WorldWideScience

Sample records for pest management annual

  1. Managing Pests in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provides basic information on integrated pest management in schools, including information on the components of an IPM program and guidance on how to get started. Includes identification and control of pests, educational resources, and contact information

  2. Integrated nursery pest management

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Kasten Dumroese

    2012-01-01

    What is integrated pest management? Take a look at the definition of each word to better understand the concept. Two of the words (integrated and management) are relatively straightforward. Integrated means to blend pieces or concepts into a unified whole, and management is the wise use of techniques to successfully accomplish a desired outcome. A pest is any biotic (...

  3. Pest Management Specialist (AFSC 56650).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air Univ., Gunter AFS, Ala. Extension Course Inst.

    This eight-volume student text is designed for use by Air Force personnel enrolled in a self-study extension course for pest management specialists. Covered in the individual volumes are civil engineering; pest management (entomology, pest management planning and coordination, and safety and protective equipment); pest management chemicals and…

  4. Integrated Pest Management (IPM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repellents Rodenticides Other types of pesticides Disponible en español Integrated Pest Management (IPM) IPM Company: IPM is the Key - Oregon State University Extension Service Last updated May 11, 2018 Related Insecticides Natural and Biological Pesticides Repellents Rodenticides Other types of pesticides Disponible en

  5. Integrated pest management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaBrecque, G.C.

    1981-01-01

    An effective Integrated Pest Management (IPM) programme requires a thorough knowledge of the biology of the target species, namely information on the dispersal, population densities and dynamics as well as the ecology of the natural enemies of the pest. Studies on these can be accomplished by radiolabelling techniques. In the event that conditions prevent the use of radioisotopes the insects can be labelled with either a rare earth or stable isotopes. All insects treated with the rare earths, once captured, are exposed to neutrons which produce radioactivity in the rare earths. There are two other approaches in the practical application of radiation to the problem of insect control: the exposure of insects to lethal doses of radiation and the release of sterile insects. The Insect and Pest Control Section contributes to all aspects of the sterile insect technique (SIT) and it is involved in the Agency's Coordinated Research Programme which permits scientists from the developing countries to meet to discuss agricultural problems and to devise means of solving crop-pest infestation problems by using isotopes and radiation. The success of radiation in insect pest control was underlined and reviewed at the international symposium on the sterile insect technique and the use of radiation in genetic insect control jointly organized by the FAO and the IAEA and held in the FRG in 1981. Another important action is the BICOT programme in Nigeria between the IAEA and the Government of Nigeria on the biological control of tsetse flies by SIT

  6. Urban Pest Management. Selected Readings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowles, Kathleen Letcher, Comp.; And Others

    These readings provide basic background information on urban integrated pest management and the development of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) programs for the control of rodents, cockroaches, and head lice. IPM is a decision-making process for deciding if pest supprssion treatments are needed, when they should be initiated, where they should be…

  7. Networking of integrated pest management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamichhane, Jay Ram; Aubertot, Jean Noël; Begg, Graham; Birch, Andrew Nicholas E.; Boonekamp, Piet; Dachbrodt-Saaydeh, Silke; Hansen, Jens Grønbech; Hovmøller, Mogens Støvring; Jensen, Jens Erik; Jørgensen, Lise Nistrup; Kiss, Jozsef; Kudsk, Per; Moonen, Anna Camilla; Rasplus, Jean Yves; Sattin, Maurizio; Streito, Jean Claude; Messéan, Antoine

    2016-01-01

    Integrated pest management (IPM) is facing both external and internal challenges. External challenges include increasing needs to manage pests (pathogens, animal pests and weeds) due to climate change, evolution of pesticide resistance as well as virulence matching host resistance. The complexity

  8. Holistic pest management [Chapter 15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas D. Landis; Tara Luna; R. Kasten Dumroese

    2009-01-01

    As any experienced grower knows only too well, nursery management is a continuous process of solving problems. Murphy's Law of "anything that can go wrong, will go wrong" sounds as if it were meant for native plant production. One recurring problem is pests. Nursery managers have traditionally talked about "controlling" a pest. This approach...

  9. Sustainable Pest Management : Achievements and Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to: (a) review World Bank's pest management activities during 1999-2004; (b) assess those in view of the changes in the external and internal contexts; (c) identify appropriate opportunities of engagement on pest and pesticide issues; and (d) suggest means to further promote sound pest management in the World Bank operations. The importance of sound pest management for sustainable agricultural production is being recognized by many developing countries. Many cou...

  10. Forest pest management in a changing world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew M. Liebhold

    2012-01-01

    The scope, context and science guiding forest pest management have evolved and are likely to continue changing into the future. Here, I present six areas of advice to guide practitioners in the implementation of forest pest management. First, human dimensions will continue to play a key role in most pest problems and should always be a primary consideration in...

  11. Management of insect pests using semiochemical traps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baroffio, C. A.; Guibert, V.; Richoz, P.

    2016-01-01

    multitrap for the economical management of both of these pests at the same time. This is one of the first approaches to pest management of non-lepidopteran insect pests of horticultural crops using semiochemicals in the EU, and probably the first to target multiple species from different insect orders...

  12. Prospects for managing turfgrass pests with reduced chemical inputs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Held, David W; Potter, Daniel A

    2012-01-01

    Turfgrass culture, a multibillion dollar industry in the United States, poses unique challenges for integrated pest management. Why insect control on lawns, golf courses, and sport fields remains insecticide-driven, and how entomological research and extension can best support nascent initiatives in environmental golf and sustainable lawn care are explored. High standards for aesthetics and playability, prevailing business models, risk management-driven control decisions, and difficulty in predicting pest outbreaks fuel present reliance on preventive insecticides. New insights into pest biology, sampling methodology, microbial insecticides, plant resistance, and conservation biological control are reviewed. Those gains, and innovations in reduced-risk insecticides, should make it possible to begin constructing holistic management plans for key turfgrass pests. Nurturing the public's interest in wildlife habitat preservation, including beneficial insects, may be one means to change aesthetic perceptions and gain leeway for implementing integrated pest management practices that lend stability to turfgrass settings. Copyright © 2012 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.

  13. Integrated Management of Structural Pests in Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illinois State Dept. of Public Health, Springfield.

    The state of Illinois is encouraging schools to better inspect and evaluate the causes of their pest infestation problems through use of the Integrated Pest Management (IPM) guidelines developed by the Illinois Department of Public Health. This guide reviews the philosophy and organization of an IPM program for structural pests in schools,…

  14. Integrated pest management - an overview and update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas D. Landis; R. Kasten Dumroese

    2014-01-01

    Integrated pest management, better known as IPM, is a familiar term for those of us working in forest, conservation, and native plant nurseries. An almost synonymous concept is "holistic pest management" that has been the topic of chapters in recent Agriculture Handbooks that would be useful to growers of native plants (see Landis and others 2009; Landis and...

  15. Global pest management program wins international award

    OpenAIRE

    Rich, Miriam Sommers

    2009-01-01

    An agricultural research program managed at Virginia Tech has won an international award for its work with pest-management practices that show economic benefits with minimal impact on health and the environment.

  16. Integrated Pest Management Research Symposium: The Proceedings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan J. Branham; Robert C. Thatcher; [Editors

    1985-01-01

    Thirty-seven papers are presented that summarize the findings from research and development work conducted as a part of the Integrated Pest Management RD&A Program for Bark Beetles of Southern Pines during the 5-year period 1980-85. Presentations cover the areas of sampling and impact assessment, bark beetle biology and ecology, host susceptibility, host/pest...

  17. Pest management in organic greenhouse horticulture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Messelink, G.J.

    2017-01-01

    The management of pests is one of the major challenges in organic greenhouse cropping systems. In this paper, I summarize the currently most problematic and persistent, as well as the newly emerging pest species in organic tomato, sweet pepper, cucumber and aubergine crops in Europe. Furthermore, I

  18. AN ASSESSMENT OF THE INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Integrated Pest Management Collaborative Research Support Program) has been applying a farmer participatory IPM strategy at on-farm research sites in eastern Uganda since 1995. Following five years of project implementation an evaluation ...

  19. 7 CFR 205.271 - Facility pest management practice standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Facility pest management practice standard. 205.271... Requirements § 205.271 Facility pest management practice standard. (a) The producer or handler of an organic facility must use management practices to prevent pests, including but not limited to: (1) Removal of pest...

  20. An integrated pest management program as a pests control strategy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phukubje, Justice

    The study was conducted using a survey methodology and data collection was ... prevention and pest control measures at UB-Library, .... on pest equally include the rapid production of the young ones ...... Handbook of research methods; A ...

  1. Managing for soil health can suppress pests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Hodson

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A “healthy” soil can be thought of as one that functions well, both agronomically and ecologically, and one in which soil biodiversity and crop management work in synergy to suppress pests and diseases. UC researchers have pioneered many ways of managing soil biology for pest management, including strategies such as soil solarization, steam treatment and anaerobic soil disinfestation, as well as improvements on traditional methods, such as reducing tillage, amending soil with organic materials, and cover cropping. As managing for soil health becomes more of an explicit focus due to restrictions on the use of soil fumigants, integrated soil health tests will be needed that are validated for use in California. Other research needs include breeding crops for disease resistance and pest suppressive microbial communities as well as knowledge of how beneficial organisms influence plant health.

  2. A Practical Guide to Management of Common Pests in Schools. Integrated Pest Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illinois State Dept. of Public Health, Springfield.

    This 3-part manual is designed to assist school officials understand the principles of Integrated Pest Management and aid them in implementing those principles into a comprehensive pest control program in their facilities. Developed for Illinois, this guide can be applied in part or in total to other areas of the country. Part 1 explains what an…

  3. Insect pests of tea and their management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazarika, Lakshmi K; Bhuyan, Mantu; Hazarika, Budhindra N

    2009-01-01

    Globally, 1031 species of arthropods are associated with the intensively managed tea Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze monoculture. All parts of the plant, leaf, stem, root, flower, and seed, are fed upon by at least one pest species, resulting in an 11%-55% loss in yield if left unchecked. There has been heavy use of organosynthetic pesticides since the 1950s to defend the plant against these pests, leading to rapid conversion of innocuous species into pests, development of resistance, and undesirable pesticide residues in made tea. As a result of importer and consumer concerns, pesticide residues have become a major problem for the tea industry. Integrated pest management (IPM) may help to overcome the overuse of pesticides and subsequent residues. We review the advances made in our understanding of the biology and ecology of major insect and mite pests of tea, host plant resistance, cultural practices, biocontrol measures, and need-based application of botanicals and safer pesticides to understand the present status of IPM and to identify future challenges to improvement.

  4. Nuclear technology in pest management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seth, R.K.

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear energy has been greatly explored for its use in various disciplines of entomology related to agriculture, medicine and industry. Since the ravages of the insects especially in the tropical and subtropical zones of the world are particularly serious, insect control is essential in the production of crop, animal produce and protection from dreadful communicable diseases. Presently, biological and para-biological control programmes are receiving major prominence due to insecticidal ill effects on health and environment, and due to development of insecticidal resistance in pests. The exposure to ionizing radiation is now the principal method for inducing reproductive sterility in mass-reared insects. Irradiation of insects is a relatively straightforward process with reliable quality control procedures. Using radiation may offer other advantages, such as insignificant increase in temperature during the process, use of treated insects immediately after processing, no addition of any residues harmful to human health or environment, etc. Various pragmatic perspectives of utilization of radiation as a tool in entomological research studies, in relation to noxious insects as well as ecologically beneficial insects, are highlighted. (author)

  5. Problem prevention and holistic pest management [Chapter 14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas D. Landis; Tara Luna; R. Kasten Dumroese; Kim M. Wilkinson

    2014-01-01

    As any experienced grower knows only too well, nursery management is a continuous process of solving problems. One recurring problem is pests. In the past, nursery managers waited for an insect or disease to appear and then sprayed some toxic chemical to wipe out the pest or disease. This approach, however, also wipes out natural predators of the pest, resulting in an...

  6. An integrated pest management program as a pests control strategy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Consequently, libraries and archives are obliged to preserve collections in perpetuity. Preservation is a presiding managerial function of coordinating the endeavor to protect collections from deterioration. As part of preservation, libraries and archives have the responsibility to monitor and control pests within their collections.

  7. EVALUATION OF FOUR INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT PACKAGES FOR CONTROLLING MAIN PESTS OF COTTON IN RAINFED FIELDS

    OpenAIRE

    Nurindah Nurindah; Dwi Adi Sunarto

    2014-01-01

    Cotton production nationally is low due to various constraints, including pests. Two main pests commonly found in cotton plantation in rain fed fields are cotton leafhopper (Amrasca biguttula) and cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera). The study aimed to evaluate four packages of integrated pest management (IPM) techniques to control cotton leafhopper and cotton bollworm in rain fed fields. The experiment was conducted in farmers’ fields at Asembagus, East Java, between January and July 2012...

  8. Towards integrated pest management in red clover seed production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundin, Ola; Rundlöf, Maj; Smith, Henrik G; Bommarco, Riccardo

    2012-10-01

    The development of integrated pest management is hampered by lack of information on how insect pest abundances relate to yield losses, and how pests are affected by control measures. In this study, we develop integrated pest management tactics for Apion spp. weevils (Coleoptera: Brentidae) in seed production of red clover, Trifolium pratense L. We tested a method to forecast pest damage, quantified the relationship between pest abundance and yield, and evaluated chemical and biological pest control in 29 Swedish red clover fields in 2008 and 2011. Pest inflorescence abundance, which had a highly negative effect on yield, could be predicted with pan trap catches of adult pests. In 2008, chemical control with typically one application of pyrethroids was ineffective both in decreasing pest abundances and in increasing yields. In 2011, when chemical control included applications of the neonicotinoid thiacloprid, pest abundances decreased and yields increased considerably in treated field zones. A post hoc analysis indicated that using pyrethroids in addition to thiacloprid was largely redundant. Infestation rates by parasitoids was higher and reached average levels of around 40% in insecticide treated field zones in 2011, which is a level of interest for biological pest control. Based on the data presented, an economic threshold for chemical control is developed, and guidelines are provided on minimum effective chemical pest control.

  9. Global warming presents new challenges for maize pest management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diffenbaugh, Noah S; Krupke, Christian H; White, Michael A; Alexander, Corinne E

    2008-01-01

    It has been conjectured that global warming will increase the prevalence of insect pests in many agro-ecosystems. In this paper, we quantitatively assess four of the key pests of maize, one of the most important systems in North American grain production. Using empirically generated estimates of pest overwintering thresholds and degree-day requirements, along with climate change projections from a high-resolution climate model, we project potential future ranges for each of these pests in the United States. Our analysis suggests the possibility of increased winter survival and greater degree-day accumulations for each of the pests surveyed. We find that relaxed cold limitation could expand the range of all four pest taxa, including a substantial range expansion in the case of corn earworm (H. zea), a migratory, cold-intolerant pest. Because the corn earworm is a cosmopolitan pest that has shown resistance to insecticides, our results suggest that this expansion could also threaten other crops, including those in high-value areas of the western United States. Because managing significant additional pressure from this suite of established pests would require additional pest management inputs, the projected decreases in cold limitation and increases in heat accumulation have the potential to significantly alter the pest management landscape for North American maize production. Further, these range expansions could have substantial economic impacts through increased seed and insecticide costs, decreased yields, and the downstream effects of changes in crop yield variability.

  10. Pesticide-Induced Stress in Arthropod Pests for Optimized Integrated Pest Management Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedes, R N C; Smagghe, G; Stark, J D; Desneux, N

    2016-01-01

    More than six decades after the onset of wide-scale commercial use of synthetic pesticides and more than fifty years after Rachel Carson's Silent Spring, pesticides, particularly insecticides, arguably remain the most influential pest management tool around the globe. Nevertheless, pesticide use is still a controversial issue and is at the regulatory forefront in most countries. The older generation of insecticide groups has been largely replaced by a plethora of novel molecules that exhibit improved human and environmental safety profiles. However, the use of such compounds is guided by their short-term efficacy; the indirect and subtler effects on their target species, namely arthropod pest species, have been neglected. Curiously, comprehensive risk assessments have increasingly explored effects on nontarget species, contrasting with the majority of efforts focused on the target arthropod pest species. The present review mitigates this shortcoming by hierarchically exploring within an ecotoxicology framework applied to integrated pest management the myriad effects of insecticide use on arthropod pest species.

  11. Pest Control in the School Environment:Adopting Integrated Pest Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about establishing a school IPM program, including developing an official IPM policy statement, setting roles for participants and pest management objectives, inspecting sites, setting action threshold, applying IPM strategies and evaluating results.

  12. Integrated pest management of "Golden Delicious" apples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simončič, A; Stopar, M; Velikonja Bolta, Š; Bavčar, D; Leskovšek, R; Baša Česnik, H

    2015-01-01

    Monitoring of plant protection product (PPP) residues in "Golden Delicious" apples was performed in 2011-2013, where 216 active substances were analysed with three analytical methods. Integrated pest management (IPM) production and improved IPM production were compared. Results were in favour of improved IPM production. Some active compounds determined in IPM production (boscalid, pyraclostrobin, thiacloprid and thiametoxam) were not found in improved IPM production. Besides that, in 2011 and 2012, captan residues were lower in improved IPM production. Risk assessment was also performed. Chronic exposure of consumers was low in general, but showed no major differences for IPM and improved IPM production for active substances determined in both types of production. Analytical results were compared with the European Union report of 2010 where 1.3% of apple samples exceeded maximum residue levels (MRLs), while MRL exceedances were not observed in this survey.

  13. Effects Of Educational Workshops On Farmers' Pest Management ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The heavy use of pesticides in Iran not only has critically harmful health effects on the farmers, but also harms the environment and consumer's health. One of the best approaches for overcoming this problem can be adoption of pest management practices and IPM (integrated pest management) systems by farmers.

  14. Challenges of Integrated Pest Management in Sub-Saharan Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huis, van A.

    2009-01-01

    a response to the negative side effects of chemical control in the developed world, Integrated Pest Management (IPM) developed with an emphasis on reducing the role of pesticides. Later the role of natural enemies was recognized as being the cornerstone for sustainable pest management strategies.

  15. Challenges in the implementation of integrated pest management ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enabling policies on pest management strategies are consistently proving to be vital prerequisites in promoting the use of IPM. The willingness of governments to support alternative pest management is considered crucial. Social and psychological factors predispose new technologies and practices to resistance by farmers ...

  16. Integrated pest management: theoretical insights from a threshold policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Michel I. da Silveira [Laboratorio Nacional de Computacao Cientifica (LNCC), Petropolis, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: michel@lncc.br; Faria, Lucas del B. [Universidade Federal de Lavras, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Biologia. Setor de Ecologia], e-mail: lucasdbf@gmail.com

    2010-01-15

    An Integrated Pest Management is formulated as a threshold policy. It is shown that when this strategy is applied to a food web consisting of generalist, specialist predators and endemic and pest prey, the dynamics can be stable and useful from the pest control point of view, despite the dynamical complexities inherent to the application of biocontrol only. In addition, pesticide toxicity depends rather on the species intrinsic parameters than on the chemical agent concentration. (author)

  17. The role of allelopathy in agricultural pest management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooq, Muhammad; Jabran, Khawar; Cheema, Zahid A; Wahid, Abdul; Siddique, Kadambot H M

    2011-05-01

    Allelopathy is a naturally occurring ecological phenomenon of interference among organisms that may be employed for managing weeds, insect pests and diseases in field crops. In field crops, allelopathy can be used following rotation, using cover crops, mulching and plant extracts for natural pest management. Application of allelopathic plant extracts can effectively control weeds and insect pests. However, mixtures of allelopathic water extracts are more effective than the application of single-plant extract in this regard. Combined application of allelopathic extract and reduced herbicide dose (up to half the standard dose) give as much weed control as the standard herbicide dose in several field crops. Lower doses of herbicides may help to reduce the development of herbicide resistance in weed ecotypes. Allelopathy thus offers an attractive environmentally friendly alternative to pesticides in agricultural pest management. In this review, application of allelopathy for natural pest management, particularly in small-farm intensive agricultural systems, is discussed. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Cotton in Benin: governance and pest management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Togbe, C.E.

    2013-01-01

    Key words: cotton, synthetic pesticides, neem oil (Azadirachta indica), Beauveria bassiana,

    Bacillus thuringiensis, field experiment, farmers’ participation

    Pests are one of the main factors limiting cotton production worldwide. Most of the pest

    control

  19. Forest nursery pest management in Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rene Alberto Lopez Castilla; Angela Duarte Casanova; Celia Guerra Rivero; Haylett Cruz Escoto; Natividad Triguero Issasi

    2002-01-01

    A systematic survey of methods to detect pests in forest nurseries before they damage plants was done. These surveys recorded the most important forest nursery pests during 18 years (from 1980 to 1998) and their geographical and temporal distribution in the principal enterprises in Cuba. Approximately a dozen insect species and three fungi species responsible for the...

  20. Pest Private Eye: Using an Interactive Role-Playing Video Game to Teach about Pests and Integrated Pest Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Erin; Ogg, Clyde

    2011-01-01

    The trend toward encouraging adoption of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) in schools has increased in the last decade. Because IPM helps reduce risk of human pesticide exposure, reduce allergens and asthma triggers, save energy, and protect the environment, it's essential that IPM awareness continue not only with current school administrators,…

  1. An Integrated Pest Management Tool for Evaluating Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Blake; Hurley, Janet; Merchant, Mike

    2016-01-01

    Having the ability to assess pest problems in schools is essential for a successful integrated pest management (IPM) program. However, such expertise can be costly and is not available to all school districts across the United States. The web-based IPM Calculator was developed to address this problem. By answering questions about the condition of…

  2. Towards Integrated Pest Management in East Africa : a feasibility study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkxhoorn, Y.; Bremmer, J.; Kerklaan, E.

