different vegetable species. 70% of the pesticides belonged to intermittent over-limits and the probability was below 5%. About 20% tradition pesticides often exceeded standard and their probabilities were over 30%. The exceeding standard of organophosphorus and carbamates pesticides in vegetables presented a decreasing tend, while the risk of some new pesticides

  8. High-throughput planar solid phase extraction : a new clean-up concept in multi-residue analysis of pesticides

    OpenAIRE

    Oellig, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    Currently, the most serious problems in pesticide residue analysis by liquid chromatography (LC) or gas chromatography (GC) coupled to mass spectrometry (MS) concern the so-called “matrix effects”. The most common way to avoid these effects is the application of matrix-matched calibration standards. Nevertheless, an efficient clean-up undoubtedly is the best way to prevent matrix effects in multi-residue analysis of pesticides in food by LC–MS or GC–MS. For a totally new powerful clean-up ...

  9. Multi-Residue Analysis of Pesticides in Pistachio Using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azadeh Emami

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Analysis of pesticide residues in food and other environmental commodities have become an essential requirement for consumers, producers, food inspectors and authorities. This study is focused on validation of an accurate, rapid and reliable method for multi-residual analysis of pesticides in pistachio as a strategic crop for export and one of the main nuts in Iranian food basket. Methods: We developed a "Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe (QuEChERS method based on spiking blank samples and used the data for drawing calibration curves instead of standard solutions. Sample preparations were developed for determination of 12 pesticide residues in pistachio by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS. Results: Recovery of pesticides at 5 concentration levels (n=3 was in the range of 81.40% - 93.08 %. The method proved to be repeatable in the majority of samples with relative standard deviation (RSD of lower than 20%. The limits of detection and quantification for all pesticides were 2 ppb and 10 ppb, respectively. Conclusion: The calibration curves of pesticides were linear in the range of 10-500 (ng/g and correlation coefficient of entire pesticides was higher than 0.994. The recovery of pesticides at 5 concentration levels (n=3 was in range of 81.41- 91.80 %. The method was proved to be repeatable with the majority of RSDs being lower than 20%. The limits of detection and quantification for all pesticides were 2 and 10 ppb, respectively. The recoveries and repeatabilities were in accordance with the criteria set by SANCO Guideline (Commission of the European Communities, 2006.

  10. Pesticidal residues in animal tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWitt, J.B.; Menzie, C.M.; Adomaitis, V.A.; Reichel, W.L.

    1960-01-01

    Tests with penned starlings, rats, pheasants, and ducks indicated that each species differs in sensitivity to the various pesticides. Residues in tissues are proportional to the degree of exposure during area treatment and they are also found in animals shot six or more months after treatment. The presence of more than 20-30 ppm of DDT, 20 ppm of chlordan, and 6-20 ppm of heptachlor epoxide in quail tissues indicated that the birds had ingested lethal dosages of the pesticides.

  11. Blind Analysis of Fortified Pesticide Residues in Carrot Extracts using GC-MS to Evaluate Qualitative and Quantitative Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unlike quantitative analysis, the quality of the qualitative results in the analysis of pesticide residues in food are generally ignored in practice. Instead, chemists tend to rely on advanced mass spectrometric techniques and general subjective guidelines or fixed acceptability criteria when makin...

  12. Validation of thin-layer chromatographic methods for pesticide residue analysis. Results of the coordinated research projects 1996-2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) has a long history, but has been used only to a limited extent in pesticide residue analytical laboratories since gas liquid chromatography (GLC) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) became readily available. Recent developments in the quality of plate coating and detection systems, as well as in extraction and cleanup methods have revived interest in TLC. The combination of these procedures with rigid quality control has created a niche for TLC in laboratories working in compliance with ISO 17025 or GLP. The Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture recognized the importance of testing pesticide residues, especially in countries with limited resources. A coordinated research programme (CRP) was initiated for investigating the application of TLC detection methods to complement the instrumental techniques in pesticide residue analysis. An initial technical contract provided proof of the concept and elaborated the basic procedures, including a substantial database of retention factors and minimum detectable quantities of pesticides. To satisfy the demands from the eligible laboratories, two similar projects were started in 1997 and 1998. The titles of the projects were as follows: (i) Validation of Thin-layer Chromatographic Screening Methods for Pesticide Residue Analysis; and (ii) Alternative Methods to Gas and High Performance Liquid Chromatography for Pesticide Residue Analysis in Grain. Scientists from 18 countries participated in the above noted two projects. The major tasks of this programme were to adapt the methods, check the repeatability and reproducibility of Rf values, the minimum detectable quantities (MDQ) and apply the methods for determining various pesticide residues in representative matrices. Furthermore, they have extended the methods to other pesticides and commodities of interest in their countries and validated the methods elaborated. This TECDOC includes the most

  13. QuEChERS sample preparation approach for mass spectrometric analysis of pesticide residues in foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter describes an easy, rapid, and low-cost sample preparation approach for the determination of pesticide residues in foods using gas and/or liquid chromatographic (GC and/or LC) analytical separation and mass spectrometric (MS) detection. The approach is known as QuEChERS, which stands fo...

  14. Analysis of 10 systemic pesticide residues in various baby foods using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Angel; Abd El-Aty, A M; Park, Jong-Hyouk; Goudah, Ayman; Rahman, Md Musfiqur; Do, Jung-Ah; Choi, Ok-Ja; Shim, Jae-Han

    2014-06-01

    Ten systemic pesticides, comprising methomyl, thiamethoxam, acetamiprid, carbofuran, fosthiazate, metalaxyl, azoxystrobin, diethofencarb, propiconazole, and difenoconazole, were detected in 13 baby foods (cereals, boiled potatoes, fruit and milk) using QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe) for sample preparation and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry for analysis. The matrix-matched calibration curves showed good linearity with determination coefficients (R(2) ) >0.992. The limits of detection and quantitation were 0.0015-0.003 and 0.005-0.01 mg/kg, respectively. The mean recoveries of three different concentrations ranged from 69.2 to 127.1% with relative standard deviations pesticide residues. This method is suitable for the identification and quantification of systemic pesticides with matrix-matched standards in various baby foods. PMID:24861738

  15. Cost effective screening methods for pesticide residue analysis in fruits, vegetables and cereal grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports the results of studies performed to investigate the potential of applying thin layer chromatography (TLC) detection in combination with selected extraction and cleanup methods, for providing an alternative cost-effective analytical procedure for screening and confirmation of pesticide residues in plant commodities. The extraction was carried out with ethyl acetate and an on-line extraction method applying an acetone-dichloromethane mixture. The extracts were cleaned up with SX-3 gel, an adsorbent mixture of active carbon, magnesia, and diatomaceous earth, and on silica micro cartridges. The Rf values of 118 pesticides were tested in eleven elution systems with UV, and eight biotest methods or and chemical detection reagents. Cabbage, green peas, orange, and tomatoes were selected as representative sample matrices for fruits and vegetables, while maize, rice and wheat represented cereal grains. As an internal quality control measure, marker compounds were applied on each plate to verify the proper elution and detection conditions. The Rf values varied in the different elution systems. The best separation (widest Rf range) was achieved with silica gel (SG)-ethyl acetate (0.05-0.7), SG-benzene, (0.02-0.7) and reverse phase RP-18 F-254S layer with acetone:methanol:water (30:30:30 v/v) (0.1-0.8). The relative standard deviation of Rf values (CVRf) within-laboratory reproducibility was generally less than 20%, except below 0.2 Rf, where the CVRf rapidly increased with decreasing Rf values. The fungi spore inhibition, chloroplast inhibition and enzyme inhibition were found most suitable for detection of pesticides primarily for confirming their identity or screening for known substances. Their use for determination of pesticide residues in samples of unknown origin is not recommended. (author)

  16. Analysis of Bioenergy Residues (biochar and digestate) to Study the Fate of Pesticides for Biopurification Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, S.

    2015-12-01

    To overcome the problem of on farm point sources of pollution, environmental friendly and low cost technology filter systems are under development. Processes like sorption-desorption, dissipation behavior of three radiolabeled pesticides (Bentazone, Boscalid and Pyrimethanil) has been investigated at lab scale. Biochar and digestate mixtures with two types of soil (sandy and silt loam) had been used as a biofilter test material for a respiration study (over three month's time period) instead of conventional soil, peat and straw mixtures. The results show that digestate is an easily available C-source leading to highest release of CO2-C. It was found that with the addition of even a small amount (1 % W/W) of biochar there is a profound suppression in the CO2-C release.The driving mechanism for this suppression can be manifold like negative priming, chemisorption of CO2-C on biochar or combinations of all. Further, the fate of applied organic contaminants to biomixtures depends on factors like soil properties as well as biological degradation by soil microbes. To analyze the degradation potential of the different soil/amendment mixtures on pesticides a degradation study was performed. The results from the 14C labelled pesticides study indicated that a mixture of digestate (5%) and biochar (5%) well balanced the mineralization (~20% for bentazone, ~6% for boscalid and ~2% for pyrimethanil) and sorption process (>85% non-extractable residues for all pesticides) resulting in favorable dissipation process. To investigate the sorption-desorption potential of the above pesticides a batch equilibrium study was carried out with selected biomixtures. A higher Kd (>1500 L kg-1), kf (>400 μM1-1/nf L1/nfkg-1) and KL (>40 L kg-1) was obtained for all pesticides for the soil/digestate/biochar mixtures, which had a higher organic matter content. SUVA254 values justified the aromatic character of digestate (5%) and biochar (5%) mixture which showed highest Koc values among all

  17. Analysis of tomato matrix effect in pesticide residue quantification through QuEChERS and single quadrupole GC/MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana M Domínguez

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The detection of pesticide in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. matrix using Gas Chromatography hyphenated to Mass Spectrometry detector (GC/MS can affect the sensitivity of the analysis by enhancement or suppression of their chromatography response, the percentages of recoveries and leading to errors in the quantification of the pesticides. In this study, the matrix effect was investigated using nine pesticides, and "Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe" (QuEChERS-GC/MS analytical technique was validated for pesticides multiresidue analysis. The matrix effect was determined using not statistical and statistical procedures including ANOVA, with similar results. Strong negative matrix effect was found for the pesticides trifluralin, 4,4'-DDT, and permethrin, resulting in the increment of the chromatogram background and a decrease in their detection responses. Contrary, an enhancement induced by the matrix presence was obtained for carbaryl and azinphos methyl, showing a positive medium matrix effect. While, dimethoate, simazine, 4,4'-DDE, and iprodione did not exhibit matrix effect. The detection limits (LOD obtained, varied from 0.003 to 0.1 mg kg-1. Reproducibility was less than 20% for each pesticide. Recoveries were found to be between 71% and 121%, except for dimethoate, carbaryl, and azinphos methyl which reached values lower than 70%. Recoveries relative standard deviations were less than 22%. QuEChERS-GC/MS technique was used for evaluation of fresh commercial tomatoes samples, detecting carbaryl in all of them, but in concentration levels lower than the maximum residue limits according to regulations of Codex.

  18. Evaluation of gas chromatography - electron ionization - full scan high resolution Orbitrap mass spectrometry for pesticide residue analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mol, Hans G J; Tienstra, Marc; Zomer, Paul

    2016-09-01

    Gas chromatography with electron ionization and full scan high resolution mass spectrometry with an Orbitrap mass analyzer (GC-EI-full scan Orbitrap HRMS) was evaluated for residue analysis. Pesticides in fruit and vegetables were taken as an example application. The relevant aspects for GC-MS based residue analysis, including the resolving power (15,000 to 120,000 FWHM at m/z 200), scan rate, dynamic range, selectivity, sensitivity, analyte identification, and utility of existing EI-libraries, are assessed and discussed in detail. The optimum acquisition conditions in full scan mode (m/z 50-500) were a resolving power of 60,000 and an automatic-gain-control target value of 3E6. These conditions provided (i) an optimum mass accuracy: within 2 ppm over a wide concentration range, with/without matrix, enabling the use of ±5 ppm mass extraction windows (ii) adequate scan speed: minimum 12 scans/peak, (iii) an intra-scan dynamic range sufficient to achieve LOD/LOQs ≤0.5 pg in fruit/vegetable matrices (corresponding to ≤0.5 μg kg(-1)) for most pesticides. EI-Orbitrap spectra were consistent over a very wide concentration range (5 orders) with good match values against NIST (EI-quadrupole) spectra. The applicability for quantitative residue analysis was verified by validation of 54 pesticides in three matrices (tomato, leek, orange) at 10 and 50 μg/kg. The method involved a QuEChERS-based extraction with a solvent switch into iso-octane, and 1 μL hot splitless injection into the GC-HRMS system. A recovery between 70 and 120% and a repeatability RSD pesticides could be identified according to the applicable EU criteria for GC-HRMS (SANTE/11945/2015). GC-EI-full scan Orbitrap HRMS was found to be highly suited for quantitative pesticide residue analysis. The potential of qualitative screening to extend the scope makes it an attractive alternative to GC-triple quadrupole MS. PMID:27543025

  19. Analysis of Pesticide Residues in Vegetable Products%蔬菜产品农药残留状况探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘航; 杨丽; 白鸥

    2014-01-01

    In order to understand the current situation of vegetable pesticide residue in Liaoning Province, taking Tieling city as an ex-ample, we collected 461 samples from the vegetable wholesale market and retailers. Qualitative and quantitative analysis was conducted with the application of liquid chromatography of tandem mass spectrometry. Test results show that the detection rate and the amount of pesticide residues of vegetables is higher than that in fruits;detection rate of pesticides residues is lower than that of fungicides while the standard exceeding rate is the opposite; pesticide detection rate of leaf vegetables is higher than that of fruit and vegetables, while the leafy fungicides detection rate is lower than that of fruit and vegetables; and the insecticides and fungicides rate is higher than that in fruits and vegetables.%为了解目前辽宁省蔬菜农药残留情况,以铁岭市为例,对蔬菜批发市场和零售散户的蔬菜抽取了461个样品进行检测,应用液相色谱-串联质谱仪进行定性定量分析。检测结果表明:抽样样本中叶菜类蔬菜的农药残留量检出率和超标率均高于果菜类蔬菜;杀虫剂农药的残留检出率低于杀菌剂农药,而残留超标率却相反;叶菜类的杀虫剂检出率高于果菜类,而叶菜类的杀菌剂检出率却低于果菜类;叶菜类的杀虫剂和杀菌剂超标率均高于果菜类。

  20. New tendencies in isotopic analysis of pesticide residues from wines by mass spectrometry in concordance with the European standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multi-isotope analysis, the determination of isotope ratios by mass spectrometry or magnetic resonance spectroscopy, becomes increasingly used in the food industry and by national food control laboratories as a method of authenticating both raw materials and finished products. These highly sophisticated techniques are capable of determining the botanical and geographical origin of a wide variety of foodstuffs, thus providing a means of detecting product adulteration and controlling mislabelling practices which are virtually impossible to circumvent. The European Union has officially adopted the used of isotope analysis as a means of controlling sugar addition in wines. Its successful implementation in the wine-producing Member States has considerably reduced the financial losses which the Community had incurred due to over - capitalisation. Coupling mass spectrometer with gas chromatograph is used for quantitative and qualitative analysis of traces of pesticides from food. The presence of pesticides in foods is harmful for the nervous system, the cardiovascular apparatus and decreases the immunity of human body. In addition, ensuring the foods quality and safety is a requirement, which must be fulfilled for the integration in EU. The subject of this paper is the presentation of the tests results of the isotopic analysis for pesticide residues in wines, in concordance with European Standard. (authors)

  1. Acetonitrile extraction and dual-layer solid phase extraction clean-up for pesticide residue analysis in propolis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oellig, Claudia

    2016-05-01

    Propolis is a very complex mixture of substances that is produced by honey bees and is known to be a rather challenging matrix for residue analysis. Besides resins, flavonoids and phenols, high amount of wax is co-extracted resulting in immense matrix effects. Therefore a suitable clean-up is crucial and indispensable. In this study, a reliable solid phase extraction (SPE) clean-up was developed for pesticide residue analysis in propolis. The clean-up success was quickly and easily monitored by high-performance thin-layer chromatography with different detection possibilities. The final method consists of the extraction of propolis with acetonitrile according to the QuEChERS method followed by an effective extract purification on dual-layer SPE cartridges with spherical hydrophobic polystyrene-divinylbenzene resin/primary secondary amine as sorbent and a mixture of toluene/acetone (95:5, v/v) for elution. Besides fat-soluble components like waxes, flavonoids, and terpenoids, more polar compounds like organic acids, fatty acids, sugars and anthocyanins were also removed to large extent. Method performance was assessed by recovery experiments at spiking levels of 0.5 and 1mg/kg (n=5) for fourteen pesticides that are relevant for propolis. Mean recoveries determined by HPLC-MS against solvent standards were between 40 and 101%, while calculation against matrix-matched standards provided recoveries of 79-104%. Precision of recovery, assessed by relative standard deviations, were below 9%. Thus, the developed dual-layer SPE clean-up enables the reliable pesticide residue analysis in propolis and provides a suitable alternative to time-consuming clean-up procedures proposed in literature.

  2. Acetonitrile extraction and dual-layer solid phase extraction clean-up for pesticide residue analysis in propolis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oellig, Claudia

    2016-05-01

    Propolis is a very complex mixture of substances that is produced by honey bees and is known to be a rather challenging matrix for residue analysis. Besides resins, flavonoids and phenols, high amount of wax is co-extracted resulting in immense matrix effects. Therefore a suitable clean-up is crucial and indispensable. In this study, a reliable solid phase extraction (SPE) clean-up was developed for pesticide residue analysis in propolis. The clean-up success was quickly and easily monitored by high-performance thin-layer chromatography with different detection possibilities. The final method consists of the extraction of propolis with acetonitrile according to the QuEChERS method followed by an effective extract purification on dual-layer SPE cartridges with spherical hydrophobic polystyrene-divinylbenzene resin/primary secondary amine as sorbent and a mixture of toluene/acetone (95:5, v/v) for elution. Besides fat-soluble components like waxes, flavonoids, and terpenoids, more polar compounds like organic acids, fatty acids, sugars and anthocyanins were also removed to large extent. Method performance was assessed by recovery experiments at spiking levels of 0.5 and 1mg/kg (n=5) for fourteen pesticides that are relevant for propolis. Mean recoveries determined by HPLC-MS against solvent standards were between 40 and 101%, while calculation against matrix-matched standards provided recoveries of 79-104%. Precision of recovery, assessed by relative standard deviations, were below 9%. Thus, the developed dual-layer SPE clean-up enables the reliable pesticide residue analysis in propolis and provides a suitable alternative to time-consuming clean-up procedures proposed in literature. PMID:27059398

  3. Trace analysis of multi-class pesticide residues in Chinese medicinal health wines using gas chromatography with electron capture detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Wei-Jun; Liu, Qiu-Tao; Kong, Dan-Dan; Liu, Qian-Zhen; Ma, Xin-Ping; Yang, Mei-Hua

    2016-02-01

    A method is described for multi-residue, high-throughput determination of trace levels of 22 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and 5 pyrethroid pesticides (PYPs) in Chinese medicinal (CM) health wines using a QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe) based extraction method and gas chromatography-electron capture detection (GC-ECD). Several parameters were optimized to improve preparation and separation time while still maintaining high sensitivity. Validation tests of spiked samples showed good linearities for 27 pesticides (R = 0.9909-0.9996) over wide concentration ranges. Limits of detection (LODs) and quantification (LOQs) were measured at ng/L levels, 0.06-2 ng/L and 0.2-6 ng/L for OCPs and 0.02-3 ng/L and 0.06-7 ng/L for PYPs, respectively. Inter- and intra-day precision tests showed variations of 0.65-9.89% for OCPs and 0.98-13.99% for PYPs, respectively. Average recoveries were in the range of 47.74-120.31%, with relative standard deviations below 20%. The developed method was then applied to analyze 80 CM wine samples. Beta-BHC (Benzene hexachloride) was the most frequently detected pesticide at concentration levels of 5.67-31.55 mg/L, followed by delta-BHC, trans-chlordane, gamma-BHC, and alpha-BHC. The validated method is simple and economical, with adequate sensitivity for trace levels of multi-class pesticides. It could be adopted by laboratories for this and other types of complex matrices analysis.

  4. Application of gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry for target and non-target analysis of pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández Hernández, Félix; Beltrán Arandes, Joaquim; Portolés Nicolau, Tania; Pitarch Arquimbau, María Elena; Cervera Vidal, María Inés

    2012-01-01

    In this work, the capability of gas chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC–TOF MS) for quantitative analysis of pesticide residues has been evaluated. A multiclass method for rapid screening of pesticides (insecticides, acaricides, herbicides and fungicides) in fruit and vegetable matrices has been developed and validated, including detection, identification and quantification of the analytes. To this aim, several food matrices were selected: high water content (apples...

  5. Management of pesticide residues in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Zeng-long; DONG Feng-shou; XU Jun; LIU Xin-gang; ZHENG Yong-quan

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviewed management of pesticide residues in China including laws and regulations, the supervision system, the standard system, and the quality and safety of agricultural products. The process of establishment and international-ization of standards for pesticide residues were also discussed. Results indicate that the progress of the management of pesticide residues has been steadily made in China. However, the folowing aspects which refer to updates to regulations, supervising efifciency, standard system, risk assessment, international cooperation and communication, should be further improved. China should draw lessons from international experience, and then establish its own management system, which focuses on pesticides controls by strictly folowing relevant laws and technical standards to ensure the quality and safety of agricultural products.

  6. Contribution of Sample Processing to Variability and Accuracy of the Results of Pesticide Residue Analysis in Plant Commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrus, Árpád; Buczkó, Judit; Hamow, Kamirán Á; Juhász, Viktor; Solymosné Majzik, Etelka; Szemánné Dobrik, Henriett; Szitás, Róbert

    2016-08-10

    Significant reduction of concentration of some pesticide residues and substantial increase of the uncertainty of the results derived from the homogenization of sample materials have been reported in scientific papers long ago. Nevertheless, performance of methods is frequently evaluated on the basis of only recovery tests, which exclude sample processing. We studied the effect of sample processing on accuracy and uncertainty of the measured residue values with lettuce, tomato, and maize grain samples applying mixtures of selected pesticides. The results indicate that the method is simple and robust and applicable in any pesticide residue laboratory. The analytes remaining in the final extract are influenced by their physical-chemical properties, the nature of the sample material, the temperature of comminution of sample, and the mass of test portion extracted. Consequently, validation protocols should include testing the effect of sample processing, and the performance of the complete method should be regularly checked within internal quality control. PMID:26755282

  7. Analysis of six organophosphorus pesticide residues in apples and pears using cloud-point extraction coupled with HPLC-UV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lijin; Chen, Fang; Zhang, Wenhuan; Pan, Canping

    2014-01-01

    A cloud-point extraction (CPE) method with Triton X-114 has been developed for analysis of six organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs) in apples and pears. In this CPE procedure, the effects of the surfactant volume, mass of sodium chloride, equilibrium temperature, equilibrium time, and pH on the extraction procedure were investigated. Under the optimal CPE conditions, the analytes were enriched 20-fold and the LODs dropped to 0.44-5.20 microg/kg. Furthermore, the proposed extraction method was validated by the correlation coefficient (R2) of the calibration curve, repeatability (RSD, n = 6), and fortified recoveries, which were 0.9967-0.9993, 2.7-6.5, and 74.7-104.5%, respectively. Based on these results, it could be concluded that the proposed CPE method with Triton X-114 was suitable for the effective extraction and enrichment of OPP residues in the apple and pear samples.

  8. Liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry for pesticide residue analysis in fruit and vegetables: screening and quantitative studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Ramos, M M; Ferrer, C; Malato, O; Agüera, A; Fernández-Alba, A R

    2013-04-26

    This work reviews the current state-of-the-art of liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS) techniques applied to the analysis of pesticides in fruit-based and vegetable-based matrices. Nowadays, simultaneous trace analysis of hundreds of pesticides from different classes is required, preferably in just one run. The most commonly used QqQ-MS technology presents certain limitations in its application in a cost and effective way when analyzing a large number of pesticides. Thus, this review includes HRMS technology as a reliable complementary alternative allowing the analysis of a wide range of pesticides in food. Its capabilities and limitations in identifying, confirming and quantifying pesticides are discussed. HRMS instruments can adequately address such issues; however, the main drawbacks are as a result of insufficient prior optimization of the operational parameters during non-target analysis in full-scan mode and due to software shortcomings.

  9. Evaluation of a recent product to remove lipids and other matrix co-extractives in the analysis of pesticide residues and environmental contaminants in foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study demonstrates the application of a novel lipid removal product to the residue analysis of 65 pesticides and 52 environmental contaminants in kale, pork, salmon, and avocado by fast, low pressure gas chromatography – tandem mass spectrometry (LPGC-MS/MS). Sample preparation involves QuEChE...

  10. Comparison of QuEChERS sample preparation methods for the analysis of pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables

    Science.gov (United States)

    This article describes the comparison of different versions of an easy, rapid, and low-cost sample preparation approach for the determination of pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables by concurrent use of gas and liquid chromatography (GC and LC) coupled to mass spectrometry (MS) for detection....

  11. Application of zirconium dioxide nanoparticle sorbent for the clean-up step in post-harvest pesticide residue analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uclés, Ana; Herrera López, Sonia; Dolores Hernando, Maria; Rosal, Roberto; Ferrer, Carmen; Fernández-Alba, Amadeo R

    2015-11-01

    The use of yttria-stabilized zirconium dioxide nanoparticles as d-SPE clean-up sorbent for a rapid and sensitive liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) method for the determination of post-harvest fungicides (carbaryl, carbendazim, chlorpropham, diphenylamine, ethoxyquin, flutriafol, imazalil, iprodione, methomyl, myclobutanil, pirimiphos-methyl, prochloraz, pyrimethanil, thiabendazole, thiophanate-methyl and tolclofos-methyl) in orange and pear samples has been evaluated and validated. The sample preparation was a modification of the QuEChERS extraction method using yttria-stabilized zirconium dioxide and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) nanoparticles as the solid phase extraction (d-SPE) clean-up sorbents prior to injecting the ten-fold diluted extracts into the LC system. By using the yttria-stabilized zirconium dioxide extraction method, more recoveries in the 70-120% range were obtained - thus this method was used for the validation. Quantification was carried out using a matrix-matched calibration curve which was linear in the 1-500 µg kg(-1) range for almost all the pesticides studied. The validated limit of quantification was 10 µg kg(-1) for most of the studied compounds, except chlorpropham, ethoxyquin and thiophanate-methyl. Pesticide recoveries at the 10 and 100 µg kg(-1) concentration levels were satisfactory, with values between 77% and 120% and relative standard deviations (RSD) lower than 10% (n=5). The developed method was applied for the determination of selected fungicides in 20 real orange and pear samples. Four different pesticide residues were detected in 10 of these commodities; 20% of the samples contained pesticide residues at a quantifiable level (equal to or above the LOQs) for at least one pesticide residue. The most frequently-detected pesticide residues were: carbendazim, thiabendazole and imazalil-all were below the MRL. The highest concentration found was imazalil at 1175 µg kg

  12. Pesticides residue levels in selected fruits from some Ghanaian markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The amount of some pesticide residues in fruits was monitored at five (5) Accra Metropolis markets. Locally produced fruits (pawpaw and tomato) and imported apples were purchased from two supermarkets and three urban markets in Accra metropolis and analyzed by gas chromatography equipped with electron capture detector for pesticide residues. A total of 220 samples of fruits were extracted and analyzed for pesticide residues, mainly organochlorines (γ-HCH, δ-HCH, aldrin, heptachlor, γ-chlordane, heptachlor epoxide, α-endosulfan, p,p'-DDE, endrin, β-endosulfan, o,p'-DDT, endrin aldehyde, p,p'- DDT, endrin ketone and methoxychlor). The data showed that most of the fruit samples analyzed contain residues of the monitored pesticides above the accepted maximum residue limit (MRL) as adopted by the FAO/WHO Codex Alimentarius Commission (CAC). The results obtained showed that 38.6 % fruit samples showed results above the MRL, 48.7 % were below the MRL and 12.7 % contained no detectable level of the monitored pesticides. Data analysis of health risk estimates indicated that, particularly γ-HCH, δ-HCH, o,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDE or p,p'-DDT do not pose a direct hazard to human health, although present in the three fruits (pawpaw, tomato and apple). However, heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide, endrin aldehyde, and endrin ketone levels exceeded the reference dose, indicating a great potential for systemic toxicity, especially in children who are considered to be the most vulnerable population subgroup. Lastly, the public is aware of pesticide residues in fruits and advocates for the curtailing of pesticide use on horticulture produce or strong educational programmes for farmers on control and safer use of pesticides. (au)

  13. The 2011 European Union Report on Pesticide Residues in Food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The report presents the results of the control activities related to pesticide residues in food carried out in 2011 in 29 European countries (27 Member States and 2 EFTA countries. The report also presents a dietary risk assessment. On the basis of the detailed analysis of the results, EFSA derived some recommendations aimed at improving the enforcement of the European pesticide residue legislation. In 2011, more than 79,000 samples of more than 600 food products were tested for pesticide residues throughout Europe. Nearly 900 pesticides were sought and less than 400 were detected in measurable amounts. In the framework of the EU-coordinated monitoring programme which covered more than 12,000 samples 98.1 % of the tested food samples analysed complied with the legal limits and that 53.4 % of samples contained no measurable residues at all. The dietary risk assessment that was performed to estimate the long-term exposure of consumers confirmed that there was no long-term risk to consumer health through their diets from 99 % of the 171 pesticides assessed. For two pesticides (dieldrin and heptachlor the estimated worst-case exposure exceeded the toxicological reference value, indicating there may be a potential for an impact on consumer health. Neither compound is authorised for use as a pesticide, but due to historical use and the high persistence of the molecules and their capacity to bioaccumulate, they are still present in the food chain. The risk assessment that focussed on the short-term exposure revealed that potential consumer health concerns could not be excluded in 253 instances should the products that contained residues in high concentrations be consumed in high amounts. Finally, an acute risk assessment was carried out for pears that contained multiple residues of pesticides that share the same toxicological effects. Two samples of pears exceeded the toxicological threshold for cumulative effects.

  14. Multiplug filtration clean-up with multiwalled carbon nanotubes in the analysis of pesticide residues using LC-ESI-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Pengyue; Fan, Sufang; Yu, Chuanshan; Zhang, Junyan; Pan, Canping

    2013-10-01

    A novel design for a rapid clean-up method was developed for the analysis of pesticide residues in fruit and vegetables followed by LC-ESI-MS/MS. The acetonitrile-based sample extraction technique was used to obtain the extracts, and further clean-up was carried out by applying the streamlined procedure on a multiplug filtration clean-up column coupled with a syringe. The sorbent used for clean-up in this research is multiwalled carbon nanotubes, which was mixed with anhydrous magnesium sulfate to remove water from the extracts. This method was validated on 40 representative pesticides and apple, cabbage, and potato sample matrices spiked at two concentration levels of 10 and 100 μg/kg. It exhibited recoveries between 71 and 117% for most pesticides with RSDs 0.995 for most studied pesticides between concentration levels of 10-500 μg/L. The LOQs for 40 pesticides ranged from 2 to 50 μg/kg. The developed method was successfully applied to the determination of pesticide residues in market fruit and vegetable samples. PMID:23939876

  15. Multiplug filtration clean-up with multiwalled carbon nanotubes in the analysis of pesticide residues using LC-ESI-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Pengyue; Fan, Sufang; Yu, Chuanshan; Zhang, Junyan; Pan, Canping

    2013-10-01

    A novel design for a rapid clean-up method was developed for the analysis of pesticide residues in fruit and vegetables followed by LC-ESI-MS/MS. The acetonitrile-based sample extraction technique was used to obtain the extracts, and further clean-up was carried out by applying the streamlined procedure on a multiplug filtration clean-up column coupled with a syringe. The sorbent used for clean-up in this research is multiwalled carbon nanotubes, which was mixed with anhydrous magnesium sulfate to remove water from the extracts. This method was validated on 40 representative pesticides and apple, cabbage, and potato sample matrices spiked at two concentration levels of 10 and 100 μg/kg. It exhibited recoveries between 71 and 117% for most pesticides with RSDs 0.995 for most studied pesticides between concentration levels of 10-500 μg/L. The LOQs for 40 pesticides ranged from 2 to 50 μg/kg. The developed method was successfully applied to the determination of pesticide residues in market fruit and vegetable samples.

  16. Pesticide Instrumental Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This workshop was the evaluation of the pesticides impact on the vegetable matrix with the purpose to determine the analysis by GC / M S. The working material were lettuce matrix, chard and a mix of green leaves and pesticides.

  17. Earthworm tolerance to residual agricultural pesticide contamination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Givaudan, Nicolas; Binet, Françoise; Le Bot, Barbara;

    2014-01-01

    conventional cultivation to organic pasture. Soil multiresidual pesticide analysis revealed up to 9 molecules including atrazine up to 2.4 ng g -1 dry soil. Exposure history of endogeic Aporrectodea caliginosa and Allolobophora chlorotica modified their responses to pesticides. In the field, activities...

  18. Monitoring of pesticide residues in vegetarian diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Beena; Kathpal, T S

    2009-04-01

    Samples (28) of complete vegetarian diet consumed from morning till night i.e. tea, milk, breakfast, lunch, snacks, dinner, sweet dish etc. were collected from homes, hostels and hotels periodically from Hisar and analysed for detecting the residues of organochlorine, synthetic pyrethriod, organophosphate and carbamate insecticides. The estimation was carried out by using multi-residue analytical technique employing gas chromatograph (GC)-electron capture detector and GC-nitrogen phosphorous detector systems equipped with capillary columns. The whole diet sample was macerated in a mixer grinder and a representative sample in duplicate was analyzed for residues keeping the average daily diet of an adult to be 1,300 g. On comparing the data, it was found that actual daily intake (microgram/person/day) of lindane in two and endosulfan in four samples exceeded the acceptable daily intake. Residues of other pesticides in all the diet samples were lower than the acceptable daily intake (ADI) of the respective pesticides. The study concluded that although all the diet samples were found contaminated with one or the other pesticide, the actual daily intake of only a few pesticides was higher than their respective ADI. More extensive study covering other localities of Haryana has been suggested to know the overall scenario of contamination of vegetarian diet. PMID:18386151

  19. 7 CFR 29.427 - Pesticide residue standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pesticide residue standards. 29.427 Section 29.427... REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Regulations Miscellaneous § 29.427 Pesticide residue standards. The maximum concentration of residues of the following pesticides allowed in flue-cured or burley tobacco, expressed...

  20. Multi-residue analysis of 26 organochlorine pesticides in Alpinia oxyphylla by GC-ECD after solid phase extraction and acid cleanup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiangsheng; Zhou, Yakui; Kong, Weijun; Gong, Bao; Chen, Deli; Wei, Jianhe; Yang, Meihua

    2016-04-01

    A simple and effective multi-residue method was developed and validated for the analysis of 26 organochlorine pesticide residues in Alpinia oxyphylla by a gas chromatography with an electron capture detector (GC-ECD). The target pesticides were extracted by sonication and cleaned up with florisil solid phase extraction and sulphuric acid. Some crucial parameters, including extraction solvent and time, sorbent type, elute solvent and concentration of sulphuric acid were optimized to improve the performance of sample preparation procedure. The optimized method gave high sensitivity with detection limit ranging from 0.1 to 2.0μg/kg. Matrix-matched calibration was employed for the quantification, and a wide linear range (from 1.0 to 1000μg/kg) with r(2) values ranging from 0.9971 to 0.9998 was obtained. For the majority of the tested pesticides, the average recoveries were in acceptable range (between 70% and 110%) with relative standard deviation values below 15.0%. Matrix effect was evaluated for target compounds through the study of ratio of peak area obtained in the solvent and blank matrix. The proposed method was applied to simultaneously analyze 26 pesticides in 55 batches of Alpinia oxyphylla samples. 3 samples were found to be positive with four pesticides (α-BHC, quintozene, trans-chlordane and op'-DDD), which were confirmed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in selective ion monitoring (SIM) mode. PMID:26990736

  1. Validation of a QuEChERS-based gas chromatographic method for analysis of pesticide residues in Cassia angustifolia (senna).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathy, Vandana; Saha, Ajoy; Patel, Dilipkumar J; Basak, B B; Shah, Paresh G; Kumar, Jitendra

    2016-08-01

    A simple multi-residue method based on modified QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe) approach was established for the determination of 17 organochlorine (OC), 15 organophosphorous (OP) and 7 synthetic pyrethroid (SP) pesticides in an economically important medicinal plant of India, Senna (Cassia angustifolia), by gas chromatography coupled to electron capture and flame thermionic detectors (GC/ECD/FTD) and confirmation of residues was done on gas chromatograph coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The developed method was validated by testing the following parameters: linearity, limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantification (LOQ), matrix effect, accuracy-precision and measurement uncertainty; the validation study clearly demonstrated the suitability of the method for its intended application. All pesticides showed good linearity in the range 0.01-1.0 μg mL(-1) for OCs and OPs and 0.05-2.5 μg mL(-1) for SPs with correlation coefficients higher than 0.98. The method gave good recoveries for most of the pesticides (70-120%) with intra-day and inter-day precision < 20% in most of the cases. The limits of detection varied from 0.003 to 0.03 mg kg(-1), and the LOQs were determined as 0.01-0.049 mg kg(-1). The expanded uncertainties were <30%, which was distinctively less than a maximum default value of ±50%. The proposed method was successfully applied to determine pesticide residues in 12 commercial market samples obtained from different locations in India. PMID:27153296

  2. Validation of a QuEChERS-based gas chromatographic method for analysis of pesticide residues in Cassia angustifolia (senna).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathy, Vandana; Saha, Ajoy; Patel, Dilipkumar J; Basak, B B; Shah, Paresh G; Kumar, Jitendra

    2016-08-01

    A simple multi-residue method based on modified QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe) approach was established for the determination of 17 organochlorine (OC), 15 organophosphorous (OP) and 7 synthetic pyrethroid (SP) pesticides in an economically important medicinal plant of India, Senna (Cassia angustifolia), by gas chromatography coupled to electron capture and flame thermionic detectors (GC/ECD/FTD) and confirmation of residues was done on gas chromatograph coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The developed method was validated by testing the following parameters: linearity, limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantification (LOQ), matrix effect, accuracy-precision and measurement uncertainty; the validation study clearly demonstrated the suitability of the method for its intended application. All pesticides showed good linearity in the range 0.01-1.0 μg mL(-1) for OCs and OPs and 0.05-2.5 μg mL(-1) for SPs with correlation coefficients higher than 0.98. The method gave good recoveries for most of the pesticides (70-120%) with intra-day and inter-day precision < 20% in most of the cases. The limits of detection varied from 0.003 to 0.03 mg kg(-1), and the LOQs were determined as 0.01-0.049 mg kg(-1). The expanded uncertainties were <30%, which was distinctively less than a maximum default value of ±50%. The proposed method was successfully applied to determine pesticide residues in 12 commercial market samples obtained from different locations in India.

  3. Gas Chromatographic Analysis of Pesticide Residues in Vegetables%气相色谱法分析蔬菜中的农药残留

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王雪; 徐燕; 丁永冲

    2013-01-01

    本文按照NY/T 761-2008标准方法,采用气相色谱仪检测了4992个蔬菜样品中14种有机磷农药的残留情况,并根据所得数据从不同季节、不同蔬菜种类等角度分析了蔬菜中农药残留的情况.结果表明农药残留超标情况集中出现在春秋季,而夏季超标率则较低,而且绿叶菜类蔬菜的超标状况最严重.此外,甲胺磷等禁用农药仍有一定的检出.本文还对蔬菜农药残留超标问题进行了初步分析,提出了一些参考措施.%In this paper,14 kinds of organophosphorus pesticide residues in 4992 vegetable samples were detected by gas chromatography through the NY/T 761-2008 standard method,and based on the data from the perspective of different seasons,different types of vegetable,the situation of pesticide residues in vegetables were analyzed.The results showed that excessive pesticide residues concentrate in spring and autumn,and lower in summer,and leafy green vegetables exceede the most serious situation.In addition,methamidophos and other banned pesticides still have certain detection.Finaly,the preliminary analysis over the issue of pesticide residues in vegetables was done and the proposal was put forward.

  4. Persistent organochlorine pesticide residues in animal feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nag, Subir Kumar; Raikwar, Mukesh K

    2011-03-01

    Animal products like milk and meat are often found to be contaminated with residues of persistent pesticides and other toxic substances. The major source of entry of these compounds to animal body is the contaminated feed and fodder. So, unless the residues are managed at this stage, it is very difficult to prevent contamination in milk and meat. Therefore, the status of residue level of most persistent organochlorinated pesticides (OCP) in feed and fodder should be monitored regularly. The frequency of occurrence and contamination levels of OCP residues in different kinds of animal concentrate feed and straw samples collected from Bundelkhand region of India were determined. Out of 533 total samples, 301 i.e. 56.47% samples were positive containing residues of different OCPs like hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) isomers, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) complex, endosulfan and dicofol. Among different HCH isomers, the mean concentration of β-HCH was highest, and total HCH varied from 0.01 to 0.306 mg kg(-1). In case of DDT complex, i.e. DDD, DDE and DDT, the concentration ranged between 0.016 and 0.118 mg kg(-1) and the pp(|) isomers were more frequently encountered than their op(|) counterparts. Endosulfan was also found in some samples in concentration ranging from 0.009 to 0.237 mg/kg, but dicofol could be recorded in very few samples. Although feed samples were found to contain OC residues, after comparing their levels in positive samples with the limiting values of respective pesticides, only very few were found to exceed the threshold level. Otherwise, they were mostly within safe limits. PMID:20443138

  5. Organochlorine Pesticide Residues in the Processing of Pressed Cheese

    OpenAIRE

    Dorin Ţibulcă; Mirela Jimborean; Dan Sălăgean; Ariana Caraba

    2015-01-01

    The persistence of pesticide residues in food and environment determined UN institutions to track their presence and establish rules of tolerance in foodstuffs of animal origin. Pesticide use leads to their presence as residue in foods. The research objectives were to establish the level of organo-chlorine pesticides in raw milk and their evolution during the process of obtaining pressed cheese.

  6. Determination of organophosphorus pesticide residues in tomatoes by gas chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chloropyriphos and malathion are two organophosphorus pesticides from many others pesticides widely used by famers in agriculture .Because of their bad effect on human health, officials standards are set by the international organisations and communities to ensure safer food for consumer .In the same way, scientists over the world are working hard to develop new detection techniques responding to the international requirements. In this study, an ' IAEA-ethylacetate method ', an adaptation of the popular QuEChERS multi residue method, was optimized to analyse chloropyriphos and Malathion residues in tomatoes .Ethyl-Acetate was used as an extraction solvent the PSA was kept for the clean up procedure. GC-NPD is used for samples analysis .The method optimized is specifique, selective with a recovery averaged more than 70 pour cent. A complete validation of the method is necessary to be used for routine analysis.

  7. Automated multi-plug filtration cleanup for liquid chromatographic-tandem mass spectrometric pesticide multi-residue analysis in representative crop commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Yuhong; Zhang, Jingru; Zhang, Yuan; Li, Fangbing; Han, Yongtao; Zou, Nan; Xu, Haowei; Qian, Meiyuan; Pan, Canping

    2016-09-01

    An automated multi-plug filtration cleanup (m-PFC) method on modified QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe) extracts was developed. The automatic device was aimed to reduce labor-consuming manual operation workload in the cleanup steps. It could control the volume and the speed of pulling and pushing cycles accurately. In this work, m-PFC was based on multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) mixed with other sorbents and anhydrous magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) in a packed tip for analysis of pesticide multi-residues in crop commodities followed by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) detection. It was validated by analyzing 25 pesticides in six representative matrices spiked at two concentration levels of 10 and 100μg/kg. Salts, sorbents, m-PFC procedure, automated pulling and pushing volume, automated pulling speed, and pushing speed for each matrix were optimized. After optimization, two general automated m-PFC methods were introduced to relatively simple (apple, citrus fruit, peanut) and relatively complex (spinach, leek, green tea) matrices. Spike recoveries were within 83 and 108% and 1-14% RSD for most analytes in the tested matrices. Matrix-matched calibrations were performed with the coefficients of determination >0.997 between concentration levels of 10 and 1000μg/kg. The developed method was successfully applied to the determination of pesticide residues in market samples.

  8. Determination of pesticide residues in olives by liquid extraction surface analysis followed by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gómez-Almenar, M. C.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, pesticides are essential in modern agriculture for crop protection, however, this use supposes a potential risk for human health and the environment. Traditional techniques of pesticide determination require the use of laborious and complex extraction methods to separate pesticides from the matrix, above all in fatty matrices like olives. For this reason, a new simple, rapid, cheap and selective method for the extraction and quantification of the most frequently used pesticides in olive growing has been developed. Pesticide determination was carried out by ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC coupled with triple-quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS. Mean recoveries were found in a range between 73 and 114% with relative standard deviations lower than 20% in most pesticides evaluated and the limits of detection (LODs and quantification (LOQs were lower than 4 μg· kg-1 and 8 μg· kg-1, respectively. Finally, this method was applied to the analysis of 25 olive samples where Dimethoate and Terbuthylazine were detected in some cases, but their results were lower than 15 μg· kg-1.Hoy en día los pesticidas son esenciales en la agricultura moderna para la protección de los cultivos pero su uso supone un riesgo para la salud y el medio ambiente. Las técnicas tradicionales de determinación de pesticidas requieren el uso de métodos de extracción complejos a fin de separar los pesticidas de la matriz, sobre todo en matrices grasas como las aceitunas. Por ello, se ha desarrollado un nuevo método simple, rápido, barato y selectivo para la extracción y cuantificación de los pesticidas más frecuentemente utilizados en el cultivo del olivo, empleando cromatografía líquida de ultra-resolución (UPLC acoplada a espectrometría de masas (MS/MS. Las recuperaciones alcanzadas variaron entre el 73 y 114% obteniendo desviaciones estándar relativas inferiores al 20%. Los límites de detección (LD y cuantificación (LQ fueron

  9. Removal of acidic interferences in multi-pesticides residue analysis of fruits using modified magnetic nanoparticles prior to determination via ultra-HPLC-MS/MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors describe magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles modified with 3-(N,N-diethylamino) propyltrimethoxysilane (Fe3O4-PSA NPs) for use as a sorbent for dispersive solid phase extraction of pesticide residues. The Fe3O4-PSA NPs were prepared by silanizing Fe3O4 NPs and modifying them with 3-(N,N-diethylamino) propyltrimethoxysilane. Field-emission scanning electron microscopy, FTIR and zeta potential measurements were employed to characterize the modified NPs. They were then used as an adsorbent to remove acidic interferences (such as malic acid and succinic acid), which are major interferences in LC-MS/MS analysis in causing ion suppression in the MS spectra of pesticides. In addition, graphitized carbon black (GCB) was used as an adsorbent to eliminate interferences by pigments. The use of Fe3O4-PSA NPs can replace time-consuming centrifugation as used in the so-called QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe) method. This improvement is particularly significant in high-throughput analysis. Following the optimization of the quantities of Fe3O4-PSA NPs and GCB, the method was applied to the determination of 56 pesticides in (spiked) fruits (apple, kiwi, orange and pear) by ultra-HPLC-MS/MS. The analytical ranges typically extend from 1 to 200 ng∙mL−1, and recoveries range from 60.2 to 130 % at different concentrations of all four kinds of fruits. The LOQs for the pesticides are 10 ng∙kg−1, which makes the method a viable tool for pesticide monitoring in fruits. (author)

  10. Analysis of Veterinary Drug and Pesticide Residues Using the Ethyl Acetate Multiclass/Multiresidue Method in Milk by Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imamoglu, Husniye; Oktem Olgun, Elmas

    2016-01-01

    A rapid and simple multiclass, ethyl acetate (EtOAc) multiresidue method based on liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) detection was developed for the determination and quantification of 26 veterinary drugs and 187 total pesticide residues in milk. Sample preparation was a simple procedure based on liquid-liquid extraction with ethyl acetate containing 0.1% acetic acid, followed by centrifugation and evaporation of the supernatant. The residue was dissolved in ethyl acetate with 0.1% acetic acid and centrifuged prior to LC-MS/MS analysis. Chromatographic separation of analytes was performed on an Inertsil X-Terra C18 column with acetic acid in methanol and water gradient. The repeatability and reproducibility were in the range of 2 to 13% and 6 to 16%, respectively. The average recoveries ranged from 75 to 120% with the RSD (n = 18). The developed method was validated according to the criteria set in Commission Decision 2002/657/EC and SANTE/11945/2015. The validated methodology represents a fast and cheap alternative for the simultaneous analysis of veterinary drug and pesticide residues which can be easily extended to other compounds and matrices. PMID:27293962

  11. Analysis of Veterinary Drug and Pesticide Residues Using the Ethyl Acetate Multiclass/Multiresidue Method in Milk by Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Husniye Imamoglu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A rapid and simple multiclass, ethyl acetate (EtOAc multiresidue method based on liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS detection was developed for the determination and quantification of 26 veterinary drugs and 187 total pesticide residues in milk. Sample preparation was a simple procedure based on liquid–liquid extraction with ethyl acetate containing 0.1% acetic acid, followed by centrifugation and evaporation of the supernatant. The residue was dissolved in ethyl acetate with 0.1% acetic acid and centrifuged prior to LC-MS/MS analysis. Chromatographic separation of analytes was performed on an Inertsil X-Terra C18 column with acetic acid in methanol and water gradient. The repeatability and reproducibility were in the range of 2 to 13% and 6 to 16%, respectively. The average recoveries ranged from 75 to 120% with the RSD (n=18. The developed method was validated according to the criteria set in Commission Decision 2002/657/EC and SANTE/11945/2015. The validated methodology represents a fast and cheap alternative for the simultaneous analysis of veterinary drug and pesticide residues which can be easily extended to other compounds and matrices.

  12. Distribution of multiple pesticide residues in apple segments after home processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Rie Romme; Poulsen, Mette Erecius; Hansen, H. C. B.

    2003-01-01

    The effects of washing, storing, boiling, peeling, coring and juicing on pesticide residue were investigated for field-sprayed Discovery and Jonagold apples. Residues of chlorpyrifos, cypermethrin, deltamethrin, diazinon, endosulfan, endosulfan sulfate, fenitrothion, fenpropathrin, iprodione......, kresoxim-methyl, lambda-cyhalothrin, quinalphos, tolylfluanid and vinclozolin in the processed apples were analysed by gas chromatography. Statistical analysis showed that reductions of 18-38% were required to obtain significant effects of processing practices, depending on pesticide and apple variety....... Juicing and peeling the apples significantly reduced all pesticide residues. In the case of detectable pesticide residues, 1-24% were distributed in the juice and in the peeled apple. None of the pesticide residues was significantly reduced when the apples were subject to simple washing or coring. Storing...

  13. Risk assessment and ranking of pesticide residues in Chinese pears

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zhi-xia; LIU Chuan-de; ZHAO Xu-bo; GUO Yong-ze; NIE Ji-yun; YAN Zhen; XU Guo-feng; LI Hai-fei; KUANG Li-xue; PAN Li-gang; XIE Han-zhong; WANG Cheng

    2015-01-01

    The presence of pesticide residues in pears is a serious health concern. This study presents the results from a 2-year investigation (2013–2014) that used gas chromatography, GS/MS and UPLC/MS-MS to measure the levels of 104 pesti-cides in 310 pear samples. In 93.2% of the samples, 43 pesticides were detected, of which the maximum residue levels (MRLs) were exceeded in 2.6% of the samples. Multiple residues (two to eight compounds) were present in 69.7% of the samples; one sample contained nine pesticides and one sample contained 10. Only 6.8% of the samples did not contain residues. To assess the health risks, the pesticide residue data have been combined with daily pear consumption data for children and adult populations. A deterministic model was used to assess the chronic and acute exposures based on the Joint Meeting on Pesticide Residues (JMPR) method. A potential acute risk was demonstrated for children in the case of bifenthrin, which was found to be present at 105.36% of the acute reference dose (ARfD) value. The long-term exposure of the Chinese consumer to pesticide residues through the consumption of raw pears was far below the acceptable daily intake (ADI) criterion. Additionally, the matrix ranking scheme was used to classify risk subgroups of pesticides and pear samples. In general, 95.5% of samples were deemed to be safe and nine pesticides were classiifed as being of a relatively high risk. The ifndings indicated that the occurrence of pesticide residues in pears should not be considered a serious public health problem. Nevertheless, a more detailed study is required for vulnerable consumer groups, especially children. Continuous monitoring of pesticides in pears and tighter regulation of pesticide residue standards are recommended.

  14. Types of pesticides and determination of their residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pesticide is any material or component used to protect from pests. Its toxic effect is related to the chemical structure, which can be divided into 3 types : 1- Metal pesticides : Sulphur, cupper, zinc, mercury; 2- Vegetal pesticides : advanced and less toxic to the general health; 3- Synthetic organo pesticides : organo chlorine, organophosphorous, carbamate and pyrethroids. Pesticides in the soil undergo biological dissociation according to their concentration and chemical structure. High concentration of the pesticides in the soil may lead to fertility decrease due to destruction of micro-organisms by the pesticides. Many methods are used to analyze the residues of pesticides in plant or soil : 1- Chromatographic methods : Gas chromatography, gas liquid chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography; 2- Spectroscopy methods : spectrophotometer and mass spectrometer; 3- Isotopic methods : based on tracers technique which is the most sensitive and accurate method and can estimate minor amounts of the pesticides. (author)

  15. Organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticide residues in fodder and milk samples along Musi river belt, India

    OpenAIRE

    Korrapati Kotinagu; Nelapati Krishnaiah

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The present study was conducted to find the organochlorine pesticide (OCP) and organophosphorus pesticide (OPP) residues in fodder and milk samples along Musi river belt, India. Materials and Methods: Fodder and milk samples collected from the six zones of Musi river belt, Hyderabad India were analyzed by gas chromatography with electron capture detector for OCP residues and pulsated flame photometric detector for the presence of OPP residues. Results: The gas chromatographic analysis of...

  16. Organochlorine Pesticide Residues in the Processing of Pressed Cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorin Ţibulcă

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The persistence of pesticide residues in food and environment determined UN institutions to track their presence and establish rules of tolerance in foodstuffs of animal origin. Pesticide use leads to their presence as residue in foods. The research objectives were to establish the level of organo-chlorine pesticides in raw milk and their evolution during the process of obtaining pressed cheese.

  17. Pesticide residues and bees--a risk assessment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Sanchez-Bayo

    Full Text Available Bees are essential pollinators of many plants in natural ecosystems and agricultural crops alike. In recent years the decline and disappearance of bee species in the wild and the collapse of honey bee colonies have concerned ecologists and apiculturalists, who search for causes and solutions to this problem. Whilst biological factors such as viral diseases, mite and parasite infections are undoubtedly involved, it is also evident that pesticides applied to agricultural crops have a negative impact on bees. Most risk assessments have focused on direct acute exposure of bees to agrochemicals from spray drift. However, the large number of pesticide residues found in pollen and honey demand a thorough evaluation of all residual compounds so as to identify those of highest risk to bees. Using data from recent residue surveys and toxicity of pesticides to honey and bumble bees, a comprehensive evaluation of risks under current exposure conditions is presented here. Standard risk assessments are complemented with new approaches that take into account time-cumulative effects over time, especially with dietary exposures. Whilst overall risks appear to be low, our analysis indicates that residues of pyrethroid and neonicotinoid insecticides pose the highest risk by contact exposure of bees with contaminated pollen. However, the synergism of ergosterol inhibiting fungicides with those two classes of insecticides results in much higher risks in spite of the low prevalence of their combined residues. Risks by ingestion of contaminated pollen and honey are of some concern for systemic insecticides, particularly imidacloprid and thiamethoxam, chlorpyrifos and the mixtures of cyhalothrin and ergosterol inhibiting fungicides. More attention should be paid to specific residue mixtures that may result in synergistic toxicity to bees.

  18. Multivariate analysis of nutritional information of foodstuff of plant origin for the selection of representative matrices for the analysis of pesticide residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Ricardo Jorge Neves Bettencourt; Camões, Maria Filomena Gomes Ferreira Crujo

    2010-07-26

    Testing safety of foodstuffs of plant origin involves the analysis of hundreds of pesticide residues. This control is only cost-effective through the use of methods validated for the analysis of many thousands of analyte/matrix combinations. Several documents propose representative matrices of groups of matrices from which the validity of the analytical method can be extrapolated to the represented matrices after summarised experimental check of within group method performance homogeneity. Those groups are based on an evolved expert consensus based on the empirical knowledge on the current analytical procedures; they are not exhaustive, they are not objectively defined and they propose a large list of representative matrices which makes their application difficult. This work proposes grouping 240 matrices, based on the nutritional composition pattern equivalence of the analytical portion right after hydration and before solvent extraction, aiming at defining groups that observe method performance homogeneity. This grouping was based on the combined outcome of three multivariate tools, namely: Principal Component Analysis, Hierarchical Cluster Analysis and K-Mean Cluster Analysis. These tools allowed the selection of eight groups for which representative matrices with average characteristics and objective criteria to test inclusion of new matrices were established. The proposed matrices groups are homogeneous to nutritional data not considered in their definition but correlated with the studied multivariate nutritional pattern. The developed grouping that must be checked with experimental test before use was tested against small deviations in food composition and for the integration of new matrices. PMID:20638493

  19. 76 FR 3885 - Notice of Receipt of a Pesticide Petition Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-21

    ... AGENCY Notice of Receipt of a Pesticide Petition Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on... modification of regulations for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on various commodities. DATES: Comments... 174 or part 180 for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on various food commodities. EPA...

  20. 75 FR 65321 - Notice of Receipt of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-22

    ... AGENCY Notice of Receipt of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or... establishment or modification of regulations for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on various commodities... part 174 or part 180 for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on various food commodities. EPA...

  1. 75 FR 60452 - Notice of Filing of Several Pesticide Petitions for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-30

    ... AGENCY Notice of Filing of Several Pesticide Petitions for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on... of regulations for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on various commodities. DATES: Comments must... part 180 for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on various food commodities. EPA has determined...

  2. Dispersive solid-phase extraction followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for the multi-residue analysis of pesticides in raw bovine milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagnac, Thierry; Garcia-Chao, Maria; Pulleiro, Paula; Garcia-Jares, Carmen; Llompart, Maria

    2009-05-01

    A fast multi-residue method based on dispersive solid-phase extraction (DSPE) followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was developed for the simultaneous determination of 44 pesticides in raw bovine milk. Raw bovine milk samples did not percolate through SPE cartridges usually applied for pesticide extraction from homogenized pasteurized milk samples. Therefore, a DSPE technique was implemented and validated for the first time in this work. Graphitized non-porous carbon and C18 modified silica materials were tested both in combination with magnesium sulfate and bonded silica with ethylenediamine-N-propyl phase. The efficiency of the DSPE process was studied at several concentration levels obtaining the higher recoveries with C18 material. The method performance was also assessed and the limits of quantification reached the ng g(-1) level, complying with the most recent maximum residue levels. The DSPE method was also shown to be suited to both the fatty and skimmed fractions issued from raw milk. Finally, the extraction method was successfully applied to the analysis of raw milk samples collected in 23 farms of dairy cattle from NW Spain (Galicia). PMID:19268955

  3. Rapid analysis of multi-pesticide residues in lotus seeds by a modified QuEChERS-based extraction and GC-ECD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Qing; Kong, Weijun; Yang, Shihai; Yang, Meihua

    2013-05-01

    A modified quick, easy, cheap, efficient, rugged and safe method (QuEChERS) coupled to gas chromatography with electron capture detector (GC-ECD) was developed for rapid extraction and simultaneous determination of 36 pesticides in lotus seeds. The extraction solvent (acetone, ethyl acetate, acetonitrile, n-hexane and n-hexane in combination with ethyl acetate) and purifying agent (neutral alumina, primary secondary amine, graphite carbon block and florisil) for QuEChERS extraction were optimized. The GC-ECD method was in-house validated in terms of linearity, selectivity, reproducibility, stability and recovery. The limits of detection (LODs) of the developed GC-ECD method for all investigated pesticides ranged from 0.01 to 3.0μgL(-1) and limits of quantification (LOQs) from 0.05 to 10.0μgL(-1). The satisfactory data demonstrated the good reproducibility and stability of the method with relative standard deviations (RSDs) lower than 15%. Recoveries for spiked lotus seed samples were from 60.84% to 119.91% with RSDs lower than 13.06%. Two out of 24 batches of lotus seeds collected in China were found to be contaminated with trans-chlordane, which were below LOQ. This is the first attempt in China using QuEChERS to GC-ECD to determine 36 major pesticides with differences in physio-chemical properties in lotus seeds. The method described here was found to be practicable in the routine residue analysis of pesticides in lotus seeds.

  4. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes as alternative reversed-dispersive solid phase extraction materials in pesticide multi-residue analysis with QuEChERS method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Pengyue; Wang, Lei; Zhou, Li; Zhang, Fengzu; Kang, Shu; Pan, Canping

    2012-02-17

    A multi-residue method based on modified QuEChERS sample preparation with multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) as reversed-dispersive solid phase extraction (r-DSPE) material and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry determination by selected ion monitoring (GC/MS-SIM) mode was validated on 30 representative pesticides residues in vegetables and fruits. The acetonitrile-based QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe) sample preparation technique was used to obtain the extracts, and the further cleanup was carried out by applying r-DSPE. It was found that the amount of MWCNTs influenced the cleanup performance and the recoveries. The optimal amount of 10mg MWCNTs was suitable for cleaning up all selected matrices, as a suitable alternative r-DSPE material to primary secondary amine (PSA). This method was validated on cabbage, spinach, grape and orange spiked at concentration levels of 0.02 and 0.2 mg/kg. The recoveries of 30 pesticides were in the range of 71-110%, with relative standard deviations (RSDs, n=5) lower than 15%. Matrix effects were observed by comparing the slope of matrix-matched standard calibration with that of solvent. Good linearity was achieved at the concentration levels of 0.02-0.5 mg/L. The limits of quantification (LOQs) and the limits of detection (LODs) for 30 pesticides ranged from 0.003 to 0.05 mg/kg and 0.001 to 0.02 mg/kg at the signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) of 10 and 3, respectively. The method was successfully applied to analysis real samples in Beijing. In conclusion, the modified QuEChERS method with MWCNTs cleanup step showed reliable method validation performances and good cleanup effects in this study. PMID:22227363

  5. Analysis of veterinary drug and pesticide residues in animal feed by high-resolution mass spectrometry: comparison between time-of-flight and Orbitrap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Pérez, María Luz; Romero-González, Roberto; Martínez Vidal, José Luis; Garrido Frenich, Antonia

    2015-01-01

    The use of medium-high-resolution mass spectrometers (M-HRMS) provides many advantages in multi-residue analysis. A comparison between two mass spectrometers, medium-resolution (MRMS) time-of-flight (TOF) and high-resolution (HRMS) Orbitrap, has been carried out for the analysis of toxic compounds in animal feed. More than 300 compounds belonging to several classes of veterinary drugs (VDs) and pesticides have been determined in different animal feed samples using a generic extraction method. The use of a clean-up procedure has been evaluated in both instruments, and several validation parameters have been established, such as the matrix effect, linearity, recovery and sensitivity. Finally, both instruments have been used during the analysis of 18 different feed samples (including chicken, hen, rabbit and horse). Some VDs (sulfadiazine, trimethoprim, robenidine and monensin sodium) and one pesticide (chlorpyrifos) have been identified. In general, better results were obtained using the Orbitrap, such as sensitivity (1-12.5 µg kg(-1)) and recovery values (60-125%). Moreover, this analyser had several software tools, which reduced the time for data processing and were easy to use, performing quick screening for more than 450 compounds in less than 5 min. However, some disadvantages such as the high cost and a decrease in the number of detected compounds at low concentrations must be taken into account.

  6. Pesticide residues in brain tissues of dairy cattle in Lembang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indraningsih

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of pesticides to control plant diseases may cause residual formation in crops, its byproduct and environmental. Furthermore, the use of agriculture byproduct as animal feed may cause poisoning or residual formation in animal products. The purpose of this study is to investigate of pesticide residues in brain tissues of dairy cattle in relation to animal feed as a contamination source. Samples consisted of animal feeds (19 samples of fodder and 6 samples of feed, 31 samples of sera and 25 samples of brain tissues of dairy cattle collected from Lembang, West Java. Feeds and fodders were collected from dairy farms located in Lembang. Sera were directly collected from 31 heads of Frisien Holstein (FH cattle from the same location, while brain tissues of FH cattle were collected from a local animal slaughtering house. Pesticide residues were analysed using gas chromatography (GC. Both residues of organochlorines and organophosphates were detected from brain tissues with average residue concentration OP was 22.7 ppb and OC was 5.1 ppb and a total residue was 27.8 ppb. The pesticide residues in brain tissues are new information that should be taken into consideration since the Indonesian consumed this tissues as an oval. Although pesticides residue concentration was low, pathological changes were noted microscopically from the brain tissues including extracellular vacuolisation, focal necrosis, haemorrhages, dilatation of basement membrane without cellular infiltration. Both pesticide residues were also detected in sera, where OP (9.0 ppb was higher than OC (4.9 ppb. These pesticides were also detected in animal feeds consisting fodders and feeds. Residues of OP (12.0 ppb were higher than OC (1.8 ppb in feeds, but residues of OP (16.8 ppb were lower than OC (18.7 ppb in fodders. Although, pesticide residues in sera and brain tissues were below the maximum residue limits (MRL of fat, the presence of pesticides in brain tissues should be taken

  7. Public Health Implications of Pesticide Residues in Meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jadhav V.J. and Waskar V.S.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Use of pesticides in India began in 1948 when DDT was imported for malaria control and BHC for locust control. Since then various synthetic pesticides are used for protection of crops and public health. The persistence nature of some of these pesticides led to their accumulation in animal tissues and subsequently causes human dietary exposure to these pesticides through consumption of animal products viz. meat, milk, eggs and seafoods. Scientific evidence suggest that even such low dose but long term exposure can cause serious health hazards to human health and environment as well. The reports on occurrence of pesticides residues in animal products manufactured in India are fragmentary, but provide confirmation to the fact Indian consumers do get dietary exposure to these pesticides. The role of Insecticide Act and Prevention of Food Adulteration Act enforced in India for judicious pesticide use and safety of consumers of animal products is discussed. [Vet. World 2011; 4(4.000: 178-182

  8. Proficiency test on incurred and spiked pesticide residues in cereals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Mette Erecius; Christensen, Hanne Bjerre; Herrmann, Susan Strange

    2009-01-01

    A proficiency test on incurred and spiked pesticide residues in wheat was organised in 2008. The test material was grown in 2007 and treated in the field with 14 pesticides formulations containing the active substances, alpha-cypermethrin, bifentrin, carbendazim, chlormequat, chlorpyrifos...

  9. Analysis of Veterinary Drug and Pesticide Residues Using the Ethyl Acetate Multiclass/Multiresidue Method in Milk by Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Husniye Imamoglu; Elmas Oktem Olgun

    2016-01-01

    A rapid and simple multiclass, ethyl acetate (EtOAc) multiresidue method based on liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) detection was developed for the determination and quantification of 26 veterinary drugs and 187 total pesticide residues in milk. Sample preparation was a simple procedure based on liquid–liquid extraction with ethyl acetate containing 0.1% acetic acid, followed by centrifugation and evaporation of the supernatant. The residue was dissolved i...

  10. A novel device based on a fluorescent cross-responsive sensor array for detecting pesticide residue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jing; Hou, Changjun; Lei, Jincan; Huo, Danqun; Luo, Xiaogang; Dong, Liang

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, a novel, simple, rapid, and low-cost detection device for pesticide residue was constructed. A sensor array based on a cross-responsive mechanism was designed. The data collection and processing system was used to detect fluorescent signal of the sensor arrays, and to extract unique patterns of the tested pesticide residue. Four selected pesticides, carbendazim, diazine, fenvalerate, and pentachloronitrobenzene, were detected by the proposed device. Unsupervised pattern recognition methods, hierarchical cluster analysis and principal component analysis, were used to analyze the data. The results showed that the methods could 100% discriminate the four pesticide residues. According to the standard regression linear curve of the fluorescence intensity and the concentration of pesticide, the quantitative value of the pesticide was detected, and the device obtained responses at concentrations below 8 ppb, and it has a good linear relationship in the range of 0.01-1 ppm. According to the results, the proposed detection device showed excellent selectivity and discrimination ability for the pesticide residues. However, our preliminary study demonstrated that the proposed detection device has excellent potential application for the safety inspection of food.

  11. 40 CFR 158.2040 - Biochemical pesticides residue data requirements table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Biochemical pesticides residue data... (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Biochemical Pesticides § 158.2040 Biochemical pesticides residue data requirements table. (a) General. Sections 158.100 through 158.130 describe how to...

  12. 40 CFR 158.2130 - Microbial pesticides residue data requirements table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Microbial pesticides residue data... (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Microbial Pesticides § 158.2130 Microbial pesticides residue data requirements table. (a) General. Sections 158.100 through 158.130 describe how to...

  13. 40 CFR 158.2082 - Experimental use permit biochemical pesticides residue data requirements table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... pesticides residue data requirements table. 158.2082 Section 158.2082 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Biochemical Pesticides § 158.2082 Experimental use permit biochemical pesticides residue data requirements table. (a)...

  14. 40 CFR 158.2172 - Experimental use permit microbial pesticides residue data requirements table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... pesticides residue data requirements table. 158.2172 Section 158.2172 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Microbial Pesticides § 158.2172 Experimental use permit microbial pesticides residue data requirements table. (a)...

  15. Influence of different disease control pesticide strategies on multiple pesticide residue levels in apple

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Mette Erecius; Naef, A.; Gasser, S.;

    2009-01-01

    % of European Maximum Residue Levels (EU MRL) and that the number of residues present at levels above 0.01 mg kg(-1) should be limited to a maximum of four. The strategies fulfilled the requirement to use combinations of different active substances in order to prevent the emergence of resistance to pesticides......Seven pesticide application strategies were investigated to control apple scab (Venturia inaequalis) and powdery mildew (Podosphaera leucotricha) and, at the same time.. fulfil the new quality standards implemented by some German retailers. These demand that pesticide residues should be below 80....... The trials were conducted at two sites in Switzerland, in 2007, and all strategies and applications were in accordance with actual practice. Four replicates of apple samples from each strategy were then analysed for pesticide residues. The incidence of infection with apple scab and powdery mildew were...

  16. Application of gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry for target and non-target analysis of pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervera, M I; Portolés, T; Pitarch, E; Beltrán, J; Hernández, F

    2012-06-29

    In this work, the capability of gas chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF MS) for quantitative analysis of pesticide residues has been evaluated. A multiclass method for rapid screening of pesticides (insecticides, acaricides, herbicides and fungicides) in fruit and vegetable matrices has been developed and validated, including detection, identification and quantification of the analytes. To this aim, several food matrices were selected: high water content (apples, tomatoes and carrots), high acid content (oranges) and high oil content (olives) samples. The well known QuEChERS procedure was applied for extraction of pesticides, and matrix-matched calibration using relative responses versus internal standard was used for quantification. The sample extracts were analyzed by GC-TOF MS. Up to five ions using narrow window (0.02 Da)-extracted ion chromatograms at the expected retention time were monitored using a target processing method. The most abundant ion was used for quantification while the remaining ones were used for confirmation of the analyte identity. Method validation was carried out for 55 analytes in the five sample matrices tested at three concentrations (0.01, 0.05 and 0.5 mg/kg). Most recoveries were between 70% and 120% with relative standard deviations (RSDs) lower than 20% at 0.05 and 0.5mg/kg. At 0.01 mg/kg, roughly half of the pesticides could be satisfactorily validated due to sensitivity limitations of GC-TOF MS, which probably affected the ion ratios used for confirmation of identity. In the case of olive samples, results were not satisfactory due to the high complexity of the matrix. An advantage of TOF MS is the possibility to perform a non-target investigation in the samples by application of a deconvolution software, without any additional injection being required. Accurate-mass full-spectrum acquisition in TOF MS provides useful information for analytes identification, and has made feasible in this work the

  17. Development of irradiation technique on degradation residue of pesticide veterinary drugs and mycotoxins in food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irradiation technology is a new processing technology, It was widely used in food, medicines and medical supplies, chemical and other industries. In this paper, illustrated their applications in the degradation of pesticides, veterinary drugs and mycotoxins aspects residual pollution in food. Analysis of residual contaminants in food irradiation control study limitations and look forward to the prospect of food irradiation technology. (authors)

  18. Evaluation of a recent product to remove lipids and other matrix co-extractives in the analysis of pesticide residues and environmental contaminants in foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Lijun; Matarrita, Jessie; Sapozhnikova, Yelena; Lehotay, Steven J

    2016-06-01

    This study demonstrates the application of a novel lipid removal product to the residue analysis of 65 pesticides and 52 environmental contaminants in kale, pork, salmon, and avocado by fast, low pressure gas chromatography - tandem mass spectrometry (LPGC-MS/MS). Sample preparation involves QuEChERS extraction followed by use of EMR-Lipid ("enhanced matrix removal of lipids") and an additional salting out step for cleanup. The optimal amount of EMR-Lipid was determined to be 500mg for 2.5mL extracts for most of the analytes. The co-extractive removal efficiency by the EMR-Lipid cleanup step was 83-98% for fatty samples and 79% for kale, including 76% removal of chlorophyll. Matrix effects were typically less than ±20%, in part because analyte protectants were used in the LPGC-MS/MS analysis. The recoveries of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and diverse pesticides were mostly 70-120%, whereas recoveries of nonpolar polybrominated diphenyl ethers and polychlorinated biphenyls were mostly lower than 70% through the cleanup procedure. With the use of internal standards, method validation results showed that 76-85 of the 117 analytes achieved satisfactory results (recoveries of 70-120% and RSD≤20%) in pork, avocado, and kale, while 53 analytes had satisfactory results in salmon. Detection limits were 5-10ng/g for all but a few analytes. EMR-Lipid is a new sample preparation tool that serves as another useful option for cleanup in multiresidue analysis, particularly of fatty foods. PMID:27139213

  19. GC/MIP/AED method for pesticide residue determination in fruits and vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, K C; Kho, P

    1991-01-01

    This research describes the results of a gas chromatography/microwave induced plasma/atomic emission detection (GC/MIP/AED) method performed on a Hewlett-Packard 5921A system for pesticide residue analysis in fruits and vegetables. A total of 6 experiments were conducted: (1) sensitivity and linearity studies for elements S, P, Cl, and N by analyzing dursban; (2) a study of instrument response to Cl concentration in pesticide molecules; (3) organochlorinated pesticide recoveries; (4) organophosphate pesticide recoveries; (5) carbamate pesticide recoveries; and (6) investigation of metallic pesticides with plictran and vendex as standards. The rank according to sensitivity and linearity was found to be as follows: S-181 greater than P-178 greater than Cl-479 greater than N-174. Instrument response to the concentration of chlorine atoms in the pesticide molecule was linear, with a correlation coefficient of 0.89. Recoveries of organochlorinated pesticides were 91.7-109.3%, with the exception of citrus, whose recovery was affected by coeluting interferences. Organophosphate recoveries were 73.2% or higher, except for the cygon oxygen analog, which degraded in the GC system under all circumstances. Carbamate recoveries were inconsistent quantitatively; however, the information generated from elements N and S were useful for qualitative confirmation of other methods, such as LC postcolumn derivatization analysis. Overall, the GC/MIP/AED method is powerful for qualitative confirmation in pesticide residue analysis. The instrument's capability of acquiring multi-elements (Cl and P) selectively and accurately is an alternative method for organochlorinated and organophosphate pesticide residue analyses. In addition, the GC/MIP/AED system is easy to use, simple to maintain, and its chromatograms can be interpreted by any chromatography analyst without much prior training. PMID:1757425

  20. Food safety in Thailand 2: Pesticide residues found in Chinese kale (Brassica oleracea), a commonly consumed vegetable in Asian countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is increasing public concern over human health risks associated with extensive use of pesticides in agriculture. Regulation of pesticide maximum residue limits (MRLs) in food commodities is established in many developed countries. For Thailand, this regulation exists in law but is not fully enforced. Therefore, pesticide residues in vegetables and fruits have not been well monitored. This study investigated the pesticide residues in Chinese kale, a commonly eaten vegetable among Asians. The Chinese kale samples (N = 117) were purchased from markets in Nakhon Pathom Province, Thailand, and analyzed for the content of 28 pesticides. Analysis was performed by the multiresidual extraction followed by GC–MS/MS. Of pesticides investigated, 12 pesticides were detected in 85% of the Chinese kale samples. Although carbaryl, deltamethrin, diazinon, fenvalerate and malathion were found in some samples, their levels were lower than their MRLs. However, in 34 samples tested, either carbofuran, chlorpyrifos, chlorothalonil, cypermethrin, dimethoate, metalaxyl or profenofos was detected exceeding their MRLs. This represents a 29% rate of pesticide detection above the MRL; a rate much higher than in developed countries. Washing vegetables under running water significantly reduced (p < 0.05) profenofos residues by 55%. The running water method did not significantly decrease cypermethrin residues in the samples but washing with vinegar did. Our research suggests that routine monitoring of pesticide residues is necessary to reduce the public health risks associated with eating contaminated vegetables. Washing vegetables before consumption is advisable as this helps to reduce the level of pesticide residues in our daily intake. - Highlights: • Significant pesticide residues were detected in Chinese kale sold in Thailand. • MRL exceedance was found and this was higher than that seen in developed countries. • Washing vegetables under running water can remove pesticide

  1. Food safety in Thailand 2: Pesticide residues found in Chinese kale (Brassica oleracea), a commonly consumed vegetable in Asian countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wanwimolruk, Sompon, E-mail: sompon-999@hotmail.com [Center for Innovation Development and Technology Transfer, Faculty of Medical Technology, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand); Kanchanamayoon, Onnicha [Center for Innovation Development and Technology Transfer, Faculty of Medical Technology, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand); Phopin, Kamonrat [Center for Innovation Development and Technology Transfer, Faculty of Medical Technology, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand); Department of Clinical Microbiology and Applied Technology, Faculty of Medical Technology, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand); Prachayasittikul, Virapong [Department of Clinical Microbiology and Applied Technology, Faculty of Medical Technology, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand)

    2015-11-01

    There is increasing public concern over human health risks associated with extensive use of pesticides in agriculture. Regulation of pesticide maximum residue limits (MRLs) in food commodities is established in many developed countries. For Thailand, this regulation exists in law but is not fully enforced. Therefore, pesticide residues in vegetables and fruits have not been well monitored. This study investigated the pesticide residues in Chinese kale, a commonly eaten vegetable among Asians. The Chinese kale samples (N = 117) were purchased from markets in Nakhon Pathom Province, Thailand, and analyzed for the content of 28 pesticides. Analysis was performed by the multiresidual extraction followed by GC–MS/MS. Of pesticides investigated, 12 pesticides were detected in 85% of the Chinese kale samples. Although carbaryl, deltamethrin, diazinon, fenvalerate and malathion were found in some samples, their levels were lower than their MRLs. However, in 34 samples tested, either carbofuran, chlorpyrifos, chlorothalonil, cypermethrin, dimethoate, metalaxyl or profenofos was detected exceeding their MRLs. This represents a 29% rate of pesticide detection above the MRL; a rate much higher than in developed countries. Washing vegetables under running water significantly reduced (p < 0.05) profenofos residues by 55%. The running water method did not significantly decrease cypermethrin residues in the samples but washing with vinegar did. Our research suggests that routine monitoring of pesticide residues is necessary to reduce the public health risks associated with eating contaminated vegetables. Washing vegetables before consumption is advisable as this helps to reduce the level of pesticide residues in our daily intake. - Highlights: • Significant pesticide residues were detected in Chinese kale sold in Thailand. • MRL exceedance was found and this was higher than that seen in developed countries. • Washing vegetables under running water can remove pesticide

  2. A comparative study of allowable pesticide residue levels on produce in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neff Roni A

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The U.S. imports a substantial and increasing portion of its fruits and vegetables. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration currently inspects less than one percent of import shipments. While countries exporting to the U.S. are expected to comply with U.S. tolerances, including allowable pesticide residue levels, there is a low rate of import inspections and few other incentives for compliance. Methods This analysis estimates the quantity of excess pesticide residue that could enter the U.S. if exporters followed originating country requirements but not U.S. pesticide tolerances, for the top 20 imported produce items based on quantities imported and U.S. consumption levels. Pesticide health effects data are also shown. Results The model estimates that for the identified items, 120 439 kg of pesticides in excess of U.S. tolerances could potentially be imported to the U.S., in cases where U.S. regulations are more protective than those of originating countries. This figure is in addition to residues allowed on domestic produce. In the modeling, the top produce item, market, and pesticide of concern were oranges, Chile, and Zeta-Cypermethrin. Pesticides in this review are associated with health effects on 13 body systems, and some are associated with carcinogenic effects. Conclusions There is a critical information gap regarding pesticide residues on produce imported to the U.S. Without a more thorough sampling program, it is not possible accurately to characterize risks introduced by produce importation. The scenario presented herein relies on assumptions, and should be considered illustrative. The analysis highlights the need for additional investigation and resources for monitoring, enforcement, and other interventions, to improve import food safety and reduce pesticide exposures in originating countries.

  3. Dissipation behavior of organophosphorus pesticides during the cabbage pickling process: residue changes with salt and vinegar content of pickling solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yuele; Yang, Zhonghua; Shen, Luyao; Liu, Zhenmin; Zhou, Zhiqiang; Diao, Jinling

    2013-03-01

    In this experiment, the behavior of 10 pesticides in three different cabbage pickling treatments has been studied. The brine used for pickling was made up with different salt and vinegar contents to determine the influence of different pickling solutions on pesticide dissipation and distribution. A modified QuECHERS and SPE method was established for the analysis of the pesticides in the cabbage and brine. It was found that different pesticides showed different dissipation patterns and finally represented dissimilar residue levels in the cabbage and brine. Statistical analysis was performed to compare the distinctions of these pesticides between each treatment and proved that salt content and pH value had certain influence on the dissipation and distribution of these pesticides during the pickling process. The data from this experiment would help to control pesticide residues in pickled cabbage and prevent potential risk to human health and environmental safety. PMID:23402557

  4. Monitoring of pesticide residue in bovine milk from Nadia district, West Bengal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Aruna Kumari; Sar, Tapas Kumar; Mandal, Tapan Kumar

    2013-07-01

    Monitoring of 210 bovine milk samples collected from local markets in the Nadia district of West Bengal during 2011 was performed. Samples were collected in summer and winter seasons. Analysis of pesticides was performed by using a multiresidue method validated in the laboratory. The quantification was performed using GC-ECD. Analysis revealed the presence of lindane in less than 1 % of milk samples. Endosulfan I and II were also detected and were found to exceed MRL recommended by Codex. Overall 1.90 % of the analyzed samples showed trace to measurable amount of pesticide residues. The monitored area provided pesticide residues data of milk, assisting in future scientific assessment on pesticide usage. PMID:23708263

  5. Glove accumulation of pesticide residues for strawberry harvester exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanhong; Chen, Li; Chen, Zhenshan; Coehlo, Joe; Cui, Li; Liu, Yu; Lopez, Terry; Sankaran, Gayatri; Vega, Helen; Krieger, Robert

    2011-06-01

    We investigated the accumulation of pesticide residues on rubber latex gloves that are used by strawberry harvesters to protect their skin, reduce pesticide exposure and promote food safety. Gloves accumulated residues of 16 active ingredients including azoxystrobin, bifenthrin, boscalid, captan, cyprodinil, fenhexamid, fenpropathrin, fludioxonil, hexythiazox, malathion, methomyl, naled, propiconazole, pyraclostrobin, quinoline, and quinoxyfen at different times. Glove residue accumulation (t(½) 2.8-3.7 d) was very similar to the dissipation of DFRs (t(½) 2.1-3.0 d) during the first 3 weeks after malathion applications. Dermal malathion dose was 0.2 mg/kg at the preharvest interval and declined to trace levels during the following 3 months. Glove accumulation of malathion indicated trace surface residue availability and was used to assess the relationship between dislodgable foliar residues and potential hand exposure. PMID:21503692

  6. Inspection of pesticide residues on food by surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shende, Chetan; Gift, Alan; Inscore, Frank; Maksymiuk, Paul; Farquharson, Stuart

    2004-03-01

    Modern agriculture depends on pesticides to curb infestations, increase crop yield and to produce the quantity and quality of food demanded by today's society. However, potential pesticide residue contamination of food is of critical concern to the food industry and the regulators responsible for health and safety. For example, many pesticides kill insects by attacking the central nervous system, and the use of these pesticides above the EPA set tolerance levels (from 0.1 to 50 ppm) could pose a threat to humans, in particular infants. Unfortunately, rapid, chemical analysis of pesticide residues is unavailable, and only a very small fraction of foods are inspected. The greatest concern is food imported from nations that simply ignore US regulations. In an effort to address this need, we have been developing a simple device to collect residues from food surfaces, perform a rapid chemical separation, and detect and identify pesticides by surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). Capillaries are coated with a metal-doped sol-gel that both separates chemicals and generates SER spectra when irradiated. SERS of pesticides at ppm concentrations, and a preliminary product to aid inspectors is presented.

  7. Overall and class-specific scores of pesticide residues from fruits and vegetables as a tool to rank intake of pesticide residues in United States: A validation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yang; Chiu, Yu-Han; Hauser, Russ; Chavarro, Jorge; Sun, Qi

    2016-01-01

    Pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables are among the primary sources of pesticide exposure through diet, but the lack of adequate measurements hinder the research on health effects of pesticide residues. Pesticide Residue Burden Score (PRBS) for estimating overall dietary pesticide intake, organochlorine pesticide score (OC-PRBS) and organophosphate pesticide score (OP-PRBS) for estimating organochlorine and organophosphate pesticides-specific intake, respectively, were derived using U.S. Department of Agriculture Pesticide Data Program data and National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) food frequency questionnaire data. We evaluated the performance of these scores by validating the scores against pesticide metabolites measured in urine or serum among 3,679 participants in NHANES using generalized linear regression. The PRBS was positively associated with a score summarizing the ranks of all pesticide metabolites in a linear fashion (p for linear trend vegetables with high vs. low pesticide residues, respectively (p for trend vegetables (p for trend 0.07) than from less contaminated Fruits and vegetables (p for trend 0.63), although neither of the associations achieved statistical significance. The PRBS and the class-specific scores for two major types of pesticides were significantly associated with pesticide biomarkers. These scores can reasonably rank study participants by their pesticide residue exposures from fruits and vegetables in large-scale environmental epidemiological studies. PMID:27128714

  8. Global Harmonization of Maximum Residue Limits for Pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrus, Árpád; Yang, Yong Zhen

    2016-01-13

    International trade plays an important role in national economics. The Codex Alimentarius Commission develops harmonized international food standards, guidelines, and codes of practice to protect the health of consumers and to ensure fair practices in the food trade. The Codex maximum residue limits (MRLs) elaborated by the Codex Committee on Pesticide Residues are based on the recommendations of the FAO/WHO Joint Meeting on Pesticides (JMPR). The basic principles applied currently by the JMPR for the evaluation of experimental data and related information are described together with some of the areas in which further developments are needed. PMID:25603277

  9. Monitoring pesticides residues and contaminants for some leafy vegetables at the market level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pesticide residues and contaminants in selected leafy vegetables, namely (lettuce, garden rocket and salad onion) were monitored at market level in Riyadh City in Saudi Arabia, during the period june to july 2001. Fifteen samples of vegetables from the City vegetable market of Riyadh were collected and subjected to multi-pesticide residue detection and analysis by gas chromatography with mass spectrometer and electron capture detectors (GC/MS,ECD). Results of sample extracts analysis showed that the two vegetables of: garden rocket and salad onion contain pesticide residues and contaminants which have no Maximum Residue Limits (MRL) prescribed by Codex Alimentarius Commission (CAC) collaborate with World Health and Food and Agriculture Organizations (WHO/FAO). Whereas lettuce vegetable was found free of any identified pesticide residues or contaminants. Garden rocket was shown to contain dibutyl phthalate (0.04 ppm)-steryl chloride (0.02 ppm) tridecane (0.06 ppm)-hexadecane (0.07 ppm)-BIS (ethylhexyl) phthalate (0.006 ppm) and pyridinium, 1-hexyl chloride (0.01 ppm). The salad onion was found to contain 9-octadecanamide (0.13 ppm)-tridecane (0.15 ppm) and tetradecane (0.16 ppm). There are no established MRL s for these pesticides and contaminants detected in garden rocket and salad onion, although when impacts on human health were reviewed some of them were found probably hazardous. (Author)

  10. Effect of Household Coffee Processing on Pesticide Residues as a Means of Ensuring Consumers' Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekonen, Seblework; Ambelu, Argaw; Spanoghe, Pieter

    2015-09-30

    Coffee is a highly consumed and popular beverage all over the world; however, coffee beans used for daily consumption may contain pesticide residues that may cause adverse health effects to consumers. In this monitoring study, the effect of household coffee processing on pesticide residues in coffee beans was investigated. Twelve pesticides, including metabolites and isomers (endosulfan α, endosulfan β, cypermethrin, permethrin, deltamethrin, chlorpyrifos ethyl, heptachlor epoxide, hexachlorobenzene, p'p-DDE, p'p-DDD, o'p-DDT, and p'p-DDT) were spiked in coffee beans collected from a local market in southwestern Ethiopia. The subsequent household coffee processing conditions (washing, roasting, and brewing) were established as closely as possible to the traditional household coffee processing in Ethiopia. Washing of coffee beans showed 14.63-57.69 percent reduction, while the roasting process reduced up to 99.8 percent. Chlorpyrifos ethyl, permethrin, cypermethrin, endosulfan α and β in roasting and all of the 12 pesticides in the coffee brewing processes were not detected. Kruskal-Wallis analysis indicated that the reduction of pesticide residues by washing is significantly different from roasting and brewing (P coffee roasting and brewing (P > 0.05). The processing factor (PF) was less than one (PF coffee beans. The cumulative effect of the three processing methods has a paramount importance in evaluating the risks associated with ingestion of pesticide residues, particularly in coffee beans.

  11. The determination of pesticide residues and contaminants in vegetables by means of neutron activation analysis. Part of a coordinated programme on nuclear detection and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron activation techniques have been applied to study the existence of pesticide residues (As, Br, Hg) and pollutants (Cd, Co, Zn) in local vegetable and fruit samples, polished and unpolished glutinous and non-glutinous milled rice, and fish caught in polluted and unpolluted areas of the Gulf of Thailand. Since the baseline levels of these toxic elements in vegetables, fruits, rice and fish are not known as yet, the results cannot be regarded as conclusive. Furthermore, no significant difference was observed in the concentration of these elements in fish caught in polluted and unpolluted areas. The Gulf of Thailand does not therefore appear to be polluted at present. The substoichiometric isotope dilution technique was successfully applied to mercury determinations, and only to a limited extent to Cd due to shutdown of the TRR-1 reactor

  12. Assessment of Organophosphate and Carbamate Pesticide Residues in Cigarette Tobacco with a Novel Cell Biosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spiridon Kintzios

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The conventional analysis of pesticide residues in analytical commodities, such as tobacco and tobacco products is a labor intensive procedure, since it is necessary to cover a wide range of different chemicals, using a single procedure. Standard analysis methods include extensive sample pretreatment (with solvent extraction and partitioning phases and determination by GC and HPLC to achieve the necessary selectivity and sensitivity for the different classes of compounds under detection. As a consequence, current methods of analysis provide a limited sample capacity. In the present study, we report on the development of a novel cell biosensor for detecting organophosphate and carbamate pesticide residues in tobacco. The sensor is based on neuroblastoma N2a cells and the measurement of changes of the cell membrane potential, according to the working principle of the Bioelectric Recognition Assay (BERA. The presence of pesticide residues is detected by the degree of inhibition of acetylcholine esterase (AChE. The sensor instantly responded to both the organophoshate pesticide chlorpyriphos and the carbamate carbaryl in a concentration-dependent pattern, being able to detect one part per billion (1 ppb. Additionally, tobacco leaf samples (in blended dry form were analyzed with both the novel biosensor and conventional methods, according to a double-blind protocol. Pesticide residues in tobacco samples caused a considerable cell membrane hyperpolarization to neuroblastoma cells immobilized in the sensor, as indicated by the increase of the negative sensor potential, which was clearly distinguishable from the sensor’s response against pesticide-free control samples. The observed response was quite reproducible, with an average variation of +5,6%. Fluorescence microscopy observations showed that treatment of the cells with either chlorpyrifos or carbaryl was associated with increased [Ca2+]cyt . The novel biosensor offers fresh

  13. Sub-lethal effects of pesticide residues in brood comb on worker honey bee (Apis mellifera development and longevity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judy Y Wu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Numerous surveys reveal high levels of pesticide residue contamination in honey bee comb. We conducted studies to examine possible direct and indirect effects of pesticide exposure from contaminated brood comb on developing worker bees and adult worker lifespan. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Worker bees were reared in brood comb containing high levels of known pesticide residues (treatment or in relatively uncontaminated brood comb (control. Delayed development was observed in bees reared in treatment combs containing high levels of pesticides particularly in the early stages (day 4 and 8 of worker bee development. Adult longevity was reduced by 4 days in bees exposed to pesticide residues in contaminated brood comb during development. Pesticide residue migration from comb containing high pesticide residues caused contamination of control comb after multiple brood cycles and provided insight on how quickly residues move through wax. Higher brood mortality and delayed adult emergence occurred after multiple brood cycles in contaminated control combs. In contrast, survivability increased in bees reared in treatment comb after multiple brood cycles when pesticide residues had been reduced in treatment combs due to residue migration into uncontaminated control combs, supporting comb replacement efforts. Chemical analysis after the experiment confirmed the migration of pesticide residues from treatment combs into previously uncontaminated control comb. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study is the first to demonstrate sub-lethal effects on worker honey bees from pesticide residue exposure from contaminated brood comb. Sub-lethal effects, including delayed larval development and adult emergence or shortened adult longevity, can have indirect effects on the colony such as premature shifts in hive roles and foraging activity. In addition, longer development time for bees may provide a reproductive advantage for parasitic Varroa destructor

  14. Pesticide residues in the soil of the Central Jordan Valley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soil samples were taken from three zones in the Central Jordan Valley to evaluate the range of contamination with pesticides. Several pesticides belonging to different groups, particularly chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticides such as the DDT family and cyclodienes, were detected. In zone I, most of the chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticides occurred in open fields cultivated with tomatoes at a depth of 30-60 cm, at 0-15 and 15-30 cm in zone II, and at 0-15 and 30-60 cm in zone III. When considering pesticide residues under plastic house conditions cultivated with tomatoes, most of the chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticide residues were detected at a depth of 0-15 and 15-30 cm in zone I, at 0-15, 15-30 and 30-60 cm in zone II, and at 0-15 and 15-30 cm in zone III of the Central Jordan Valley. (author). 13 refs, 3 tabs

  15. Radiotracer studies of pesticide residues in stored products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current programme was initiated in 1983 and was designed to assist scientists of developing Member States to make safe and effective use of radiotracer techniques for studying pesticide residue problems in stored products. This report represents an appraisal of a group of studies with particular emphasis given to terminal residues at the time of human consumption. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 12 papers

  16. Multiresidue method for pesticide residue analysis in food of animal and plant origin based on GC or LC and MS or MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Eva; Muñoz, Gloria; Pineda, Laura; Serrahima, Eulalia; Centrich, Francesc

    2012-01-01

    A multiresidue method based on GC or LC and MS or MS/MS for the determination of 204 pesticides in diverse food matrixes of animal and plant origin is described. The method can include different stages of cleanup according to the chemical characteristics of each sample. Samples were extracted using accelerated solvent extraction. Those with a high fat content or that contained chlorophyll required further purification by gel permeation chromatography and/or SPE (ENVI-Carb). The methodology developed here was fully validated; the LOQs for the 204 pesticides are presented. The LOQ values lie between 0.01 to 0.02 mg/kg. However, in some cases, mainly in baby food, they were as low as 0.003 mg/kg, thereby meeting European Union requirements on maximum residue levels for pesticides, as outlined in European regulation 396/2005 and the Commission Directive 2003/13/EC. The procedure has been accredited for a wide scope of pesticides and matrixes by the Spanish Accreditation Body (ENAC) following ISO/IEC 17025:2005, as outlined in ENAC technical note NT-19. PMID:23451398

  17. Impact of toxic heavy metals and pesticide residues in herbal products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nema S. Shaban

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants have a long history of use in therapy throughout the world and still make an important part of traditional medicine. The World Health Organization (WHO estimates that 65%–80% of the world's populations depend on the herbal products as their primary form of health care. This review is conducted to provide a general idea about chemical contaminants such as heavy metals and pesticide residues as major common contaminants of the herbal medicine, which impose serious health risks to human health. Additionally, we aim to provide different analytical methods for analysis of heavy metals and pesticide residues in the herbal medicine.

  18. 9 CFR 318.16 - Pesticide chemicals and other residues in products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pesticide chemicals and other residues... PREPARATION OF PRODUCTS General § 318.16 Pesticide chemicals and other residues in products. (a) Nonmeat ingredients. Residues of pesticide chemicals, food additives and color additives or other substances in or...

  19. Clean-up of cereal extracts for gas chromatography-tandem quadrupole mass spectrometry pesticide residues analysis using primary secondary amine and C18

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrmann, Susan Strange; Poulsen, Mette Erecius

    2015-01-01

    The level of co-extracted matrix in wheat and oat extracts obtained by the QuEChERS method (EN 15662) is high and the occurrence of free fatty acids generates a major matrix peak in TIC chromatograms (rt. 13-22min). Matrix can compromise the analytical performance in pesticide analysis using GC...... solid phase extraction (dSPE) procedure. dSPE clean-up using 25mg/ml extract significantly reduced the major matrix peak observed for wheat extracts. Higher amounts of PSA reduced the analytical response for iprodione and malathion. For oat extract 50-150mg PSA/ml extract was needed to obtain equally...... low intensity of the matrix peak. For oat the analytical responses of the target pesticides generally increased with increasing amount of PSA. C18 had no significant effect on the intensity of the major matrix peaks and even resulted in lower analytical responses for several of the target pesticides...

  20. Using a Hazard Quotient to Evaluate Pesticide Residues Detected in Pollen Trapped from Honey Bees (Apis mellifera) in Connecticut

    OpenAIRE

    Stoner, Kimberly A.; Brian D Eitzer

    2013-01-01

    Analysis of pollen trapped from honey bees as they return to their hives provides a method of monitoring fluctuations in one route of pesticide exposure over location and time. We collected pollen from apiaries in five locations in Connecticut, including urban, rural, and mixed agricultural sites, for periods from two to five years. Pollen was analyzed for pesticide residues using a standard extraction method widely used for pesticides (QuEChERS) and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometric a...

  1. Determination of Pesticide Residues in Foods by Acetonitrile Extraction and Partitioning with Magnesium Sulfate: Collaborative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    A collaborative study was conducted to determine multiple pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables using a quick, simple, inexpensive, and effective sample preparation method followed by concurrent analysis with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass sp...

  2. Bioenergy residues as novel sorbents to clean up pesticide pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Santanu

    2016-04-01

    Worldwide, water contamination from agricultural use of pesticides has received increasing attention within the last decades. In general, sources of pesticide water pollution are categorized into diffuse (stemming from treated fields) and point sources (stemming from farmyards and spillages). Research has demonstrated that 40 to 90% of surface water pesticide contamination is due to point source pollution. To reduce point pollution from farm yards, where the spray equipment is washed, biobed or biofilter systems are used to treat the washing water. The organic material usually used in these systems is often not environmentally sustainable (e.g. peat) and incorporated organic material such as straw leads to a highly heterogeneous water flow, with negative effects on the retention and degradation behavior of the pesticides. Therefore, the objective of this study was to assess the suitability of alternative materials based on bioenergy residues (biochar and digestate) for use in biofilters. To this aim the sorption-desorption potential of three contrasting pesticides (bentazone, boscalid, and pyrimethanil) on mixtures of soil with digestate and/or biochar were investigated in laboratory batch equilibrium experiments. The results indicate that the mixture of digestate and biochar increased pesticide sorption potential, whereby in all cases, the Kd des / Kf des values were lower than the Kd ads / Kf ads values indicating that the retention of the pesticides was weak. Thus, as Kf des were lower than the Kf ads values and H values were below 1, it can be concluded that the biomixtures presented negative desorption (higher hysteresis) in those cases. A higher Kd (>78 L kg-1), Kf (>400 μM1-1/nf L1/nfkg-1) and KL (>40 L kg-1) was obtained for all pesticides for the digestate and biochar based mixtures, which had a higher organic matter content. However, lower sorption of the pesticides was observed in blank soil compared to the other biomixtures, which was attributed to the

  3. 免疫分析技术在有机磷农药残留检测中应用%Application of immunoassay in organophosphorus pesticide residue analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁彦

    2013-01-01

    In this review,the harm of organophosphorus pesticide and the commonly used detection methods are introduced,especially that the immunoassay in detection of organophosphorus pesticide residue. The several key factors to affect the immunoassay are reviewed. The main directions of the further development of immunoassay techniques for determining organophosphorus pesticides are also discussed.%  该文简介有机磷农药危害及常用几种检测方法,对免疫分析技术在有机磷农药残留检测中应用进行归纳分析;着重介绍研究最多的酶联免疫分析法,对影响免疫分析方法几个关键因素进行综述,并探讨免疫分析技术在有机磷农药检测领域发展。

  4. Pesticide residues in passifloras crops in regions of high production in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario A. Bastidas

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available As one of the most bio-diverse countries in the world, Colombia boasts a wide diversity of highly palatable tropical fruits. Even though Colombian fruit production has primarily targeted the domestic market, several fruit species, such as passion fruit (PassifloraSpp, are steadily gaining ground in the broader international arena.  Production of these crops and respond to raising domestic and international demand, many Colombian small-scale farmers use pesticides for pest and disease control. Inadequate use of pesticides could possibly entail public health risks, environmental contamination and ultimately interfere with international trade. Surveys were carried out to passifloras producers of three spices of passiflora crops, yellow passion fruit, sweet passion fruit and purple passion fruit  from the largest producers municipalities in Colombia with the aim to know the integrate pest control and agricultural practices related with pesticides applied in the crops. Ramdomly sampling was realized and samples were analyzed by multiresidue analysis methodology validated in the laboratory and based on IAEA-QuEChERS method. With the results of survey and laboratory analysis it is showed the presence of pesticide residues that exceed maximum residue limits in some samples and the pesticides identified in the samples correspond to those used by farmers. It was found that the presence of residues is mainly due to the shortcomings in the proper use of agricultural practices related primarily to the implementation of agricultural products no registered for such crops.

  5. Pesticide residue in water--a challenging task in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Akriti; Prajapati, Rajmani; Singh, Om Pal; Raza, S K; Thakur, L K

    2015-02-01

    Modern agriculture practices reveal an increase in use of pesticides to meet the food demand of increasing population which results in contamination of the environment. In India, crop production increased to 100 %, but the cropping area has increased marginally by 20 %. Pesticides have played a major role in achieving the maximum crop production but maximum usage and accumulation of pesticide residues is highly detrimental to aquatic and other ecosystem. Pesticide residues in drinking water have become a major challenge over the last few years. It has been monitored in public water supply resources in National capital territory, i.e., Delhi. Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), mainly isomers of hexachlorohexane (HCH), dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT), endosulphan, endrin, aldrin, dieldrin, and heptachlore, were identified from potable water samples. Results suggested that continuous consumption of contaminated water can pose severe health threats to local residents of this area. Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB), Delhi, had found α and β isomers of endosulphan residues in the Yamuna river. High concentrations of γ-HCH (0.259 μg/l) and malathion (2.618 μg/l) were detected in the surface water samples collected from the river Ganga in Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh (UP). High concentration of methyl parathion, endosulfan, and DDT were observed in water samples collected from the river at Bhagalpur, Bihar. The Industrial Toxicology Research Centre (ITRC), Lucknow (UP) study also found 0.5671 ppb concentrations of endosulfan in the river at Allahabad, UP. Similar results were found in other water samples in India.

  6. Pesticide residue in water--a challenging task in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Akriti; Prajapati, Rajmani; Singh, Om Pal; Raza, S K; Thakur, L K

    2015-02-01

    Modern agriculture practices reveal an increase in use of pesticides to meet the food demand of increasing population which results in contamination of the environment. In India, crop production increased to 100 %, but the cropping area has increased marginally by 20 %. Pesticides have played a major role in achieving the maximum crop production but maximum usage and accumulation of pesticide residues is highly detrimental to aquatic and other ecosystem. Pesticide residues in drinking water have become a major challenge over the last few years. It has been monitored in public water supply resources in National capital territory, i.e., Delhi. Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), mainly isomers of hexachlorohexane (HCH), dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT), endosulphan, endrin, aldrin, dieldrin, and heptachlore, were identified from potable water samples. Results suggested that continuous consumption of contaminated water can pose severe health threats to local residents of this area. Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB), Delhi, had found α and β isomers of endosulphan residues in the Yamuna river. High concentrations of γ-HCH (0.259 μg/l) and malathion (2.618 μg/l) were detected in the surface water samples collected from the river Ganga in Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh (UP). High concentration of methyl parathion, endosulfan, and DDT were observed in water samples collected from the river at Bhagalpur, Bihar. The Industrial Toxicology Research Centre (ITRC), Lucknow (UP) study also found 0.5671 ppb concentrations of endosulfan in the river at Allahabad, UP. Similar results were found in other water samples in India. PMID:25638058

  7. Organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticide residues in fodder and milk samples along Musi river belt, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korrapati Kotinagu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was conducted to find the organochlorine pesticide (OCP and organophosphorus pesticide (OPP residues in fodder and milk samples along Musi river belt, India. Materials and Methods: Fodder and milk samples collected from the six zones of Musi river belt, Hyderabad India were analyzed by gas chromatography with electron capture detector for OCP residues and pulsated flame photometric detector for the presence of OPP residues. Results: The gas chromatographic analysis of fodder samples of Zone 5 of Musi river showed the residues of dicofol at concentration of 0.07±0.0007 (0.071-0.077. Among organophosphorus compounds, dimetheoate was present in milk samples collected from Zone 6 at a level of 0.13±0.006 (0.111-0.167. The residues of OCPs, OPPs and cyclodies were below the detection limit in the remaining fodder and milk samples collected from Musi river belt in the present study. Conclusion: The results indicate that the pesticide residues in fodder and milk samples were well below the maximum residue level (MRL values, whereas dicofol in fodder and dimethoate in milk were slightly above the MRL values specified by EU and CODEX.

  8. Sample treatment and determination of pesticide residues in fatty vegetable matrices: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert-López, Bienvenida; García-Reyes, Juan F; Molina-Díaz, Antonio

    2009-07-15

    A demanding task in pesticide residue analysis is yet the development of multi-residue methods for the determination of pesticides in vegetables with relatively high fat content (i.e. edible oils and fatty vegetables). The separation of pesticides and other chemical contaminants from high-fat food samples prior to subsequent steps in the analytical process is yet a challenging issue to which much effort in method development has being applied. This review addresses the main sample treatment methodologies for pesticide residue analysis in fatty vegetable matrices. Even with the advent of advanced hyphenated techniques based on mass spectrometry these complex fatty matrices usually require extensive sample extraction and purification. Current methods involve the use of one or the combination of some of the following techniques for both the sample extraction and clean-up steps: liquid-liquid partitioning, solid-phase extraction (SPE), gel-permeation chromatography (GPC), matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD), etc. An overview of methods developed for these contaminants in fatty vegetables matrices is presented. Sample extraction and purification techniques are discussed and their most recent applications are highlighted. This review emphasizes that sample preparation is a critical step, but also the determination method is, and cannot be treated separately from sample treatment. In recent years, the appearance and use of new, more polar pesticides has fostered the development of liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC-MS) besides gas chromatography. The main features of LC-MS for the analysis of multi-class pesticides in fatty vegetable samples will be also underlined, with an emphasis on the multi-class, multi-residue strategy and the difficulties associated. PMID:19559852

  9. Levels of Organochlorine Pesticide Residues in Grasscutter (Thryonomys swinderianus) Tissues

    OpenAIRE

    Sarah Blankson-Arthur; P. Owiredu Yeboah; Abledze Golow; Anita Osei Tutu; Dzifa Denutsui

    2011-01-01

    The study investigated the extent of contamination of with p,p- DDT, p,p-DDE, hexachlorocyclohexane isomers, lindane ((γ-HCH) and δ-HCH, dieldrin, aldrin, endrin, endrin aldehyde, endrin ketone, alpha-endosulfan, endosulfan sulfate, chlordane, heptachlor and methoxychlor in tissues of grasscutter (Thryonomys swinderianus), obtained from the Gomoa East district of Ghana. The organochlorine pesticide residues in the samples were soxhlet extracted using a mixture of hexane and acetone. The extra...

  10. 75 FR 11173 - Notice of Receipt of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-10

    ... preamble for FR Doc. 2010-2382 published in the Federal Register of Thursday, February 4, 2010 (75 FR 5790... AGENCY Notice of Receipt of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or... tolerances in 40 CFR part 180 for residues of the ``insecticide'' fluazifop-p-butyl in various...

  11. Design of a novel noninvasive spectrometer for pesticide residues monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zhong; Liu, Guodong; Huang, Zhen

    2014-11-01

    Although the gas or liquid chromatography had been widely used into pesticide residues monitoring, some drawbacks such as time-consuming, complicated operation and especially the destructivity for samples were existed. To overcome the limits of destructive detection methods, the noninvasive detection method based on spectroscopy was used to detect the pesticide residues in this paper. To overcome low resolution and light-efficiency due to the drawbacks of the classical plane and holography concave gratings, a novel noninvasive spectrometer for pesticide residues monitor (PRM) based on volume holography transmission (VHT) grating was designed. Meanwhile, a custom-built splitting light system for PRM based on the VHT grating was developed. In addition, the linear charge coupled device (CCD) with combined data acquisition (DAQ) card and the virtual-PRM based on LabVIEW were respectively used as the spectral acquisition hardware and software-platform. Experimental results showed that the spectral resolution of this spectrometer reached 2nm, and the VHT grating's diffraction efficiency was gotten via the simulation experiment.

  12. Levels of Organochlorine Pesticide Residues in Grasscutter (Thryonomys swinderianus Tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Blankson-Arthur

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The study investigated the extent of contamination of with p,p- DDT, p,p-DDE, hexachlorocyclohexane isomers, lindane ((γ-HCH and δ-HCH, dieldrin, aldrin, endrin, endrin aldehyde, endrin ketone, alpha-endosulfan, endosulfan sulfate, chlordane, heptachlor and methoxychlor in tissues of grasscutter (Thryonomys swinderianus, obtained from the Gomoa East district of Ghana. The organochlorine pesticide residues in the samples were soxhlet extracted using a mixture of hexane and acetone. The extracts were cleaned up using florisil and analysed using a gas chromatograph equipped with an electron detector (GCECD. The results indicated that all the analyzed samples were contaminated with the studied organochlorine pesticides. Aldrin and heptachlor were the principal contaminants in all the samples. The muscle had the highest pollutant load followed by the liver and then the kidney. The levels of organochlorine pesticide residues detected in all the tissues were below the accepted Maximum Residue Limits (MRL, as adopted by the WHO/FAO Codex Alimentarius Commission (2005.

  13. Distribution and migration of pesticide residues in mosquito control impoundments St. Lucie County, Florida, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, R. W.; Wang, T. C.; White, J. R.; David, J. R.; Hoffman, M. E.

    1993-09-01

    This project was designed to: (1) document the distribution and migration of organochlorine pesticide residues within marsh substrates of 18 St. Lucie County mosquito control impoundments located along the Indian River Lagoon estuary, and (2) evaluate the impact of water management techniques on residue mobility. Our results indicate that detectible concentrations of organochlorine compounds, applied between the late 1940s and early 1950s, are present in 16 of the 18 St. Lucie County mosquito control impoundments. These compounds are primarily restricted to the surficial, organic-rich wetland sediment, which, based upon geotechnical analysis, was exposed to the atmosphere at a time when the impoundments were subjected to pesticide treatment. Contaminated sediments are present below the surficial, organic-rich layer, suggesting that some vertical migration of pesticides has occurred. It is unlikely that leaching associated with the downward percolation of impounded water was responsible for this migration as pesticide residues were never detected within the in situ pore waters. An alternative explanation is that biological processes (e.g., rooting, burrowing) facilitated the downward flux of organochlorine compounds into sediment horizons not subjected to direct treatment. Eighty-eight surface water samples obtained from two impoundments subjected to contrasting water management techniques were analyzed for pesticide content. None of the surficial water samples collected in association with these impoundments contained detectible concentrations of organochlorine compounds. These samples were unfiltered and contained as much as 25 mg/1 of particulate organic matter. This suggests that the currently preferred management technique (RIM), which is designed to maintain water quality, limit mosquito production, and provide for ecological continuity, does not hydraulically mobilize pesticide residues into the Indian River Lagoon estuary.

  14. A multi-residue method for the analysis of pesticides and pesticide degradates in water using HLB solid-phase extraction and gas chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hladik, M.L.; Smalling, K.L.; Kuivila, K.M.

    2008-01-01

    A method was developed for the analysis of over 60 pesticides and degradates in water by HLB solid-phase extraction and gas-chromatography/mass spectrometry. Method recoveries and detection limits were determined using two surface waters with different dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations. In the lower DOC water, recoveries and detection limits were 80%-108% and 1-12 ng/L, respectively. In the higher DOC water, the detection limits were slightly higher (1-15 ng/L). Additionally, surface water samples from four sites were analyzed and 14 pesticides were detected with concentrations ranging from 4 to 1,200 ng/L. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  15. Residues levels of organochlorine pesticide in cow's milk from industrial farms in Hidalgo, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Rey; Ortiz, Rutilio; Vega, Salvador; Schettino, Beatriz; Ramirez, Maria L; Perez, Jose J

    2013-01-01

    A survey was carried out from 2008 to 2010 to determine the concentrations of 16 organochlorine pesticide residues (OPRs) from Tizayuca, Hidalgo, Mexico. Organochlorine residue determinations were made from milk fat, using chromatographic cleanup and analysis by gas chromatography with an electron capture detector. The OPR concentrations found were from below the detection limit (DL) to 0.91 ng g(-1) in 2008, DL to 0.38 ng g(-1) in 2009 and DL to 0.59 ng g(-1) in 2010. In general concentrations of organochlorine pesticides were higher in the wet season (3.37 ng g(-1) and 4.79 ng g(-1)) than the dry season (1.92 ng g(-1) and 2.71 ng g(-1)) for 2009 and 2010, due to control of pests in the pasture and sheds. According to Codex Alimentarius regulations, individual pesticides did not exceed the permissible limits, which for example were 10 μg kg(-)1 for alpha hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) and endosulfan I, 20 μg kg(-1) for p,p'-DDT, and 6 μg kg(-1) for dieldrin, endrin and heptachlor. A reduction of organochlorine pesticide concentrations in cow's milk was noted, indicating that the Mexican government has achieved reduction or elimination of some organochlorine pesticides in response to global agreements on persistent organic pollutants. PMID:23998305

  16. Multi-residue detection of pesticides using a sensitive immunochip assay based on nanogold enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Meijing; Guo, Yirong; Zhao, Ying; Liu, Yihua; Gui, Wenjun; Zhu, Guonian

    2016-09-28

    This paper describes the development of a new multiplex immunoassay for simultaneous detection of seven pesticides (triazophos, methyl-parathion, fenpropathrin, carbofuran, thiacloprid, chlorothalonil, and carbendazim). Sixteen pairs of pesticide antibodies and antigens were screened for reactivity and cross-reaction. A microarray chip consisting of seven antigens immobilized on a nitrocellulose membrane was then constructed. Nanogold was employed for labeling and signal amplification to obtain a sensitive colorimetric immunoassay. The direct and indirect detection formats were further compared using primary antibody-gold and secondary antibody-gold conjugates as tracers. An integrated 7-plex immunochip assay based on the indirect model was established and optimized. The detection limits for the pesticides were 0.02-6.45 ng mL(-1), which meets detection requirements for pesticide residues. Naked-eye assessment showed the visual detection limits of the assay ranged from 1 to 100 ng mL(-1). Spiked recovery results demonstrated that the immunochip assay had potential for multi-analysis of pesticide residues in vegetables and fruits. The proposed microarray methodology is a flexible and versatile tool, which can be applied to other competitive multiplex immunoassays for small molecular compounds. PMID:27619097

  17. Modification and re-validation of the ethyl acetate-based multi-residue method for pesticides in produce

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mol, H.G.J.; Rooseboom, A.; Dam, R. van; Roding, M.; Arondeus, K.; Sunarto, S.

    2007-01-01

    The ethyl acetate-based multi-residue method for determination of pesticide residues in produce has been modified for gas chromatographic (GC) analysis by implementation of dispersive solid-phase extraction (using primary-secondary amine and graphitized carbon black) and large-volume (20 μL) injecti

  18. Modification and re-validation of the ethyl acetate-based multi-residue method for pesticides in produce

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mol, J.G.J.; Rooseboom, A.; Dam, van R.; Roding, M.; Arondeus, K.; Sunarto, S.

    2007-01-01

    The ethyl acetate-based multi-residue method for determination of pesticide residues in produce has been modified for gas chromatographic (GC) analysis by implementation of dispersive solid-phase extraction (using primary¿secondary amine and graphitized carbon black) and large-volume (20 ¿L) injecti

  19. Pesticide residue determination in vegetables from western China applying gas chromatography with mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Guofu; Zou, Keting; Li, Yongbo; Chen, Yan; He, Fengrui; Ding, Guirong

    2016-09-01

    In this study,an effort has been made to evaluate the pesticide residues in vegetables from western China. Fifty-one pesticides, including organophosphorus, organochlorine, carbamate and pyrethroid, were detected in 369 commonly used vegetables by GC-MS. Concentrations of organophosphorus pesticides were detected ranging from 0.0008 to 18.8200 mg/kg, among which organophosphorus pesticide concentrations exceeded their maximum residue levels (MRLs) in five samples. Carbamate and organochlorine pesticides were determined to have concentrations in the range of 0.0012-0.7928 mg/kg. The residual concentrations of carbamate pesticides in six samples and organochlorine pesticides in four samples exceeded their MRLs. The residual concentrations of five pyrethroid pesticides were within the range of 0.0016-6.0827 mg/kg and the pyrethroid residues in two samples exceeded their MRLs. The results revealed that pesticide residues in 70.73% of the vegetables samples were not detected, while in the rest of vegetables there were one or more pesticide residues and some even exceeded their MRLs, which would threaten the health of consumers. Our work provides significant information for the food safety regulations to control the excessive use of some pesticides on those kinds of vegetables from western China. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26864471

  20. Earthworm tolerance to residual agricultural pesticide contamination: field and experimental assessment of detoxification capabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Givaudan, Nicolas; Binet, Françoise; Le Bot, Barbara; Wiegand, Claudia

    2014-09-01

    This study investigates if acclimatization to residual pesticide contamination in agricultural soils is reflected in detoxification, antioxidant enzyme activities and energy budget of earthworms. Five fields within a joint agricultural area exhibited different chemical and farming histories from conventional cultivation to organic pasture. Soil multiresidual pesticide analysis revealed up to 9 molecules including atrazine up to 2.4 ng g(-1) dry soil. Exposure history of endogeic Aporrectodea caliginosa and Allolobophora chlorotica modified their responses to pesticides. In the field, activities of soluble glutathione-S-transferases (sGST) and catalase increased with soil pesticide contamination in A. caliginosa. Pesticide stress was reflected in depletion of energy reserves in A. chlorotica. Acute exposure of pre-adapted and naïve A. caliginosa to pesticides (fungicide Opus(®), 0.1 μg active ingredient epoxiconazole g(-1) dry soil, RoundUp Flash(®), 2.5 μg active ingredient glyphosate g(-1) dry soil, and their mixture), revealed that environmental pre-exposure accelerated activation of the detoxification enzyme sGST towards epoxiconazole. PMID:24874794

  1. Pesticide Residues in Bovine Milk in Punjab, India: Spatial Variation and Risk Assessment to Human Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedi, J S; Gill, J P S; Aulakh, R S; Kaur, Prabhjit

    2015-08-01

    In the present study, gas chromatographic analysis of pesticide residues in bovine milk (n = 312) from Punjab, India, showed chlorpyrifos, DDT, and γ-HCH as the predominant contaminants. In addition, the presence of β-endosulfan, endosulfan suphate, cypermethrin, cyhalothrin, fenvalerate, deltamethrin, malathion, profenofos, and ethion was reported in milk samples. In this study, it was observed that 12 milk samples exceeded the maximum residue limits (MRLs) for γ-HCH (lindane), 18 for DDT and chlorpyrifos, and 1 sample each for endosulfan, cypermethrin, and profenophos. In India, DDT is still permitted for a malaria control program, which may be the plausible reason for its occurrence in milk samples. The spatial variation for presence of pesticide residues in milk indicated greater levels in cotton-growing areas of Punjab. At current levels of pesticide residues in bovine milk, the human health risk assessment in terms of noncancer and cancer hazard was calculated based on both lower-bound [LB (mean residue levels)] and upper-bound [UP (95th percentile level)] limits. It was noticed that cancer and noncancer risk were within United States Environmental Protection Agency prescribed limits for both adults and children at the LB, but children were being exposed to greater risk for DDT and HCH at the 95th-percentile UB level. PMID:26008642

  2. 77 FR 8755 - Receipt of a Pesticide Petition Filed for Temporary Tolerance Exemption for Residues of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-15

    ... Residues of Prohydrojasmon in or on Various Commodities AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... residues of pesticide chemicals in or on various commodities. DATES: Comments must be received on or before... modification of a regulation in 40 CFR part 180 for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on various...

  3. Detection of Residual Levels and Associated Health Risk of Seven Pesticides in Fresh Eggplant and Tomato Samples from Narayanganj District, Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Md. Nur Alam; M. Alamgir Zaman Chowdhury; M. Sabir Hossain; Mohammad Mijanur Rahman; M Abdur Rahman; Siew Hua Gan; Md. Ibrahim Khalil

    2015-01-01

    Residual levels of seven frequently used pesticides were investigated in 140 samples of two common vegetables, eggplants and tomatoes, from agricultural fields in the Narayanganj district of Bangladesh. The analysis of pesticide residues was performed by high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection. A large percentage of the eggplants (50%) and tomatoes (60%) from the Narayanganj district were contaminated with pesticides, and all of the levels were above the maximum...

  4. Validation of a methodology multi-residue for the determination of pesticides residuals in strawberry (fragraria spp.) by gas chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study describes the validation of multi-residue analytical methodology for the simultaneous determination of 19 organ chlorine, organophosphorus and organ nitrogen pesticides in strawberry. Pesticides residues were extracted from strawberry samples with ethyl acetate, the extracts were cleaned-up by GPC, the quantitative analysis was carried out by high resolution gas chromatography (GC) with a pulsed splitless injection mode and simultaneous detection by m-ECD and NPD coupled in parallel. The methodology is specific, selective, and accurate and robust the calibration curves in matrix matched analytical standards show linearity over the concentration range of 0.04-5.00 mg/kg with limits of detection and quantitation between 0.007-0.5 mg/kg and 0.01-1.00 mg/kg respectively. The recovery experiments yielding averages between 80-110% for most of the pesticides. The distribution of analyze in the laboratory sample was evaluated and it was found its homogeneity. The methodology was applied in field samples and was mainly found Captan residues below MRL

  5. Assessment of organochlorine pesticide residues in soils and drinking water sources from cocoa farms in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fosu-Mensah, Benedicta Y; Okoffo, Elvis D; Darko, Godfred; Gordon, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Residues of organochlorine pesticides were determined in soils and drinking water sources in cocoa growing areas in Ghana. Soil samples analysed showed the presence of four organochlorine pesticide residues namely lindane (0.005-0.05 mg/kg), beta-HCH (cocoa farms. Routine monitoring of pesticide residues in the study area is necessary for the prevention, control and reduction of environmental pollution to minimize health risks. PMID:27386318

  6. 商品奶与原料奶中农药与亚硝酸钠残留分析%Analysis of pesticide residues and sodium nitrite in commercial milk and raw milk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冷静; 邓斌; 李琦华; 杨舒黎; 苟潇; 毛华明

    2011-01-01

    The gas chromatograph (GC) method was used for analysis of pesticide residues and sodium nitrite residues in commercial milk and raw milk, and also analysis the effect of feeding pattern on pesticide residues in raw milk. The results showed that: Among five pesticides,Methamidophos, Dichlorvos and Malathion had high detection rate of pesticide residue, 45.0%~67.5% with commercial milk, and 46.8%~71.2% with raw milk. The detection rate and the residual quantity of Methamidophos, Dichlorvos, Trichlorfon, Malathion and Fenthion were no significant difference between commercial milk and raw milk (P > 0.05); but the detection rate and the residual quantity of sodium nitrite had significant difference between commercial milk and raw milk (P < 0.01). weighted average of detection rate, weighted average residual quantity and weighted total residual quantity of five pesticides were all large-scale farmers significantly lower than backyard farmers and cooperative breeding farmers (P < 0.05), and the were no significant difference between the later two feeding pattern (P > 0.05).%采用高效气相色谱(GC)分析法对商品奶和原料奶中农药和亚硝酸钠残留进行分析,并分析不同饲养模式对原料奶中农药残留的影响.结果表明:在所测定的5种农药中,甲胺磷、敌敌畏和马拉硫磷等3种农药残留检出率较高,商品奶为45.0%~67.5%,原料奶为46.8%~71.2%.商品奶和原料奶中甲胺磷、敌敌畏、敌百虫、马拉硫磷和倍硫磷检出率和残留量差异不显著(P>0.05);而商品奶和原料奶中亚硝酸钠检出率和残留量差异极显著(P<0.01).原料奶中5种农药加权平均检出率、农药加权平均残留量和加权残留总量均为规模化饲养显著低于农户散养和合作社饲养(P<0.05),后两者之间无显著差异(P>0.05).

  7. Pesticide Residues, Results from the period 2004-2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Annette; Jensen, Bodil Hamborg; Andersen, Jens Hinge;

    The present report presents the results from the 2004-2011 period of the monitoring programmes conducted by The Danish Veterinary and Food Administration. The programmes included commodities of fruit, vegetable, cereals and animal origin using random sampling from food on the Danish market. Since...... the beginning of the 1960, Denmark has monitored fruit and vegetables for pesticides residues. For the periods 1993-1997 and 1998-2003, results were collated and the dietary exposure was calculated. In this report data for the analyses carried out in the period 2004-2011 are reported as well as the exposure...

  8. Multi-analyst, multi-matrix performance of the QuEChERS approach for pesticide residues in foods and feeds using HPLC/MS/MS analysis with different calibration techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehotay, Steven J; Mastovska, Katerina; Lightfield, Alan R; Gates, Robert A

    2010-01-01

    Three different calibration approaches were applied in HPLC/MS/MS using electrospray ionization for the determination of 14 diverse pesticide residues at different levels in a variety of food matrixes. This study was conducted as part of a 4 day training course for 17 chemists to learn the "quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe" (QuEChERS) approach to pesticide residue analysis in foods. The analysts were divided into four different teams for the analysis of 12 different matrixes (strawberries, plums, carrots, green peppers, milk, molasses, alfalfa oats, corn silage, dry pet food, soybean, almonds, and foliage). The acetate-buffered QuEChERS protocol gave excellent results in the spiked samples for all matrixes tested. The HPLC/MS/MS calibration techniques consisted of external standardization in solvent solutions, matrix-matching, and the echo-peak technique. Peak areas were normalized to an internal standard in all three approaches. Matrix effects were observed with the corn silage, carrot, and foliage extracts, but they were minimal or nonexistent in the other matrixes. Matrix-matching best compensated for matrix effects, but has logistical difficulties in real-world application and required extra sample preparation compared to the other approaches. The echo-peak technique reduced matrix effects but did not eliminate them. PMID:20480880

  9. 76 FR 69692 - Withdrawal of a Pesticide Petition for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on Various Commodities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-09

    ... 23, 2010 (75 FR 57942) (FRL-8845-4), which announced the submission of a pesticide petition (PP... exemption from the requirement of a tolerance for residues of lactoperoxidase (CAS No. 9003-99-0) in or...

  10. Monitoring of Pesticide Residues in Fruits and Vegetables and Related Health Risk Assessment in Kumasi Metropolis, Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crentsil Kofi Bempah

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of present research study was to assess the concentration of pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables from markets in Kumasi and to generate awareness about the lethal effects of these pesticides on human beings as well as to estimate the potential health risks associated with the pesticide residue with regard to consumers. A total of 350 locally produced fruits and vegetables were purchased from six main markets in Kumasi and analyzed by gas chromatography equipped with electron capture detector for organochlorine (gamma-HCH, methoxychlor, aldrin, dieldrin, endrin, p,p’-DDE, p,p’-DDT and pyrethroid (permethrin, cyfluthrin, cypermethrin, fenvalerate, deltamethrin residues. The residual concentrations of selected pesticides in the various fruit and vegetable samples and the potential health risks associated with the exposure to these pesticides were also assessed. The results obtained showed that 37.5% of the fruit and vegetable samples analyzed contained no detectable level of the monitored pesticides, 19.0% of the samples gave results with levels of insecticides residues above the MRL, while 43.5% of the samples showed results below the MRL. The analysis of health risk estimates revealed that none of the pesticides exceeded the reference dose in both fruit and vegetables except endrin which exceeded reference dose in vegetables, suggesting a great potential for systemic toxicity in children considered the most vulnerable population subgroup. Based on observations made in these studies, it is proposed that more extensive monitoring investigation covering all fruits and vegetables in all the ten regions of Ghana be carried out to find the exact position of pesticide residues.

  11. Contributions of pesticide residue chemistry to improving food and environmental safety: past and present accomplishments and future challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiber, James N; Kleinschmidt, Loreen A

    2011-07-27

    The principles of modern pesticide residue chemistry were articulated in the 1950s. Early authors pointed out the advantages of systematizing and standardizing analytical methods for pesticides so that they could be widely practiced and the results could be reproduced from one laboratory to the next. The availability of improved methods has led to a much more complete understanding of pesticide behavior and fate in foods and the environment. Using methods based largely upon gas chromatography (GC) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled increasingly with mass spectrometry (MS) and MS(n) as the detection tool, residues can be measured at parts per billion levels and below in a variety of food and environmental matrices. Development of efficient extraction and cleanup methods, techniques such as ELISA, efficient sample preparation techniques such as QuEChERS, and automated laboratory and field instrumentation has also contributed to the tools available for use in modern pesticide residue analysis. As a result, great strides have been made in improving food and worker safety and in understanding environmental behavior and fate of pesticides. There are many challenges remaining in the field of pesticide residue chemistry that will continue to stimulate analytical chemists. New chemistries are emerging, often patterned on complex natural products. Analyzing for the parent chemicals and potentially multiple breakdown products will require analytical ingenuity. The development of more sensitive bioassays and knowledge of unintended side effects will challenge residue chemistry as well, as in the case of following the fate of environmental endocrine disruptors associated with some pesticides as well as nonpesticide contaminants from packaging materials and other familiar articles. Continued funding and other resources to ensure better training, international cooperation, and accelerated research and development activities will be a constant need in

  12. [Study on experiment of absorption spectroscopy detection of pesticide residues of carbendazim in orange juice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Ren-Dong; Chen, Meng-Lan; Zhao, Zhi-Min; Zhu, Xing-Yue; Wang, Le-Xin; Liu, Quan-Jin

    2014-03-01

    Absorption spectra were studied for the carbendazim, in the mixed solution of orange juice and carbendazim using spectrophotometer. The most intensive characteristic peak (285 nm) was found in the spectrum of carbendazim standard solution. Compared with the carbendazim drug solution, the peak position of absorption spectrum has the blue shift (285-280 nm) when carbendazim (0.28 mg x mL(-1))was added in the orange juice. So that we can conclude that interaction happened between the orange juice and carbendazim. Through the method of least squares fitting, the prediction models between the absorbance of orange juice and carbendazim content was obtained with a good linear relationship. The linear function model was: I = 2.41 + 9.26x, the correlation coefficient was 0.996, and the recovery was: 81%-102%. According to the regression model, we can obtain the amount of carbendazim pesticide residues in orange juice. It was verified that the method of using ultraviolet-visible absorption spectra was feasible to detect the carbendazim residues in orange juice. The result proved that it is possible to detect pesticide residues of carbendazim in orange juice, and it can meet the needs of rapid analysis. This study provides a new way for the detection of pesticide residues.

  13. Development, validation and determination of multiclass pesticide residues in cocoa beans using gas chromatography and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainudin, Badrul Hisyam; Salleh, Salsazali; Mohamed, Rahmat; Yap, Ken Choy; Muhamad, Halimah

    2015-04-01

    An efficient and rapid method for the analysis of pesticide residues in cocoa beans using gas and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was developed, validated and applied to imported and domestic cocoa beans samples collected over 2 years from smallholders and Malaysian ports. The method was based on solvent extraction method and covers 26 pesticides (insecticides, fungicides, and herbicides) of different chemical classes. The recoveries for all pesticides at 10 and 50 μg/kg were in the range of 70-120% with relative standard deviations of less than 20%. Good selectivity and sensitivity were obtained with method limit of quantification of 10 μg/kg. The expanded uncertainty measurements were in the range of 4-25%. Finally, the proposed method was successfully applied for the routine analysis of pesticide residues in cocoa beans via a monitoring study where 10% of them was found positive for chlorpyrifos, ametryn and metalaxyl. PMID:25442595

  14. The analysis method of pesticides residue in Hongkong plant-derived spices%输港植物源性调味品中农药残留检测方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘润珠; 张靖坤; 崔淑华; 周春杨; 王建华

    2014-01-01

    目的:针对2012年5月香港特区政府发布全新的食物中残余除害剂管理制度——《香港食物中残余除害剂的建议规管方案》(简称《规管方案》)中所涉及的共计7大类植物源性调味品中25项农药残留,建立相关样品处理及仪器测定方法。方法样品用含0.1%乙酸乙腈溶液超声提取,经SAX/PSA固相萃取柱净化,分别用气相色谱-质谱联用仪、气相色谱-串联质谱联用仪及液相色谱-串联质谱联用仪进行定性、定量分析。分别对蒜粉、姜粉及辣椒粉基质进行了50µg/kg水平上的添加回收实验,优化了前处理过程及仪器分析过程中几个关键步骤。结果检测结果添加回收率在67.8%~123.7%之间,确立了针对植物源性调味品中25项农药残留的分析和确认方法。结论该方法简单便捷,易于操作,有效地解决了植物源性调味品中复杂基质对测定农药残留的影响。%Objective To establish a method for the related samples’ pretreatment and instrument detection, regarding the 25 pesticide residues in the 7 major categories of plant derived spices which are involved in the new residual pesticides in food management system——“Hongkong foods recommended gauge residual pesticides tube scheme” (referred to as “regulatory scheme”) issued in 2012 May by the Hongkong SAR government.MethodsBy using acetonitrile with 0.1% acetic acid as the solvent, the sample was ultrasonic extracted, cleaned by SAX/PSA, and qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed by gas chromatography-mass (GC-MS), gas chromatography-mass/mass (GC-MS/MS) and liquid chromatography-mass/mass (LC-MS/ MS). In the experiment of recovery test on garlic powder, ginger powder and chilli powder spiked with 50 µg/kg, several key steps were optimized in the pretreatment process and instrument testing.Results The recoveries of those pesticides were from 67.8% and 123.7%. The analysis and confirmation method of plant

  15. A Survey of Determination for Organophosphorus Pesticide Residue in Agricultural Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Li

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to find a fast, high efficient determination method of Organophosphorus Pesticides (OPPs residue because OPPs widely used in crops pest control fields in China are causing fearful risks for environment as well as animals and human health, traditional and advanced determination methods were discussed in the study. Based on the spectrum analysis technology combined colorimetric OPPs residue detection experiments in leafy vegetables showed that the absorbance of color reaction between OPPs residues and suitable colorimetric reagents can be distinguished in ppm level of OPPs residues. The detection limit of chlorpyrifos after color reaction with 0.5% Pbcl2 in acetic acid solution is 0.5 ppm. The conclusion was drawn that the detection technologies were diversified, however, a simple, efficient, rapid and nondestructive detection method is lacking and the spectrum analysis technology combined colorimetric can be a new fast and efficient determination method in the future.