    2013-01-01

    Pesticide risk reduction through registration of less hazardous pesticides and the promotion of nonchemical pest and disease control approaches such as Integrated Pest Management (IPM) is essential for a more sustainable plant production in East Africa in order to enhance both export market access

  3. Information for Child Care Providers about Pesticides/Integrated Pest Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about pesticides/integrated pest management, the health effects associated with exposure to pests and pesticides, and the steps that can be taken to use integrated pest management strategies in childcare facilities.

  4. Integrated Pest Management in Schools Program Brochure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our Nation's children spend a considerable amount of their time in schools, as do teachers and school support staff. EPA is working to reduce the risk that both children and employees experience from pests and pesticides in and around schools.

  5. Habitat Management to Suppress Pest Populations: Progress and Prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurr, Geoff M; Wratten, Steve D; Landis, Douglas A; You, Minsheng

    2017-01-31

    Habitat management involving manipulation of farmland vegetation can exert direct suppressive effects on pests and promote natural enemies. Advances in theory and practical techniques have allowed habitat management to become an important subdiscipline of pest management. Improved understanding of biodiversity-ecosystem function relationships means that researchers now have a firmer theoretical foundation on which to design habitat management strategies for pest suppression in agricultural systems, including landscape-scale effects. Supporting natural enemies with shelter, nectar, alternative prey/hosts, and pollen (SNAP) has emerged as a major research topic and applied tactic with field tests and adoption often preceded by rigorous laboratory experimentation. As a result, the promise of habitat management is increasingly being realized in the form of practical worldwide implementation. Uptake is facilitated by farmer participation in research and is made more likely by the simultaneous delivery of ecosystem services other than pest suppression.

  6. Hiring a Pest Management Professional for Bed Bugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    If you hire someone to treat your bed bug infestation, make sure they use Integrated Pest Management (IPM) techniques, check credentials, and know they may need multiple visits, to take apart furniture, and to use vacuums, heat, and pesticides.

  7. Adoption of Integrated Pest Management among Cocoa Farmers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    E M IGBOKWE

    Keywords: Integrated pest management, Cocoa farmers, Farmers Field School ... Total World production has increased in absolute terms from 3.98 million metric ..... and G.C. Rausser, eds Handbook of Agricultural Economics, Vol. 1B,.

  8. Information for Participants Implementing Integrated Pest Management in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parents, school faculty and staff, school administrators, and pest management professionals all have important roles in planning and implementing school IPM. Find out about these roles and resources available to help.

  9. Farmers' experiences in the management of pests and diseases of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mo

    Evaluation of farmers' experiences on pests and diseases is important for the development and introduction of management ... involved in on-farm testing and promotion of calliandra in ... bananas (Musa species), coffee (Coffea arabica L.) and.

  10. Insect pest management in stored grain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stored grain is vulnerable to attach by a variety of insect pests, that can generally be classified as external or internal feeders. Infestations primarily occur after grain is stored, though there is some evidence that infestations can occur in the field right before harvest. There are a variety of...

  11. confidence in teaching integrated pest management (ipm)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p2333147

    The exploration for environmental friendly alternatives to pesticides use in agriculture has ... mechanical killing of pests; biological methods that include natural enemies; and ... Intervention through extension is especially important in furthering the ..... service providers to prioritize training and flow of information on advances ...

  12. Insect Pests and Integrated Pest Management in Museums, Libraries and Historic Buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Querner, Pascal

    2015-06-16

    Insect pests are responsible for substantial damage to museum objects, historic books and in buildings like palaces or historic houses. Different wood boring beetles (Anobium punctatum, Hylotrupes bajulus, Lyctus sp. or introduced species), the biscuit beetle (Stegobium paniceum), the cigarette beetle (Lasioderma serricorne), different Dermestides (Attagenus sp., Anthrenus sp., Dermestes sp., Trogoderma sp.), moths like the webbing clothes moth (Tineola bisselliella), Silverfish (Lepisma saccharina) and booklice (Psocoptera) can damage materials, objects or building parts. They are the most common pests found in collections in central Europe, but most of them are distributed all over the world. In tropical countries, termites, cockroaches and other insect pests are also found and result in even higher damage of wood and paper or are a commune annoyance in buildings. In this short review, an introduction to Integrated Pest Management (IPM) in museums is given, the most valuable collections, preventive measures, monitoring in museums, staff responsible for the IPM and chemical free treatment methods are described. In the second part of the paper, the most important insect pests occurring in museums, archives, libraries and historic buildings in central Europe are discussed with a description of the materials and object types that are mostly infested and damaged. Some information on their phenology and biology are highlighted as they can be used in the IPM concept against them.

  13. Integrated Pest Management as European standard – is it possible?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Nilsen

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available As part of the work within the European Committee for Standardization (CEN, standards for conservation of cultural property are being developed in CEN/TC (Technical Committee 346, Conservation of Cultural Property. In Working Group 4 Environment, a draft is being prepared to create a proposal for standardised Integrated Pest Management. The author of this paper welcomes delegates to the Meeting on Cultural Heritage Pests in Piacenza to contribute to the discussion regarding standardised methods for pest control in the cultural heritage sector.

  14. EVALUATION OF FOUR INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT PACKAGES FOR CONTROLLING MAIN PESTS OF COTTON IN RAINFED FIELDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurindah Nurindah

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Cotton production nationally is low due to various constraints, including pests. Two main pests commonly found in cotton plantation in rain fed fields are cotton leafhopper (Amrasca biguttula and cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera. The study aimed to evaluate four packages of integrated pest management (IPM techniques to control cotton leafhopper and cotton bollworm in rain fed fields. The experiment was conducted in farmers’ fields at Asembagus, East Java, between January and July 2012. Four packages of IPM evaluated were cotton varieties, i.e. Kanesia 10 or Kanesia 13, and seed treatment with synthetic insecticide (imidacloprid before sowing or spraying molasses (10 ml L-1 water as food for natural enemies. The cotton plants were intercropped with groundnut and sprayed with neem seed extract (NSE at the action threshold level for pest control. These packages were compared among themselves and also with the methods usually used by farmers, i.e. planting cotton variety Kanesia 8 intercropped with groundnut and pest control using synthetic chemical insecticides. Twenty five plants were sampled randomly per plot and measured for their growth, leafhopper and  bollworm populations, as well as cotton seed yield per plot. Observations were made weekly, starting at 30 days after planting (DAP until 120 DAP. The results showed that the use of Kanesia 10 or Kanesia 13 intercropped with groundnut and spraying molasses to conserve natural enemies was the best  pest management practice and superior to farmers’ practices. Conserving natural enemies is not only profitable (saving production cost of IDR1,150,000 to IDR1,500,000 ha-1 season-1, but also safe for the environment (no need to spray chemical insecticides.

  15. Integrated Pest Management: A Curriculum for Early Care and Education Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    California Childcare Health Program, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This "Integrated Pest Management Toolkit for Early Care and Education Programs" presents practical information about using integrated pest management (IPM) to prevent and manage pest problems in early care and education programs. This curriculum will help people in early care and education programs learn how to keep pests out of early…

  16. Game theory as a conceptual framework for managing insect pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Joel S; Staňková, Kateřina

    2017-06-01

    For over 100 years it has been recognized that insect pests evolve resistance to chemical pesticides. More recently, managers have advocated restrained use of pesticides, crop rotation, the use of multiple pesticides, and pesticide-free sanctuaries as resistance management practices. Game theory provides a conceptual framework for combining the resistance strategies of the insects and the control strategies of the pest manager into a unified conceptual and modelling framework. Game theory can contrast an ecologically enlightened application of pesticides with an evolutionarily enlightened one. In the former case the manager only considers ecological consequences whereas the latter anticipates the evolutionary response of the pests. Broader applications of this game theory approach include anti-biotic resistance, fisheries management and therapy resistance in cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Review of Ecologically-Based Pest Management in California Vineyards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Houston; Daane, Kent M

    2017-10-11

    Grape growers in California utilize a variety of biological, cultural, and chemical approaches for the management of insect and mite pests in vineyards. This combination of strategies falls within the integrated pest management (IPM) framework, which is considered to be the dominant pest management paradigm in vineyards. While the adoption of IPM has led to notable and significant reductions in the environmental impacts of grape production, some growers are becoming interested in the use of an explicitly non-pesticide approach to pest management that is broadly referred to as ecologically-based pest management (EBPM). Essentially a subset of IPM strategies, EBPM places strong emphasis on practices such as habitat management, natural enemy augmentation and conservation, and animal integration. Here, we summarize the range and known efficacy of EBPM practices utilized in California vineyards, followed by a discussion of research needs and future policy directions. EBPM should in no way be seen in opposition, or as an alternative to the IPM framework. Rather, the further development of more reliable EBPM practices could contribute to the robustness of IPM strategies available to grape growers.

  18. Radiations: tool for insect pest management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swami, Kailash Kumar; Kiradoo, M.M.; Srivastava, Meera

    2012-01-01

    The discovery that X-rays or gamma radiation could cause sufficient genetic damage to insect reproductive systems to induce sterility resulted from work conducted by H.J. Muller starting in the 1920s. The sterilizing effect of radiation was noted by scientists of the US Department of Agriculture who had been seeking a method to sterilize insects for many years. These scientists had theorized that if large numbers of the target insect species were reared, sterilized, and released into the field, the sterile insects would mate with the wild insects. These mating would result in no offspring and thus a decline in the population would be obtained. They calculated that if sufficient numbers of sterile insects were released, reproductive rate for the wild population would rapidly decline and reach zero. In simple language, birth control of insects. Radiation sterilization was the answer. In a SIT operation, radiation is used to sexually sterilize insects. Since the SIT is species specific, the selection the insect pest or group of pests on which to work is of primary importance. The Joint Division of the IAEA Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) has been involved in the use of isotopes and radiation in insect control since 1964. Isotopes are used as tags or markers, for instance, of chemical molecules, insects, or plants. For example, with these tags one can follow the fate of insecticides within insects and the environment; the incorporation of nutrients into the insect; and the movements of insects under field conditions. They also can plants on which insects feed so that the quantity of consumed food can be measured and directly correlated with plant resistance. They can be used as well to follow parasites and predators of insects - for example, their movements, numbers, and ability to help control insect pests. Radiations therefore have come as a novel tool to combat insect pest problem and in future could be very helpful in various other ways, of be it be cost

  19. Recent trends of modern bacterial insecticides for pest control practice in integrated crop management system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Pritam; Banerjee, Goutam; Mukherjee, Sayantan

    2017-05-01

    Food security and safety are the major concern in ever expanding human population on the planet earth. Each and every year insect pests cause a serious damage in agricultural field that cost billions of dollars annually to farmers. The loss in term of productivity and high cost of chemical pesticides enhance the production cost. Irrespective use of chemical pesticides (such as Benzene hexachloride, Endosulfan, Aldicarb, and Fenobucarb) in agricultural field raised several types of environmental issues. Furthermore, continuous use of chemical pesticides creates a selective pressure which helps in emerging of resistance pest. These excess chemical pesticide residues also contaminate the environment including the soil and water. Therefore, the biological control of insect pest in the agricultural field gains more importance due to food safety and environment friendly nature. In this regard, bacterial insecticides offer better alternative to chemical pesticides. It not only helps to establish food security through fighting against insect pests but also ensure the food safety. In this review, we have categorized insect pests and the corresponding bacterial insecticides, and critically analyzed the importance and mode of action of bacterial pesticides. We also have summarized the use of biopesticides in integrated pest management system. We have tried to focus the future research area in this field for the upcoming scientists.

  20. Role of plant pathology in integrated pest management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, B J

    1997-01-01

    Integrated Pest Management (IPM) is a paradigm that is widely adopted by all pest control disciplines but whose early definitions and philosophical basis belong to entomologists. Plant pathology research and extension work has historically emphasized integration of several control strategies and fits both historical and modern definitions of IPM. While the term IPM has been used only sparingly in the phytopathology literature, the integrated disease management strategies emphasized are now considered to be at the forefront of ecologically based or biointensive pest management. While IPM is broadly endorsed by crop protection disciplines, farmers, other agriculturalists, and consumers, the potential for Integrated Pest Management has not been fully realized. Most IPM programs reflect a package of tools and decision aids for individual crop insect, weed, nematode, and plant disease management. IPM programs that integrate all types of pests with the agroecosystem, crop growth and loss models still await the formation of interdisciplinary teams focusing on growers needs. Lack of funding for both discipline and interdisciplinary developmental research and implementation is responsible for the paucity of comprehensive IPM programs for the majority of the U.S. crop acreage. This review explores the origins and evolution of the IPM paradigm and reviews efforts to achieve the body of knowledge and implementation structure to achieve IPM's full potential.

  1. Development and Implementation of Integrated Pest Management in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nafiisah

    This paper reviews the status of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) research in. Mauritius and also reports on the successful cases of IPM implementation during ... Tool. Activity. Status. Source. Biological control. Introduce parasitoids .... 10 g sugar in 1 L of water) in plastic bottles as one option to manage fruit flies in.

  2. An Integrated Pest Management Intervention Improves Knowledge, Pest Control, and Practices in Family Child Care Homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Michelle; Hazard, Kimberly; Moser, Debra; Cox, Dana; Rose, Roberta; Alkon, Abbey

    2017-10-26

    To reduce young children's exposure to pesticides when attending family child care homes (FCCHs), we developed an integrated pest management (IPM) intervention for FCCH directors. First, we developed IPM educational materials and resources to provide the foundation for an IPM educational intervention for FCCHs. Next, we conducted and evaluated a six-month nurse child care health consultant (CCHC)-led education and consultation IPM intervention to increase IPM knowledge, IPM practices, IPM policies, and decrease the presence or evidence of pests. The pilot intervention study was conducted by three CCHCs in 20 FCCHs in three counties in California. Pre- and post-intervention measures were completed by the FCCH directors and observation measures were completed by the CCHCs. Results indicated significant increases in IPM knowledge, ( t -statistic (degrees of freedom), ( t (df) = 2.55(10), p child care homes to harmful chemicals.

  3. Projecting pest population dynamics under global warming: the combined effect of inter- and intra-annual variations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zidon, Royi; Tsueda, Hirotsugu; Morin, Efrat; Morin, Shai

    2016-06-01

    predictions based on mean temperature anomalies are relatively conservative and it is better to apply stochastic tools to resolve complex responses to climate change while taking natural variability into account. In summary, we propose a modeling framework capable of determining distinct intra-annual temperature patterns leading to large or small population sizes, for pest risk assessment and management planning of both natural and agricultural ecosystems.

  4. Integrated Pest Management of the Southern Pine Beetle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert N. Coulson; Hannu Saarenmaa

    2011-01-01

    Integrated pest management (IPM) is the maintenance of destructive agents, including insects, at tolerable levels by the planned use of a variety of preventive, suppressive, or regulatory tactics and strategies that are ecologically and economically efficient and socially and politically acceptable. It is explicit that the actions taken are fully integrated into the...

  5. The Ohio Schools Pest Management Survey: A Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001

    In 2001, the Environmental Studies Senior Capstone Seminar class at Denison University helped the state of Ohio work to prevent harmful pesticide use in schools. In cooperation with Ohio State University's Integrated Pest Management (IPM) in Schools Program, Denison conducted a statewide survey of school districts to determine current pest…

  6. A hybrid approach on the management of crop pests | Onuodu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This algorithm has been implemented using JAVA and MATLAB. The new method has been applied on agro-based datasets of soybean and yeast for forming clusters that could help farmers in the management of crop pests. The model developed could be beneficial to Nigerian farmers and the Agro-based industries, ...

  7. Transgenic plants as vital components of integrated pest management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kos, Martine; van Loon, J.J.A.; Dicke, M.; Vet, L.E.M.

    2009-01-01

    Although integrated pest management (IPM) strategies have been developed worldwide, further improvement of IPM effectiveness is required. The use of transgenic technology to create insect-resistant plants can offer a solution to the limited availability of highly insect-resistant cultivars.

  8. Effect of integrated pest management farmer field school (IPMFFS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research aimed to explore the effect of the Integrated Pest Management Farmer Field School (IPMFFS), on farmer knowledge, farmer group's ability, process of adoption and diffusion of IPM in Jember district. The population of the research was 556 farmer groups consisting of 22.240 farmers engaged in the IPMFFS in ...

  9. Broadening the application of evolutionarily based genetic pest management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Fred

    2008-02-01

    Insect- and tick-vectored diseases such as malaria, dengue fever, and Lyme disease cause human suffering, and current approaches for prevention are not adequate. Invasive plants and animals such as Scotch broom, zebra mussels, and gypsy moths continue to cause environmental damage and economic losses in agriculture and forestry. Rodents transmit diseases and cause major pre- and postharvest losses, especially in less affluent countries. Each of these problems might benefit from the developing field of Genetic Pest Management that is conceptually based on principles of evolutionary biology. This article briefly describes the history of this field, new molecular tools in this field, and potential applications of those tools. There will be a need for evolutionary biologists to interact with researchers and practitioners in a variety of other fields to determine the most appropriate targets for genetic pest management, the most appropriate methods for specific targets, and the potential of natural selection to diminish the effectiveness of genetic pest management. In addition to producing environmentally sustainable pest management solutions, research efforts in this area could lead to new insights about the evolution of selfish genetic elements in natural systems and will provide students with the opportunity to develop a more sophisticated understanding of the role of evolutionary biology in solving societal problems.

  10. A socioeconomic analysis of biocontrol in integrated pest management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benjamin, Emmanuel O.; Wesseler, Justus H.H.

    2016-01-01

    European regulations on the sustainable use of pesticides aim to promote integrated pest management (IPM) strategy and the use of biological control agents. However, uncertainty over benefits and costs, irreversibility effects as well as flexibility in adoption of this technology needs to be

  11. Microbial and viral chitinases: Attractive biopesticides for integrated pest management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berini, Francesca; Katz, Chen; Gruzdev, Nady; Casartelli, Morena; Tettamanti, Gianluca; Marinelli, Flavia

    2018-01-04

    The negative impact of the massive use of synthetic pesticides on the environment and on human health has stimulated the search for environment-friendly practices for controlling plant diseases and pests. Among them, biocontrol, which relies on using beneficial organisms or their products (bioactive molecules and/or hydrolytic enzymes), holds the greatest promise and is considered a pillar of integrated pest management. Chitinases are particularly attractive to this purpose since they have fungicidal, insecticidal, and nematicidal activities. Here, current knowledge on the biopesticidal action of microbial and viral chitinases is reviewed, together with a critical analysis of their future development as biopesticides. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Forest Insect Pest Management and Forest Management in China: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Lanzhu; Wang, Zhen; Wang, Xiaowei; An, Linli

    2011-12-01

    According to the Seventh National Forest Inventory (2004-2008), China's forests cover an area of 195.45 million ha, or 20.36% of the total land area. China has the most rapidly increasing forest resources in the world. However, China is also a country with serious forest pest problems. There are more than 8,000 species of potential forest pests in China, including insects, plant diseases, rodents and lagomorphs, and hazardous plants. Among them, 300 species are considered as economically or ecologically important, and half of these are serious pests, including 86 species of insects. Forest management and utilization have a considerable influence on the stability and sustainability of forest ecosystems. At the national level, forestry policies always play a major role in forest resource management and forest health protection. In this paper, we present a comprehensive overview of both achievements and challenges in forest management and insect pest control in China. First, we summarize the current status of forest resources and their pests in China. Second, we address the theories, policies, practices and major national actions on forestry and forest insect pest management, including the Engineering Pest Management of China, the National Key Forestry Programs, the Classified Forest Management system, and the Collective Forest Tenure Reform. We analyze and discuss three representative plantations— Eucalyptus, poplar and Masson pine plantations—with respect to their insect diversity, pest problems and pest management measures.

  13. Forest insect pest management and forest management in China: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Lanzhu; Wang, Zhen; Wang, Xiaowei; An, Linli

    2011-12-01

    According to the Seventh National Forest Inventory (2004-2008), China's forests cover an area of 195.45 million ha, or 20.36% of the total land area. China has the most rapidly increasing forest resources in the world. However, China is also a country with serious forest pest problems. There are more than 8,000 species of potential forest pests in China, including insects, plant diseases, rodents and lagomorphs, and hazardous plants. Among them, 300 species are considered as economically or ecologically important, and half of these are serious pests, including 86 species of insects. Forest management and utilization have a considerable influence on the stability and sustainability of forest ecosystems. At the national level, forestry policies always play a major role in forest resource management and forest health protection. In this paper, we present a comprehensive overview of both achievements and challenges in forest management and insect pest control in China. First, we summarize the current status of forest resources and their pests in China. Second, we address the theories, policies, practices and major national actions on forestry and forest insect pest management, including the Engineering Pest Management of China, the National Key Forestry Programs, the Classified Forest Management system, and the Collective Forest Tenure Reform. We analyze and discuss three representative plantations-Eucalyptus, poplar and Masson pine plantations-with respect to their insect diversity, pest problems and pest management measures.

  14. Insecticide-induced hormesis and arthropod pest management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedes, Raul Narciso C; Cutler, G Christopher

    2014-05-01

    Ecological backlashes such as insecticide resistance, resurgence and secondary pest outbreaks are frequent problems associated with insecticide use against arthropod pest species. The last two have been particularly important in sparking interest in the phenomenon of insecticide-induced hormesis within entomology and acarology. Hormesis describes a biphasic dose-response relationship that is characterized by a reversal of response between low and high doses of a stressor (e.g. insecticides). Although the concept of insecticide-induced hormesis often does not receive sufficient attention, or has been subject to semantic confusion, it has been reported in many arthropod pest species and natural enemies, and has been linked to pest outbreaks and potential problems with insecticide resistance. The study of hormesis remains largely neglected in entomology and acarology. Here, we examined the concept of insecticide-induced hormesis in arthropods, its functional basis and potential fitness consequences, and its importance in arthropod pest management and other areas. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Integrated Pest Management Intervention in Child Care Centers Improves Knowledge, Pest Control, and Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkon, Abbey; Nouredini, Sahar; Swartz, Alicia; Sutherland, Andrew Mason; Stephens, Michelle; Davidson, Nita A; Rose, Roberta

    To reduce young children's exposure to pests and pesticides, an integrated pest management (IPM) intervention was provided for child care center staff. The 7-month IPM education and consultation intervention was conducted by trained nurse child care health consultants in 44 child care centers in California. IPM knowledge surveys were completed by child care staff, objective IPM assessments were completed by research assistants pre- and postintervention, and activity logs were completed by the nurses. There were significant increases in IPM knowledge for the child care staff who attended workshops. There were reductions in the prevalence of pests and increases in IPM practices at the postintervention compared with the preintervention time point. The nurses consulted an average of 5.4 hours per center. A nurse-led IPM intervention in child care centers can reduce exposure to harmful substances for young children attending child care centers. Copyright © 2016 National Association of Pediatric Nurse Practitioners. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Spatially optimal habitat management for enhancing natural control of an invasive agricultural pest: soybean aphid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, W.; Werf, van der W.; Swinton, S.M.

    2010-01-01

    By their direct effects on private profitability, invasive agricultural pests create special incentives for management that set them apart from other categories of invasive species. One attractive nonchemical management approach for agricultural pests relies upon biological control by natural

  17. Environmental Assessment: Invasive Pest Plant Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Silvilagus floridanus Amphibians Eastern newt Notophthalmus viridescens Spotted salamander Ambystoma maculatum Two-lined salamander Eurycea...Annual EnQeron annuus c A Geranium. Carolina Geranium carotinia.num - c WA!B Geranium, Cranesbill Geranium maculatum c c WA!B Ground 01erry...Physalis heterophyffa c p Hemlock, Poison Conium macula/urn c 6 B Hen bit Lamium amplexicau/e c 3 WA/B Hoary Cress Cardarfa spp. c p Houndstongue

  18. 7 CFR 205.206 - Crop pest, weed, and disease management practice standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Crop pest, weed, and disease management practice... Requirements § 205.206 Crop pest, weed, and disease management practice standard. (a) The producer must use management practices to prevent crop pests, weeds, and diseases including but not limited to: (1) Crop...

  19. NURSERY PEST MANAGEMENT OF PHYTOLYMA LATA WALKER ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    lekitos'

    Department of Forest Resources Management, University of Ibadan, Nigeria ... On the other hand, there were significant differences in the total height with ... Senegal and Gambia in West Africa through. Central and East Africa to Mozambique.

  20. Trade issues and area-wide pest management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffin, Robert L.

    2000-01-01

    Food security and economic security are unarguably desirable objectives for all nations - indeed for the world. Equally important is the sustainability of designs that achieve these objectives without disadvantaging others or damaging the environment. Considering area-wide pest management in the context of these interrelated global policy forces is essential to fully understand its role in both the protection of plant resources and in facilitation of trade. The case for food security begins with the realisation that there are currently about 800 million people in the world who are suffering from malnutrition due to lack of food. The World Food Summit, convened in November 1996, urgently called for coordinated world-wide action to ensure 'food for all'. A key strategy for realising this goal is reducing losses due to plant pests. In this light, area-wide pest management can be viewed as a valuable addition to the toolbox of pest management strategies. It can also be one of the most sustainable and cost-effective options to consider for pest management. However, just as the problem of world hunger is not solved by a single farmer, area-wide pest management cannot be successful at the individual level. It requires commitment and cooperation to make it feasible - the same type of commitment and cooperation that was expressed at the World Food Summit. Where economic security is concerned, one need not look far to see a world of growing economic integration and widening circles of development. As the World Trade Organisation celebrates the 50th anniversary of the rules-based trading system which began with the GATT after World War II, it is clear that globalisation and the liberalisation of trade have become permanent fixtures in international policy formulation and are integral to the economic security of all nations. Now, more than ever before, the world's prosperity rests on maintaining an open international economy based on commonly agreed rules. The significance of

  1. Introducing the term 'Biocontrol Plants' for integrated pest management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pia Parolin

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Studies of interactions between crops, additional plants, pests and beneficial organisms already exist as well as studies of natural enemy preference, dispersal, and abundance. However, these studies focus on tri-trophic interactions from an "arthropod" point of view. We think that in order to optimize crop protection methods we need to understand the effects that plant structures have on the various arthropods and on subsequent tri-trophic interactions. Although studies and reviews describing the role of secondary plants in Integrated Pest Management (IPM exist, to date a general term which encompasses all plants added to a cropping system with the aim of enhancing IPM strategies has yet to be formulated. Therefore, we suggest a new term, "biocontrol plants", which we define as plants that are intentionally added to a crop system with the aim of enhancing crop productivity through pest attraction and/or pest regulation; a term that will promote the use of biocontrol services, and can ultimately lead to an increase in the sustainability of cropping systems.

  2. Pest Management Strategies Against the Coffee Berry Borer (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infante, Francisco

    2018-03-22

    Coffee ( Coffea arabica and C. canephora) is one of the most widely traded agricultural commodities and the main cash crop in ∼80 tropical countries. Among the factors that limit coffee production, the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) has been considered the main insect pest, causing losses of over U.S. $500 million dollars annually. Control of this pest has been hindered by two main factors: the cryptic nature of the insect (i.e., protected inside the coffee berry) and the availability of coffee berries in the field allowing the survival of the pest from one generation to the next. Coffee berry borer control has primarily been based on the use of synthetic insecticides. Management strategies have focused on the use of African parasitoids ( Cephalonomia stephanoderis, Prorops nasuta, and Phymastichus coffea), fungal entomopathogens ( Beauveria bassiana), and insect traps. These approaches have had mixed results. Recent work on the basic biology of the insect has provided novel insights that might be useful in developing novel pest management strategies. For example, the discovery of symbiotic bacteria responsible for caffeine breakdown as part of the coffee berry borer microbiome opens new possibilities for pest management via the disruption of these bacteria. Some chemicals with repellent propieties have been identified, and these have a high potential for field implementation. Finally, the publication of the CBB genome has provided insights on the biology of the insect that will help us to understand why it has been so successful at exploiting the coffee plant. Here I discuss the tools we now have against the CBB and likely control strategies that may be useful in the near future.

  3. Consumers' preferences for Integrated Pest Management: Experimental insights

    OpenAIRE

    Biguzzi, Coralie; Ginon, Emilie; Gomez-y-Paloma, Sergio; Langrell, Sergio; Lefebvre, Marianne; Marette, Stephan; Mateu, Guillermo; Sutan, Angela

    2014-01-01

    This article aims to analyse consumers' preferences for Integrated Pest Management (IPM), in comparison to conventional and organic food products. It analyses the case of tomatoes, based on experimental data of 189 French consumers. We find that consumers are more interested in information on the production system than on the characteristics of the final product in terms of pesticide residue levels, and more in IPM than organic. While information on IPM production increases consumers' willing...

  4. Strategic and tactical use of movement information in pest management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knipling, E. F.

    1979-01-01

    Several insect movement problems are discussed. Much more information is needed to make a better appraisal of the practical significance of the insect dispersal problem. Data on the time, rate, and extent of movement of insects are provided. Better techniques for measuring insect movement are developed. A better understanding of the importance of insect movement in the development and implementation of more effective and ecologically acceptable pest management strategies and tactics was proved.

  5. Pathway models for analysing and managing the introduction of alien plant pests - an overview and categorization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douma, J.C.; Pautasso, M.; Venette, R.C.; Robinet, C.; Hemerik, L.; Mourits, M.C.M.; Schans, J.; Werf, van der W.

    2016-01-01

    Alien plant pests are introduced into new areas at unprecedented rates through global trade, transport, tourism and travel, threatening biodiversity and agriculture. Increasingly, the movement and introduction of pests is analysed with pathway models to provide risk managers with quantitative

  6. Model selection for integrated pest management with stochasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akman, Olcay; Comar, Timothy D; Hrozencik, Daniel

    2018-04-07

    In Song and Xiang (2006), an integrated pest management model with periodically varying climatic conditions was introduced. In order to address a wider range of environmental effects, the authors here have embarked upon a series of studies resulting in a more flexible modeling approach. In Akman et al. (2013), the impact of randomly changing environmental conditions is examined by incorporating stochasticity into the birth pulse of the prey species. In Akman et al. (2014), the authors introduce a class of models via a mixture of two birth-pulse terms and determined conditions for the global and local asymptotic stability of the pest eradication solution. With this work, the authors unify the stochastic and mixture model components to create further flexibility in modeling the impacts of random environmental changes on an integrated pest management system. In particular, we first determine the conditions under which solutions of our deterministic mixture model are permanent. We then analyze the stochastic model to find the optimal value of the mixing parameter that minimizes the variance in the efficacy of the pesticide. Additionally, we perform a sensitivity analysis to show that the corresponding pesticide efficacy determined by this optimization technique is indeed robust. Through numerical simulations we show that permanence can be preserved in our stochastic model. Our study of the stochastic version of the model indicates that our results on the deterministic model provide informative conclusions about the behavior of the stochastic model. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Baculovirus potential for agricultural pests management in Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Luis Ayala Sifontes

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Cuba has an international reputation for implementing widespread biological control of pests, and microbial biocontrol is an integral component of most pest management programs. One class of microbial pesticides however, has not been developed in Cuba, bio-insecticides based on the Baculoviridae. This class of safe and environmentally protective microbial pesticides is used ever more commonly worldwide as an alternative to chemical pesticides. The characteristics of the viruses of this family, particularly their high host specificity, safety to non-target organisms, capacity to persist in nature and create epizootics, and the economy with which they can be produced "in vivo", all make them attractive for incorporation into pest management programs along with other pesticides developed in Cuba. The mass production technology is well understood in Cuba and biofactories already exist for a number of microbial biocontrol products. In the province of Sancti Spíritus, the Plant Protection Laboratory of the Ministry of Agriculture, with the cooperation of the Institute for Sustainable Horticulture, Kwantlen Polytechnic University, are resuming the work which began in the 90´s to develop baculovirus products in support of sustainable agriculture in Cuba. This work is being carried out with the participation of young Canadian and Cuban students and professionals. The program includes research with the multicapsid nuclear polyhedrosis viruses of Spodoptera frugiperda (SfMNPV and S. exigua (SeMNPV and the search for native isolates of Baculovirus in Plutella xylostella, three priority pests in Cuba. In other jurisdictions they are well controlled by baculoviruses, and the expectation is that this same result is possible in Cuba.

  8. Global attractivity and permanence of a stage-structured pest management SI model with time delay and diseased pest impulsive transmission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiao Jianjun; Meng Xinzhu; Chen Lansun

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we consider a stage-structured pest management SI model with time delay and diseased pests impulsive transmission. We obtain the sufficient conditions of the global attractivity of pest-extinction boundary periodic solution and the permanence of the system. We also prove that all solutions of the system are uniformly ultimately bounded. Our results provide a reliable tactic basis for the practice of pest management

  9. Microbial Pest Control Agents: Are they a Specific And Safe Tool for Insect Pest Management?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshayes, Caroline; Siegwart, Myriam; Pauron, David; Froger, Josy-Anne; Lapied, Bruno; Apaire-Marchais, Véronique

    2017-01-01

    Microorganisms (viruses, bacteria and fungi) or their bioactive agents can be used as active substances and therefore are referred as Microbial Pest Control Agents (MPCA). They are used as alternative strategies to chemical insecticides to counteract the development of resistances and to reduce adverse effects on both environment and human health. These natural entomopathogenic agents, which have specific modes of action, are generally considered safer as compared to conventional chemical insecticides. Baculoviruses are the only viruses being used as the safest biological control agents. They infect insects and have narrow host ranges. Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is the most widely and successfully used bioinsecticide in the integrated pest management programs in the world. Bt mainly produces crystal delta-endotoxins and secreted toxins. However, the Bt toxins are not stable for a very long time and are highly sensitive to solar UV. So genetically modified plants that express toxins have been developed and represent a large part of the phytosanitary biological products. Finally, entomopathogenic fungi and particularly, Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae, are also used for their insecticidal properties. Most studies on various aspects of the safety of MPCA to human, non-target organisms and environment have only reported acute but not chronic toxicity. This paper reviews the modes of action of MPCA, their toxicological risks to human health and ecotoxicological profiles together with their environmental persistence. This review is part of the special issue "Insecticide Mode of Action: From Insect to Mammalian Toxicity". Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  10. Role of neonicotinyl insecticides in Washington apple integrated pest management. Part I. Control of lepidopteran pests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, J. F.; Beers, E. H.; Dunley, J. E.; Doerr, M.; Granger, K.

    2005-01-01

    Three neonicotinyl insecticides, acetamiprid, thiacloprid and clothianidin, were evaluated for their impact on four species of lepidopteran pests of apple in Washington, the codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), the Pandemis leafroller, Pandemis pyrusana Kearfott, and the obliquebanded leafroller, Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris), and Lacanobia subjuncta (Grote & Robinson). None of the neonicotinyl insecticides demonstrated sufficient activity against P. pyrusana, C. rosaceana, or L. subjuncta to warrant field trials. Conversely, all had some activity against one or more stages of C. pomonella. Acetamiprid was highly toxic to larvae in laboratory bioassays, and had relatively long activity of field-aged residues (21 days). It also showed some toxicity to C. pomonella eggs (via topical exposure) and adults. Acetamiprid provided the highest level of fruit protection from C. pomonella attack in field trials conducted over five years in experimental orchards with extremely high codling moth pressure. Thiacloprid performed similarly in bioassays, but fruit protection in field trials was slightly lower than acetamiprid. Clothianidin showed moderate to high toxicity in bioassays, depending on the C. pomonella stage tested, but poor fruit protection from attack in field trials. None of the neonicotinyl insecticides were as toxic to larvae or effective in protecting fruit as the current standard organophosphate insecticide used for C. pomonella control, azinphosmethyl. However, both acetamiprid and thiacloprid should provide acceptable levels of C. pomonella control in commercial orchards where densities are much lower than in the experimental orchards used for our trials. The advantages and disadvantages of the neonicotinyl insecticides as replacements for the organophosphate insecticides and their role in a pest management system for Washington apple orchards are discussed. Abbreviation: MFR Maximum field rate PMID:16341246

  11. Robust Manipulations of Pest Insect Behavior Using Repellents and Practical Application for Integrated Pest Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallingford, Anna K; Cha, Dong H; Linn, Charles E; Wolfin, Michael S; Loeb, Gregory M

    2017-10-01

    In agricultural settings, examples of effective control strategies using repellent chemicals in integrated pest management (IPM) are relatively scarce compared to those using attractants. This may be partly due to a poor understanding of how repellents affect insect behavior once they are deployed. Here we attempt to identify potential hallmarks of repellent stimuli that are robust enough for practical use in the field. We explore the literature for success stories using repellents in IPM and we investigate the mechanisms of repellency for two chemical oviposition deterrents for controlling Drosophila suzukii Matsumura, a serious pest of small fruit crops. Drosophila suzukii causes injury by laying her eggs in ripening fruit and resulting larvae make fruit unmarketable. In caged choice tests, reduced oviposition was observed in red raspberry fruit treated with volatile 1-octen-3-ol and geosmin at two initial concentrations (10% and 1%) compared to untreated controls. We used video monitoring to observe fly behavior in these caged choice tests and investigate the mode of action for deterrence through the entire behavioral repertoire leading to oviposition. We observed fewer visitors and more time elapsed before flies first landed on 1-octen-3-ol-treated fruits than control fruits and concluded that this odor primarily inhibits behaviors that occur before D. suzukii comes in contact with a potential oviposition substrate (precontact). We observed some qualitative differences in precontact behavior of flies around geosmin-treated fruits; however, we concluded that this odor primarily inhibits behaviors that occur after D. suzukii comes in contact with treated fruits (postcontact). Field trials found reduced oviposition in red raspberry treated with 1-octen-3-ol and a combination of 1-octen-3-ol and geosmin, but no effect of geosmin alone. Recommendations for further study of repellents for practical use in the field are discussed. © The Authors 2017. Published by

  12. Ecological and pest-management implications of sex differences in scarab landing patterns on grape vines

    OpenAIRE

    Gonz?lez-Chang, Mauricio; Boyer, St?phane; Lefort, Marie-Caroline; Nboyine, Jerry; Wratten, Steve D.

    2017-01-01

    Background Melolonthinae beetles, comprising different white grub species, are a globally-distributed pest group. Their larvae feed on roots of several crop and forestry species, and adults can cause severe defoliation. In New Zealand, the endemic scarab pest Costelytra zealandica (White) causes severe defoliation on different horticultural crops, including grape vines (Vitis vinifera). Understanding flight and landing behaviours of this pest can help inform pest management decisions. Methods...

  13. Pest Prevalence and Evaluation of Community-Wide Integrated Pest Management for Reducing Cockroach Infestations and Indoor Insecticide Residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zha, Chen; Wang, Changlu; Buckley, Brian; Yang, Ill; Wang, Desen; Eiden, Amanda L; Cooper, Richard

    2018-04-02

    Pest infestations in residential buildings are common, but community-wide pest survey data are lacking. Frequent insecticide applications for controlling indoor pests leave insecticide residues and pose potential health risks to residents. In this study, a community-wide pest survey was carried out in a housing complex consisting of 258 units in 40 buildings in New Brunswick, New Jersey. It was immediately followed by implementation of an integrated pest management (IPM) program in all the cockroach-infested apartments and two bed bug apartments with the goal of eliminating pest infestations, reducing pyrethroid residues, and increasing resident satisfaction with pest control services. The IPM-treated apartments were revisited and treated biweekly or monthly for 7 mo. Initial inspection found the top three pests and their infestation rates to be as follows: German cockroaches (Blattella germanica L. [Blattodea: Blattellidae]), 28%; rodents, 11%; and bed bugs (Cimex lectularius L. [Hemiptera: Cimicidae]), 8%. Floor wipe samples were collected in the kitchens and bedrooms of 20 apartments for pyrethroid residue analysis before the IPM implementation; 17 of the 20 apartments were resampled again at 7 mo. The IPM program reduced cockroach counts per apartment by 88% at 7 wk after initial treatment. At 7 mo, 85% of the cockroach infestations found in the initial survey were eliminated. The average number of pyrethroids detected decreased significantly from 6 ± 1 (mean ± SEM) and 5 ± 1 to 2 ± 1 and 3 ± 1 in the kitchens and bedrooms, respectively. The average concentrations of targeted pyrethroids residue also decreased significantly in the kitchens and bedrooms.

  14. A Three-Year Field Validation Study to Improve the Integrated Pest Management of Hot Pepper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Hoon Kim

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available To improve the integrated pest management (IPM of hot pepper, field study was conducted in Hwasung from 2010 to 2012 and an IPM system was developed to help growers decide when to apply pesticides to control anthracnose, tobacco budworm, Phytophthora blight, bacterial wilt, and bacterial leaf spot. The three field treatments consisted of IPM sprays following the forecast model advisory, a periodic spray at 7-to-10-day intervals, and no spray (control. The number of annual pesticide applications for the IPM treatment ranged from six to eight, whereas the plots subjected to the periodic treatment received pesticide 11 or 12 times annually for three years. Compared to the former strategy, our improved IPM strategy features more intense pest management, with frequent spraying for anthracnose and mixed spraying for tobacco budworm or Phytophthora blight. The incidences for no pesticide control in 2010, 2011, and 2012 were 91, 97.6, and 41.4%, respectively. Conversely, the incidences for the IPM treatment for those years were 7.6, 62.6, and 2%, and the yields from IPM-treated plots were 48.6 kg, 12.1 kg, and 48.8 kg. The incidence and yield in the IPM-treated plots were almost the same as those of the periodic treatment except in 2011, in which no unnecessary sprays were given, meaning that the IPM control was quite successful. From reviewing eight years of field work, sophisticated forecasts that optimize pesticide spray timing reveal that reliance on pesticides can be reduced without compromising yield. Eco-friendly strategies can be implemented in the pest management of hot pepper.

  15. Coupled information diffusion--pest dynamics models predict delayed benefits of farmer cooperation in pest management programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebaudo, François; Dangles, Olivier

    2011-10-01

    Worldwide, the theory and practice of agricultural extension system have been dominated for almost half a century by Rogers' "diffusion of innovation theory". In particular, the success of integrated pest management (IPM) extension programs depends on the effectiveness of IPM information diffusion from trained farmers to other farmers, an important assumption which underpins funding from development organizations. Here we developed an innovative approach through an agent-based model (ABM) combining social (diffusion theory) and biological (pest population dynamics) models to study the role of cooperation among small-scale farmers to share IPM information for controlling an invasive pest. The model was implemented with field data, including learning processes and control efficiency, from large scale surveys in the Ecuadorian Andes. Our results predict that although cooperation had short-term costs for individual farmers, it paid in the long run as it decreased pest infestation at the community scale. However, the slow learning process placed restrictions on the knowledge that could be generated within farmer communities over time, giving rise to natural lags in IPM diffusion and applications. We further showed that if individuals learn from others about the benefits of early prevention of new pests, then educational effort may have a sustainable long-run impact. Consistent with models of information diffusion theory, our results demonstrate how an integrated approach combining ecological and social systems would help better predict the success of IPM programs. This approach has potential beyond pest management as it could be applied to any resource management program seeking to spread innovations across populations.