  16. Organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticide residues in raw buffalo milk from agroindustrial areas in Assiut, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaker, Eman M; Elsharkawy, Eman E

    2015-01-01

    Raw buffalo milk samples from the agroindustrial zone in upper Egypt were analyzed for the presence of organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticides using gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. Five organochlorine pesticides namely, alachlor, dieldrin, hexachlorobenzene, lindane and methoxychlor and three organophosphorus pesticides chlorpyrifos, malathion, and parathion-methyl were detected in the milk samples. In 44% of the samples, the concentrations of lindane and malathion residues exceeded tolerance levels set by the European Commission (EC) in 2008. In addition, the concentrations of chlorpyrifos, methoxychlor, and hexachlorobenzene residues exceeded the 2008 EC maximum residual limits (MRLs) by 33, 66, and 88% of the examined samples, respectively. However, the levels of alachlor, dieldrin, and parathion-methyl residues were below EC MRLs. The results of this study confirm the risks of pesticide residues exposure that threaten consumer health in Egypt. Thus, we recommend that pesticide residue monitoring programs be instituted in all the developing countries. PMID:25575291

  17. Pesticide residue analysis by off-line SPE and on-line reversed-phase LC-GC using the through-oven-transfer adsorption/desorption interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, M; Alario, J; Vazquez, A; Villén, J

    2000-02-15

    A new method to determine pesticide residue in water is presented. The described method includes using off-line solid-phase extraction (SPE) and on-line reversed-phase liquid chromatography-gas chromatography (RPLC-GC). An interface, based on a modified programmed temperature vaporizer (PTV) injector, packed with a suitable trapping material, is used for on-line RPLC-GC. The changes made in the PTV injector affect the pneumatic system, sample introduction, and solvent elimination. The new interface is easily capable of automation. Methanol/wate (70/30) is used as the eluent in the LC preseparation step. The LC column flow during elution is different from the flow during the transfer step. The transferred volumes range from 500 to 1400 microL (volume of the fractions of interest). Solvent elimination is almost 100% before the sample reaches the GC column. The described system does not show any variation of the peak retention times. The detection limit for real samples ranges from 0.04 to 1.5 ng/L, using NP detection.

  18. Review of Cloud Point Extraction Technology and Its Application in Pesticide Residue Analysis%浊点萃取技术及其在农药残留分析中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈建波; 王云飞; 奚道珍

    2011-01-01

    浊点萃取技术是基于表面活性剂溶液相分离现象的一种新兴的液-液萃取技术,已经成功的与多种分析仪器联用,用于农药残留样品的前处理中.介绍了浊点萃取技术的原理和影响因素,重点综述了浊点萃取作为气相色谱、液相色谱、分光光度计、荧光光度计的前处理技术在农药残留分析中的应用进展,探讨了该技术方法的发展前景.%Cloud point extraction (CPE) is a new liquid-liquid extraction technique based on the separation in aqueous surfactant solution. It has been combined with many analytical instruments and used for the pretreatment of pesticide residue. In this paper, the principle of CPE was introduced. The applications of CPE to the pretreatment technique of pesticide residue analysis by gas chromatography (GC), high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC),spectrophotometer and fluorophotometer were emphatically summarized. The development trend of the CPE was also presented.

  19. Assessmet of temporal distribution of pesticide residues in vineyard soils of La Rioja (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pose Juan, Eva; Herrero Hernandez, Eliseo; Soledad Andrades, Maria; Rodriguez Cruz, Maria Sonia; Sanchez Martin, Maria Jesus

    2013-04-01

    estimated. Recoveries were above 70% for all pesticides. Good linear relationships of the calibration curves (0.01-1 μg mL-1) were obtained for all the compounds by the two analytical methods with regression coefficients (r2) higher than 0.99 in the range of concentrations studied. Detection limits were pesticides studied. After the development and validation of an analytical method, the study of the temporal variability of the pesticide pollution in different periods of time (September 2011, and March, June and October 2012) were performed. Herbicide residues were found in most of the soils and an increment in concentrations of these compounds and in the number of positive samples were detected in samples collected in March 2012 in relation to those collected in September 2011. This increase in the number of positive samples was of 30 % for terbuthylazine. Fungicide residues were detected in greater concentrations in samples collected in September. Both behaviours may be related with the time of application of both types of compounds. Herbicides are commonly applied in March-April and fungicides are usually applied in summer, when different grapevine diseases like botrytis or mildiu commonly appear. Moreover, new pesticide residues were detected in March 2012, which were not detected in September 2011 in any soil sample. Further analysis of results is in course.

  20. Ecological Risk Assessment of Pesticide Residues in Water from Desert Locust Area in Burkina Faso

    OpenAIRE

    Sylvain Ilboudo; Adama Makoum Toé; Richard Ouédraogo; Moustapha Ouédraogo; Innocent Pierre Guissou

    2014-01-01

    Locust control requires sometimes an important use of pesticides in infested area with concomitant environment contaminations. Using the Gas Chromatography (GC) technical, pesticide residues were determined in water samples collected from locust outbreak areas of Burkina Faso, West Africa. The risk quotient method coupled with probabilistic risk assessment model was used for ecological risk assessment of pesticide detected in water. For ten pesticides belonging to Organophosphates, Pyrethroid...

  1. Assessment of organochlorine pesticide residues in soils and drinking water sources from cocoa farms in Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Fosu-Mensah, Benedicta Y.; Okoffo, Elvis D.; Darko, Godfred; Gordon, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Residues of organochlorine pesticides were determined in soils and drinking water sources in cocoa growing areas in Ghana. Soil samples analysed showed the presence of four organochlorine pesticide residues namely lindane (0.005–0.05 mg/kg), beta-HCH (

  2. 蔬菜农药残留现状及其潜在风险分析%Present Status of Pesticide Residue in Vegetables and Its Potential Risk Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶雪珠; 赵燕申; 王强; 蒋玉根

    2012-01-01

    By detecting the pesticide use and 94 kinds pesticide residues in vegetable production in Zhejiang Province, major pesticide residue types at present and their risks in vegetable were analyzed. The results showed that 78 kinds of pesticides mainly used in vegetable production, including insecticide, fungicide, growth regulator and herbicide were mostly pesticides with high effective and low toxic. The detection of pesticide residues revealed that 28 pesticides got high detectable rate in vegetables, including acetamiprid, carbendazim, dursban, imidacloprid, morpholine, triazophos, propamocarb, pyridaben, etc.. The results also indicated that 46.4% of the detected pesticides with residual in vegetables were not found in using. But methamidophos and other highly toxic pesticides were still checked out. One of the main risks is some pesticide products without label and their component is unclear to customer. In addition, a unified standard testing method has not been established for 28 kinds of pesticides frequently used in vegetable production. Pesticide residue is still a security risk for vegetable consumption.%通过对浙江省蔬菜生产中使用农药情况调查和94种农药的残留检测,分析了目前蔬菜中主要残留农药品种及其潜在风险.结果发现,目前蔬菜生产中主要使用78种农药,包括杀虫剂、杀菌剂、生长调节剂和除草剂,以低毒农药品种为主;蔬菜中主要残留28种农药,检出频率较高的农药依次为啶虫脒、多菌灵、毒死蜱、吡虫啉、烯酰吗啉、三唑磷、霜霉威和哒螨灵等,检出的残留农药品种中,有46.4%在调查中未发现有使用,甲胺磷等高毒农药仍有检出.农药产品标识和农药成分不明是主要风险之一.此外,蔬菜中使用的28种农药尚未建立统一的标准检测方法,蔬菜食用仍存在农药残留安全风险.

  3. Detection of Residual Levels and Associated Health Risk of Seven Pesticides in Fresh Eggplant and Tomato Samples from Narayanganj District, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Nur Alam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Residual levels of seven frequently used pesticides were investigated in 140 samples of two common vegetables, eggplants and tomatoes, from agricultural fields in the Narayanganj district of Bangladesh. The analysis of pesticide residues was performed by high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection. A large percentage of the eggplants (50% and tomatoes (60% from the Narayanganj district were contaminated with pesticides, and all of the levels were above the maximum residual limit (MRL proposed by the EC regulation. Diazinon was the most common (35% pesticide detected in the vegetable samples at a concentration of 45–450 times higher than the MRL. The health risk index for diazinon was highest for both eggplant and tomato samples, which may be due to its physiochemical properties. Fenitrothion and linuron are the two second most common types of pesticides detected in the vegetable samples. Regular monitoring of the use of common pesticides on vegetables should be conducted.

  4. Validation of a method for the determination of 120 pesticide residues in apples and cucumbers by LC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadan, Gouda; Al Jabir, Muna; Alabdulmalik, Najat; Mohammed, Ali

    2016-05-01

    Most countries have clearly defined regulations governing the use of pesticides in agricultural activity. The application of pesticides in agriculture usually leads to a residual amount of these pesticides on food products such as fruit and vegetables. The presence of pesticide residues on these foods destined for human consumption may pose food safety risks to consumers. To protect consumers, national authorities have established maximum limits for pesticide residues in foods. These limits can only be enforced if there are methods available to detect and monitor their concentrations in the applicable food products. To support the enforcement of this legislation, we have developed a multi-residue liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for the analysis of 120 pesticide residues in apples and cucumbers which has been validated and implemented in the routine monitoring and surveillance programme for these pesticides. In this method, apple and cucumber samples are extracted using the QuEChERS method (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe) and the extracts were analyzed directly by LC-MS/MS. The mean recoveries at three different concentrations of 0.01 µg/g , 0.05 µg/g, and 0.1 µg/g over the analytical range varied between 70 and 120%. The repeatability of the method expressed as %RSD was less than 20%. The limit of detection (LOD) of the method ranged between 0.0014 and 0.0110 µg/g for apples and between 0.0012 and 0.0075 µg/g for cucumbers. The limit of quantification (LOQ) of the method was 0.01 µg/g for apples and cucumbers. The method has been used for the analysis of over 600 apple and 550 cucumber samples over the past two years. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27443204

  5. Pesticide residue profile and nutrient characteristics of the Densu River Basin in Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Densu River Basin is one of the largest agricultural areas in Ghana. About 80% of people living in this area rely on agricultural activities for subsistence. The practice of using pesticides such as organochlorines, organophosphates, carbamates, pyrethroids and several others in agriculture and public health programs have raised concerns about potentially adverse effects on human health and the environment. Assessment of human health implications of non-point sources within a river basin include pesticide residues analysis of water, sediment and fish and monitoring of physico-chemical parameters in waters that serve as source of drinking water for the entire community within the basin. In this study, a field survey was conducted to assess farmers' knowledge of safe handling and use of pesticides. Nutrient chemistry and surface water characteristics of the Densu River and its tributaries, type and levels of pesticide residues and their trends in water, sediment and fish in the basin were also evaluated. The study also assessed the health risk associated with pesticide contamination of fish from the Basin as well as the relationship between land use and groundwater contamination. Generally surface and ground water bodies in the Densu River basin were found to be polluted with respect to nutrients and pesticides. Waters from the basin were found to be fresh, slightly acidic, and weakly mineralized with low chemical constituents. Nitrate (NO3-N) levels in surface water ranged between 0.12 - 31.07 mgL-1 while ammonia was between 0.01 - 2.10 mgL-1 and that of phosphate was 0.012 - 2.45 mgL-1. Pesticide residues and metabolites detected in water, sediment and fish samples from the Densu River Basin were organochlorines. In an average 96% of fish samples, 13.69% of sediment and 3.30% of water samples, at least one pesticide residue was detected per sample. Of the numerous pesticides evaluated, γ -HCH, DDT, aldrin, dieldrin, DDE, endosulfan sulphate,

  6. Pesticide food safety standards as companions to tolerances and maximum residue limits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Carl K Winter; Elizabeth A Jara

    2015-01-01

    Alowable levels for pesticide residues in foods, known as tolerances in the US and as maximum residue limits (MRLs) in much of the world, are widely yet inappropriately perceived as levels of safety concern. A novel approach to develop scientiifcaly defensible levels of safety concern is presented and an example to determine acute and chronic pesticide food safety standard (PFSS) levels for the fungicide captan on strawberries is provided. Using this approach, the chronic PFSS level for captan on strawberries was determined to be 2000 mg kg–1 and the acute PFSS level was determined to be 250 mg kg–1. Both levels are far above the existing tolerance and MRLs that commonly range from 3 to 20 mg kg–1, and provide evidence that captan residues detected at levels greater than the tolerance or MRLs are not of acute or chronic health concern even though they represent violative residues. The beneifts of developing the PFSS approach to serve as a companion to existing tolerances/MRLs include a greater understanding concerning the health signiifcance, if any, from exposure to violative pesticide residues. In addition, the PFSS approach can be universaly applied to al potential pesticide residues on al food commodities, can be modiifed by speciifc jurisdictions to take into account differences in food consumption practices, and can help prioritize food residue monitoring by identifying the pesticide/commodity combinations of the greatest potential food safety concern and guiding development of ifeld level analytical methods to detect pesticide residues on prioritized pesticide/commodity combinations.

  7. 75 FR 17715 - Notice of Receipt of a Pesticide Petition Filed for Temporary Tolerance Exemption for Residues of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-07

    ... AGENCY Notice of Receipt of a Pesticide Petition Filed for Temporary Tolerance Exemption for Residues of... exemption from the requirement of a tolerance for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on various... 174 or part 180 for residues of the pesticide chemical prohydrojasmon (PDJ) in or on various...

  8. Pesticide residue assessment in three selected agricultural production systems in the Choluteca River Basin of Honduras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is a basic lack of information about the presence of pesticide residues in the environment in Central America. Over the period of February 1995 to June 1997, river, well, lagoon and spring water samples, as well as soil, fish tissue, lagoon bed sediments and some foodstuffs were taken from the greater Cholutecan River Basin of Honduras and analyzed for pesticide residues. These were collected at three separate sites (La Lima, Zamorano and Choluteca), each characterized by differing agricultural production systems. The main pesticide residues found in soil samples were dieldrin and p,p'-DDT, while river water samples were found to have detectable levels of heptachlor, endosulfan and chlorpyrifos, with lagoon and well water also being shown to contain heptachlor. These pesticides detected were in more than 20% of the samples assessed. In river water samples more pesticide residues at higher concentrations were found to be associated with areas of more intensive agricultural production. The fewest pesticides with lowest concentrations were found in the small subwatershed associated with traditional agricultural production. Although the pesticides found in the soils at the three sites were generally similar they tended to be higher in the southern part of the Cholutecan watershed, followed by the central zone, with the lowest concentrations being found in the more traditional production zone. In lagoon and well water samples more pesticides, but mostly in lower concentrations were detected at the traditional production site than at the others. Ten pesticide compounds were detected in fish tissue, mainly organochlorines, some of which were also found in lagoon sediments. In terms of food products, almost no pesticides were detected in vegetables, but the kidney adipose tissue taken from slaughtered cows was shown to have a tendency to contain some organochlorines. Spring water in the traditional agricultural production zone contained three organochlorine compounds

  9. Exploration on risk assessment of pesticide residues in vegetables%蔬菜农药残留风险评估探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄和勇

    2012-01-01

    Based on the analysis on standard-exceeded reason of pesticide residues in vegetables,this paper elaborated the process of risk assessment of pesticide residues in vegetables,explored the countermeasures to strengthen the task in risk assessment of pesticide residues in vegetables.%分析蔬菜农药残留超标的原因,阐述蔬菜农药残留风险评估的过程,探讨加强蔬菜农药残留风险评估工作的对策。

  10. Pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables from the Aegean region, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakırcı, Gözde Türköz; Yaman Acay, Dilek Bengü; Bakırcı, Fatih; Ötleş, Semih

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables from the Aegean region of Turkey. A total of 1423 samples of fresh fruit and vegetables were collected from 2010 to 2012. The samples were analysed to determine the concentrations of 186 pesticide residues. The analyses utilized ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC/MS/MS) and gas chromatography with an electron capture detector (GC-ECD) confirmed by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) after a multi-residue extraction procedure (the QuEChERS method). The results were evaluated according to maximum residue limits (MRLs) for each commodity and pesticide by Turkish Regulation. All pomegranate, cauliflower and cabbage samples were pesticides-free. A total of 754 samples contained detectable residues at or below MRLs, and 48 (8.4%) of the fruit samples and 83 (9.8%) of the vegetable samples contained pesticide residues above MRLs. MRL values were most often exceeded in arugula, cucumber, lemon, and grape commodities. All detected pesticides in apricot, carrot, kiwifruit and leek were below the MRLs. Acetamiprid, chlorpyriphos and carbendazim were the most detected pesticide residues.

  11. Decontamination of spills and residues of some pesticides and of protective clothing worn during the handling of the pesticides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armour, M.A.; Nelson, C.; Sather, P. Briker, Y. [Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton (Canada)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    Users of pesticides may have waste or surplus quantities or spills for disposal. One alternative is to deactivate the pesticide at the handling site by using a straightforward chemical reaction. This option can be practical for those who use relatively small quantities of a large variety of pesticides, for example, greenhouse workers, small farmers, and agricultural researchers. This paper describes practical on-site methods for the disposal of spills or small waste quantities of five commonly used pesticides, Diazinon, Chlorpyrifos, Iprodione, 2,4-D, and Captan. These have been tested in the laboratory for the rate of disappearance of the pesticide, the degree of conversion to nontoxic products, the nature and identity of the products, the practicality of the method, and the ease of reproducibility. Methods selected were shown to be safe for the operator, reliable, and reproducible. Greater than 99% of the starting material had to be reacted under reasonable conditions and length of time. Detailed descriptions of the reactions are presented, so that they can be performed with reproducible results. Protective clothing worn during the handling and application of pesticides may become contaminated. Simple laundering does not always remove all of the pesticide residues. Thus, chronic dermal exposure may result from the pesticide-contaminated clothing. Appropriate methods of laundering using specific pretreatments have been determined. 7 refs.

  12. Health impact from pesticide residues in a desert environment.

    OpenAIRE

    Gomes, James

    1998-01-01

    The amount and frequency of use of pesticides in vegetable farming have been shown to be high in the five farming areas in Al-Ain, UAE. The mean usage of all pesticides was high (6.81 g/m2) while the usage of organophosphorus pesticides (2.11 g/m2) was higher compared to the usage of all the other types of pesticides. A number of pesticides banned from use in the developed countries are still used in vegetable farming. The depletion of erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity among...

  13. Residual Component Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Kalaitzis, Alfredo A

    2011-01-01

    Probabilistic principal component analysis (PPCA) seeks a low dimensional representation of a data set in the presence of independent spherical Gaussian noise, Sigma = (sigma^2)*I. The maximum likelihood solution for the model is an eigenvalue problem on the sample covariance matrix. In this paper we consider the situation where the data variance is already partially explained by other factors, e.g. covariates of interest, or temporal correlations leaving some residual variance. We decompose the residual variance into its components through a generalized eigenvalue problem, which we call residual component analysis (RCA). We show that canonical covariates analysis (CCA) is a special case of our algorithm and explore a range of new algorithms that arise from the framework. We illustrate the ideas on a gene expression time series data set and the recovery of human pose from silhouette.

  14. Occurrence of non extractable pesticide residues in physical and chemical fractions of two soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreou, Kostas; Semple, Kirk; Jones, Kevin

    2010-05-01

    Soils are considered to be a significant sink for organic contaminants, including pesticides, in the environment. Understanding the distribution and localisation of aged pesticide residues in soil is of great importance for assessing the mobility and availability of these chemicals in the environment. This study aimed to characterise the distribution of radiolabeled herbicide isoproturon and the radiolabeled insecticides diazinon and cypermethrin in two organically managed soils. The soils were spiked and aged under laboratory conditions for 17 months. The labile fraction of the pesticides residues was recovered in CaCl2 (0.01M) and then subjected to physical size fractionation using sedimentation and centrifugation steps, with >20μm, 20-2μm and 2-0.1μm soil factions collected. Further, the distribution of the pesticide residues in the organic matter of the fractionated soil was investigated using a sequential alkaline extraction (0.1N NaOH) into humic and fulvic acid and humin. Soil fractions of 20-2μm and 2-0.1μm had the largest burden of the 14C-residues. Different soil constituents have different capacities to form non-extractable residues. Soil solid fractions of 20-2 µm and pesticide residues than the coarser fraction (>20 µm). Fulvic acid showed to play a vital role in the formation and stabilisation of non-extractable 14C-pesticide residues in most cases.Assessment of the likelihood of the pesticide residues to become available to soil biota requires an understanding of the structure of the SOM matrix and the definition of the kinetics of the pesticide residues in different SOM pools as a function of the time.

  15. Proposal for field-based definition of soil bound pesticide residues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boesten, J.J.T.I.

    2016-01-01

    The environmental significance of soil bound pesticide residues (SBPR) is potentially large because approximately one third of the applied mass of the pesticides in agriculture ends up as SBPR. At EU level, there is little regulatory guidance available on the environmental risk assessment of SBPR

  16. Environmental impact and remediation of residual lead and arsenic pesticides in soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lead arsenate (PbHAsO4) was used as a pesticide for over 50 years in orchards throughout the world, and residual lead and arsenic have been found in high concentrations in these orchard soils long after the pesticide use ended. These high concentrations of lead and arsenic may create a potential ri...

  17. Comparison of Target and Non-target Mortality Rates from Residual Pesticide on HESCO Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    We conducted a series of tests to determine if pesticides applied as persistent treatments (residual pesticides) to militarily relevant textile materials to kill mosquitoes, flies, and other disease and nuisance pests might also impact populations of beneficial insects. We exposed samples of pestic...

  18. Pesticide residues in individual versus composite samples of apples after fine or coarse spray quality application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poulsen, M.; Wenneker, M.; Withagen, J.C.M.; Christensen, H.B.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, field trials on fine and coarse spray quality application of pesticides on apples were performed. The main objectives were to study the variation of pesticide residue levels in individual fruits versus composite samples, and the effect of standard fine spray quality application versus

  19. Health Risk Assessment of Pesticide Residues via Dietary Intake of Market Vegetables from Dhaka, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Shakhaoat Hossain

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to assess the health risk of pesticide residues via dietary intake of vegetables collected from four top agro-based markets of Dhaka, Bangladesh. High performance liquid chromatography with a photo diode array detector (HPLC-PDA was used to determine six organophosphorus (chlorpyrifos, fenitrothion, parathion, ethion, acephate, fenthion, two carbamate (carbaryl and carbofuran and one pyrethroid (cypermethrin pesticide residues in twelve samples of three common vegetables (tomato, lady’s finger and brinjal. Pesticide residues ranged from below detectable limit (<0.01 to 0.36 mg/kg. Acephate, chlorpyrifos, ethion, carbaryl and cypermethrin were detected in only one sample, while co-occurrence occurred twice for fenitrothion and parathion. Apart from chlorpyrifos in tomato and cypermethrin in brinjal, all pesticide residues exceeded the maximum residue limit (MRL. Hazard risk index (HRI for ethion (10.12 and carbaryl (1.09 was found in lady’s finger and tomato, respectively. Rest of the pesticide residues were classified as not a health risk. A continuous monitoring and strict regulation should be enforced regarding control of pesticide residues in vegetables and other food commodities.

  20. 2010年杭州市蔬菜有机磷和氨基甲酸酯农药残留状况分析%Analysis of organophosphorus and carbamate pesticide residues in vegetables collected from Hangzhou in 2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何良兴; 张瓅文; 李燕

    2011-01-01

    目的:了解杭州市蔬菜农药残留情况,为蔬菜质量安全的监管和控制工作提供科学依据.方法:采集蔬菜样品446577批次,测定有机磷和氨基甲酸酯农药残留量,并对结果进行分析总结.结果:蔬菜年均农药超标率为0.09%,残留农药以有机磷为主,不同品种蔬菜的超标率与超标农药类型都不同,杭州本地与外地蔬菜农药超标率没有显著不同.结论:杭州市蔬菜农药残留水平较低,质量安全状况良好,但禁用农药还需要进一步加强监管.%Objective: To investigate the conditions of organophosphorus and carbamate pesticide residues in vegetables in Hangzhou in order to provide the basis for surveillance and control of vegetables safety. Methods: The total 446,577 samples of vegetables were collected and their residues of organophosphorus and carbamate were measured. At last, the results were analysised and summaried. Results: The disqualification rate of vegetables is 0.09%. The organophosphorus is the main pesticide residues. The disqualification rate and the type of pesticide residues varies in different kinds of vegetables. There's no difference in the disqualification rate of vegetables between Hangzhou and other places. Conclusion: The level of pesticide residues is low,and vegetable quality of Hangzhou is good, but supervision and administration on the forbidden pesticides should be strengthened.

  1. Pesticide management and their residues in sediments and surface and drinking water in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toan, Pham Van; Sebesvari, Zita; Bläsing, Melanie; Rosendahl, Ingrid; Renaud, Fabrice G

    2013-05-01

    Public concern in Vietnam is increasing with respect to pesticide pollution of the environment and of drinking water resources. While established monitoring programs in the Mekong Delta (MD) focus on the analysis of organochlorines and some organophosphates, the environmental concentrations of more recently used pesticides such as carbamates, pyrethroides, and triazoles are not monitored. In the present study, household level pesticide use and management was therefore surveyed and combined with a one year environmental monitoring program of thirteen relevant pesticides (buprofezin, butachlor, cypermethrin, α-endosulfan, β-endosulfan, endosulfan-sulfate, fenobucarb, fipronil, isoprothiolane, pretilachlor, profenofos, propanil, and propiconazole) in surface water, soil, and sediment samples. The surveys showed that household level pesticide management remains suboptimal in the Mekong Delta. As a consequence, a wide range of pesticide residues were present in water, soil, and sediments throughout the monitoring period. Maximum concentrations recorded were up to 11.24 μg l(-1) in water for isoprothiolane and up to 521 μg kg(-1) dm in sediment for buprofezin. Annual average concentrations ranged up to 3.34 μg l(-1) in water and up to 135 μg kg(-1) dm in sediment, both for isoprothiolane. Occurrence of pesticides in the environment throughout the year and co-occurrence of several pesticides in the samples indicate a considerable chronic exposure of biota and humans to pesticides. This has a high relevance in the delta as water for drinking is often extracted from canals and rivers by rural households (GSO, 2005, and own surveys). The treatment used by the households for preparing surface water prior to consumption (flocculation followed by boiling) is insufficient for the removal of the studied pesticides and boiling can actually increase the concentration of non-volatile pollutants. PMID:23500396

  2. Pesticide management and their residues in sediments and surface and drinking water in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toan, Pham Van; Sebesvari, Zita; Bläsing, Melanie; Rosendahl, Ingrid; Renaud, Fabrice G

    2013-05-01

    Public concern in Vietnam is increasing with respect to pesticide pollution of the environment and of drinking water resources. While established monitoring programs in the Mekong Delta (MD) focus on the analysis of organochlorines and some organophosphates, the environmental concentrations of more recently used pesticides such as carbamates, pyrethroides, and triazoles are not monitored. In the present study, household level pesticide use and management was therefore surveyed and combined with a one year environmental monitoring program of thirteen relevant pesticides (buprofezin, butachlor, cypermethrin, α-endosulfan, β-endosulfan, endosulfan-sulfate, fenobucarb, fipronil, isoprothiolane, pretilachlor, profenofos, propanil, and propiconazole) in surface water, soil, and sediment samples. The surveys showed that household level pesticide management remains suboptimal in the Mekong Delta. As a consequence, a wide range of pesticide residues were present in water, soil, and sediments throughout the monitoring period. Maximum concentrations recorded were up to 11.24 μg l(-1) in water for isoprothiolane and up to 521 μg kg(-1) dm in sediment for buprofezin. Annual average concentrations ranged up to 3.34 μg l(-1) in water and up to 135 μg kg(-1) dm in sediment, both for isoprothiolane. Occurrence of pesticides in the environment throughout the year and co-occurrence of several pesticides in the samples indicate a considerable chronic exposure of biota and humans to pesticides. This has a high relevance in the delta as water for drinking is often extracted from canals and rivers by rural households (GSO, 2005, and own surveys). The treatment used by the households for preparing surface water prior to consumption (flocculation followed by boiling) is insufficient for the removal of the studied pesticides and boiling can actually increase the concentration of non-volatile pollutants.

  3. Review on Sources and Handling Method of Pesticide Residues in Animal Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indraningsih

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Field studies and literature search showed that some pesticide residues either organochlorines (OC or organophosphates (OP were detected in animal products (meat and milk . Pesticide residues in meat collected from West Java were detected at the level of 0 .8 ppb lindane and 62 ppb diazinon . While in meat from Lampung was detected at the level of 7 ppb lindane . 2 .7 heptachlor, 0 .8 endosulfan and 0 .5 ppb aldrin . Furthermore, pesticide residues were also detected in the milk collected from West, Central and East Java . The levels of lindane were 2,3 ; 15,9 ; 0,2 ppb ; heptachlor 8 ; 0 .4 and 0,05 ppb; diazinon 8 ; 0 and 1,8 ppb; CPM 0,4 ; 0,8 and 0 ppb ; endosulfan 0,1 ; 0,04 and 0,05 ppb for West, Central and East Java, respectively . The source of pesticide contamination in animal products is generally originated from feed materials, fodders . contaminated soils and water around the farm areas . Minimalization approach of pesticide residues in animal products could be conducted integratedly, such as through chemical process, biodegradation using microorganisms . Organic farming system is recognised as an alternative that may be applied to minimise contamination on agricultural land, eventually reducing pesticide residues in the agricultural products . Feeding with organic agricultural by-products with low pesticide residues appears to reduce pesticide residues in animal products . In order to eliminate pesticide contamination in soil, it has to be conducted progressively by implementing sustainable organic farming .

  4. Levels of pesticides residues in the White Nile water in the Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesser, Gibreel A A; Abdelbagi, Azhari O; Hammad, Ahmed Mohammed Ali; Tagelseed, Mirghani; Laing, Mark D

    2016-06-01

    Twenty-two commonly used pesticides were monitored during autumn, winter, and summer of 2004-2005 in 27 water samples from three sites along the White Nile in Sudan (former Sudan). Sites were selected to reflect pesticides gathered from drainage canals in central Sudan and from upstream sources. Collected samples were extracted and subjected to gas chromatographic analysis. Pesticides levels were measured in nanograms per liter. Pesticides residues were detected in 96 % of the samples with a total residue burden of 4132.6 ng L(-1), and an overall mean concentration and range of 50.99 and not detected-1570 ng L(-1), respectively. Ororganochlorines were the most frequently detected contaminants, which were found in 70 % of the samples, causing a total burden of 2852.8 ng L(-1), followed by pyrethroids 15 % of the samples, with a total burden of 926.5 ng L(-1). The tested herbicides were detected in ˂4 % of the samples with a total burden of 353.3 ng L(-1), while organophosphorus levels were below the detection limit. The most frequent contaminants were the following: heptachlor and its epoxide (52 % of samples), followed by DDTs (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes) (DDT and DDE, in 19 % of the samples), cypermethrin and fenvalerate (in 11 % of the samples), and pendimethalin (in oxyfluorfen were not detected in the analyzed samples. Generally, levels were least in autumn, and followed by summer and winter. Sources of contamination might include agricultural lands in central Sudan and upstream sources. Both recent and old contaminations were indicated. PMID:27230426

  5. Pesticide residues in human breast milk: risk assessment for infants from Punjab, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedi, J S; Gill, J P S; Aulakh, R S; Kaur, P; Sharma, A; Pooni, P A

    2013-10-01

    Punjab state in India is an agrarian society, where agriculture is the lifeline of farming community. To keep pace with increasing demands of food for growing population the indiscriminate use of pesticides has led to the contamination of environment and food commodities in this region. Analysis of human breast milk samples (n=53) for pesticide residues revealed the presence of β-, γ-HCH, p,p' DDD, p,p' DDE, p,p' DDT and endrin with mean concentration of 97.9, 101.7, 239.8, 1574.1, 100.3 and 90.7 ng g(-1) lipid wt., respectively. In addition, occurrence of β-endosulfan, endosulfan sulphate, cypermethrin and chlorpyrifos in this study have also been reported for the first time in human breast milk in Punjab, India. With increase in parity, HCH and DDT residue burden in donor's milk decreased. Although levels of HCH and DDT residues in breast milk samples have decreased significantly, yet estimated daily intake values for DDT are higher than the FAO/WHO permissible tolerable daily intake values for few infants. PMID:23850662

  6. Health Risk Assessment of Pesticide Residues via Dietary Intake of Market Vegetables from Dhaka, Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Md. Shakhaoat Hossain; Md. Alamgir Hossain; Md. Abdur Rahman; Md Mainul Islam; Md Atiqur Rahman; Tanveer Mehedi Adyel

    2013-01-01

    The present study was designed to assess the health risk of pesticide residues via dietary intake of vegetables collected from four top agro-based markets of Dhaka, Bangladesh. High performance liquid chromatography with a photo diode array detector (HPLC-PDA) was used to determine six organophosphorus (chlorpyrifos, fenitrothion, parathion, ethion, acephate, fenthion), two carbamate (carbaryl and carbofuran) and one pyrethroid (cypermethrin) pesticide residues in twelve samples of three comm...

  7. Effects of processing treatment on pesticide residues in fruits and their products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of processing treatments on pesticide residues in fruits and their products was reviewed. The effects on pesticide residues and relative control treatments for each processing step, including peeling, washing, sterilization, juicing, clarification, filtration, drying and fermentation, were discussed, respectively. Meanwhile we analyzed the future development prospectin of this field, in order to provide some suggestions for commercial fruit industry and consumers' health. (authors)

  8. 免疫分析法在吡虫啉农药检测中的应用进展%Application of Immunoassay Analysis in Doping Test of Pesticide Residues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭方毅; 杨海艳; 姜海蓉; 徐建建

    2011-01-01

    As a low toxicity, low-residue pesticide, imidacloprid has a wide range of applications on a-gainst pests in agriculture. In order to get a more accurate evaluation of environmental safety, detection technique of imidacloprid residue has gradually become a research hotspot. In this paper,the immuno-assay test of pesticide imidacloprid residue has been overviewed.%对吡虫啉残留免疫分析检测方法进行综述.介绍了各种免疫分析方法,比较了这些方法的优劣,在此基础上展望了免疫分析法在吡虫啉农药残留检测的应用前景和发展方向.

  9. Analysis of non-cleaned QuEChERS extracts for the determination of pesticide residues in fruit, vegetables and cereals by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norli, Hans Ragnar; Christiansen, Agnethe L; Stuveseth, Kari

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigated the possibility of leaving out the traditional clean-up step in the QuEChERS procedure and analysing non-cleaned extracts from fruit, vegetables and cereals with a combination of gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS), back-flush technology and large-volume injection. By using calibration standards in cucumber matrix, recovery and precision were calculated in lettuce, orange and wheat for 109 pesticides at 0.01 and 0.1 mg kg(-1) in two sets of samples: one with and one without clean-up. For both spiking levels, 80-82% of the pesticides in the non-cleaned extracts and 80-84% of the pesticides in the cleaned extracts were within the acceptable recovery range of 70-120%. Precision data for both levels showed that 95% of the pesticides in the non-cleaned extracts and 93-95% of the pesticides in the cleaned extracts had RSDs below 20%. Recovery and precision data were determined using a two tailed t-test (p = 0.05). By using calibration standards in the respective matrix, we studied if the non-cleaned calibration standards gave an extra matrix effect compared with the cleaned standards by using the slope from calibration graphs and plotting the calculated extra matrix effect minus 100 for each compound. The results showed that for 79% of the pesticides, the extra matrix effect minus 100 was within the acceptable range of -20% to 20%. Five European Union proficiency tests on rye, mandarin, rice, pear and barley, respectively, from 2010 to 2012 were reanalysed omitting the clean-up step and showed satisfactory results. At least 70 injections of non-cleaned extracts were made without detecting any increased need for maintenance during the experimental period. Analysing non-cleaned QuEChERS extracts of lettuce, orange and wheat are possible under the conditions described in this paper because recovery, precision and specificity showed satisfactory results compared with samples subjected to traditional dispersive clean-up. PMID

  10. Monitoring of Some Pesticides Residue in Consumed tea in Tehran Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Amirahmadi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tea is an agricultural product of the leaves, leaf buds, and internodes of various cultivars and sub-varieties of the Camellia sinensis plant, processed and vulcanized using various methods. Tea is a main beverage in Iranian food basket so should be free from toxic elements such as pesticides residue. There is no data bank on the residue of pesticides in the consumed black tea in Iran. The present study is the first attempt for monitoring of 25 pesticide residues from different chemical groups in tea samples obtained from local markets in Tehran, I.R. Iran during the period 2011. A reliable and accurate method based on spiked calibration curve and QuEChERS sample preparation was developed for determination of pesticide residues in tea by gas chromatography--mass spectrometry (GC/MS. The using of spiked calibration standards for constructing the calibration curve substantially reduced adverse matrix-related effects and negative recovery affected by GCB on pesticides. The recovery of pesticides at 3 concentration levels (n = 3 was in range of 81.4 - 99.4%. The method was proved to be repeatable with RSDr lower than 20%. The limits of quantification for all pesticides were <=20 ng/g. 53 samples from 17 imported and manufactured brand were analyzed. Detectable pesticides residues were found in 28.3% (15 samples of the samples. All of the positive samples were contaminated with unregulated pesticides (Endosulfan Sulfate or Bifenthrin which are established by ISIRI. None of the samples had contamination higher than maximum residue limit set by EU and India.

  11. Analysis of gas chromatography - mass spectrometry in detection of pesticide residues in vegetables%GC-MS检测蔬菜有机磷农药残留的效果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐志彩

    2012-01-01

    目的:用比较法对气相色谱-质谱法检测蔬菜农药残留的效果进行综合分析.方法:用气相色谱-质谱法对已知的5种农药标准品连续稀释计算出检出限,并随机抽取本地菜农种植的四种蔬菜进行农药残留量检测.同时用气相色谱法同步进行比较试验.结果:两种方法比较,气相色谱-质谱法具有更高的灵敏度和准确度,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).对蔬菜残留农药的检测结果表明GC-MS在蔬菜农残检测中具有更广泛的用途.结论:GC- MS在检测蔬菜农药残留方面具有更好的效果.%Objective: To analyze the effect of gas chromatography - mass spectrometry in detection of pesticide residues in vegetables. Methods: 5 known pesticide standards were detected by GC - MS continuously after dilution to calculate the detection limit, and 4 kinds of vegetables were randomly selected for pesticide residues detection by GC - MS and GC simultaneously for comparison test. Results: Compared to GC, GC - MS had better sensitivity and accuracy, the difference of the two methods had statistical significance (P < 0. 05). GC - MS was more suitable for detection of pesticide residues in vegetables. Conclusion: Gas chromatography - mass spectrometry in the detection of pesticide residues in vegetables has better effect.

  12. 78 FR 70007 - Receipt of a Pesticide Petition Filed for Residues of a Pesticide Chemical in or on Various...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-22

    ... adverse human health impacts or environmental effects from exposure to the pesticides discussed in this..., requests to establish an exemption from the requirement of a tolerance for residues of the plant-incorporated protectant (PIP), Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1F protein, in or on soybean. The petitioner...

  13. Current status of pesticides application and their residue in the water environment in Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Y.Q.; Singleton, P; Meredith, S.; et al

    2013-01-01

    Pesticides have been listed by the Irish Environmental Protection Agency as potentially dangerous pollutants that may pose a significant risk to the water environment in the Republic of Ireland (ROI). Although this analysis of pesticides data was based on the existing pesticides application survey in ROI, this study aims to produce a geographical information system profile for the amount of pesticides used in agriculture and the distribution of their use in different parts of the country. The...

  14. Impact assessment of pesticide residues in fish of Ganga river around Kolkata in West Bengal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktar, Md Wasim; Paramasivam, M; Sengupta, Daipayan; Purkait, Swarnali; Ganguly, Madhumita; Banerjee, S

    2009-10-01

    An investigation was conducted from 2001 to 2005 for determining the residual concentration of five pesticides, viz., total-HCH, total-DDT, total-Endosulfan, Dimethoate and Malathion in fish samples collected from various points of the river Ganga. Fish samples were analyzed for pesticide residues using standard laboratory procedures by GC method. It was found that total-HCH concentration remains above the MRL values for maximum number of times in comparison to four other pesticides. The pesticide contamination to fish may be due to indiscriminate discharge of polluted and untreated sewage-sludge to the river. The pesticide contents in some places are alarming. Thus proper care, maintenance, treatment and disposal of sewage water and sludge are most vital and should be the prime thrust for the nation. PMID:18758975

  15. Determination of pesticide residue in selected fruits and vegetable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Food contamination due to indiscriminate use of pesticides has become a serious problem. Fruits samples of tomato, grapes, musk melon, parsimen and vegetable samples of potato, pea, spinach, cabbage and pumpkin ere collected from local market of Peshawar, coming from different regions. All samples were extracted, purified and analyzed for the commonly used pesticides. Dichlorovas, BHC, Atrazine, Daizinon, Methadiathion and Cypermethrin were detected by Gas Chromatography. These pesticides were detected in vegetable samples Id Atrazine were found in potato sample and not detected in other samples. Large concentration of Cypermethrin (44.6) was detected in the pea sample. All the vegetables samples have maximum concentration of pesticides, which is higher than their MRLs, but in pumpkin no one of the above pesticides were detected. In fruits samples, dichlorovas, atrazine, diazinon, methadiathion. Cypermethrin were detected. BHC was not present in fruits samples. All these pesticides were above the MRLs. The study concluded that agriculture crops are highly contaminated due to the uncontrolled use of pesticides in project area and suggested that pesticides should be applied in calculated dose to avoid resistance and persistence due to over and under dose application. (author)

  16. Pesticide residues in individual versus composite samples of apples after fine or coarse spray quality application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Mette E.; Wenneker, Marcel; Withagen, Jacques;

    2012-01-01

    versus coarse spray quality application on residue levels. The applications included boscalid, bupirimate, captan, fenoxycarb, indoxacarb, pirimicarb, pyraclostrobin and thiophanate-methyl. Apples were collected from four zones in the tree and pesticide residues were detected in the individual apples....... None of the results for the pesticides residues measured in individual apples exceeded the EU Maximum Residue Levels (MRLs). However, there was a large variation in the residues levels in the apples, with levels from 0.01 to 1.4 mg kg−1 for captan, the pesticide with the highest variation, and from 0...... of seven used when EU member states calculate possible exceeding of Acute Reference Dose (ARfD) was adequate to encompass almost all the average results from the analyses of ten individual apples. However, for captan up to 9% of the results were not covered depending on which of the mathematically...

  17. Organochlorine Pesticide Residues in the Major Rivers of Southern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abd Naser Haji Samoh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental contaminations by organochlorine pesticides (OCPs of inland water have been a global issue, since most of these compounds are very persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic compounds. Due to the widespread use of DDT for malaria vector eradication programs in the past and no comprehensive works have been conducted to assess trace organic pollutants in river waters, this work is the first effort to assess the contamination levels of OCPs in the major rivers of Southern Thailand. The objectives of this study were to determine the concentration levels of OCPs and oil and grease in the 3 major rivers and to compare the present results with surrounding regions for further assessment of OCPs contamination status in inland waters of Southern Thailand. The water samples were collected along the 3 major rivers (Saiburi, Patani and Tiba River during June 2007-February 2008. Water samples were solid phase extracted with Supelco C-18 cartridge (1g/6 mL and quantified by gas chromatograph (GC-ECD. The concentration of oil and grease was determined by gravimetric method and reported as hexane extractable material (HEM and silica gel treated hexane extractable material (SGT-HEM. Several parameters of waters such as total suspended solid, pH, turbidity, and conductivity were measured. The commonly found OCP residues in these rivers were β-HCH, γ-HCH, heptachlor epoxide, endosulfan 1, p,p’- DDE and endrin aldehyde. The overall results showed that Saiburi River was more polluted with OCPs than Patani and Tiba River, especially p, p’-DDE which was detected in the wide range concentration of 9.6 to 203.1 ng/mL. For oil and grease contamination, Tiba River waters were found to be more polluted than either Patani or Saiburi River. The experimental procedures and analytical results together with the possible sources of OCPs and its environmental impacts are presented.

  18. Pesticides residues in the Prochilodus costatus (Valenciennes, 1850) fish caught in the São Francisco River, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Fabiano A; Reis, Lilian P G; Soto-Blanco, Benito; Melo, Marília M

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the levels of pesticides in the fish Prochilodus costatus caught in São Francisco River, one of most important rivers in Brazil. Thirty-six fish were captured in three different areas, and samples of the dorsal muscle and pooled viscera were collected for toxicological analysis. We evaluated the presence of 150 different classes of insecticides, fungicides, herbicides and acaricides by multiresidue analysis technique using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), with the limit of detection of 5 ppb. In this study, organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides were detected at the highest levels in the caught fish. Among the 41 organophosphorus pesticides surveyed, nine types were detected (chlorpyrifos, diazinon, dichlorvos, disulfoton, ethion, etrimfos, phosalone, phosmet and pyrazophos) in the muscle, viscera pool, or both in 22 (61.1%) fish. Sampled tissues of 20 (55.6%) fish exhibited at least one of the eight evaluated carbamate pesticides and their metabolites: aldicarb, aldicarb sulfoxide, carbaryl, carbofuran, carbosulfan, furathiocarb, methomyl and propoxur. Fungicides (carbendazim, benalaxyl, kresoxim-methyl, trifloxystrobin, pyraclostrobin and its metabolite BF 500 pyraclostrobin), herbicides (pyridate and fluasifop p-butyl), acaricide (propargite) and pyrethroid (flumethrin) were also detected. In conclusion, P. costatus fish caught in the São Francisco River contained residues of 17 different pesticides, in both muscles and the viscera pool, indicating heavy environmental contamination by pesticides in the study area.

  19. [Survey of pesticide residues in imported spices and herbs (1997.4-2011.3)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Maki; Ohtsuka, Kenji; Tamura, Yasuhiro; Tomizawa, Sanae; Kinoshita, Teruaki; Kamijo, Kyoko; Iwakoshi, Keiko; Sato, Chizuko; Nagayama, Toshihiro; Takano, Ichiro

    2013-01-01

    A survey of pesticide residues in 313 samples of imported spices and herbs on the Tokyo market from April 1997 to March 2011 was carried out. Thirty-seven kinds of pesticides, including organophosphorus, organochlorine, pyrethroid, carbamate and others, were detected between levels of trace (below 0.01 ppm) and 3.3 ppm from 64 samples. The rate of detection was highest in peel (100%) followed by stem (66.7%), fruit (34.5%), bark (33.3%), flower (31.3%) and leaf (14.7%). No residues were detected in root, seed or whole grass. Organochlorine pesticides were detected in all plant parts. The insecticides were detected in products from all production areas, suggesting that their use is common. Residue levels of these pesticides were calculated as less than 1% of their ADI values, based on the daily intake of spices and herbs. Therefore, these spices and herbs should be safe when consumed in customary amounts.

  20. 2006年-2010年某市蔬菜中农药残留情况分析%Investigation and analysis on pesticide residues in vegetables from 2006 to 2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈焕娟

    2012-01-01

    目的:通过某市2006年-2010年蔬菜农药残留情况,探讨造成农药残留的原因和防控措施.方法:用回顾性流行病学方法对某市2006年-2010年蔬菜农药检测资料进行分析.结果:①2006年-2010年用气相色谱法检测95份蔬菜样品,其中不合格蔬菜20份,检出违规使用的农药15种,有机磷酸酯类农药检出率最高为21.1%.②2006年-2010年用速测卡法共检测5790份蔬菜样品,农药检出率在2.8% ~7.4%之间,平均检出率为4.5%.结论:5年间该市均检出蔬菜农药残留,且呈现波动性.%Objective:To explore the causes and control measures of pesticide residue in vegetables by understanding the status of pesticide residues in vegetables from 2006 to 2010. Methods; The detection data of pesticide residues in vegetables from 2006 to 2010 were analyzed with retrospective epidemiological method. Results: 1. 95 vegetable samples were detected by gas chromatography from 2006 to 2010, of which 20 samples were not qualified, and 15 kinds of illegal pesticides were detected with organophosphate pesticide detection rate up to 21. 1%. 2. 5790 vegetable samples were detected by speed test card from 2006 to 2010, pesticide detection rate was between 2. 8% -7.4% , with the average rate of 4.5% . Conclusion; Pesticide residues were detected in vegetables in last 5 years with volatility.

  1. Detection of Organochlorine and Organophosphorus Pesticides Residues in Water Samples of Taragong Thana in Rangpur District in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arafin Gulsan Ara

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to identify Organochlorine and Organophosphorous pesticides residues in water samples of some paddy fields, ponds and tubewells in Rangpur district (Taragong Thana of Bangladesh by using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC. Among thirty samples, Organophosphorus (Malathion pesticide was found in twelve samples while Organocholorine was absent. The level of the pesticide residues (Malathion were found in the range of 2 to 221 ppm, which were above the maximum acceptable levels of total and individual pesticide contamination.

  2. Multi-class, multi-residue analysis of pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polybrominated diphenyl ethers and novel flame retardants in fish using fast, low-pressure gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sapozhnikova, Yelena, E-mail: yelena.sapozhnikova@ars.usda.gov [US Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Eastern Regional Research Center, 600 East Mermaid Lane, Wyndmoor, PA 193038 (United States); Lehotay, Steven J. [US Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Eastern Regional Research Center, 600 East Mermaid Lane, Wyndmoor, PA 193038 (United States)

    2013-01-03

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A method for analysis of POPs and novel flame retardants in catfish was developed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The method is based on a QuEChERS extraction, d-SPE clean-up and low pressure GC/MS-MS. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The method validation demonstrated good recoveries and low detection limits. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The method was successfully applied for analysis of catfish samples from the market. - Abstract: A multi-class, multi-residue method for the analysis of 13 novel flame retardants, 18 representative pesticides, 14 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and 7 polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners in catfish muscle was developed and evaluated using fast low pressure gas chromatography triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (LP-GC/MS-MS). The method was based on a QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, safe) extraction with acetonitrile and dispersive solid-phase extraction (d-SPE) clean-up with zirconium-based sorbent prior to LP-GC/MS-MS analysis. The developed method was evaluated at 4 spiking levels and further validated by analysis of NIST Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) 1974B and 1947. Sample preparation for a batch of 10 homogenized samples took about 1 h/analyst, and LP-GC/MS-MS analysis provided fast separation of multiple analytes within 9 min achieving high throughput. With the use of isotopically labeled internal standards, recoveries of all but one analyte were between 70 and 120% with relative standard deviations less than 20% (n = 5). The measured values for both SRMs agreed with certified/reference values (72-119% accuracy) for the majority of analytes. The detection limits were 0.1-0.5 ng g{sup -1} for PCBs, 0.5-10 ng g{sup -1} for PBDEs, 0.5-5 ng g{sup -1} for select pesticides and PAHs and 1-10 ng g{sup -1} for flame retardants. The developed method was successfully applied for analysis of catfish samples

  3. Multi-class, multi-residue analysis of pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polybrominated diphenyl ethers and novel flame retardants in fish using fast, low-pressure gas chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► A method for analysis of POPs and novel flame retardants in catfish was developed. ► The method is based on a QuEChERS extraction, d-SPE clean-up and low pressure GC/MS–MS. ► The method validation demonstrated good recoveries and low detection limits. ► The method was successfully applied for analysis of catfish samples from the market. - Abstract: A multi-class, multi-residue method for the analysis of 13 novel flame retardants, 18 representative pesticides, 14 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and 7 polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners in catfish muscle was developed and evaluated using fast low pressure gas chromatography triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (LP-GC/MS–MS). The method was based on a QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, safe) extraction with acetonitrile and dispersive solid-phase extraction (d-SPE) clean-up with zirconium-based sorbent prior to LP-GC/MS–MS analysis. The developed method was evaluated at 4 spiking levels and further validated by analysis of NIST Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) 1974B and 1947. Sample preparation for a batch of 10 homogenized samples took about 1 h/analyst, and LP-GC/MS–MS analysis provided fast separation of multiple analytes within 9 min achieving high throughput. With the use of isotopically labeled internal standards, recoveries of all but one analyte were between 70 and 120% with relative standard deviations less than 20% (n = 5). The measured values for both SRMs agreed with certified/reference values (72–119% accuracy) for the majority of analytes. The detection limits were 0.1–0.5 ng g−1 for PCBs, 0.5–10 ng g−1 for PBDEs, 0.5–5 ng g−1 for select pesticides and PAHs and 1–10 ng g−1 for flame retardants. The developed method was successfully applied for analysis of catfish samples from the market.

  4. Pesticide residues in the marine environment and analytical quality assurance of the results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief review is given of the information that is available on the distribution and levels of pesticide residues in marine systems. Residues detected in coastal waters largely reflect the regional use of pesticides (e.g. DDTs, atrazine), although for more volatile and environmentally persistent compounds (e.g. hexachlorocyclohexane, lindane) long range atmospheric transport also contributes to their far field dispersal in the oceans. Despite the increasing number of pesticide reports in the scientific literature, data on residues are still very scarce for extensive coastal areas in regions of intensive pesticide usage such as the tropics. Therefore, the aim of IAEA Co-ordinated Research Programmes is to assist with the implementation of pesticide monitoring in tropical coastal ecosystems and with experimental research on pesticide cycling and its effects on the marine environment. The results of worldwide laboratory intercomparison exercises organized by the IAEA for analyses of the organochlorine pesticides in marine samples highlight the need to further improve quality control of the analytical results. Although research on marine contamination by pesticide residues is progressing, in view of the high number of compounds and formulations in use it is unlikely that all the data required for environmental risk assessment of agrochemical residues in marine ecosystems will be generated with sufficient rapidity. Therefore, enhanced development through experimental research with model compounds and subsequent modelling is required. Nevertheless, from current knowledge it is clear that environmental management programmes for coastal ecosystems should urgently adopt measures to prevent or reduce the impact of agrochemical residues on biological resources such as fisheries and aquaculture. (author). 71 refs, 7 figs, 2 tabs

  5. Pesticide Residues on the Quality and Safety of Agricultural Products of Impact Analysis%农药残留对农产品质量安全的影响分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵锡澄

    2012-01-01

      概述当今农产品质量安全的情况、农药残留对农产品质量安全的影响,讨论如何在现今形势下尽量减少农药残留,提高农产品质量安全,为人类健康最大程度的谋求福利。%  The paper summarized the situation of the quality and safety of agricultural products, pesticide residues on the influence of the quality and safety of agricultural products, and finally discusses how to in the current situation, try to reduce the pesticide residue, improve the quality and safety of agricultural products, for human health maximum benefits.

  6. Pesticides residues in okra (non-target crop) grown close to a watermelon farm in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essumang, D K; Asare, E A; Dodoo, D K

    2013-09-01

    The study looked at the levels of pesticides in okra grown close to a watermelon farm herein referred to as a non-target crop. The watermelon received some pesticide application in the course of its cultivation, and the okra which was not meant to be sprayed was also affected by the pesticide. About 500 okra samples were collected for a period of 6 weeks and pesticides extracted with 1:1 n-hexane and dichloromethane which was analysed with Agilent 2222 GC/MS coupled with 389 auto-sampler. The results confirmed accumulation of significant levels of pesticides in the non-target crop (okra grown close to watermelon farm). Levels of organochlorine pesticides ranged from 3.10 to 7.60 μg/kg whilst the organophosphorus pesticides had levels ranging from 2.80 to 2016.80 μg/kg. The synthetic pyrethroid pesticide mean levels also ranged from 0.10 to 4.10 μg/kg and were below World Health Organization/Food and Agriculture Organization-recommended residue levels, and though not appearing to constitute a grave threat to life, their occurrence is a concern, and pre-emptive techniques must be developed to thwart the contaminations. Though the non- target crop was not treated directly with the pesticides, some level of contamination with organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticides persisted in the crops. It can be inferred that application of pesticides affected the adjoining crops, meaning that inter-cropping and mix-cropping might not be acceptable when one of the crops requires pesticide application. It is important for the farmers to be trained to ensure proper application of pesticide to minimise its impact on the health of consumers.

  7. Pesticides residues in milks and feedstuff of farm animals drawn from Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiplakou, E; Anagnostopoulos, C J; Liapis, K; Haroutounian, S A; Zervas, G

    2010-07-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate if milk from dairy sheep and goats, fed mainly with supplementary feed during the winter months, was contaminated with pesticides residues. Tauwo hundred milk samples from sheep and goats were collected from 10 farms of each animals. The sheep and goats farms were selected from those which represent common conventional production and feeding systems in Greece. Milk and feed samples (alfalfa hay, wheat straw, shrubs, pasture and concentrates) were taken from each farm to analyze for pesticides residues. The results showed that the summation operatorendosulfan was the main pesticide residue which was detected in all the concentrates samples at a mean concentration of 5.36 mgkg(-1), which is much higher from the maximum residue level (MRL). In addition, the summation operatorendosulfan was also detected in all the alfalfa hay samples but at a mean concentration of 0.10 mgkg(-1) which is lower than the MRL. The mean concentrations of endosulfan alpha and beta were 2.82 and 2.39 mgkg(-1) in the concentrates samples and 0.08 and 0.02 mgkg(-1) respectively in alfalfa hay samples. In the wheat straw, shrubs and pasture samples no pesticides residues were detected. No pesticide residues were also detected in milk samples of sheep and goats. Thus, this milk from the farms sampled presents no human health risks as far as the contaminants analyzed concerned. PMID:20537679

  8. Analysis of heavy metals and organochlorine pesticide residues in ramulus uncaria cum uncis in Guangxi%广西部分钩藤药材重金属和有机氯农药残留量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王超英; 黄瑞松; 覃利梅; 肖梅; 陆峥琳

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the heavy metals and organochlorine pesticide residues in Ramulus Uncaria Cum Uncis in Guangxi, and to evaluate their safety. Methods: The heavy metals (Pb, Cd, As, Hg, Cu) and organochlorine pesticide residues(BHC, PCNB, DDT) in 17 samples of 9 variaties of Ramulus Uncaria Cum Uncis in Guangxi were determined by AAS and GC, respectively. Results: Five heavy metals in 14 samples were all qualified ; but Cd contents in 3 samples exceeded the standard limit; and organochlorine pesticide residues in all samples were all qualified. Conclusion: The organochlorine pesticide residues in all samples and heavy metals in most samples were in the safety range, but' Cd in some samples was in the risk of exceeding the standards.%目的:通过对广西部分钩藤药材重金属和有机氯农药残留量分析,对其安全性进行评价.方法:采用原子吸收分光光度法和气相色谱法分别测定9种钩藤药材17批样品的铅、镉、砷、汞、铜和六六六、滴滴涕、五氯硝基苯含量.结果:14批样品的5种重金属元素含量全部合格,3批样品的镉超标,全部样品的有机氯农药残留量合格.结论:全部样品有机氯类农药残留量和大部分样品重金属含量均在安全范围内,但有部分样品存在镉超标的安全隐患.

  9. Organic amendments for risk mitigation of organochlorine pesticide residues in old orchard soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Performance of compost and biochar amendments for in situ risk mitigation of aged DDT, DDE and dieldrin residues in an old orchard soil was examined. The change in bioavailability of pesticide residues relative to an unamended control soil was assessed using Lumbricus terrestris in 4-L soil microcos...

  10. Pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables from South America – A Nordic project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Karen; Johansen, K.; Holen, B.;

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the amount of pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables from South America. A total of 724 samples of 46 different fruits and vegetables from eight South American countries were collected in 2007. In 19% of the samples no residues were found, 72% of samp...

  11. Bound xenobiotic residues in food commodities of plant and animal origin: IUPAC Reports on Pesticides (40)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skidmore, M.W.; Paulson, G.D.; Kuiper, H.A.; Ohlin, B.

    1998-01-01

    In order to assess the dietary risk resulting from the use of pesticides or veterinary drugs the nature of the chemical residues on food commodities needs to be determined. Elucidation of the nature of the chemical residue is carried out using radiolabelled studies where the radiolabelled xenobiotic

  12. Method for Reduction of Pesticide Residue Levels in Raspberry and Blackcurrant Based on Utilization of Ozone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balawejder Maciej

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The method for the reduction of pesticide residues in soft fruits based on utilization of ozone was proposed. The procedure allows for effective reduction of boscalid residues by 38% in raspberries, and about 58% thiram in blackcurrants. Furthermore, it can be used on an industrial scale.

  13. Monitoring of multiple pesticide residues in some fruits in Karachi, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One hundred and twenty samples of different fruits including apple, apricot, persimmon, chiku, citrus, grapes, guava, mango, papaya, peach, plum and pomegranate procured from different selling points of Karachi, Pakistan during 2008-2009, were analyzed for monitoring of multiple pesticide residues using GC/FID and HPLC/UV. The results showed exceeding level of contamination. On an average 62.5% samples contained residues of pesticides while 22% samples exceeded the maximum residue limits (MRLs) as given by FAO/WHO (Anon., 2000). (author)

  14. Chronic dietary risk for pesticide residues in food in Brazil: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldas, E D; Souza, L C K R

    2004-11-01

    The objective was to conduct a dietary risk assessment of pesticides registered in Brazil up to 14 January 2004. The theoretical maximum daily intake (TMDI) was calculated for 275 compounds using the Brazilian maximum residue limits (MRL) and food consumption. The chronic dietary risk assessment was conducted by comparing the TMDI with the Brazilian acceptable daily intake (ADI) or, when not available, with the ADI from other sources. The TMDI was higher than the ADI (%ADI>100) in at least one Brazilian region for eight pesticides, including five organophosphorus insecticides. For these compounds, the higher TMDI (expressed as %ADI) ranged from 140 (metam sodium) to 14,000 (methyl bromide). Rice, beans, citrus and tomato were the commodities that contributed most to ingestion. Change in pesticide use patterns and the establishment of ADIs by the Brazilian government have reduced the number of compounds for which the TMDI exceeded the ADI in the last 4 years. Risk assessment methodology based on TMDI calculation, however, is conservative as it assumes that the food supply is always treated with all the registered pesticides for that crop and that one always consumes food containing residues at the tolerance level. Furthermore, for six compounds with TMDI exceeding the ADI, a more realistic estimation of the pesticide daily intake was conducted using monitoring residue data from the Brazilian National Pesticide Residue Program. For these compounds, the higher refined intakes ranged from 2% (dimethoate) to 180% (fenitrothion) of the ADIs. The implementation of a national pesticide residue monitoring programme by the government was important to allow the refinement of the risk assessment. However, adequate daily food consumption data are still needed to assess better the public health risk to Brazilian consumers from food produced from crops treated with pesticides.

  15. Pesticide residues in leafy vegetables, stalk and stem vegetables from South Korea: a long-term study on safety and health risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Duck Woong; Kim, Kwang Gon; Choi, Eun Ah; Kang, Gyeong Ri; Kim, Tae Sun; Yang, Yong Shik; Moon, Su Jin; Ha, Dong Ryong; Kim, Eun Sun; Cho, Bae Sik

    2016-01-01

    South Korea has a unique food culture. South Koreans enjoy wrapping meat and eating or making kimchi (traditionally fermented Korean food) and eating using raw leafy vegetables, stalk and stem vegetables. Therefore, there is a high chance of being exposed to pesticide residues of vegetables. The objective of this study was to investigate pesticide residues in leafy vegetables, stalk and stem vegetables from South Korea. A total of 8496 samples were mainly collected from Gwangju and Jeonnam area (the largest production region of leafy vegetables, stalk and stem vegetables) in South Korea from 2010 to 2014. A total of 230 pesticides were used for multi-residue analysis of pesticides. Among 8496 samples, 61 different pesticides (1029 times) were detected in 890 samples, of which 118 samples (1.4%) exceeded the Korea maximum residue limits (MRLs). Samples exceeding the MRLs were mostly found in leafy vegetables (brassica lee ssp. namai, leafy lettuce, spinach, perilla leaves, crown daisy, marsh mallow, aster scaber, pimpinella brachycarpa) and Chinese chive. Procymidone, dimethomorph and azoxystrobin were the most frequently found pesticides. A risk assessment of pesticides exceeding the MRLs was evaluated by calculating the estimated daily intake (EDI) and the acceptable daily intake (ADI). The ratio of EDI to ADI was 0.003-30.4%. PMID:26571090

  16. Pesticide residues in leafy vegetables, stalk and stem vegetables from South Korea: a long-term study on safety and health risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Duck Woong; Kim, Kwang Gon; Choi, Eun Ah; Kang, Gyeong Ri; Kim, Tae Sun; Yang, Yong Shik; Moon, Su Jin; Ha, Dong Ryong; Kim, Eun Sun; Cho, Bae Sik

    2016-01-01

    South Korea has a unique food culture. South Koreans enjoy wrapping meat and eating or making kimchi (traditionally fermented Korean food) and eating using raw leafy vegetables, stalk and stem vegetables. Therefore, there is a high chance of being exposed to pesticide residues of vegetables. The objective of this study was to investigate pesticide residues in leafy vegetables, stalk and stem vegetables from South Korea. A total of 8496 samples were mainly collected from Gwangju and Jeonnam area (the largest production region of leafy vegetables, stalk and stem vegetables) in South Korea from 2010 to 2014. A total of 230 pesticides were used for multi-residue analysis of pesticides. Among 8496 samples, 61 different pesticides (1029 times) were detected in 890 samples, of which 118 samples (1.4%) exceeded the Korea maximum residue limits (MRLs). Samples exceeding the MRLs were mostly found in leafy vegetables (brassica lee ssp. namai, leafy lettuce, spinach, perilla leaves, crown daisy, marsh mallow, aster scaber, pimpinella brachycarpa) and Chinese chive. Procymidone, dimethomorph and azoxystrobin were the most frequently found pesticides. A risk assessment of pesticides exceeding the MRLs was evaluated by calculating the estimated daily intake (EDI) and the acceptable daily intake (ADI). The ratio of EDI to ADI was 0.003-30.4%.

  17. Pesticide residues determination in Polish organic crops in 2007-2010 applying gas chromatography-tandem quadrupole mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walorczyk, Stanisław; Drożdżyński, Dariusz; Kowalska, Jolanta; Remlein-Starosta, Dorota; Ziółkowski, Andrzej; Przewoźniak, Monika; Gnusowski, Bogusław

    2013-08-15

    A sensitive, accurate and reliable multiresidue method based on the application of gas chromatography-tandem quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC-QqQ-MS/MS) has been established for screening, identification and quantification of a large number of pesticide residues in produce. The method was accredited in compliance with PN-EN ISO/IEC 17025:2005 standard and it was operated under flexible scope as PB-11 method. The flexible scope of accreditation allowed for minor modifications and extension of the analytical scope while using the same analytical technique. During the years 2007-2010, the method was used for the purpose of verification of organic crop production by multiresidue analysis for the presence of pesticides. A total of 528 samples of differing matrices such as fruits, vegetables, cereals, plant leaves and other green parts were analysed, of which 4.4% samples contained pesticide residues above the threshold value of 0.01 mg/kg. A total of 20 different pesticide residues were determined in the samples. PMID:23561134

  18. Multi-residue analysis of veterinary drugs, pesticides and mycotoxins in dairy products by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry using low-temperature cleanup and solid phase extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jie; Peng, Tao; Zhu, Ailing; He, Jianli; Chang, Qiaoying; Hu, Xueyan; Chen, Hui; Fan, Chunlin; Jiang, Wenxiao; Chen, Min; Li, Jiancheng; Ding, Shuangyang; Jiang, Haiyang

    2015-10-01

    A multi-class multi-residue analysis method for determination of veterinary drugs, pesticides and mycotoxins in dairy products by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) has been established. These 17 classes, a total of 40 kinds of target compounds were chosen because their administration to food-producing animals is banned or regulated in China and may be potentially abused or misused. Samples were extracted with acetonitrile-ethyl acetate-acetic acid (49.5+49.5+1, v/v/v). Most of lipids in the extract were removed by low-temperature cleanup, prior to solid phase extraction on HLB cartridges. The quantification and confirmation of the 40 analytes were performed by LC-MS/MS with electro-spray ionization (ESI) interface in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The limits of detection (LODs) and limits of quantification (LOQs) were 0.006-0.3μg/kg and 0.02-1.0μg/kg, respectively. The spiked recoveries in milk, yogurt, milk powder and cheese samples were from 67.3% to 106.9%. The repeatability and the within-laboratory reproducibility were less than 12.7% and 13.9%. Applying this method, our results revealed the presences of chloramphenicol, cimeterol, and flunixin at the concentration of 0.027-0.452μg/kg in some samples. PMID:26298066

  19. Multi-residue analysis of veterinary drugs, pesticides and mycotoxins in dairy products by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry using low-temperature cleanup and solid phase extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jie; Peng, Tao; Zhu, Ailing; He, Jianli; Chang, Qiaoying; Hu, Xueyan; Chen, Hui; Fan, Chunlin; Jiang, Wenxiao; Chen, Min; Li, Jiancheng; Ding, Shuangyang; Jiang, Haiyang

    2015-10-01

    A multi-class multi-residue analysis method for determination of veterinary drugs, pesticides and mycotoxins in dairy products by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) has been established. These 17 classes, a total of 40 kinds of target compounds were chosen because their administration to food-producing animals is banned or regulated in China and may be potentially abused or misused. Samples were extracted with acetonitrile-ethyl acetate-acetic acid (49.5+49.5+1, v/v/v). Most of lipids in the extract were removed by low-temperature cleanup, prior to solid phase extraction on HLB cartridges. The quantification and confirmation of the 40 analytes were performed by LC-MS/MS with electro-spray ionization (ESI) interface in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The limits of detection (LODs) and limits of quantification (LOQs) were 0.006-0.3μg/kg and 0.02-1.0μg/kg, respectively. The spiked recoveries in milk, yogurt, milk powder and cheese samples were from 67.3% to 106.9%. The repeatability and the within-laboratory reproducibility were less than 12.7% and 13.9%. Applying this method, our results revealed the presences of chloramphenicol, cimeterol, and flunixin at the concentration of 0.027-0.452μg/kg in some samples.