  16. Plant training for induced defense against insect pests: a promising tool for integrated pest management in cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llandres, Ana L; Almohamad, Raki; Brévault, Thierry; Renou, Alain; Téréta, Idrissa; Jean, Janine; Goebel, François-Regis

    2018-04-17

    Enhancing cotton pest management using plant natural defenses has been described as a promising way to improve the management of crop pests. We here reviewed different studies on cotton growing systems to illustrate how an ancient technique called plant training, which includes plant topping and pruning, may contribute to this goal. Based on examples from cotton crops, we show how trained plants could be promoted to a state of enhanced defense that causes faster and more robust activation of their defense responses. We revisit agricultural benefits associated to this technique in cotton crops, with a focus on its potential as a supplementary tool for Integrated Pest Management (IPM). Particularly, we examine its role in mediating plant interactions with conspecific neighboring plants, pests and associated natural enemies. We propose a new IPM tool, plant training for induced defense, which involves inducing plant defense by artificial injuries. Experimental evidence from various studies shows that cotton training is a promising technique, particularly for smallholders, which can be used as part of an IPM program to significantly reduce insecticide use and to improve productivity in cotton farming. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  17. Pest management strategies: Area-wide and conventional

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindquist, D.A.

    2000-01-01

    part of the cost of an area-wide programme will be fighting the target pest away from the commercial production - before the commercial crops are susceptible - on wild or alternate hosts or abandoned orchards, untreated host plants in homeowners' gardens, etc. In most cases, area-wide insect control will be the responsibility of a separate organisation hired by the producers. A separate organisation can plan an aggressive offense against the target pest population over the entire area. High technology systems can be effectively utilised to plan the population management programme. Included will be satellite imagery to detect alternate hosts, sensitive methods to detect movement of the pest populations, computer programmes to predict changes in the pest insect population based on biological parameters, a systems approach to utilise natural enemies on an area-wide basis, genetic analysis to detect the development of resistance and utilisation of systems to delay the development of resistance over the total area. Further, area-wide programmes encourage the use of specialised methods of insect control that are not effective or are not used on a farm by farm basis. These include the sterile insect technique (SIT), male annihilation, inundative releases of parasites, mating inhibitors, large-scale trap cropping with very attractive plants, treatment of alternate hosts on public lands and hosts in private gardens, etc. The objective of area-wide control is to reduce the pest population within the target area to a non-economic level. This is accomplished by attacking the entire insect pest population in the target area. Conventional insect control attempts to protect the plant or animal, is carried out by individual producers over a small area with little planning, is short-term, low technology and is a reactive (defense) approach to insect control. Area-wide insect control attempts to reduce the pest population to a non-economic level over a large area involving many

  18. [Risk assessment and control strategies of pests in Lycium barbarum fields under different managements].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zi-Hua; Zhang, Rong; He, Da-Han; Wang, Fang; Zhang, Ting-Ting; Zhang, Zong-Shan

    2009-04-01

    In the risk assessment of pests, both the community structure and the environmental factors should be considered at the same time, because of their mutual effects on the outbreak of disaster pests. This paper established a comprehensive assessment system, including 2 sub-systems, 5 respects, and 14 indices. In the meanwhile, risk assessment indices and experience formula were used to analyze the risk degree of pests in Lycium barbarum fields under different managements. It was found that using risk assessment indices and experience formula could obtain similar results. In abandoned field, Aceria palida, Aphis sp., and Paratrioza sinica were the frequent disaster pests, Lema decempunctata, Neoceratitis asiatica, Jaapiella sp., and Phthorimaea sp. were the incidental disaster pests, and Psylliodes obscurofaciata and Phthorimaea sp. were general pests. In organic field, the frequent disaster pests were the same species as those in abandoned field, while P. indicus, Jaapiella sp. and Phthorimaea sp. were the incidental disaster pests. In chemical control field, A. palida, Aphis sp., P. sinica, and P. indicus were the frequent disaster pests, while Jaapiella sp. and Phthorimaea sp. were the incidental disaster pests. Optimal 5 separations most fitted the division of pest sub-communities in L. barbarum fields, which were infancy period (from March 28 to April 15), outbreak I period (from April 15 to July 18), dormancy period (from July 18 to September 8), outbreak II period (from September 8 to October 15), and recession period (after October 15). The matrix of correlation coefficient showed that the dynamics of pests in L. barbarum fields under different managements were significantly correlated with each other, suggesting that the dynamics of pest populations was similar in different L. barbarum fields, which had two population establishment stages and one exponential growth stage in every year. The optimal controlling stages were from late infancy period to early and

  19. Future trends and needs in stored product entomology-pest management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insect pest management in stored products, and in particular the concept of integrated pest management (IPM), has different meanings depending on one's viewpoint of IPM. One of the difficulties in stored products is adequately sampling large bulk bins or silos of raw stored grain or large milling an...

  20. Economic value of biological control in integrated pest management of managed plant systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naranjo, Steven E; Ellsworth, Peter C; Frisvold, George B

    2015-01-07

    Biological control is an underlying pillar of integrated pest management, yet little focus has been placed on assigning economic value to this key ecosystem service. Setting biological control on a firm economic foundation would help to broaden its utility and adoption for sustainable crop protection. Here we discuss approaches and methods available for valuation of biological control of arthropod pests by arthropod natural enemies and summarize economic evaluations in classical, augmentative, and conservation biological control. Emphasis is placed on valuation of conservation biological control, which has received little attention. We identify some of the challenges of and opportunities for applying economics to biological control to advance integrated pest management. Interaction among diverse scientists and stakeholders will be required to measure the direct and indirect costs and benefits of biological control that will allow farmers and others to internalize the benefits that incentivize and accelerate adoption for private and public good.

  1. Towards integrated management of the pests and pathogens of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Research initially concerned only specific cassava-pathogen or cassava-pest combinations, without attention being paid to the system as a whole, despite obvious epidemic convergences resulting from a common environment, analogies between effects on the host plant and probable interactions between the various pests ...

  2. Gaby: a computer-based support system for integrated pest management in Dutch apple orchards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ende, van den E.; Blommers, L.; Trapman, M.

    1996-01-01

    In The Netherlands, a computerized advisory system (called Gaby) for integrated pest management (IPM) in apple has been developed to support the decision making of individual fruit growers. Gaby provides clear monitoring recommendations when this is appropriate for a particular pest in (a defined

  3. The need to implement the landscape of fear within rodent pest management strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krijger, Inge M.; Belmain, Steven R.; Singleton, Grant R.; Groot Koerkamp, Peter W.G.; Meerburg, Bastiaan G.

    2017-01-01

    Current reactive pest management methods have serious drawbacks such as the heavy reliance on chemicals, emerging genetic rodenticide resistance and high secondary exposure risks. Rodent control needs to be based on pest species ecology and ethology to facilitate the development of ecologically

  4. The Management of Insect Pests in Australian Cotton: An Evolving Story.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Lewis J; Whitehouse, Mary E A; Herron, Grant A

    2018-01-07

    The Australian cotton industry progressively embraced integrated pest management (IPM) to alleviate escalating insecticide resistance issues. A systems IPM approach was used with core principles that were built around pest ecology/biology and insecticide resistance management; together, these were integrated into a flexible, year-round approach that facilitated easy incorporation of new science, strategies, and pests. The approach emphasized both strategic and tactical elements to reduce pest abundance and rationalize decisions about pest control, with insecticides as a last resort. Industry involvement in developing the approach was vital to embedding IPM within the farming system. Adoption of IPM was facilitated by the introduction of Bt cotton, availability of selective insecticides, economic validation, and an industry-wide extension campaign. Surveys indicate IPM is now embedded in industry, confirming the effectiveness of an industry-led, backed-by-science approach. The amount of insecticide active ingredient applied per hectare against pests has also declined dramatically. Though challenges remain, pest management has transitioned from reactively attempting to eradicate pests from fields to proactively managing them year-round, considering the farm within the wider landscape.

  5. Analysis of area-wide management of insect pests based on sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    David W. Onstad; Mark S. Sisterson

    2011-01-01

    The control of invasive species greatly depends on area-wide pest management (AWPM) in heterogeneous landscapes. Decisions about when and where to treat a population with pesticide are based on sampling pest abundance. One of the challenges of AWPM is sampling large areas with limited funds to cover the cost of sampling. Additionally, AWPM programs are often confronted...

  6. Farmers' knowledge, perceptions and practices in mango pest management in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mele, van P.; Cuc, N.T.T.; Huis, van A.

    2001-01-01

    A survey of mango farmers' knowledge, perceptions and practices in pest management was conducted during the dry season of 1998 in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam. Identification and control of pests was often based on damage symptoms, rather than on recording of causal agents. Damage caused by the

  7. Pest Management and Environmental Quality. Course 181. Correspondence Courses in Agriculture, Family Living and Community Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Herbert, Jr.; And Others

    This publication is the course book for a correspondence course in pest control with the Pennsylvania State University. It contains basic information for agricultural producers on pest management and the proper and safe use of pesticides. The course consists of eleven lessons which can be completed at one's leisure. The first nine lessons contain…

  8. Using GPS instruments and GIS techniques in data management for insect pest control programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This interactive tutorial CD entitled 'Using GPS Instruments and GIS Techniques in Data Management for Insect Pest Control Programs' was developed by Micha silver of the Arava Development Co., Sapir, Israel, and includes step-by-step hands on lessons on the use of GPS/GIS in support of area-wide pest control operations

  9. Advancing Integrated Pest Management for Dermanyssus gallinae in laying hen facilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mul, Monique F.

    2017-01-01

    Pest and diseases in agricultural systems reduce the yield and quality of available food and feed worldwide. To meet the global growing demand for these products, losses should be reduced, preferably in a sustainable way. Integrated Pest Management (IPM) is a

  10. Area-wide efficacy of a localized forest pest management practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.T. Cronin; P. Turchin; J.L. Hayes; C.A. Steiner

    1999-01-01

    Few experimental studies have examined the movement of forest pest populations, particularly in response to management tactics that disrupt the growth of pest infestations.We quantified the interinfestation patterns of dispersal of the southern pine beetle, Dendroctonus frontalis, by monitoring the fates of marked beetles after emergence from small natural infestations...

  11. A systems approach for management of pests and pathogens of nursery crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer L. Parke; Niklaus J. Grünwald

    2012-01-01

    Horticultural nurseries are heterogeneous and spatially complex agricultural systems, which present formidable challenges to management of diseases and pests. Moreover, nursery plants shipped interstate and internationally can serve as important vectors for pathogens and pests that threaten both agriculture and forestry. Current regulatory strategies to prevent this...

  12. Biology and management of insect pests in North American intensively managed hardwood forest systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coyle, David R.; Nebeker, T., E.; Hart, E., R.; Mattson, W., J.

    2005-01-01

    Annu. Rev. Entomol. 50:1-29. Abstract Increasing demand for wood and wood products is putting stress on traditional forest production areas, leading to long-term economic and environmental concerns. Intensively managed hardwood forest systems (IMHFS), grown using conventional agricultural as well as forestry methods, can help alleviate potential problems in natural forest production areas. Although IMHFS can produce more biomass per hectare per year than natural forests, the ecologically simplified, monocultural systems may greatly increase the crops susceptibility to pests. Species in the genera Populus and Salix comprise the greatest acreage in IMHFS in North America, but other species, including Liquidambar styracifua and Platanus occidentalis, are also important. We discuss life histories, realized and potential damage, and management options for the most economically infuential pests that affect these hardwood species. The substantial inherent challenges associated with pest management in the monocultural environments created by IMHFS are reviewed. Finally, we discuss ways to design IMHFS that may reduce their susceptibility to pests, increase their growth and productivity potential, and create a more sustainable environment.

  13. Field grain losses and insect pest management practices in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Agriculture, Science and Technology ... Statistical analyses revealed that the level of crop yield losses was ... There was, however, a negative correlation between crop yield loss due to insect pests and the efficacy of PCM applied.

  14. Health Benefits of Integrated Pest Management in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    The following documents describe the health case for School IPM.They describe what IPM is, and then summarize currently available research pointing to how pest control via IPM makes for a healthier school environment.

  15. Biologically Based Methods for Pest Management in Agriculture under Changing Climates: Challenges and Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chidawanyika, Frank; Mudavanhu, Pride; Nyamukondiwa, Casper

    2012-11-09

    The current changes in global climatic regimes present a significant societal challenge, affecting in all likelihood insect physiology, biochemistry, biogeography and population dynamics. With the increasing resistance of many insect pest species to chemical insecticides and an increasing organic food market, pest control strategies are slowly shifting towards more sustainable, ecologically sound and economically viable options. Biologically based pest management strategies present such opportunities through predation or parasitism of pests and plant direct or indirect defense mechanisms that can all be important components of sustainable integrated pest management programs. Inevitably, the efficacy of biological control systems is highly dependent on natural enemy-prey interactions, which will likely be modified by changing climates. Therefore, knowledge of how insect pests and their natural enemies respond to climate variation is of fundamental importance in understanding biological insect pest management under global climate change. Here, we discuss biological control, its challenges under climate change scenarios and how increased global temperatures will require adaptive management strategies to cope with changing status of insects and their natural enemies.

  16. Biologically Based Methods for Pest Management in Agriculture under Changing Climates: Challenges and Future Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casper Nyamukondiwa

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The current changes in global climatic regimes present a significant societal challenge, affecting in all likelihood insect physiology, biochemistry, biogeography and population dynamics. With the increasing resistance of many insect pest species to chemical insecticides and an increasing organic food market, pest control strategies are slowly shifting towards more sustainable, ecologically sound and economically viable options. Biologically based pest management strategies present such opportunities through predation or parasitism of pests and plant direct or indirect defense mechanisms that can all be important components of sustainable integrated pest management programs. Inevitably, the efficacy of biological control systems is highly dependent on natural enemy-prey interactions, which will likely be modified by changing climates. Therefore, knowledge of how insect pests and their natural enemies respond to climate variation is of fundamental importance in understanding biological insect pest management under global climate change. Here, we discuss biological control, its challenges under climate change scenarios and how increased global temperatures will require adaptive management strategies to cope with changing status of insects and their natural enemies.

  17. In-Field Habitat Management to Optimize Pest Control of Novel Soil Communities in Agroecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearsons, Kirsten A; Tooker, John F

    2017-08-05

    The challenge of managing agroecosystems on a landscape scale and the novel structure of soil communities in agroecosystems both provide reason to focus on in-field management practices, including cover crop adoption, reduced tillage, and judicial pesticide use, to promote soil community diversity. Belowground and epigeal arthropods, especially exotic generalist predators, play a significant role in controlling insect pests, weeds, and pathogens in agroecosystems. However, the preventative pest management tactics that dominate field-crop production in the United States do not promote biological control. In this review, we argue that by reducing disturbance, mitigating the effects of necessary field activities, and controlling pests within an Integrated Pest Management framework, farmers can facilitate the diversity and activity of native and exotic arthropod predators.

  18. In-Field Habitat Management to Optimize Pest Control of Novel Soil Communities in Agroecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten A. Pearsons

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The challenge of managing agroecosystems on a landscape scale and the novel structure of soil communities in agroecosystems both provide reason to focus on in-field management practices, including cover crop adoption, reduced tillage, and judicial pesticide use, to promote soil community diversity. Belowground and epigeal arthropods, especially exotic generalist predators, play a significant role in controlling insect pests, weeds, and pathogens in agroecosystems. However, the preventative pest management tactics that dominate field-crop production in the United States do not promote biological control. In this review, we argue that by reducing disturbance, mitigating the effects of necessary field activities, and controlling pests within an Integrated Pest Management framework, farmers can facilitate the diversity and activity of native and exotic arthropod predators.

  19. Reduced Insecticide Susceptibility in Aedes vexans (Diptera: Culicidae) Where Agricultural Pest Management Overlaps With Mosquito Abatement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, Mike W; Bachmann, Amanda; Varenhorst, Adam J

    2018-05-04

    Mosquito abatement programs in Midwestern communities frequently exist within landscapes dominated by agriculture. Although separately managed, both agricultural pests and mosquitoes are targeted by similar classes of insecticides. As a result, there is the potential for unintended insecticide exposure to mosquito populations from agricultural pest management. To determine the impact that agricultural management practices have on mosquito insecticide susceptibility we compared the mortality of Aedes vexans (Meigen; Diptera: Culicidae) between populations sampled from locations with and without mosquito abatement in South Dakota, a region dominated by agricultural production. Collection locations were either within towns with mosquito abatement programs (n = 2; Brookings and Sioux Falls, SD) or located > 16 km from towns with mosquito abatement programs (n = 2; areas near Harrold and Willow Lake, SD). WHO bioassays were used to test susceptibly of adults to differing insecticide classes relative to their respective controls; 1) an organochlorine (dieldrin 4%), 2) an organophosphate (malathion 5%), and 3) a pyrethroid (lambda-cyhalothrin 0.05%). Corrected mortality did not significantly differ between locations with or without abatement; however, when locations were analized by proportion of developed land within the surrounding landscape pyrethroid mortality was significantly lower where crop production dominated the surrounding landscape and mosquito abatement was present. These data suggest that agricultural pest management may incidentally contribute to reduced mosquito susceptibility where overlap between agricultural pest management and mosquito abatement exists. Decoupling insecticide classes used by both agricultural and public health pest management programs may be necessary to ensure continued efficacy of pest management tools.

  20. Area-wide integrated pest management and the sterile insect technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klassen, W.

    2005-01-01

    Area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) focuses on the preventive management of pest populations throughout the ecosystem. It seeks to treat all habitats of the pest population so that none produces migrants to re-establish significant infestations in areas of concern. In contrast, the conventional strategy focuses narrowly on defending the valued entity (crop, livestock, people, buildings, etc.) from direct attack by pests. AW-IPM requires multiyear planning, and an organization dedicated exclusively to its implementation, whereas conventional pest management involves minimal forward planning, tends to be reactive, and is implemented independently by individual producers, businesses, or households. AW-IPM tends to utilize advanced technologies, whereas the conventional strategy tends to rely on traditional tactics and tools. The sterile insect technique (SIT) is a species-specific form of birth control imposed on the pest population. It is a powerful tool for 'mopping up' sparse pest populations, and is most efficient when applied as a tactic in a system deployed on an area-wide basis. On environmental, economic and biological grounds, the case for the SIT is compelling. (author)

  1. Farmers’ knowledge and perceptions of potato pests and their management in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Sikhu Okonya

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available As we initiate entomological research on potato (Solanum tuberosum L. in Uganda, there is need to understand farmers’ knowledge of existing insect pest problems and their management practices. Such information is important for designing a suitable intervention and successful integrated pest management (IPM strategy. A farm household survey using a structured questionnaire was conducted among 204 potato farmers in six districts of Uganda (i.e., Kabale, Kisoro, Mbale, Kapchorwa, Mubende, and Kyegegwa during August and September 2013. Diseases, insect pests, price fluctuations, and low market prices were the four highest ranked constraints in potato production, in order of decreasing importance. Cutworms (Agrotis spp., aphids (Myzus persicae (Sulzer, and potato tuber moth (Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller were the three most severe insect pests. Ants (Dorylis orantalis Westwood, whiteflies (Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius, and leafminer flies (Liriomyza huidobrensis (Blanchard were pests of moderate importance. Major yield losses are predominantly due to late blight (Phytophthora infestans (Mont. de Bary and reached 100% without chemical control in the districts of Kabale, Kisoro, Mbale, and Kapchorwa. On average, farmers had little to moderate knowledge about pest characteristics. The predominant control methods were use of fungicides (72% of respondents and insecticides (62% of respondents. On average, only 5% of the 204 farmers knew about insect pests and their natural enemies. This lack of knowledge calls for training of both farmers and extension workers in insect pest identification, their biology, and control. Empowering farmers with knowledge about insect pests is essential for the reduction of pesticide misuse and uptake of more environmentally friendly approaches like IPM. Field surveys would need follow-up in order to assess the actual field infestation rates and intensities of each insect pest and compare the results with the responses

  2. Pest management program for sugarcane at the Sugar Enterprise “Melanio Hernández

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Milagros Rodríguez Cardoso

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The research objective was to diagnose and identify pests, diseases and weeds in sugarcane cultivars at the Sugar Enterprise ‘Melanio Hernández’ in Sancti Spíritus in order to develop a pest management program that started from the identification of phytosanitary-related problems and the available resources in the agroecosystem. As primary pests, Diatraea saccharalis Fab., three species of rodents, the Yellowing Leaf Syndrome (YLS, Ustilago scitaminea H. Sydow and seven species of weeds, were identified. As secondary pests, the cuters species ( Leucania sp., L. unipuncta, L. inconspicua, L. cinericolis and the sugar cane rust(Puccinia melanocephala H.y P. Sydow., were identified. The levels of incidence of primary and secondary pests showed differences among the varieties and among the three agricultural cooperatives at the Enterprise. Seven species of natural enemy of borer (bioregulators Leucania spp and Mocis spp., primary or secondary crop pests, were observed to be associated to sugarcane. 16 plant species were determined to show repellent properties or phytopesticides in this sugar cane agroecosystem, but only Eucalyptus showed to have its push effect on borer. A system of pest management program for sugar cane was developed that included measures starting from the local resources identified in the agroecosystem.

  3. Advances in organic insect pest management in pecan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecans are economically the most important native nut crop in the USA. The market for organic pecans has been growing. However, in the Southeastern USA, there are a number of insect pests and plant diseases that challenge the ability of growers to produce organic pecans in an economically sound ma...

  4. Integrated management of cowpea insect pests using elite cultivars ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cowpea planted in June flowered and podded between early to mid-August when post-flowering pests (M. vitrata, M. sjostedti and Clarigralla tomentosicollis) densities were relatively low and produced significantly higher grain yields without insecticide protection compared to other planting dates. The flowering and pod ...

  5. Origin and management of neotropical cassava arthropod pests ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cassava, one of the worlds major food crops is grown throughout the tropical regions of the world. Cassava originated in the neotropics; it was introduced into West Africa from Brazil by slave traders in the 1500's, and taken to Asia during the 17th century. Consequently the greatest diversity of cassava pests, as well as their ...