  20. The Assessment of Pesticides Residues in Some Organic Cultivated and Wild-Collected Medicinal Plants in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FERDI BRAHUSHI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Pesticide residues in environment are found in soil, water and plants due to the extensive use of pesticides for agricultural purposes. The residues of pesticides in medicinal plants are of high concern as they are toxic for human life since these plants are used for medicinal purposes. The objective of current study was to estimate the presence of pesticide residues in some organic cultivated and wild-collected medicinal plants in Albania during the years 2010–2013. The determination of pesticides residues in medicinal plants was achieved by using extraction of plant material with organic solvent, clean up procedure and followed by detection with chromatography techniques. Among the detected pesticide residuesin the wild–collected plants as Malva sylvestris, Fragaria vesca, Bellis perennis were DDT, Dimethoat, Pirimiphos-methyl, Chlorpyriphos-ethyl, Carbendazim/Benomyl, Acetamiprid and Diphenylamine. Whereas in the cultivated medicinal plants as Calendula officinalis, Centaurea cyani, Salvia officinalis, Sideritis raeseri, the most common detected pesticide residues were Dimethoat, Chlorpyriphos, Pirimiphos-methyl, DDT and Carbendazim. The presence of pesticides in medicinal plant is related to the past use of pesticides as DDT and actual use of pesticides like Dimethoat, Pirimiphos-methyl, Chlorpyriphos, Acetamiprid, etc. Therefore, the quality of medicinal plants can be evaluated through estimation of pesticides residues in medicinal plants and comparison of the obtained values with acceptable limit values.

  1. Safety Trap Analysis of NationaI Standard of MaximumResidue Limits for Pesticide in Food%我国农药残留国家标准的安全隐患探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李太平

    2011-01-01

    [目的]农药残留国家标准GB 2763-2005是判别食品安全的重要依据,研究标准本身是否存在安全隐患,对保障食品安全具有重要现实意义.[方法]利用农药最大残留限量(MRLs)、日允许摄入量(ADI)与被测食品每日最大理论摄人量(TDI)三者数量关系,计算了GB 2763-2005的439项指标的TDI值,并与消费者每日实际摄人量(RDI)进行了比较.[结果]发现35项指标的食品有不同比例消费者的RDI超过TDI,占总指标的7.3%.[结论]我国现行农药残留国家标准存在较大安全隐患.%[Aims] The national standard of maximum residue limits for pesticides in food GB 2763-2005 is the key base of food safety risk identification. Discussing the dependability of pesticide residue standards is very important for controlling food safety risk. [Methods] The national standard's theory daily intake (TDI) related with foods of 439 residue indexes of GB 2763-2005 was calculated with the quantity relation between MRLs, ADI and TDI, and compared with the customer's real daily intake (RDI) related with foods. [Results] There were 35 residue indexes related with foods which TDI were over their RDI with different proportion customers, accounted for 7.3% of total indexes in it. [Conclusions] It showed that there is a big potential safety risk in the present national standard of pesticide residue.

  2. Classification and modelling of non-extractable residue (NER) formation from pesticides in soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kästner, M.; Nowak, K. M.; Miltner, A.;

    2015-01-01

    This presentation provides a comprehensive overview about the formation of nonextractable residues (NER) from organic pesticides and contaminants in soil and tries classifying the different types. Anthropogenic organic chemicals are deliberately (e.g. pesticides) or unintentionally (e...... (type I) or can be covalently bound (type II). Both types may pose a considerably environmental risk of potential release. However, NER resulting from elevated biodegradation, which means the conversion of carbon (or nitrogen) from the compounds into microbial biomass molecules during microbial...

  3. MONITORING OF PESTICIDE RESIDUES IN AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS IN THE YEARS 2003 AND 2004 IN SLOVENIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena BAŠA ČESNIK

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural Institute of Slovenia was performing national monitoring for pesticide residues in agricultural products according to the Decree on Monitoring of Pesticides in Foodstuffs and in Agricultural Products (Offi cial Gazette of the Republic of Slovenia No. 13/99. Constant measurements are necessary due to intensive agricultural production and use of chemical substances for plant protection. Due to the nutrition characteristic for the Slovenians pesticide residues are monitored each year in the samples of potato, lettuce and apples; the choice of other agricultural products and active substances analysed are adapted to the guidelines indicated in the EU recommendations. In the years 2003 and 2004 we analysed the presence of pesticide residues in 361 samples of agricultural products: caulifl ower, head cabbage, grapes, apples, strawberries, potatoes, peppers, tomatoes, wheat and lettuce from eight different growing areas of Slovenia. All agricultural products were analysed in 2003 for the presence of 51 active substances and in 2004 for the presence of 57 active substances. The maximum residue level (MRL was exceeded by 6.6 % samples inspected. Potato contributed a major share to this, since in 5.0 % of samples exceeded values of dithiocarbamate residues were determined, however, they were the only active substance found in potato. In 39.1 % of analysed samples residues lower than MRL were determined, in 54.3 % of samples residues were not found or they were below the level of detection method. The greatest number of pesticide residues which did not exceed MRLs was found in fruit, f. ex.: eight in apples and six in strawberries. Residues of dithiocarbamates were the most frequently found active substance in agricultural products.

  4. Survey of pesticide residues in table grapes: Determination of processing factors, intake and risk assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Mette Erecius; Hansen, H.K.; Sloth, Jens Jørgen;

    2007-01-01

    ). However, no significant effect was found for organophosphorus pesticides and pyrethroids, whereas the number of samples with residues of benzilates, phenylamids and triazoles was insufficient to demonstrate any significant effects. An intake calculation showed that the average intake from Italian grapes...... was 3.9 mu g day(-1) for pesticides and 21 mu g day(-1) for copper. Correspondingly, the intakes from South African grapes were 2.6 and 5.7 mu g day(-1) respectively. When the total exposure of pesticides from grapes were related to acceptable daily intake, expressed as the sum of Hazard Quotients...

  5. Survey of pesticide residues in table grapes: Determination of processing factors, intake and risk assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Mette Erecius; Hansen, H.K.; Sloth, Jens Jørgen;

    2007-01-01

    , no significant effect was found for organophosphorus pesticides and pyrethroids, whereas the number of samples with residues of benzilates, phenylamids and triazoles was insufficient to demonstrate any significant effects. An intake calculation showed that the average intake from Italian grapes was 3.9 mu g day......(-1) for pesticides and 21 mu g day(-1) for copper. Correspondingly, the intakes from South African grapes were 2.6 and 5.7 mu g day(-1) respectively. When the total exposure of pesticides from grapes were related to acceptable daily intake, expressed as the sum of Hazard Quotients, the exposure were...

  6. A review on the fermentation of foods and the residues of pesticides-biotransformation of pesticides and effects on fermentation and food quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regueiro, Jorge; López-Fernández, Olalla; Rial-Otero, Raquel; Cancho-Grande, Beatriz; Simal-Gándara, Jesús

    2015-01-01

    Residues of pesticides in food are influenced by processing such as fermentation. Reviewing the extensive literature showed that in most cases, this step leads to large reductions in original residue levels in the fermented food, with the formation of new pesticide by-products. The behavior of residues in fermentation can be rationalized in terms of the physical-chemical properties of the pesticide and the nature of the process. In addition, the presence of pesticides decrease the growth rate of fermentative microbiota (yeasts and bacterias), which provokes stuck and sluggish fermentations. These changes have in consequence repercussions on several aspects of food sensory quality (physical-chemical properties, polyphenolic content, and aromatic profile) of fermented food. The main aim of this review is to deal with all these topics to propose challenging needs in science-based quality management of pesticides residues in food. PMID:24915365

  7. Quantitative Structure activity relationship and risk analysis of some pesticides in the cattle milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faqir Muhammad*, Ijaz Javed, Masood Akhtar1, Zia-ur-Rahman, Mian Muhammad Awais1, Muhammad Kashif Saleemi2 and Muhammad Irfan Anwar3

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Milk of cattle was collected from various localities of Faisalabad, Pakistan. Pesticides concentration was determined by HPLC using solid phase microextraction. The residue analysis revealed that about 40% milk samples were contaminated with pesticides. The mean±SE levels (ppm of cyhalothrin, endosulfan, chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin were 0.38±0.02, 0.26±0.02, 0.072±0.01 and 0.085±0.02, respectively. Quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR models were used to predict the residues of unknown pesticides in the milk of cattle using their known physicochemical properties such as molecular weight (MW, melting point (MP, and log octanol to water partition coefficient (Ko/w as well as the milk characteristics such as pH, % fat, and specific gravity (SG in this species. The analysis revealed good correlation coefficients (R2 = 0.91 for cattle QSAR model. The coefficient for Ko/w for the studied pesticides was higher in cattle milk. Risk analysis was conducted based upon the determined pesticide residues and their provisional tolerable daily intakes. The daily intake levels of pesticide residues including cyhalothrin, chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin in present study were 3, 11, 2.5 times higher, respectively in cattle milk. This intake of pesticide contaminated milk might pose health hazards to humans in this locality.

  8. Assessment of pesticide residues in strawberries grown under various treatment regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacova, Jana; Hrbek, Vojtech; Kloutvorova, Jana; Kocourek, Vladimir; Drabova, Lucie; Hajslova, Jana

    2013-01-01

    The dynamics of pesticide residues in strawberries that involved quantification of pesticide residues in ripe fruits after model treatment was evaluated in repeated field trials conducted over 3 years. Sixteen commercial pesticide formulations in various combinations were employed in applications from 7 to 44 days before harvest. Altogether 21 active ingredients and some of their metabolites were determined in treated strawberries using LC-MS and GC-MS methods. Except for propargite, the concentrations of all active ingredients declined below the respective MRLs (Regulation (EC) No. 396/2005); nevertheless, most of the tested fungicides often persisted above the 0.01 mg kg⁻¹ limit required by baby food producers to avoid the risk of exceeding the 'baby food limit' established in Commission Directive 2006/141/EC. On the other hand, residues of the majority of tested insecticides, namely spinosad, pymetrozine, deltamethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin and azadirachtin, declined below this limit. PMID:24303788

  9. Photoacoustic Spectroscopy as a Non-destructive Tool for Quantification of Pesticide Residue in Apple Cuticle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lixian; Wang, Yafei; Gao, Chunming; Huan, Huiting; Zhao, Binxing; Yan, Laijun

    2015-06-01

    Photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS), the non-destructive method to detect residue of dimethyl-dichloro-vinyl-phosphate (DDVP) pesticide in a cuticle of apple, is described. After constructing the PA experimental setup and identifying three characteristic peaks of DDVP in the near ultraviolet region, the PA spectra of an apple cuticle contaminated with DDVP were collected. The artificial neural network method was then applied to analyze data quantitatively. The results show a correlation coefficient exceeding 0.99 and a detection limit of 0.2 ppm, which is within the national food safety standard for maximum residue limits for pesticides in food (GB 2763-2012). This fact and the non-destructive character of PAS make the approach promising for detection of pesticide residue in fruits.

  10. Organochlorine Pesticides Residues in the Breast Milk of Some Primiparae Mothers in La Community, Accra, Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Anita Osei Tutu; P.O. Yeboah, A.A. Golow, D. Denutsui and S. Blankson-Arthur

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the types and levels of Organochlorine pesticide residues in the breast milk of 21 primiparae mothers in La, a suburb of Accra an urban community in the Greater Accra region of Ghana. Liquid-liquid extraction procedure was employed and extract clean-up was done using silica gel solid phase extraction. Fourteen (14) different organochlorine pesticides residues namely p,p’-DDT, p,p’-DDE, gamma-HCH, delta-HCH, heptachlor, aldrin, Endrin, endrin-aldehyde, end...

  11. Determination of Organophosphorous and Carbamat Pesticides Residue in Drinking Water Resources of Hamadan in 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Allahresani

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available "n "nBackgrounds and Objectives: Water contamination by pesticides is considered as an environmentalproblem today. In terms of agricultural development and diversity of plant pests, the use of pesticides has been increasing. Hamedan province has a suitable agricultural condition, it has enjoyed significant development in this respect. Among all the cities of Hamedan province, Hamedan city has the highest rank in tiller crops. Therefore, yearly use of pesticides is increasing in this area; which could be a serious threat to water resources of the city. The aim of this survey was determinaton of Organophosphorous and Carbamat pesticides residue in drinking water resources of Hamadan in 2007."nMaterials and Methods: In this survey, 126 water samples were collected from 7 drinking water resources of Hamedan during 12 consecutive months in 2007. for determination of these pesticides,two methods (solid- phase extraction and Liquid-Liquid extraction were adopted .and samples were analyzed by means of HPLC and GC/MS applying standard methods."nResults: Final results showed that the most concentration of Chlorpyrifos and Carbaryl pesticides were found to be about 3.85 ppb (part per billion and 1.8 ppb in spring and June respectively; the maximum concentration of Diazinon was about 36.5ppb in October (autumn.The minimum concentration of the three pesticides was detected in winter. According to the statistical test Two - Way ANOWA there were significant differences among pesticides concentrations in the water samples in different seasons (p<0.05 . However, there wasn't a significant difference in pesticides concentrations in surface and ground water samples(p>0.05. "nConclusion: Different studies have shown that pesticides residue concentration in water samples have a relationship with the amount of pesticides used in an area, physical and chemical refractory properties of pesticides; and environmental conditions. Thus, using resistant pollutants such

  12. Residue levels and risk assessment of pesticides in nuts of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yihua; Shen, Danyu; Li, Shiliang; Ni, Zhanglin; Ding, Ming; Ye, Caifen; Tang, Fubin

    2016-02-01

    The pesticide residue levels of three nuts (chestnut, walnut, pinenut) collected from seven main producing areas of China were investigated. Twenty-nine pesticides, including organophosphates (OPs), organochlorines (OCs), pyrethroids (PYs) and two fungicides (triadimefon and buprofezin) were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC). Four OPs (acephate, dimethoate, chlorpyrifos and parathion-methyl) were found in 11.4% samples, with the concentrations of 19.0 µg kg(-1) to 74.0 µg kg(-1). Six OCs (DDT, HCH, endosulfan, quintozene, aldrin and dieldrin) were found in 18.2% samples, with the concentrations of 2.0 µg kg(-1) to 65.7 µg kg(-1). Among OCs, p,p-DDE and α-HCH were the dominant isomer for DDT and HCH. Five PYs (fenpropathrin, fenvalerate, cypermethrin, bifenthrin and cyhalothrin) were found in 15.9% samples, with the concentrations of 2.5 µg kg(-1) to 433.0 µg kg(-1). Fenpropathrin was the most frequently detected pesticide. In addition, triadimefon and buprofezin were detected only in two samples. For the tested nuts, 25.0% samples with multiple residues (containing more than two pesticides) were noted, even up to 9.1% samples with five pesticide residues. The residue of 15.9% samples was higher than the maximum residue limits (MRLs) of China. The short-term risks for the tested nuts were below 1.2%, and the highest long-term risk was 12.58%. The cumulative risk (cHI) for the tested pesticides were 8.43% (OPs), 0.42% (OCs), 12.82% (PYs) and 0.15% (fungicides), respectively. The total cHI was 21.82%. There was no significant health risk for consumers via nuts consumption.

  13. Pesticide Residues and Bees – A Risk Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco Sanchez-Bayo; Koichi Goka

    2014-01-01

    Bees are essential pollinators of many plants in natural ecosystems and agricultural crops alike. In recent years the decline and disappearance of bee species in the wild and the collapse of honey bee colonies have concerned ecologists and apiculturalists, who search for causes and solutions to this problem. Whilst biological factors such as viral diseases, mite and parasite infections are undoubtedly involved, it is also evident that pesticides applied to agricultural crops have a negative i...

  14. Assessment of Pesticide Residues in Some Fruits Using Gas Chromatography Coupled with Micro Electron Capture Detector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Bhanger

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A very sensitive analytical method for the determination of 26 pesticides in some fruits based on solid phase extraction (SPE cleanup was developed using gas chromatography (GC coupled with micro electron capture detector (μECD. The identity of the pesticides was confirmed by gas chromatography mass spectroscopy (GC-MS using selected ion monitoring (SIM mode. Ethyl acetate was used as a solvent for the extraction of pesticide residues with assistance of sonication. For cleanup an octadecyl, C18 SPE column was used. A linear response of μECD was observed for all pesticides with good correlation coefficients (>0.9992. Proposed method was successfully applied for the determination of pesticide residues in the orange, apple, and grape fruits. Average recoveries achieved for all of the pesticides at fortification levels of 0.05, 1.0 and 2.0 μg g-1 in analyzed fruits were above 90% with relative standard deviations (RSD less than 6

  15. Monitoring survey of the use patterns and pesticide residues on vegetables in the Niayes zone, Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diop, Amadou; Diop, Yérim M; Thiaré, Diène D; Cazier, Fabrice; Sarr, Serigne O; Kasprowiak, Amaury; Landy, David; Delattre, François

    2016-02-01

    The main objective of this work was to determine the impact of pesticide use practices on vegetables contamination in the Niayes zone of Dakar. A preliminary survey involving 200 farmers, showed the application of pesticides belonging to different groups on vegetable crops. Use practices in terms of application intervals and methods, measuring tools and dosage were not in compliance with good agricultural practices. In view of survey results, investigations on vegetable contamination were conducted. Therefore, 175 vegetable samples including cabbage (31 samples), lettuce (88 samples), tomato (57 samples) collected from four sites of the Niayes zone during four campaigns, were analyzed for residues of 21 pesticides, eighteen of which (18) were cited to be used by farmers. The results indicated that 65% of tomato samples, 71% of lettuce and 93% of cabbage contained one or more detectable residues. Among the monitored pesticides dicofol, chlorpyrifos, DDTs, dimethoate, and λ-cyhalothrin were the most predominant, found in at least 35% of samples for each vegetable. The frequencies of pesticide detection were, generally in agreement with the citation frequencies. The results provided important information on vegetable contamination status and pointed an urgent need to control pesticide use. PMID:26519803

  16. Monitoring of Pesticide Residues in Fruits and Vegetables and Related Health Risk Assessment in Kumasi Metropolis, Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Crentsil Kofi Bempah; Archibold Buah-Kwofie; Dzifa Denutsui; Jacob Asomaning; Anita Osei Tutu

    2011-01-01

    The objective of present research study was to assess the concentration of pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables from markets in Kumasi and to generate awareness about the lethal effects of these pesticides on human beings as well as to estimate the potential health risks associated with the pesticide residue with regard to consumers. A total of 350 locally produced fruits and vegetables were purchased from six main markets in Kumasi and analyzed by gas chromatography equipped with elec...

  17. Pesticide residues and microbial contamination of water resources in the MUDA rice agroecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies on the water resources of the Muda rice growing areas revealed evidence of pesticide residues in the agroecosystem. While the cyclodiene endosulfan was found as a ubiquitous contaminant, the occurrence of other organochlorine insecticides was sporadic. The presence of 2,4-D, paraquat and molinate residues was also evident but the occurrence of these herbicides was seasonal. Residue levels of molinate were generally higher than those from the other herbicides. The problem of thiobencarb and carbofuran residues was not encountered. Analyses for microbial contamination revealed that the water resources were unfit for drinking; coliform counts were higher during certain periods of the year than others. (Author)

  18. Safe apples for baby food production:search for pesticide preparations leaving minimum residues

    OpenAIRE

    Ticha, Jana; Hajslova, Jana; Kovalczuk, Tomas; Jech, Martin; Honzicek, Jiri; Kocourek, Vladimir; Lansky, Miroslav; Kloutvorova, Jana; Falta, Vladan

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Altogether 19 pesticide preparations were used according to agriculture practise within 6 trials in apple orchards. Using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) methods, premature Golden Delicious apples collected 64, 50, 36 days before harvest and matured fruit were examined for residues of active ingredients. No residues of triflumuron, triazamate, chlorpyrifos, etofenprox, fenoxycarb, kresoxim-methyl, c...

  19. Qualitative aspects in the analysis of pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables using fast, low-pressure gas chromatography - time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assessment of qualitative results in analytical methods is needed to estimate selectivity and devise criteria for chemical identification, particularly for mass spectrometric analysis. Low-pressure gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (LP-GC/MS) has been demonstrated to increase the speed of anal...

  20. Application in pesticide analysis: Liquid chromatography - A review of the state of science for biomarker discovery and identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Book Chapter 18, titled Application in pesticide analysis: Liquid chromatography - A review of the state of science for biomarker discovery and identification, will be published in the book titled High Performance Liquid Chromatography in Pesticide Residue Analysis (Part of the C...

  1. Determination of pesticides and veterinary drug residues in food by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masiá, Ana; Suarez-Varela, Maria Morales; Llopis-Gonzalez, Agustin; Picó, Yolanda

    2016-09-14

    Monitoring of pesticides and veterinary drug residues is required to enforce legislation and guarantee food safety. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) is the prevailing technique for assessing both types of residues because LC offers a versatile and universal separation mechanism suitable for non-gas chromatography (GC) amenable and the majority of GC-amenable compounds. This characteristic becomes more relevant when LC is coupled to MS because the high sensitivity and specificity of the detector allows to apply generic sample preparation procedures, which simultaneously extract a wide variety of residues with different physico-chemical properties. Determination of metabolites and degradation products, non-target suspected screening of an increasing number of residues, and even unknowns identification are also becoming inherent LC-MS advantages thanks to the latest advances. For routine analysis and, in particular, for official surveillance purposes in food control, analytical methods properly validated following strict guidelines are needed. After a brief introduction and an outline of the legislation applicable around the world, aspects such as improvement of specificity of high-throughput methods, resolution and mass accuracy of identification strategies and quantitative accuracy are critically reviewed in this article. In them, extraction, separation and determination are emphasized. The main objective is to offer an assessment of the state of the art and identify research needs and future trends in determining pesticide and veterinary drug residues in food by LC-MS. PMID:27566339

  2. Determination of pesticides and veterinary drug residues in food by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masiá, Ana; Suarez-Varela, Maria Morales; Llopis-Gonzalez, Agustin; Picó, Yolanda

    2016-09-14

    Monitoring of pesticides and veterinary drug residues is required to enforce legislation and guarantee food safety. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) is the prevailing technique for assessing both types of residues because LC offers a versatile and universal separation mechanism suitable for non-gas chromatography (GC) amenable and the majority of GC-amenable compounds. This characteristic becomes more relevant when LC is coupled to MS because the high sensitivity and specificity of the detector allows to apply generic sample preparation procedures, which simultaneously extract a wide variety of residues with different physico-chemical properties. Determination of metabolites and degradation products, non-target suspected screening of an increasing number of residues, and even unknowns identification are also becoming inherent LC-MS advantages thanks to the latest advances. For routine analysis and, in particular, for official surveillance purposes in food control, analytical methods properly validated following strict guidelines are needed. After a brief introduction and an outline of the legislation applicable around the world, aspects such as improvement of specificity of high-throughput methods, resolution and mass accuracy of identification strategies and quantitative accuracy are critically reviewed in this article. In them, extraction, separation and determination are emphasized. The main objective is to offer an assessment of the state of the art and identify research needs and future trends in determining pesticide and veterinary drug residues in food by LC-MS.

  3. Using a hazard quotient to evaluate pesticide residues detected in pollen trapped from honey bees (Apis mellifera in Connecticut.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly A Stoner

    Full Text Available Analysis of pollen trapped from honey bees as they return to their hives provides a method of monitoring fluctuations in one route of pesticide exposure over location and time. We collected pollen from apiaries in five locations in Connecticut, including urban, rural, and mixed agricultural sites, for periods from two to five years. Pollen was analyzed for pesticide residues using a standard extraction method widely used for pesticides (QuEChERS and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometric analysis. Sixty pesticides or metabolites were detected. Because the dose lethal to 50% of adult worker honey bees (LD50 is the only toxicity parameter available for a wide range of pesticides, and among our pesticides there were contact LD50 values ranging from 0.006 to >1000 μg per bee (range 166,000X, and even among insecticides LD50 values ranged from 0.006 to 59.8 μg/bee (10,000X; therefore we propose that in studies of honey bee exposure to pesticides that concentrations be reported as Hazard Quotients as well as in standard concentrations such as parts per billion. We used both contact and oral LD50 values to calculate Pollen Hazard Quotients (PHQ = concentration in ppb ÷ LD50 as μg/bee when both were available. In this study, pesticide Pollen Hazard Quotients ranged from over 75,000 to 0.01. The pesticides with the greatest Pollen Hazard Quotients at the maximum concentrations found in our study were (in descending order: phosmet, Imidacloprid, indoxacarb, chlorpyrifos, fipronil, thiamethoxam, azinphos-methyl, and fenthion, all with at least one Pollen Hazard Quotient (using contact or oral LD50 over 500. At the maximum rate of pollen consumption by nurse bees, a Pollen Hazard Quotient of 500 would be approximately equivalent to consuming 0.5% of the LD50 per day. We also present an example of a Nectar Hazard Quotient and the percentage of LD50 per day at the maximum nectar consumption rate.

  4. 牛奶中有机磷农药残留的气相色谱法测定%Analysis of Organophosphate Pesticide Residues in Milk by Gas Chromatograph

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冷静; 邓斌; 李琦华; 杨舒黎; 苟潇; 毛华明

    2011-01-01

    提出同时测定牛奶中敌百虫、甲胺磷、敌敌畏、马拉硫磷、倍硫磷五种有机磷农药残留的检测方法.在选定的色谱条件下,添加浓度在0.5~10.0μg/mL之间时5种农药的检测限分别为0.031μg/mL、0.013μg/mL、0.023μg/mL、0.019μg/mL和O.014μg/mL,回收率范围分别达81.0%~85.5%、84.5%~89.4%、79.0%~81.8%、77.3%~82.5%和77.9%~89.5%,变异系数在0.29%~3.96%之间.本方法对牛奶中有机磷农药残留的检测分析准确可靠.%Five kinds(Trichlorfon, Methamidophos, Dichlorvos, Malathion and Fenthion) of organophosphate pesticide residues in milk were detected by gas chromatograph(GC). With the selected chromatographic conditions, the lowest detection limit of five kinds of organophosphate pesticide residues were 0.031μg/mL, 0.013μg/mL, 0.023μg/mL, 0.019μg/mL and 0.014μg/mL,respectively,within the linear concentration ranging of 0.5~10.0μm/mL. The recovery(n=3) of five kinds of organophosphate pesticide were 81.0%~85.5%, 84.5%~89.4%, 79.0%~81.8%, 77.3%~82.5% and 77.9%~89.5%, respectively, and the relative standard deviations were 0.29%~3.96%. The method is effective and accurate for determining organophosphate pesticide residues in milk.

  5. De-contamination of pesticide residues in food by ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The role of gamma irradiation on removal of pesticides in aqueous solutions or in vegetables and fruits was investigated. Radiation - induced decontamination of pesticides is generally greater in aqueous solutions than in selected vegetables and fruits. Residues of malathion (0.5 ppm in potatoes, 8 ppm in onions and dates), pirimiphos-methyl (1 ppm in onions and grapes) and cypermethrin (0.05 ppm in potatoes and 0.1 ppm in onions) were not reduced to below maximum residue limits (MRLs) for irradiation doses up to 1 kGy. The same trend was observed when irradiation was performed for grapes fortified with malathion (8 ppm) and cypermethrin (2 ppm) for absorbed doses up to 2 kGy. Ionizing radiation reduced the residues of pirimiphos-methyl (0.05 ppm in potatoes at1 kGy, 1 ppm in grapes at 2 kGy and 0.1 ppm in dates at1 kGy), malathion (8 ppm in grapes at 7 kGy) and cypermethrin (2 ppm in grapes at 7 kGy) to below maximum residue limits (MRLs). - Highlights: ► The role of irradiation on removal of pesticides in aqueous solutions or in food products was investigated. ► Radiation-induced removal of pesticides is generally greater in aqueous solutions than in food products. ► Radiation can reduce the pirimiphos-methyl in potatoes, grapes and dates to below MRLs. ► Radiation can reduce the malathion and cypermethrin in grapes to below MRLs. ► Radiation is used for dual objectives of reducing pesticide residues and improving food safety.

  6. Focused microwave assistance for extracting some pesticide residues from strawberries into water before their determination by SPME/HPLC/DAD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falqui-Cao, C; Wang, Z; Urruty, L; Pommier, J J; Montury, M

    2001-11-01

    A novel and simple method for the determination of some pesticide residues in strawberries using both focused microwave-assisted extraction (FMAE) and solid-phase micro extraction (SPME), coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), has been developed. The pesticides were first extracted from strawberries with water and the assistance of focused microwaves at 30 W for 7 min. Then, an aliquot of the resulting aqueous extract was subjected to SPME with a 60-microm thick poly(dimethylsiloxane)/divinylbenzene (PDMS/DVB) fiber for 45 min at room temperature, with the solution being stirred at 1000 rpm. The extracted pesticides on the SPME fiber were desorbed into the SPME/HPLC interface for quantitative analysis with a diode array detector (DAD). The whole sample pretreatment procedure before chromatographic analysis did not use any organic solvents or involve any blending or centrifugation steps. The five compounds (carbendazim, diethofencarb, azoxystrobine, napropamide, and bupirimate) were chosen because they cannot be analyzed easily by GC. The efficiency of this relatively fast procedure was comparable to that of previously reported methods, with detection limits at low microg/kg levels and linear responses in the range from 0.05 to 1 mg/kg of pesticide in strawberries, with RSDs between 3 and 7.3%, depending on the analyte. In all but one case results obtained by this method for field-incurred samples were comparable to those obtained with traditional methods. PMID:11714287

  7. Pesticide residues in drinking water and associated risk to consumers in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekonen, Seblework; Argaw, Roba; Simanesew, Aklilu; Houbraken, Michael; Senaeve, David; Ambelu, Argaw; Spanoghe, Pieter

    2016-11-01

    Access to safe and reliable drinking water is vital for a healthy population. However, surface water may be contaminated with pesticides because of the nearby agricultural areas as well as from household application. Water samples were collected from water sources in Jimma zone and Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. The extraction and clean up of the samples were undertaken using liquid-solid and liquid-liquid methods. Human exposure was assessed by calculating the estimated daily intake (EDI) of pesticides in water and compared with the acceptable daily intake (ADI) and the acute reference dose (ARfD). The mean concentrations of 2,4-D, malathion, diazinon and fenpropimorph were 1.59-13.90 μg/l and 0.11-138 µg/l in Jimma and Addis Ababa water sources, respectively. The residue level of some of the pesticides were above the European drinking water guide line values, which is an indication of an illegal use of pesticides in the study areas. Concerning human health risk estimation, there was no acute risk (EDI  ADI) for Jimma and Addis Ababa populations, respectively. A comprehensive monitoring is required to reduce the level of pesticide residues in the water and to minimize particularly the long term human health risks. PMID:27501312

  8. Pesticide residues in drinking water and associated risk to consumers in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekonen, Seblework; Argaw, Roba; Simanesew, Aklilu; Houbraken, Michael; Senaeve, David; Ambelu, Argaw; Spanoghe, Pieter

    2016-11-01

    Access to safe and reliable drinking water is vital for a healthy population. However, surface water may be contaminated with pesticides because of the nearby agricultural areas as well as from household application. Water samples were collected from water sources in Jimma zone and Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. The extraction and clean up of the samples were undertaken using liquid-solid and liquid-liquid methods. Human exposure was assessed by calculating the estimated daily intake (EDI) of pesticides in water and compared with the acceptable daily intake (ADI) and the acute reference dose (ARfD). The mean concentrations of 2,4-D, malathion, diazinon and fenpropimorph were 1.59-13.90 μg/l and 0.11-138 µg/l in Jimma and Addis Ababa water sources, respectively. The residue level of some of the pesticides were above the European drinking water guide line values, which is an indication of an illegal use of pesticides in the study areas. Concerning human health risk estimation, there was no acute risk (EDI  ADI) for Jimma and Addis Ababa populations, respectively. A comprehensive monitoring is required to reduce the level of pesticide residues in the water and to minimize particularly the long term human health risks.

  9. Australian national residue survey – closing the loop on pesticide residue risk management for Australian grain

    OpenAIRE

    Reichstein, I.; Healy, K; James, A.; Murray, B.

    2010-01-01

    Australia exports a major proportion of its agricultural production and is highly dependent on maintaining and developing access to, and competitiveness in, export markets. To preserve Australia’s status as a provider of high quality grain, the majority of Australian primary producers rely on pesticides to protect their crops from pests and diseases, particularly in post-harvest situations. The Australian Pesticides and Veterinary Medicines Authority (APVMA) supports Australian agriculture by...

  10. 宁波市镇海区蔬菜中农药残留状况分析%Analysis on pesticide residues in vegetables in Zhenhai district of Ningbo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁坚强; 蔡曦; 钟良康; 谢益君; 陈米娜

    2011-01-01

    目的:了解镇海区不同季节不同蔬菜中农药残留情况,为确保蔬菜食用安全提供监管依据.方法:通过对镇海区蔬菜生产基地和散户生产和镇海各菜场中销售的叶菜类、果菜类、茎菜类、根菜类、花菜类等的农药残留量按季节进行抽样,用气相色谱法对14种有机磷农药和6种拟除虫菊酯类农药进行检测.结果:抽查样本中农药残留量检出率为7.85%,残留量超标率为3.78%.其中蔬菜生产基地农药残留量检出率为3.27%,超标率为0.65%,显著低于散户和菜场中蔬菜的检出率(分别为8.20%和11.54%)和超标率(分别为4.92%和6.92%).在20种检测的农药中,毒死蟀和氯氰菊醋的检出率明显高于其它农药.叶菜类的检出率为11.34%,超标率为8.24%,明显高于其他品种的蔬菜.从时.间上看,农药残留并无明显的季节变化.结论:应采取有效措施,加强蔬菜的监督管理,从源头禁止高毒农药的使用,加大蔬菜种植、销售环节的监测,确保市民食用蔬菜的安全.%Objective:To investigate the conditions of pesticide residues in different seasons in Zhenhai district in order to provide inspection basis for assuring the safety of vegetable intake. Methods: In 2010 year, 344 samples of vegetables were randomly collected from vegetable production base, production of vegetables around the famers and vegetables market in Zhenhai district.The vegetables were random sampling in accordance with leafy vegetables, stem vegetables, root vegetables, cauliflower classes and fruit vegetables categories in different seasons, and measured 14 organophosphorus pesticides and 6 pyrethriod pesticides by GC. Results: The detection rate of pesticide residues in all vegetables was 7.85%, and over - standard rate was 3.78%. The detection rate of Vegetable Production Base was 3. 27%, which was lower than famers (8.20%) and vegetable market ( 11.54% ), and over - standard rate was 0.65% which also was

  11. Compound specific isotope analysis of organophosphorus pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Langping; Yao, Jun; Trebse, Polonca; Zhang, Ning; Richnow, Hans H

    2014-09-01

    Compound-specific isotope analysis (CSIA) has been established as a tool to study the environmental fate of a wide range of contaminants. In this study, CSIA was developed to analyse the stable carbon isotope signatures of the widely used organophosphorus pesticides: dichlorvos, omethoate and dimethoate. The linearity of the GC-C-IRMS system was tested for target pesticides and led to an acceptable isotope composition within the uncertainty of the instrument. In order to assess the accuracy of the developed method, the effect of the evaporation procedure on measured carbon isotope composition (δ(13)C) values was studied and showed that concentration by evaporation of solvents had no significant isotope effect. The CSIA was then applied to investigate isotope fractionation of the hydrolysis and photolysis of selected pesticides. The carbon isotope fractionation of tested pesticides was quantified by the Rayleigh model, which revealed a bulk enrichment factor (ε) of -0.2±0.1‰ for hydrolysis of dichlorvos, -1.0±0.1‰ and -3.7±1.1‰ for hydrolysis and photolysis of dimethoate respectively. This study is a first step towards the application of CSIA to trace the transport and degradation of organophosphorus pesticides in the environment.

  12. Multiresidue analysis of pesticides in traditional Chinese medicines using gas chromatography - negative chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, a residue analysis method for the simultaneous determination of 107 pesticides in the traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs), Angelica sinensis, Angelica dahurica, Leonurus heterophyllus Sweet, Pogostemon cablin, and Lonicera japonica Thunb, was developed using gas chromatography couple...

  13. Investigation and Measurement of Pesticidal Residues; Benomil and Mancazeb in Cucumber Produced in Mazandaran.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Shabankhani

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Considering the importance and usefulness of fruits in people’s daily diet as they play an important role in determining public health and also considering the significance of pesticide residues in foods and fruits , measurement of which has been repeatedly reiterated by WHO and FAO, this research was done. Irregular use of pesticides by farmers knowingly or unknowingly without observing its caress period has led to the contact of these pesticides with humans through foods and fruits and in the long run, they will surely cause chronic complications . Methods: In this study, after collecting cucumbers form 76 sample regions, we rinsed them carefully, sliced them thinly and mashed them up. Then, we extracted them three times with n butyl acetate. Later, we evaporated the solvent. At the end, we measured the residue by chromatographic gas (GC and detector (ECD. Results and Conclusion: The results obtained were analyzed with the help of two-way ANOVA. It indicated that there is a correlation between the investigated regions and the residual amount (P>0.05. Calculation of the mean ratings showed that the levels of these two pesticides are higher than the acceptable level in most of the regions. (0.01

  14. Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... rodents, noxious weeds, and insects. Pesticides help prevent crop loss and, potentially, human disease. According to the ... pesticides. DO NOT mix pesticides. DO NOT set traps or place bait in areas where children or ...

  15. Problems of positive list system revealed by survey of pesticide residue in food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, Mariko; Sato, Itaru; Jin, Yihe; Saito, Norimitsu; Tsuda, Shuji

    2007-05-01

    The positive list system became effective from May 29, 2006 to improve the regulation of residual agricultural chemicals (pesticides, feed additives and veterinary drugs) in foods. In accordance with the system, we investigated pesticide residues in 50 agricultural products purchased in Morioka city from March to November 2006. Analyses were performed according to the "Multiresidue Method for Agricultural Chemicals by GC/MS", the Notice of the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare. Five pesticides and two non-agricultural chemicals were detected from 16 samples. Ortho-phenylphenol (OPP) was detected from 8 samples: immature pea, snap bean, kiwi, plain-boiled bamboo shoot, mango, white asparagus, lemon and domestic shiitake mushroom. Maximum residue limits (MRLs) have not been established for these products, and they exceeded the uniform level of 0.01 ppm. DDT was detected from Philippines banana (0.30 ppm) and Korean paprika (0.45 ppm). The residual level in Philippines banana was lower than the MRL, but Korean paprika exceeded its MRL. Chlorpyrifos, Thiabendazole and Imazaril were detected from citrus imported from the U.S.A., but their residue levels were lower than the respective MRLs. Aniline and 2-pyrrolidone were detected from several imported products. These two may not be regulated by the positive list system because they are not agricultural chemicals, although their derivatives are used as pesticides or veterinary drugs. Three problems have been revealed from this survey: 1) application of the uniform level to minor agricultural products, 2) residues of non-agricultural chemicals whose toxicity is uncertain, 3) metabolites of agricultural chemicals, which are also regulated by the positive list system, have not been clearly defined. PMID:17538241

  16. A rapid spectrophotometric assay of some organophosphorus pesticide residues in vegetable samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Sunitha B.; Pillai, Ajai K.; Gupta, Vinay K.

    2007-08-01

    A rapid and sensitive spectrophotometric method for the determination of some organophosphorus insecticides, i.e. malathion, dimethoate and phorate is described. It is based on the oxidation of organophosphorus pesticide with slight excess of N-bromosuccinimide (NBS) and the unconsumed NBS is determined with rhodamine B (lambda max: 550 nm). Beer's law is obeyed in the concentration range 0.108-1.08, 0.056-0.56 and 0.028-0.28 μg mL -1 for malathion, phorate and dimethoate, respectively. The method has been successfully applied for the determination of organophosphorus pesticide residues in various vegetable samples.

  17. Occurrence and estimation of pesticide residues in edible minor crops in southeastern Poland in 2013-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podbielska, Magdalena; Szpyrka, Ewa; Matyaszek, Aneta; Słowik-Borowiec, Magdalena; Rupar, Julian; Kurdziel, Anna

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents the results of official control of pesticide residues in minor crops collected in southeastern Poland in 2013-2014. Compliance of used pesticides with applicable law was also verified, and determined residues were compared to maximum residue levels (MRLs) provided for in Regulation (EC) No. 395/2005. A total of 583 samples of 25 different types of fresh fruit and vegetables were analyzed for pesticide residues. Pesticide residues were detected in 158 samples (27.1 % of the analyzed samples). According to the European Commission Health & Consumer Protection Directorate-General (SANCO) guidelines document, MRL violations were understood as cases where a residue level exceeded the MRL after the uncertainty of the method (50 %) was considered. MRL violations were found in four samples. The usage of unauthorized pesticides was detected in 5.8 % of analyzed samples. Substances banned in Poland were found in two samples. Fungicides were the most frequently detected group of pesticides. Pesticide residues were most commonly found in fruit samples (19.4 % of all analyzed samples), mainly in gooseberry, redcurrant, and huckleberry. The majority of samples were compliant with MRLs, which means that they were suitable for trade. PMID:27251221

  18. Determination and Analysis of Residues of Organochlorine Pesticides in Ophiopogon japonicus from Sichuan Province%川麦冬残留有机氯农药含量的测定与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐作英; 严伟; 刘菲; 燕旎

    2011-01-01

    [Objective]The aim was to determine residues of organochlorine pesticides in geo-authentic crude drugs Ophiopogon japonicus from Sichuan Province, and judge the quality of 0. Japonicus, so as to provide experimental data for the establishment of quality standard. [Method] With 0. Japonicus from Santai County of Sichuan Province as material, the contents of BHC, DDT and PCNB were determined by gas chromatog-raphy. [ Result ] The contents of residues of organochlorine pesticides in O. Japonicus from Santai County were all under the standards. [Conclusion] It was proved the superiority of 0. Japonicus as Sichuan Province geo-authentic crude drug from residues of organochlorine pesticides, which was accordance with CAP standard and food standard.%[目的]测定四川道地药材—“川麦冬”中残留有机氯农药的含量,以评判川麦冬作为四川道地药材的质量情况,为川麦冬药材质量标准的制定提供了试验数据,也为三台县所产麦冬作为四川道地药材的用药质量提供了依据.[方法]以四川三台县所产川麦冬为材料,采用气相色谱法测定其总六六六(BHC)、总滴滴涕(DDT)和五氯硝基苯(PCNB)的含量.[结果]三台县所产川麦冬中残留有机氧农药含量均低于限量标准.[结论]从有机氯农药残留含量方面印证了川麦冬作为四川道地药材的优越性,符合国家中药材GAP标准和食品标准.

  19. Organochlorine Pesticides Residues in the Breast Milk of Some Primiparae Mothers in La Community, Accra, Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Osei Tutu

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the types and levels of Organochlorine pesticide residues in the breast milk of 21 primiparae mothers in La, a suburb of Accra an urban community in the Greater Accra region of Ghana. Liquid-liquid extraction procedure was employed and extract clean-up was done using silica gel solid phase extraction. Fourteen (14 different organochlorine pesticides residues namely p,p’-DDT, p,p’-DDE, gamma-HCH, delta-HCH, heptachlor, aldrin, Endrin, endrin-aldehyde, endrin-ketone, alpha-endosulphan, endosulphan-sulphate, gamma-chlordane, dieldrin, and methoxychlor were identified and quantified in the individual breast milk samples using a Gas Chromatograph (GC with an Electron C apture detector. The GC recoveries of spiked samples were between 89 to 97%. P,p’- DDE recorded 100% incidence ratio. Also p,p’-DDT, delta-HCH, gamma-HCH, and endosulfan sulfate recorded incidence ratios of 76.79, 95.25, 80.95 and 85.71%, respectively for the breast milk samples. The concentrations of organochlorine pesticide residues in the human breast milk samples ranged from 1.839 to 99.05 :μg/kg fats. With the exception of Endosulphan Sulphate whose mean concentration (99.052 :μg/kg was above the Australian Maximum Residue Limit (MRL of 20 :μg/kg for milk, the mean concentrations for all the other organochlorines detected were below their respective limits.

  20. Presence of pesticide residues in water, sediment and biological samples taken from aquatic environments in Honduras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study was to detect the presence of persistent pesticides in water, sediment and biological samples taken from aquatic environments in Honduras during the period 1995-98. Additionally, the LC50 for 2 fungicides and 2 insecticides on post-larval Penaeus vannamei was determined in static water bioassays. A total of 80 water samples, 16 sediment samples and 7 biological samples (fish muscle tissue) were analyzed for detection of organochlorine and organophosphate pesticide residues. The results of sample analyses indicate a widespread contamination of Honduran continental and coastal waters with organochlorine pesticides. Most detections were of low (50 values and were therefore found to be much more toxic to the post-larval shrimp than the fungicides tridemorph and propiconazole. (author)

  1. Quantitative structure activity relationship and risk analysis of some pesticides in the goat milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, Faqir; Awais, Mian Muhammad; Akhtar, Masood; Anwar, Muhammad Irfan

    2013-01-01

    The detection and quantification of different pesticides in the goat milk samples collected from different localities of Faisalabad, Pakistan was performed by HPLC using solid phase microextraction. The analysis showed that about 50% milk samples were contaminated with pesticides. The mean±SEM levels (ppm) of cyhalothrin, endosulfan, chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin were 0.34±0.007, 0.063±0.002, 0.034±0.002 and 0.092±0.002, respectively; whereas, methyl parathion was not detected in any of the analyzed samples. Quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR) models were suggested to predict the residues of unknown pesticides in the goat milk using their known physicochemical characteristics including molecular weight (MW), melting point (MP), and log octanol to water partition coefficient (Ko/w) in relation to the characteristics such as pH, % fat, specific gravity and refractive index of goat milk. The analysis revealed good correlation coefficient (R2 = 0.985) for goat QSAR model. The coefficients for Ko/w and refractive index for the studied pesticides were higher in goat milk. This suggests that these are better determinants for pesticide residue prediction in the milk of these animals. Based upon the determined pesticide residues and their provisional tolerable daily intakes, risk analysis was also conducted which showed that daily intake levels of pesticide residues including cyhalothrin, chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin in present study are 2.68, 5.19 and 2.71 times higher, respectively in the goat milk. This intake of pesticide contaminated milk might pose health hazards to humans in this locality. PMID:23369514

  2. Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship and Risk Analysis of Some Pesticides in the Goat milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faqir Muhammad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The detection and quantification of different pesticides in the goat milk samples collected from different localities of Faisalabad, Pakistan was performed by HPLC using solid phase microextraction. The analysis showed that about 50% milk samples were contaminated with pesticides. The mean+/-SEM levels (ppm of cyhalothrin, endosulfan, chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin were 0.34+/-0.007, 0.063+/-0.002, 0.034+/-0.002 and 0.092+/-0.002, respectively; whereas, methyl parathion was not detected in any of the analyzed samples. Quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR models were suggested to predict the residues of unknown pesticides in the goat milk using their known physicochemical characteristics including molecular weight (MW, melting point (MP, and log octanol to water partition coefficient (Ko/w in relation to the characteristics such as pH, % fat, specific gravity and refractive index of goat milk. The analysis revealed good correlation coefficient (R2 = 0.985 for goat QSAR model. The coefficients for Ko/w and refractive index for the studied pesticides were higher in goat milk. This suggests that these are better determinants for pesticide residue prediction in the milk of these animals. Based upon the determined pesticide residues and their provisional tolerable daily intakes, risk analysis was also conducted which showed that daily intake levels of pesticide residues including cyhalothrin, chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin in present study are 2.68, 5.19 and 2.71 times higher, respectively in the goat milk. This intake of pesticide contaminated milk might pose health hazards to humans in this locality.

  3. 生鲜乳中农兽药残留限量分析比对%Comparison and analysis study of veterinary and pesticide residue limits standard in raw milk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王建军; 黄菲菲; 赵嘉胤; 楼飞; 刘永琦

    2011-01-01

    Food standards about maximum residue limits (MRLs)of veterinary drug and pesticide were collected in this paper, which analyzed the differences among CAC ,America,Canada,EU,Japan,New Zealand,Australia and Chinese standards. some measures and advices were proposed for improving national standards.%整理了国际食品法典(CAC)、美国、加拿大、欧盟、日本、新西兰、澳大利亚以及我国生鲜乳中农兽药残留限量,分析了我国与其他国家或组织生鲜乳中农兽药残留限量标准存在的差异,并提出了完善我国生鲜乳中农兽药残留限量标准的措施和建议.

  4. Analysis of pesticides on or in fruit by surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shende, Chetan S.; Inscore, Frank; Gift, Alan; Maksymiuk, Paul; Farquharson, Stuart

    2004-11-01

    Pesticides are a key component in protecting crops and producing the quantity of food required by today's world population. However, since excessive concentrations pose a threat to human health, the USA sets strict tolerance levels to ensure public safety. Unfortunately, many other countries ignore these regulations and imported food exceeding these levels or contaminated with banned pesticides is a common occurrence. Furthermore, rapid chemical analysis of pesticide residues is unavailable, and only a very small fraction of foods are inspected. The greatest concern is fruit, for which an estimated 12 million tons were imported in 2003. In an effort to address this need, we have been developing a simple and rapid procedure to analyze for pesticides on fruit surfaces or in the juice of fruits. The procedure employs metal-doped sol-gel filled capillaries that both chemically extracts the pesticide and generates surface-enhanced Raman spectra when irradiated. The SERS-active capillaries, sensitivity, and preliminary fruit analyses are presented.

  5. Pesticide pressure and fish farming in barrage pond in Northeastern France. Part II: residues of 13 pesticides in water, sediments, edible fish and their relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazartigues, Angélique; Thomas, Marielle; Cren-Olivé, Cécile; Brun-Bellut, Jean; Le Roux, Yves; Banas, Damien; Feidt, Cyril

    2013-01-01

    Residues of pesticides in fish farming productions from barrage ponds are seldom studied in spite of increasing health questionings and environmental concerns. The purpose of this study is to establish the pesticide contamination profiles of sediments and edible fish from five ponds in Northeastern France. Multi-residues method and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis were used to quantify 13 pesticides (azoxystrobin, carbendazim, clomazone, diflufenican, dimethachlor, fluroxypyr, iprodion, isoproturon, mesosulfuron-methyl, metazachlor, napropamid, quizalofop and thifensulfuron-methyl). Ten sediments and 143 muscles samples were analysed, corresponding to two successive fishing campaigns (first fishing date and second fishing date (P2), about 1 year later) on five sites (noted C-0, C-25, C-45, C-75 and C-85 to express the increasing gradient of crop area). Isoproturon was present in all sediments samples (1.8-56.4 μg/kg dry weight). During P2 period, carbendazim was quantified in the fish of site C-0 (0.09 ± 0.02, 0.2 ± 0.1 and 0.17 ± 0.06 μg/kg wet weight (ww) for roach, carp and perch, respectively). Metazachlor was only quantified in perch of the site C-25 (0.13 ± 0.02 μg/kg ww). Concentrations of isoproturon were similar for the sites C-45 and C-75 with 0.4 ± 0.1 and 0.75 ± 0.06 μg/kg ww for carp and perch, respectively. Contamination of fish reflected generally concentrations in surroundings. Isoproturon was the most concentrated and its main source was water for perch while carp was exposed through both water and sediments, highlighting their life strategies in pond.

  6. SETTING MRLS FOR PESTICIDE RESIDUES IN FOOD BASED ON EU UNIFORM CRITERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VALENTINA L. CHRISTOVA-BAGDASSARIAN

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Pesticides are used worldwide. They are applied during the growing season and part of the amount may remain in or on treated crop. Pesticides can drift to nearby areas and contaminate crops that were not treated. The MRLs are the maximum amount of a pesticide permitted in or on food (& feed, expressed in mg/kg or ppm and always defined for the active substance – crop combination. MRL should be set according to residue trials under Good Agricultural Practice (GAP and under the condition that: Daily Consumer Intake < Acceptable Daily Intake. The residue definition of active substance is derived from plant and animal metabolism. Supervised trials are the primary source of information for estimating maximum residue levels and calculating International Estimated Daily Intake. The agricultural practice the worst-case situation should be used to generate data from supervised trials to define the MRL. As the number of controlled field tests, and hence the data for MRL proposal is not large, the usual statistical models are inappropriate. Methods: Two methods for calculating proposed pre-harvest intervals (PHI and maximum residue levels are used. The first one (Rmax has proved its worth in many cases since 1981, and the second (Rber has been developed by the Federal Biological Research Centre for Agriculture and Forestry in Braunschweig/Germany. Both methods are described briefly. The first one is suitable for a larger number of data. It assumes a normal distribution of random variables, which are not always assumed with sufficient certainty. The second one uses a non-parametric distribution- and it is appropriate for more limited number of trials. Several case studies are discussed. The MRL Regulation on pesticide residues in food is a great progress towards better protection of children and consumer in general. Conclusions: Uniform criteria have to be used for evaluation of residue trials and MRLs setting process. Knowledge of the European

  7. Organic amendments for risk mitigation of organochlorine pesticide residues in old orchard soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centofantia, Tiziana; McConnell, Laura L.; Chaney, Rufus L.; Beyer, W. Nelson; Andradea, Natasha A.; Hapeman, Cathleen J.; Torrents, Alba; Nguyen, Anh; Anderson, Marya O.; Novak, J. M.; Jackson, Dana

    2015-01-01

    Performance of compost and biochar amendments for in situ risk mitigation of aged DDT, DDE and dieldrin residues in an old orchard soil was examined. The change in bioavailability of pesticide residues to Lumbricus terrestris L. relative to the unamended control soil was assessed using 4-L soil microcosms with and without plant cover in a 48-day experiment. The use of aged dairy manure compost and biosolids compost was found to be effective, especially in the planted treatments, at lowering the bioavailability factor (BAF) by 18–39%; however, BAF results for DDT in the unplanted soil treatments were unaffected or increased. The pine chip biochar utilized in this experiment was ineffective at lower the BAF of pesticides in the soil. The US EPA Soil Screening Level approach was used with our measured values. Addition of 10% of the aged dairy manure compost reduced the average hazard quotient values to below 1.0 for DDT + DDE and dieldrin. Results indicate this sustainable approach is appropriate to minimize risks to wildlife in areas of marginal organochlorine pesticide contamination. Application of this remediation approach has potential for use internationally in areas where historical pesticide contamination of soils remains a threat to wildlife populations.

  8. Consumers’ Willingness to Pay for Cabbage with Minimized Pesticide Residues in Southern Benin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faustin Vidogbéna

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Cabbage (Brassicaceae is one of the most frequently consumed exotic vegetables in Benin and also the most affected by insects. To meet growing food demand, farmers rely heavily on synthetic pesticides that are harmful for themselves, consumers and the environment. Integrated pest management has been proposed as the means to improve vegetable productivity and quality in many developing countries. One approach is to substitute pesticides with physical barriers to insects, like nets. Here, we assess consumers’ perceptions about cabbage and their purchasing behavior towards cabbage that was produced using these nets in two major cities in Benin. Results indicate that consumers are aware of the health risks associated with intensive use of pesticides but were not able to recognize the quality difference between cabbage produced under nets from those using pesticides. All consumers were willing to pay a price premium for cabbage with minimized pesticides residues compared with conventionally produced cabbage, the average premium being 38%. Women, older, highly educated consumers and those able to distinguish cabbage qualities were willing to pay the most. We suggest that farmers will obtain higher prices if their production of cabbage with preferred characteristics is accompanied by an improved marketing strategy.

  9. LITERATURE REVIEW AND EVALUATION OF THE EPA FOOD-CHAIN (KENAGA) NOMOGRAM, AN INSTRUMENT FOR ESTIMATING PESTICIDE RESIDUES ON PLANTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Kenaga nomogram is a simple device developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in the early 1980s and is currently used to predict the maximum potential pesticide residue levels in the food chain of wildlife before pesticide registration. o evaluate the accura...

  10. Rapid detection of pesticides not amenable to multi-residue methods by flow injection-tandem mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mol, J.G.J.; Dam, van R.C.J.

    2014-01-01

    Flow injection combined with tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) was investigated for the rapid detection of highly polar pesticides that are not amenable to multi-residue methods because they do not partition into organic solvents and require dedicated chromatographic conditions. The pesticides includ

  11. Organochlorine pesticide residues in paddy fish in Malaysia and the associated health risk to farmers*

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Donald F.; Meier, Peter G.; Hilbert, Morton S.

    1984-01-01

    Paddy fish (Trichogaster pectoralis Regan) were collected from five sampling locations in a major paddy-growing area of Malaysia and analysed for organochlorine residues. During the same period, ten farming families, chosen at random from each of the five sampling sites, were interviewed. Information was obtained about the quantity of paddy fish consumed, the amount and type of pesticide used on the paddy-field, and the frequency of application.

  12. Impact of toxic heavy metals and pesticide residues in herbal products

    OpenAIRE

    Nema S. Shaban; Khaled A. Abdou; Nour El-Houda Y. Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Medicinal plants have a long history of use in therapy throughout the world and still make an important part of traditional medicine. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that 65%–80% of the world's populations depend on the herbal products as their primary form of health care. This review is conducted to provide a general idea about chemical contaminants such as heavy metals and pesticide residues as major common contaminants of the herbal medicine, which impose serious health risks...

  13. Assessment of Pesticide and Heavy Metal Residues in Tilapia Fish From Machakos and Kiambu Counties, Kenya.

    OpenAIRE

    Omwenga, Isaac Mokaya

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to pesticides, heavy metals and other chemical residues cause harmful effects; they can cause injury to human health as well as to the environment. Humans take up these chemicals through skin absorption, respiration and ingestion of contaminated food. Among all foods, fish is one of the main sources of chemical contaminants although fish products account only for about 10% of diet or less. The present study was conducted in Kiambu and Machakos counties with objectives of determining ...

  14. Organochlorine pesticide residue levels in soil from the Nyando river catchment, Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Abong'o, D.A.; Wandiga, S.O.; Jumba, I.O.; Brink, van den, R.B.A.; Nazariwo, B.B.; Madadi, V.O.; Wafula, H.; Kylin, H.

    2015-01-01

    Soil samples were collected from six locations representative of the Nyando River catchment area of the Lake Victoria over a period of two years. Sampling was done four times in the year in February, May, September and December 2005 and 2006 in farms where maize, tea, sugar cane, coffee, rice and vegetables have been grown over the years. This coincided with the effects of different seasons and farming activities on residue levels of the pesticides in use. The objective was to investigate lev...

  15. Organochlorine pesticide residue levels in soil from the Nyando River catchment, Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Abong'o, Deborah; Wandiga, Shem; Jumba, Isac; Van den Brink, Paul; Nazariwo, Betty; Madadi, Vincent; Wafula, Godfrey; Kylin, Henrik; Nkedi-Kizza, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Soil samples were collected from six locations representative of the Nyando River catchment area of the Lake Victoria over a period of two years. Sampling was done four times in the year in February, May, September and December 2005 and 2006 in farms where maize, tea, sugar cane, coffee, rice and vegetables have been grown over the years. This coincided with the effects of different seasons and farming activities on residue levels of the pesticides in use. The objective was to investigate lev...

  16. The effect of pesticide residue on caged mosquito bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, J A S; Greer, Mike; Coughlin, Jamie

    2006-09-01

    Wind tunnel experiments showed that secondary pickup of insecticide residue by mosquitoes in cage bioassays had a significant effect on mortality. Cage bioassays using adult Ochlerotatus taeniorhynchus (Wiedemann) investigated the effect of exposure time to a contaminated surface. Cages were dosed in a wind tunnel using the LC50 for naled (0.124 mg a.i./ml) and an LC25 (0.0772 mg a.i./ml) for naled. Half of the bioassay mosquitoes were moved directly into clean cages with the other half remaining in the sprayed, hence contaminated, cage. Treatment mortality was assessed at 8, 15, 30, 60, 120, 240, and 1,440 min postapplication. Cage contamination had a significant effect on mosquito mortality for both the LC25 and LC50 between 15 and 30 min postapplication. PMID:17067048

  17. Organophosphorus pesticide residues in raw milk and infant formulas from Spanish northwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melgar, M J; Santaeufemia, M; Garcia, M A

    2010-10-01

    Residue levels of seven organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs), widely used as dairy cattle ectoparasiticides or in crops used for animal feed, were determined in raw milk and infant formulas. A total of 312 samples were collected (70 from infant formulas and 242 from raw milk) biweekly during a 24-month period. Pesticides were extracted by means of a solid phase system into acetone. An extract aliquot of acetone was injected into a gas chromatograph (GC) with a nitrogen-phosphorus detector. Recoveries of pesticides spiked in milk samples were 62.2 - 97.2 %. The frequency of total samples containing detectable levels of OPP residues was 6.73 % in total milk and 8.67 % in raw milk. The highest percentage incidence measured was for dichlorvos (5.78 %), followed by coumaphos (2.06 %), and parathion methyl (0.83 %). The range of positive results was calculated to be between 0.005 and 0.220 mg kg(- 1). No residue was detected in the final product (infant formulas), so any risk to consumer health, especially to children's health, would be limited. PMID:20803361

  18. Safe apples for baby-food production: survey of pesticide treatment regimes leaving minimum residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ticha, Jana; Hajslova, Jana; Kovalczuk, Tomas; Jech, Martin; Honzicek, Jiri; Kocourek, Vladimir; Lansky, Miroslav; Kloutvorova, Jana; Falta, Vladan

    2007-06-01

    A total of 19 pesticide preparations were used according to agricultural practice in six trials in apple orchards. Using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), premature Golden Delicious apples collected 64, 50, 36 days before harvest and mature fruit were examined for residues of active ingredients. No residues of triflumuron, triazamate, chlorpyrifos, etofenprox, fenoxycarb, kresoxim-methyl, cyprodinyl, difenoconazole or thiram were detected in the first sampling. Also, the levels of chlorpyrifos-methyl, penconazole, tebuconazole and tolylfluanid dropped during the pre-harvest interval. Detectable residues of pyridaben, thiacloprid, trifloxystrobin and tetraconazole in harvested fruits were below 0.01 mg kg(-1), which is the maximum concentration of residues acceptable by baby-food producers in any raw material. The only residues exceeding this concentration were captan and teflubenzuron. Based on the data, farmers can choose pesticides for optimal treatment of plants, while enabling growth of a safe crop suitable for baby-food production. PMID:17487602

  19. Assessment of organochlorine pesticides and atrazine residues in Maize Produced in Ghana using GC-ECD/ GC-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maize is consumed by over 95% of the Ghanaian populace and the practice of using atrazine, lindane and other organochlorine pesticides in its production has raised concerns about potential adverse effects on human health and the environment. A field survey was conducted in this study to assess farmers’ knowledge of safe handling and use of these chemicals as well as toxicity awareness and symptoms among farmers and traders. Residues of the pesticides in maize samples as well as the potential health risk associated with exposure to them were also evaluated. Data obtained from the field survey indicate that a large proportion of farmers are at risk of pesticide poisoning through occupational exposure. Over 80 % of applicators do not apply safety precautions during pesticide mixing and application; resulting in considerable prevalence of pesticide related illnesses in the study area. Residues of lindane and atrazine were below detection limits of 0.005 mg/kg and 0.010 mg/kg respectively of the GC-ECD/MS used for the analysis; except in the Ashanti region where atrazine was 0.05 mg/kg which is within the EU-MRL of 0.1 mg/kg. However, minute concentrations of other organochlorines (endrin- 0.007 mg/kg; heptachlor- 0.023 mg/kg; alpha-endosulfan- 0.013 mg/kg) were found in maize samples from Brong Ahafo, Eastern, Central and Upper west regions. Though endrin and alpha-endosulfan were below the EU-MRL of 0.01 mg/kg and 0.10 mg/kg respectively, heptachlor was slightly above the EU-MRL of 0.01 mg/kg. The estimated doses for all these other organochlorines pesticides do not pose direct hazard to human health because their estimated dose values were lower than toxic thresholds and reference doses. However, due to the unsafe application practices by applicators, there exists a potential risk for systemic and carcinogenic health effects by these chemicals in the study area. (au)

  20. Quantitative Structure activity relationship and risk analysis of some pesticides in the cattle milk

    OpenAIRE

    Faqir Muhammad*, Ijaz Javed, Masood Akhtar1, Zia-ur-Rahman, Mian Muhammad Awais1, Muhammad Kashif Saleemi2 and Muhammad Irfan Anwar3

    2012-01-01

    Milk of cattle was collected from various localities of Faisalabad, Pakistan. Pesticides concentration was determined by HPLC using solid phase microextraction. The residue analysis revealed that about 40% milk samples were contaminated with pesticides. The mean±SE levels (ppm) of cyhalothrin, endosulfan, chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin were 0.38±0.02, 0.26±0.02, 0.072±0.01 and 0.085±0.02, respectively. Quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR) models were used to predict the residues...

  1. Concentrations of pesticide residues in tissues of fish from Kolleru Lake in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaraneni, S R; Pillala, R R

    2001-01-01

    Kolleru Lake is the largest natural freshwater lake of Andhra Pradesh in India. It is situated between latitudes 16 degrees 32' and 16 degrees 47'N and longitudes 81 degrees 05' and 81 degrees 27'E. The use of pesticides for agricultural purposes is widespread in the Kolleru Lake region. The biological indicators like fish help in the studies of aquatic pollution by pesticides. Fish species Channa striata and Catla catla and water samples were collected from Kolleru Lake in each of three seasons over a period of three years. Fish samples were analyzed according to a modified method which is proposed for the gas chromatographic determination for the pesticides viz., alpha-BHC, gamma-BHC, malathion, chloirpyrifos, isodrin, endosulfan, dieldrin, and p,p-DDT. Water samples were analyzed for selected physico-chemical parameters. The extraction efficiency for the selected pesticides is between 82.8% and 91.2%. The maximum concentrations of pesticide residues in Kolleru Lake fish on wet weight basis are 123.8 micrograms/g for alpha-BHC, 98.7 micrograms/g for gamma-BHC, 2.5 micrograms/g for malathion, 88.6 micrograms/g for chlorpyrifos, 0.91 microgram/g for isodrin, 76.5 micrograms/g for endosulfan, 1.98 micrograms/g for dieldrin, and 157.4 micrograms/g for p,p'-DDT. These analyses were used to evaluate the baseline data and the pesticide pollution in the lake's ecosystem. PMID:11769254

  2. Preparation and characterization of amino functionalized nano-composite material and its application for multi-residue analysis of pesticides in cabbage by gas chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yong-Gang; Shen, Hao-Yu; Shi, Jia-Wei; Chen, Xiao-Hong; Jin, Mi-Cong

    2011-08-19

    In this paper, a novel and recyclable amino-functionalized nano-composite material (NCM) using tetraethylenepentamine (TEPA) as a coupling agent was synthesized. The properties of the TEPA-NCM were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared analysis (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and elemental analysis (EA). An effective dispersive solid-phase extraction (dSPE) procedure using the TEPA-NCM was developed, and comparative studies were carried out among Carbon/NH₂ SPE, primary secondary amine (PSA) dSPE and TEPA-NCM dSPE. The results showed that TEPA-NCM dSPE was faster, easier and more effective to clean and enrich than the Carbon/NH₂ cartridges, and the TEPA-NCM was much more effective to remove the pigments in vegetable samples than the PSA materials. The TEPA-NCM could be reused at least five times without much sacrifice of the cleanup efficiency. Furthermore, a gas chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC-QqQ-MS/MS) method was established for the simultaneous determination of 29 pesticides (such as organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticides) in vegetables by dSPE using acetonitrile as an extraction solvent and TEPA-NCM as an adsorbent instead of PSA. The recoveries were in the range of 75-114% for all analytes except for trans-chlordane. The RSDs were in the range of 2-17%. The linearities were in the range of 0.4-100.0 μg/kg with determination coefficients (r²) higher than 0.986 for all compounds. The limits of detection (LODs) for all pesticides were less than 0.29 μg/kg and the limits of quantification (LOQs) were between 0.17 and 0.95 μg/kg. The developed method was applied to fifteen real vegetable samples, and it was confirmed that the TEPA-NCM was one of a kind of highly effective dSPE materials used for the pesticides analyses.