  6. Demonstration of an Integrated Pest Management Program for Wheat in Tajikistan

    OpenAIRE

    Landis, Douglas A.; Saidov, Nurali; Jaliov, Anvar; El Bouhssini, Mustapha; Kennelly, Megan; Bahlai, Christie; Landis, Joy N.; Maredia, Karim

    2016-01-01

    Wheat is an important food security crop in central Asia but frequently suffers severe damage and yield losses from insect pests, pathogens, and weeds. With funding from the United States Agency for International Development, a team of scientists from three U.S. land-grant universities in collaboration with the International Center for Agricultural Research in Dry Areas and local institutions implemented an integrated pest management (IPM) demonstration program in three regions of Tajikistan ...

  7. Development of reference transcriptomes for the major insect pests of cowpea: a toolbox for insect pest management approaches in West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowpea crops are widely cultivated and a major nutritional source of protein for indigenous human populations in West Africa. Annual yields and longevity of grain storage is greatly reduced by feeding damage caused by a complex of insect pests that include Anoplocnemis curvipes, Aphis craccivora, Cl...

  8. Beverton-Holt discrete pest management models with pulsed chemical control and evolution of pesticide resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Juhua; Tang, Sanyi; Cheke, Robert A.

    2016-07-01

    Pest resistance to pesticides is usually managed by switching between different types of pesticides. The optimal switching time, which depends on the dynamics of the pest population and on the evolution of the pesticide resistance, is critical. Here we address how the dynamic complexity of the pest population, the development of resistance and the spraying frequency of pulsed chemical control affect optimal switching strategies given different control aims. To do this, we developed novel discrete pest population growth models with both impulsive chemical control and the evolution of pesticide resistance. Strong and weak threshold conditions which guarantee the extinction of the pest population, based on the threshold values of the analytical formula for the optimal switching time, were derived. Further, we addressed switching strategies in the light of chosen economic injury levels. Moreover, the effects of the complex dynamical behaviour of the pest population on the pesticide switching times were also studied. The pesticide application period, the evolution of pesticide resistance and the dynamic complexity of the pest population may result in complex outbreak patterns, with consequent effects on the pesticide switching strategies.

  9. Management of area-wide integrated pest management programmes that integrate the sterile insect technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyck, V.A.; Vreysen, M.J.B.; Reyes Flores, J.; Regidor Fernandez, E.E.; Teruya, T.; Barnes, B.; Gomez Riera, P.; Lindquist, D.; Loosjes, M.

    2005-01-01

    Effective management of area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) programmes that integrate the sterile insect technique (SIT) is key to success. Programme planning includes collection of baseline data and a feasibility assessment. The optimal management structure is where the programme can be implemented effectively and flexibly, independent of government politics, bureaucracy, and even corruption that impede timely goal achievement. Ideally, programmes include both public and private management, and require strong and steady financial support. Governments and donors are the most common sources of funds, but a mixture of public, community, and private funds is now the trend. Interrupted cash flow severely restrains programme performance. Physical support of programme operations must be reliable, and led by a maintenance professional. It is essential to have full-time, well-paid, and motivated staff led by a programme manger with technical and management experience. Programme failure is usually due to poor management and inadequate public support, and not to poor technology. (author)

  10. The need to implement the landscape of fear within rodent pest management strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krijger, Inge M; Belmain, Steven R; Singleton, Grant R; Groot Koerkamp, Peter Wg; Meerburg, Bastiaan G

    2017-12-01

    Current reactive pest management methods have serious drawbacks such as the heavy reliance on chemicals, emerging genetic rodenticide resistance and high secondary exposure risks. Rodent control needs to be based on pest species ecology and ethology to facilitate the development of ecologically based rodent management (EBRM). An important aspect of EBRM is a strong understanding of rodent pest species ecology, behaviour and spatiotemporal factors. Gaining insight into the behaviour of pest species is a key aspect of EBRM. The landscape of fear (LOF) is a mapping of the spatial variation in the foraging cost arising from the risk of predation, and reflects the levels of fear a prey species perceives at different locations within its home range. In practice, the LOF maps habitat use as a result of perceived fear, which shows where bait or traps are most likely to be encountered and used by rodents. Several studies have linked perceived predation risk of foraging animals with quitting-harvest rates or giving-up densities (GUDs). GUDs have been used to reflect foraging behaviour strategies of predator avoidance, but to our knowledge very few papers have directly used GUDs in relation to pest management strategies. An opportunity for rodent control strategies lies in the integration of the LOF of rodents in EBRM methodologies. Rodent management could be more efficient and effective by concentrating on those areas where rodents perceive the least levels of predation risk. © 2017 The Authors. Pest Management Science published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 The Authors. Pest Management Science published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Prospect of indegenous plant extracts in tea pest management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S.A. Mamun

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Tea is a popular beverage made from the leaves of evergreen shrub or tree Camellia sinensis, under the family Theaceae. Tea plant is subjected to the attack of insects, mites, nematodes and some plant pathogenic diseases. Tea production is greatly hindered due to thesemaladies. About 10-15% crop loss occurred by these pests per annum. In severe cases, it would be 100%. To combat these problems different groups of pesticides have been used in the tea fields since 1960. As tea is a consumable commodity, the effect of residue of pesticides in made tea is harmful to human health. In this context, biopesticides are being considered as environmentally safe, selective, biodegradable, economical and renewable alternatives for use in IPM programmes. Biopesticides are natural plant products and may be grown by the planters with minimum cost and extracted by indigenous methods.Biopesticides are secondary metabolites, which include alkaloids, terpenoids, phenolics, and minor secondary chemicals. It is estimated that as many as 2121 plant species have been reported to posses’ pest control properties. Botanicals like neem, ghora-neem, mahogoni,karanja, adathoda, sweet flag, tobacco, derris, annona, smart weed, bar weed, datura, calotropis, bidens, lantana, chrysanthemum, artemisia, marigold, clerodendrum, wild sunflower and many others may be grown by planters with minimum expense and extracted by indigenous methods. These botanical materials can be used as an alternative to chemical pesticides. These botanical extracts will help in controlling major pests of tea such as Helopeltis, red spider mite, aphids, thrips, jassid, flushworm, termites, nematodes etc. Thepresent note reviews the information of most widely available indigenous plants that may be used for the control of insect pests of tea as a component of IPM.

  12. Approaches and incentives to implement integrated pest management that addresses regional and environmental issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Michael J; Goodell, Peter B

    2012-01-01

    Agricultural, environmental, and social and policy interests have influenced integrated pest management (IPM) from its inception. The first 50 years of IPM paid special attention to field-based management and market-driven decision making. Concurrently, IPM strategies became available that were best applied both within and beyond the bounds of individual fields and that also provided environmental benefits. This generated an incentives dilemma for farmers: selecting IPM activities for individual fields on the basis of market-based economics versus selecting IPM activities best applied regionally that have longer-term benefits, including environmental benefits, that accrue to the broader community as well as the farmer. Over the past several decades, public-supported incentives, such as financial incentives available to farmers from conservation programs for farms, have begun to be employed to encourage use of conservation techniques, including strategies with IPM relevance. Combining private investments with public support may effectively address the incentives dilemma when advanced IPM strategies are used regionally and provide public goods such as those benefiting resource conservation. This review focuses on adaptation of IPM to these broader issues, on transitions of IPM from primarily individual field-based decision making to coordinated community decision making, and on the form of partnerships needed to gain long-lasting regional and environmental benefits. Copyright © 2012 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.

  13. Sterile insect technique. Principles and practice in area-wide integrated pest management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyck, V.A.; Hendrichs, J.; Robinson, A.S.

    2005-01-01

    For several major insect pests, the environment-friendly sterile insect technique (SIT) is being applied as a component of area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) programmes. This technology, using radiation to sterilize insects, was first developed in the USA, and is currently applied on six continents. For four decades it has been a major subject for research and development in the Joint FAO/IAEA Programme on Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, involving both research and the transfer of this technology to Member States so that they can benefit from improved plant, animal and human health, cleaner environments, increased production of plants and animals in agricultural systems, and accelerated economic development. The socio-economic impacts of AW-IPM programmes that integrate the SIT have confirmed the usefulness of this technology. Numerous publications related to the integration of the SIT in pest management programmes, arising from research, coordinated research projects, field projects, symposia, meetings, and training activities have already provided much information to researchers, pest-control practitioners, programme managers, plant protection and animal health officers, and policy makers. However, by bringing together and presenting in a generic fashion the principles, practice, and global application of the SIT, this book will be a major reference source for all current and future users of the technology. The book will also serve as a textbook for academic courses on integrated pest management. Fifty subject experts from 19 countries contributed to the chapters, which were all peer reviewed before final editing

  14. Pheromone-Based Pest Management in China: Past, Present, and Future Prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Gen Zhong; Zhu, Junwei Jerry

    2016-07-01

    Semiochemical-based pest management technology has been widely used to monitor and control insect pests in agricultural, forestry, and public health sectors in the western world. It became a popular tool in the early 1970s with tremendous efforts in developing environment-friendly control technologies for the integrated pest management. However, in China, similar research lagged 15 to 20 years and was not initiated until the late 1980s. In this review, we present the early history of pheromone research that has led to the current practical applications in China, particularly in the development of pheromone-based pest management products. We also provide information regarding the current status of pheromone-based product manufacturing, marketing, and regulatory issues related to local semiochemical industries, which may be useful to other international companies interested in pursuing business in China. In addition, we share some research topics that represent new directions of the present pheromone research to explore novel tools for advancing semiochemical-based pest management in China.

  15. The development, regulation and use of biopesticides for integrated pest management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, David; Bailey, Alastair S.; Tatchell, G. Mark; Davidson, Gill; Greaves, Justin; Grant, Wyn P.

    2011-01-01

    Over the past 50 years, crop protection has relied heavily on synthetic chemical pesticides, but their availability is now declining as a result of new legislation and the evolution of resistance in pest populations. Therefore, alternative pest management tactics are needed. Biopesticides are pest management agents based on living micro-organisms or natural products. They have proven potential for pest management and they are being used across the world. However, they are regulated by systems designed originally for chemical pesticides that have created market entry barriers by imposing burdensome costs on the biopesticide industry. There are also significant technical barriers to making biopesticides more effective. In the European Union, a greater emphasis on Integrated Pest Management (IPM) as part of agricultural policy may lead to innovations in the way that biopesticides are regulated. There are also new opportunities for developing biopesticides in IPM by combining ecological science with post-genomics technologies. The new biopesticide products that will result from this research will bring with them new regulatory and economic challenges that must be addressed through joint working between social and natural scientists, policy makers and industry. PMID:21624919

  16. Pest management in Douglas-fir seed orchards: a microcomputer decision method

    Science.gov (United States)

    James B. Hoy; Michael I. Haverty

    1988-01-01

    The computer program described provides a Douglas-fir seed orchard manager (user) with a quantitative method for making insect pest management decisions on a desk-top computer. The decision system uses site-specific information such as estimates of seed crop size, insect attack rates, insecticide efficacy and application costs, weather, and crop value. At sites where...

  17. Concepts of sustainability, motivations for pest management approaches, and implications for communicating change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effective communication with farmers is an essential component of impacting their decision processes and encouraging changes in pest management practices, but requires a system of research and extension management that differs from that to which most biological scientists are accustomed. We present...

  18. Genetic methods for area-wide management of Lepidopterous pests with emphasis on F1 sterility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ocampo, V.R.

    1996-01-01

    Enormous losses in the production and marketing of food and fiber are caused by larvae of Lepidoptera. Currently, large quantities of insecticides are used to combat these pests. Insecticide resistance, increasing concern over pesticide pollution, and the desire to effectively manage lepidopteran pests on an area-wide basis have motivated scientists to identify and develop new pest management tactics that are compatible with current IPM. Genetic methods have emerged as a promising control strategy for lepidopteran pests. Genetic control as a practical means of pest management was first successfully implemented by Knipling and colleagues in the USA during the 1960's with the sterile insect technique (SIT) program for the screwworm fly. SIT is not a readily adapted for use against Lepidoptera as against Diptera. Radiation-induced inherited sterility (or F 1 sterility) is generally considered the most promising genetic methods for large-scale suppression of lepidopteran populations. This papers discusses four genetic control methods that have been developed and the progress that has been made in integrating sterility with other IPM tactics. (author)

  19. Pest control and resistance management through release of insects carrying a male-selecting transgene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey-Samuel, Tim; Morrison, Neil I; Walker, Adam S; Marubbi, Thea; Yao, Ju; Collins, Hilda L; Gorman, Kevin; Davies, T G Emyr; Alphey, Nina; Warner, Simon; Shelton, Anthony M; Alphey, Luke

    2015-07-16

    Development and evaluation of new insect pest management tools is critical for overcoming over-reliance upon, and growing resistance to, synthetic, biological and plant-expressed insecticides. For transgenic crops expressing insecticidal proteins from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis ('Bt crops') emergence of resistance is slowed by maintaining a proportion of the crop as non-Bt varieties, which produce pest insects unselected for resistance. While this strategy has been largely successful, multiple cases of Bt resistance have now been reported. One new approach to pest management is the use of genetically engineered insects to suppress populations of their own species. Models suggest that released insects carrying male-selecting (MS) transgenes would be effective agents of direct, species-specific pest management by preventing survival of female progeny, and simultaneously provide an alternative insecticide resistance management strategy by introgression of susceptibility alleles into target populations. We developed a MS strain of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, a serious global pest of crucifers. MS-strain larvae are reared as normal with dietary tetracycline, but, when reared without tetracycline or on host plants, only males will survive to adulthood. We used this strain in glasshouse-cages to study the effect of MS male P. xylostella releases on target pest population size and spread of Bt resistance in these populations. Introductions of MS-engineered P. xylostella males into wild-type populations led to rapid pest population decline, and then elimination. In separate experiments on broccoli plants, relatively low-level releases of MS males in combination with broccoli expressing Cry1Ac (Bt broccoli) suppressed population growth and delayed the spread of Bt resistance. Higher rates of MS male releases in the absence of Bt broccoli were also able to suppress P. xylostella populations, whereas either low-level MS male releases or Bt broccoli

  20. How labour organization may affect technology adoption: an analytical framework analysing the case of integrated pest management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beckmann, V.; Wesseler, J.H.H.

    2003-01-01

    Integrated Pest Management (IPM) is an important component of sustainable agriculture. Farmers who switch from a more capital-intensive pesticide-based pest management strategy to IPM have to substitute capital with labour. The adoption of IPM will therefore depend, among other things, on the

  1. Managing legume pests in sub-Saharan Africa: Challenges and prospects for improving food security and nutrition through agro-ecological intensification

    OpenAIRE

    Belmain, S.R.; Haggar, J.; Holt, J.; Stevenson, P.C.

    2013-01-01

    Pest management technology has been through a number of advances that have, perhaps, moved away from the mass extermination of pests achieved through the advent of synthetic chemicals in the latter half of the 20th century to more agro-ecologically sensitive innovations that attempt to regulate pest populations by interfering with their breeding, attracting predators or repelling the pests from crops whilst attracting them to other plants. However, pest management is more than technology inno...

  2. The role of bacillus-based biological control agents in integrated pest management systems: plant diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, B J; Zidack, N K; Larson, B J

    2004-11-01

    ABSTRACT Bacillus-based biological control agents (BCAs) have great potential in integrated pest management (IPM) systems; however, relatively little work has been published on integration with other IPM management tools. Unfortunately, most research has focused on BCAs as alternatives to synthetic chemical fungicides or bactericides and not as part of an integrated management system. IPM has had many definitions and this review will use the national coalition for IPM definition: "A sustainable approach to managing pests by combining biological, cultural, physical and chemical tools in a way that minimizes economic, health and environmental risks." This review will examine the integrated use of Bacillus-based BCAs with disease management tools, including resistant cultivars, fungicides or bactericides, or other BCAs. This integration is important because the consistency and degree of disease control by Bacillus-based BCAs is rarely equal to the control afforded by the best fungicides or bactericides. In theory, integration of several tools brings stability to disease management programs. Integration of BCAs with other disease management tools often provides broader crop adaptation and both more efficacious and consistent levels of disease control. This review will also discuss the use of Bacillus-based BCAs in fungicide resistance management. Work with Bacillus thuringiensis and insect pest management is the exception to the relative paucity of reports but will not be the focus of this review.

  3. Safer Schools: Achieving a Healthy Learning Environment through Integrated Pest Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003

    Integrated pest management (IPM) is a program of prevention, monitoring, and control that offers the opportunity to eliminate or drastically reduce hazardous pesticide use. IPM is intended to establish a program that uses cultural, mechanical, biological, and other non-toxic practices, and only introduces least-hazardous chemicals as a last…

  4. Building Blocks for School IPM: A Least-Toxic Pest Management Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouse, Becky, Ed.; Owens, Kagan, Ed.

    This publication is a compilation of original and republished materials from numerous individuals and organizations working on pesticide reform and integrated pest management (IPM)--using alternatives to prevailing chemical-intensive practices. The manual provides comprehensive information on implementing school IPM, including a practical guide to…

  5. RNA interference: Applications and advances in insect toxicology and insect pest management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Ho; Soumaila Issa, Moustapha; Cooper, Anastasia M W; Zhu, Kun Yan

    2015-05-01

    Since its discovery, RNA interference (RNAi) has revolutionized functional genomic studies due to its sequence-specific nature of post-transcriptional gene silencing. In this paper, we provide a comprehensive review of the recent literature and summarize the current knowledge and advances in the applications of RNAi technologies in the field of insect toxicology and insect pest management. Many recent studies have focused on identification and validation of the genes encoding insecticide target proteins, such as acetylcholinesterases, ion channels, Bacillus thuringiensis receptors, and other receptors in the nervous system. RNAi technologies have also been widely applied to reveal the role of genes encoding cytochrome P450 monooxygenases, carboxylesterases, and glutathione S-transferases in insecticide detoxification and resistance. More recently, studies have focused on understanding the mechanism of insecticide-mediated up-regulation of detoxification genes in insects. As RNAi has already shown great potentials for insect pest management, many recent studies have also focused on host-induced gene silencing, in which several RNAi-based transgenic plants have been developed and tested as proof of concept for insect pest management. These studies indicate that RNAi is a valuable tool to address various fundamental questions in insect toxicology and may soon become an effective strategy for insect pest management. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Low Energy Technology. A Unit of Instruction in Florida Agriculture. Crop Protection with Integrated Pest Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florida Univ., Gainesville. Inst. of Food and Agricultural Sciences.

    This unit of instruction on integrated pest management was designed for use by agribusiness and natural resources teachers in Florida high schools and by agricultural extension agents as they work with adults and students. It is one of a series of 11 instructional units (see note) written to help teachers and agents to educate their students and…

  7. Moving On: Farmer Education in Integrated Insect Pest and Disease Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jiggins, J.L.S.; Mancini, F.

    2009-01-01

    This chapter explores intensive hands-on occupational education for farmers in selected European, African, Latin American countries and in south India. An Indian case study of Farmer Field Schools for Integrated Pest and Production Management (IPPM) to ensure food security and livelihood improvement

  8. Fitness trade-offs in pest management and intercropping with colour: an evolutionary framework and potential application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farkas, Timothy E

    2015-10-01

    An important modern goal of plant science research is to develop tools for agriculturalists effective at curbing yield losses to insect herbivores, but resistance evolution continuously threatens the efficacy of pest management strategies. The high-dose/refuge strategy has been employed with some success to curb pest adaptation, and has been shown to be most effective when fitness costs (fitness trade-offs) of resistance are high. Here, I use eco-evolutionary reasoning to demonstrate the general importance of fitness trade-offs for pest control, showing that strong fitness trade-offs mitigate the threat of pest adaptation, even if adaptation were to occur. I argue that novel pest management strategies evoking strong fitness trade-offs are the most likely to persist in the face of unbridled pest adaptation, and offer the manipulation of crop colours as a worked example of one potentially effective strategy against insect herbivores.

  9. Reducing the risk of invasive forest pests and pathogens: Combining legislation, targeted management and public awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klapwijk, Maartje J; Hopkins, Anna J M; Eriksson, Louise; Pettersson, Maria; Schroeder, Martin; Lindelöw, Åke; Rönnberg, Jonas; Keskitalo, E Carina H; Kenis, Marc

    2016-02-01

    Intensifying global trade will result in increased numbers of plant pest and pathogen species inadvertently being transported along with cargo. This paper examines current mechanisms for prevention and management of potential introductions of forest insect pests and pathogens in the European Union (EU). Current European legislation has not been found sufficient in preventing invasion, establishment and spread of pest and pathogen species within the EU. Costs associated with future invasions are difficult to estimate but past invasions have led to negative economic impacts in the invaded country. The challenge is combining free trade and free movement of products (within the EU) with protection against invasive pests and pathogens. Public awareness may mobilise the public for prevention and detection of potential invasions and, simultaneously, increase support for eradication and control measures. We recommend focus on commodities in addition to pathways, an approach within the EU using a centralised response unit and, critically, to engage the general public in the battle against establishment and spread of these harmful pests and pathogens.

  10. Strategic options in using sterile insects for area-wide integrated pest management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendrichs, J.; Vreysen, M.J.B.; Enkerlin, W.R.; Cayol, J.P.