  3. Examination of Some Pesticide Residues in Surface Water, Sediment and Fish Tissue of Elechi Creek, Niger Delta, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Upadhi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available An investigation into the levels of selected pesticides in surface waters, sediment and fish (Mudskipper in the Elechi creek was carried out in two seasons and at three pre-determined sites. A higher concentration of 2, 4-diamine was observed in all stations and matrixes, while propoxur was least observed. Pesticide concentration in sediment is significantly different from that of water and fish tissue, which had the highest residual concentration. Concentration of pesticides ranged from 0.01 to 0.04 μg/L in water, 0.01 to 0.06 μg/gdw in sediment and 0.01 to 0.07 μg/gdw in fish, respectively. There was bioaccumulation of pesticides in fish samples. Observed residues are generally higher than stipulated limit of 0.01 μg/L by USEPA for pesticides of aquatic life, therefore, possess an ecological risk to the ecosystem and consequently human health.

  4. Screening of pesticide residues in honeybee wax comb by LC-ESI-MS/MS. A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera López, Sonia; Lozano, Ana; Sosa, Alexis; Hernando, M Dolores; Fernández-Alba, Amadeo R

    2016-11-01

    A developed multi-residue method using microflow-LC-ESI-QqQ-MS provided a wide-scope analysis for medium-polar and polar pesticide residues (120 compounds including breakdown products). Honeybee wax comb samples were extracted using a generic QuEChERS based procedure. Acceptable recoveries at concentration levels of 5 and 50 μg kg(-1) were within the 70-120% range with an associated precision RSD  9 μg kg(-1); fungicides at concentrations ranging from 1 to 23 μg kg(-1.) The number of positive detections due to herbicides was lower as expected and at a lower level of concentration, from 1 to 5.9 μg kg(-1).

  5. Solid-phase microextraction coupled with high performance liquid chromatography: a complementary technique to solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography for the analysis of pesticide residues in strawberries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z; Hennion, B; Urruty, L; Montury, M

    2000-11-01

    Solid-phase microextraction coupled with high performance liquid chromatography has been studied for the analysis of methiocarb, napropamide, fenoxycarb and bupirimate in strawberries. The strawberries were blended and centrifuged. Then, an aliquot of the resulting extracting solution was subjected to solid-phase microextraction (SPME) on a 60 microns polydimethylsiloxane/divinylbenzene (PDMS/DVB) fibre for 45 min at room temperature. The extracted pesticides on the SPME fibre were desorbed into SPME/high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) interface for HPLC analysis with diode-array detection (DAD). The method is organic solvent-free for the whole extraction process and is simple and easy to manipulate. The detection limits were shown to be at low microgram kg-1 level and the linear response covered the range from 0.05 to 2 mg kg-1 of pesticides in strawberries with a regression coefficient larger than 0.99. A good repeatability with RSDs between 2.92 and 9.25% was obtained, depending on compounds. PMID:11271705

  6. A micro-machined thin film electro-acoustic biosensor for detection of pesticide residuals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing-jing WANG; Wei-hui LIU; Da CHEN; Yan XU; Lu-yin ZHANG

    2014-01-01

    Increasing awareness concerning food safety problems has been driving the search for simple and efficient bio-chemical analytical methods. In this paper, we develop a portable electro-acoustic biosensor based on a film bulk acoustic reso-nator for the detection of pesticide residues in agricultural products. A shear mode ZnO film bulk acoustic resonator with a mi-cro-machining structure was fabricated as a mass-sensitive transducer for the real-time detection of antibody-antigen reactions in liquids. In order to obtain an ultra-low detection level, the artificial antigens were immobilized on the sensing surface of the resonator to employ a competitive format for the immunoassays. The competitive immunoreactions can be observed clearly through monitoring the frequency changes. The presence of pesticides was detected through the diminution of the frequency shift compared with the level without pesticides. The limit of detection for carbaryl (a widely used pesticide for vegetables and crops) is 2´10-10 M. The proposed device represents a potential alternative to the complex optical systems and electrochemical methods that are currently being used, and represents a significant opportunity in terms of simplicity of use and portability for on-site food safety testing.

  7. A smartphone-readable barcode assay for the detection and quantitation of pesticide residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Juan; Wong, Jessica X H; Cui, Caie; Li, Xiaochun; Yu, Hua-Zhong

    2015-08-21

    In this paper, we present a smartphone-readable barcode assay for the qualitative detection of methyl parathion residues, a toxic organophosphorus pesticide that is popularly used in agriculture worldwide. The detection principle is based on the irreversible inhibition of the enzymatic activity of acetylcholinesterase (AchE) by methyl parathion; AchE catalytically hydrolyzes acetylthiocholine iodine to thiocholine that in turn dissociates dithiobis-nitrobenzoate to produce a yellow product (deprotonated thio-nitrobenzoate). The yellow intensity of the product was confirmed to be inversely dependent on the concentration of the pesticide. We have designed a barcode-formatted assay chip by using a PDMS (polydimethylsiloxane) channel plate (as the reaction reservoir), situated under a printed partial barcode, to complete the whole barcode such that it can be directly read by a barcode scanning app installed on a smartphone. The app is able to qualitatively present the result of the pesticide test; the absence or a low concentration of methyl parathion results in the barcode reading as "-", identifying the test as negative for pesticides. Upon obtaining a positive result (the app reads a "+" character), the captured image can be further analyzed to quantitate the methyl parathion concentration in the sample. Besides the portability and simplicity, this mobile-app based colorimetric barcode assay compares favorably with the standard spectrophotometric method. PMID:26087169

  8. Pesticide residues in some herbs growing in agricultural areas in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinowska, Elżbieta; Jankowski, Kazimierz

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this paper was to assess residue content of plant protection products in selected herbs: Achillea millefolium L., Cichorium intybus L., Equisetum arvense L., Polygonum persicaria L., Plantago lanceolata L., and Plantago major L. The study comprises herbs growing in their natural habitat, 1 and 10 m away from crop fields. The herbs, 30 plants of each species, were sampled during the flowering stage between 1 and 20 July 2014. Pesticide residue content was measured with the QuECHERS method in the dry matter of leaves, stalks, and inflorescence, all mixed together. Out of six herb species growing close to wheat and maize fields, pesticide residues were found in three species: A. millefolium L., E. arvense L., and P. lanceolata L. Most plants containing the residues grew 1 m away from the wheat field. Two active substances of fungicides were found: diphenylamine and tebuconazole, and one active substance of insecticides: chlorpyrifos-ethyl. Those substances are illegal to use on herbal plants. Samples of E. arvense L. and P. lanceolata L. contained two active substances each, which constituted 10% of all samples, while A. millefolium L. contained one substance, which is 6.6% of all samples.

  9. Pesticide residues in some herbs growing in agricultural areas in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinowska, Elżbieta; Jankowski, Kazimierz

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this paper was to assess residue content of plant protection products in selected herbs: Achillea millefolium L., Cichorium intybus L., Equisetum arvense L., Polygonum persicaria L., Plantago lanceolata L., and Plantago major L. The study comprises herbs growing in their natural habitat, 1 and 10 m away from crop fields. The herbs, 30 plants of each species, were sampled during the flowering stage between 1 and 20 July 2014. Pesticide residue content was measured with the QuECHERS method in the dry matter of leaves, stalks, and inflorescence, all mixed together. Out of six herb species growing close to wheat and maize fields, pesticide residues were found in three species: A. millefolium L., E. arvense L., and P. lanceolata L. Most plants containing the residues grew 1 m away from the wheat field. Two active substances of fungicides were found: diphenylamine and tebuconazole, and one active substance of insecticides: chlorpyrifos-ethyl. Those substances are illegal to use on herbal plants. Samples of E. arvense L. and P. lanceolata L. contained two active substances each, which constituted 10% of all samples, while A. millefolium L. contained one substance, which is 6.6% of all samples. PMID:26612566

  10. De-contamination of pesticide residues in food by ionizing radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basfar, Ahmed A.; Mohamed, Khaled A.; Al-Saqer, Omar A.

    2012-04-01

    The role of gamma irradiation on removal of pesticides in aqueous solutions or in vegetables and fruits was investigated. Radiation - induced decontamination of pesticides is generally greater in aqueous solutions than in selected vegetables and fruits. Residues of malathion (0.5 ppm in potatoes, 8 ppm in onions and dates), pirimiphos-methyl (1 ppm in onions and grapes) and cypermethrin (0.05 ppm in potatoes and 0.1 ppm in onions) were not reduced to below maximum residue limits (MRLs) for irradiation doses up to 1 kGy. The same trend was observed when irradiation was performed for grapes fortified with malathion (8 ppm) and cypermethrin (2 ppm) for absorbed doses up to 2 kGy. Ionizing radiation reduced the residues of pirimiphos-methyl (0.05 ppm in potatoes at1 kGy, 1 ppm in grapes at 2 kGy and 0.1 ppm in dates at1 kGy), malathion (8 ppm in grapes at 7 kGy) and cypermethrin (2 ppm in grapes at 7 kGy) to below maximum residue limits (MRLs).

  11. Organochlorine pesticide residues in catfish, Tachysurus thalassinus (Ruppell, 1835), from the South Patches of the Bay of Bengal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pesticide concentrations in fish were lower than recommended for human consumption. - Organochlorine pesticides (p,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDD, p,p'-DDE, aldrin, lindane, and heptachlor) were measured in muscle tissue of catfish (Tachysurus thalassinus) during the dry and wet season. Catfish were collected from the South Patches of the Bay of Bengal during October-December 1997 and May-July 1998. Tissue residues were analyzed by using gas-chromatography (GC) in electron capture detector (ECD) mode and were verified by thin layer chromatography (TLC). The pesticide residues levels were found in order of Σ DDT>Heptachlor>Lindane>Aldrin. Higher levels of pesticide residues were found in all samples during dry season, as compared with the wet season, primarily due to elevated lipid content in fishes. A positive correlation and linear relationship was observed between the pesticide residues (ΣDDT and ΣOCs) and lipid content of fishes. However, the concentrations of pesticide residues in the muscle were found to be lower than the FAO/WHO [(1993) Food standards programme. Codex Alimentarius Commission, vol. 9 (4) pp. 149-158] recommended permissible limit for human consumption

  12. 农药残留检测方法及光谱技术在生菜农残检测中的应用%Study on Methods of Detecting Pesticide Residues and Application of Spectrum Technique in the Detection of Pesticide Residues in Lettuce

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙俊; 董梁; 张梅霞; 刘枭; 邬婷; 高洪燕

    2014-01-01

    蔬菜农药残留给人们健康饮食带来很大安全隐患。为此,综述了几大类农药残留检测方法:活体测定法、理化检测法、快速检测法和光谱检测法,分析了它们各自特点。同时,基于光谱技术对生菜叶片上的农残进行了检测试验,比较了有农残叶片光谱与无农残叶片光谱,并通过PCA算法进行光谱特征提取,结合学习向量量化神经网络建立农残鉴别模型,取得了较好的鉴别结果。%Pesticide residues in vegetables bring the great hidden dangers to the health of people .This paper reviews sev-eral kinds of pesticide residue detection methods , including bioassay method , chemical method , rapid detection method and spectral analysis method , and analyses their characteristics .In this paper , the pesticide residue in lettuce leaves were detected based on spectral techniques , and the spectra of the blades having pesticide residues were compared with the ones of the blades without pesticide residues .PCA algorithm was used for spectral feature extraction , and LVQ ( Learn-ing Vector Quantization ) neural network was used to set up model of identification of pesticide residues , and the identifi-cation result was good .

  13. Residues of organochlorine pesticides in soils from the southern Sonora, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantu-Soto, E U; Meza-Montenegro, Maria Mercedes; Valenzuela-Quintanar, A I; Félix-Fuentes, A; Grajeda-Cota, P; Balderas-Cortes, J J; Osorio-Rosas, C L; Acuña-García, G; Aguilar-Apodaca, M G

    2011-11-01

    Although, the Yaqui and Mayo valleys are the most important agricultural areas in Sonora, there is only limited data of the pesticides residue in soils in these valleys. This study measured the organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in 234 soil samples (residential and agricultural) from 24 communities. The global results (mean, range) indicated that benzene hexachloride (19.2, ND-938.5 μg g(-1)), endrin (6.6, ND-377.3 μg g(-1)) and DDTs (36.45, ND-679.7 μg g(-1)) were the dominant contaminants. Soil is one of the most important routes of exposure to OCPs in the population of southern Sonora and this study can be used to establish background levels of OCPs.

  14. Investigations on antibody binding to a micro-cantilever coated with a BAM pesticide residue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aamand Jens

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The attachment of an antibody to an antigen-coated cantilever has been investigated by repeated experiments, using a cantilever-based detection system by Cantion A/S. The stress induced by the binding of a pesticide residue BAM (2,6 dichlorobenzamide immobilized on a cantilever surface to anti-BAM antibody is measured using the CantiLab4© system from Cantion A/S with four gold-coated cantilevers and piezo resistive readout. The detection mechanism is in principle label-free, but fluorescent-marked antibodies have been used to subsequently verify the binding on the cantilever surface. The bending and increase in mass of each cantilever has also been investigated using a light interferometer and a Doppler Vibrometer. The system has been analyzed during repeated measurements to investigate whether the CantiLab4© system is a suited platform for a pesticide assay system.

  15. Ecological risk analysis of pesticides used on irrigated rice crops in southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Danielle Cristina; Noldin, José Alberto; Deschamps, Francisco C; Resgalla, Charrid

    2016-11-01

    Based on studies conducted in the past decade in the southern region of Brazil to determine residue levels of the pesticides normally used on irrigated rice crops, changes can be observed in relation to the presence of pesticides in the waters of the main river basins in Santa Catarina State. In previous harvests, the presence of residues of 7 pesticides was determined, with the herbicide bentazon and the insecticide carbofuran being the products showing highest frequency. Following toxicological tests conducted with 8 different test organisms, deterministic and probabilistic risk analysis was performed to assess the situation of the river basins in areas used for the production of irrigated rice. Of the species tested, the herbicide bentazon showed greatest toxicity toward plants, but did not present an ecological risk because in the worst-case scenario the highest concentration of this pesticide in the environment is 37 times lower than the lowest EC50/LC50 value obtained in the tests. The insecticide carbofuran, which had the highest toxicity toward the organisms used in the tests, presented an ecological risk in the deterministic analysis, but without any associated probability. The results highlight the need for increased efforts in training farmers in crop management practices and for the continual monitor of water bodies for the presence of pesticide residues. PMID:27479455

  16. Organochlorine pesticide residues: an extensive monitoring of Italian fishery and aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masci, Maurizio; Orban, Elena; Nevigato, Teresina

    2014-01-01

    A sampling campaign from 21 sites in Italy was carried out to investigate the presence of organochlorine pesticide residues in different fish species. Samples came from marine fishery and either from sea- or freshwater aquaculture. Fish feed used in some fish farms were also analyzed. Pesticides studied belong to Persistent Organic Pollutants widely used in the past such as DDT, chlordane, heptachlor, and others. To ensure good quality results and proper data validation the main existing guidelines in the field were applied. The instrumental technique was a Dual column-Dual detector Gas Chromatography (GC-ECD and Ion Trap GC-MS) which allowed that complementary data on the same sample were acquired. Results for fishery showed a wide range of concentrations depending from the area and species examined. DDT, the major OC pesticide detected, varied from 0.02 to 130.03 ng g(-1) edible portion. As regards the products of aquaculture we observed slightly lower average levels of pollutants in a more narrow range of concentration: this is probably due to fish feed used as shown by some measures performed in the present study. Organochlorine pesticide residues were detected in all samples examined but they were generally well below the existing tolerance or action levels. Also the estimated daily intakes are well below than those recommended by WHO. This is a good indication about OCPs in the areas investigated but some further considerations on fish safety must be taken into account. An example on how fishes may act as bioindicators is reported.

  17. Organochlorine pesticide residues: an extensive monitoring of Italian fishery and aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masci, Maurizio; Orban, Elena; Nevigato, Teresina

    2014-01-01

    A sampling campaign from 21 sites in Italy was carried out to investigate the presence of organochlorine pesticide residues in different fish species. Samples came from marine fishery and either from sea- or freshwater aquaculture. Fish feed used in some fish farms were also analyzed. Pesticides studied belong to Persistent Organic Pollutants widely used in the past such as DDT, chlordane, heptachlor, and others. To ensure good quality results and proper data validation the main existing guidelines in the field were applied. The instrumental technique was a Dual column-Dual detector Gas Chromatography (GC-ECD and Ion Trap GC-MS) which allowed that complementary data on the same sample were acquired. Results for fishery showed a wide range of concentrations depending from the area and species examined. DDT, the major OC pesticide detected, varied from 0.02 to 130.03 ng g(-1) edible portion. As regards the products of aquaculture we observed slightly lower average levels of pollutants in a more narrow range of concentration: this is probably due to fish feed used as shown by some measures performed in the present study. Organochlorine pesticide residues were detected in all samples examined but they were generally well below the existing tolerance or action levels. Also the estimated daily intakes are well below than those recommended by WHO. This is a good indication about OCPs in the areas investigated but some further considerations on fish safety must be taken into account. An example on how fishes may act as bioindicators is reported. PMID:24184045

  18. Isotope aided studies of pesticide residues during food processing. Report of a final research co-ordination meeting held in Bangkok, Thailand, 31 January - 4 February 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of agrochemicals in general and pesticides in particular has greatly aided crop production, protected man from diseases, decreased losses of stored grains and has generally improved man's welfare. One of the steps in ensuring safety of pesticides is adequate monitoring programmes for residue levels in food products and the agricultural environment. Oil-bearing plants often receive heavy pesticide treatment and known to accumulate high concentration of pesticide residues. Technical documents included in this volume report effect of refining or processing of various oil crops like soybean, olive oil, coconut, rapeseed, sunflower cottonseed corn, peanut oil on 14C-compound pesticide residues. Refs, figs and tabs

  19. Multiresidue Method for Determination of 183 Pesticide Residues in Leeks by Rapid Multiplug Filtration Cleanup and Gas Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Nan; Han, Yongtao; Li, Yanjie; Qin, Yuhong; Gu, Kejia; Zhang, Jingru; Pan, Canping; Li, Xuesheng

    2016-08-10

    This study reports the development of a novel multiplug filtration cleanup (m-PFC) procedure for analysis of pesticide residues in leek samples followed by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry detection. The leek samples were initially purified following the dispersive solid-phase extraction with different sorbents to determine the most suitable proportioning of sorbent materials; then, the m-PFC method was carried out by applying the streamlined procedure with syringes. Average recoveries of most pesticides were in the range from 70.2 to 126.0% with the relative standard deviation market samples. In that analysis, 35 pesticides were detected in 29 samples, with values ranging from 2.0 to 9353.1 μg kg(-1). PMID:26651870

  20. Optimization of immunochemistry for sensing techniques to detect pesticide residues in water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uthuppu, Basil; Kostesha, Natalie; Jakobsen, Mogens Havsteen;

    2011-01-01

    We are working on the development of a real-time electrochemical sensor based on an immunoassay detection system to detect and quantify the presence of pesticide residues in ground water. Highly selective and sensitive immuno-reactions are being investigated to be optimized in order to bring them...... and compared the affinity constants of the antibody towards this library. Furthermore, since regeneration of the BAM-hapten surface is a prerequisite for the development of a real-time electrochemical sensor with immunoassay-based detection, studies on regeneration of surfaces, modified with the newly...... and fabrication of a fully automated microfluidic based on this immunoassay and electrochemical detection are in progress....

  1. Pesticide residues in food of plant origin from Southeast Asia – A Nordic project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skretteberg, L. G.; Lyrån, B.; Holen, B.;

    2015-01-01

    Fruits and vegetables from Souteast Asia were analysed for the presence of pesticide residues. A total of 721 samples of 63 different commodities were collected in 2011. The products were imported to Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden from ten countries; about 80% were imported from Thailand...... found in 12% of the samples. In comparison 6% of surveillance samples from third countries and 1.5% of surveillance samples from the EU and EFTA countries exceeded the MRL in the EU monitoring program in 2011. The estimated acute intake was higher than 100% of the ARfD in several samples and some...

  2. Rapid analysis for 567 pesticides and endocrine disrupters by GC/MS using deconvolution reporting software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wylie, P.; Szelewski, M.; Meng, Chin-Kai [Agilent Technologies, Wilmington, DE (United States)

    2004-09-15

    More than 700 pesticides are approved for use around the world, many of which are suspected endocrine disrupters. Other pesticides, though no longer used, persist in the environment where they bioaccumulate in the flora and fauna. Analytical methods target only a subset of the possible compounds. The analysis of food and environmental samples for pesticides is usually complicated by the presence of co-extracted natural products. Food or tissue extracts can be exceedingly complex matrices that require several stages of sample cleanup prior to analysis. Even then, it can be difficult to detect trace levels of contaminants in the presence of the remaining matrix. For efficiency, multi-residue methods (MRMs) must be used to analyze for most pesticides. Traditionally, these methods have relied upon gas chromatography (GC) with a constellation of element-selective detectors to locate pesticides in the midst of a variable matrix. GC with mass spectral detection (GC/MS) has been widely used for confirmation of hits. Liquid chromatography (LC) has been used for those compounds that are not amenable to GC. Today, more and more pesticide laboratories are relying upon LC with mass spectral detection (LC/MS) and GC/MS as their primary analytical tools. Still, most MRMs are target compound methods that look for a small subset of the possible pesticides. Any compound not on the target list is likely to be missed by these methods. Using the techniques of retention time locking (RTL) and RTL database searching together with spectral deconvolution, a method has been developed to screen for 567 pesticides and suspected endocrine disrupters in a single GC/MS analysis. Spectral deconvolution helps to identify pesticides even when they co-elute with matrix compounds while RTL helps to eliminate false positives and gives greater confidence in the results.

  3. 非接触热解析封闭式低温等离子体电离源质谱法快速分析3种农药残留%Rapid Analysis of Three Kinds of Pesticide Residues by Non-contact Thermal Desorbing and Closing Low Temperature Plasma Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏明扬; 李海洋; 侯可勇; 黄泽健; 江游; 陈文东; 陈平; 蒋吉春; 赵无垛; 裴克梅

    2014-01-01

    A new method was established for the direct, rapid and quantitative analysis of pesticide residues, dimethoate chlorothalonil and malathion by low temperature plasma ( LTP) ionization miniature ion trap mass spectrometer. The LTP ionization probe and sample inlet of ion trap mass spectrometry were enclosed in a metal cavity. With non-contact heating, the samples placed on the sample platform were desorbed into gaseous phase and ionized by LTP ionization probe. The results showed that closed ionization had an edge over the opened ionization. The quantitative analysis of 3 pesticides within the range of 0. 5-10 mg/L was realized by optimizing heating time and flow rate of air, and the relative standard deviations of signal intensity is less than 11%. LODs of pesticide, which were obtained within 5 s, were as low as several hundred pictograms. The results showed that the method could be used for the analysis of pesticide residue on green and organic fruits or vegetables.%利用低温等离子体电离源微型离子阱质谱建立了一种常压离子化质谱直接、快速、定量分析农药残留的新方法。低温等离子体电离源与质谱进样口处于封闭金属腔体内部,在负离子探测模式下,将样品放置于低温等离子体电离源前的采样平台上,利用卤素灯快速无接触热解析样品。结果表明,封闭离子源更具优势,通过对加热时间、辅助气流流量等条件的优化,实现了对3种农药在0.5~10 mg/L范围内的定量分析,相对标准偏差控制在11%左右,5 s内的样品检出限均在pg量级。该检测方法无需样品前处理,样品可直接检测,分析时间快,有望广泛应用于有机和绿色果蔬中农药残留的快速检测。

  4. 脐橙和蜜桔农药残留调查及风险评估%Pesticide Residue Investigation and Risk Assessment of Navel Orange and Orange

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕蓉

    2015-01-01

    调查江西省脐橙和蜜桔的农药残留情况并进行风险评估. 对江西省2013年脐橙和蜜桔的144个送检样品中的36种农药残留进行定量检测分析.2013年9月至12月江西省的脐橙和蜜桔质量安全较为稳定,农药残留超标率为0.毒死蜱、啶虫脒、杀扑磷、抑霉唑4种农药有检出,12月份抑霉唑的检出率最高.3个月的农药安全指数均小于1,说明检测的36种农药均在可接受的风险程度内,没有安全风险.本研究可为江西省脐橙和蜜桔质量安全监管提供参考.%The aim was to investigate and estimate risk of pesticide residue in navel orange and orange in Jiangxi province. 36 pesticides residues in 144 samples of navel orange and orange in Jiangxi province were determined by quantitative analysis. The results showed that the quality of navel orange and orange in Jiangxi province is stable and safety from september to october in 2013. Pesticide residues over standard in navel orange and orange were zero. Chlorpyrifos,acetamiprid,methidathion,imazalil were checked out,the detection rate of imazalil is highest in December. Safety indexes of all pesticides were lower than 1 in each sample during three month,showing that 36 pesticide residues were safe. The paper provides a theoretical basis for supervising navel orange and orange safety in Jiangxi province.

  5. Assessment of Pesticide Residues in Flesh of Catla catla from Ravi River, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mobeen Akhtar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The levels of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT, dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE, endosulfan, endosulfan sulfate, carbofuran, and cartap which were estimated in the flesh of Catla catla sampled from ten sites of Ravi River between its stretches from Shahdara to Head Balloki were studied to know the level of contamination of the selected pesticides by GC-ECD method. All fish samples were found contaminated with different concentrations of DDT, DDE, endosulfan, and carbofuran; however, DDT and DDE concentrations were more than the maximum residue limits (MRLs about food standards, while endosulfan sulfate and cartap were not detected. Pesticide concentrations in the fish flesh were ranged from 3.240 to 3.389 for DDT, 2.290 to 2.460 for DDE, 0.112 to 0.136 for endosulfan, and 0.260 to 0.370 μg g−1 for carbofuran. The findings revealed that the pesticide concentrations in the fish flesh decreased in the order: DDT > DDE > carbofuran > endosulfan. After Degh fall and After Hudiara nulla fall river sampling sites were found severely contaminated. It is proposed that a constant monitoring programs are needed to be initiated to overcome the present alarming situation.

  6. Evaluation of pesticide residues in drinking water in different areas of khyber pakhtunkhwa, pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flood in 2010 severely effected different areas of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Sindh, lower Punjab as well as some parts of Balochistan, Pakistan. After the flood, samples of drinking water were collected from the affected areas i.e. Akora Khattak and Buner, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and pesticides residues were determined quantitatively in these samples employing GC-MS technique. Among the samples collected from Akora Khattak, chlorpyrifos was found in high amounts i.e. 0.040 ppm, in sample no. 6 while methamidophos and methiocarb were found in appreciable quantities i.e. 0.026 ppm and 0.038 ppm, respectively, in sample no. 4. Methamidophos and methiocarb were found in appreciable amounts i.e. 0.039 ppm and 0.034 ppm, respectively, in sample no. 17 among the samples obtained from Buner. Concentrations were found at the level below 0.01 ppm in most of the pesticides under study. From the results it appears that drinking water sources in the area under study have been contaminated with pesticides which is a health hazard and may be a source of various diseases in these areas. (author)

  7. Chronic dietary risk characterization for pesticide residues: a ranking and scoring method integrating agricultural uses and food contamination data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nougadère, Alexandre; Reninger, Jean-Cédric; Volatier, Jean-Luc; Leblanc, Jean-Charles

    2011-07-01

    A method has been developed to identify pesticide residues and foodstuffs for inclusion in national monitoring programs with different priority levels. It combines two chronic dietary intake indicators: ATMDI based on maximum residue levels and agricultural uses, and EDI on food contamination data. The mean and 95th percentile of exposure were calculated for 490 substances using individual and national consumption data. The results show that mean ATMDI exceeds the acceptable daily intake (ADI) for 10% of the pesticides, and the mean upper-bound EDI is above the ADI for 1.8% of substances. A seven-level risk scale is presented for substances already analyzed in food in France and substances not currently sought. Of 336 substances analyzed, 70 pesticides of concern (levels 2-5) should be particularly monitored, 22 of which are priority pesticides (levels 4 and 5). Of 154 substances not sought, 36 pesticides of concern (levels 2-4) should be included in monitoring programs, including 8 priority pesticides (level 4). In order to refine exposure assessment, analytical improvements and developments are needed to lower the analytical limits for priority pesticide/commodity combinations. Developed nationally, this method could be applied at different geographic scales.

  8. Screening of pesticide residues in soil and water samples from agricultural settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djouaka Rousseau F

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The role of agricultural practices in the selection of insecticide resistance in malaria vectors has so far been hypothesized without clear evidence. Many mosquito species, Anopheles gambiae in particular, lay their eggs in breeding sites located around agricultural settings. There is a probability that, as a result of farming activities, insecticide residues may be found in soil and water, where they exercise a selection pressure on the larval stage of various populations of mosquitoes. To confirm this hypothesis, a study was conducted in the Republic of Benin to assess the environmental hazards which can be generated from massive use of pesticides in agricultural settings. Methods Lacking an HPLC machine for direct quantification of insecticide residues in samples, this investigation was performed using indirect bioassays focussed on the study of factors inhibiting the normal growth of mosquito larvae in breeding sites. The speed of development was monitored as well as the yield of rearing An. gambiae larvae in breeding sites reconstituted with water and soil samples collected in agricultural areas known to be under pesticide pressure. Two strains of An. gambiae were used in this indirect bioassay: the pyrethroid-susceptible Kisumu strain and the resistant Ladji strain. The key approach in this methodology is based on comparison of the growth of larvae in test and in control breeding sites, the test samples having been collected from two vegetable farms. Results Results obtained clearly show the presence of inhibiting factors on test samples. A normal growth of larvae was observed in control samples. In breeding sites simulated by using a few grams of soil samples from the two vegetable farms under constant insecticide treatments (test samples, a poor hatching rate of Anopheles eggs coupled with a retarded growth of larvae and a low yield of adult mosquitoes from hatched eggs, was noticed. Conclusion Toxic factors

  9. 40 CFR 158.2120 - Microbial pesticides product analysis data requirements table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Microbial pesticides product analysis... AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Microbial Pesticides § 158.2120 Microbial pesticides product analysis data requirements table. (a) General. Sections 158.100 through...

  10. 40 CFR 158.2171 - Experimental use permit microbial pesticides product analysis data requirements table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... pesticides product analysis data requirements table. 158.2171 Section 158.2171 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Microbial Pesticides § 158.2171 Experimental use permit microbial pesticides product analysis data requirements...

  11. Simultaneous determination of pyrethroids from pesticide residues in porcine muscle and pasteurized milk using GC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khay, Sathya; Abd El-Aty, A M; Choi, Jeong-Heui; Shin, Eun-Ho; Shin, Ho-Chul; Kim, Jin-Suk; Chang, Byung-Joon; Lee, Chi-Ho; Shin, Sung-Chul; Jeong, Ji Yoon; Shim, Jae-Han

    2009-01-01

    The principal goal of this work was to develop an efficient method for the simultaneous determination of four pyrethroid (PYR) insecticides, cyfluthrin, cyhalothrin, cypermethrin, and deltamethrin, in porcine muscle and pasteurized milk using liquid-liquid extraction (LLE). Sample extraction was carried out with and without additional column cleanup procedures, and the final determination was made using GC with electron-capture detector (ECD). The pesticide identity was confirmed using GC-MS in the SIM mode. Since there were minor differences between the extraction procedures, extraction without the additional cleanup procedure was used throughout the work. The method was validated by fortifying blank samples with half, two, and four times the maximum residue limit (MRL) of each PYR. The average recoveries (n = 6) ranged from 83.5 to 99.2% and 82.9 to 109% in porcine muscle and pasteurized milk, respectively. The repeatability of measurements expressed as RSDs, was in the range of 1.7-11.9 and 1.5-10.3% in porcine muscle and pasteurized milk, respectively. The LODs ranged from 3.3 to 9 and 3 to 8.1 ppm, whereas the LOQs ranged from 10 to 27.4 and 9 to 24.6 ppm, in porcine muscle and pasteurized milk, respectively. The applicability of the method was demonstrated by analyzing real samples collected from major cities in the Republic of Korea. No residues of the selected pesticides were detected in any of the samples. PMID:19107766

  12. Effects of organic and conventional rice on protein efficiency ratio and pesticide residue in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanpen Mesomya

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The comparative effects of organic rice and conventional rice on the protein efficiency ratio (PER in rats were investigated by feeding 40 male Sprague-Dawley rats for four weeks with three experimental diets containing polished conventional rice (PCR, unpolished conventional rice (UCR, unpolished organic rice (UOR and a control protein diet (casein under standardised conditions. All diets were prepared according to AOAC guidelines. The results showed no statistically significant difference (P > 0.05 among the values of PER (2.75 ± 0.14 - 2.80 ± 0.09 in rats fed with diets containing PCR, UCR or UOR. Similar growth was also observed among the three groups fed with different experimental diets. Additionally, residues of pesticides, viz. carbofuran, methyl parathion, p-nitrophenol and -cyfluthrin, in rat blood and rice samples were determined using liquid chromatography–electrospray ionisation tandem mass spectrometry. Pesticide residues were not detected in all serum samples of experimental rats and only p-nitrophenol was found (8.23 ± 0.65 - 12.84 ± 2.58 mg/kg in all samples of the cooked rice diets, indicating that organic rice produced similar effect as conventional rice on PER and growth in rats.

  13. Occurrence and distribution study of residues from pesticides applied under controlled conditions in the field during rice processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pareja, Lucía; Colazzo, Marcos; Pérez-Parada, Andrés; Besil, Natalia; Heinzen, Horacio; Böcking, Bernardo; Cesio, Verónica; Fernández-Alba, Amadeo R

    2012-05-01

    The results of an experiment to study the occurrence and distribution of pesticide residues during rice cropping and processing are reported. Four herbicides, nine fungicides, and two insecticides (azoxystrobin, byspiribac-sodium, carbendazim, clomazone, difenoconazole, epoxiconazole, isoprothiolane, kresoxim-methyl, propanil, quinclorac, tebuconazole, thiamethoxam, tricyclazole, trifloxystrobin, λ-cyhalotrin) were applied to an isolated rice-crop plot under controlled conditions, during the 2009-2010 cropping season in Uruguay. Paddy rice was harvested and industrially processed to brown rice, white rice, and rice bran, which were analyzed for pesticide residues using the original QuEChERS methodology and its citrate variation by LC-MS/MS and GC-MS. The distribution of pesticide residues was uneven among the different matrices. Ten different pesticide residues were found in paddy rice, seven in brown rice, and eight in rice bran. The highest concentrations were detected in paddy rice. These results provide information regarding the fate of pesticides in the rice food chain and its safety for consumers.

  14. Pesticide residues and estrogenic activity in fruit and vegetables sampled from major fresh produce markets in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutengwe, Mbulaheni Thomas; Aneck-Hahn, Natalie Hildegard; Korsten, Lise; Van Zijl, Magdalena Catherina; De Jager, Christiaan

    2016-01-01

    Food is likely to be one of the major pathways through which people are exposed to endocrine-disrupting chemicals. With the exception of residual effects, there are concerns that a number of naturally occurring and synthetic chemicals exert adverse effects upon endocrine systems in wildlife and humans. The current study reports selected pesticide concentrations and the total estrogenic activity of fruit and vegetables using the recombinant yeast oestrogen screen (YES) and T47D-KBluc reporter gene assays. A total of 53 food samples (27 fruit and 26 vegetables) from Johannesburg and Tshwane fresh produce markets (in South Africa) were analysed. Of these, 17 contained one to three different pesticide residues with concentrations ranging between 0.01 and 0.68 mg kg(-1), whereas in the rest of the samples no residues were detected. All pesticides detected except in one sample were below the maximum residue level (MRL), but others were unauthorised for use in specified fruit and vegetables. Estrogenic activity was detected in 26.4% (14 samples) of the samples tested, and the estradiol equivalents ranged from 0.007 to 2 pg g(-1). Although the estrogenic activity was low, it may contribute to adverse health effects. Continuous monitoring for pesticides in fruit and vegetables is important in view of the unauthorised pesticides detected in produce from South Africa and the endocrine-disrupting chemical activity found.

  15. 76 FR 2110 - Notice of Receipt of a Pesticide Petition Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-12

    ... adverse human health impacts or environmental effects from exposure to the pesticides discussed in this...; cherry; cabbage; lettuce; fruits, citrus; cucumber; onion, green; melon; peach; nectarine; plum;...

  16. Pesticides in persimmons, jujubes and soil from China: Residue levels, risk assessment and relationship between fruits and soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yihua; Li, Shiliang; Ni, Zhanglin; Qu, Minghua; Zhong, Donglian; Ye, Caifen; Tang, Fubin

    2016-01-15

    Extreme and uncontrolled usage of pesticides produces a number of problems for vegetation and human health. In this study, the existence of organophosphates (OPs), organochlorines (OCs), pyrethroids (PYs) and fungicides (FUs) were investigated in persimmons/jujubes and their planted soils, which were collected from China. One OP (dimethoate), three OCs (DDT, quintozene and aldrin), six PYs (bifenthrin, fenpropathrin, cyhalothrin, cypermethrin, fenvalerate and deltamethrin) and two FUs (triadimefon and buprofezin) were found in 36.4% of persimmons and 70.8% of jujubes, with concentrations from 1.0 μg/kg to 2945.0 μg/kg. The most frequently detected pesticides in the two fruits were fenpropathrin in persimmons and cypermethrin in jujubes, with the detection frequencies of 30.0% and 22.7%, respectively. The residues of 4.5% (persimmon) and 25.0% (jujube) of samples were higher than the maximum residue limits (MRLs) of China. Compared with the fruits, more types of pesticides and higher residues were observed in their planted soils. The most frequently detected pesticides were HCH in persimmon soil and DDT in jujube soil, with the detection frequencies of 10.9% and 12.7%, respectively. For the tested samples, 39.1% of fruit samples and 63.0% of soil samples with multiple residues (containing more than two pesticides) were noted, even up to 8 residues in fruits and 14 residues in soils. Except for cyhalothrin, the other short-term risks for the tested pesticides in the fruits were below 10%, and the highest long-term risk was 14.13% for aldrin and dieldrin. There was no significant health risk for consumers via consumption of the two fruits.

  17. UNE-EN ISO/IEC 17025:2005-accredited method for the determination of pesticide residues in fruit and vegetable samples by LC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camino-Sánchez, F J; Zafra-Gómez, A; Oliver-Rodríguez, B; Ballesteros, O; Navalón, A; Crovetto, G; Vílchez, J L

    2010-11-01

    A rapid, simple and sensitive multi-residue method was developed and validated for the simultaneous quantification and confirmation of 69 pesticides in fruit and vegetables using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The samples were extracted following the quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe method known as QuEChERS. Mass spectrometric conditions were individually optimised for each analyte in order to achieve maximum sensitivity in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. Using the developed chromatographic conditions, 69 pesticides can be separated in less than 17 min. Two selected reaction monitoring (SRM) assays were used for each pesticide to obtain simultaneous quantification and identification in one run. With this method in SRM mode, more than 150 pesticides can be analysed and quantified, but their confirmation is not possible in all cases according to the European regulations on pesticide residues. Nine common representative matrices (zucchini, melon, cucumber, watermelon, tomato, garlic, eggplant, lettuce and pepper) were selected to investigate the effect of different matrices on recovery and precision. Mean recoveries ranged from 70% to 120%, with relative standard deviations (RSDs) lower than 20% for all the pesticides. The proposed method was applied to the analysis of more than 2000 vegetable samples from the extensive greenhouse cultivation in the province of Almeria, Spain, during one year. The methodology combines the advantages of both QuEChERS and LC-MS/MS producing a very rapid, sensitive, accurate and reliable procedure that can be applied in routine analytical laboratories. The method was validated and accredited according to UNE-EN-ISO/IEC 17025:2005 international standard (accreditation number 278/LE1027). PMID:20730643

  18. Simultaneous determination of 200 pesticide residues in honey using gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in conjunction with streamlined quantification approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shendy, Amr H; Al-Ghobashy, Medhat A; Mohammed, Moustapha N; Gad Alla, Sohair A; Lotfy, Hayam M

    2016-01-01

    A sensitive, accurate and reliable multi-class GC-MS/MS assay protocol for quantification and confirmation of 200 common agricultural pesticides in honey was developed and validated according to EU guidelines. A modified extraction procedure, based on QuEChERS method (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe) was employed. Mass spectrophotometric conditions were individually optimized for each analyte to achieve maximum sensitivity and selectivity in MRM mode. The use of at least two reactions for each compound allowed simultaneous identification and quantification in a single run. The pesticides under investigation were separated in less than 31 min using the ultra-inert capillary column (DB-35MS). For all analytes, neat standard calibration curves in conjunction with correction for matrix effect were successfully employed. The detection limits of the assay ranged from 1.00 to 3.00 ng mL(-1) for the studied pesticides. The developed assay was linear over concentration range of 10.00-500.00 ng mL(-1), with correlation coefficient of more than 0.996. At the LOQ, 81% of the studied pesticides were efficiently recovered in the range of 70.00-120.00%, with CV% less than 15.00% while 99.3% compounds had mean percentage recovery of 60.00-140.00%, with CV% less than 21.00% (N=18, over three different days). The proposed assay was successfully applied for the analysis of the studied pesticide residues in one PT sample and 64 commercial honey samples collected over 1 year from different districts around Egypt. Results revealed that only one honey sample out of the 64 analyzed samples was contaminated with tau-Fluvalinate (10.00 μg kg(-1)). This wide scope assay protocol is applicable for monitoring pesticide residues in honey by national regulatory authorities and accredited labs; that should help ensure safety of such widely used product.

  19. Influence of alternating soil drying and wetting on the desorption and distribution of aged 14C-labeled pesticide residues in soil organic fractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jablonowski, N. D.; Mucha, M.; Thiele, B.; Hofmann, D.; Burauel, P.

    2012-04-01

    A laboratory experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of alternating soil drying and wetting on the release of aged 14C-labeled pesticide residues and their distribution in soil organic fractions (humic acids, fulvic acids, and humin substances). The used soils (gleyic cambisol; Corg 1.2%, pH 7.2) were obtained from the upper soil layer of two individual outdoor lysimeter studies containing either environmentally long-term aged 14C residues of the herbicide ethidimuron (ETD; 0-10 cm depth; time of aging: 9 years) or methabenzthiazuron (MBT; 0-30 cm depth; time of aging: 17 years). Triplicate soil samples (10 g dry soil equivalents) were (A=dry/wet) previously dried (45° C) or (B=wet/wet) directly mixed with pure water (1+2, w:w), shaken (150 rpm, 1 h), and centrifuged (~2000 g). The resulting supernatant was removed, filtered (0.45 μm) and subjected to 14C activity analysis via liquid scintillation counter (LSC), dissolved organic carbon (DOC) analysis, and LC-MS-MS analysis. This extraction procedure was repeated 15 individual times, for both setups (A) and (B). To determine the distribution of the aged 14C labelled pesticide residues in the soil organic matter fractions, the soil samples were subject to humic and fulvic acids fractionations at cycles 0, 4, 10, and 15. The residual pesticide 14C activity associated with the humic, fulvic, and humin substances (organic fraction remaining in the soil) fractions was determined via LSC. The water-extracted residual 14C activity was significantly higher in the extracts of the dry/wet, compared to the wet/wet soil samples for both pesticides. The total extracted 14C activity in the dry/wet soil extracts accounted for 51.0% (ETD) and 15.4% (MBT) in contrast to 19.0% (ETD) and 4.7% (MBT) in the wet/wet extracts after 15 water extractions. LC-MS-MS analysis revealed the parent compound ETD 27.9 μg kg-1 soil (dry/wet) and 10.7 μg kg-1 soil (wet/wet), accounting for 3.45 and 1.35% of total parent compound

  20. Evaluation of ozonation technique for pesticide residue removal and its effect on ascorbic acid, cyanidin-3-glucoside, and polyphenols in apple (Malus domesticus) fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swami, Saurabh; Muzammil, Raunaq; Saha, Supradip; Shabeer, Ahammed; Oulkar, Dasharath; Banerjee, Kaushik; Singh, Shashi Bala

    2016-05-01

    Ozonated water dip technique was evaluated for the detoxification of six pesticides, i.e., chlorpyrifos, cypermethrin, azoxystrobin, hexaconazole, methyl parathion, and chlorothalonil from apple fruits. Results revealed that ozonation was better than washing alone. Ozonation for 15 min decreased residues of the test pesticides in the range of from 26.91 to 73.58%, while ozonation for 30 min could remove the pesticide residues by 39.39-95.14 % compared to 19.05-72.80 % by washing. Cypermethrin was the least removed pesticide by washing as well as by ozonation. Chlorothalonil, chlorpyrifos, and azoxystrobin were removed up to 71.45-95.14 % in a 30-min ozonation period. In case of methyl parathion removal, no extra advantage could be obtained by ozonation. The HPLC analysis indicated that ozonation also affected adversely the ascorbic acid and cyanidin-3-glucoside content of apples. However, 11 polyphenols studied showed a mixed trend. Gallic acid, 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid, catechin, epicatechin, p-coumaric acid, quercetin-3-O-glucoside, quercetin, and kaempferol were found to decrease while syringic acid, rutin, and resveratrol were found to increase in 30-min ozonation.

  1. Proposal for field-based definition of soil bound pesticide residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boesten, J J T I

    2016-02-15

    The environmental significance of soil bound pesticide residues (SBPR) is potentially large because approximately one third of the applied mass of the pesticides in agriculture ends up as SBPR. At EU level, there is little regulatory guidance available on the environmental risk assessment of SBPR in spite of some 50 years of SBPR research. This lack of guidance is partially caused by the fact that the current definitions of SBPR are founded on non-extractability in soil in the laboratory whereas for the environmental risk assessment not the soil in the laboratory but the soil in the field is the system of interest. Therefore a definition of SBPR is proposed that is based on the field soil: a molecule (further called 'the mother molecule') is soil bound if a relevant part of this molecule has become part of the solid phase in the soil and if this relevant part will never be released again to the liquid phase in soil under relevant field conditions in the form of this mother molecule or in the form of another molecule that may possibly raise environmental or human toxicological concerns. This mother molecule may be the parent substance that is applied to the soil but it may also be a metabolite of this parent substance. A consequence of the definition is that the SBPR terminology becomes more precise because the mother molecule of the soil bound residue has to be specified. A further consequence is that very strong but reversible sorption of molecules such as paraquat is not considered soil-bound residue anymore (as may be demonstrated by a self-exchange extraction procedure). Furthermore, the definition requires that risk managers have to define what they consider as 'relevant field conditions' (e.g. include also changes of agricultural fields into forests?).

  2. Occurrence and spatial distribution of pesticide residues in butter and ghee (clarified butter fat) in Punjab (India).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedi, J S; Gill, J P S; Aulakh, R S; Kaur, Prabhjit

    2016-02-01

    The present study was undertaken to monitor organochlorine, organophosphate, and synthetic pyrethroid pesticide residues in butter (n = 55) and ghee (n = 56) samples collected from three different regions of Punjab. The estimation of pesticide residues was done by multiple residue analytical technique using gas chromatography equipped with GC-ECD and GC-FTD. The confirmation of residues was done on gas chromatography mass spectrometry in both selective ion monitoring (SIM) and scan mode. Results indicated the presence of hexacholorocyclohexane (HCH) and p,p' DDE as predominant contaminant in both butter and ghee. Residues of HCH were detected in 25 and 23% samples of butter and ghee, respectively, while residues of p,p' DDE were recorded in 29 and 25% of butter and ghee samples, respectively. None of the butter and ghee sample violated the MRL values of 200 ng g(-1) for HCH and 1250 ng g(-1) for dichorodiphenyl tricholorethane (DDT). The presence of endosulfan, cypermethrin, fenvalerate, deltamethrin, and chlorpyrifos were observed in a few butter and ghee samples at traces. The spatial variation for comparative occurrence of pesticide residues indicated higher levels in the south-western region of Punjab. Additionally, the temporal variation indicated the significant reduction of HCH and DDT levels in butter and ghee in Punjab.

  3. Residual Characteristics of Organochlorine Pesticides in Lou Soils with Different Fertilization Modes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Soil samples with three fertilization treatments (no fertilizer, corn straw and farm manure) collected from a Lou soil(Eum-orthic Anthrosol classfied using Chinese Soil Taxonomy) in northwestern China were analysed for residual levels and their characteristics of organochlorine pesticides (α-HCH,β-HCH, γ-HCH, δ-HCH, HCB, o, p'-DDT, p, p'-DDT, o, p'-DDE, p, p'-DDE, p, p'-DDD, α-endosulfan, dieldrin and endrin). Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were detected in all soil samples except δ-HCH and their total concentrations ranged from 159.31 ± 9.00 to 179.77 ± 2.58 ng g-1 with an order of HCHs > DDTs > (dieldrin + endrin) > HCB >α-endosulfan. Among all the compounds, γ-HCH had the highest concentration followed by p, p'-DDE. The residual levels of HCH isomers and DDT as well as their metabolites in soil with different fertilization treatments were in the order of γ-HCH >β-HCH ≈α-HCH >δ-HCH and p, p'-DDE >p, p'-DDT > o, p'-DDT > p, p'-DDD ≈ o, p'-DDE, respectively. DDE/DDT ratios ranged from 1.59 ± 0.13 to 3.35 ±0.16and endrin/dieldrin ratios from 1.40 ± 0.06 to 9.20 ± 4.05, both indicating no new occurrence of these pesticides in these soils, while α-HCH/γ-HCH ratios of 0.04 indicated a new input of lindane (almost pure γ-HCH) in the past several years.The farm manure treatments showed lower DDT residues than samples without fertilizer. Also addition of corn straw and farm manure increased soil organic matter content and decreased the soil pH which could retard the degradation of DDT in the soil.

  4. 苹果农药残留风险评估%Risk Assessment of Pesticide Residues in Apples

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂继云; 闫震; 李志霞; 刘传德; 方金豹; 王成; 郭永泽; 雷绍荣; 李海飞; 徐国锋

    2014-01-01

    修订或制定苹果中矮壮素等18种农药的MRLs。%[Objective]Risk assessment of pesticide residues in apples will provide a scientific basis for apple consumption, apple pesticide residue supervision, and establishment of maximum residue limits (MRLs) for pesticides in apple. [Method]Residues of 102 pesticides in 200 apple samples from main producing areas in China were detected. Chronic dietary intake risk and acute dietary intake risk of pesticide residues in these samples were assessed, respectively, by%ADI and%ARfD. Estimated maximum residue limits (eMRLs) of 26 pesticides with detectable residues were calculated by ADIs, large portion of apple, and body weight of consumer. The Matrix Ranking developed by the Veterinary Residues Committee of the United Kingdom was referred to rank the risk of pesticides and apple samples.[Result]25.5% of pesticides (26/102) and 89.5% of apple samples (179/200) had detectable residues. 0.5% of apple samples contained residue above the MRL (of omethoate). For 26 pesticides with detectable residues, their chronic dietary intake risks expressed as%ADI were 0.00%-1.07%with an average of 0.13%, and their acute dietary intake risks expressed as %ARfD were 0.18%-22.41% with an average of 4.12%. These 26 pesticides were divided into 3 groups by risk score, i.e. high risk group (8 pesticides), medium risk group (10 pesticides), and low risk group (8 pesticides). Apple samples studied were ranked by risk index, 1.5%of which had high pesticide residue risk, and 98.5%of which had medium, low, or lower pesticide residue risk. Among 26 pesticides with detectable residues, it is unnecessary for chlorbenzuron to establish MRL in apple, MRLs of 6 pesticides (e.g. flusilazole) are overly strict, MRLs of 5 pesticides (e.g. dimethoate) are overly loose, and MRLs of 18 pesticides (including chlormequat, difenoconazole, tebufenozide, diazinon, flusilazole, thiophanate-methyl, dimethoate, bifenthrin, cyhalothrin, fenvalerate, propargite

  5. A rapid, solid phase extraction (SPE technique for the extraction and gas chromatographic determination lindane pesticide residue in tissue and milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuningsih

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Organochlorine pesticide contamination in feed can cause residue in animal product (tissue and milk, so its become a problem in food safety. Solid phase extraction (SPE has been carried out for determination organochlorine pesticide residues in food animal production. The technique was rapid, not costly and produce limited amount of hazardous-waste. Samples were homogenized with acetonitrile trough cartridge C18, eluted in fluorocyl column with 2% ether-petroleum or acetonitrile fortissue and milk samples respectively. The recoveries of tissue sample by addition lindane standard solution: 0.50 and 1.00 μg are 85.10 and 103.10% respectively, while that of milk with the addition of 0.50, 1.00 and 1.50 μg are 83.80, 88.69 and 91.24% respectively. Three replicates were carried out for every sample. According of validation criteria of FAO/IAEA the recovery for analysis of pesticide residues was 70-110%. Therefore, the method is applicable.

  6. A multi-residue method for the determination of 90 pesticides in matrices with a high water content by LC-MS/MS without clean-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madureira, Fernando Diniz; da Silva Oliveira, Fabiano Aurélio; de Souza, Wesley Robert; Pontelo, Ana Paula; de Oliveira, Mauro Lúcio Gonçalves; Silva, Gilsara

    2012-01-01

    A method using QuEChERS extraction and LC-MS/MS in electrospray positive ionisation mode was developed and validated for the analysis of 90 pesticides in a high water content matrix (tomato) in a single chromatographic run. To assess the intra-laboratory reproducibility of the method, validation was conducted on four different days by two different analysts. The validation data was treated using a spreadsheet developed in-house, which sets the most appropriate model for linear fit by determining whether the residuals of the calibration curves are homocedastic or heterocedastic. A statistical test for the significance of regression was also carried out. Calibration was always matrix-matched and the curves were obtained over the range 0.0075-0.10 or 0.020-0.125 mg kg(-1). Identification of analytes was based on retention times and MRM ratios. Recoveries were assessed at four different levels for each analyte and were between 73 and 106%, with relative standard deviations under reproducibility conditions of pesticide analysed were below 50%. Previous validation of the same method, applied to papaya samples and satisfactory results obtained in various proficiency tests with different high water content matrices, demonstrated the applicability of the method to these classes of commodities, without clean-up. The validated method will be applied routinely in the pesticide residues monitoring programme that constitutes the National Residue and Contaminant Control Plan of Brazil.

  7. [Comparison of the performances of gas chromatography-quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in rapid screening and confirmation of 208 pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xinyue; Pang, Guofang; Jin, Linghe; Kang, Jian; Hu, Xueyan; Chang, Qiaoying; Wang, Minglin; Fan, Chunlin

    2015-04-01

    The performances of gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) and gas chromatography quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (GC-QTOF/MS) for the determination of 208 pesticide residues in fruit and vegetable samples, including apple, orange, tomato and cucumber, were compared comprehensively. Based on the differences of the two instruments, their respective characteristics and scopes of application in the detection of the pesticide residues were presented, which provided the reference for the analysis of pesticide residues. The performance parameters of the two instruments, such as overall recoveries, precisions, limits of detection, linear ranges, identification points and matrix effects, were evaluated according to a designed experiment. At three spiked levels (5.0, 10.0 and 20.0 µg/kg), the average recoveries for the majority of pesticides (93.0%) ranged from 70% to 120% in the four matrices with relative standard deviations below 20%. The limits of detection for most of the pesticides by GC-MS/MS and GC-Q-TOF/MS were less than 5.0 µg/kg. Compared with GC-QTOF/MS, GC-MS/MS showed relatively lower limits of detection and wider linear ranges, and its performance was more satisfactory in accurate quantitative analysis due to its superior sensitivity. On the other hand, GC-QTOF/MS provided accurate mass measurement, which was proved to be an efficient analytical tool on the rapid screening and confirmation of a large number of pesticides and non-target compounds.

  8. Comparison pesticide residue levels in the surface of Bertam River in Cameron Highlands, Pahang

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The presence of pesticide residues in the surface water of Bertam River in the agricultural areas of Cameron Highlands in Pahang, Malaysia was monitored from May to October 2014. The sampling sites were located at 10 sampling points along the Bertam River in the vegetable planting areas. The extraction method of the pesticide (organophosphate/pyrethroid) from the river samples used solid phase extraction followed by gas chromatography (with electron capture detector, ECD). Insecticides, cypermethrin and chlorpyrifos were found in the surface water of Bertam River. High level concentrations of those insecticides in the river were observed during the period from May to October 2014, a period which included both seasons (wet and dry seasons). The highest concentration of 2.66 µg/mL and 1.23 µg/mL of cypermethrin was observed during the wet and dry seasons respectively. This could be due to the frequent usage of the above-mentioned insecticides coupled with contamination that could have originated from the application sites. Meanwhile, the lowest concentration detected in the surface water was chlorpyrifos (0.11 µg/mL and 0.17 µg/mL) during the dry and wet seasons, respectively

  9. Comparison pesticide residue levels in the surface of Bertam River in Cameron Highlands, Pahang

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haron, S. H., E-mail: ismail@ukm.edu.my; Ismail, B. S., E-mail: sthumaira@yahoo.com [School of Environmental and Natural Resource Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia 43600 UKM, Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2015-09-25

    The presence of pesticide residues in the surface water of Bertam River in the agricultural areas of Cameron Highlands in Pahang, Malaysia was monitored from May to October 2014. The sampling sites were located at 10 sampling points along the Bertam River in the vegetable planting areas. The extraction method of the pesticide (organophosphate/pyrethroid) from the river samples used solid phase extraction followed by gas chromatography (with electron capture detector, ECD). Insecticides, cypermethrin and chlorpyrifos were found in the surface water of Bertam River. High level concentrations of those insecticides in the river were observed during the period from May to October 2014, a period which included both seasons (wet and dry seasons). The highest concentration of 2.66 µg/mL and 1.23 µg/mL of cypermethrin was observed during the wet and dry seasons respectively. This could be due to the frequent usage of the above-mentioned insecticides coupled with contamination that could have originated from the application sites. Meanwhile, the lowest concentration detected in the surface water was chlorpyrifos (0.11 µg/mL and 0.17 µg/mL) during the dry and wet seasons, respectively.

  10. Rapid detection of pesticides not amenable to multi-residue methods by flow injection-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mol, Hans G J; van Dam, Ruud C J

    2014-11-01

    Flow injection combined with tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) was investigated for the rapid detection of highly polar pesticides that are not amenable to multi-residue methods because they do not partition into organic solvents and require dedicated chromatographic conditions. The pesticides included in this study were amitrole, chlormequat, cyromazine, daminozide, diquat, ethephon, fosetyl-Al, glufosinate, glyphosate and its metabolite aminomethylphosphonic acid, maleic hydrazide, mepiquat and paraquat. The composition of the flow-injection solvent was optimized to achieve maximum MS/MS sensitivity. Instrumental limits of detection varied between milk and kidney samples were extracted with water (1% formic acid in case of paraquat/diquat) and ten times diluted in either methanol/0.1% formic acid, methanol/0.1% ammonia or acetonitrile/0.1% ammonia, depending on the pesticide. The ion suppression observed depended strongly on both the matrix and the pesticide. This could be largely compensated for by matrix-matched calibration, but more accurate quantification was obtained by using isotopically labelled standards (commercially available for most of the pesticides studied). The method detection limits ranged from 0.02 mg/kg for chlormequat and mepiquat to 2 mg/kg for maleic hydrazide and were 0.05-0.2 mg/kg for most other pesticide/matrix combinations. This was sufficiently low to test compliance with EU maximum residue limits for many relevant pesticide/commodity combinations. The method substantially reduces the liquid chromatography-MS/MS capacity demand which for many laboratories is prohibitive for inclusion of these pesticides in their monitoring and surveillance programmes. PMID:24518902

  11. [Determination of five pyrethroid pesticides residues in Anoectochilus roxburghii by cloud point extraction-back extraction and GC-MS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hong-Bo; Zhao, Xiao-Fang; Shi, Gui-Ying; Shao, Qing-Song; Li, Mine-Van

    2014-08-01

    A method for residual determination of 5 pyrethroid pesticides in Anoectochilus roxburghii by cloud point extraction-back extraction-GC-MS was established. PEG 6000 was used as extraction agent and isooctane was used for back-extractant. The con- tent was calculated by external standard method. The linear range was from 15 to 2 000 μg x kg(-1) with the good correlation coefficients (0.955-0.999). The recoveries at spiked concentrations of 50-500 μg x kg(-1) ranged from 85.12% to 101.6%. The limit of detection and quantification of 5 pyrethroid pesticides were in the range of 0.63-3.10 μg x kg(-1) and 2.10-10.31 μg x kg(-1), respectively. The proposed method can be applied to the determination of pyrethroid pesticides residues in A. roxburghii.

  12. Determination of Trichlorfon Pesticide Residues in Milk via Gas Chromatography with μ-Electron Capture Detection and GC-MS

    OpenAIRE

    Hem, Lina; Khay, Sathya; Choi, Jeong-Heui; Morgan, E. D.; El-Aty, A.M. Abd; Shim, Jae-Han

    2010-01-01

    The pesticide trichlorfon is readily degraded under experimental conditions to dichlorvos. A method has therefore been developed by which residues of trichlorfon in milk are determined as dichlorvos, using gas chromatography with μ-electron capture detection. The identification of dichlorvos was confirmed by mass spectrometry. Milk was extracted with acetonitrile followed by centrifugation, freezing lipid filtration, and partitioning into dichloromethane. The residue after partitioning of dic...

  13. Monitoring of pesticide residues in apples, lettuce and potato of the Slovene origin in the years 2001 to 2004

    OpenAIRE

    Baša Česnik, Helena; Gregorčič, Ana; VELIKONJA BOLTA, Špela; Kmecl, Veronika

    2006-01-01

    Abstract 404 samples of apples, lettuce and potato produced in the Republic of Slovenia were analysed for pesticide residues at the Agricultural Institute of Slovenia in the years 2001 to 2004. Surveillance sampling in eight agricultural production areas was performed at market producers at the harvesting of products or in storehouses, after the pre-harvest interval of plant protection products used. Samples exceeding the maximum residue levels were the following: 3 apple samples (...

  14. The determination of pesticide residues in local vegetables by means of neutron activation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analytical methods based on neutron activation have been developed for studying pesticides residues of bromine, arsenic and mercury in local vegetables and fruits. The concentration of bromine, arsenic and mercury in samples are enriched prior to neutron irradiations by a technique of dry-ashing and freeze-drying for the determination of arsenic, bromine and mercury respectively. The element bromine is determined instrumentally while arsenic and mercury are determined destructively using a distillation technique. The limit of detection under the conditions used for bromine, arsenic and mercury as obtained are 0.01, 0.001 and 0.0001 microgram respectively. A total of 45 varieties of vegetables and 20 varieties of fruits are analyzed. The results of the investigation and the concentration range in part per million of bromine, arsenic and mercury are also presented

  15. Study of the effect of gamma irradiation on phenolic compounds and pesticides residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to show the effects of this process of conservation on the polyphenol rate and the antioxidant capacity of polyphenols of quince, of the cocoa and those of sage, then to study its effects on the pesticides residues in the sage sheets. The irradiation of quince polyphenols, increased the polyphenols rate as well as the antioxidant capacity. In the case of cocoa polyphenols, we don't have ace observed many differences between the irradiated and not irradiated samples, and in the case of sage polyphenols, the polyphenol rate as well as the antioxidant capacity decreased. Finally, irradiation of parathion caused degradation of this molecule, and the polyphenol rate as well as the antioxidant capacity pf polyphenols of the sheets of sage soaked with parathion was a less decreased than polyphenols of the sheets not soaked with parathion. (Author). 37 refs

  16. Field evaluations of residual pesticide applications and misting system on militarily relevant materials against medically important mosquitoes in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    A key strategy to reduce insect-borne disease is to reduce contact between disease vectors and hosts. In the current study, residual pesticide application and misting system were applied on militarily relevant materials and evaluated against medically important mosquitoes. Field evaluations were car...

  17. Monitoring of pesticide residues in human breast milk from Punjab, India and its correlation with health associated parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Anupama; Gill, J P S; Bedi, J S; Pooni, P A

    2014-10-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the present status of pesticide residues in breast milk from Punjab. A total of 127 breast milk samples were analyzed and pesticide residues were detected in 25 % of the milk samples. Residues of cyfluthrin, fenvalerate, cypermethrin, profenophos, γ-HCH, β-HCH, chlorpyriphos, monocrotophos, p,p' DDE and phosalone were detected with mean levels of 63.04, 11.69, 3.63, 2.66, 2.64, 2.29, 1.91, 1.63, 0.56 and 0.29 ng g(-1), respectively. Cyfluthrin was leading pesticide detected in breast milk contributing 31.28 % to the total residue load. It was observed that the residue levels were decreasing with increase in parity and age of mother and cyfluthrin had highest mean concentration of 90.63 ng g(-1) in the first parity and 21.11 ng g(-1) in youngest age group. Residue levels were higher in urban population than the rural population although, statistically non-significant difference was found between the two (p > 0.05). PMID:25011502

  18. Employing Solid Phase Microextraction as Extraction Tool for Pesticide Residues in Traditional Medicinal Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gondo, Thamani T.; Mmualefe, Lesego C.; Okatch, Harriet

    2016-01-01

    HS-SPME was optimised using blank plant sample for analysis of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) of varying polarities in selected medicinal plants obtained from northern part of Botswana, where OCPs such as DDT and endosulfan have been historically applied to control disease carrying vectors (mosquitos and tsetse fly). The optimised SPME parameters were used to isolate analytes from root samples of five medicinal plants obtained from Maun and Kasane, Botswana. The final analytes determination was done with a gas chromatograph equipped with GC-ECD and analyte was confirmed using electron ionisation mass spectrometer (GC-MS). Dieldrin was the only pesticide detected and confirmed with MS in the Terminalia sericea sample obtained from Kasane. The method was validated and the analyte recoveries ranged from 69.58 ± 7.20 to 113 ± 15.44%, with RSDs ranging from 1.19 to 17.97%. The method indicated good linearity (R2 > 0.9900) in the range of 2 to 100 ng g−1. The method also proved to be sensitive with low limits of detection (LODs) ranging from 0.48 ± 0.16 to 1.50 ± 0.50 ng g−1. It can be concluded that SPME was successfully utilized as a sampling and extraction tool for pesticides of diverse polarities in root samples of medicinal plants. PMID:27725893

  19. Discussion on Safety Evaluation Model of Several Kinds of Pesticide Residues in Ram%山药中几种农药残留安全评价模式的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康燕玉

    2015-01-01

    Through the analysis of pesticide residues in Fujian province exists some phenomenon of Chinese yam.Put forward the mode and measures of safety evaluation and risk assessment system of pesticide residues in yam.Aims to explore how to improve the safety level of pesticide residues in Fujian province yam.To promote the healthy development of Chinese yam industry in Fujian Province.%通过分析福建省山药中农药残留的现象,提出开展山药中农药残留安全系统评价和风险评估的模式及措施。旨在探讨如何提高福建省山药农药残留安全水平,促进福建省山药产业的健康发展。

  20. 基于供求理论的农药最大残留限量标准过严的风险探讨%Risk Analysis of Excessively Rigorous Maximum Residue Limits for Pesticides Based on the Supply and Demand Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李太平

    2012-01-01

    The standards of maximum residue limits for pesticides in food are bases to recognize food safety. It is very important for scientifically drafting pesticide residue limits standards, ensuring customers' food safety and protecting ecosystem to research the risk of excessively rigorous deviation of the Chinese national standards of pesticide residues in food. This paper applied the supply and demand theory to deeply analyze possible risk of excessively rigorous pesticide residue standards from the view of fanners seeking economic profit. It was concluded that the excessively rigorous pesticide residue standards could not protect customers' health and ecosystem, on the contrary, could encourage farmers to abuse pesticides when the quality information of agri-food was not full and the market supervision was not effective. Therefore our government should set up the program of food safety assessment and scientifically evaluate the rationality of the national standards of pesticide residue limits in food in order to clear up the trouble of food safety management.%农药最大残留限量标准是判别食品安全性的基础.研究农药最大残留限量标准制定过严可能产生的风险,对科学制定我国农药残留标准、保证食品安全和保护生态环境具有十分重要的现实意义.运用经济学的供求理论,从农户追求利润角度对农药残留标准制定过严可能产生的风险进行了深入分析.研究表明,在农产品质量信息不对称、市场监管不到位的情况下,农药最大残留限量标准制定过严,不但不能保护消费者身体健康和农业生态环境,反而有可能加剧农产品的农药残留问题泛滥.因此建议政府要尽快启动食品安全标准风险评估程序,合理评价农药最大残留限量标准的科学性,以消除食品安全管理隐患.

  1. Results from the monitoring of pesticide residues in fruit and vegetables on the Danish market 1998-99

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens Hinge; Poulsen, Mette Erecius

    2001-01-01

    The objective of the Danish pesticide monitoring programme for fruit and vegetables was to check for compliance with the maximum residue levels in foods and to monitor the residue levels to assess the pesticide exposure of the Danish population. Sampling plans were designed based on previous...... findings and on food consumption data. Approximately 60% of the samples were selected on the basis of positive findings in samples from the previous 5 years. The remaining samples reflected the pattern of food consumption in Denmark. In addition, a rolling programme is maintained for commodities with a low...... consumption and no detected residues. Within each commodity, the sampling was random. Samples (n = 4150) of mainly fresh, conventionally grown fruit and vegetables were taken throughout the chain of suppliers including foodprocessing companies. Of the samples, 3% were frozen products and 2% were organically...

  2. Seasonal trends in organochlorine pesticide residues in raw bovine milk from rural areas of Haryana, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushik, C P; Kaushik, A; Sharma, H R

    2014-01-01

    Seasonal trends in organochlorine pesticides residues namely, 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) isomers, 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis (p-chlorophenyl) ethane (DDT) and its metabolites and endosulfan stereo isomers were investigated in raw bovine milk samples from rural areas of Ambala, Gurgaon and Hisar districts of the state of Haryana for winter, summer, and post-monsoon seasons. Highest concentration of HCH and DDT was found in 43 % and 53 % milk samples, respectively in post-monsoon season whereas highest values of endosulfan was reported in 36 % samples during winter season. During the study period only 2 % milk samples exceeded the maximum residue limit recommended by WHO for ΣHCH, 1 % samples each for α-HCH and γ-HCH, 9 % samples for β-HCH as recommended by PFAA and 30 % samples for ΣDDT as prescribed by FAO. No statistical difference in the mean concentration of ∑HCH and ∑Endosulfan could be observed in any of the three districts. However, ∑DDT concentration showed marked difference [F(2, 25) = 12.42, p = 0.00018)] among the three districts. PMID:24154613

  3. Pesticide residues in bovine milk from a predominantly agricultural state of Haryana, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, H R; Kaushik, A; Kaushik, C P

    2007-06-01

    One hundred forty seven samples of bovine milk were collected from 14 districts of Haryana, India during December 1998-February 1999 and analysed for the presence of organochlorine pesticide (OCPs) residues. summation operator HCH, summation operator DDT, summation operator endosulfan and aldrin were detected in 100%, 97%, 43% and 12% samples and with mean values of 0.0292, 0.0367, 0.0022 and 0.0036 microg/ml, respectively. Eight percent samples exceeded the maximum residue limit (MRL) of 0.10 mg/kg as recommended by WHO for summation operator HCH, 4% samples of 0.05 mg/kg for alpha-HCH, 5% samples of 0.01 mg/kg for gamma-HCH, 26% samples of 0.02 mg/kg for beta-HCH as recommended by PFAA and 24% samples of 0.05 mg/kg as recommended by FAO for summation operator DDT. Concentrations of beta-HCH and p,p'-DDE were more as compared to other isomers and metabolites of HCH and DDT. PMID:17180431

  4. Spectrum of Organochlorine Pesticide Residues in Fish Samples from the Densu Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Afful

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the levels of organochlorine pesticide residues in the Densu basin have been investigated using fish sam ples as a case study. Six fish species namely Heterotis niloticus, Channa obscura, Hepsetus odoe, Tilapia zilli, Clarias gariepinus and Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus were collected from the sampling towns, Weija and Nsawam along the Densu river basin in the Greater Accra Region of Ghana. Composite samples w ere homogenized, freeze dried and ground to obtain powdered samples. The powdered samples were extracted by soxhlet extraction procedure using (3:1 hexane: acetone mixture. The extracts were cleaned-up using florisil adsorbent and characterized for organochlorine content using Gas Chromatography (GC equipped with Electron Capture Detector (ECD. The GC recoveries of spiked samples were between 80 to 96%. Fourteen organochlorines (OCs namely gamma-HCH, delta-HCH, heptachlor, aldrin, gammachlordane, p,p’-DDE, alpha-endosulfan, dieldrin, endrin, endrin-aldehyde, endosulfan-sufate, p,p’-DDT, endrinketone and methoxychlor were identified and quantified. A 100% incidence was recorded for gamma-HCH, delta-HCH, heptachlor, aldrin, gamma-chlordane, alpha-endosulfan, dieldrin and p,p’-DDT, while 75% incidence was recorded for the metabolites, p,p’-DDE and endosulfan-sulfate. The concentrations of OCs ranged from 0.3 to 71.3 :g/kg and were however, below the Australian Maximum Residue Limits (MRL of 50 to 1000 :g/kg for fresh w ater fish.

  5. Organochlorine pesticide residues in sediments from the Uganda side of Lake Victoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasswa, John; Kiremire, Bernard T; Nkedi-Kizza, Peter; Mbabazi, Jolocam; Ssebugere, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Organochlorine (OC) residues were analysed in 117 sediment samples collected from four bays of the Uganda side of Lake Victoria. The sediments were collected with a corer at a depth of 0-20 cm, and extracted for OC residues using a solid dispersion method. The extracts were cleaned using gel permeation chromatography and analysed for pesticide residues using a gas chromatograph (GC) equipped with an electron capture detector. The results were confirmed using a GC equipped with a mass spectrometer (MS). A total of 16 OC residues, most of them persistent organic pollutants (POPs) were identified and quantified. The OC residue levels were expressed on an oven dry weight (d.w.) basis. Endosulphan sulphate, in the range of 0.82-5.62 μg kg⁻¹ d.w., was the most frequently detected residue. Aldrin and dieldrin were in the ranges of 0.22-15.96 and 0.94-7.18 μg kg⁻¹ d.w., respectively. DDT and its metabolites lay between 0.11-3.59 for p,p'-DDE, 0.38-4.02 for p,p'-DDD, 0.04-1.46 for p,p'-DDT, 0.07-2.72 for o,p'-DDE and 0.01-1.63 μg kg⁻¹ d.w. for o,p'-DDT. The levels of γ-HCH varied from 0.05 to 5.48 μg kg⁻¹ d.w. Heptachlor was detected only once at a level of 0.81 μg kg⁻¹ d.w., while its photo-oxidation product, heptachlor epoxide, ranged between non-detectable (ND) to 3.19 μg kg⁻¹ d.w. Chlordane ranged from ND to 0.76 μg kg⁻¹ d.w. Based on the threshold effect concentration (TEC) for fresh water ecosystems, aldrin and dieldrin were the only OCs that seemed to be a threat to the lake environment.

  6. Analytical method for simultaneous determination of pesticide and veterinary drug residues in milk by CE-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasco, Cristina; Picó, Yolanda; Andreu, Vicente

    2009-05-01

    This study reports a method based on CE-MS/MS detection developed for the multiresidue determination of seven pesticides (amidosulfuron, cyprodinil, cyromazine, imazaquin, pirimicarb, demethyl pirimicarb, procymidone) and eight residues of veterinary drugs (ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, sulfacetamide, sulfabenzamide, sulfachlorpyridazine, sulfaquinoxaline, sulfathiazole, sulfisoxazole), whose contents are regulated by the EU Council Regulations no. 396/2005 and no. 2377/90, in animal edible tissues. Milk samples were extracted with ACN and the extract was cleaned up using an Oasis hydrophilic-lipophilic balance SPE cartridge. The proposed method was validated in accordance with the European Commission Decision 657/2002. MS/MS experiments, using an IT analyzer, operating in multiple reaction monitoring mode, were carried out to achieve the minimum number of required identification points. Recovery data were also satisfactory, with values higher than 78% for most pesticides and veterinary drugs extracted from milk spiked at half the maximum residue limit established for the studied compounds. The RSD% (n = 5) were lower than 13 and 15% for intra-day and inter-day assays, respectively. The method was applied to establish the occurrence of the studied pesticides in 100 milk samples, attaining the determination of pesticide and veterinary drug residues in milk in the low microg/kg range. PMID:19384986

  7. Multiresidue Analysis of 86 Pesticides Using Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry: II-Nonleafy Vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. EL-Saeid

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 1057 samples of fresh vegetables from import and domestic production were analyzed (cold pepper, egg plant, carrot, cucumber, potato, hot pepper, cultivation tomato, squash, beans, okra, onions, cauliflower, and green house tomato. The aim of this study was to investigate pesticide residues in market foods in Riyadh, which have been collected from Riyadh Development Company (Al-Tamer Vegetables Market. Pesticide residues were determined by gas chromatography with mass selective detector (GC-MSD. A multiresidue method was developed and described for simultaneous determination of 86 pesticides commonly used in crop protection. This method used to determine 86 pesticide residues with a broad range of physicochemical properties in fresh vegetables related to organophosphorus (OPP, organochlorines (OCP, pyrethroids, and carbamates mainly used in agriculture. Sample extract was cleaned up by using AOAC method. Pesticide residues above the maximum residue limits (MRL were detected in 15.89% of the total samples (168 from 1057 samples, but 83.90% of the total samples (887 from 1057 samples has no residues or contained pesticide residues at or below MRL. The detected and most frequently found pesticide residues were permethrin (45 times and endosulfan (34 times followed by deltamethrin (27 times. The findings of this study pointed to the following recommendations: the need for a monitoring program for pesticide residues in imported food crops.

  8. European Pesticide Tax Schemes in Comparison: An Analysis of Experiences and Developments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Böcker

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Policy measures are needed to reduce the risks associated with pesticides’ application in agriculture, resulting in more sustainable agricultural systems. Pesticide taxes can be an important tool in the toolkit of policy-makers and are of increasing importance in European agriculture. However, little is known about the effects of such tax solutions and their impacts on the environment, farmers, and human health. We aim to fill this gap and synthesize experiences made in the European countries that have introduced pesticide taxes, i.e., France, Denmark, Norway, and Sweden. The major findings of our analysis are: (1 overall, the effectiveness of pesticide taxes is limited, but if a tax on a specific pesticide is high enough, the application and the associated risks will be reduced significantly; (2 in all countries, hoarding activities have been observed before a tax introduction or increase. Therefore, short-term effects of taxes are substantially smaller than long-term effects; (3 differentiated taxes are superior to undifferentiated taxes because fewer accompanying measures are required to reach policy goals; (4 tax scheme designs are not always in line with the National Action Plan targets. Low tax levels do not necessarily lead to a reduction of pesticide input and differentiated taxes do not necessarily lead to fewer violations of water residue limits.

  9. Validation of a multi-residue method for the determination of residuals pesticides in cabbage (Brassica Oleracea var. Capitata) for gases chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study describes the validation of a multi-residue method for the determination of most used organo chlorine, organophosphorus and organonitrogen pesticides in cabbage in the Cundinamarca Department (Colombia). The extraction process includes blending of small sample quantity with ethyl acetate in presence of Na2SO4 and NaHCO3, filtration and concentration. The clean up steps include GPC and mini-column chromatography using silica gel. Final determination was carried out by gas chromatography with: pulsed splitless injection, HP-5 capillary column, and a parallel detection system with micro electron capture detection (μ - ECD) and Nitrogen-Phosphorus Detection (NPD). The methodology is specific, selective, accurate and robust. Recovery values of majority of pesticides were in the range 70-120% at spiking levels ranging 0.05-10.73 mg/kg. Limits of detection were less than 0.10 mg/kg for most of the studied compounds. The distribution of the analyses in the laboratory sample was evaluated and it was found its homogeneity. The evaluation of pesticide residues was made in a specific area of municipality of Madrid-Cundinamarca, (Colombia). No residues of the studied analyses were founded

  10. 77 FR 30481 - Receipt of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on Various...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-23

    ... be affected. The North American Industrial Classification System (NAICS) codes have been provided to... or before June 22, 2012. ADDRESSES: Submit your comments, identified by docket identification (ID... production (NAICS code 112). Food manufacturing (NAICS code 311). Pesticide manufacturing (NAICS code...

  11. 78 FR 63938 - Receipt of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on Various...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    .... The following list of North American Industrial Classification System (NAICS) codes is not intended to... or before November 25, 2013. ADDRESSES: Submit your comments, identified by docket identification (ID... (NAICS code 112). Food manufacturing (NAICS code 311). Pesticide manufacturing (NAICS code 32532). If...

  12. 77 FR 20334 - Receipt of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on Various...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-04

    .... Potentially affected entities may include, but are not limited to: Crop production (NAICS code 111). Animal production (NAICS code 112). Food manufacturing (NAICS code 311). Pesticide manufacturing (NAICS code 32532... taro, leaves at 9 ppm; watercress at 1.5 ppm; pomegranate at 0.5 ppm; banana at 4 ppm; vegetable,...

  13. 76 FR 17374 - Receipt of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on Various...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-29

    .... Potentially affected entities may include, but are not limited to: Crop production (NAICS code 111). Animal production (NAICS code 112). Food manufacturing (NAICS code 311). Pesticide manufacturing (NAICS code 32532...; pear, fruit at 2.5 ppm; citrus, fruit at 4.5 ppm; banana, fruit (bagged) at 1.2 ppm; banana,...

  14. 77 FR 25954 - Receipt of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on Various...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-02

    ... coconut oil. The dominant components of the R chain are C 12 and C 14 at 52.47 and 15.72%, respectively... disproportionately high and adverse human health impacts or environmental effects from exposure to the pesticides... cabbage (tight-headed varieties only) at 0.02 ppm; olives, and olive oil at 0.02 ppm; pomegranate at...

  15. 76 FR 22067 - Receipt of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on Various...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-20

    ... and Pollution Prevention Division (7511P) or Registration Division (7505P), Office of Pesticide..., Grain, and Stover by LC/MS Detection'', Version 1. Contact: Chris Pfeifer, Biopesticides and Pollution...-, phenylmethyl ester, polymer with 2-propenoic acid and sodium 2-methyl-2- -1-propanesulfonate...

  16. Search of Organochlorine Pesticide Residues (Pocs) in Bodies of Water in Cotton-Growing Area of Benin by GC-ECD

    OpenAIRE

    M. A. N. Gbaguidi; 2L. F. Dovonon; 1A. Youssao; 1R. Djibril; M. Saizonou; 1Y. I. Mohamed; H. H. Soclo; B. Fayomi

    2014-01-01

    Despite their incontestable services in agriculture, the use of pesticides is not without consequences on the environment. So, in an attempt to access the impacts of pesticides usage in agriculture in Benin, research of some residual organochloride pesticides have been conducted both in rainy and dry seasons in two cotton growing areas: the northern and central part of Benin. The analytical technique used is GC-ECD. During the dry season we notice that the DDT and its metabolites (DDE and DDD...

  17. Reduction in pesticide residue levels in olives by ozonated and tap water treatments and their transfer into olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kırış, Sevilay; Velioglu, Yakup Sedat

    2016-01-01

    The effects of different wash times (2 and 5 min) with tap and ozonated water on the removal of nine pesticides from olives and the transfer ratios of these pesticides during olive oil production were determined. The reliability of the analytical methods was also tested. The applied methods of analysis were found to be suitable based on linearity, trueness, repeatability, selectivity and limit of quantification all the pesticides tested. All tap and ozonated water wash cycles removed a significant quantity of the pesticides from the olives, with a few exceptions. Generally, extending the wash time increased the pesticide reduction with ozonated water, but did not make significant differences with tap water. During olive oil processing, depending on the processing technique and physicochemical properties of the pesticides, eight of nine pesticides were concentrated into olive oil (processing factor > 1) with almost no significant difference between treatments. Imidacloprid did not pass into olive oil. Ozonated water wash for 5 min reduced chlorpyrifos, β-cyfluthrin, α-cypermethrin and imidacloprid contents by 38%, 50%, 55% and 61% respectively in olives.

  18. [Application of a rapid and simple multi-residue method for determination of pesticide residues in drinking water and beverages using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukui, Naoki; Takatori, Satoshi; Kitagawa, Yoko; Okihashi, Masahiro; Osakada, Masakazu; Nakatsuji, Naoto; Nakayama, Yukiko; Kakimoto, You; Obana, Hirotaka

    2012-01-01

    A rapid and simple multi-residue method for determination of pesticides has been applied to drinking water and beverages. To a disposable polypropylene tube containing 10.0 g sample, 20 mL acetonitrile was added and the mixture was shaken vigorously for 1 min to extract pesticides. Then, 1 g sodium chloride and 4 g magnesium sulfate anhydrous were added, followed by vigorous shaking for 1 min and centrifugation to obtain the organic phase. The organic phase was processed with a graphite carbon black/PSA solid phase column. After concentration and reconstitution with 25% methanol containing aqueous solution, the test solution was analyzed with LC-MS/MS. Recovery tests of 91 pesticides fortified (0.02 μg/g) in 35 kinds of drinking water and beverages were conducted. The decline of recoveries in alcoholic beverages is considered to be due to the increase of organic phase volume owing to ethanol included in the alcoholic beverages. A simulation study was carried out with simulated alcoholic beverages, which consisted of 50% grape juice, with various amounts of ethanol and water, to examine pesticides recoveries and volume of the organic phase. The results suggested this method would be applicable both to alcoholic beverages containing less than 10% ethanol and to alcoholic beverages containing over 10% ethanol after dilution with water to below 10% ethanol prior to the addition of acetonitrile. A sample could be processed and analyzed by LC-MS/MS within 2 h. Thus, this method should be useful for monitoring and screening pesticide residues in drinking water and various beverages.

  19. Awareness of pesticide residues in locally available food and condiments among food sellers: a case study of Osun state, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samson Ayo Deji

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The specific objectives are: i to determine the level of awareness of pesticide residue in locally available food among food sellers in Ile Ife area of Osun state, Nigeria; ii to identify the demographic and socio-economic characteristics of food sellers who use pesticides, natural means in preserving their foodstuff from getting spoilt; iii to determine the level of understanding of food sellers who use pesticides about the likely health implications that could result. The design of the study is cross sectional. Structured open-ended questionnaires were administered to 98 randomly selected food sellers in Ile Ife area Osun state, Nigeria. This includes males and female. The inference from the study shows that majority of the food sellers were between ages 21 and 30 years, suggesting that more of the young people are involved in the selling of foodstuff in the area of study. Most of the food sellers used phostozin, an organophosphate compound as preservatives for cereals. The majority of those that were aware of the health hazards associated with the usage of pesticides as preservative were literate school leavers. Among respondents to the questionnaire, it was expected that many of those food sellers likely to demonstrate caution in the usage of pesticide would be the literate school leavers. This is because they are more aware of the possible associated health hazards than their fellow food sellers who are not literate. The level of awareness of health implications associated with use of pesticides on consumable food items is higher among school certificate holders who are food sellers. Phostozin, an organophosphate, is a common preservative pesticide used on cereals foodstuff (e.g., bean, rice, maize in the area of study, especially among the age group between 21 and 30 years.

  20. Residues of organochlorine pesticides in intertidal flat surface sediments from coastal zone of Jiangsu Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xiumei; Zheng, Rong; Zhao, Jiale; Ma, Chao; Gao, Xiaojiang

    2014-09-01

    Sixteen surface sediment samples were collected and analysed to evaluate the residues of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) from intertidal flat in Jiangsu Province. Overall, 22 OCPs were detected with total concentrations of OCPs ranging widely from 0.96 to 12.14 ng/g (dry wt). Total hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) and total dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) levels varied from <0.01 to 0.67 ng/g and from 0.23 to 4.85 ng/g, respectively. DDTs were the predominant compounds. The dominance of β-HCH indicated a history of HCH pollution. According to the ratios of ( p, p'-DDD+ p, p'-DDE)/ p, p'-DDT and o,p'-DDT/ p, p'-DDT, new input of DDTs did not occur in most sites, and the main sources were historical usage of technical DDTs. OCPs such as dieldrin, endrin, p, p'-DDD, and p, p'-DDT exceeded the effects range low, showing adverse biological effects that would occasionally occur at some sites of the study area.

  1. Persistent organochlorine pesticides residues in cow and goat milks collected from different regions of Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deti, Habtewold; Hymete, Ariaya; Bekhit, Adnan A; Mohamed, Abdel Maaboud I; Bekhit, Alaa El-Din A

    2014-07-01

    The present study investigated the bioaccumulation of organochlorines in two milk-producing animals (goats and cows) grazed on the same feed to explore the extent of organochlorines availability in milk and any species effect on the bioaccumulation pattern. Six organochlorine pesticides: aldrin, α-endosulfan, β-endosulfan, p,p'-DDE, o,p'-DDT and p,p'-DDT were determined in samples collected from four regions in Ethiopia. Aldrin (11.6μgkg(-1)) was detected only in one cow milk sample and α-endosulfan was detected in one goat milk sample at a level of 142.1μgkg(-1), and in one cow milk sample (47.8μgkg(-1)) from the same region. p,p'-DDE was detected in 40% of the milk samples analyzed while o,p'-DDT and p,p'-DDT were found in high amounts in almost all samples. The average total DDT (excluding DDD) in the samples was 328.5μgkg(-1). Regions known for their malaria epidemics were the most contaminated with DDT residue. The accumulation pattern in both species was not clear under natural sampling. PMID:24630448

  2. [Contamination of Organophosphorus Pesticides Residue in Fresh Vegetables and Related Health Risk Assessment in Changchun, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Rui; Liu, Jing-shuang; Wang, Qi-cun; Liu, Qiang; Wang, Yang

    2015-09-01

    This study aims to investigate the concentrations of organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) in fresh vegetables. A total of Z14 samples from seven types of vegetables were collected from the suburb in Changchun City. The OPs were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled with flame photometric detector (GC-FPD). Target hazard quotients (THQ) were applied to estimate the potential health risk to inhabitants. Results showed that OPs concentrations exceeded the Maximum Residue Limit (MRL) in more than 23. 4% samples, and were not detected in only 7. 9% samples. Detection rates of OPs was as follow in the decreased order: diazinon (82. 2%) > phorate (45. 8%) > dimethoate (29. 4%) > parathion-methyl (27. 6%) > omethoate (23. 8%) > dichlorvos (22. 9%) > fenitrothion (21%) > fenthion (18. 7%) > parathion (18. 2%) > methamidophos (17. 3%) > malathion (12. 1%). The percentages above MRL for leaves were higher than for non-leafy vegetables. The order of percentages of OPs above MRL was as follows: green onion (82. 5%) > radish (37. 5%) > red pepper (17. 2%) > Chinese vegetable (14. 3%) > cucumber (3. 2%) > eggplant (2. 9%) > tomato (0%). 49. 5% vegetables samples showed more than one OP. The average target hazard quotients (ave THQ) were all less than one and the average Hazard Index (ave HI) was 0. 462, so that inhabitants who expose average OP levels may not experience adverse health effects.

  3. Residues and Characteristics of Organochlorine Pesticides in the Surface Water in the Suburb of Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    CHEN, Jiawei; LIU, Chen; YANG, Zhongfang; WANG, Jiyuan

    Organochlorine Pesticides (OCPs), such as DDT and HCH, have stable chemical properties and less biodegradability. As a kind of persistent organic pollutants, they have high risk to the environment and human health. Although DDT and HCH have been prohibited in China since 1983, they are still found in some soil and water nowadays. Water resource is very important in natural environment and essential for agriculture. The existence of OCPs in some surface water in Beijing has been detected with different levels according to previous investigations. In recent years, many measures have been taken to control the pollution and to monitor the environment, and more attention has been paid to the status of surface water today. In this study, the water samples were collected from the Wenyu, Beiyun, Yanqing, Fangshan, Changping, and Shunyi Rivers in the suburb of Beijing, and the residues and characteristics of DDT and HCH were studied. The results showed that the contents of DDTs and HCHs were ND-13.98 ng/L and 3.87-146.42 ng/L, respectively. According to the indicators of the ratio values of (DDD+DDE)/DDT and α-HCH/γ-HCH, the source of pollution and its potential risk are also discussed in this article.

  4. Part II: temporal and spatial distribution of multiclass pesticide residues in lake sediments of northern Greece: application of an optimized MAE-LC-MS/MS pretreatment and analytical method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalogridi, Eleni-Chrysoula; Christophoridis, Christophoros; Bizani, Erasmia; Drimaropoulou, Garyfallia; Fytianos, Konstantinos

    2014-06-01

    The development and application of an analytical methodology for the pretreatment and determination of 253 multiclass pesticides, in lake sediment samples, using liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) are described in this work. Sediments of lakes Volvi, Doirani, and Kerkini, located in northern Greece, were collected in two-time periods (fall/winter 2010 and spring/summer 2011) and analyzed, applying the developed analytical methodology. Microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) was applied to extract the pesticide residues from lake sediment samples. Analytical results were stored, categorized, and visualized using geographical information systems, in order to assess and observe spatial and temporal variations of the pollution. Main pesticides that were detected included the following: amitrole, tebuconazole, phoxim, diniconazole, sethoxydim, temephos, tetrachlorvinphos, pendimethalin, boscalid, disulfoton sulfone, lenacil, propiconazole, cycloxydim, pyridaben, and terbuthylazine. Amitrole, diniconazole, and tebuconazole were found to be common in all three lakes. Lakes Kerkini and Doirani exhibited increased concentrations during the first sampling period (winter 2010) with predominant pesticide classes, triazines/triazoles and organophosphates. Pollution is mainly located near the populated villages of the lakes and the nearby cultivations. During the second sampling period, pesticide concentrations appear lower and located in sediments near the center of the lake. Lake Volvi exhibits increased pesticide concentrations during the second sampling period, temporal and spatial variations and different pesticide profile pattern. Increased pollution occurs near the center of the lake during the first sampling period, mainly comprised by triazines/triazoles and organophosphates. During the second sampling period, the majority of the sediment samples demonstrated a different pesticide profile dominated by unclassified pesticides and triazines

  5. Organophosphorus pesticide residues in vegetables from farms, markets, and a supermarket around Kwan Phayao Lake of Northern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapbamrer, Ratana; Hongsibsong, Surat

    2014-07-01

    This study investigated organophosphorus (OP) residues in vegetables from 27 farms, 106 markets, and 1 supermarket around Kwan Phayao Lake, Northern Thailand, between August and September 2013. Types of vegetables sampled were all vegetables cultivated or sold around the study site. The most common OP pesticides detected in farm samples were chlorpyrifos (50 %), malathion (31.8 %), monocrotophos (31.8 %), diazinon (13.6 %), omethoate (13.6 %), and dicrotophos (9.1 %). The most common OP pesticides detected in market samples were chlorpyrifos (33.9 %), diazinon (18.6 %), parathion-methyl (3.4 %), profenofos (3.4 %), primiphos-ethyl (3.4 %), and fenitrothion (1.7 %). The OP pesticides detected in supermarket samples were chlorpyrifos (33.3 %), and diazinon (66.7 %). Among the compounds detected, chlorpyrifos was detected in most of the vegetable samples from all sources. The highest chlorpyrifos level in farm samples were found in lemon balm (2.423 mg/kg) followed by Vietnamese coriander (0.835 mg/kg), and cowpea (0.027 mg/kg). The highest level in markets samples were found in garlic (7.785 mg/kg) followed by Chinese cabbage (2.864 mg/kg) and Vietnamese coriander (1.308 mg/kg). Residues from supermarket samples were found only in parsley (0.027 mg/kg). The findings showed that 16 samples (59.3 %) from farms and 14 samples (13.2 %) from markets contained OP residues at or above the maximum residue limits established by the European Union. It is concluded that awareness, safety education, and strict regulation of pesticide use are necessary.

  6. Distribution of phthalates, pesticides and drug residues in the dissolved, particulate and sedimentary phases from transboundary rivers (France-Belgium).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Net, Sopheak; Rabodonirina, Suzanah; Sghaier, Rafika Ben; Dumoulin, David; Chbib, Chaza; Tlili, Ines; Ouddane, Baghdad

    2015-07-15

    Various drug residues, pesticides and phthalates are ubiquitous in the environment. Their presence in the environment has attracted considerable attention due to their potential impacts on ecosystem functioning and on public health. In this work, 14 drug residues, 24 pesticides and 6 phthalates have been quantified in three matrices (in the dissolved phase, associated to suspended solid matter (SSM), and in sediment) collected from fifteen watercourses and rivers located in a highly industrialized zone at the cross-border area of Northern France and Belgium. The extractions have been carried out using accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) for solid matrices (SSM and sediment) and using solid phase extraction (SPE) for liquid matrix. The final extract was analyzed using GC-MS technique. Among the three classes of compounds, phthalates have been found at highest level compared to pesticides and drug residues. The Σ6PAE concentrations were ranging from 17.2±2.58 to 179.1±26.9μgL(-1) in dissolved phase, from 2.9±0.4 to 21.1±3.2μgL(-1) in SSM and from 1.1±0.2 to 11.9±1.8μgg(-1)dw in sediment. The Σ14drug residue concentrations were lower than 1.3μgL(-1) in the dissolved phases, lower than 30ngL(-1) associated to SSM and from nondetectable levels to 60.7±9.1ngg(-1)dw in sediment. For pesticides, all compounds were below the LOQ values in dissolved phase and in sediment, and only EPTC could be quantified in SSM.

  7. Heterogeneity Index of Trade and Actual Heterogeneity Index - the case of maximum residue levels (MRLs) for pesticides

    OpenAIRE

    Burnquist, L.H.; Shutes, K.; Rau, M.L.; Souza, de, H.R.; DE Faria

    2011-01-01

    Non-tariff measures (NTMs) beyond traditional trade policy instruments define the requirements that importing countries imposed on foreign products. Due to differences across countries, requirements for supplying foreign markets can lead to trade costs and thus hamper international trade. In this paper, we introduce two regulatory heterogeneity indexes which are subsequently applied to the case maximum residue levels (MRLs) of pesticides. The Heterogeneity Index of Trade (HIT) reflects the re...

  8. Evaluation of low-pressure gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for analysis of greater than 140 pesticides in fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    A multi-residue method for analysis of 143 pesticide residues in fish was developed and evaluated using fast, low pressure gas chromatography triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (LP-GC/MS-MS). The method was based on a QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, safe) extraction with ace...

  9. Multi-residue method for the determination of pesticides and pesticide metabolites in honeybees by liquid and gas chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry--Honeybee poisoning incidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiljanek, Tomasz; Niewiadowska, Alicja; Semeniuk, Stanisław; Gaweł, Marta; Borzęcka, Milena; Posyniak, Andrzej

    2016-02-26

    A method for the determination of 200 pesticides and pesticide metabolites in honeybee samples has been developed and validated. Almost 98% of compounds included in this method are approved to use within European Union, as active substances of plant protection products or veterinary medicinal products used by beekeepers to control mites Varroa destructor in hives. Many significant metabolites, like metabolites of imidacloprid, thiacloprid, fipronil, methiocarb and amitraz, are also possible to detect. The sample preparation was based on the buffered QuEChERS method. Samples of bees were extracted with acetonitrile containing 1% acetic acid and then subjected to clean-up by dispersive solid phase extraction (dSPE) using a new Z-Sep+ sorbent and PSA. The majority of pesticides, including neonicotionoids and their metabolites, were analyzed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) but some of pesticides, especially pyrethroid insecticides, were analyzed by gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). The procedure was validated according to the Guidance document SANCO/12571/2013 at four concentration levels: 1, 5, 10 and 100 ng/g bees and verified in the international proficiency test. The analysis of bee samples spiked at the limit of quantification (LOQ) showed about 98% mean recovery value (trueness) and 97% of analytes showed recovery in the required range of 70-120% and RSDr (precision) below 20%. Linearity and matrix effects were also established. The LOQs of pesticides were in the range of 1-100 ng/g. The developed method allows determination of insecticides at concentrations of 10 ng/g or less, except abamectin and tebufenozide. LOQ values are lower than the median lethal doses LD50 for bees. The method was used to investigate more than 70 honeybee poisoning incidents. Data about detected pesticides and their metabolites are included.

  10. Multi-residue method for the determination of pesticides and pesticide metabolites in honeybees by liquid and gas chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry--Honeybee poisoning incidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiljanek, Tomasz; Niewiadowska, Alicja; Semeniuk, Stanisław; Gaweł, Marta; Borzęcka, Milena; Posyniak, Andrzej

    2016-02-26

    A method for the determination of 200 pesticides and pesticide metabolites in honeybee samples has been developed and validated. Almost 98% of compounds included in this method are approved to use within European Union, as active substances of plant protection products or veterinary medicinal products used by beekeepers to control mites Varroa destructor in hives. Many significant metabolites, like metabolites of imidacloprid, thiacloprid, fipronil, methiocarb and amitraz, are also possible to detect. The sample preparation was based on the buffered QuEChERS method. Samples of bees were extracted with acetonitrile containing 1% acetic acid and then subjected to clean-up by dispersive solid phase extraction (dSPE) using a new Z-Sep+ sorbent and PSA. The majority of pesticides, including neonicotionoids and their metabolites, were analyzed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) but some of pesticides, especially pyrethroid insecticides, were analyzed by gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). The procedure was validated according to the Guidance document SANCO/12571/2013 at four concentration levels: 1, 5, 10 and 100 ng/g bees and verified in the international proficiency test. The analysis of bee samples spiked at the limit of quantification (LOQ) showed about 98% mean recovery value (trueness) and 97% of analytes showed recovery in the required range of 70-120% and RSDr (precision) below 20%. Linearity and matrix effects were also established. The LOQs of pesticides were in the range of 1-100 ng/g. The developed method allows determination of insecticides at concentrations of 10 ng/g or less, except abamectin and tebufenozide. LOQ values are lower than the median lethal doses LD50 for bees. The method was used to investigate more than 70 honeybee poisoning incidents. Data about detected pesticides and their metabolites are included. PMID:26830634

  11. Guidelines for application of the good laboratory practices and quality assurance and control in pesticide residues analysis; Linee guida per l`applicazione delle buone pratiche di laboratorio e l`assicurazione e il controllo della qualita` nell`analisi di residui di prodotti fitosanitari

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Attard Barbini, Danilo [Istituo Superiore di Sanita`, Rome (Italy); Biancardi, Gino [Agenzia Regionale per la Protezione dell`Ambiente, Massa Carrara (Italy); Bove, Bruno [Presiduo Multizonale di Prevenzione, Potenza (Italy)] [and others

    1997-09-01

    The guidelines, particularly aimed at laboratories which carry out studies in the field of pesticide residues in food and environment, are intended to give practical, organizational and operational hints along the lines set up by the Italian Legislative Decree n. 120 of January 27, 1992 and the European standard UNI CEI EN 45001, to which the laboratories dealing with official control and monitoring should conform. The main items discussed include: organization of the laboratory, personnel and equipment, working procedures related to analytical methodology, confirmation criteria for violation of maximum residue limits and quality control.

  12. A rapid, solid phase extraction (SPE) technique for the extraction and gas chromatographic determination lindane pesticide residue in tissue and milk

    OpenAIRE

    Yuningsih; Sri Yuliastuti

    2006-01-01

    Organochlorine pesticide contamination in feed can cause residue in animal product (tissue and milk), so its become a problem in food safety. Solid phase extraction (SPE) has been carried out for determination organochlorine pesticide residues in food animal production. The technique was rapid, not costly and produce limited amount of hazardous-waste. Samples were homogenized with acetonitrile trough cartridge C18, eluted in fluorocyl column with 2% ether-petroleum or acetonitrile fortissue a...

  13. HPLC 法测定不同产地赤芍中芍药苷的含量及重金属和残留农药的分析%Analysis of Paeoniflorin,Residual Pesticide and Heavy Metal Content Determination in Radix Paeoniae Rubra from Different Habitats by HPLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈述

    2014-01-01

    目的:建立一种测定赤芍中芍药苷含量的高效液相色谱法,测定不同产地赤芍中芍药苷的含量并分析赤芍中重金属含量及农药的残留量。方法:色谱柱:Kromasil C18柱(5μm,4.6 mm ×250 mm);流动相:甲醇-0.05 mol/L 磷酸二氢钾(30∶70);波长:230 nm;柱温:25℃;流速:1.0 mL/min;进样量:10μL。采用原子吸收分光光度法对赤芍药材中的重金属铅、砷、铜、镉、汞进行分析,同时采用气相色谱法对有机氯类农药残留量进行测定。结果:芍药苷在0.1~1.0 mg/mL 范围内,浓度与峰面积的线性关系良好(R2=0.9996),样品的平均加样回收率为98.8%,RSD 为0.29%。17个不同产地的赤芍药材中芍药苷的含量为2.17%~4.17%;赤芍中检出铅、砷、铜、镉、汞的残留量分别为0.19~0.39、0.19~0.72、0.87~8.17、0.11~0.29和0.08~0.14 mg/kg;部分赤芍药材中有检出有机氯类,DHC、DDT、PCNB 的残留量分别为0.021~0.063、0.039~0.121和0.024~0.050 mg/kg。结论:17个产地的赤芍药材中芍药苷的含量均符合中国药典要求;药材存在一定量的重金属和有机氯类农药残留,除1份药材 DDT 含量超标外,其他药材的重金属及农药残留量均符合《药用植物及制剂进出口绿色行业标准》中的限量规定,赤芍药材总体质量较好。%Objective:To establish a HPLC method to determine the content of paeoniflorin as well as residual pesticide and heavy metal in Radix Paeoniae Rubra in different areas.Methods:Chromatographic column was Kromasil C18 column (5 μm,4.6 mm ×250 mm);mobile phase was methanol -0.05mol/L potassium dihydrogen phosphate (30:70);wavelength was 230 nm;column temperature was 25℃;flow rate was 1 mL/min;sample size was 10 L.Analysis of heavy metal lead,arsenic,copper,cadmium,mercury in Paeonia lacti-flora were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry,and gas

  14. A Meta-Analysis of the Willingness to Pay for Reductions in Pesticide Risk Exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Travisi, Chiara M.; Nijkamp, Peter; FLORAX Raymond J.g.m.

    2004-01-01

    The use of environmental policy instruments such as eco-labelling and pesticide taxes should preferably be based on disaggregate estimates of the individuals' willingness to pay (WTP) for pesticide risk reductions. We review the empirical valuation literature dealing with pesticide risk exposure and develop a taxonomy of environmental and human health risks associated with pesticide usage. Subsequently, we use meta-analysis to investigate the variation in WTP estimates for reduced pesticide r...

  15. 75 FR 5790 - Notice of Receipt of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-04

    ..., but are not limited to: Crop production (NAICS code 111). Animal production (NAICS code 112). Food... tolerance in 40 CFR part 180 for residues of the fungicide isopyrazam (SYN520453), in or on banana at...

  16. Tank 12H residuals sample analysis report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oji, L. N. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Shine, E. P. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Diprete, D. P. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Coleman, C. J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hay, M. S. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-06-11

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested by Savannah River Remediation (SRR) to provide sample preparation and analysis of the Tank 12H final characterization samples to determine the residual tank inventory prior to grouting. Eleven Tank 12H floor and mound residual material samples and three cooling coil scrape samples were collected and delivered to SRNL between May and August of 2014.

  17. Levels of organochlorine pesticide residues in butter samples collected from the Black Sea Region of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksoy, Abdurrahman; Dervisoglu, Muhammed; Guvenc, Dilek; Gul, Osman; Yazici, Fehmi; Atmaca, Enes

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the levels of 9 organochlorine compounds (aldrin, hexachlorobenzene, 2,4-DDE, 4,4-DDE, 2,4-DDT, 4,4-DDT, and α-, β-, and γ-HCH) in butter samples collected in the Eastern, Middle and Western Black Sea Regions of Turkey between October 2009 and June 2010. The liquid-liquid extraction method was used to extract the organochlorine compounds from the samples and the measurements were performed by using a gas chromatograph-electron capture detector system. DDT metabolites, aldrin, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and α-, and γ-HCH were not detected in the samples but β-HCH was detected in 3 of a total of 88 samples. In the first period, only one sample from the West Black Sea Region was β-HCH positive (0.014 mg kg(-1)). The other β-HCH positive samples collected in Middle and West Black Sea Regions in the second period had a concentration of 0.066 and 0.019 mg kg(-1), respectively. All concentrations of the detected compounds exceeded the legal limits of 0.003 mg kg(-1) for β-HCH, as prescribed by the Turkish Food Codex, and therefore pose a potential health risk for consumers. The contamination detected is most likely due to the past usage of β-HCH in agriculture and its long term persistence in the environment. These results strongly suggest that further research should be focused on the detection of pesticide residues in agricultural areas across the nation.

  18. Food safety in Thailand 4: comparison of pesticide residues found in three commonly consumed vegetables purchased from local markets and supermarkets in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phopin, Kamonrat; Boonpangrak, Somchai; Prachayasittikul, Virapong

    2016-01-01

    Background The wide use of pesticides raises concerns on the health risks associated with pesticide exposure. For developing countries, like Thailand, pesticide monitoring program (in vegetables and fruits) and also the maximum residue limits (MRL) regulation have not been entirely implemented. The MRL is a product limit, not a safety limit. The MRL is the maximum concentration of a pesticide residue (expressed as mg/kg) recommended by the Codex Alimentarius Commission to be legally permitted in or on food commodities and animal feeds (Codex Alimentarius Commission, 2015; European Commission, 2015). MRLs are based on supervised residue trial data where the pesticide has been applied in accordance with GAP (Good Agricultural Practice). This study aims at providing comparison data on pesticide residues found in three commonly consumed vegetables (Chinese kale, pakchoi and morning glory) purchased from some local markets and supermarkets in Thailand. Methods These vegetables were randomly bought from local markets and supermarkets. Then they were analyzed for the content of 28 pesticides by using GC-MS/MS. Results Types of pesticides detected in the samples either from local markets or supermarkets were similar. The incidence of detected pesticides was 100% (local markets) and 99% (supermarkets) for the Chinese kale; 98% (local markets) and 100% (supermarkets) for the pakchoi; and 99% (local markets) and 97% (supermarkets) for the morning glory samples. The pesticides were detected exceeding their MRL at a rate of 48% (local markets) and 35% (supermarkets) for the Chinese kale; 71% (local markets) and 55% (supermarkets) for the pakchoi, and 42% (local markets) and 49% (supermarkets) for the morning glory. Discussion These rates are much higher than those seen in developed countries. It should be noted that these findings were assessed on basis of using criteria (such as MRL) obtained from developed countries. Our findings were also confined to these vegetables sold in

  19. [Determination of 213 pesticide residues in milk and milk power by gas chromatography-triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Ai, Lianfeng; Ma, Yusong; Zhang, Haichao; Li, Wei; Yu, Meng

    2015-11-01

    On the basis of the optimization of solid phase extraction adsorbent, eluting solvent types and amounts, a gas chromatography-triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) method was established for the determination of 213 pesticide residues in milk and milk power. The samples were extracted by acetonitrile, cleaned-up with an ENVI-Carb/NH2 solid-phase extractant, and determined by GC-MS/MS using external standard method. The linear ranges were from 10 to 1 000 μg/L for 197 pesticides, from 50 to 1 000 μg/L for the other 16 pesticides with the correlation coefficients higher than 0.99. The limits of detection (LODs, S/N = 3) varied over the range of 0.03 to 7.59 μg/kg, and limits of quantification (LOQs, S/N = 10) ranged from 0.10 to 21.94 μg/kg. The average recoveries in different matrices were in the range of 66.9% - 120.1% with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 1.23% - 17.6%. This method is simple, rapid, sensitive and reliable for meeting the requirements for the simultaneous identification and quantification of the multi-residues in milk and milk power. PMID:26939364

  20. [Determination of 213 pesticide residues in milk and milk power by gas chromatography-triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Ai, Lianfeng; Ma, Yusong; Zhang, Haichao; Li, Wei; Yu, Meng

    2015-11-01

    On the basis of the optimization of solid phase extraction adsorbent, eluting solvent types and amounts, a gas chromatography-triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) method was established for the determination of 213 pesticide residues in milk and milk power. The samples were extracted by acetonitrile, cleaned-up with an ENVI-Carb/NH2 solid-phase extractant, and determined by GC-MS/MS using external standard method. The linear ranges were from 10 to 1 000 μg/L for 197 pesticides, from 50 to 1 000 μg/L for the other 16 pesticides with the correlation coefficients higher than 0.99. The limits of detection (LODs, S/N = 3) varied over the range of 0.03 to 7.59 μg/kg, and limits of quantification (LOQs, S/N = 10) ranged from 0.10 to 21.94 μg/kg. The average recoveries in different matrices were in the range of 66.9% - 120.1% with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 1.23% - 17.6%. This method is simple, rapid, sensitive and reliable for meeting the requirements for the simultaneous identification and quantification of the multi-residues in milk and milk power.

  1. Effects of Two Composted Plant Pesticide Residues,Incorporated with Trichoderma viride,on Root-Knot Nematode in Balloonflower

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Shuang-xi; ZHANG Xing

    2009-01-01

    Plant pesticide residues,such as chinaberry(Melia toosendan)residue and sand cypress(Sabina vulgaris)residue,are pesticidal plant materials discarded after the bioactive ingredient has been extracted with organic solvents.The only option for botanical pesticide residue utilization has been as landfill.Chinaberry residue(CBR)and sand cypress residue(SCR)were collected and composted in Yangling,Shaanxi Province,China.We studied the effects of chinaberry residue compost(CBRC),CBRC incorporated with Trichoderma viride(CBRCT),sand cypress residue compost(SCRC),and SCRC incorporated with T.viride(SCRCT)on the root-knot nematode,Meloidogyne incognita,infesting the balloonflower(Platycodon grandiflorum).Bioassay results indicated that stock solutions of the CBRCT and SCRCT extracts significantly inhibited egg hatching and caused high larval mortality,followed in degree by the CBRC and SCRC extracts.The CBR and SCR extracts caused very low inhibition of eggs and larvae.Supplementing potting mixtures with these four composts reduced the severity of root galling and increased the proportion of marketable roots.The severity of root galling decreased and the average weight of the marketable roots increased with an increase in all the composts when supplemented at rates from 5 to 30%.CBR- and SCR-supplemented pot soils also inhibited the nematodes,but CBR and SCR applied to the soil had a phytotoxic effect and inhibited balloonflower growth.Supplementing field soil with the composts reduced the severity of root galling and the populations of southern root-knot nematodes in the soil.CBRCT and SCRCT clearly enhanced the average weight of the marketable roots by 30.45 and 26.64%,respectively.Continuous supplementation with CBRCT or SCRCT in the same field significantly enhanced the control of the root-knot nematode,and the populations of nematodes continued to decrease with second inoculations.The populations of total Trichoderma spp.were distinctly enhanced and were maintained at

  2. [Comparison of the performances of gas chromatography-quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in rapid screening and confirmation of 208 pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xinyue; Pang, Guofang; Jin, Linghe; Kang, Jian; Hu, Xueyan; Chang, Qiaoying; Wang, Minglin; Fan, Chunlin

    2015-04-01

    The performances of gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) and gas chromatography quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (GC-QTOF/MS) for the determination of 208 pesticide residues in fruit and vegetable samples, including apple, orange, tomato and cucumber, were compared comprehensively. Based on the differences of the two instruments, their respective characteristics and scopes of application in the detection of the pesticide residues were presented, which provided the reference for the analysis of pesticide residues. The performance parameters of the two instruments, such as overall recoveries, precisions, limits of detection, linear ranges, identification points and matrix effects, were evaluated according to a designed experiment. At three spiked levels (5.0, 10.0 and 20.0 µg/kg), the average recoveries for the majority of pesticides (93.0%) ranged from 70% to 120% in the four matrices with relative standard deviations below 20%. The limits of detection for most of the pesticides by GC-MS/MS and GC-Q-TOF/MS were less than 5.0 µg/kg. Compared with GC-QTOF/MS, GC-MS/MS showed relatively lower limits of detection and wider linear ranges, and its performance was more satisfactory in accurate quantitative analysis due to its superior sensitivity. On the other hand, GC-QTOF/MS provided accurate mass measurement, which was proved to be an efficient analytical tool on the rapid screening and confirmation of a large number of pesticides and non-target compounds. PMID:26292409

  3. Risk A nalysis of Pesticide Residues in Seven Categories of Vegetables%7类重要蔬菜中农药残留风险分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵小中; 魏小春; 朱香玲; 董森森

    2013-01-01

    Pesticide residues in vegetables were monitored in order to comprehensively investigate the current status in Zhengzhou ,Henan province ,in 2010-2012 ,and to provide the basis for its manage-ment .We carried the pesticide residue analysis of 21 kinds of vegetables ,belonging to seven categories in Zhengzhou vegetable production base .The results showed that among 32 pesticides monitored ,30 kinds were detected from the vegetable samples ,and the pesticides with detection rate of more than 5% were deltamethrin ,chlorothalonil ,triadimefon ,procymidone and PCNB .The exceeding rate of pesticide residues had a tendency of Sinusoidal line with seasons ,whose tendency from higher to lower was bulb vegeta-bles ,green leafy vegetables ,brassica vegetables ,bean-like vegetables ,melon-like vegetables ,tuber-like vegetables and eggplant-like vegetables .Meanwhile ,the risk factor of omethoate residue was more than 2 .5 in vegetables ,which was thought high risk ;and that of chlorpyrifos and phorate was between 1 .5 and 2 .5 ,which were thought middle risk ;the risk factor of the rest pesticide residues was lower than 1.5 ,which were thought low risk .%为全面了解和掌握郑州市蔬菜农药残留现状,为政府和相关部门的管理提供依据,2010-2012年对郑州市蔬菜生产基地七大类21种蔬菜开展了农药残留监测工作,采用危害物风险系数法评估农药残留的风险性。结果表明:所检测的32种农药中有30种农药被检出,检出率大于5%的农药有溴氰菊酯、百菌清、三唑酮、腐霉利及五氯硝基苯。农药残留超标率随季节呈“正弦线”的变化趋势,不同类蔬菜农药残留平均超标率大小表现为鳞茎类>绿叶菜类>芸薹类>豆类>瓜类>根茎类>茄果类。蔬菜中氧化乐果的风险系数大于2.5,为高度风险;毒死蜱、甲拌磷的风险系数介于1.5~2.5,为中度风险;其余检测的农药残留风险系数均小于1.5,为低度风险。

  4. Residual analysis for spatial point processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waagepetersen, Rasmus Plenge

    2005-01-01

    Discussion of the paper "Residual analysis for spatial point processes" by A. Baddeley, M. Hazelton, J. Møller and R. Turner. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, Series B, vol. 67, pages 617-666, 2005.......Discussion of the paper "Residual analysis for spatial point processes" by A. Baddeley, M. Hazelton, J. Møller and R. Turner. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, Series B, vol. 67, pages 617-666, 2005....

  5. 75 FR 14154 - Notice of Receipt of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-24

    ... is available for enforcement purposes. Contact: Andrew Ertman, (703) 308-9367; e-mail address: ertman... methodology using LC/MS/MS detection is available for enforcement purposes. Contact: Jennifer Gaines, (703... CFR part 180 for residues of the herbicide glyphosate, N-(phosphonomethyl) glycine, in or on...

  6. 76 FR 6465 - Notice of Receipt of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-04

    ... limited to: Crop production (NAICS code 111). Animal production (NAICS code 112). Food manufacturing... residues of the herbicide saflufenacil, including its metabolites and degradates, in or on banana, whole..., forage at 13 ppm to support the use of glyphosate in RHS seed corn production. Adequate...

  7. 78 FR 13295 - Receipt of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on Various...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-27

    ...-4), requests to establish tolerances in 40 CFR part 180 for residues of the herbicide, clomazone, including its metabolites and degradates, determined by measuring only clomazone, 2- -4,4-dimethyl-3... is a practical analytical method for detecting and measuring levels of clomazone in or on...

  8. 77 FR 15012 - Receipt of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on Various...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-14

    ... aged radiochemical residue samples from metabolism studies. The methods have been validated in... polypeptide from the catabolism of a seed storage protein of sweet lupines (Lupinus albus), in or on various... in the Federal Register for comment on March 10, 2010 (75 FR 11171)(FRL-8810- 8), with a 30...

  9. 77 FR 50661 - Notice of Filing of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-22

    ... summary. You may also reach each contact person by mail at Biopesticides and Pollution Prevention Division... Willow Lake Boulevard, Saint Paul, MN 55101, requests to establish an inert ingredient low risk polymer exemption from the requirement of a tolerance for residues of 2-propenoic acid, 2-ethylhexyl ester,...

  10. 77 FR 59578 - Notice of Filing of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-28

    ... summary. You may also reach each contact person by mail at Biopesticides and Pollution Prevention Division...-s-triazine), in or on bean, snap, succulent at 0.05 ppm; bean, forage at 0.09 ppm; dill, leaves at 0...- Phosphorus detection (GC-NPD) has been developed and validated for residues of fomesafen in snap/dry...

  11. QuEChERS sample preparation for the determination of pesticides and other organic residues in environmental matrices: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruzzoniti, Maria Concetta; Checchini, Leonardo; De Carlo, Rosa Maria; Orlandini, Serena; Rivoira, Luca; Del Bubba, Massimo

    2014-07-01

    Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe (QuEChERS) is an extraction and clean-up technique originally developed for recovering pesticide residues from fruits and vegetables. Since its introduction, and until December 2013, about 700 papers have been published using the QuEChERS technique, according to a literature overview carried out using SciFinder, Elsevier SciVerse, and Google search engines. Most of these papers were dedicated to pesticide multiresidue analysis in food matrices, and this topic has been thoroughly reviewed over recent years. The QuEChERS approach is now rapidly developing beyond its original field of application to analytes other than pesticides, and matrices other than food, such as biological fluids and non-edible plants, including Chinese medicinal plants. Recently, the QuEChERS concept has spread to environmental applications by analyzing not only pesticides but also other compounds of environmental concern in soil, sediments, and water. To the best of our knowledge, QuEChERS environmental applications have not been reviewed so far; therefore, in this contribution, after a general discussion on the evolution and changes of the original QuEChERS method, a critical survey of the literature regarding environmental applications of conventional and modified QuEChERS methodology is provided. The overall recoveries obtained with QuEChERS and other extraction approaches (e.g., accelerated solvent extraction, ultrasonic solvent extraction, liquid/solid extraction, and soxhlet extraction) were compared, providing evidence for QuEChERS higher recoveries for various classes of compounds, such as biopesticides, chloroalkanes, phenols, and perfluoroalkyl substances. The role of physicochemical properties of soil (i.e., clay and organic carbon content, as well as cation exchange capacity) and target analytes (i.e., log KOW, water solubility, and vapor pressure) were also evaluated in order to interpret recovery and matrix effect data.

  12. Organophosphorus and Carbamate Pesticide Residues Detected in Water Samples Collected from Paddy and Vegetable Fields of the Savar and Dhamrai Upazilas in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Karim

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Several types of organophosphorous and carbamate pesticides have been used extensively by the farmers in Bangladesh during the last few decades. Twenty seven water samples collected from both paddy and vegetable fields in the Savar and Dhamrai Upazilas in Bangladesh were analyzed to determine the occurrence and distribution of organo-phosphorus (chlorpyrifos, malathion and diazinon and carbamate (carbaryl and carbofuran pesticide residues. A high performance liquid chromatograph instrument equipped with a photodiode array detector was used to determine the concentrations of these pesticide residues. Diazinon and carbofuran were detected in water samples collected from Savar Upazila at 0.9 μg/L and 198.7 μg/L, respectively. Malathion was also detected in a single water sample at 105.2 μg/L from Dhamrai Upazila. Carbaryl was the most common pesticide detected in Dhamrai Upazila at 14.1 and 18.1 μg/L, while another water sample from Dhamrai Upazila was contaminated with carbofuran at 105.2 μg/L. Chlorpyrifos was not detected in any sample. Overall, the pesticide residues detected were well above the maximum acceptable levels of total and individual pesticide contamination, at 0.5 and 0.1 μg/L, respectively, in water samples recommended by the European Economic Community (Directive 98/83/EC. The presence of these pesticide residues may be attributed by their intense use by the farmers living in these areas. Proper handling of these pesticides should be ensured to avoid direct or indirect exposure to these pesticides.

  13. 75 FR 9596 - Notice of Filing of a Pesticide Petition for Residues of a Aspergillus flavus AF36 on Corn Food...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Notice of Filing of a Pesticide Petition for Residues of a Aspergillus flavus AF36 on Corn Food... residues of the antifungal ] agent, Aspergillus flavus AF36, in or on corn food and feed commodities....

  14. Organochlorine pesticide residues in human breast milk and placenta in Tohoku, Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakai, K.; Suzuki, K.; Oka, T.; Sugawara, N.; Ohba, T.; Kameo, S.; Satoh, H. [Environmental Heath Sciences, Tohoku Univ. Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai (Japan); Nakamura, T.; Saitoh, Y. [Miyagi Prefectural Inst. of Piblic Health and Environment (Japan); Okamura, K. [Dept. of Obstetrics, Tohoku Univ. Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    Recently, we have started a birth cohort study to examine the effects of exposure to persistent organochemical pollutants and heavy metals on neurodevelopment in Japanese children, The Tohoku Study of Child Development. In this cohort study, biological samples, including maternal peripheral blood, cord blood, placenta, cord tissue, and breast milk have been collected from more than six hundred mother-infant pairs for chemical determinations. The growth of infants has been monitored using neurodevelopmental tests, including the Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale, the Bayley Scale of Infant Development, the Kyoto Scale of Psychological Development, and others. Exposures to dioxin and related compounds, polychlorinated biphenyls, methylmercury, and several heavy metals were assessed. Additionally, since perinatal exposure to organochlorine pesticides may affect the neurodevelopment of children, we examined the effects of those pesticides in the cohort study. In the present study, several organochlorine pesticides were analyzed in human breast milk and placenta from 20 mothers to identify the major pesticide compounds found in the cohort subjects. The relationship between pesticides in breast milk and the placenta was analyzed to examine the utilization of the placenta as the material for exposure assessment. Some information regarding the factors affecting the contamination of breast milk and the placenta with organochlorine pesticides are also discussed.

  15. Pesticide residues in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and Nile perch (Lates niloticus) from Southern Lake Victoria, Tanzania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henry, L. [Chemistry Department, University of Dar es Salaam. PO Box 35061, Dar es Salaam (Tanzania); Kishimba, M.A. [Chemistry Department, University of Dar es Salaam. PO Box 35061, Dar es Salaam (Tanzania)]. E-mail: kishimba@chem.udsm.ac.tz

    2006-03-15

    Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and Nile perch (Lates niloticus) samples were collected from fish landing stations in nine riparian districts on the Tanzanian side of Lake Victoria and screened for residues of 64 organochlorine, organophosphorus, carbamate, and pyrethroid pesticides. The residue levels in the fish fillet were up to 0.003, 0.03 and 0.2 mg/kg fresh weight (0.7, 3.8 and 42 mg/kg lipid weight) of fenitrothion, DDT and endosulfan, respectively. Mean levels within sites were up to 0.002, 0.02 and 0.1 mg/kg fresh weight (0.5, 0.5 and 16 mg/kg lipid weight), respectively. The detection of higher levels of p,p'-DDT than the degradation products (p,p'-DDD and p,p'-DDE), and higher levels of endosulfan isomers ({alpha} and {beta}) than the sulphate, in fish samples, implied recent exposure of fish to DDT and endosulfan, respectively. Generally, most of the fish samples had residue levels above the average method detection limits (MDLs), but were within the calculated ADI. - Fish from Lake Victoria had relatively low pesticide levels.

  16. Simple, specific analysis of organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides in sediments using column extraction and gas chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belisle, A.A.; Swineford, D.M.

    1988-01-01

    A simple, specific procedure was developed for the analysis of organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides in sediment. The wet soil was mixed with anhydrous sodium sulfate to bind water and the residues were column extracted in acetone:methylene chloride (1:l,v/v). Coextracted water was removed by additional sodium sulfate packed below the sample mixture. The eluate was concentrated and analyzed directly by capillary gas chromatography using phosphorus and nitrogen specific detectors. Recoveries averaged 93 % for sediments extracted shortly after spiking, but decreased significantly as the samples aged.

  17. 我国主产地柑橘的农药残留现状研究%Current Situation of Pesticide Residues in Citrus from China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张耀海; 焦必宁; 赵其阳; 王成秋; 周志钦

    2011-01-01

    我国柑橘生产使用农药种类多、剂量大,对产品质量安全有一定影响.文中采用气相色谱和高效液相色谱检测技术,对我国6省(市)柑橘产地抽取的198个鲜果样品进行了26种农药残留的检测与评价.10种农药残留检出,包括禁限用农药,其中1个样品有1种农残超标,超标率为0.47%,各省(市)柑橘鲜果样品的农药残留检出率均在48.9%以上,我国柑橘质量安全存在潜在风险.%The wide varieties and massive doses of pesticide residues applied in citrus production has influence on citrus safety quality in China.The current situation of citrus safety was investigated to provide basic reference in the evaluation of potential risks.All samples from six provinces or cities were determined by gas chromatography (GC) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to monitor twenty-six pesticides.Ten of twenty six pesticides residues were detected and one exceeded the MRLs.Of all the samples, 0.47% exceeded the MRLs.The detectable rates of samples from six main producing areas were above 48.9%.There is a potential risk in Citrus products in China.In order to ensure the citrus safety in China, we need to strengthen pesticide residue examination, enhance disease-carrying insect monitor and preventing technical guidance, promote non-environmental damage and green citrus production technology.We also need to improve our detecting technology and catch up with international advanced analysis method.

  18. Residues of organochlorine pesticides and PCBs in some Brazilian municipal solid waste compost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourencetti, Carolina; Favoreto, Rodrigo; Marchi, Mary R R; Ribeiro, Maria L

    2007-08-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs), organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), listed as per the Stockholm Convention (alpha -HCH, beta -HCH, gamma -HCH, p,p'-DDT, o,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDD, p,p'-DDE, aldrin, endrin, dieldrin, PCBs 28, 52, 118, 138, 153, and 180), were analyzed in municipal solid waste (MSW) compost samples from three different Brazilian composting plants located in three São Paulo State cities: Araras, Araraquara and São Paulo (Vila Leopoldinha). Quantitative and qualitative analyses were carried out using gas chromatography electron capture detection (GC-ECD) and gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) (Ion Trap, electron impact ionization), respectively. The samples were analyzed in triplicate and the target POPs were not detected by GC-ECD. Twelve pollutants were identified in two samples when qualitative analysis (GC-MS) was used (beta -HCH, gamma -HCH, p,p'-DDT, o,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDD, and p,p'-DDE, PCBs 28, 118, 138, 153 and 180). The composting process has advantages such as urban solid waste reduction and landfill life-span increase, however the MSW compost quality, which can be utilized for agricultural purposes, should be evaluated and be controlled. This kind of study is the first step in making available information to answer questions regarding MSW compost for sustainable agricultural use, such as the pollutants accumulation in soil and in groundwater, and plants uptake. PMID:17701705

  19. 75 FR 66092 - Notice of Receipt of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-27

    ..., edible-podded legume, subgroup 6A at 2.5 ppm; vegetable, succulent, shelled peas and beans, subgroup 6B at 0.4 ppm; vegetable, pea and bean, dried shelled, except soybean, subgroup 6C at 0.3 ppm; soybean... for very dry matrices, e.g., pea hay, for which the LOQ is 0.05 mg/kg. An LC/MS/MS residue method...

  20. 农药残留问题的过去、现在和将来%Overview on the Problem of Pesticide Residues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈宗懋

    2011-01-01

    Pesticide residue in agricultural products is an important aspect in food safety. The application of chemical pesticide in the agriculture was begun since 1938 and the pesticide residue problem was emerged in the end of 1950's. The publication of the "Silent Spring" written by Rachal Carson in 1962 revealed the prologue of pesticide residue. It was paid more attention in the world with the development of pesticide toxicology. The MRL of pesticide residue in food was decreased around 100 times in the 60 years period between the sixties of last century and 2010. The new challenge of pesticide residue in the future was discussed by the author from the aspects of the adoption of acute reference dose (ARID) in the toxicity assessment, the development of pesticide toxicology, the accumulative toxicology of various pesticides and the difference of toxicology in chiral compounds of pesticide. The risk assessment, the revealing of contamination source and the cleaning production were put forward by the author as the major techniques in controlling of pesticide residue in agricultural products.%农产品中的农药残留是食品安全的一个重要方面.化学农药自1938年开始在世界上推广应用,20世纪50年代末农药残留问题凸现.1962年出版的Silent Spring一书揭开了农药残留问题的序幕.随着农药毒理学的发展,食品中农药残留也越来越引起社会的重视.食品中最大农药残留限量(MRL)标准,从20世纪60年代到21世纪10年代的60年间下降了100倍.本文从急性参考剂量(ARfD)毒性评估标准的出现、农药毒理学的发展、同类农药的累积毒性、农药手性化合物的毒性差异等方面,讨论未来农药残留面临的新挑战.提出风险评估、探明污染源、清洁化生产、无公害治理等可作为农产品中农药残留的主要阻控技术.

  1. 蔬菜中毒死蜱等几种农药残留量测定不确定度分析%Analysis of Uncertainties in Determination of Four Pesticide Residues in Vegetables by Gas Chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭慧莲; 成秀娟; 徐伟松; 江燕玲

    2012-01-01

    According to NY/T 761-2008, the uncertainty in determination of 4 kikds pesticdes (including indoxacarb, dimethomorph, chlorpyrifos and eypermethrin) residues is divided into 5 different parts in this paper, including weighting, extract, cleansing, determining by GC, and the correct factor as a token of repeating test and sample. The aim of reasonable evaluation of uncertainty of measurement is to provide scientific basis for the laboratory quality management and control. In the process of the test, the eorrect factor and repeat determination value are the main factor in the measurement uncertainty assessing.%本文结合NY/T 761-2004农药残留分析方法,把毒死蜱、氯氰菊酯、茚虫威、烯酰吗啉等4种农药残留量测定不确定度分为称量、提取、净化、色谱测定等分量,用校正因子来表征测定过程中的重复性不确定度,并加以评定,为试验室质量管理和控制提供科学依据。结果表明,色谱定量重复性误差及同一样品的重复性误差所引入的不确定度是影响残留量测定不确定度的较大因素。

  2. Levels of organochlorine pesticide residues in some organs of the Ganges perch, Lates calcarifer, from the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna Estuary, Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jabber, Sardar Md Abdul; Khan, Yusuf Sharif Ahmed [Chittagong Univ., Inst. of Marine Sciences, Chittagong (Bangladesh); Rahman, M. Saifur [Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Inst. of Food and Radiation Biology (IFRB), Dhaka, (Bangladesh)

    2001-07-01

    Levels of organochlorine pesticide residues (p,p' DDT, DDD, DDE, Aldrin, Dieldrin, Lindane, Heptachlor and BHC) were analysed in the dry and wet seasons in four organs (muscle, liver, gut and egg samples) of Granges Perch, Lates calcarifer, collected during October-November-December, 1996 and May-June-July, 1997 from the Ganges-Brahmaputtra-Meghna estuary. The residues were analysed by using gas-chromatography (GC) in electron capture detector (ECD) mode and were verified by thin layer chromatography (TLC). Among the four organs analysed, the residues were found in the order egg>gut>muscle>liver. The pesticide residues were found in the order {sigma}DDT>Heptachlor>Dieldrin>Aldrin. Higher levels of residues were found during the dry season due to high lipid content in fishes. A positive correlation was observed between the pesticide residues ({sigma}DDT and {sigma}OCs) and lipid contents of fish, and the correlation was found to be linear. The concentrations of pesticide residues in muscle, liver and gut were below the FAO/WHO (1993) recommended permissible limit except in eggs. (Author)

  3. Multiresidue analytical procedures for pesticides residues in vegetable products; Metodi mutiresiduo per l`analisi di residui di antiparassitari in prodotti vegetali

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruppo di lavoro per i residui di antiparassitari della Commissione permanente di coordinamento interregionale per i problemi relativi al controllo ufficiale dei prodotti alimentari

    1997-09-01

    Multiresidue methods for pesticide residues in vegetable products, most frequently used by laboratories of the Italian national health service, by the regional and provincial agencies for environmental protection and by the National health institute. The analytical behaviour is presented for 249 pesticides through the different steps of extraction and cleanup, along with data for the gas chromatography (GC), gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and high performance liquid chromatography coupled to spectrophotometric detector (HPL/UV).