    2005-01-01

    The four strategic options, 'suppression', 'eradication', 'containment' and 'prevention', in which the sterile insect technique (SIT) can be deployed as part of area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) interventions, are defined and described in relation to the contexts in which they are applied against exotic or naturally occurring major insect pests. Advantages and disadvantages of these strategic options are analysed, and examples of successful programmes provided. Considerations of pest status, biology and distribution affecting decision-making in relation to strategy selection are reviewed and discussed in terms of feasibility assessment, and programme planning and implementation. Unrealistic expectations are often associated with applying the SIT, resulting in high political costs to change a strategy during implementation. The choice of strategy needs to be assessed carefully, and considerable baseline data obtained to prepare for the selected strategy, before embarking on an AW-IPM programme with an SIT component. (author)

  11. Integrated pest management and weed management in the United States and Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Micheal D K; Beckie, Hugh J; Leeson, Julia Y; Norsworthy, Jason K; Steckel, Larry E

    2015-03-01

    There is interest in more diverse weed management tactics because of evolved herbicide resistance in important weeds in many US and Canadian crop systems. While herbicide resistance in weeds is not new, the issue has become critical because of the adoption of simple, convenient and inexpensive crop systems based on genetically engineered glyphosate-tolerant crop cultivars. Importantly, genetic engineering has not been a factor in rice and wheat, two globally important food crops. There are many tactics that help to mitigate herbicide resistance in weeds and should be widely adopted. Evolved herbicide resistance in key weeds has influenced a limited number of growers to include a more diverse suite of tactics to supplement existing herbicidal tactics. Most growers still emphasize herbicides, often to the exclusion of alternative tactics. Application of integrated pest management for weeds is better characterized as integrated weed management, and more typically integrated herbicide management. However, adoption of diverse weed management tactics is limited. Modifying herbicide use will not solve herbicide resistance in weeds, and the relief provided by different herbicide use practices is generally short-lived at best. More diversity of tactics for weed management must be incorporated in crop systems. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. The sterile insect technique in the integrated pest management of whitefly species in greenhouses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calvitti, M.; Remotti, P.C.; Cirio, U.

    2000-01-01

    Insect pests commonly known as whiteflies are Hemiptera belonging to the family of Aleyrodidae Trialeurodes vaporariorum Westwood (greenhouse whitefly) and the B-biotype of Bemisia tabaci Gennadius (=Bemisia argentifolii Bellows and Perring) are pests whose economic importance is constantly increasing within the European agriculture. The B-biotype of B. tabaci, in particular, has become more problematic by causing damage over a wide range, from the temperate climates of Californian squash fields to European greenhouses and field crops. In the absence of valid alternatives, many growers have resorted to intensive application of insecticides to control these pests, creating a severe environmental and health hazard. Several new environmentally safe technologies are currently available and have opened up new opportunities in the integrated pest management (IPM) of whiteflies under greenhouse conditions. In particular, biological or biologically-based control means, including a number of fungi, insects, and compounds have been recently developed. However, the limitation of whitefly population outbreaks in greenhouses is a problem that needs to be solved. The idea to extend the use of sterile insect technique (SIT) to a confined environment against whitefly species is novel, and especially when we consider that the target species undergo arrhenotoky (unfertilised females generate only male progenies). The possibility to join this approach to the Integrated Pest Management (IPM) of the whitefly species in the greenhouse may open new perspectives in the safe application of nuclear technology for pest control. The present work reviews recent advances in research and practice related to the development of SIT for the control of whiteflies in greenhouses. Explanations on whitefly radiation biology, with data on Bemisia spp. radio-sterilisation, methods for whitefly mass rearing and collection, and the definition of a complete SIT procedure tested against the greenhouse

  13. Application of radiation and radioisotopes for the management of insect pests of economic importance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dongre, T.K.

    2001-01-01

    This article gives brief account of radiation and radioisotope applications in the field of insect pest management. Radiation has a direct application in controlling insect pests, through sterile insect techniques (SIT) and radiation disinfestations of food grains, whereas radioisotopes can be used in basic as well as applied studies in the field of insect physiology, ecology and metabolism. The successful implementation of SIT against New world screwworm fly and different fruit fly species has clearly demonstrated the usefulness of radiation in agriculture. Over the past 35 years, the joint FAO/IAEA committee has played a critical role in supporting member states in the development and application of SIT for the management of various economically important insect pests. BARC has developed SIT for the management of red palm weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Oliv, the most serious pest of coconut in India and date palms in Arabian countries. Now, through thematic BRNS project this technique is being evaluated under field conditions in collaboration with three Indian agricultural universities. Present status and future prospects of sterile insect technique for the area wide control of different insect species will be discussed in detail. (author)

  14. Intercropping for Management of Insect Pests of Castor, Ricinus communis, in the Semi—Arid Tropics of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasa Rao, M.; Venkateswarlu, B.

    2012-01-01

    Intercropping is one of the important cultural practices in pest management and is based on the principle of reducing insect pests by increasing the diversity of an ecosystem. On—farm experiments were conducted in villages of semi—arid tropical (SAT) India to identify the appropriate combination of castor (Ricinus communis L.) (Malpighiales: Euphorbiaceae) and intercropping in relation to pest incidence. The diversity created by introducing cluster bean, cowpea, black gram, or groundnut as intercrops in castor (1:2 ratio proportions) resulted in reduction of incidence of insect pests, namely semilooper (Achaea janata L.), leaf hopper (Empoasca flavescens Fabricius), and shoot and capsule borer (Conogethes punctiferalis Guenee). A buildup of natural enemies (Microplitis, coccinellids, and spiders) of the major pests of castor was also observed in these intercropping systems and resulted in the reduction of insect pests. Further, these systems were more efficient agronomically and economically, and were thus more profitable than a castor monocrop. PMID:22934569

  15. "Protected biological control"- Biological pest management in the greenhouse industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pilkington, L.J.; Messelink, G.J.; Lenteren, van J.C.; Mottee, Le K.

    2010-01-01

    This paper briefly describes the foundations and characteristics of biological control in protected cropping and what drivers are behind adoption of this management system within this industry. Examining a brief history of biological control in greenhouses and what makes it a successful management

  16. Integrating Soil Silicon Amendment into Management Programs for Insect Pests of Drill-Seeded Rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villegas, James M; Way, Michael O; Pearson, Rebecca A; Stout, Michael J

    2017-08-13

    Silicon soil amendment has been shown to enhance plant defenses against insect pests. Rice is a silicon-accumulating graminaceous plant. In the southern United States, the rice water weevil and stem borers are important pests of rice. Current management tactics for these pests rely heavily on the use of insecticides. This study evaluated the effects of silicon amendment when combined with current management tactics for these rice insect pests in the field. Field experiments were conducted from 2013 to 2015. Rice was drill-planted in plots subjected to factorial combinations of variety (conventional and hybrid), chlorantraniliprole seed treatment (treated and untreated), and silicon amendment (treated and untreated). Silicon amendment reduced densities of weevil larvae on a single sampling date in 2014, but did not affect densities of whiteheads caused by stem borers. In contrast, insecticidal seed treatment strongly reduced densities of both weevil larvae and whiteheads. Higher densities of weevil larvae were also observed in the hybrid variety in 2014, while higher incidences of whiteheads were observed in the conventional variety in 2014 and 2015. Silicon amendment improved rice yields, as did chlorantraniliprole seed treatment and use of the hybrid variety.

  17. Insecticides -a cure or curse and rational use of integrated pest management in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irshad, M.

    2005-01-01

    Chemical based control in crops has increased the pest problem, disturbed the agro ecosystem and has killed the non-target and environmentally friendly organisms and misuse of insecticides has led to resistance to insecticides, resurgence of secondary pests, polluting soil, water and food with contaminates. In addition to this, irrigation and drinking water, cottonseed oil, lint and cattle feed and animal milk are also contaminated having deleterious effects on human life. To reduce chemical control, Integrated Pest Management (IPM) emerged. Its emphasis is on non-disturbance of ecosystem but to manage the insect pest populations with all the available means on economic basis. IPM approach is knowledge based with in-depth information. In spite of IPM studies and work unfortunately reliance on pesticides has not been reduced in Pakistan. Conservation/augmentation, releases of new biotic agents may disturb the ecosystem. The stress on IPM is made in the developed countries primarily due to human health factor. These societies even risk the reduction in yield in the IPM fields. Successful stories of IPM in Pakistan has not been cashed to due merits. The bottlenecks must be removed so that better results can be obtained. The main reason seems to be lack of in depth involvement of the growers in this activity. (author)

  18. Duality in Phase Space and Complex Dynamics of an Integrated Pest Management Network Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Baoyin; Tang, Sanyi; Cheke, Robert A.

    Fragmented habitat patches between which plants and animals can disperse can be modeled as networks with varying degrees of connectivity. A predator-prey model with network structures is proposed for integrated pest management (IPM) with impulsive control actions. The model was analyzed using numerical methods to investigate how factors such as the impulsive period, the releasing constant of natural enemies and the mode of connections between the patches affect pest outbreak patterns and the success or failure of pest control. The concept of the cluster as defined by Holland and Hastings is used to describe variations in results ranging from global synchrony when all patches have identical fluctuations to n-cluster solutions with all patches having different dynamics. Heterogeneity in the initial densities of either pest or natural enemy generally resulted in a variety of cluster oscillations. Surprisingly, if n > 1, the clusters fall into two groups one with low amplitude fluctuations and the other with high amplitude fluctuations (i.e. duality in phase space), implying that control actions radically alter the system's characteristics by inducing duality and more complex dynamics. When the impulsive period is small enough, i.e. the control strategy is undertaken frequently, the pest can be eradicated. As the period increases, the pest's dynamics shift from a steady state to become chaotic with periodic windows and more multicluster oscillations arise for heterogenous initial density distributions. Period-doubling bifurcation and periodic halving cascades occur as the releasing constant of the natural enemy increases. For the same ecological system with five differently connected networks, as the randomness of the connectedness increases, the transient duration becomes smaller and the probability of multicluster oscillations appearing becomes higher.

  19. The case and opportunity for public-supported financial incentives to implement integrated pest management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Michael J; Hoard, Robert J; Landis, Joy N; Elworth, Lawrence E

    2004-12-01

    Food, water, and worker protection regulations have driven availability, and loss, of pesticides for use in pest management programs. In response, public-supported research and extension projects have targeted investigation and demonstration of reduced-risk integrated pest management (IPM) techniques. But these new techniques often result in higher financial burden to the grower, which is counter to the IPM principle that economic competitiveness is critical to have IPM adopted. As authorized by the 2002 Farm Bill and administered by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS), conservation programs exist for delivering public-supported financial incentives to growers to increase environmental stewardship on lands in production. NRCS conservation programs are described, and the case for providing financial incentives to growers for implementing IPM is presented. We also explored the opportunity and challenge to use one key program, the Environmental Quality Incentives Program (EQIP), to aid grower adoption of IPM. The EQIP fund distribution to growers from 1997 to 2002 during the last Farm Bill cycle totaled approximately 1.05 billion dollars with a portion of funds supporting an NRCS-designed pest management practice. The average percentage of allocation of EQIP funds to this pest management practice among states was 0.77 +/- 0.009% (mean +/- SD). Using Michigan as an example, vegetable and fruit grower recognition of the program's use to implement IPM was modest (25% of growers surveyed), and their recognition of its use in aiding implementation of IPM was improved after educational efforts (74%). Proposals designed to enhance program usefulness in implementing IPM were delivered through the NRCS advisory process in Michigan. Modifications for using the NRCS pest management practice to address resource concerns were adopted, incentive rates for pest management were adjusted, and an expanded incentive structure for IPM

  20. Development of a model forecasting Dermanyssus gallinae's population dynamics for advancing Integrated Pest Management in laying hen facilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mul, Monique F.; Riel, van Johannes; Roy, Lise; Zoons, Johan; Andre, Geert; George, David R.; Meerburg, Bastiaan G.; Dicke, Marcel; Mourik, van Simon; Groot Koerkamp, Peter W.G.

    2017-01-01

    The poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae, is the most significant pest of egg laying hens in many parts of the world. Control of D. gallinae could be greatly improved with advanced Integrated Pest Management (IPM) for D. gallinae in laying hen facilities. The development of a model forecasting

  1. Safe Cockroach Control: A Guide to Setting Up an Integrated Pest Management Program within a School System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowles, Kathleen Letcher; And Others

    Integrated Pest Management (IPM) is a decision-making approach to pest control that has been used successfully on farms, city parks, offices, homes, and schools. IPM programs help individuals decide when treatments are necessary, where treatment would be most helpful, and what combinations of tactics would be most effective, safe, and inexpensive…

  2. Cassava pest and disease management: An overview | Herren ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Crop Science Journal ... Host-plant resistance and biological control are the cornerstones of crop protection measures against biotic ... Sustainable plant health management (PHM) that considers the crop plant as a component of an ...

  3. Developing a neem-based pest management product: laboratory evaluations of neem extracts on insect pests resistance to synthetic pesticides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, I.; Permana, A.D.; Rahadian, R.; Wibowo, S.A

    1998-12-16

    Laboratory studies has been conducted as a part of a project aimed at the development of a neem-based insecticide for pest management purposes. Permethrin, a pyrethroid insecticide, and neem (Azadirachta indica) products were tested against larvae of Diamondback Moth Plutella xylostella, and Helicoverpa armigera collected from several locations in West Java, Indonesia. The results of bioassay showed that the average LC{sub 50} values of permethrin for Plutella xylostella had been 60-100 fold higher as compared with the normal dosage recommended. Similarly, the LC{sub 50} values obtained for Helicoverpa armigera had been 46-73 fold as compared with the recommended dosage. These facts suggest that both insects have developed resistance to permethrin. The results of bioassay with neem-products tested against Plutella xylostella and Helicoverpa armigera larvae showed that statistically LC{sub 50} values of neem-products for each strain of either Plutella xylostella or Helicoverpa armigera were not significantly different one to another. We also found that neem-treated insects, even though they were not killed directly by the insecticide, were not able to molt to the next instar or pupae, so that very low percentage of adults emerged. The susceptibility of neem-products could not be easily determined by only measuring the LC{sub 50} values from the larval stage, but the disruption of the growth and development of the insect should be considered as well. Our findings suggest that neem-products could be used effectively to control insects which have developed resistance to conventional insecticide. (author)

  4. The Integrated Management Of An Emerging Insect Pest Of Cashew ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sudden death of mature cashew trees at the Cocoa Research Institute of Nigeria (CRIN), Ibadan, southwestern Nigeria, a tropical humid ecology, necessitated an urgent study to unravel the cause and evolve an integrated management strategy for the control of the problem. Morphometric examination of the adult insect ...

  5. Bridging Disciplines, Knowledge Systems and Cultures in Pest Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Will; Ogilvie, Shaun; Blackie, Helen; Smith, Des; Sam, Shona; Doherty, James; McKenzie, Don; Ataria, James; Shapiro, Lee; MacKay, Jamie; Murphy, Elaine; Jacobson, Chris; Eason, Charles

    2014-02-01

    The success of research in integrated environmental and natural resource management relies on the participation and involvement of different disciplines and stakeholders. This can be difficult to achieve in practice because many initiatives fail to address the underlying social processes required for successful engagement and social learning. We used an action research approach to support a research-based group with a range of disciplinary and stakeholder expertise to critically reflect on their engagement practice and identify lessons around how to collaborate more effectively. This approach is provided here as a guide that can be used to support reflective research practice for engagement in other integration-based initiatives. This paper is set in the context of an integrated wildlife management research case study in New Zealand. We illustrate how multi-, inter- and trans-disciplinary approaches can provide a framework for considering the different conversations that need to occur in an integrated research program. We then outline rubrics that list the criteria required in inter- and trans-disciplinary collaborations, along with examples of effective engagement processes that directly support integration through such efforts. Finally, we discuss the implications of these experiences for other researchers and managers seeking to improve engagement and collaboration in integrated science, management and policy initiatives. Our experiences reaffirm the need for those involved in integrative initiatives to attend to the processes of engagement in both formal and informal settings, to provide opportunities for critical reflective practice, and to look for measures of success that acknowledge the importance of effective social process.

  6. Effect of Integrated Pest Management Training on Ugandan Small-Scale Farmers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Anna Sabine; Jørs, Erik; Atuhaire, Aggrey

    2017-01-01

    Small-scale farmers in developing countries use hazardous pesticides taking few or no safety measures. Farmer field schools (FFSs) teaching integrated pest management (IPM) have been shown to reduce pesticide use among trained farmers. This cross-sectional study compares pesticide-related knowledge......-reported symptoms. The study supports IPM as a method to reduce pesticide use and potential exposure and to improve pesticide-related KAP among small-scale farmers in developing countries....

  7. The Rhizosphere Bacterial Microbiota of Vitis vinifera cv. Pinot Noir in an Integrated Pest Management Vineyard

    OpenAIRE

    Novello, Giorgia; Gamalero, Elisa; Bona, Elisa; Boatti, Lara; Mignone, Flavio; Massa, Nadia; Cesaro, Patrizia; Lingua, Guido; Berta, Graziella

    2017-01-01

    Microorganisms associated with Vitis vinifera (grapevine) can affect its growth, health and grape quality. The aim of this study was to unravel the biodiversity of the bacterial rhizosphere microbiota of grapevine in an integrated pest management vineyard located in Piedmont, Italy. Comparison between the microbial community structure in the bulk and rhizosphere soil (variable: space) were performed. Moreover, the possible shifts of the bulk and rhizosphere soil microbiota according to two ph...

  8. Farming for pests? Local and landscape-scale effects of grassland management on rabbit densities

    OpenAIRE

    Petrovan , Silviu O.; Barrio , Isabel C.; Ward , Alastair I.; Wheeler , Philip M.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract In recent decades in the UK, there has been an increasing trend in numbers of the European wild rabbit, a significant agricultural pest typically associated with grassland habitats. However, the relationship between rabbit abundance and grassland management, in particular grazing, has not been sufficiently explained. We studied rabbit densities in seven pasture-dominated sites in north-east England between autumn and spring in two consecutive years, and used generalised li...

  9. General Biology and Current Management Approaches of Soft Scale Pests (Hemiptera: Coccidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho, Ernesto Robayo; Chong, Juang-Horng

    We summarize the economic importance, biology, and management of soft scales, focusing on pests of agricultural, horticultural, and silvicultural crops in outdoor production systems and urban landscapes. We also provide summaries on voltinism, crawler emergence timing, and predictive models for crawler emergence to assist in developing soft scale management programs. Phloem-feeding soft scale pests cause direct (e.g., injuries to plant tissues and removal of nutrients) and indirect damage (e.g., reduction in photosynthesis and aesthetic value by honeydew and sooty mold). Variations in life cycle, reproduction, fecundity, and behavior exist among congenerics due to host, environmental, climatic, and geographical variations. Sampling of soft scale pests involves sighting the insects or their damage, and assessing their abundance. Crawlers of most univoltine species emerge in the spring and the summer. Degree-day models and plant phenological indicators help determine the initiation of sampling and treatment against crawlers (the life stage most vulnerable to contact insecticides). The efficacy of cultural management tactics, such as fertilization, pruning, and irrigation, in reducing soft scale abundance is poorly documented. A large number of parasitoids and predators attack soft scale populations in the field; therefore, natural enemy conservation by using selective insecticides is important. Systemic insecticides provide greater flexibility in application method and timing, and have longer residual longevity than contact insecticides. Application timing of contact insecticides that coincides with crawler emergence is most effective in reducing soft scale abundance.

  10. Integrated Pest Management of Coffee Berry Borer in Hawaii and Puerto Rico: Current Status and Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis F. Aristizábal

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The coffee berry borer (CBB, Hypothenemus hampei, is the most significant insect pest of coffee worldwide. Since CBB was detected in Puerto Rico in 2007 and Hawaii in 2010, coffee growers from these islands are facing increased costs, reduced coffee quality, and increased pest management challenges. Here, we outline the CBB situation, and summarize the findings of growers, researchers, and extension professionals working with CBB in Hawaii. Recommendations for the Integrated Pest Management (IPM program for CBB in Hawaiian Islands and Puerto Rico include: (1 establish a CBB monitoring program, (2 synchronize applications of insecticides with peak flight activity of CBB especially during the early coffee season, (3 conduct efficient strip-picking as soon as possible after harvest and perform pre-harvest sanitation picks in CBB hotspots if needed, (4 establish protocols to prevent the escape of CBB from processing areas and when transporting berries during harvest, and (5 stump prune by blocks. Progress achieved includes the introduction of the mycoinsecticide Beauveria bassiana to coffee plantations, the coordination of area-wide CBB surveys, the establishment and augmentation of native beetle predators, and an observed reduction of CBB populations and increased coffee quality where IPM programs were established. However, CBB remains a challenge for coffee growers due to regional variability in CBB pressures, high costs, and labor issues, including a lack of training and awareness of CBB management practices among growers.

  11. Integrated Pest Management of Coffee Berry Borer in Hawaii and Puerto Rico: Current Status and Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aristizábal, Luis F.; Johnson, Melissa; Shriner, Suzanne; Hollingsworth, Robert; Manoukis, Nicholas C.; Myers, Roxana; Bayman, Paul; Arthurs, Steven P.

    2017-01-01

    The coffee berry borer (CBB), Hypothenemus hampei, is the most significant insect pest of coffee worldwide. Since CBB was detected in Puerto Rico in 2007 and Hawaii in 2010, coffee growers from these islands are facing increased costs, reduced coffee quality, and increased pest management challenges. Here, we outline the CBB situation, and summarize the findings of growers, researchers, and extension professionals working with CBB in Hawaii. Recommendations for the Integrated Pest Management (IPM) program for CBB in Hawaiian Islands and Puerto Rico include: (1) establish a CBB monitoring program, (2) synchronize applications of insecticides with peak flight activity of CBB especially during the early coffee season, (3) conduct efficient strip-picking as soon as possible after harvest and perform pre-harvest sanitation picks in CBB hotspots if needed, (4) establish protocols to prevent the escape of CBB from processing areas and when transporting berries during harvest, and (5) stump prune by blocks. Progress achieved includes the introduction of the mycoinsecticide Beauveria bassiana to coffee plantations, the coordination of area-wide CBB surveys, the establishment and augmentation of native beetle predators, and an observed reduction of CBB populations and increased coffee quality where IPM programs were established. However, CBB remains a challenge for coffee growers due to regional variability in CBB pressures, high costs, and labor issues, including a lack of training and awareness of CBB management practices among growers. PMID:29135952

  12. Area-wide integrated pest management of fruit flies in the Asia-Pacific region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allwood, Allan; Vueti, Ema Tora

    2003-01-01

    Fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) are recognised as one of the most important pests of fruits and vegetables. The importance of an Integrated Pest Management approach to fruit fly suppression or eradication has been emphasized over the past 30 years. Integrated Pest Management has, in some instance, a narrow focus on the crop or the orchard or farm, but not adopting an area-wide approach, where much of the activity may be outside the crop or production unit. All of the techniques used to manage fruit flies at the on-farm level may be used on an area-wide basis, preferably in combination to maximise the impact of each technique. There are some techniques, which are better suited to the area-wide approach, but can be used on-farm as well. Techniques include physical control (e.g., bagging), cultural control (e.g., production when fly numbers are low, resistant varieties, crop hygiene, early harvesting, growing refuge crops), biological control, behavioral control (e.g., protein bait spray application technique and male annihilation technique), sterile insect technique, and chemical control. In adopting an area-wide approach, very effective collaboration between many stakeholders is essential. (author)

  13. Farmer education and organization in the Hawaii area-wide fruit fly pest management program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mau, Ronald F.L.; Sugano, J.S.; Jang, Eric

    2003-01-01

    A critical component of successful area wide pest management (AWPM) programs are organized, coordinated and comprehensive outreach educational programs. The Hawaii area wide fruit fly pest management (HAW-FLYPM) program's educational program, a part of a USDA AWPM program in Hawaii, utilized the 'logic model' approach to organize, plan, execute and evaluate farmer and community educational programs statewide. The logic model approach was an outcome-driven rather than activity based method that employed a linear sequence that developed relationships between program inputs, outputs and outcomes. This model was utilized extensively to transfer sustainable, science-based technologies to suppress tephritid fruit fly pests. HAW-FLYPM's educational program targeted growers and community door yard growers, three teaching curricula aimed at elementary through high school students, and a statewide awareness program for the pubic at large. Additional key components of the HAW-FLYPM education program was the development of implementation schedules used to track program progress, a comprehensive media matrix developed to ensure educational materials met the needs of target audience groups, and a sustainability calculator to assess the likelihood of program sustainability after the initial five year funding cycle. The model served as a 'blue print' for ensuring program elements were planned, delivered and executed on a timely basis. Utilization of the logic model to organize efforts and manage diverse, multi agency programs such as the HAW-FLYPM program has shown to be a successful method of program advancement and outcome achievement. (author)

  14. Phylogeography of the Wheat Stem Sawfly, Cephus cinctus Norton (Hymenoptera: Cephidae): Implications for Pest Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesieur, Vincent; Martin, Jean-François; Weaver, David K; Hoelmer, Kim A; Smith, David R; Morrill, Wendell L; Kadiri, Nassera; Peairs, Frank B; Cockrell, Darren M; Randolph, Terri L; Waters, Debra K; Bon, Marie-Claude

    2016-01-01

    The wheat stem sawfly, Cephus cinctus Norton (Hymenoptera: Cephidae), is a key pest of wheat in the northern Great Plains of North America, and damage resulting from this species has recently expanded southward. Current pest management practices are inadequate and uncertainty regarding geographic origin, as well as limited data on population structure and dynamics across North America impede progress towards more informed management. We examined the genetic divergence between samples collected in North America and northeastern Asia, the assumed native range of C. cinctus using two mitochondrial regions (COI and 16S). Subsequently, we characterized the structure of genetic diversity in the main wheat producing areas in North America using a combination of mtDNA marker and microsatellites in samples collected both in wheat fields and in grasses in wildlands. The strong genetic divergence observed between North American samples and Asian congeners, in particular the synonimized C. hyalinatus, did not support the hypothesis of a recent American colonization by C. cinctus. Furthermore, the relatively high genetic diversity both with mtDNA and microsatellite markers offered additional evidence in favor of the native American origin of this pest. The genetic diversity of North American populations is structured into three genetic clusters and these are highly correlated with geography. Regarding the recent southern outbreaks in North America, the results tend to exclude the hypothesis of recent movement of damaging wheat stem sawfly populations from the northern area. The shift in host plant use by local populations appears to be the most likely scenario. Finally, the significance of these findings is discussed in the context of pest management.

  15. Effectiveness of corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) areawide pest management in South Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, B Wade; Chandler, Laurence D; Riedell, Walter E

    2007-10-01

    Diabrotica barberi Smith & Lawrence and Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) are serious pests of maize, Zea mays L. To reduce the amount of toxicants released into the environment, the Agricultural Research Service implemented a 5-yr (1997-2001) areawide pest management program in five geographic locations, including one in South Dakota. The objective was to use integrated pest management tactics to suppress adult Diabrotica populations over a broad geographic area by using aerially applied semiochemical-baited insecticides. Suppressed populations theoretically should reduce oviposition, limit larval feeding damage to maize roots, and result in fewer beetles emerging in subsequent years. We used emergence cages, sticky traps, and CRW lure traps to monitor adult D. barberi and D. v. virgifera populations. We sampled for Diabrotica eggs, and we determined damage to maize roots. We sampled in several maize fields (control) located near the areawide site. The baited insecticides were effective in reducing adult populations 1 and 2 wk after application, and most remained low for the duration of the maize growing season. Fewer beetles were captured in both sticky and lure traps in the areawide site than in the control site. With a few exceptions, egg counts, adult emergence, and maize root damage were similar between the areawide and control sites; however, maize roots had greater fresh weight in the control site. Although not all goals were accomplished, when considering the amount of toxicant released into the environment, using semiochemical-baited insecticides to suppress adult pest Diabrotica populations seems to be an effective areawide management tool.

  16. Cry1F resistance among lepidopteran pests: a model for improved resistance management?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vélez, Ana M; Vellichirammal, Neetha Nanoth; Jurat-Fuentes, Juan Luis; Siegfried, Blair D

    2016-06-01

    The Cry1Fa protein from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is known for its potential to control lepidopteran pests, especially through transgenic expression in maize and cotton. The maize event TC1507 expressing the cry1Fa toxin gene became commercially available in the United States in 2003 for the management of key lepidopteran pests including the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis, and the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda. A high-dose/refuge strategy has been widely adopted to delay evolution of resistance to event TC1507 and other transgenic Bt crops. Efficacy of this strategy depends on the crops expressing a high dose of the Bt toxin to targeted pests and adjacent refuges of non-Bt host plants serving as a source of abundant susceptible insects. While this strategy has proved effective in delaying O. nubilalis resistance, field-evolved resistance to event TC1507 has been reported in S. frugiperda populations in Puerto Rico, Brazil, and the southeastern United States. This paper examines available information on resistance to Cry1Fa in O. nubilalis and S. frugiperda and discusses how this information identifies opportunities to refine resistance management recommendations for Bt maize. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Demonstration of an Integrated Pest Management Program for Wheat in Tajikistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landis, Douglas A.; Saidov, Nurali; Jaliov, Anvar; El Bouhssini, Mustapha; Kennelly, Megan; Bahlai, Christie; Landis, Joy N.; Maredia, Karim

    2016-01-01

    Wheat is an important food security crop in central Asia but frequently suffers severe damage and yield losses from insect pests, pathogens, and weeds. With funding from the United States Agency for International Development, a team of scientists from three U.S. land-grant universities in collaboration with the International Center for Agricultural Research in Dry Areas and local institutions implemented an integrated pest management (IPM) demonstration program in three regions of Tajikistan from 2011 to 2014. An IPM package was developed and demonstrated in farmer fields using a combination of crop and pest management techniques including cultural practices, host plant resistance, biological control, and chemical approaches. The results from four years of demonstration/research indicated that the IPM package plots almost universally had lower pest abundance and damage and higher yields and were more profitable than the farmer practice plots. Wheat stripe rust infestation ranged from 30% to over 80% in farmer practice plots, while generally remaining below 10% in the IPM package plots. Overall yield varied among sites and years but was always at least 30% to as much as 69% greater in IPM package plots. More than 1,500 local farmers—40% women—were trained through farmer field schools and field days held at the IPM demonstration sites. In addition, students from local agricultural universities participated in on-site data collection. The IPM information generated by the project was widely disseminated to stakeholders through peer-reviewed scientific publications, bulletins and pamphlets in local languages, and via Tajik national television. PMID:28446990

  18. Ecological and pest-management implications of sex differences in scarab landing patterns on grape vines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Chang, Mauricio; Boyer, Stéphane; Lefort, Marie-Caroline; Nboyine, Jerry; Wratten, Steve D

    2017-01-01

    Melolonthinae beetles, comprising different white grub species, are a globally-distributed pest group. Their larvae feed on roots of several crop and forestry species, and adults can cause severe defoliation. In New Zealand, the endemic scarab pest Costelytra zealandica (White) causes severe defoliation on different horticultural crops, including grape vines ( Vitis vinifera ). Understanding flight and landing behaviours of this pest can help inform pest management decisions. Adult beetles were counted and then removed from 96 grape vine plants from 21:30 until 23:00 h, every day from October 26 until December 2, during 2014 and 2015. Also, adults were removed from the grape vine foliage at dusk 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 min after flight started on 2015. Statistical analyses were performed using generalised linear models with a beta-binomial distribution to analyse proportions and with a negative binomial distribution for beetle abundance. By analysing C. zealandica sex ratios during its entire flight season, it is clear that the proportion of males is higher at the beginning of the season, gradually declining towards its end. When adults were successively removed from the grape vines at 5-min intervals after flight activity begun, the mean proportion of males ranged from 6-28%. The male proportion suggests males were attracted to females that had already landed on grape vines, probably through pheromone release. The seasonal and daily changes in adult C. zealandica sex ratio throughout its flight season are presented for the first time. Although seasonal changes in sex ratio have been reported for other melolonthines, changes during their daily flight activity have not been analysed so far. Sex-ratio changes can have important consequences for the management of this pest species, and possibly for other melolonthines, as it has been previously suggested that C. zealandica females land on plants that produce a silhouette against the sky. Therefore, long-term management

  19. Ecological and pest-management implications of sex differences in scarab landing patterns on grape vines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio González-Chang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Melolonthinae beetles, comprising different white grub species, are a globally-distributed pest group. Their larvae feed on roots of several crop and forestry species, and adults can cause severe defoliation. In New Zealand, the endemic scarab pest Costelytra zealandica (White causes severe defoliation on different horticultural crops, including grape vines (Vitis vinifera. Understanding flight and landing behaviours of this pest can help inform pest management decisions. Methods Adult beetles were counted and then removed from 96 grape vine plants from 21:30 until 23:00 h, every day from October 26 until December 2, during 2014 and 2015. Also, adults were removed from the grape vine foliage at dusk 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 min after flight started on 2015. Statistical analyses were performed using generalised linear models with a beta-binomial distribution to analyse proportions and with a negative binomial distribution for beetle abundance. Results By analysing C. zealandica sex ratios during its entire flight season, it is clear that the proportion of males is higher at the beginning of the season, gradually declining towards its end. When adults were successively removed from the grape vines at 5-min intervals after flight activity begun, the mean proportion of males ranged from 6–28%. The male proportion suggests males were attracted to females that had already landed on grape vines, probably through pheromone release. Discussion The seasonal and daily changes in adult C. zealandica sex ratio throughout its flight season are presented for the first time. Although seasonal changes in sex ratio have been reported for other melolonthines, changes during their daily flight activity have not been analysed so far. Sex-ratio changes can have important consequences for the management of this pest species, and possibly for other melolonthines, as it has been previously suggested that C. zealandica females land on plants that produce a

  20. Monitoring sterile and wild insects in area-wide integrated pest management programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vreysen, M.J.B.

    2005-01-01

    Insect pest control programmes, which integrate the release of sterile insects, can be efficient only if the released insects have an optimal biological quality. Frequent monitoring of the quality of reared insects after being released in the field is an important but often neglected component of area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) programmes that integrate the sterile insect technique (SIT). Parameters of sterile insects, which should be monitored regularly, are sexual competitiveness of the released insects, and related components, e.g. survival, mobility, dispersal characteristics, and spatial occupation of the habitat. A well-balanced monitoring programme will, at any given time, provide essential feedback on the progress being made. This information is prerequisite to efficient implementation of the release and cost-efficient use of sterile insects. The type of monitoring to be done will be determined largely by the particular biology of the target insect species. The most important parameter in relation to the release of sterile insects is the rate of sterility induced in the wild insect pest population; it will provide the best evidence that any observed changes, e.g. in the density of the target insect, are caused by the release of sterile insects. (author)

  1. Public health effects of pesticides used in pest management and precautions for the protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Alparslan Babayigit

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Pesticides, which are widely used not only for weed and pest control efforts in agricultural sector but also preservatives and antifouling for factory products, consumer products such as household disinfectants and food packaging and storage operations, can be detected both from the basic components of the environment and all living tissues. Due to the toxic effects, they can lead to many chronic irreversible diseases such as cancer, defective births, nervous system disorders, endocrine system disorders including diabetes. Not only the risk groups in the community including children, the elderly, pregnant women, and particularly the agricultural sector workers, who have high risk of exposure to pesticides, but also all the individuals in the community must be protected against the harmful effects of pesticides. For this reason, when fighting against the pests, integrated pest management principles, which primarily targets not damaging the humans and community as well as the environment and other organisms, should be based on. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2014; 13(5.000: 405-412

  2. A comparative study of integrated pest management strategies based on impulsive control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Páez Chávez, Joseph; Jungmann, Dirk; Siegmund, Stefan

    2018-12-01

    The paper presents a comprehensive numerical study of mathematical models used to describe complex biological systems in the framework of integrated pest management. Our study considers two specific ecosystems that describe the application of control mechanisms based on pesticides and natural enemies, implemented in an impulsive and periodic manner, due to which the considered models belong to the class of impulsive differential equations. The present work proposes a numerical approach to study such type of models in detail, via the application of path-following (continuation) techniques for nonsmooth dynamical systems, via the novel continuation platform COCO (Dankowicz and Schilder). In this way, a detailed study focusing on the influence of selected system parameters on the effectiveness of the pest control scheme is carried out for both ecological scenarios. Furthermore, a comparative study is presented, with special emphasis on the mechanisms upon which a pest outbreak can occur in the considered ecosystems. Our study reveals that such outbreaks are determined by the presence of a branching point found during the continuation analysis. The numerical investigation concludes with an in-depth study of the state-dependent pesticide mortality considered in one of the ecological scenarios.

  3. Designing and implementing a geographical information system: A guide for managers of area-wide pest management programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-04-01

    Over the past two decades, the use of computer software and mapping methods known as geographical information systems (GIS) has been adopted by an ever growing variety of professionals. Every activity that deals with location dependent information can use GIS, and agriculture is no exception. The potential of GIS and remote sensing (RS) to facilitate the planning and implementation of areawide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) programmes is enormous but unfortunately, these methods are still much underused. AW-IPM programmes, especially those that integrate the sterile insect technique (SIT) with other surveillance and control methods, would benefit considerably by drawing on GIS/RS. These programmes are often implemented over large areas of even tens of thousands of square kilometres, where surveillance methods are deployed and large data sets are systematically generated on a daily basis. The acquisition of geo-referenced data sets on pest presence/absence, relative abundance, disease prevalence, crop damage, etc., that will allow accurate spatial and temporal analysis is important for proper and timely decision making to efficiently plan and implement any operational pest management programme. Animal health and plant protection officials and pest control programme managers might be intuitively aware of the importance of employing GIS as an analytical tool. However, they often lack a deeper understanding of its capabilities. Since GIS is a desk exercise using computers, data analysis is often left to the computer staff without proper directives from the programme managers on programmatic needs. This is unfortunate as it will usually NOT bring the desired GIS-processed information to the decision makers. This manual targets area-wide pest control programme administrators and managers of FAO and IAEA Member States in an attempt to demonstrate the type of data processing and spatial analysis that can be expected of GIS. The manual does not aim to provide

  4. A stage structure pest management model with impulsive state feedback control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Guoping; Chen, Lansun; Xu, Weijian; Fu, Gang

    2015-06-01

    A stage structure pest management model with impulsive state feedback control is investigated. We get the sufficient condition for the existence of the order-1 periodic solution by differential equation geometry theory and successor function. Further, we obtain a new judgement method for the stability of the order-1 periodic solution of the semi-continuous systems by referencing the stability analysis for limit cycles of continuous systems, which is different from the previous method of analog of Poincarè criterion. Finally, we analyze numerically the theoretical results obtained.

  5. Evaluating environmental and economic consequences of alternative pest management strategies: results of modeling workshops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Richard L.; Andrews, Austin K.; Auble, Gregor T.L.; Ellison, Richard A.; Hamilton, David B.; Roelle, James E.; McNamee, Peter J.

    1983-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) needs a comprehensive method to evaluate the human health and environmental effects of alternative agricultural pest management strategies. This project explored the utility of Adaptive Environmental Assessment (AEA) techniques for meeting this need. The project objectives were to produce models for environmental impact analysis, improve communications, identify research needs and data requirements, and demonstrate a process for resolving conflicts. The project was structured around the construction (in an initial 2 1/2-day workshop) and examination (in a second 2 1/2-day workshop) of a simulation model of a corn agroecosystem.

  6. Review of anthraquinone applications for pest management and agricultural crop protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLiberto, Shelagh T; Werner, Scott J

    2016-10-01

    We have reviewed published anthraquinone applications for international pest management and agricultural crop protection from 1943 to 2016. Anthraquinone (AQ) is commonly found in dyes, pigments and many plants and organisms. Avian repellent research with AQ began in the 1940s. In the context of pest management, AQ is currently used as a chemical repellent, perch deterrent, insecticide and feeding deterrent in many wild birds, and in some mammals, insects and fishes. Criteria for evaluation of effective chemical repellents include efficacy, potential for wildlife hazards, phytotoxicity and environmental persistence. As a biopesticide, AQ often meets these criteria of efficacy for the non-lethal management of agricultural depredation caused by wildlife. We summarize published applications of AQ for the protection of newly planted and maturing crops from pest birds. Conventional applications of AQ-based repellents include preplant seed treatments [e.g. corn (Zea mays L.), rice (Oryza sativa L.), sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), wheat (Triticum spp.), millet (Panicum spp.), sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.), pelletized feed and forest tree species] and foliar applications for rice, sunflower, lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), turf, sugar beets (Beta vulgaris L.), soybean (Glycine max L.), sweet corn and nursery, fruit and nut crops. In addition to agricultural repellent applications, AQ has also been used to treat toxicants for the protection of non-target birds. Few studies have demonstrated AQ repellency in mammals, including wild boar (Sus scrofa, L.), thirteen-lined ground squirrels (Ictidomys tridecemlineatus, Mitchill), black-tailed prairie dogs (Cyomys ludovicainus, Ord.), common voles (Microtus arvalis, Pallas), house mice (Mus musculus, L.), Tristram's jirds (Meriones tristrami, Thomas) and black rats (Rattus rattus L.). Natural sources of AQ and its derivatives have also been identified as insecticides and insect repellents. As a natural or synthetic biopesticide, AQ

  7. Insect pests management of bt cotton through the manipulation of different eco-friendly techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, N.; Khan, M.H.; Tofique, M.

    2011-01-01

    This study was designed to manage insect pests of Bt cotton through the manipulation of different eco-friendly techniques. A perusal of data, based on the overall performance of different treatments reflected that lowest population of jassids (0.29) was observed in bio-control treated Bt cotton followed by bio-control treated conventional cotton (0.41). Mean per leaf population of thrips was found lowest in insecticide treated Bt cotton (0.97) which was statically at par with bi-control treated conventional cotton (0.95), biocontrol treated Bt cotton (1.09) and colour traps treated Bt cotton (1.50). In case of white flies, bio-control treated Bt cotton and bio-control treated conventional cotton again proved effective in maintaining the population at lower levels per leaf (0.33 and 0.35 respectively). No bollworms infestation was recorded in transgenic cotton whereas higher attack of the same was observed in the untreated conventional cotton block. The best results were achieved with the application of bio-control agents in combination with Bt cotton resulting in least infestation by insect pests and maximum seed yield of 3657 kg/ha. The population of Chrysoperla carnea was significantly higher in Bt and conventional cotton treated with bio-control agents as compared to the other treatments. The parasitism percentage of Trichogramma chilonis was observed significantly higher in bio-control treated conventional cotton. The studies manifested that combination of bio-control technology with Bt cotton effectively preserves the local beneficial insect fauna indicating its potential to be used as integrated management system against different insect pests of cotton. (author)

  8. Earthworms, Collembola and residue management change wheat (Triticum aestivum) and herbivore pest performance (Aphidina: Rhophalosiphum padi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Xin; Scheu, Stefan

    2008-10-01

    Management practices of arable systems determine the distribution of soil organic matter thereby changing decomposer animal activity and their impact on nutrient mineralization, plant growth and plant-herbivore interactions. Decomposer-mediated changes in plant growth and insect pest performance were investigated in wheat-aphid model systems in the greenhouse. Three types of litter distribution were established: litter patch at the soil surface (simulating mulching), litter patch deeper in soil (simulating ploughing) and litter homogeneously mixed into soil (simulating disk cultivation). The litter was labelled with (15)N to follow the mineralization and uptake of nutrients by the plants. Earthworms (Aporrectodea caliginosa) and Collembola (Protaphorura armata) were included as representatives of major functional groups of decomposers. Wheat (Triticum aestivum) was planted and aphids (Rhophalosiphum padi) were introduced to leaves as one of the most important pests. Earthworms, Collembola and litter distribution affected plant growth, N acquisition and aphid development in an interactive way. Earthworms and Collembola increased biomass of seeds, shoots and roots of wheat. Increased plant growth by earthworms and Collembola was mainly due to increased transfer of N from soil (rather than litter) into plants. Despite increasing plant growth, earthworms reduced aphid reproduction. Aphid reproduction was not correlated closely with plant N concentrations, but rather with the concentration of litter N in wheat. Unexpectedly, both Collembola and earthworms predominantly affected the mobilization of N from soil organic matter, and by altering the distribution of litter earthworms reduced infestation of crops by aphids via reducing plant capture of litter N, in particular if the litter was concentrated deeper in soil. The results suggest that management practices stimulating a continuous moderate increase in nutrient mobilization from soil organic matter rather than

  9. 50 CFR 300.62 - Annual management measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Annual management measures. 300.62 Section... REGULATIONS Pacific Halibut Fisheries § 300.62 Annual management measures. Annual management measures may be... of unloading and weighing, and sport fishing for halibut. The Assistant Administrator will publish...