  4. 食品中农药残留筛查系统的构建%Construction of pesticide residues screening system in foods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨永坛; 陈士恒; 史晓梅

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT:This article reviewed the kinds and damage of common pesticides, latest detection technique and pretreatment methods about pesticide residues in complex food matrix. Solid phase extraction, gel permeation chromatography, microwave assisted extraction and dispersive solid phase extraction technologies were mainly summarized. The detection technology of pesticide residues mainly used chromatography methods. This paper focused on the gas chromatography, liquid chromatography methods and the corresponding mass spectrometry method. The development of high resolution mass spectrometry technology can provide strong support for the establishment of pesticide residue detection and monitoring system. The pesticide residues monitoring system, software system and database based on the main pesticide residues concerned in grain and oil food were proposed, which can be used in the pesticide residues risk screening system. This pesticide residues screening system can be used for government and industry to master the pollution situation of pesticide residues in agricultural products and to propose the practical solution.%对常见农药的种类、农药残留的危害及有关农药残留的最新检测技术和复杂基质样品的前处理技术进行概述,主要总结固相萃取、凝胶渗透色谱、微波辅助消解以及分散固相萃取技术。农药残留检测主要使用色谱学方法,文中重点概述气相色谱、液相色谱方法以及相应的质谱联用技术,高分辨质谱技术的发展可以为农药残留筛查系统的建立提供有力支撑。在此基础上提出基于粮油食品中重点关注的农药残留种类并建立农药残留的监测系统、软件系统及数据库,进而建立农药残留的风险筛查系统,为政府部门及产业部门掌握农产品农药污染情况提出切实可行的解决方案。

  5. Scientific support for preparing an EU position for the 45th Session of the Codex Committee on Pesticide Residues (CCPR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In accordance with Article 43 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005, EFSA received a request from the European Commission to provide support for the preparation of the EU position for the 45th session of the Codex Committee on Pesticide Residues (CCPR. In 2012, JMPR evaluated 12 active substances regarding the setting of toxicological reference values to be used in consumer risk assessment, 7 new compounds (ametoctradin, chlorfenapyr, dinotefuran, fluxapyroxad, MCPA, picoxystrobin, sedaxane and 4 part of periodic reevaluation (benzoate, fenpropathrin, fenvalerate, glufosinate-ammonium. Regarding the setting of Maximum Residue Limits (CXLs, JMPR assessed 26 substances (ametoctradin, azoxystrobin, buprofezin, carbofuran, chlorfenapyr, chlorothalonil, cycloxydim, cyfluthrin, cyromazine, dichlorvos, dicofol, dinotefuran, fenvalerate, fludioxonil, fluopyram, fluxapyroxad, glufosinate-ammonium, imidacloprid, MCPA, methoxyfenozide, penthiopyrad, phorate, picoxystrobin, sedaxane, spinetoram and trifloxystrobin. EFSA derived comments on the JMPR evaluations regarding the acceptability of the proposed draft Codex MRLs and the toxicological reference values.

  6. Scientific support for preparing an EU position in the 46th Session of the Codex Committee on Pesticide Residues (CCPR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In accordance with Article 43 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005, EFSA received a request from the European Commission to provide support for the preparation of the EU position for 46th session of the Codex Committee on Pesticide Residues (CCPR. In 2013, JMPR evaluated 10 active substances regarding the setting of toxicological reference values to be used in consumer risk assessment (diquat, chlorfenapyr, picoxystrobin, benzovindiflupyr, bixafen, fenamidone, fluesulfone, isoxaflutole, tolfenpyrad, and trinexapac and 31 active substances regarding the setting of Maximum Residue Limits (MRLs (diquat, malathion, chlorpyrifos methyl, triazophos, glyphosate, propiconazole, bentazone, dithianon, fenpyroximate, fenbuconazole, flutriafol, cyprodinil, fludioxonil, indoxocarb, difenoconazole, pyrimethanil, azoxystrobin, chlorantraniliprole, mandipropamid, spirotetramate, cyproconazole, dicamba, sulfoxaflor, penthiopyrad, cyantraniliprole, imazapic, imazapyr, isoxaflutole, tolfenpyrad and trinexapac.

  7. Monitoring of Certain Pesticide Residues and Some Heavy Metals in Fresh Cow`s Milk at Gharbia Governorate, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasr, I. N.; Sallam, A. A. A.; Abd El-Khair, A. A.

    This monitoring study of 40 samples of cow's milk collected from different locations at Gharbia Governorate during the four different seasons of the years 2005-2006, was conducted to determine the contamination levels of seven pesticide residues including four organophosphorus (chlorpyrifos, diazinon, dimethoate and malathion) and three synthetic pyrethroides (cypermethrin, deltamethrin and fenvelerate), as well as five heavy metals (copper, iron, cadmium, zinc and lead). The results showed that there were no contamination with investigated pesticide residues found in all analyzed samples, except for malathion, which was detected in a single sample with a negligible existence (0.018 mg kg-1), by ratio of (0.02%) of all samples. In relation to heavy metals detection, data revealed that all milk samples were contaminated with heavy metals all year around. The contamination with heavy metals was generally dominated at summer season. Level of lead was higher than other metals. The mean levels of Cu, Fe, Cd, Zn and Pb were 0.251, 0.607, 0.159, 0.371 and 2.462 mg kg-1, respectively. Cu, Fe and Zn level were under the permissible limits, while the Cd and Pb were exceeded the permissible limits, indicating serious heavy metals pollution in the region.

  8. Assessment of organochlorine pesticide residues in Atlantic Rain Forest fragments, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A superficial water quality survey in a watershed of the Paraiba do Sul River, the main water supply for the most populated cities of southeastern Brazil, was held in order to assess the impact of the expansion of agricultural activity in the near border of the Atlantic Rain Forest. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of priority organochlorine pollutants in soils and superficial waters of Atlantic rainforest fragments in Teresopolis, Rio de Janeiro State. Soil sample preparations were compared by using ultrasound, microwave assisted extraction and Soxhlet extraction. Recoveries of matrix spiked samples ranged from 70 to 130%. Analysis of a certified soil material showed recoveries ranging from 71 to 234%. Although low concentrations of organochlorine residues were found in water and soil samples, this area is of environmental importance and concern, thus demanding a monitoring program of its compartments. - Highlights: → The organochlorine pollutants occurrence in the Atlantic Rain Forest was investigated. → PARNASO was considered a control area of environmental quality. → Extractions methods were compared for typical C-rich soils samples from Brazil. → Low concentrations of organochlorine residues were found in water and soil samples. → A monitoring program is demanded due to the environmental importance of the area. - The occurrence of organochlorine pollutants in soils of the Atlantic rainforest fragments in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil demands a monitoring program of its compartments.

  9. Assessment of organochlorine pesticide residues in Atlantic Rain Forest fragments, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares Quinete, Natalia, E-mail: nataliaquinete@yahoo.com.br [Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia, Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Laboratorio de Quimica Analitica e Metrologia em Quimica, Av. Venezuela, 82 - Rio de Janeiro, RJ 20081-312 (Brazil); Santos de Oliveira, Elba dos [Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia, Departamento de Energia, Av. Venezuela, 82 - Rio de Janeiro, RJ 20081-312 (Brazil); Fernandes, Daniella R. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Quimica, Departamento de Quimica Analitica, CT - Bloco A, Cidade Universitaria, 21941-909 - Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Souza Avelar, Andre de [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Departamento de Geografia, Instituto de Geociencias, CCMN, Bloco F, Cidade Universitaria, 21941-919 - Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Erthal Santelli, Ricardo [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Quimica, Departamento de Quimica Analitica, CT - Bloco A, Cidade Universitaria, 21941-909 - Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2011-12-15

    A superficial water quality survey in a watershed of the Paraiba do Sul River, the main water supply for the most populated cities of southeastern Brazil, was held in order to assess the impact of the expansion of agricultural activity in the near border of the Atlantic Rain Forest. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of priority organochlorine pollutants in soils and superficial waters of Atlantic rainforest fragments in Teresopolis, Rio de Janeiro State. Soil sample preparations were compared by using ultrasound, microwave assisted extraction and Soxhlet extraction. Recoveries of matrix spiked samples ranged from 70 to 130%. Analysis of a certified soil material showed recoveries ranging from 71 to 234%. Although low concentrations of organochlorine residues were found in water and soil samples, this area is of environmental importance and concern, thus demanding a monitoring program of its compartments. - Highlights: > The organochlorine pollutants occurrence in the Atlantic Rain Forest was investigated. > PARNASO was considered a control area of environmental quality. > Extractions methods were compared for typical C-rich soils samples from Brazil. > Low concentrations of organochlorine residues were found in water and soil samples. > A monitoring program is demanded due to the environmental importance of the area. - The occurrence of organochlorine pollutants in soils of the Atlantic rainforest fragments in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil demands a monitoring program of its compartments.

  10. Survey of pesticide residues in table grapes. Determination of processing factors, intake and risk assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Poulsen, Mette Erecius; Hansen, Hanne Kyhnau; Sloth, Jens Jørgen; Christensen, Hanne Bjerre; Andersen, Jens Hinge

    2007-01-01

    Abstract The differences in residue pattern between the main exporters of table grapes to the Danish market, Italy and South Africa, were investigated. The results showed no major differences with respect to the number of samples with residues, where residues were found in 54-78% of the samples. Excedances of EU-MRL were found in five samples from Italy. A number of samples were rinsed to study possible reduction of residues. For copper, iprodione, procymidone and dithiocarbamates ...

  11. Search of Organochlorine Pesticide Residues (Pocs in Bodies of Water in Cotton-Growing Area of Benin by GC-ECD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    *M. A. N. Gbaguidi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite their incontestable services in agriculture, the use of pesticides is not without consequences on the environment. So, in an attempt to access the impacts of pesticides usage in agriculture in Benin, research of some residual organochloride pesticides have been conducted both in rainy and dry seasons in two cotton growing areas: the northern and central part of Benin. The analytical technique used is GC-ECD. During the dry season we notice that the DDT and its metabolites (DDE and DDD represent 36% of all organochlorine pesticides (POCs against 64 % of cyclodiens. Endosulfan comes first representing 57% of all organochlorine pesticides (POCs, then follows DDT with 17 %. During the rainy season these two types of organochlorine pesticides (POCs represent 73% for cyclodiens and 23% for DDT and its by-products. Endosulfan comes first by representing 47% of all organochlorine pesticides (POCs followed by DDT representing 12%. In the sediments and regardless of the season, the cyclodiens come first by representing 70% of all organochlorine pesticides (POCs and then follows the DDT and its by-products which represent 30%. Since in the water column, the sediments are more contaminated in rainy season than in dry season (25273 ppb of all organochlorine pesticide (POCs in rainy season against 2.256 ppb in dry season, it is derived from this study that northern areas are more contaminated than the central areas. Also a strong correlation has been established between the content of different moleculars of organochlorine pesticide (POCs. This means that the famers still use prohibited pesticides in the two areas despite existing laws like “Stockholm convention” which strictly ban the usage of those moleculars.

  12. Studies on organochlorine pesticide residues in human breast milk of primparae mothers from selected areas in the Greater Accra Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was conducted to determine the types and levels of organochlorine pesticide residuals in the human milk samples of 42 nursing mothers from Ada and Accra. The milk samples were analyzed for 14 different organochlorine pesticides residue (Aldrin, Dieldrin, p,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDE, Endrin, Endrin Aldehyde, Endrin Ketone, Endosulphan sulfate,' Alpha Endosulphan, Gamma-HCH, Delta-HCH, Gamma Chlordane, Heptachlor and Methoxychlor) using Gas chromatography with electron capture detector. The mean concentrations for the organochlorine pesticide residues detected in the human milk samples from Accra are; Gamma-HCH (4.207µg/kg fat), Delta-HCH (13.855µg/kg fat), Heptachlor (11.791µg/kg fat), Aldrin (2.962µg/kg fat), Gamma- Chlordane (1.839µg/kg fat), Alpha-Endosulfan (4.740µg/kg fat), p,p'-DDE (23.367µg/kg fat), Dieldrin (2.407µg/kg fat), p,p'-DDT (3.085µg/kg fat), Endrin (7.669µg/kg fat), Endrin Aldehyde (7.769µg/kg fat), Endosulfan-Sulphate (99.052µg/kg fat), Endrin Ketone (63.846µg/kg fat), and Methoxychlor (20.116µg/kg fat). The mean concentrations of the various organochlorine pesticide residues detected in the human milk samples from Ada are; Gamma-HCH (5.438µg/kg fat), DeIta-HCH (6.728µg/kg fat), Heptachlor (0.682µg/kg fat), Aldrin (2.38µg/kg fat), Gamma- Chlordane (1.304µg/kg fat), Alpha-Endosulfan (2.588µg/kg fat), p,p'-DDE (24.165µg/kg fat), Dieldrin (2.222µg/kg fat), p,p'-DDT (3.468µg/kg fat), Endrin (6.339 µg/kg fat), Endosulfan-Sulphate (63.803)µg/kg fat), Endrin Ketone (11.167)µg/kg fat), and Methoxychlor (0.703µg/kg fat). The mean concentration of Endosulfan Sulfate was (99.052Iµ g/kg fat) was highest for the milk samples from Accra. Gamma chlordane recorded the least mean concentration (1.839 µg/kg fat) in the milk samples from Accra. The mean concentration of Endosulfan sulfate (63.803 µg/kg fat) was still the highest as compared to the other organochlorines analyzed for in the milk samples from Ada. Endrin Aldehyde was not

  13. Potential transport and degradation of “Aged” pesticide residues in soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    “Aging” has been shown to affect the sorption-desorption of pesticides in the soil, which in turn can control transport and degradation processes. Aging effects have been characterized by batch sequential extraction methods, in which sorption coefficients (i.e. Kd) are determined for the chemical re...

  14. Organochlorine pesticides residues in feed and muscle of farmed Nile tilapia from Brazilian fish farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botaro, Daniele; Torres, João Paulo Machado; Malm, Olaf; Rebelo, Mauro Freitas; Henkelmann, Bernhard; Schramm, Karl-Werner

    2011-09-01

    Organochlorine pesticide (OCP) concentrations were determined in fish muscle and feed collected from four different fish farms in Brazil. Nile tilapia from two growth stages, juveniles and adults, collected at two intensive tanks farms (IT1 and IT2) and two net cage farms (NC1 and NC2), were analyzed by High Resolution Gas Chromatography/High Resolution Mass Spectrometry. Pesticides were detected in almost all samples, but no samples exceeded international maximum limits for safe fish consumption. ΣDDT was the predominant pesticide in fish muscle, found in all fish samples, and endosulfan was the most predominant pesticide in feed, found in all feed samples. No significant correlation (p>0.05) was observed between the different growth stages and OCP concentrations, although slightly higher OCP concentrations were observed in adults. Among the rearing systems, NC farmed fish presented higher lipid levels and, consequently, higher OCP concentrations than fish from IT farms. Some OCPs (ΣHCH, aldrin, dieldrin and endrin) presented strong positive correlations (pcontaminants found in most of the feed samples may explain the low contaminant levels in fish tissue.

  15. Pesticide residues in fruit and vegetables from Africa - a Nordic Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Annette

    . Most of the samples came from South Africa (249), followed by Egypt (129), Morocco (92) and Kenya (88). In total 45 different commodities were analyzed, oranges (162) being the largest group, followed by beans with pods (80) and table grapes (71). In the analytical scope 220 to 345 pesticides and...

  16. FUNGUS INDEX AND RESIDUAL EFFECTS OF PESTICIDES IN ACID AND ALKALINE SOILS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil applied pesticides have profound effects on the population density and diversity of fungi, however, such information is lacking in tropical soils of the Amazon region. Field experiments were implemented at two experimental farms ("El Choclito", "Bello Horizonte”) of Tropical Crop Institute (ICT...

  17. Multi-residue pesticide analysis (gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry detection)-Improvement of the quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe method for dried fruits and fat-rich cereals-Benefit and limit of a standardized apple purée calibration (screening).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasche, Claudia; Fournes, Britta; Dirks, Uwe; Speer, Karl

    2015-07-17

    Some steps of the QuEChERS method for the analysis of pesticides with GC-MS/MS in cereals and dried fruits were improved or simplified. For the latter, a mixing vessel with stator-rotor-system proved to be advantageous. The extraction procedure of dried fruits is much easier and safer than the Ultra Turrax and results in excellent validation data at a concentration level of 0.01mg/kg (116 of 118 analytes with recoveries in the range of 70-120%, 117 of 118 analytes with RSD 7%), predominantly organochlorines showed recoveries of extraction was carried out analogous to the QuEChERS method, however, without the addition of water. With this simple modification, the problematic lipophilic pesticides, which had been strongly affected by the fat content of the commodities, could be determined with recoveries above 70% even at a concentration level of 0.01mg/kg. Moreover, a GC-MS/MS screening method for 120 pesticides at a concentration level of 0.01mg/kg was established by employing analyte protectants (ethylglycerol, gulonolactone, and sorbitol). The use of only one standardized calibration, made of an apple purée extract in combination with analyte protectants, allowed for a qualitative and quantitative analysis of 120 pesticides in different matrix extracts (tomato, red pepper, sour cherries, dried apples, black currant powder, raisins, wheat flour, rolled oats, wheat germ). The analyte protectants leveled the differences in the matrix-induced protection effect of the analyzed extracts over a wide range. The majority of the pesticides were analyzed with good analytical results (recoveries in the range of 70-120% and RSD <20%). PMID:26044382

  18. Assessment of organochlorine pesticide residues in Atlantic Rain Forest fragments, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinete, Natalia Soares; de Oliveira, Elba dos Santos; Fernandes, Daniella R; Avelar, Andre de Souza; Santelli, Ricardo Erthal

    2011-12-01

    A superficial water quality survey in a watershed of the Paraíba do Sul River, the main water supply for the most populated cities of southeastern Brazil, was held in order to assess the impact of the expansion of agricultural activity in the near border of the Atlantic Rain Forest. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of priority organochlorine pollutants in soils and superficial waters of Atlantic rainforest fragments in Teresópolis, Rio de Janeiro State. Soil sample preparations were compared by using ultrasound, microwave assisted extraction and Soxhlet extraction. Recoveries of matrix spiked samples ranged from 70 to 130%. Analysis of a certified soil material showed recoveries ranging from 71 to 234%. Although low concentrations of organochlorine residues were found in water and soil samples, this area is of environmental importance and concern, thus demanding a monitoring program of its compartments. PMID:21864959

  19. Determination of Trichlorfon Pesticide Residues in Milk via Gas Chromatography with μ-Electron Capture Detection and GC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hem, Lina; Khay, Sathya; Choi, Jeong-Heui; Morgan, E D; Abd El-Aty, A M; Shim, Jae-Han

    2010-06-01

    The pesticide trichlorfon is readily degraded under experimental conditions to dichlorvos. A method has therefore been developed by which residues of trichlorfon in milk are determined as dichlorvos, using gas chromatography with μ-electron capture detection. The identification of dichlorvos was confirmed by mass spectrometry. Milk was extracted with acetonitrile followed by centrifugation, freezing lipid filtration, and partitioning into dichloromethane. The residue after partitioning of dichloromethane was dissolved in ethyl acetate for gas chromatography. Recovery concentration was determined at 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 of times the maximum permitted residue limits (MRLs) for trichlorfon in milk. The average recoveries (n = 6) ranged from 92.4 to 103.6%. The repeatability of the measurements was expressed as relative standard deviations (RSDs) ranging from 3.6%, to 6.7%. Limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) were 3.7 and 11.1 μg/l, respectively. The accuracy and precision (expressed as RSD) were estimated at concentrations from 25 to 250 μg/l. The intra- and inter-day accuracy (n = 6) ranged from 89.2%to 91% and 91.3% to 96.3%, respectively. The intra- and inter-day precisions were lower than 8%. The developed method was applied to determine trichlorfon in real samples collected from the seven major cities in the Republic of Korea. No residual trichlorfon was detected in any samples. PMID:24278518

  20. The maximum residue limits and determination of pesticide residues in asparagus%芦笋中农药最大残留限量及检测方法研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋欢; 车兰兰; 林勤保; 王蓉珍

    2012-01-01

    总结了芦笋中常用农药及欧盟、日本、美国和我国对其最大残留限量规定,并对农药残留相关检测方法在芦笋等果蔬中的应用进行综述,以期为我国芦笋中农药残留检测和控制提供参考。%Common pesticides used in asparagus planting and the maximum residue limits (MRLs) of those in European Union,Japan,USA and China were summarized,and also the application of relevant determination methods of pesticide residues to asparagus ,vegetables and fruit were reviewed. The paper is aimed at providing reference for pesticide residue determination and controlling in Chinese asparagus field.

  1. Study on pesticide residues of leafy vegetables in Guangxi%广西叶菜类蔬菜农药残留调查研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛芳明; 文良娟

    2012-01-01

    Pesticide residues of leafy vegetables for 14 prefecture-level cities in Guangxi have been surveied, at the same time problem of pesticide residues around the cities have been analyzed and summarized, and comments and suggestions have been made.%通过对广西14个地级市叶菜类蔬菜农药残留状况调查,对各地农药残留问题进行了分析与总结,并提出意见和建议。

  2. Application of elevated temperature-dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction for determination of organophosphorus pesticides residues in aqueous samples followed by gas chromatography-flame ionization detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farajzadeh, Mir Ali; Afshar Mogaddam, Mohammad Reza; Rezaee Aghdam, Samaneh; Nouri, Nina; Bamorrowat, Mahdi

    2016-12-01

    In the present study, an elevated temperature, dispersive, liquid-liquid microextraction/gas chromatography-flame ionization detection was investigated for the determination, pre-concentration, and extraction of six organophosphorus pesticides (malathion, phosalone, dichlorvos, diazinon, profenofos, and chlorpyrifos) residues in fruit juice and aqueous samples. A mixture of 1,2-dibromoethane (extraction solvent) and dimethyl sulfoxide (disperser solvent) was injected rapidly into the sample solution heated at an elevated temperature. Analytical parameters, including enrichment factors (1600-2075), linearity (r>0.994), limits of detection (0.82-2.72ngmL(-1)) and quantification (2.60-7.36ngmL(-1)), relative standard deviations (<7%) and extraction recoveries (64-83%), showed the high efficiency of the method developed for analysis of the target analytes. The proposed procedure was used effectively to analyse selected analytes in river water and fruit juice, and diazinon was found at ngmL(-1) concentrations in apple juice.

  3. Utilizing a novel sorbent in the solid phase extraction for simultaneous determination of 15 pesticide residues in green tea by GC/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Feifei; Tang, Hua; Wu, Xue; Chen, Dazhou; Zhao, Tan; Liu, Pei; Li, Lei

    2016-06-15

    Pesticide residues exceeding standard in green tea is a widespread problem of the world's attention, containing organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs), and pyrethroids. In this research, three dimensionally honeycomb Mg-Al layered double oxide (TDH-Mg-Al-LDO) combined with graphitized carbon black (GCB), packed as a column, was used as a novel solid phase extraction sorbent, applying in simultaneous determination of 15 pesticide residues in green tea coupled with GC-MS. Compared with different type of SPE column, it showed that TDH-Mg-Al-LDO exhibited great advantages in the extraction of 15 pesticide residues from green tea, which was seldom reported before. Different experiment conditions, such as combination order of Mg-Al-LDO and GCB, dosage of sorbents, type and volume of eluting solvent were thoroughly studied and optimized. The limits of detection (LODs) of 15 pesticides ranged from 0.9 to 24.2ng/g and the limits of quantifications (LOQs) were ranging from 3.0 to 80.0ng/g. The recoveries using this method at three spiked concentration levels (10, 100 and 500ng/g for Fenthion, P,P'-DDE, O,P'-DDT, P,P'-DDD and Bifenthrin, 100, 500 and 2000ng/g for the others) range from 71.1 to 119.0%. The relative standard deviation (RSD) was from 0.1 to 7.6% in all case. The result indicated that the proposed analytical method had been successfully applied for the simultaneous determination of 15 pesticide residues in commercial green tea. PMID:27183089

  4. Analysis of endocrine disrupting pesticides by capillary GC with mass spectrometric detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matisová, Eva; Hrouzková, Svetlana

    2012-09-01

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals, among them many pesticides, alter the normal functioning of the endocrine system of both wildlife and humans at very low concentration levels. Therefore, the importance of method development for their analysis in food and the environment is increasing. This also covers contributions in the field of ultra-trace analysis of multicomponent mixtures of organic pollutants in complex matrices. With this fact conventional capillary gas chromatography (CGC) and fast CGC with mass spectrometric detection (MS) has acquired a real importance in the analysis of endocrine disrupting pesticide (EDP) residues. This paper provides an overview of GC methods, including sample preparation steps, for analysis of EDPs in a variety of matrices at ultra-trace concentration levels. Emphasis is put on separation method, mode of MS detection and ionization and obtained limits of detection and quantification. Analysis time is one of the most important aspects that should be considered in the choice of analytical methods for routine analysis. Therefore, the benefits of developed fast GC methods are important.

  5. Analysis of Endocrine Disrupting Pesticides by Capillary GC with Mass Spectrometric Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Hrouzková

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Endocrine disrupting chemicals, among them many pesticides, alter the normal functioning of the endocrine system of both wildlife and humans at very low concentration levels. Therefore, the importance of method development for their analysis in food and the environment is increasing. This also covers contributions in the field of ultra-trace analysis of multicomponent mixtures of organic pollutants in complex matrices. With this fact conventional capillary gas chromatography (CGC and fast CGC with mass spectrometric detection (MS has acquired a real importance in the analysis of endocrine disrupting pesticide (EDP residues. This paper provides an overview of GC methods, including sample preparation steps, for analysis of EDPs in a variety of matrices at ultra-trace concentration levels. Emphasis is put on separation method, mode of MS detection and ionization and obtained limits of detection and quantification. Analysis time is one of the most important aspects that should be considered in the choice of analytical methods for routine analysis. Therefore, the benefits of developed fast GC methods are important.

  6. Research progress of overview on sample pretreatment of pesticides residue in milk%牛奶中农药残留前处理研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘慧玲

    2014-01-01

    由于牛奶在食物营养链中又处于较高级,所以其含有的农药残留量相对较高。随着人们对食品安全重视程度的提升,牛奶中含有的各种有害物质残留的检测方法受到了消费者的极大关注。牛奶中农药残留检测是一项关系食品安全的重要问题,而样品前处理是检测的关键步骤。本文综述了近年来牛奶中农药残留的提取,净化的前处理方法,对液液萃取,固相萃取,固相微萃取,基质分散固相萃取,凝胶渗透色谱,浊点萃取, QuEChERS等方法进行了详细阐述。文章综述了牛奶中农药残留前处理检测方法进展,旨在为进一步开展牛奶农残残留检测提供参考。%The level of pesticide residues in milk is relatively quite high as milk is close to the top of food chain. So the harmful substance in milk had attracted much attention of consumer. With the increase of public attention to food safety, detection of pesticide and veterinary drug residues in milk has become a hot topic of food safety in today’s China. Meanwhile, sample preparation is a very critical step in the determination process and it determines the analysis accuracy and precision. This article makes a brief summary of liquid-liquid ex-traction, solid phase extraction, solid phase microextraction, matrix solid-phasedispersion extraction, Gel Per-meation Chromatography, cloud point extraction, and QuEChERS. This article reviewed the new research progress of sample preparation of pesticide residues in milk, aimed to supply some reference to the further re-search in this area.

  7. 国内外农药使用与残留控制体系%Pesticide Application and Control System of Residues at Home and Abroad

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王茂华; 唐茂芝

    2012-01-01

    分析了联合国、美国、欧盟、日本等国际组织及国外对农药使用与残留控制的机制,阐述了国际组织和发达国家对农药使用及残留控制体系的发展趋势.介绍了我国对农药使用和残留控制的现状,提出了加强我国对农药使用和残留控制在制度、措施、标准等方面的建议.%The pesticide application and control system of residues in the United Nations, the United States, the European Union, Japan and other international organizations were reviewed in this paper. The situation of the pesticides application and residue control system of the international organizations and the developed countries were summarized. The development trend of residual control system was analyzed. The pesticides application and residue control situation in China was also introduced. Some suggestions on system, measures, and standard to strengthen our country' s control on pesticides use and residues control was proposed.

  8. Multifamily determination of pesticide residues in soya-based nutraceutical products by GC/MS-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Páleníková, Agneša; Martínez-Domínguez, Gerardo; Arrebola, Francisco Javier; Romero-González, Roberto; Hrouzková, Svetlana; Frenich, Antonia Garrido

    2015-04-15

    An analytical method based on a modified QuEChERS extraction coupled with gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) was evaluated for the determination of 177 pesticides in soya-based nutraceutical products. The QuEChERS method was optimised and different extraction solvents and clean-up approaches were tested, obtaining the most efficient conditions with a mixture of sorbents (PSA, C18, GBC and Zr-Sep(+)). Recoveries were evaluated at 10, 50 and 100 μg/kg and ranged between 70% and 120%. Precision was expressed as relative standard deviation (RSD), and it was evaluated for more than 160 pesticides as intra and inter-day precision, with values always below 20% and 25%, respectively. Limits of detection (LODs) ranged from 0.1 to 10 μg/kg, whereas limits of quantification (LOQs) from 0.5 to 20 μg/kg. The applicability of the method was proved by analysing soya-based nutraceuticals. Two pesticides were found in these samples, malathion and pyriproxyfen, at 11.1 and 1.5 μg/kg respectively.

  9. Assessment of organochlorine pesticides residues in higher plants from oil exploration areas of Niger Delta, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sojinu, O Samuel; Sonibare, Oluwadayo O; Ekundayo, Olusegun O; Zeng, Eddy Y

    2012-09-01

    The concentrations and distributions of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in some higher plant samples collected from oil exploration areas of the Niger Delta, Nigeria were examined. The concentrations of Σ(25)OCP ranged from 82 to 424, 44 to 200 , 34 to 358, 33 to 106 and 16 to 75 ng/g in Olomoro, Oginni, Uzere, Irri and Calabar plants, respectively. The compositional profiles of the analysed OCPs in most of the plants showed no fresh inputs in the area. The OCPs detected in the samples could have resulted from pesticide usage for intense farming activities cum the use of pesticides to control household pests and insects in the area. Drilling fluids and corrosion inhibitors used in petroleum explorations also have chlorinated compounds as additives thereby serving as potential sources of OCPs. Among the studied plants, elephant grass showed high bioaccumulation and phytoremediation potentials of OCPs. The ΣHCH concentrations exceeded the allowable daily intake limit thereby serving as potential threat to humans. PMID:22789817

  10. Evaluation of a new carbon/zirconia-based sorbent for cleanup of food extracts in multiclass analysis of pesticides and environmental contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    A novel carbon/zirconia based material, SupelTM QuE Verde (Verde), was evaluated in a filter-vial dispersive solid phase extraction (d-SPE) cleanup of QuEChERS extracts of pork, salmon, kale, and avocado for residual analysis of pesticides and environmental contaminants. Low pressure (LP) GC-MS/MS w...

  11. Organophosphate Pesticide Residues in Okra and Brinjal Grown in Peri-Urban Environment of Big Cities of Punjab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peri urban farming system is main supplier of vegetables to urban population and organophosphate pesticides exposure due to consumption of okra and brinjal to urban population has been estimated in this study. Okra and brinjal samples (90 samples for each vegetable) were collected from peri-urban farming area of Faisalabad, Multan and Gujranwala and were analysed by GC-ECD for quantification of chlorpyrifos, profenophos and triazophos residues. Data were statistically analyzed to calculate, mean and standard deviation. Quantification of pesticides residues revealed that 85 (47.22 percentage) samples were contaminated and 15 (8.33 percentage of total samples and 17.64 percentage of contaminated) samples showed residues value higher than MRL'S. Out of 85 contaminated samples 27 (31.76 percentage) samples were contaminated with chlorpyrifos, 30 (35.29 percentage) samples with profenofos and 29 (34.11) were contaminated with triazophos. The mean concentration of chlorpyrifos in okra was 0.192 mg Kg-1 and brinjal 0.197 mg Kg-1. The mean concentration for profenofos in okra was 0.02 mg Kg-1 and brinjal 0.035 mg Kg-1. Similarly mean concentration for triazophos in okra was 0.009 mg Kg-1 and brinjal 0.01 mg Kg-1. Overall, 6.67 percentage samples of okra and 6.66 percentage samples of brinjal contaminated with chlorpyrifos exceeded EU MRL of 0.05 mg kg-1. Okra samples were found contaminated at frequency of 4.44 percentage and brinjal samples at frequency of 5.56 percentage with higher profenofos residues level than MRL of 0.05 mg kg-1. Approximately, 6.67 percentage samples of okra and 5.6 percentage samples of brinjal had profenofos residue level above MRL of 0.01 mg kg-1. This study may be helpful for building database regarding regional exposure of urban population and facilitate in estimation of possible risk to their health in our daily life. (author)

  12. Interpretation of data on pesticide residues in surface water in France, by grouping data within homogeneous spatial units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gauroy C.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In France, the SOeS⋆ manages a database which contains more than eight million analyses of pesticide concentrations in surface water. In order to interpret these analyses better, we tested methods based on a geographic grouping of data within homogeneous units, the hydro-ecoregions (HER. Our objectives were to find suitable descriptors and methods, and test them in order to describe the contamination and highlight explanatory factors. In the case of the examples studied, calculating the 90th percentile of analysis results for each 15-day period allowed us to identify the seasonal and inter-annual contamination patterns associated with the analytes. We observed differences between regions and years, which are consistent with the agricultural use of pesticides (application period and registration. Moreover, differences in contamination levels between areas and products can be partly explained by the type of crop on which the products are applied.

  13. A sensitive multi-residue method for the determination of 35 micropollutants including pharmaceuticals, iodinated contrast media and pesticides in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valls-Cantenys, Carme; Scheurer, Marco; Iglesias, Mònica; Sacher, Frank; Brauch, Heinz-Jürgen; Salvadó, Victoria

    2016-09-01

    A sensitive, multi-residue method using solid-phase extraction followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was developed to determine a representative group of 35 analytes, including corrosion inhibitors, pesticides and pharmaceuticals such as analgesic and anti-inflammatory drugs, five iodinated contrast media, β-blockers and some of their metabolites and transformation products in water samples. Few other methods are capable of determining such a broad range of contrast media together with other analytes. We studied the parameters affecting the extraction of the target analytes, including sorbent selection and extraction conditions, their chromatographic separation (mobile phase composition and column) and detection conditions using two ionisation sources: electrospray ionisation (ESI) and atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation (APCI). In order to correct matrix effects, a total of 20 surrogate/internal standards were used. ESI was found to have better sensitivity than APCI. Recoveries ranging from 79 to 134 % for tap water and 66 to 144 % for surface water were obtained. Intra-day precision, calculated as relative standard deviation, was below 34 % for tap water and below 21 % for surface water, groundwater and effluent wastewater. Method quantification limits (MQL) were in the low ng L(-1) range, except for the contrast agents iomeprol, amidotrizoic acid and iohexol (22, 25.5 and 17.9 ng L(-1), respectively). Finally, the method was applied to the analysis of 56 real water samples as part of the validation procedure. All of the compounds were detected in at least some of the water samples analysed. Graphical Abstract Multi-residue method for the determination of micropollutants including pharmaceuticals, iodinated contrast media and pesticides in waters by LC-MS/MS. PMID:27382969

  14. 2012年曲靖市蔬菜中农药残留情况%Investigation on pesticide residues in vegetables in Qujing City during 2012

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄智文; 方双勇; 李荣发; 成珍

    2013-01-01

    [Objective]To investigate the situation of pyrethroid and organophosphorus pesticide residues in vegetables on the markets of Qujing, [Methods]80 samples of vegetable were randomly selected, and the pesticide residues were detected by the method of GB/T 5009.145-2003 and GB/T 5009.146-2003. All the samples were evaluated according to the Maximum residue limits for pesticides in food (GB 2763-2005). [ Results] 13 kinds of pesticide residues were detected, 4 kinds of pesticides, which exceeded the standard, were cyhalothrin, dichlorvos, methamidophos and chlorpyrifos. The total detection rate of pyrethroid and organophosphorus were respectively 52. 5% and 23. 75% , and the over standard rate of them was 2. 5% and 6. 25% respectively. [Conclusion]The situation of pesticide residues in vegetables in Qujing City is serious, and the detection rate of pyrethroid pesticides is higher. In order to ensure the safety of vegetables consumption, it is necessary to strengthen the surveillance of pesticide residues.%目的 了解曲靖市市售蔬菜中拟除虫菊酯类、有机磷类农药的残留现状.方法 随机抽取80份蔬菜样品,按照国家标准检测方法GB/T 5009.145-2003和GB/T 5009.146-2003进行农药残留检测;依据GB 2763-2005《食品中农药最大残留限量》进行限量值评价.结果 检出阳性农药13种,4种超标,分别为氯氟氰菊酯、敌敌畏、甲胺磷、毒死蜱.拟除虫菊酯总检出率52.5%,超标率2.5%;有机磷类农药总检出率23.75%,超标率6.25%.结论 该市蔬菜农药残留现象不容乐观,拟除虫菊酯类农药检出率较高,应加强农药残留监测,保证市民食用蔬菜的安全.

  15. Spatial and temporal analysis of pesticides concentrations in surface water: Pesticides atlas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vijver, M.G.; Zelfde, van 't M.; Tamis, W.L.M.; Snoo, de G.R.

    2008-01-01

    Dutch water boards have a well-established program for monitoring pesticide contamination of surface waters. These monitoring data have been processed into a graphic format accessible online and designed to provide insight into pesticide presence in Dutch surface waters and trends over time: the Pes

  16. Pesticide residue evaluation in major staple food items of Ethiopia using the QuEChERS method: a case study from the Jimma Zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekonen, Seblework; Ambelu, Argaw; Spanoghe, Pieter

    2014-06-01

    Samples of maize, teff, red pepper, and coffee (green bean and coffee bean with pulp) were collected from a local market in the Jimma Zone, Ethiopia. Samples were analyzed for the occurrence of cypermethrin, permethrin, deltamethrin, chlorpyrifos ethyl, DTT and its metabolites, and endosulfan (α, β). In the analytical procedure, the QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe) extraction methodology with dispersive solid phase extraction clean up (d-SPE) technique was applied. Validation of the QuEChERS method was satisfactory. Recovery percentages of most pesticides were in the range of 70% to 120%, with good repeatability (%relative standard deviation coffee bean. Residues of DDT in coffee pulp significantly differed (p < 0.01) from other food items except for red pepper. The concentration of pesticides in the food items varied from 0.011 mg/kg to 1.115 mg/kg. All food items contained 1 or more pesticides. Two-thirds of the samples had residues below corresponding maximum residue limits, and the remaining one-third of samples were above the maximum residue limits. These results indicate the need for a good pesticide monitoring program to evaluate consumer risk for the Ethiopian people.

  17. Probabilistic risk assessment of dietary exposure to single and multiple pesticide residues or contaminants: Summary of the work performed within the SAFE FOODS project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaveren, van J.D.; Boon, P.E.

    2009-01-01

    This introduction to the journal's supplement on probabilistic risk assessment of single and multiple exposure to pesticide residues or contaminants summarizes the objectives and results of the work performed in work package 3 of the EU-funded project SAFE FOODS. Within this work package, we develop

  18. Lead, cadmium and organochlorine pesticide residues in hunted red deer and wild boar from northern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiari, Mario; Cortinovis, Cristina; Bertoletti, Marco; Alborali, Loris; Zanoni, Mariagrazia; Ferretti, Enrica; Caloni, Francesca

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of the present study were to assess heavy metal cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and organochlorine pesticide concentrations in tissues of red deer (Cervus elaphus) and wild boar (Sus scrofa) from nine hunting areas and to evaluate related risk factors for the host animal. Over a period of 2 years, a total of 1055 and 210 masseters, 424 and 201 livers, 642 and 152 kidneys were collected from wild boar and red deer, respectively, and concentrations of Cd, Pb and organochlorine pesticides were determined. Comparing the two species, Cd concentration in the kidney (3.72 mg/kg), liver (0.67 mg/kg) and muscle (0.02 mg/kg) of wild boar was found to be significantly higher than in the organs of red deer (1.02 mg/kg in the kidneys, 0.07 mg/kg in the liver and 0.006 mg/kg in muscle). Mean Pb concentrations were found to be similar in both animals, with 0.39, 0.52 and 2.60 mg/kg detected in the wild boar kidney, liver and muscle, respectively, and 0.24, 0.21 and 2.04 mg/kg in the respective organs of the red deer. No difference in concentrations were found based on age class, location of tissue sample or contaminant in the case of wild boar. By contrast, a significantly lower Cd concentration was found in the kidney of the young red deer. The search for organochlorine pesticides in both red deer and wild boar produced negative results with values below the limits of detection. Due to the high levels of renal Cd and muscle Pb detected in wild boar and red deer, further research needs to be carried out in an effort to identify the source of contamination and preserve the health of animals and humans. PMID:26365428

  19. Pesticide Flow Analysis to Assess Human Exposure in Greenhouse Flower Production in Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Binder, Claudia R.; Camilo Lesmes-Fabian

    2013-01-01

    Human exposure assessment tools represent a means for understanding human exposure to pesticides in agricultural activities and managing possible health risks. This paper presents a pesticide flow analysis modeling approach developed to assess human exposure to pesticide use in greenhouse flower crops in Colombia, focusing on dermal and inhalation exposure. This approach is based on the material flow analysis methodology. The transfer coefficients were obtained using the whole body dosimetry ...

  20. Report on repetition analyses for pesticide residues: 1988-1995; Rapporto sulle revisioni di analisi per residui di antiparassitari-1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Muccio, A.; Attard Barbini, D.; De Merulis, G.; Vergori, L.; Girolimetti, S.; Sernicola, L.; Dommarco, R. [Ist. Superiore di Sanita`, Rome (Italy). Lab. di Tossicologia Applicata

    1995-12-01

    From 1988 to 1995, 1,254 analyses were carried out on samples of fruits (61%), vegetables (29%), cereals and derived products (3%). The analyses were for 80 different pesticides, of which 51% were fungicides, 31% insecticides, 8% diphenylamine and ethoxiquin (post-harvest antioxidans agents for protection of fruits), and 5% antigermogliants and herbicides. Regions that mostly contributed with samples were: Emilia-Romagna (35%), Piedmont (15%), Liguria (11%), Tuscany (10%). Global rate of confirmation between first analysis and repetition analysis was 64% for all the samples analysed.

  1. Effects of processing on pesticide residues in peaches intended for baby food

    OpenAIRE

    Balinova, Anna; Mladenova, Rosica; Shtereva, Deyana

    2006-01-01

    Abstract ABSTRACT Peaches containing incurred residues of chlorpyrifos-methyl, fenitrothion, procymidone and vinclozolin were submitted to simulated industrial processing to baby food puree. The residues were determined in raw material, in intermediate products at crucial steps of the processing procedures and in final products. The determination was performed by an analytical method distinguished by high sensitivity based on acetone extraction, 2 steps clean-up/preconcentration...

  2. Residues of organochlorine pesticides in surface soils from college school yards in Beijing, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiaofei; WANG Dianzhong; QIN Xiaofei; XU Xiaobai

    2008-01-01

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) have been a major environmental issue, attracting much scientific concern because of their nature of toxicity, persistence, and endocrine disrupting effects. Soil samples were collected from ten college school yards in Beijing in 2006 and analyzed to determine fifteen OCPs. Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) were found to be the main pollutants, accounting for 93.70% of total OCPs, followed by hexachlorohexanes (HCHs) (2.25%) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) (1.82%). Content of chlordanes (CHLs), heptachlors (HEPTs), and endosulfans comprised 0.51%, 1.05%, and 0.79% of fifteen OCPs, respectively. The preliminary pollution assessment indicated that DDTs have caused high OCPs levels in some schools. Source identification showed that HCHs in soils were originated from an old mixed source of technical HCHs and lindsne. And DDTs were mainly from mixed use of technical DDTs and dicofol containing DDT impurities. According to GB 15618-1995 (guidelines of Chinese environmental quality standards for soils), HCHs and DDTs levels might be categorized as little and low polluting pesticides. This study indicated that the environmental quality of college school yards with large green land were not as good as was expected and there existed potential exposure risk of college population to OCPs.

  3. Residues of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides in organically-farmed vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zohair, Azza; Salim, Abou-Bakr; Soyibo, Adeola A; Beck, Angus J

    2006-04-01

    The residues of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in soils from organic farms and their uptake by four varieties of organic-produced potatoes and three varieties of organic carrots from England were investigated. Samples of the soils, crop peels and cores were all Soxhlet-extracted in triplicate, cleaned up by open-column chromatography and analysed by a multi-residue analytical method using gas chromatography with mass selective detection. The concentrations of PAHs, PCBs and OCPs in soils from organic farms ranged from 590+/-43 to 2301+/-146 microg/kg, 3.56+/-0.73 to 9.61+/-1.98 microg/kg and 52.2+/-4.9 to 478+/-111 microg/kg, respectively. Uptake by different crop varieties were 8.42+/-0.93 to 40.1+/-4.9 microg/kg sigmaPAHs, 0.83+/-0.19 to 2.68+/-0.94 microg/kg sigmaPCBs and 8.09+/-0.83 to 133+/-27 microg/kg sigmaOCPs. Residue uptake from soils depended on plant variety; Desiree potato and Nairobi carrot varieties were more susceptible to PAH contamination. Likewise, uptake of PCBs and OCPs depended on potato variety. There were significant positive correlations between the PCB and OCP concentrations (Ppotatoes. Peeling carrots and potatoes was found to remove 52-100% of the contaminant residues depending on crop variety and the properties of the contaminants. Soil-crop bioconcentration factors (BCFs) decreased with increasing logK(ow) for PAHs up to about 4.5 and for PCBs up to about 6.5, above which no changes were discernible for either class of contaminants. No relationship was observed between soil-crop BCFs and logK(ow) for OCPs, most likely because their concentrations were low and variable. PMID:16297429

  4. Detection of Organophosphorus Pesticides with Colorimetry and Computer Image Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanjie; Hou, Changjun; Lei, Jincan; Deng, Bo; Huang, Jing; Yang, Mei

    2016-01-01

    Organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) represent a very important class of pesticides that are widely used in agriculture because of their relatively high-performance and moderate environmental persistence, hence the sensitive and specific detection of OPs is highly significant. Based on the inhibitory effect of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) induced by inhibitors, including OPs and carbamates, a colorimetric analysis was used for detection of OPs with computer image analysis of color density in CMYK (cyan, magenta, yellow and black) color space and non-linear modeling. The results showed that there was a gradually weakened trend of yellow intensity with the increase of the concentration of dichlorvos. The quantitative analysis of dichlorvos was achieved by Artificial Neural Network (ANN) modeling, and the results showed that the established model had a good predictive ability between training sets and predictive sets. Real cabbage samples containing dichlorvos were detected by colorimetry and gas chromatography (GC), respectively. The results showed that there was no significant difference between colorimetry and GC (P > 0.05). The experiments of accuracy, precision and repeatability revealed good performance for detection of OPs. AChE can also be inhibited by carbamates, and therefore this method has potential applications in real samples for OPs and carbamates because of high selectivity and sensitivity. PMID:27396650

  5. QuEChERS GC-MS validation and monitoring of pesticide residues in different foods in the tomato classification group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez Restrepo, Andrés; Gallo Ortiz, Andrés Fernando; Hoyos Ossa, Duvan Esteban; Peñuela Mesa, Gustavo Antonio

    2014-09-01

    The objective of this study was to validate (SANCO/12495/2011 and NTC-ISO/IEC 17025) multi-residue multi-class methods using QuEChERS sample preparation and GC-MS for the analysis of regulated pesticides in tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum), tamarillos (Solanum betaceum) and goldenberries (Physalis peruviana). These Latin American products are representative and widely produced in Antioquia (Colombia). Sample preparation followed the UNE-EN 15662 method (150 mg MgSO4, 25mg primary secondary amines and 25mg of octadecylsiloxane for cleanup; graphitized carbon black was added for tomatoes). Extracts were injected using a programmed temperature-vaporizing injector. The residues were validated over a range from 0.02 mg/kg to 0.20 mg/kg, with 24 analytes validated in tomatoes, 33 in tamarillos and 28 in goldenberries. An initial risk assessment was enabled by monitoring 24 samples in the municipalities of El Peñol, Marinilla and San Vicente Ferrer. Risks were found for tomatoes, but no significant risks were found for tamarillos or goldenberries. PMID:24731326

  6. Radiotracer studies of pesticide residues in edible oil seeds and related products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ten papers were presented in which chemical pollution due to insecticides was examined in edible oil seeds and their products. They include hexachlorocyclohexane residues in groundnut; carbaryl in groundnut; maize and cotton seed products, and in lactating goats; propoxur in cocoa beans; and leptophos residues in cotton seed and its products and in lactating goats. Eight of these papers constitute separate INIS entries. Egypt, Ghana, India, Korea, Lebanon, Pakistan, the Philippines, Poland, and the Sudan participated under the coordinated research programme. The progress of the programme is reviewed, and problems and priorities for future development of the programme are identified. A number of recommendations are addressed to the Joint FAO/IAEA Secretariat

  7. Applications of isotopic tracer in analysis of residual sulfonylurea herbicide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The analysis technique of the agrochemical residue by isotopic tracer is significantly increased, and obtained substantial development. The progress of the isotopic analysis in four kinds of sulfonylurea herbicide residues was reviewed in this paper. (authors)

  8. Resíduos de agrotóxicos em frutos de tomate Pesticide residues in tomato fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie Maria Segura Zavatti

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available O uso intensivo de agrotóxicos em culturas de tomates tem causado preocupações quanto à provável contaminação do produto final. Este trabalho teve como objetivo monitorar, por dois anos consecutivos, em quatro propriedades de uma área altamente tecnificada, o uso de agrotóxicos em tomate irrigado durante seu desenvolvimento, quantificar os resíduos dos principais princípios ativos utilizados, e avaliar o grau de contaminação dos frutos colhidos. Foram analisados metamidofós, clorpirifós, captan, clorotalonil, endosulfan, lambda-cialotrina, e cobre. Para avaliar o grau de contaminação dos frutos foi validado um método de análise de resíduos múltiplos capaz de quantificar esses compostos. Os resíduos encontrados foram de fungicidas e inseticidas aplicados nas fases de frutificação e maturação: captan, 0,35 mg/kg, na Fazenda 2; clorotalonil, 0,16 mg/kg e 0,95 mg/kg, nas Fazendas 1 e 2, respectivamente; lambda-cialotrina, 0,03 mg/kg, na Fazenda 2; cobre, 2,03 mg/kg, 3,75 mg/kg e 1,44mg/kg, nas Fazendas 1, 2 e 3, respectivamente, e 0,95 mg/kg, 1,70 mg/kg e 2,31 mg/kg, na Fazenda 4. Não ocorreram resíduos dos inseticidas organofosforados, aplicados principalmente durante o desenvolvimento vegetativo da cultura. Não houve contaminação dos tomates pelos agrotóxicos analisados. Os resíduos que devem ser monitorados são os dos agrotóxicos aplicados na fase de maturação da cultura.The intensive use of pesticide in tomato crops have been causing concern about a possible contamination of the final product. This work aimed at monitoring, for two years, in four farms located in a high technology area, the use of pesticides in irrigated tomato crops, quantifying the main active ingredient residues and evaluating the contamination level of the fruits. The components analised were: methamidophos, chlorpyrifos, captan, chlorothalonil, endosulfan, lambda-cyhalothrin and copper oxychloride. In order to evaluate the contamination

  9. Variability of pesticide residues in cauliflower units collected from a field trial and market places in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prodhan, M D H; Papadakis, Emmanouil-N; Papadopoulou-Mourkidou, Euphemia

    2016-09-01

    To estimate the variability of pesticide residue levels present in cauliflower units, a total of 142 samples were collected from a field trial of a cooperative farmer, and 120 samples were collected from different market places in Thessaloniki, Greece. The collected samples were extracted using the quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) extraction technique, and the residues were determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The developed method was validated by evaluating the accuracy, precision, linearity, limit of detection (LOD), and limit of quantification (LOQ). The average recoveries for all the analytes, derived from the data of control samples fortified at 0.01, 0.05, 0.1, and 0.2 mg/kg, ranged from 74 to 110% with a relative standard deviation of ≤8%. The correlation coefficient (R(2)) was ≥0.997 for all the analytes using matrix-matched calibration standards. The LOD values ranged from 0.001 to 0.003 mg/kg, and the LOQ was determined at 0.01 mg/kg for all the sought analytes. The matrix effect was found to be at a considerable level, especially for cypermethrin and deltamethrin, amounting to +90% and +145%, respectively. For the field samples, the unit-to-unit variability factors (VFs) calculated for cypermethrin and deltamethrin were 2.38 and 2.32, respectively, while the average VF for the market basket samples was 5.11. In the market basket samples, residues of cypermethrin, deltamethrin, chlorpyrifos, and indoxacarb were found at levels ≥LOQ and their respective VFs were 7.12, 5.67, 5.28, and 2.40. PMID:27229457

  10. QuEChERS样品前处理-液相色谱-串联质谱法测定蔬菜中66种有机磷农药残留量方法评估%Evaluation of QuEChERS methods for the analysis of 66 organophosphorus pesticide residues in vegetables by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王连珠; 周昱; 陈泳; 王瑞龙; 林子旭; 林德娟; 郑少惠

    2012-01-01

    A comparison was made between the two versions of QuEChERS sample preparation method for the extraction of 66 organophosphorus pesticides (OPPS) in vegetables. The two QuEChERS methods were the original method without buffer published in 2003, and the AOAC Official Method 2007. 01 with acetate buffer. The adsorption behaviors of primary secondary amine (PSA) sorbent and C18 sorbent on the OPPS were studied. The method of after-extraction addition was used to evaluate matrix effects for OPPS in matrix of broccoli, tomato, green soybean, radish and shallot during liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/ MS) analysis. As a result, the QuEChERS method with acetate buffer gave higher and more consistent recoveries for some of OPPS. The PSA sorbent and C18 sorbent can adsorb dibrom, so the QuEChERS method was not suitable for the analysis of dibrom. The maximum matrix effects were in the extracts of broccoli during LC-MS/MS analysis. In this article, OPPS were extracted using the QuEChERS method with acetate buffer, and analysed by LC-MS/MS under the optimized conditions with monitoring 132 MS/MS transitions of precursor ions (two for each pesticide) in one single run. Recoveries for all but dibrom at fortification levels of 10, 40,80 μg/kg in broccoli, tomato, green soybean, radish and shallot ranged from 55% to 122% with relative standard deviations of 1. 6% - 18%. The limits of quantification (S/N≥10) were 0. 1 -8 μg/kg. Based on these results, the analytical method was proven to be highly efficient, robust and sensitive, and suitable for the monitoring of the maximum residue limits (MRLs) of 66 OPPS in vegetables.%比较了两种版本QuEChERS方法(即发表于2003年未加缓冲盐的原创QuEChERS方法及加乙酸盐缓冲液的AOAC 2007.01方法)提取蔬菜中66种有机磷农药(OPPS)的有效性;考察了乙二胺-N-丙基硅烷(PSA)及C18吸附剂对66种OPPS的吸附作用;以提取后添加法评估了青花菜、番茄、枝豆、

  11. Development and validation of a multiresidue method for the determination of neonicotinoid and macrocyclic lactone pesticide residues in milk, fruits, and vegetables by ultra-performance liquid chromatography/MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamel, Alaa; Qian, Yaorong; Kolbe, Elizabeth; Stafford, Charles

    2010-01-01

    A multiresidue method was developed and validated for the determination of 13 neonicotinoid pesticides and metabolites, and nine macrocyclic lactone pesticides and veterinary drugs using SPE and ultra-performance liquid chromatography/MS/MS. The method was validated in milk, orange, spinach, apple, plum, watermelon, green bean, zucchini, broccoli, strawberry, grape, and tomato by analyzing replicates of residue-free control samples fortified with a mixture of 22 target analytes at three concentration levels. The recoveries of the analytes from the fortified matrixes were mostly within 70-120%, except for some of the neonicotinoid metabolites. The LOD values varied by analyte and matrix and ranged between 0.001-2 ng/g. The developed method was successful in combining two widely different classes of compounds into a single analysis. PMID:20480883

  12. The Present Situation of Pesticide Residues in Vegetables and Fruits and the Progress of Detection Technique%果蔬中农药残留现状及检测技术的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘建慧; 孙鑫; 刘希光; 张升晓

    2014-01-01

    Pesticide residues do harm to people's health and lives. The article reviewed the present situation and detection technique research progress of pesticide residues in vegetables and fruits. At the same time , some new pesticide residue fast test technologies were discussed.%综述了果蔬中的农药残留现状、农药残留检测技术的研究进展和应用状况,探讨了近年发展起来的一些农药残留快速检测新技术。

  13. Comparative voltammetric study and determination of carbamate pesticide residues in soil at carbon nanotubes paste electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    THOMMANDRU RAVEENDRANATH BAB

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In this investigation, the persistence of carbamate pesticides in soil samples was investigated. A simple and selective differential pulse adsorptive stripping voltammetry was selected for this investigation. Carbon nanotubes paste electrodes were used as working electrodes for differential pulse adsorptive stripping voltammetry and cyclic voltammetry. A symmetric study of the various operational parameters that affect the stripping response was carried out by differential pulse voltammetry. Peak currents were linear over the concentration range of 10-5 to 10-10 M with an accumulation potential of -0.6 V and a 70 s accumulation time with lower detection limits of 1.09 x 10-7 M, 1.07 × 10-7M, 1.09×10-7 M for chlorphropham, thiodicarb, aldicarb. The relative standard deviation (n=10 and correlation coefficient values were 1.15 %, 0.988; 1.13 %, 0.978; and 1.14 %, 0.987, respectively. Universal buffer with pH range 2.0 - 6.0 was used as sup­porting electrolyte. The solutions with uniform concentration (10-5 M were used in all deter­minations. Calculations were made by standard addition method.

  14. QuEChERS Method for the Determination of Pesticide Residues in Indonesian Green Coffee Beans using Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harmoko

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A method using QuEChERS sample preparation followed by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESIMS/MS was developed for quantitative determination of 14 pesticide residues in Indonesian green coffee beans. The European Standard Method EN 15662:2008 was modified to obtain an appropriate extraction and clean-up procedure for green coffee bean samples. Homogenous slurry samples were extracted with 1% acetic acid in acetonitrile and the extracts were cleaned up by a high pigment dispersive SPE. LC-ESI-MS/MS was operated in the MRM mode for two specific precursor-product ion transitions per target compound to obtain 4 identification points. Representative matrix-matched calibration curves were applied to compensate matrix effects. This method was validated according to the requirements of SANCO/12495/2011. Limits of detection (LODs and limits of quantification (LOQs were obtained in the ranges of 0.2-2.9 μg kg-1 and 0.8-9.7 μg kg-1 respectively, showing lower values than the maximum residu limits (MRLs set by importing countries. The method was applied to determine 14 pesticide residues in 181 Indonesian green coffee bean samples that were taken from different regions. Some pesticide residues were found in these samples and detected to be higher than the MRLs.

  15. 坚果中185种农药残留的气相色谱-串联质谱法测定%Determination of 185 Pesticide Residues in Nuts by Gas Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李南; 石志红; 庞国芳; 范春林

    2011-01-01

    accurate, and could be used for the routine analysis of pesticide residues in nuts.

  16. QuEChERS—HPHPLC联用法检测蔬菜中有机磷农药多残留分析%Detection of Organophosphorus Pesticide Residues in Vegetable Using QuEChERS-HPLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡井荣

    2012-01-01

    建立了QuEchERS—HPLC联用法检测蔬菜中有机磷农药多残留的方法。改进了QuEchERS前处理方法,提高回收率及结果准确性,然后运用HPLC进行分析检测,根据有机磷农药的差异,得出其最小检出限在0.02-55.75μg/kg之间,定量限0.1-189.23μg/kg,18种有机磷农药要在定量限浓度和四倍定量限浓度2个加标水平的回收率均在70-120%范围,相对标准偏差低于20%,试验表明本方法适用于蔬菜中有机磷农药的多残留检测分析。%This article reported that the method of detected Organophosphorus Pesticide Residues in Vegetable Using QuEChERS-HPLC. Through improvement of the QuEchERS pretreatment methods, recovery and accuracy as been well improved, and then use HPLC analysis detection, according to the difference of organophosphorus pesticide, and obtain the minimum detection limit is between 0.02-55.75μg/kg, LOQ is between 0.1-189.23μg/kg, 18 organophosphorus pesticide in LOQ concentration and four times the concentration of LOQ two labeled level of recovery are at 70 to 120% range, the relative standard deviation less than 20%, test shows that this method is applicable to vegetables of organophosphorus pesticide residue detection more analysis.

  17. 茶叶农药残留降解过程及方式的研究进展%he Research Review about the Process and the Modes of Degradation of Pesticide Residues in Tea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    单治国; 张春花; 张乃明

    2011-01-01

    Pesticide residue is an important issue about Quality and safety of tea, in the current large - scale production of tea, the use of pesticides is still inevitable. Based on natural degradation of pesticide residues of tea, it has important practical significance for quality and safety of tea which use biological, chemical and physical methods to reduce the pesticide residues of tea. This paper about degradation processes and degraded dation of pesticide residues in tea. modes of pesticide residues in tea, sums up the situation of research and look into the future of degradation of pesticide residues in tea.%农药残留是影响茶叶质量安全的重要问题,在当前茶叶大规模生产中,农药的使用仍不可避免。在茶叶农药残留自然降解的基础上,采用生物、化学和物理的农残降解方法来降低茶叶农残,对于茶叶质量安全具有重要的现实意义。通过研究,概述了茶叶农药残留降解过程及方式的研究情况,并展望了茶叶农残降解技术的发展。

  18. 四川省食品中农药残留状况%Study on Pesticide Residues Level of Food in Sichuan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许毅; 林黎; 郭艳; 赵年华; 兰真; 颜玲

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解、分析四川省食品中农药残留状况,为制定相应控制措施提供依据.方法 2009年在四川省4个城市采集蔬菜、水果、鲜食用菌、茶叶共232份食品,进行有机磷、拟除虫菊酯类农药残留监测.结果 食品中农药总检出率为6.13%,总超标率为0.91%.结论 四川省蔬菜水果等食品中农药残留的总体水平不高,但部分食品存在较突出的农药污染问题,对此应进一步加大监管力度.%Objective To understand and analyze the status of pesticide residues contamination of food in Sichuan province, provide evidence for formulating appropriate control measures. Methods In 2009, totally 232 samples of vegetables, fruits, fresh edible mushroom and tea products in 4 cities of Sichuan province had been collected and tested for organophosphorus and pyrethroid pesticide residues monitoring. Results The total pesticide positive rate of food was 6. 13% , 99. 09% of food samples accorded with the National Standards. Conclusion Pesticide residues level of food in Sichuan is not high, but there is prominent pesticide pollution in some food products which should further intensify supervision.

  19. Estimating shadow prices and efficiency analysis of productive inputs and pesticide use of vegetable production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Singbo, Alphonse G.; Lansink, Alfons Oude; Emvalomatis, Grigorios

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyzes technical efficiency and the value of the marginal product of productive inputs vis-a-vis pesticide use to measure allocative efficiency of pesticide use along productive inputs. We employ the data envelopment analysis framework and marginal cost techniques to estimate technic

  20. Comparative Analysis on Pesticide Management System between America and China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cunzheng; ZHANG; Yong; GONG; Weili; SHAN; Xianjin; LIU

    2013-01-01

    The production and usage amount of pesticides in US rank the leading position in the world. On the basis of protecting the environment and human health, US government has enacted a series of laws and regulations to normalize and manage the production and use of pesticides so as to ensure the development of modern agriculture. In this paper, US pesticide management system is briefly reviewed and compared with the pesticide management system of China, which may provide good reference for china in establishing its own management system and make steps towards the international standard.

  1. [Simultaneous determination of captan and folpet pesticide residues in apples by solid-phase extraction and high performance liquid chromatography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuju; Yu, Yanbin; Tan, Peigong; Miao, Zaijing; Wei, Yishan

    2007-03-01

    A method for the simultaneous determination of captan and folpet pesticide residues in apples was developed by solid-phase extraction and high performance liquid chromatography. The sample was extracted with acetonitrile and cleaned-up by a mixture of homemade sorbent and silica gel with hexane-dichloromethane-acetonitrile (50:49: 1, v/v) as the eluent. The cleaned effects by using Florisil column, amino column, the mixed sorbent were compared, and the effect of the mixed sorbent was the best. The optimal analytical conditions were follow as: an methanol-acetonitrile-water (50: 5:45, v/v) containing 0. 1 mmol/L acetic-acetate buffer (pH 3. 80) as the mobile phase, detection at 210 nm. The method had a good linear relationship in the range of 0. 40 - 8. 00 mg/kg for captan and folpet (r > 0. 999 9). The detection limits of captan and folpet were 0. 27 mg/kg and 0. 20 mg/kg, respectively. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) of retention time were no more than 0. 60%. The average recoveries of captan and folpet from the apples spiked at three levels ranged from 69. 3% - 106% and 101% - 108%, with RSD of 3. 7% - 4. 7% and 1. 3% - 5. 4%, respectively.

  2. Pesticide Flow Analysis to Assess Human Exposure in Greenhouse Flower Production in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia R. Binder

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Human exposure assessment tools represent a means for understanding human exposure to pesticides in agricultural activities and managing possible health risks. This paper presents a pesticide flow analysis modeling approach developed to assess human exposure to pesticide use in greenhouse flower crops in Colombia, focusing on dermal and inhalation exposure. This approach is based on the material flow analysis methodology. The transfer coefficients were obtained using the whole body dosimetry method for dermal exposure and the button personal inhalable aerosol sampler for inhalation exposure, using the tracer uranine as a pesticide surrogate. The case study was a greenhouse rose farm in the Bogota Plateau in Colombia. The approach was applied to estimate the exposure to pesticides such as mancozeb, carbendazim, propamocarb hydrochloride, fosetyl, carboxin, thiram, dimethomorph and mandipropamide. We found dermal absorption estimations close to the AOEL reference values for the pesticides carbendazim, mancozeb, thiram and mandipropamide during the study period. In addition, high values of dermal exposure were found on the forearms, hands, chest and legs of study participants, indicating weaknesses in the overlapping areas of the personal protective equipment parts. These results show how the material flow analysis methodology can be applied in the field of human exposure for early recognition of the dispersion of pesticides and support the development of measures to improve operational safety during pesticide management. Furthermore, the model makes it possible to identify the status quo of the health risk faced by workers in the study area.

  3. Pesticide flow analysis to assess human exposure in greenhouse flower production in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesmes-Fabian, Camilo; Binder, Claudia R

    2013-03-25

    Human exposure assessment tools represent a means for understanding human exposure to pesticides in agricultural activities and managing possible health risks. This paper presents a pesticide flow analysis modeling approach developed to assess human exposure to pesticide use in greenhouse flower crops in Colombia, focusing on dermal and inhalation exposure. This approach is based on the material flow analysis methodology. The transfer coefficients were obtained using the whole body dosimetry method for dermal exposure and the button personal inhalable aerosol sampler for inhalation exposure, using the tracer uranine as a pesticide surrogate. The case study was a greenhouse rose farm in the Bogota Plateau in Colombia. The approach was applied to estimate the exposure to pesticides such as mancozeb, carbendazim, propamocarb hydrochloride, fosetyl, carboxin, thiram, dimethomorph and mandipropamide. We found dermal absorption estimations close to the AOEL reference values for the pesticides carbendazim, mancozeb, thiram and mandipropamide during the study period. In addition, high values of dermal exposure were found on the forearms, hands, chest and legs of study participants, indicating weaknesses in the overlapping areas of the personal protective equipment parts. These results show how the material flow analysis methodology can be applied in the field of human exposure for early recognition of the dispersion of pesticides and support the development of measures to improve operational safety during pesticide management. Furthermore, the model makes it possible to identify the status quo of the health risk faced by workers in the study area.

  4. Residues of Organochlorine Pesticides (OCPs) in Agricultural Soils of Zhangzhou City, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Dan; CHEN Wei; YANG Jun-Hua; XU Mei-Hui; QI Shi-Hua; ZHANG Jia-Quan; TAN Ling-Zhi; ZHANG Jun-Peng; ZHANG Yuan; XU Feng; XING Xin-Li; HU Ying

    2012-01-01

    A soil survey was conducted in Zhangzhou City,an important agricultural region in south of the Fujian Province,China.93 surface soil samples were collected in the paddy fields,vegetable lands,orchards and tea plantations from Zhangzhou City.An additional soil profile was sampled in a paddy field as previous research had indicated high concentrations of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in the paddy fields.Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) ranged from 0.64-78.07 ng g-1 dry weight and hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) ranged from 0.72-30.16 ng g-1 dry weight in the surface soil of the whole study region.Ratios of α-HCH/γ-HCH < 4 and o,p'-DDT/p,p'-DDT > 1 in all soil samples suggested that lindane and dicofol were widely applied in this region in the past.Concentrations of HCHs and DDTs in soils from the four land use types followed the orders:paddy fields > vegetable lands > tea plantations > orchards and tea plantations > orchards > paddy fields > vegetable lands,respectively.Analyses of the data showed no correlation (r < 0.1) between elevation and OCPs contents in paddy fields,orchards and vegetable lands,indicated no significantly different features in distribution of HCHs and DDTs in the soils from low lying plains and mountains and the unsystematic usage of OCPs,and highlighted the fragmented nature of agricultural production in Zhangzhou,as well as the reemission of OCPs from the soils,where high OCPs concentrations were found,in Longhai of Zhangzhou.In addition,no obvious relationship between the OCPs and total organic carbon (TOC) (r < 0.3) was observed in the soil profile.The mean contribution of dicofol in total DDTs was 66% in the whole Zhangzhou region.The approximate burdens of HCHs and DDTs in the surface layer of 0-20 cm were 0.44 and 1.55 t,respectively.The storage of both HCHs and DDTs in soil surface layer (0-20 cm) accounts for 40% burden of the soil layer of 0-50 cm (1.10 t HCHs and 3.87 t DDTs),in which the highest

  5. A novel optimised and validated method for analysis of multi-residues of pesticides in fruits and vegetables by microwave-assisted extraction (MAE)-dispersive solid-phase extraction (d-SPE)-retention time locked (RTL)-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with Deconvolution reporting software (DRS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satpathy, Gouri; Tyagi, Yogesh Kumar; Gupta, Rajinder Kumar

    2011-08-01

    A rapid, effective and ecofriendly method for sensitive screening and quantification of 72 pesticides residue in fruits and vegetables, by microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) followed by dispersive solid-phase extraction (d-SPE), retention time locked (RTL) capillary gas-chromatographic separation in trace ion mode mass spectrometric determination has been validated as per ISO/IEC: 17025:2005. Identification and reporting with total and extracted ion chromatograms were facilitated to a great extent by Deconvolution reporting software (DRS). For all compounds LOD were 0.002-0.02mg/kg and LOQ were 0.025-0.100mg/kg. Correlation coefficients of the calibration curves in the range of 0.025-0.50mg/kg were >0.993. To validate matrix effects repeatability, reproducibility, recovery and overall uncertainty were calculated for the 35 matrices at 0.025, 0.050 and 0.100mg/kg. Recovery ranged between 72% and 114% with RSD of <20% for repeatability and intermediate precision. The reproducibility of the method was evaluated by an inter laboratory participation and Z score obtained within ±2. PMID:25214130

  6. 茶树油清除豇豆农药残留的效果%Effects of tea tree oils on removing pesticide residue in cowpea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林丽静; 程盛华; 李积华; 黄茂芳; 唐永富; 朱德明

    2013-01-01

    Pesticides are widely used as an insurance policy against devastating crop losses from pests and diseases. Excessive usage of pesticides may lead to contamination of the crop and the environment, eventually posing a risk of pesticide-related illnesses to humans. Previous literature has shown that water washing is only partially effective in removing pesticides, and in the case of liposoluble pesticides, a cosolvent must be used as an adjuvant. Recently, naturally occurring adjuvants are gaining prominence over synthetic chemical compounds. Tea tree oil (TTO, the oil of Melaleuca alternifolia), a natural, volatile essential oil, is mainly extracted by steam distillation from the fresh leaves and terminal branchlets of the plant. It has attracted significant interest due to its antifungal, antiviral, and antibacterial bioactivities. However, to the best of our knowledge, there are fewer experimental data evaluating its efficacy in the removal of pesticide residues. In this study, the effects of TTO on removing pesticide residue were carried out in the cowpea. Volume:volume (v:v) concentrations of 0.05%, 0.1%, 0.2%, 0.4% and 0.8% of TTO and water soluble tea tree oil (WTTO) in water were used to remove a standardized pesticide mixture (organophosphorus, pyrethroid, and carbamate compounds) from cowpeas. Sample pretreatment (pesticide application to cowpeas) was performed according to agricultural industry standards. The objective pesticide residues in cowpeas were assayed by gas chromatography (GC) and chromatography-mass spectrometry detection (GC-MS), and then the clearance rate was calculated. The results showed that TTO was able to remove the three kinds of pesticides from cowpeas. Moreover, the removal efficiency increased with increasing concentration of TTO. The effect of clearing organophosphate was much more obvious than that of either pyrethroid or carbamate. It was suggested that small liposoluble molecules of TTO rapidly infiltrate the cowpea surface to

  7. Residual analysis for spatial point processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baddeley, A.; Turner, R.; Møller, Jesper;

    2005-01-01

    We define residuals for point process models fitted to spatial point pattern data, and we propose diagnostic plots based on them. The residuals apply to any point process model that has a conditional intensity; the model may exhibit spatial heterogeneity, interpoint interaction and dependence on ....... A plot of smoothed residuals against spatial location, or against a spatial covariate, is effective in diagnosing spatial trend or covariate effects. Q-Q plots of the residuals are effective in diagnosing interpoint interaction....

  8. Progress in Research of the Effect of Processing on Pesticide Residues%加工过程对农药残留的影响研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈志强; 徐志; 冯信平; 郇志博; 宋稳成

    2013-01-01

    The effect of processing on pesticide residues is always expressed by processing factors (PF).Processing can not only change the edible characteristics of fruits and vegetables,but also has an important influence on pesticide residues.Fruits and vegetables usually experienced some processing such as washing,peeling and coking before eating.Some agricultural products will also be pickled and dehydrated to improve their flavor and preservation time.This paper reviews the effect of household processing on pesticide residues.In order to provide references for choosing appropriate household processing method,and provide basic data for dietary exposure assessment.Thus as much as possible to reduce the pesticide residues in food,in order to protect the health of customers.%加工过程对农药残留的影响常用加工因子(Processing Factors,PF)来表示.加工不仅可以改善果蔬的食用特性,还对果蔬中农药残留具有重要影响.果蔬在食用前通常经历加工处理有清洗、去皮、烹饪等,某些农产品还会通过腌制、脱水等处理以改善保藏时间和食品风味.本文以常用的家庭处理为出发点,综述了加工过程对农药残留的影响,为确定合适的家庭处理方法提供参考,为膳食暴露评估提供数据依据,从而最大程度的减少食品中农药残留量,以维护消费者身体健康.

  9. Determination of organophosphorus pesticide residues in vegetables by an enzyme inhibition method using α-naphthyl acetate esterase extracted from wheat flour*

    OpenAIRE

    WANG, JUN-LIANG; Xia, Qing; Zhang, An-Ping; Hu, Xiao-Yan; Lin, Chun-mian

    2012-01-01

    The widespread use of organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) poses a great threat to human health and has made the detection of OP residues in food an important task, especially in view of the fact that easy and rapid detection methods are needed. Because OPs have inhibitory effects on the activity of α-naphthyl acetate esterase (ANAE) in plants, in this work we evaluated the possibility of detecting OPs in vegetables with ANAE extracted from commercial flour. The limits of detection (LODs) obtain...

  10. Study of enzyme biosensor based on carbon nanotubes modified electrode for detection of pesticides residue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shu Ping Zhang; Lian Gang Shan; Zhen Ran Tian; Yi Zheng; Li Yi Shi; Deng Song Zhang

    2008-01-01

    The paper describes a controllable layer-by-layer (LBL) self-assembly modification technique of multi-walled carbon nanotubes(MWNTs) and poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA) towards glassy carbon electrode (GCE), Acetylcholinesterase(ACHE) was immobilized directly to the modified GCE by LBL self-assembly method, the activity value of AChE was detected byusing i-t technique based on the modified Ellman method. Then the composition of carbaryl were detected by the enzyme electrodewith 0.01U activity value and the detection limit of carbaryl is 10-12 g L-1 so the enzyme biosensor showed good properties forpesticides residue detection.2008 Shu Ping Zhang. Published by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of Chinese Chemical Society. All rights reserved.

  11. QuEChERS-HPHPLC联用法检测蔬菜中有机磷农药多残留分析%DETECTION OF ORGANOPHOSPHORUS PESTICIDE RESIDUES IN VEGETABLE USING QUECHERS-HPLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡井荣

    2012-01-01

    建立了QuEchERS- HPLC联用法检测蔬菜中有机磷农药多残留的方法.改进了QuEchERS前处理方法,提高回收率及结果准确性,然后运用HPLC进行分析检测,根据有机磷农药的差异,得出其最小检出限在0.02μg/kg~55.75 μg/kg之间,定量限0.1μg/kg~189.23μg/kg,18种有机磷农药要在定量限浓度和四倍定量限浓度2个加标水平的回收率均在70%~120%范围,相对标准偏差低于20%,试验表明本方法适用于蔬菜中有机磷农药的多残留检测分析.%The method of detected Organophosphorus Pesticide Residues in Vegetable Using QuEChERS — HPLC was established. Through improvement of the QuEchERS pretreatment methods, recovery and accuracy was improved well. Then by using HPLC analysis detection, according to the difference of organophosphorus pesticide, the minimum detection limit was obtained as between 0. 02—55. 75/ng/kg, LOQ as between 0.1—189.23/ag/kg. At two labeled level of LOQ concentration and four times the concentration of LOQ, recovery of 18 organophosphorus pesticide was from 70% to 120%, and the relative standard deviation was less than 20%. It shows that this method is applicable to detect organophosphorus pesticide residue of vegetables.

  12. Critical assessment of extraction methods for the simultaneous determination of pesticide residues and mycotoxins in fruits, cereals, spices and oil seeds employing ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacina, Ondrej; Zachariasova, Milena; Urbanova, Jana; Vaclavikova, Marta; Cajka, Tomas; Hajslova, Jana

    2012-11-01

    This study addresses a current trend in chemical food safety control represented by an effort to integrate analyses of various groups of food contaminants/toxicants into a single, high-throughput method. The choice of optimal sample preparation step is one of the key conditions to achieve good performance characteristics. In this context, we investigated the possibility to expand the scope of the three multi-analyte extraction procedures employed earlier in other studies for rapid isolation of either pesticides or mycotoxins from plant matrices. Following procedures were tested: A - aqueous acetonitrile extraction followed by partition (QuEChERS-like method), B - aqueous acetonitrile extraction, and C - pure acetonitrile extraction. On the list of target analytes, we had 288 pesticides (including 'troublesome' acidic, basic and base-sensitive compounds) together with 38 mycotoxins (including all EU regulated ones and many 'emerging' toxins on the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) list). The matrices selected for the experiments, apple baby food, wheat flour, spices and sunflower seeds, represented various composition categories in terms of moisture, fat and extractable compounds (e.g. pigments and essential oils) content. In preliminary experiments, acceptable recoveries (70-120%) for most of analytes were obtained by the analysis of spiked matrices, regardless which extraction procedure was used. However, when analysing dry samples with incurred pesticide residues/mycotoxins, the method C did not enable efficient extraction of some common contaminants. Procedure A, thanks to a higher matrix equivalent compared to the method B and relatively less pronounced matrix effects, enabled lower quantification limits for all analyte/matrix combinations, with the exception of polar mycotoxins and/or pesticides. Higher recoveries for the latter group of analytes could be achieved by the method B; on the other hand, extraction efficiency of non-polar pesticides from fatty

  13. 食品中农药残留检测前处理技术进展%A Review of Pretreatment Methods for Determination of Pesticide Residues in Food

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊琳; 杨博辉; 牛春娥; 郭婷婷

    2012-01-01

    Sample preparation is the key part of determination of pesticide residues in food. All kinds of pretreatment methods for the determination of pesticide residues in food keep popping up to improve the accuracy and precision of determination, and improve greatly the efficiency of the determation of pesticide residues in food. This paper summarizes the pretreatment methods for determination of pesticide residues in food.%样品前处理是检测食品中农药残留的关键部分,为提高食品中农药残留检测的准确度和精确度,各种农药残留检测前处理技术不断地出现,极大地提高了食品中农药残留检测的效率,综述了食品中农药残留检测的样品前处理技术.

  14. Research on a pesticide residue screening platform in botanical food%植物源性食品中农药残留筛选平台研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯超; 徐骞; 金玉娥; 卢大胜; 陈冲; 熊丽蓓; 汪国权

    2015-01-01

    目的:针对植物源性食品中的未知农药残留,在原农药残留筛选平台的基础上,采用气相色谱-三重四极杆质谱联用仪和UPLC-Q-Orbitrap两种色质技术并配合商业和自建农药筛查库建立共1200多个农药及其降解产物的筛选平台,满足未知农残的快速筛选要求。方法建立筛选平台相关筛选方法和准则,并通过两次欧盟国际比对(EUPT)对该平台进行验证评估。结果该平台在24 h内可完成农残筛选,筛选方法基于农药数据库和空白基质,两次能力验证中阳性化合物的检出率均在90%以上且结果无假阳性。结论该平台利用串联质谱和高分辨质谱的高选择性,结合农药数据库和智能筛选软件,在无标准参考物质的情况下实现非靶向农药的快速筛查。%Objective To establish a rapid non-targeted pesticide residue screening platform involving more than 1200 pesticides residues and their degradation products by using gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry/mass-spectrometry and ultra performance liquid chromatography-Q-Orbitrap technology for unknown pesticide residue in botanical food, on the basis of original screening platform. Methods The principal and criterion of pesticides screening platform were established, and the platform was evaluated through twice proficient tests from Europe Union Reference Lab. Results The platform successfully completed the tests based on comprehensive database and blank matrix in 24 h with 90% screening rate and without false positive. Conclusion The platform achieved rapid screening of non-targeted pesticide residue without reference of standard materials by using the properties of high selectivity of triple quadrupole and high-resolution mass spectrometer combined with comprehensive pesticides database and advanced compound screening software.

  15. Organochlorine pesticide residuals in chickens and eggs at a poultry farm in Beijing, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tao, S. [Laboratory for Earth Surface Processes, College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Department of Geosciences and Center for Applied Environmental Research, University of Missouri, Kansas City, MO 64110-2499 (United States)], E-mail: taos@urban.pku.edu.cn; Liu, W.X.; Li, X.Q.; Zhou, D.X.; Li, X.; Yang, Y.F.; Yue, D.P. [Laboratory for Earth Surface Processes, College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Coveney, R.M. [Department of Geosciences and Center for Applied Environmental Research, University of Missouri, Kansas City, MO 64110-2499 (United States)

    2009-02-15

    Chicken organs, animal feed, droppings, and ambient air were sampled at a farm in Beijing to determine the concentrations of hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and metabolites (DDTs). Mean fresh weight concentrations of HCHs and DDTs were 0.122 {+-} 0.061 ng/g and 0.051 {+-} 0.038 ng/g in the muscles. These values are 1-2 orders of magnitude lower than those reported in China in 1980. Contaminated feed was the main source of HCHs and DDTs. Only 12.8% of HCH and 3.3% of DDT of the amount consumed were excreted. Accumulated quantities of HCHs and DDTs increased during growth. However, concentrations of HCHs and DDTs did not increase because of dilution from rapid growth. Based on the observed residual levels in mature chicken and the average diet of residents of China, the contributions from chicken and egg consumption to per capita daily intake of HCHs and DDTs were 487% and 88% of those of fish consumption. - Ingestion of chicken and eggs is an important pathway of HCHs and DDTs exposure.

  16. Determination of pyrethroids pesticide residues in the roots of Zanthoxylum nitidum (Roxb.) DC%两面针中7种拟除虫菊酯农药残留分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    莫遗盛; 冯洁; 周劲帆; 赖茂祥

    2013-01-01

    目的:分析两面针中拟除虫菊酯类农药残留,为两面针的安全用药及质量控制和标准制定提供科学依据.方法:应用GC-MS法、选择离子监测模式(SIM)对两面针中7种拟除虫菊酯农药残留进行检测.样品经石油醚-丙酮(4∶1,v/v)混合溶剂超声提取,无水硫酸钠-无水硫酸镁-PSA-石墨化碳固相萃取小柱净化,外标法定量,测定两面针中7种拟除虫菊酯类农药残留.结果:应用所建立的色谱方法,可成功地对两面针中7种拟除虫菊酯类农药准确定量和确证.在检测的12批次两面针中,除1号和4号样品含少量的联苯菊酯、8号和9号样品含少量氰戊菊酯和3号、4号、5号样品含少量溴氰菊酯外,其余样品均检测不到7种拟除虫菊酯类农药.结论:12批次两面针样品中7种拟除虫菊酯类农药均未超标.该方法可用于两面针中拟除虫菊酯类微量农药残留的检测,可以推广应用.%Objective:To analyze the pyrethroid pesticide residues in the roots of Zanthoxylum nitidum and provide the scientific foundation for medication safety,quality control and standard establishment.Methods:A GC-MS method with selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode was applied to determine pyrethroid pesticide residues in the roots of Zanthoxylum nitidum.The samples were extracted with the mixture solution of petroleum ether-acetone (4∶ 1,v/v) and ultrasonic vibrations,and the analytical samples were purified by anhydrous sodium sulfate-anhydrous magnesium sulfate-PSA-PestiCarb-phase extraction (SPE) cartridge.The samples were respectively injected into the GC-MS analytical system for simultaneous analysis of the pyrethroid pesticid residues in the roots of Zanthoxylum nitidum,with external standard method.Results:Accurate quantitation and confirmation of seven pyrethroid pesticide residues were obtained by the established GC-MS method.As a result,samples 1 and 4 were detected with small amounts of bifenthrin,samples 8 and 9 with

  17. The PERICLES research program: An integrated approach to characterize the combined effects of mixtures of pesticide residues to which the French population is exposed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to the broad spectrum of pesticide usages, consumers are exposed to mixtures of residues, which may have combined effects on human health. The PERICLES research program aims to test the potential combined effects of pesticide mixtures, which are likely to occur through dietary exposure. The co-exposure of the French general population to 79 pesticide residues present in the diet was first assessed. A Bayesian nonparametric model was then applied to define the main mixtures to which the French general population is simultaneously and most heavily exposed. Seven mixtures made of two to six pesticides were identified from the exposure assessment. An in vitro approach was used for investigating the toxicological effects of these mixtures and their corresponding individual compounds, using a panel of cellular models, i.e. primary rat and human hepatocytes, liver, intestine, kidney, colon and brain human cell lines. A set of cell functions and corresponding end-points were monitored such as cytotoxicity, real-time cell impedance, genotoxicity, oxidative stress, apoptosis and PXR nuclear receptor transactivation. The mixtures were tested in equimolar concentrations. Among the seven mixtures, two appeared highly cytotoxic, five activated PXR and depending on the assay one or two were genotoxic. In some experiments, the mixture effect was quantitatively different from the effect expected from the addition concept. The PERICLES program shows that, for the most pesticides mixtures to which the French general population is exposed, the toxic effects observed on human cells cannot be easily predicted based on the toxic potential of each compound. Consequently, additional studies should be carried on in order to more accurately define the mixtures of chemicals to which the consumers are exposed, as well as to improve the investigation, prediction and monitoring of their potential human health effects

  18. Evaluation of QuEChERS sample preparation and liquid chromatography-triple-quadrupole mass spectrometry method for the determination of 109 pesticide residues in tomatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golge, Ozgur; Kabak, Bulent

    2015-06-01

    A multiresidue method based on modified QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe) sample preparation, followed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was developed and validated for the determination of 109 selected multiclass pesticides in tomatoes. The recovery yields ranged from 77.1% to 113.2%, with repeatabilities of 4.4-19.2% and within-laboratory reproducibilities of 7.1-18.4%. The limit of detections (LODs) for target analytes in tomato extract were between 0.5 and 10.8μgkg(-1), and the limit of quantifications (LOQs) were between 1.3 and 30.4μgkg(-1). The expanded measurement uncertainty was not higher than 30% for all target analytes. The method has been successfully applied to the analysis of 345 tomato samples obtained from local markets and tomato traders. Residues of acetamiprid, azoxystrobin and triadimefon were identified and measured in 9.6% of tomato samples, ranging from 0.015 to 0.37mgkg(-1). PMID:25624240

  19. Application of elevated temperature-dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction for determination of organophosphorus pesticides residues in aqueous samples followed by gas chromatography-flame ionization detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farajzadeh, Mir Ali; Afshar Mogaddam, Mohammad Reza; Rezaee Aghdam, Samaneh; Nouri, Nina; Bamorrowat, Mahdi

    2016-12-01

    In the present study, an elevated temperature, dispersive, liquid-liquid microextraction/gas chromatography-flame ionization detection was investigated for the determination, pre-concentration, and extraction of six organophosphorus pesticides (malathion, phosalone, dichlorvos, diazinon, profenofos, and chlorpyrifos) residues in fruit juice and aqueous samples. A mixture of 1,2-dibromoethane (extraction solvent) and dimethyl sulfoxide (disperser solvent) was injected rapidly into the sample solution heated at an elevated temperature. Analytical parameters, including enrichment factors (1600-2075), linearity (r>0.994), limits of detection (0.82-2.72ngmL(-1)) and quantification (2.60-7.36ngmL(-1)), relative standard deviations (<7%) and extraction recoveries (64-83%), showed the high efficiency of the method developed for analysis of the target analytes. The proposed procedure was used effectively to analyse selected analytes in river water and fruit juice, and diazinon was found at ngmL(-1) concentrations in apple juice. PMID:27374524

  20. Within-laboratory validation of a multiresidue method for the analysis of 98 pesticides in mango by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleury Filho, N; Nascimento, C A; Faria, E O; Cruvinel, A R; Oliveira, J M

    2012-01-01

    A within-laboratory validation procedure for a selective and sensitive method for the simultaneous determination of 98 pesticide residues in mango is presented. QuEChERS extraction was adapted to laboratory conditions. Mango samples (10 g) mixed with sodium sulfate (4 g) and sodium acetate (1 g) were extracted with acetonitrile/acetic acid (99/1 v/v), cleaned using dispersive solids, and subsequently identified and quantified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Pesticides were separated on a reversed-phase column using a gradient elution in conjunction with positive-mode electrospray ionisation. The analytical performance of the method was demonstrated by analysis of spiked mango samples at three concentration levels (0.01, 0.05 and 0.1 mg kg(-1)) for 3 different days, and the analysis was performed by three analysts. Calibration curves were statistically acceptable by the ordinary last-square method (OLSM), with a regression coefficient above 0.98 for all analytes. The method accuracy (n = 18) was between 80% and 110%, and precisions were below 20% for 95% of the analytes. The method uncertainty at the LOQ was evaluated considering the uncertainty associated with the calibration curve and the uncertainty associated with the method precision. The validation data for all pesticides were in accordance with Brazilian and European guidelines for pesticide residue analysis. PMID:22014095

  1. [Determination of 51 carbamate pesticide residues in vegetables by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry based on optimization of QuEChERS sample preparation method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lianzhu; Zhou, Yu; Huang, Xiaoyan; Wang, Ruilong; Lin, Zixu; Chen, Yong; Wang, Dengfei; Lin, Dejuan; Xu, Dunming

    2013-12-01

    The raw extracts of six vegetables (tomato, green bean, shallot, broccoli, ginger and carrot) were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in full scan mode combined with NIST library search to confirm main matrix compounds. The effects of cleanup and adsorption mechanisms of primary secondary amine (PSA) , octadecylsilane (C18) and PSA + C18 on co-extractives were studied by the weight of evaporation residue for extracts before and after cleanup. The suitability of the two versions of QuEChERS method for sample preparation was evaluated for the extraction of 51 carbamate pesticides in the six vegetables. One of the QuEChERS methods was the original un-buffered method published in 2003, and the other was AOAC Official Method 2007.01 using acetate buffer. As a result, the best effects were obtained from using the combination of C18 and PSA for extract cleanup in vegetables. The acetate-buffered version was suitable for the determination of all pesticides except dioxacarb. Un-buffered QuEChERS method gave satisfactory results for determining dioxacarb. Based on these results, the suitable QuEChERS sample preparation method and liquid chromatography-positive electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry under the optimized conditions were applied to determine the 51 carbamate pesticide residues in six vegetables. The analytes were quantified by matrix-matched standard solution. The recoveries at three levels of 10, 20 and 100 microg/kg spiked in six vegetables ranged from 58.4% to 126% with the relative standard deviations of 3.3%-26%. The limits of quantification (LOQ, S/N > or = 10) were 0.2-10 microg/kg except that the LOQs of cartap and thiofanox were 50 microg/kg. The method is highly efficient, sensitive and suitable for monitoring the 51 carbamate pesticide residues in vegetables. PMID:24669707

  2. Searching for a more sensitive earthworm species to be used in pesticide homologation tests – A meta-analysis.

    OpenAIRE

    Joimel, Sophie; MAKOWSKI, DAVID; Makowski, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Pesticide risk assessments include experiments designed to measure the effect of pesticides on earthworms using the Eisenia fetida fetida or Eisenia fetida andrei species. There is no clear consensus in the literature on the sensitivity of different earthworm species to pesticides. We performed a meta-analysis on the sensitivity of several earthworm species to pesticides to determine the most sensitive species, and to discuss their suitability for European homologation tests. A dataset i...

  3. Pesticides and health: A review of evidence on health effects, valuation of risks, and benefit‐cost analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Andersson, Henrik; Tago, Damian; Treich, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we provide reviews of recent scientific findings on health effects and preference valuation of health risks related to pesticides, and the role of benefit‐cost analysis in policies related to pesticides. Our reviews reveal that whereas the focus of the health literature has been on individuals with direct exposure to pesticides, e.g. farmers, the literature on preference elicitation has focused on those with indirect exposure, e.g. consumers. Our discussion of pesticides polici...

  4. Residual analysis for spatial point processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baddeley, A.; Turner, R.; Møller, Jesper;

    We define residuals for point process models fitted to spatial point pattern data, and propose diagnostic plots based on these residuals. The techniques apply to any Gibbs point process model, which may exhibit spatial heterogeneity, interpoint interaction and dependence on spatial covariates. Ou...

  5. In situ hydrothermal growth of ZnO/g-C3N4 nanoflowers coated solid-phase microextraction fibers coupled with GC-MS for determination of pesticides residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ning; Gao, Jia; Huang, Chuanhui; Liu, Wei; Tong, Ping; Zhang, Lan

    2016-08-31

    In this paper, Zinc oxide (ZnO) hybridized with graphite-like C3N4 (ZnO/g-C3N4) nanoflowers based solid phase microextraction (SPME) coating was prepared on fiber using in situ hydrothermal growth method for gas chromatographic -mass spectrum (GC- MS) separation and analysis target analytes in complex matrixes for the first time. The proposed hybrid ZnO/g-C3N4 fiber exhibited wide linearity for the pesticide residues in range of 0.003-5.0 ng mL(-1). The limits of detection (LOD) were 0.001-0.0025 ng mL(-1). The relative standard deviation (RSD) for three replicate extractions using one fiber was ranged from 2.3% to 7.6%. The fiber to fiber RSD was 5.3-11.3% (n = 3). This method was successfully used for simultaneous determination of nine pesticide residues in cucumber, pear, Green tea and Minjiang water with satisfactory recoveries of 79.1-103.5%. These results indicated that the ZnO/g-C3N4 composite provided a promising alternative in sample pretreatment and analysis. PMID:27506352

  6. Study on Factors Influencing Farmers' Cognition about Pesticide Residue%农户农药残留认知影响因素研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱雪兰; 洪潇伟; 韦开蕾

    2013-01-01

    本文基于对海南省7个市县冬季瓜菜种植农户的调研数据,建立结构方程模型(SEM),对农户农药残留认知的影响因素进行了实证分析.结果表明:政府服务与规制和农户禀赋是影响农户农药残留认知的主要原因,两者不仅直接影响农户农药残留认知,还可通过间接影响农户已有用药习惯和安全生产意识而进一步产生影响.%Based on the investigation data of farmers planting anti-season melon vegetables from seven cities and counties in Hainan Province,the structural equation model (SEM) was established to analyze the factors influencing the cognition of farmers about pesticide residue.The results demonstrated that farmers' endowment,service and regulation of government were the primary reasons,and they not only had a direct influence but also an indirect influence to farmers' cognition about pesticide residue.The safety awareness in production and pesticide-use habits of farmers were the followed factors,which both affected by the former two reasons.

  7. 有机磷类农药残留分析方法研究进展%Detection Technical Progress of Organpphosphorus Pesticide Residues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周黔兰; 徐海丽

    2012-01-01

    Organophosphorus pesticides were widely used in agriculture, causing risks for environment as well as for human health. The detection methods of organophosphate pesticide residues were summarized, and advantages and disad- vantages of all kinds of detection methods were compared. The varies samples pretreatment methods were introduced. The development of sample pretreatment and determination method of organophosphorus pesticide residue was proposed as well.%有机磷农药在农业生产中应用广泛,对环境和人体健康产生严重威胁。本文综述了有机磷类农药残留的各种检测方法和技术的研究进展,比较了不同检测分析方法的原理和技术的优缺点,也对检测前的各种预处理方法做了介绍,对未来样品前处理技术及有机磷农药残留检测技术进行了展望。

  8. Pesticides for apicultural and/or agricultural application found in Belgian honey bee wax combs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravoet, Jorgen; Reybroeck, Wim; de Graaf, Dirk C

    2015-05-01

    In a Belgian pilot study honey bee wax combs from ten hives were analyzed on the presence of almost 300 organochlorine and organophosphorous compounds by LC-MS/MS and GC-MS/MS. Traces of 18 pesticides were found and not a single sample was free of residues. The number of residues found per sample ranged from 3 to 13, and the pesticides found could be categorized as (1) pesticides for solely apicultural (veterinary) application, (2) pesticides for solely agricultural (crop protection) application, (3) pesticides for mixed agricultural and apicultural (veterinary) application. The frequencies and quantities of some environmental pollutants bear us high concerns. Most alarming was the detection of lindane (gamma-HCH) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (including its breakdown product dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene), two insecticides that are banned in Europe. The present comprehensive residue analysis, however, also reveals residues of pesticides never found in beeswax before, i.e. DEET, propargite and bromophos.

  9. Pesticide exposure - Indian scene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Use of pesticides in India began in 1948 when DDT was imported for malaria control and BHC for locust control. India started pesticide production with manufacturing plant for DDT and benzene hexachloride (BHC) (HCH) in the year 1952. In 1958, India was producing over 5000 metric tonnes of pesticides. Currently, there are approximately 145 pesticides registered for use, and production has increased to approximately 85,000 metric tonnes. Rampant use of these chemicals has given rise to several short-term and long-term adverse effects of these chemicals. The first report of poisoning due to pesticides in India came from Kerala in 1958 where, over 100 people died after consuming wheat flour contaminated with parathion. Subsequently several cases of pesticide-poisoning including the Bhopal disaster have been reported. Despite the fact that the consumption of pesticides in India is still very low, about 0.5 kg/ha of pesticides against 6.60 and 12.0 kg/ha in Korea and Japan, respectively, there has been a widespread contamination of food commodities with pesticide residues, basically due to non-judicious use of pesticides. In India, 51% of food commodities are contaminated with pesticide residues and out of these, 20% have pesticides residues above the maximum residue level values on a worldwide basis. It has been observed that their long-term, low-dose exposure are increasingly linked to human health effects such as immune-suppression, hormone disruption, diminished intelligence, reproductive abnormalities, and cancer. In this light, problems of pesticide safety, regulation of pesticide use, use of biotechnology, and biopesticides, and use of pesticides obtained from natural plant sources such as neem extracts are some of the future strategies for minimizing human exposure to pesticides

  10. Rotenone and paraquat perturb dopamine metabolism: A computational analysis of pesticide toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Zhen; Miller, Gary W; Voit, Eberhard O

    2014-01-01

    Pesticides, such as rotenone and paraquat, are suspected in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD), whose hallmark is the progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta. Thus, compounds expected to play a role in the pathogenesis of PD will likely impact the function of dopaminergic neurons. To explore the relationship between pesticide exposure and dopaminergic toxicity, we developed a custom-tailored mathematical model of dopamine metabolism and utilized it to infer potential mechanisms underlying the toxicity of rotenone and paraquat, asking how these pesticides perturb specific processes. We performed two types of analyses, which are conceptually different and complement each other. The first analysis, a purely algebraic reverse engineering approach, analytically and deterministically computes the altered profile of enzyme activities that characterize the effects of a pesticide. The second method consists of large-scale Monte Carlo simulations that statistically reveal possible mechanisms of pesticides. The results from the reverse engineering approach show that rotenone and paraquat exposures lead to distinctly different flux perturbations. Rotenone seems to affect all fluxes associated with dopamine compartmentalization, whereas paraquat exposure perturbs fluxes associated with dopamine and its breakdown metabolites. The statistical results of the Monte-Carlo analysis suggest several specific mechanisms. The findings are interesting, because no a priori assumptions are made regarding specific pesticide actions, and all parameters characterizing the processes in the dopamine model are treated in an unbiased manner. Our results show how approaches from computational systems biology can help identify mechanisms underlying the toxicity of pesticide exposure.

  11. Estimation of the uncertainty in a multiresidue method for the determination of pesticide residues in fruit and vegetables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Hanne Bjerre; Poulsen, Mette Erecius; Pedersen, Mikael

    2003-01-01

    The estimation of uncertainty of an analytical result has become important in analytical chemistry. It is especially difficult to determine uncertainties for multiresidue methods, e.g. for pesticides in fruit and vegetables, as the varieties of pesticide/commodity combinations are many....... In the present study, recommendations from the International Organisation for Standardisation's (ISO) Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty and the EURACHEM/CITAC guide Quantifying Uncertainty in Analytical Measurements were followed to estimate the expanded uncertainties for 153 pesticides in fruit...

  12. 2011 EPA Pesticide General Permit (PGP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The 2011 EPA Pesticide General Permit (PGP) covers discharges of biological pesticides, and chemical pesticides that leave a residue, in areas where EPA is the...

  13. Persistence of organophosphorus pesticides in aquatic environments. Coordinated programme on isotope-tracer-aided research and monitoring on agricultural residue - biological interactions in aquatic environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A radiometric enzymic assay method was developed for quick measuring of organophosphorous insecticides in water samples. All steps of the assay procedure were carried out in scintillation vials. 50 μl enzyme solution (acetylcholinesterase of electric eel) and 50 μl buffer pH 7 were pipetted into the vial followed by 100 μl of water sample or aqueous solution of the insecticide and the mixture was incubated for 60 minutes. 50 μl 3H-acetylcholine were added to the vial and the enzymic reaction stopped after 10 minutes by adding 200 μl buffer solution pH 2.5. 10 ml scintillation cocktail were then added and after shaking and 30 minutes standing the radioactivity was determined in a liquid scintillation spectrometer. Acetylcholine remained in the water phase while 3H-acetic acid released in enzymic hydrolysis may be extracted by an organic solvent. By this method, not only the parent compound but also some of its degradation products, which possess some anticholinesteratic activity can be measured. The method is suitable for combination with thin-layer chromatography for identification purposes. Using this method, we studied the degradation of the organophosphorous insecticides malathion, parathion, DDVP and imidan. The degradation in distilled water and natural water was compared. For example, the half-time of malathion in distilled water at room temperature was 6 days while in natural water (Danube river) it was 4 hours. The degradation processes were also studied in model systems containing sediment and water. Degradation was faster in models containing solid particles than in filtered water. The radiometric enzymic method was tested as analytical procedure for residue monitoring. Since 1978 a residue monitoring programme was in progress in the Danube river near Budapest. Occasionally high residue levels were detected in spring and early summer. The radiometric enzymic method has proved to be a useful analytical method for anticholinesterase pesticides in water

  14. Investigation of the occurrence of pesticide residues in rural wells and surface water following application to tobacco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson C. Bortoluzzi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work the exposure of wells and surface water to pesticides, commonly used for tobacco cropping, was assessed. Water consumption wells and surface water flows were sampled at different times. After a preconcentration step with solid phase extraction (SPE, the selected pesticides were determined by gas chromatography with electron capture detection (GC-ECD or high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection (HPLC-DAD. No pesticides were detected in the well water samples and surface water flow in the winter season. However, in the spring and summer higher concentrations of chlorpyrifos and imidacloprid were found in the water source samples. Atrazine, simazine and clomazone were also found. The occurrence of pesticides in collected water samples was related with the application to tobacco.

  15. Pesticide exposure and risk of Alzheimer's disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Dandan; Zhang, Yunjian; Liu, Liegang; Yan, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Evidence suggests that lifelong cumulative exposure to pesticides may generate lasting toxic effects on the central nervous system and contribute to the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD). A number of reports indicate a potential association between long-term/low-dose pesticide exposure and AD, but the results are inconsistent. Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis to clarify this association. Relevant studies were identified according to inclusion criteria. Summary odds ratios (ORs) were calculated using fixed-effects models. A total of seven studies were included in our meta-analysis. A positive association was observed between pesticide exposure and AD (OR = 1.34; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.08, 1.67; n = 7). The summary ORs with 95% CIs from the crude and adjusted effect size studies were 1.14 (95% CI = 0.94, 1.38; n = 7) and 1.37 (95% CI = 1.09, 1.71; n = 5), respectively. The sensitivity analyses of the present meta-analysis did not substantially modify the association between pesticide exposure and AD. Subgroup analyses revealed that high-quality studies tended to show significant relationships. The present meta-analysis suggested a positive association between pesticide exposure and AD, confirming the hypothesis that pesticide exposure is a risk factor for AD. Further high-quality cohort and case-control studies are required to validate a causal relationship. PMID:27581992

  16. Pesticide exposure and risk of Alzheimer’s disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Dandan; Zhang, Yunjian; Liu, Liegang; Yan, Hong

    2016-09-01

    Evidence suggests that lifelong cumulative exposure to pesticides may generate lasting toxic effects on the central nervous system and contribute to the development of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). A number of reports indicate a potential association between long-term/low-dose pesticide exposure and AD, but the results are inconsistent. Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis to clarify this association. Relevant studies were identified according to inclusion criteria. Summary odds ratios (ORs) were calculated using fixed-effects models. A total of seven studies were included in our meta-analysis. A positive association was observed between pesticide exposure and AD (OR = 1.34 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.08, 1.67; n = 7). The summary ORs with 95% CIs from the crude and adjusted effect size studies were 1.14 (95% CI = 0.94, 1.38; n = 7) and 1.37 (95% CI = 1.09, 1.71; n = 5), respectively. The sensitivity analyses of the present meta-analysis did not substantially modify the association between pesticide exposure and AD. Subgroup analyses revealed that high-quality studies tended to show significant relationships. The present meta-analysis suggested a positive association between pesticide exposure and AD, confirming the hypothesis that pesticide exposure is a risk factor for AD. Further high-quality cohort and case-control studies are required to validate a causal relationship.

  17. Pesticide exposure and risk of Alzheimer’s disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Dandan; Zhang, Yunjian; Liu, Liegang; Yan, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Evidence suggests that lifelong cumulative exposure to pesticides may generate lasting toxic effects on the central nervous system and contribute to the development of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). A number of reports indicate a potential association between long-term/low-dose pesticide exposure and AD, but the results are inconsistent. Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis to clarify this association. Relevant studies were identified according to inclusion criteria. Summary odds ratios (ORs) were calculated using fixed-effects models. A total of seven studies were included in our meta-analysis. A positive association was observed between pesticide exposure and AD (OR = 1.34; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.08, 1.67; n = 7). The summary ORs with 95% CIs from the crude and adjusted effect size studies were 1.14 (95% CI = 0.94, 1.38; n = 7) and 1.37 (95% CI = 1.09, 1.71; n = 5), respectively. The sensitivity analyses of the present meta-analysis did not substantially modify the association between pesticide exposure and AD. Subgroup analyses revealed that high-quality studies tended to show significant relationships. The present meta-analysis suggested a positive association between pesticide exposure and AD, confirming the hypothesis that pesticide exposure is a risk factor for AD. Further high-quality cohort and case-control studies are required to validate a causal relationship. PMID:27581992

  18. Evaluation of alternative sorbents for dispersive solid-phase extraction clean-up in the QuEChERS method for the determination of pesticide residues in rice by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, Liziara da C; Caldas, Sergiane S; Prestes, Osmar D; Primel, Ednei G; Zanella, Renato

    2016-05-01

    Many compounds are used for pest control during the production and storage of rice, making it necessary to employ multiclass methods for pesticide residues determination. For this purpose, QuEChERS-based methods are very efficient, fast and accurate, and improvements in the clean-up step are important, especially for complex matrices, like cereals. In this work, different sorbents such as chitosan, florisil(®) , alumina, diatomaceous earth, graphitized carbon black, besides the commonly used primary secondary amine and octadecylsilane, were evaluated for dispersive solid-phase extraction clean-up in acetate-buffered QuEChERS method for the determination of residues of 20 representative pesticides and one metabolite in rice by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. The sorbent C18 presented the best results, however, chitosan showed similar results, and the best performance among the unconventional sorbents evaluated. The method limit of quantification, attending accuracy (70-120% recovery) and precision (RSD ≤20%) criteria, ranged from 5 to 20 μg/kg. Results showed that chitosan is an effective alternative to reduce analysis costs, maintaining the method reliability and accuracy.

  19. Serum Organochlorine Pesticide Residues and Risk of Testicular Germ Cell Carcinoma: A Population-Based Case-Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Mary L Biggs; Davis, Mark D.; Eaton, David L.; Weiss, Noel S.; Barr, Dana B.; Doody, David R.; Fish, Sherianne; Needham, Larry L.; Chen, Chu; Schwartz, Stephen M.

    2008-01-01

    Testicular germ cell carcinoma (TGCC) is the most common malignancy among men aged 20–34. Although the pathogenesis of TGCC is poorly understood, sub-optimal androgen levels or impaired androgen signaling may play a role. Some persistent organochlorine pesticides commonly found in human tissue possess anti-androgenic properties. We examined whether the risk of TGCC is associated with serum levels of 11 organochlorine pesticides, including p,p’-DDE, and whether the p,p-DDE-TGCC association is ...

  20. Evaluation of the performance of a castor-oil based formulation in limiting pesticide residues in strawberry crops

    OpenAIRE

    Mário Sérgio Galhiane; Sandra Regina Rissato; Lucídio de Sousa Santos; Gilberto Orivaldo Chierice; Marcos Vinícius de Almeida; Terezinha Fumis; Inês Chechim; Aloísio Costa Sampaio

    2012-01-01

    A study was made to evaluate the effect of a castor oil-based detergent on strawberry crops treated with different classes of pesticides, namely deltamethrin, folpet, tebuconazole, abamectin and mancozeb, in a controlled environment. Experimental crops of greenhouse strawberries were cultivated in five different ways with control groups using pesticides and castor oil-based detergent. The results showed that the group 2, which was treated with castor oil-based detergent, presented the lowest ...

  1. Comparison of sample preparation methods combined with gas chromatography with electron-capture detection for the analysis of multipesticide residues in lotus seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Qing; Kong, Weijun; Yang, Shihai; Yang, Meihua

    2013-06-01

    Sample preparation is always the major bottleneck in analytical chemistry for the determination of pesticide residues. Different sample preparation methods have been proposed due to the wide variety of pesticides used and the inherent complexity of the matrices. In this study, different sample preparation methods including SPE, matrix solid-phase dispersion, the quick, easy, cheap, efficient, rugged, and safe method, and a one-step completion method were compared and evaluated for extracting pesticides from lotus seeds. Analysis was carried out using GC with electron-capture detection. The results showed that good recoveries for tested pesticides were obtained by using Florisil in the four methods, and the extraction efficiency of the one-step completion method was superior to the other three methods. The one-step completion method was confirmed to have good linearity, reproducibility, stability, and recovery for the detection of 36 pesticides in lotus seed samples. The data collected from this study are expected to prove useful in regulating the concentration of the residues in lotus seeds, as well as in protecting human health from the hazards posed by these residues.

  2. Quantitative structure activity relationship and risk analysis of some pesticides in the goat milk

    OpenAIRE

    Faqir Muhammad; Mian Muhammad Awais; Masood Akhtar; Muhammad Irfan Anwar

    2013-01-01

    The detection and quantification of different pesticides in the goat milk samples collected from different localities of Faisalabad, Pakistan was performed by HPLC using solid phase microextraction. The analysis showed that about 50% milk samples were contaminated with pesticides. The mean+/-SEM levels (ppm) of cyhalothrin, endosulfan, chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin were 0.34+/-0.007, 0.063+/-0.002, 0.034+/-0.002 and 0.092+/-0.002, respectively; whereas, methyl parathion was not detected in an...

  3. Bound Pesticide Residues in Soils and Its Eco- risk%农药在土壤中的结合残留及其生态风险

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐东民; 宗贵仪; 唐勇

    2011-01-01

    Applied pesticides in soil may physically, chemically or biologically form bound residues. The pesticides reduce bioactivity by formation of bound residue, but they have opportunity to be released into soil. This paper reviewed the bound residues in the respects of definition, formation mechanisms, analytical methods and probable eco-risks. Future research respects required were prospected.%农药等有机物在施用后可以通过物理、化学和生物等作用形成结合残留.农药结合残留的形成,可以降低其活性,但也存在重新释放的可能性.文章从结合残留的定义、形成机制、分析方法和可能存在的生态风险等方面进行了综述,并对以后需要深入研究的内容做一展望.

  4. Use of ammonium formate in QuEChERS for high-throughput analysis of pesticides in food by fast, low-pressure gas chromatography and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    The “quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe” (QuEChERS) approach to sample preparation is widely applied in pesticide residue analysis, but the use of magnesium sulfate for salting out in the method is not ideal for mass spectrometry. In this study we developed and evaluated three new diffe...

  5. Assessment of residual stress using thermoelastic stress analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, Andrew Ferrand

    2011-01-01

    The work described in this thesis considers the application of thermoelastic stress analysis (TSA) to the assessment of residual stresses in metallic materials. Residual stresses exist within almost all engineering components and structures. They are an unavoidable consequence of manufacturing processes and may cause the premature and catastrophic failure of a component when coupled with in-service stresses. Alternatively, beneficial residual stress may be introduced to enhance th...

  6. Radiotracer studies on the fate and transformation of pesticide residues in the environment and food chains. Part of a coordinated programme on isotopic-tracer-aided studies of chemical residues in cotton seed, feed, oil and related products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The magnitude and fate of some pesticide chemicals in Korean foods were studied with particular reference to oil-bearing crops and related products. Application of the chemicals was made under conditions of actual agricultural practice. Analytical methodologies included nuclear activation, gas chromatographic, spectrophotometric and radiotracer techniques. Residues of benzene hexachloride, heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide, aldrin, dieldrin, endrin and DDT found in refined vegetable oil samples were below or within the tolerance limits set by international organizations and as such, these are unlikely to present any toxicological hazard to the consumer. Also, residues of the herbicides nitrogen, alachlor and butachlor applied to oil-bearing crops were not detected in the seeds. Studies on 14C-BHC residues in rice revealed that polishing and washing play an important role in removing a considerable portion of the residue. Data on the arsenic-containing neoasozine residues suggest that the products consumed by the human (grain and oil) contained residues below the tolerance limit and are unlikely to present any toxicological hazard to the consumer. On the other hand, relatively high arsenic concentrations (2.2 mg/kg) were found in the cake (serving as animal feed) and should be carefully evaluated in the light of toxicological data

  7. Regional difference of organochlorine pesticide residues in arable land of Liaocheng Area%聊城耕地土壤有机氯农药在地域间的残留差异

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王岩; 张保华; 刘力

    2012-01-01

    The paper is concerned about our study of the regional difference of organochlorine pesticide residues in arable land of Liaocheng Area. For our research purpose, we have collected 136 soil samples in the farm lands from Liaocheng Area, Shandong, in hoping to determine the residues and the distribution features of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), with the lattice method. Then, we have analyzed the samples collected by accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) ,the detectable rates and the left-over residue content of eight organochlorine pesticides, including α - BHC, β - BHC, γ - BHC, δ-BHC, p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDT, p,p'- DDD and o,p'- DDT with GC - ECD. We have also analyzed the contamination difference of OCPs in 8 counties by using one-way ANOVA and LSD multiple comparison method. The results of our analysis show that all OCPs have different detectable rates and residual rates, with the primary contaminants being β - BHC and p, p'- DDE. The detected β - BHC and p, p' - DDE contaminants account for 52.21 % and 94.12 % , respectively, with the residual ingredients equal to 10.41 μg/kg and 74.16 μg/kg. Among them, the residue of BHCs stands at a lower level as compared with other regions all over the country. The residue order of the 4 isomers tends to be β - BHC > α - BHC > δ - BHC > γ - BHC, though they bring about no contamination to the farm lands. However , DDT residue, being the most serious pollutants of Liaocheng area, turns out to be very high as compared with other regions at home and abroad. In addition, the residue order of the 4 derivatives proves to be p, p''- DDE > p, p' - DDT > p, p' - DDD > o,p'- DDT. As compared with other nearby counties, significant difference could be found between β - BHC in Dongchangfu county and that of γ - BHC and DDTs in linqing county, for the residue content of β - BHC in Dongchangfu and DDTs in Linqing prove to be remarkably higher than that in other counties.%为确定聊城市耕地土壤中有机氯农药(OCPs

  8. 基于酶抑制法的农药残留快速比色检测%Rapid colormetric detection of pesticide residues based on enzyme inhibition method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱松明; 周晨楠; 和劲松; 张雪吟; 郭希山

    2014-01-01

    基于有机磷与氨基甲酸酯类农药对乙酰胆碱酯酶(acetylcholinesterase,AChE)的抑制作用,以吲哚酚乙酸酯为酶促水解反应的显色底物,制备了一种抛弃型农药残留快速检测酶片;通过优化试验,用物理吸附法将AChE固定到尼龙膜Hybond N+膜上,经真空冷冻干燥后,酶活回收率可达27.3%;该酶片显色结果为蓝绿色,通过比较显色强度的变化,酶片对农药标样氧乐果、毒死蜱、甲萘威与抗蚜威的检出限分别为1、0.05、1.5与0.8μg/mL,均达到食品中的最大残留限量标准;将研制的酶片用于葡萄汁与小白菜样品的检测结果证实,该酶片具有灵敏度高、准确度高、重现性好等优点,可用于农产品中有机磷与氨基甲酸酯类农药残留的快速定性筛检。%In recent years, due to the frequently reported food safety events, people generally care about the food safety. According to former research, the application amount of organophosphorus pesticides and carbamate pesticides possesses about 70% of the total application amount of pesticides. So, it is necessary to develop fast, sensitive and accurate analysis of pesticide residues to assure the quality of agricultural products. However, the existing food quality supervision system is generally based on the instrument analysis technology, which is time-consuming and high-costing, and will delay the actual release of information for the food safety determination. So it cannot provide the rapid response to the consumer queries. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop the rapid detection techniques for food safety. A novel disposable enzyme tablet was developed for rapid colorimetric detection of pesticide residues in agricultural products, which based on the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity by pesticides and the AChE-catalyzed hydrolysis of chromogenic substrate, indoxyl acetate. As known, indoxyl acetate can be catalyzed to

  9. The Research Progress of Degradation Method for Organophosphorus Pesticide Residues from Vegetables%蔬菜中有机磷农药残留降解方法的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何迪; 李明浩; 李晓东

    2012-01-01

    At present,organophosphorus pesticide is one of the most widely used chemical pesticides and mainly applied in vegetables. Organophosphorus pesticide residues brought serious threat to human health. Degradation methods for organophosphorus pesticide residues mainly include physical degradation,chemical degradation and biodegradation,during which biodegradation has the most widely application prospect.%目前有机磷农药是应用最为广泛的化学农药之一,蔬菜是其主要作用对象,有机磷农药带来的药残严重威胁人类的健康.对于有机磷药残的降解方法主要有物理降解、化学降解和生物降解,其中生物降解法是应用前景最为广泛的降解方法之一.

  10. Analysis of pesticides by gas chromatography/multiphoton ionization/mass spectrometry using a femtosecond laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → Gas chromatography/multiphoton ionization/time-of-flight mass spectrometry was utilized for analysis. → A standard mixture sample containing 49 pesticides and 4 real samples were measured. → Third-harmonic emission of a Ti:sapphire laser (100 fs) was employed as an ionization source. → Most of the pesticides were softly ionized by the femtosecond laser. → Three pesticides were found, although some of them were not detected by GC/EI/MS-MS. - Abstract: Gas chromatography/multiphoton ionization/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC/MPI/TOFMS) was utilized for analysis of a standard mixture sample containing 49 pesticides and 4 real samples using the third-harmonic emission (267 nm) of a femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser (100 fs) as the ionization source. A sample of a standard mixture of n-alkane was also measured for calibration of the retention time indices of the pesticides. Two photons are required for the excitation of n-alkane due to an absorption band located in the far ultraviolet region (140 nm). The n-alkane molecule in the excited state was subsequently ionized either directly or by absorbing another photon because of a high ionization potential. Due to a large excess of energy, the molecular ion was decomposed and formed many fragment ions. Compared to n-alkanes, most of the pesticides were softly ionized by the femtosecond laser; one photon was used for excitation and another was used for the subsequent ionization. The pesticides with no conjugated double bond had a lower ionization efficiency. The present analytical instrument was applied to several samples prepared from a variety of vegetables and a single fruit after pretreatment with solid-phase extraction. Three pesticides were found in these samples, although some of them were not detected by conventional GC/EI/MS-MS due to insufficient sensitivity and selectivity.

  11. Probabilistic risk assessment of dietary exposure to single and multiple pesticide residues or contaminants: summary of the work performed within the SAFE FOODS project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Klaveren, Jacob D; Boon, Polly E

    2009-12-01

    This introduction to the journal's supplement on probabilistic risk assessment of single and multiple exposure to pesticide residues or contaminants summarizes the objectives and results of the work performed in work package 3 of the EU-funded project SAFE FOODS. Within this work package, we developed an electronic platform of food consumption and chemical concentration databases harmonised at raw agricultural commodity level. In this platform the databases are connected to probabilistic software to allow probabilistic modelling of dietary exposure in a standardised way. The usefulness of this platform is demonstrated in two papers, which describe the exposure to pesticides and glycoalkaloids in several European countries. Furthermore, an integrated probabilistic risk assessment (IPRA) model was developed: a new tool to integrate exposure and effect modelling, including uncertainty analyses. The use of this model was shown in a paper on the cumulative exposure to anti-androgen pesticides. Combined with a health impact prioritization system, developed within this work package to compare heath risks between chemicals, the IPRA tool can also be used to compare health risks between multiple chemicals in complex risk assessment situation such as risk-benefit and risk trade-off analyses. Both the electronic platform of databases as the IPRA model may proof to be powerful tools to tackle the challenges risk managers are or will be faced with in the future.

  12. 转基因和农药残留与食品安全的关系%The Relationship between Transgenic and Pesticide Residues and Food Safety

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周少榕

    2016-01-01

    With the development of the times, people's production technology continues to improve, in order to increase crop output per unit area, the transgenic technology and a variety of pesticides were applicated in the production process. Nobody can question the use of transgenic technology and to some extent pesticides could increase crop yields, but food safety issues attendant but also allow people to fear. Based on this, this paper discussed the relationship between pesticide residues and food safety, and food safety of transgenic relationship, hoping to provide assistance to stakeholders.%随着时代的发展,人们的生产技术不断提升,为了增加单位面积上的农作物产值,人们在生产过程中应用了转基因技术及各种各样的农药。谁也不能质疑,转基因技术及农药的使用在一定程度上增加了作物的产量,但随之而来的食品安全问题却也让人们心有余悸。鉴于此,分别讨论转基因和食品安全的关系、农药残留与食品安全的关系,希望能够为相关人士提供帮助。

  13. 姬松茸60Co辐射新菌株J3营养成分与农药残留分析%Analysis on Nutrients and Pesticide Residues in Strain J3 Agaricus blazei Murill Irradiated by 60Co

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翁伯琦; 江枝和; 肖淑霞; 雷锦桂; 王义祥; 唐翔虬

    2011-01-01

    通过常规生产床栽,对比研究姬松茸Co辐射新菌株J和原菌株J在营养品质以及重金属含量和农药残留情况.结果表明,姬松茸Co辐射新菌株J子实体中鲜味氨基酸总量(56.5 g·kg)、甜味氨基酸总量(52.4g·kg)、硫氨基酸总量(15.8 g·kg)、支链氨基酸总量(38.1 g·kg)、芳香族氨基酸总量(16.1 g·kg)、儿童氨基酸总量(17.8 g·kg)、必需氨基酸总量(95 g·kg),分别占氨基酸总量(221.7 g·kg)的25.48%、23.64%、7.13%、17.19%、7.26%、8.03%和42.85%,分别比姬松茸J高28.12%、12.93%、0%、14.41%、12.59%、16.34%和11.76%.J的多不饱和脂肪酸(76.15%)和不饱和脂肪酸(77.55%)分别比姬松茸原菌株J高4.39%和3.82%.J子实体含镉(3.86 mg·kg)、汞(0.42 mg·kg)和砷(0.09 mg·kg),也分别比原菌株J低45.86%、32.25%和18.18%;其铅含量符合国家食用菌卫生标准GB 7096-2003;砷含量符合国家绿色食品食用菌NY/T749-2003的标准.子实体中联苯菊酯、溴氰菊酯、百菌清、六六六、多菌灵、阿维菌素、甲基托布津、甲胺磷、毒死蜱、滴滴涕和二氧化硫含量均符合国家绿色食品食用菌NY/T 749-2003的标准.%A garicus blazei Murill as rare edible fungi was adored by more and more customers.But with the increasing attention of food hygiene quality, it was important guidance of the safety production of Agaricus blazei to understand the health status of Agaricus blazei in the actual cultivation.This paper studied the difference in terms of nutritional quality, heavy metal contents and pesticide residues between strain J3 and J1.The results showed that the contents of delicious amino acid(56.5 g· kg-1), sweet amino acid(52.4 g· kg-1), sulfur amino acid( 15.8 g·kg-1), branched chain amino acid(38.1 g· kg-1), aromatic amino acid( 16.1 g·kg-1), children amino acid( 17.8 g·kg-1), necessary amino acid (95.0 g·kg-1)in the fruit bodies ofAgaricus blazei J3, occupied 25.48%, 23.64%, 7.13%, 17.19%, 7.26

  14. 2012年绵阳市蔬菜中农药残留状况%Pesticide residues in vegetables in Mianyang City in 2012

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何玲玲; 罗赟; 张代友; 吴晓红

    2013-01-01

    [Objective] To investigate the conditions of pesticide residues in vegetables in Mianyang City,and provide evidence for edible vegetables supervision.[Methods] The method of GB/T 5009-2003 was applied to determine the contents of pesticide in samples selected,the results were evaluated according to GB 2763-2005" Maximum residue limits for pesticides in food".[Results] A total of 165 vegetable samples were detected in 2012,the detection rate and the unqualified rate were 72.12% and 23.64%.The unqualified rate of leguminous,root-steam,leaf,melon vegetables and edible fungi vegetables was 8.00%,23.53%,36.00%,5.26% and 27.03%,respectively,with significant difference (x2 =11.41,P <0.01).There was no difference between pesticide residues in summer and winter(x2 =3.44,P > 0.05).[Conclusion] In Mianyang City,pesticide residues are relatively serious in the leaf vegetables.It is necessary to adopt effective measures to enhance the inspection and administration,to ban the use of highly toxic pesticides from the source,to strengthen monitoring of vegetable cultivation and marketing chain sas as to ensure the safety of the public consumption of vegetables%目的 了解绵阳市2012年市售蔬菜中农药残留情况,为食用蔬菜监管提供依据.方法 全部样品均按照GB/T 5009-2003的方法进行农药的残留检测.依据GB 2763-2005《食品中农药最大残留限量》进行判定.结果 2012年共检测蔬菜165份,农药检出率和超标率分别为72.12%和23.64%.豆类、根茎类、叶菜类、瓜果菜类和食用菌类蔬菜检测农药残留超标率分别为8.00%、23.53%、36.00%、5.26%和27.03%,差异有统计学意义(x2=11.41,P<0.01).不同种类农药超标率差异有统计学意义(x2 =62.42,P<0.01).夏季和冬季蔬菜农药超标率差异无统计学意义(x2=3.44,P>0.05).结论 绵阳市叶菜类蔬菜中农药残留情况较为严重,应采取有效措施,加强蔬菜的监督管理,从源头禁止

  15. Analysis of the sensitivity of soils to the leaching of agricultural pesticides in Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schalk, C.W.

    1998-01-01

    Pesticides have not been found frequently in the ground waters of Ohio even though large amounts of agricultural pesticides are applied to fields in Ohio every year. State regulators, including representatives from Ohio Environmental Protection Agency and Departments of Agriculture, Health, and Natural Resources, are striving to limit the presence of pesticides in ground water at a minimum. A proposed pesticide management plan for the State aims at protecting Ohio's ground water by assessing pesticide-leaching potential using geographic information system (GIS) technology and invoking a monitoring plan that targets aquifers deemed most likely to be vulnerable to pesticide leaching. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Ohio Department of Agriculture, assessed the sensitivity of mapped soil units in Ohio to pesticide leaching. A soils data base (STATSGO) compiled by U.S. Department of Agriculture was used iteratively to estimate soil units as being of high to low sensitivity on the basis of soil permeability, clay content, and organic-matter content. Although this analysis did not target aquifers directly, the results can be used as a first estimate of areas most likely to be subject to pesticide contamination from normal agricultural practices. High-sensitivity soil units were found in lakefront areas and former lakefront beach ridges, buried valleys in several river basins, and parts of central and south- central Ohio. Medium-high-sensitivity soil units were found in other river basins, along Lake Erie in north-central Ohio, and in many of the upland areas of the Muskingum River Basin. Low-sensitivity map units dominated the northwestern quadrant of Ohio.

  16. Multiresidue Analysis of Pesticides in Soil by Liquid-Solid Extraction Procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rada Đurović

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A multiresidue method for simultaneous determination of four pesticides (diazinon,acetochlor, aldrine and carbofuran belonging to different pesticide groups, extractedfrom soil samples, is described. The method presented is based on liquid-solid extraction(LSE and determination of pesticides, i.e. the pesticides were extracted by methanol-acetone mixture, purified on florisil column and eluted by ethyl acetate-acetone mixture.Optimization of the main parameters affecting the LSE procedure, such as the choiceof purification sorbent, as well as the elution solvent and its volume, were investigated indetails and optimized. Also, validation of the proposed method was done.Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS was used for detection and quantificationof the pesticides studied. Relative standard deviation (RSD and recovery values formultiple analysis of soil samples fortified with 30 μg/kg of each pesticide were below 8%and higher than 89%, respectively. Limits of detection (LOD for all the compounds studiedwere less than 4 μg/kg.

  17. Application of automated mass spectrometry deconvolution and identification software for pesticide analysis in surface waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furtula, Vesna; Derksen, George; Colodey, Alan

    2006-01-01

    A new approach to surface water analysis has been investigated in order to enhance the detection of different organic contaminants in Nathan Creek, British Columbia. Water samples from Nathan Creek were prepared by liquid/liquid extraction using dichloromethane (DCM) as an extraction solvent and analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry method in scan mode (GC-MS scan). To increase sensitivity for pesticides detection, acquired scan data were further analyzed by Automated Mass Spectrometry Deconvolution and Identification Software (AMDIS) incorporated into the Agilent Deconvolution Reporting Software (DRS), which also includes mass spectral libraries for 567 pesticides. Extracts were reanalyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry single ion monitoring (GC-MS-SIM) to confirm and quantitate detected pesticides. Pesticides: atrazine, dimethoate, diazinone, metalaxyl, myclobutanil, napropamide, oxadiazon, propazine and simazine were detected at three sampling sites on the mainstream of the Nathan Creek. Results of the study are further discussed in terms of detectivity and identification level for each pesticide found. The proposed approach of monitoring pesticides in surface waters enables their detection and identification at trace levels. PMID:17090491

  18. 40 CFR 180.239 - Phosphamidon; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances... residues of the insecticide phosphamidon (2-chloro-2-diethylcarbamoyl-1-methylvinyl dimethyl...

  19. A novel polythiophene – ionic liquid modified clay composite solid phase microextraction fiber: Preparation, characterization and application to pesticide analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A novel polythiophene – ionic liquid modified clay surface has been prepared. • Polymerization was performed electrochemically on a stainless steel wire. • This material was used as a SPME fiber in head space mode. • This new SPME fiber was applied for analysis of pesticides in juice samples. • Fiber adsorption properties were improved by modification of ionic liquids. - Abstract: This report comprises the novel usage of polythiophene – ionic liquid modified clay surfaces for solid phase microextraction (SPME) fiber production to improve the analysis of pesticides in fruit juice samples. Montmorillonite (Mmt) clay intercalated with ionic liquids (IL) was co-deposited with polythiophene (PTh) polymer coated electrochemically on an SPME fiber. The surface of the fibers were characterized by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Operational parameters effecting the extraction efficiency namely; the sample volume and pH, adsorption temperature and time, desorption temperature and time, stirring rate and salt amount were optimized. In order to reveal the major effects, these eight factors were selected and Plackett–Burman Design was constructed. The significant parameters detected; adsorption and temperature along with the stirring rate, were further investigated by Box–Behnken design. Under optimized conditions, calibration graphs were plotted and detection limits were calculated in the range of 0.002–0.667 ng mL−1. Relative standard deviations were no higher than 18%. Overall results have indicated that this novel PTh-IL-Mmt SPME surface developed by the aid of electrochemical deposition could offer a selective and sensitive head space analysis for the selected pesticide residues

  20. A novel polythiophene – ionic liquid modified clay composite solid phase microextraction fiber: Preparation, characterization and application to pesticide analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelit, Füsun Okçu, E-mail: fusun.okcu@ege.edu.tr; Pelit, Levent; Dizdaş, Tuğberk Nail; Aftafa, Can; Ertaş, Hasan; Yalçınkaya, E.E.; Türkmen, Hayati; Ertaş, F.N.

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • A novel polythiophene – ionic liquid modified clay surface has been prepared. • Polymerization was performed electrochemically on a stainless steel wire. • This material was used as a SPME fiber in head space mode. • This new SPME fiber was applied for analysis of pesticides in juice samples. • Fiber adsorption properties were improved by modification of ionic liquids. - Abstract: This report comprises the novel usage of polythiophene – ionic liquid modified clay surfaces for solid phase microextraction (SPME) fiber production to improve the analysis of pesticides in fruit juice samples. Montmorillonite (Mmt) clay intercalated with ionic liquids (IL) was co-deposited with polythiophene (PTh) polymer coated electrochemically on an SPME fiber. The surface of the fibers were characterized by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Operational parameters effecting the extraction efficiency namely; the sample volume and pH, adsorption temperature and time, desorption temperature and time, stirring rate and salt amount were optimized. In order to reveal the major effects, these eight factors were selected and Plackett–Burman Design was constructed. The significant parameters detected; adsorption and temperature along with the stirring rate, were further investigated by Box–Behnken design. Under optimized conditions, calibration graphs were plotted and detection limits were calculated in the range of 0.002–0.667 ng mL{sup −1}. Relative standard deviations were no higher than 18%. Overall results have indicated that this novel PTh-IL-Mmt SPME surface developed by the aid of electrochemical deposition could offer a selective and sensitive head space analysis for the selected pesticide residues.