  10. Farmers’ Knowledge on Pesticide Safety and Pest Management Practices: A Case Study of Vegetable Growers in Chitwan, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jhalendra P. Rijal

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Farmers’ knowledge on pesticides and their safe use are critical for implementing effective pest management program. A household survey was conducted using the semi-structured questionnaire to evaluate vegetable growers’ knowledge on pesticide safety and pest management practices in Nepal. Results indicated that chemical pesticides were the primary choice of over 80% growers for pest management. Notably, 90% growers were aware of adverse effects of pesticides on human health and to the environment. Over 84% growers used at least one form of personal protection equipment (PPE during pesticide spray or handling, although the quality and appropriateness of the PPE warrants further investigation. Nearly 17% growers received at least one short-term training on integrated pest management (IPM; however, all of them neither knew the harmful effects of pesticide residues nor practiced proper pesticide disposal methods. Over 90% of growers rely on local pesticide retailers (i.e., Agro-vets for technical know-how about pesticide selection, handling, and use. This study highlighted a need for immediate implementation of strict pesticide use regulations and recommended educational programs for pest control professionals, growers, and pesticide retailers.

  11. 1978 Insect Pest Management Guide: Field and Forage Crops. Circular 899.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illinois Univ., Urbana. Cooperative Extension Service.

    This circular lists suggested uses of insecticides for the control of field crop pests. Suggestions are given for selection, dosage and application of insecticides to control pests in field corn, alfalfa and clover, small grains, soybeans and grain sorghum. (CS)

  12. Farmers’ Technical Knowledge about Integrated Pest Management (IPM in Olive Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad S. Allahyari

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available While Integrated Pest Management (IPM is a sustainable approach of pest control, contributing to reduced use of pesticides and risks on human health and the environment, farmers have shown limited interest in practicing this method. The present study explored the levels of technical knowledge about integrated management of the olive fly (Bactrocera oleae among olive growers in Roudbar County of Iran and factors underpinning olive farmers’ technical knowledge of integrated management. Data were collected in a survey of olive farmers, on the basis of a structured questionnaire. Almost half of the farmers (48.4% had good to excellent levels of technical knowledge of integrated management, while almost a third of the farmers (35.4% had a moderate knowledge level. However, a noticeable portion of the farmers (15.9% had poor knowledge of integrated management. Moreover, most farmers showed average knowledge of the adverse effects of pesticides on human health. While most farmers showed good levels of social participation, cooperation with institutes, and participation in extension activities, they showed low levels of community involvement (involvement in a group of people that have and share common interests with each other. Olive imports and the lack of a common action for olive fly control were perceived as the main barriers of IPM adoption among most farmers. Regression analysis revealed that increased community involvement, large area under olive farming, participation in education activities, and high farming experience promoted farmers’ technical knowledge of integrated olive fly control. Strengthening growers’ technical knowledge of IPM through community involvement and extension services among inexperienced small-scale olive farmers is recommended for reducing possible unnecessary insecticide sprays in olive production.

  13. Efficacy of Silk Channel Injections with Insecticides for Management of Lepidoptera Pests of Sweet Corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, A N; Gadal, L; Ni, X

    2015-08-01

    The primary Lepidoptera pests of sweet corn (Zea mays L. convar. saccharata) in Georgia are the corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), and the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith). Management of these pests typically requires multiple insecticide applications from first silking until harvest, with commercial growers frequently spraying daily. This level of insecticide use presents problems for small growers, particularly for "pick-your-own" operations. Injection of oil into the corn ear silk channel 5-8 days after silking initiation has been used to suppress damage by these insects. Initial work with this technique in Georgia provided poor results. Subsequently, a series of experiments was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of silk channel injections as an application methodology for insecticides. A single application of synthetic insecticide, at greatly reduced per acre rates compared with common foliar applications, provided excellent control of Lepidoptera insects attacking the ear tip and suppressed damage by sap beetles (Nitidulidae). While this methodology is labor-intensive, it requires a single application of insecticide at reduced rates applied ∼2 wk prior to harvest, compared with potential daily applications at full rates up to the day of harvest with foliar insecticide applications. This methodology is not likely to eliminate the need for foliar applications because of other insect pests which do not enter through the silk channel or are not affected by the specific selective insecticide used in the silk channel injection, but would greatly reduce the number of applications required. This methodology may prove particularly useful for small acreage growers. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Role of two insect growth regulators in integrated pest management of citrus scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grafton-Cardwell, E E; Lee, J E; Stewart, J R; Olsen, K D

    2006-06-01

    Portions of two commercial citrus orchards were treated for two consecutive years with buprofezin or three consecutive years with pyriproxyfen in a replicated plot design to determine the long-term impact of these insect growth regulators (IGRs) on the San Joaquin Valley California integrated pest management program. Pyriproxyfen reduced the target pest, California red scale, Aonidiella aurantii Maskell, to nondetectable levels on leaf samples approximately 4 mo after treatment. Pyriproxyfen treatments reduced the California red scale parasitoid Aphytis melinus DeBach to a greater extent than the parasitoid Comperiella bifasciata Howard collected on sticky cards. Treatments of lemons Citrus limon (L.) Burm. f. infested with scale parasitized by A. melinus showed only 33% direct mortality of the parasitoid, suggesting the population reduction observed on sticky cards was due to low host density. Three years of pyriproxyfen treatments did not maintain citricola scale, Coccus pseudomagnoliarum (Kuwana), below the treatment threshold and cottony cushion scale, Icerya purchasi Maskell, was slowly but incompletely controlled. Buprofezin reduced California red scale to very low but detectable levels approximately 5 mo after treatment. Buprofezin treatments resulted in similar levels of reduction of the two parasitoids A. melinus and C. bifasciata collected on sticky cards. Treatments of lemons infested with scale parasitized by A. melinus showed only 7% mortality of the parasitoids, suggesting the population reduction observed on sticky cards was due to low host density. Citricola scale was not present in this orchard, and cottony cushion scale was slowly and incompletely controlled by buprofezin. These field plots demonstrated that IGRs can act as organophosphate insecticide replacements for California red scale control; however, their narrower spectrum of activity and disruption of coccinellid beetles can allow other scale species to attain primary pest status.

  15. The Increase of Arthropods Biodiversity in Paddy Field Ecosystem Managed by Using Integrated Pest Management at South Borneo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samharinto

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We have studied the arthropods biodiversity in two paddy field ecosystems, namely, paddy field ecosystem using Integrated Pest Management (IPM system and non-IPM paddy field ecosystem. This study was conducted from April 2011 – November 2011 in three locations, that is, Pasar Kamis village and Sungai Rangas village in Banjar regency, and Guntung Payung village in Banjarbaru city, South Borneo Province. In this study, we used insect nets, yellow sticky traps, light trap and pitfall trap to get the sample or catch the arthropods in one period of planting season. The arthropods caught were then classified into some classes: pest (herbivore, natural enemy (parasitoid and predator, and other arthropods. After that, the Species Diversity Index was determined using its Shannon-Wiener Index (H’, Evenness (e, Species Richness (R, and Species Similarity Index (IS. The sum of arthropods which have the characteristic of pest and parasitoid were higher in the IPM paddy fields than in the non-IPM paddy fields, and the sum of other arthropods were the same. The highest H’ and e values were in the IPM paddy field in Pasar Kamis village. The IS value for each three locations were 77.5% in Pasar Kamis village, 93.42% in Guntung Payung village, and 78.76% in Sungai Rangas village.

  16. Enabling technologies to improve area-wide integrated pest management programmes for the control of screwworms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, A S; Vreysen, M J B; Hendrichs, J; Feldmann, U

    2009-06-01

    The economic devastation caused in the past by the New World screwworm fly Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) to the livestock industry in the U.S.A., Mexico and the rest of Central America was staggering. The eradication of this major livestock pest from North and Central America using the sterile insect technique (SIT) as part of an area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) programme was a phenomenal technical and managerial accomplishment with enormous economic implications. The area is maintained screwworm-free by the weekly release of 40 million sterile flies in the Darien Gap in Panama, which prevents migration from screwworm-infested areas in Columbia. However, the species is still a major pest in many areas of the Caribbean and South America and there is considerable interest in extending the eradication programme to these countries. Understanding New World screwworm fly populations in the Caribbean and South America, which represent a continuous threat to the screwworm-free areas of Central America and the U.S.A., is a prerequisite to any future eradication campaigns. The Old World screwworm fly Chrysomya bezziana Villeneuve (Diptera: Calliphoridae) has a very wide distribution ranging from Southern Africa to Papua New Guinea and, although its economic importance is assumed to be less than that of its New World counterpart, it is a serious pest in extensive livestock production and a constant threat to pest-free areas such as Australia. In the 1980s repeated introductions and an expansion of Old World screwworm populations were reported in the Middle East; in the 1990s it invaded Iraq and since late 2007 it has been reported in Yemen, where a severe outbreak of myiasis occurred in 2008. Small-scale field trials have shown the potential of integrating the SIT in the control of this pest and various international organizations are considering using the release of sterile insects as part of an AW-IPM approach on a much wider scale

  17. Integrated Pest Management for Sustainable Intensification of Agriculture in Asia and Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jules Pretty

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Integrated Pest Management (IPM is a leading complement and alternative to synthetic pesticides and a form of sustainable intensification with particular importance for tropical smallholders. Global pesticide use has grown over the past 20 years to 3.5 billion kg/year, amounting to a global market worth $45 billion. The external costs of pesticides are $4–$19 (€3–15 per kg of active ingredient applied, suggesting that IPM approaches that result in lower pesticide use will benefit, not only farmers, but also wider environments and human health. Evidence for IPM’s impacts on pesticide use and yields remains patchy. We contribute an evaluation using data from 85 IPM projects from 24 countries of Asia and Africa implemented over the past twenty years. Analysing outcomes on productivity and reliance on pesticides, we find a mean yield increase across projects and crops of 40.9% (SD 72.3, combined with a decline in pesticide use to 30.7% (SD 34.9 compared with baseline. A total of 35 of 115 (30% crop combinations resulted in a transition to zero pesticide use. We assess successes in four types of IPM projects, and find that at least 50% of pesticide use is not needed in most agroecosystems. Nonetheless, policy support for IPM is relatively rare, counter-interventions from pesticide industry common, and the IPM challenge never done as pests, diseases and weeds evolve and move.

  18. Field efficacy of entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo.) for the management of mungbean insect pests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayu, M. S. Y. I.; Prayogo, Y.

    2018-01-01

    In order to reduce the use of insecticide, the application of Beauveria bassiana may be an alternative control. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of B. bassiana for controlling mungbean pest. The experiment was conducted in Ngale Research Station from February to May 2017, using randomized block design, seven treatments, four replicates. The treatments were frequency of application; P1= six times, P2= five times, P3= four times, P4= three times, P5= once, P6= full protection using chemical insecticide, and P7= no protection. Application of B. bassiana four to six times can suppress the population of Empoasca sp., Riptortus linearis, and Maruca testulalis, but did not significantly different with the application of chemical insecticide. Based on the seed weight, application of B. bassiana six times (659.7 g/plot) led to significantly high as compare with the application of chemical insecticide (374 g/plot). Application of B. bassiana tended to be secure to natural enemies, especially Coccinella sp., Oxyopes javanus, and Paederus fuscipes. Both of those predators were not found on the application of chemical insecticide. Hence, B. bassiana can be recommended as a biological agent in integrated pest management component on mungbean because of effective and environmentally friendly.

  19. Sublethal Effects in Pest Management: A Surrogate Species Perspective on Fruit Fly Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John E. Banks

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Tephritid fruit flies are economically important orchard pests globally. While much effort has focused on controlling individual species with a combination of pesticides and biological control, less attention has been paid to managing assemblages of species. Although several tephritid species may co-occur in orchards/cultivated areas, especially in mixed-cropping schemes, their responses to pesticides may be highly variable. Furthermore, predictive efforts about toxicant effects are generally based on acute toxicity, with little or no regard to long-term population effects. Using a simple matrix model parameterized with life history data, we quantified the responses of several tephritid species to the sublethal effects of a toxicant acting on fecundity. Using a critical threshold to determine levels of fecundity reduction below which species are driven to local extinction, we determined that threshold levels vary widely for the three tephritid species. In particular, Bactrocera dorsalis was the most robust of the three species, followed by Ceratitis capitata, and then B. cucurbitae, suggesting individual species responses should be taken into account when planning for area-wide pest control. The rank-order of susceptibility contrasts with results from several field/lab studies testing the same species, suggesting that considering a combination of life history traits and individual species susceptibility is necessary for understanding population responses of species assemblages to toxicant exposure.

  20. Population genetics of Ceratitis capitata in South Africa: implications for dispersal and pest management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karsten, Minette; van Vuuren, Bettine Jansen; Barnaud, Adeline; Terblanche, John S

    2013-01-01

    The invasive Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly), Ceratitis capitata, is one of the major agricultural and economical pests globally. Understanding invasion risk and mitigation of medfly in agricultural landscapes requires knowledge of its population structure and dispersal patterns. Here, estimates of dispersal ability are provided in medfly from South Africa at three spatial scales using molecular approaches. Individuals were genotyped at 11 polymorphic microsatellite loci and a subset of individuals were also sequenced for the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I gene. Our results show that South African medfly populations are generally characterized by high levels of genetic diversity and limited population differentiation at all spatial scales. This suggests high levels of gene flow among sampling locations. However, natural dispersal in C. capitata has been shown to rarely exceed 10 km. Therefore, documented levels of high gene flow in the present study, even between distant populations (>1600 km), are likely the result of human-mediated dispersal or at least some form of long-distance jump dispersal. These findings may have broad applicability to other global fruit production areas and have significant implications for ongoing pest management practices, such as the sterile insect technique.

  1. Population genetics of Ceratitis capitata in South Africa: implications for dispersal and pest management.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minette Karsten

    Full Text Available The invasive Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly, Ceratitis capitata, is one of the major agricultural and economical pests globally. Understanding invasion risk and mitigation of medfly in agricultural landscapes requires knowledge of its population structure and dispersal patterns. Here, estimates of dispersal ability are provided in medfly from South Africa at three spatial scales using molecular approaches. Individuals were genotyped at 11 polymorphic microsatellite loci and a subset of individuals were also sequenced for the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I gene. Our results show that South African medfly populations are generally characterized by high levels of genetic diversity and limited population differentiation at all spatial scales. This suggests high levels of gene flow among sampling locations. However, natural dispersal in C. capitata has been shown to rarely exceed 10 km. Therefore, documented levels of high gene flow in the present study, even between distant populations (>1600 km, are likely the result of human-mediated dispersal or at least some form of long-distance jump dispersal. These findings may have broad applicability to other global fruit production areas and have significant implications for ongoing pest management practices, such as the sterile insect technique.

  2. FAO/IAEA Guidelines for Implementing Systems Approaches for Pest Risk Management of Fruit Flies. Working Material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    International trade in commodities provides food, consumer goods, and a livelihood to millions of people, but can also spread pests that cause serious damage to commercial crops and to the environment. Many Tephritidae fruit fly species are important plant pests, due to tendencies towards high fecundity, wide host range and potential to cause serious damage. These fruit fly species often are categorized as quarantine pests in the first phase of a Pest Risk Analysis, which is a harmonised framework for decisions regarding trade in plant products, developed under the International Plant Protection Convention. The National Plant Protection Organisation of each country is responsible for addressing the possible risks from trade to domestic plant resources. After assessing the risk, the need for pest risk management is determined. These guidelines focus on the final phase of the PRA, when a management plan is developed. Some of the stand-alone options for managing fruit fly risk are non-host status, Pest Free Areas, and commodity treatments. Pest risk management measures may be combined in a Systems Approach, however, as described in the International Standard on Phytosanitary Measures No. 14 (The use of integrated measures in a system approach for pest risk management). This concept, described in depth in section IV, has been applied successfully to various combinations of different species of pest/host/area for many years. Yet, NPPOs still encounter challenges to the application of Systems Approach. The examples and descriptions in these guidelines seek to support its use against fruit fly pests. Measures may be applied sequentially in the exporting country at the time of preharvest, harvest, post-harvest, export and transport, or at entry and distribution to the importing country. Area-wide integrated pest management programmes against fruit flies can play a significant role in suppressing pest populations to the low level required to reduce initial infestation in

  3. FAO/IAEA Guidelines for Implementing Systems Approaches for Pest Risk Management of Fruit Flies. Working Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    International trade in commodities provides food, consumer goods, and a livelihood to millions of people, but can also spread pests that cause serious damage to commercial crops and to the environment. Many Tephritidae fruit fly species are important plant pests, due to tendencies towards high fecundity, wide host range and potential to cause serious damage. These fruit fly species often are categorized as quarantine pests in the first phase of a Pest Risk Analysis, which is a harmonised framework for decisions regarding trade in plant products, developed under the International Plant Protection Convention. The National Plant Protection Organisation of each country is responsible for addressing the possible risks from trade to domestic plant resources. After assessing the risk, the need for pest risk management is determined. These guidelines focus on the final phase of the PRA, when a management plan is developed. Some of the stand-alone options for managing fruit fly risk are non-host status, Pest Free Areas, and commodity treatments. Pest risk management measures may be combined in a Systems Approach, however, as described in the International Standard on Phytosanitary Measures No. 14 (The use of integrated measures in a system approach for pest risk management). This concept, described in depth in section IV, has been applied successfully to various combinations of different species of pest/host/area for many years. Yet, NPPOs still encounter challenges to the application of Systems Approach. The examples and descriptions in these guidelines seek to support its use against fruit fly pests. Measures may be applied sequentially in the exporting country at the time of preharvest, harvest, post-harvest, export and transport, or at entry and distribution to the importing country. Area-wide integrated pest management programmes against fruit flies can play a significant role in suppressing pest populations to the low level required to reduce initial infestation in

  4. Aggression in Tephritidae Flies: Where, When, Why? Future Directions for Research in Integrated Pest Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benelli, Giovanni

    2014-12-30

    True fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) include over 4000 species, many of which constitute enormous threats to fruit and vegetable production worldwide. A number of Tephritidae are lekking species, forming aggregations in which males fight to defend a small territory where they court females and mate. Male-male contests also occur in non-lekking species, characterized by resource defense polygyny. Tephritidae females display agonistic behavior to maintain single oviposition sites and reduce larval competition for food. Here, how, where, when and why aggressive interactions occur in Tephritidae flies is reviewed. A number of neglected issues deserving further research are highlighted, with a special focus on diel periodicity of aggression, cues evoking aggressive behavior, the role of previous experience on fighting success and the evolution of behavioral lateralization of aggressive displays. In the final section, future directions to exploit this knowledge in Integrated Pest Management, with particular emphasis on enhancement of Sterile Insect Technique and interspecific competitive displacement in the field are suggested.

  5. Forest pest conditions in the maritimes in 1992. Information report No. M-X-183E. Annual publication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magasi, L.P.; Cormier, J.R.

    1993-01-01

    Review of the status of forest insects and diseases in the Maritimes Region in 1992, along with forecast conditions for 1993 when appropriate. Describes pests and problems of conifers, hardwoods, and high value areas such as nurseries, seed orchards, plantations, and Christmas tree areas and summarizes control operations against spruce budworm and Sirococcus shoot blight. A chapter on forest health monitoring brings together the various aspects of work dealing with changes in forest conditions. Forest insect monitoring systems, such as pheromones and light traps, are briefly described. A list of reports and publications relating to forest pest conditions is included.

  6. Forest pest conditions in the maritimes in 1991. Information report No. M-X-181E. Annual publication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magasi, L.P.

    1992-01-01

    This report reviews the status of forest insects and diseases in the Maritimes region in 1991 and forecasts conditions for 1992, when appropriate. Pests and problems of conifers, hardwoods, and high-value areas, such as nurseries, seed orchards, plantations, and Christmas tree areas, are described as observed in 1991. Control operations against spruce budworm, hemlock looper, and Sirococcus shoot blight are summarized. A section on forest health monitoring brings together the various aspects of work dealing with changes in forest conditions, some of which are still unexplained. Forest insect monitoring systems, pheromones, and light traps are briefly described. A list of reports and publications relating to forest pest conditions is included.

  7. Area-wide pest management of fruit flies in Hawaiian fruits and vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vargas, Roger I.; Jang, Eric B.; Klungness, L. Michael

    2003-01-01

    Four economically important fruit flies have been accidentally introduced into Hawaii: melon fly, Mediterranean fruit fly, oriental fruit fly, and the so-called Malaysian (solanaceous) fruit fly. Over 400 different host fruits are attacked. These fruit flies inhibit development of a diversified tropical fruit and vegetable industry, require that commercial fruits undergo quarantine treatment prior to export, and in Hawaii provide a breeding reservoir for their introduction into the continental United States. These exotic pests a serious threat of establishment into new areas with movement of people and commodities throughout the U.S. and the world. For example, if the Mediterranean fruit fly became established in California, projected losses would exceed $1 billion per year due to trade embargoes, loss of jobs, increased pesticide use, and direct crop loss. Present fruit fly control measures in Hawaii relay heavily on the application of organophosphate and carbamate insecticides to crops. Overuse of these insecticides has been implicated with secondary pest outbreaks, negative effects on beneficial insects, environmental contamination and adverse effects on human health. In 1999 a 5 year Area-wide Pest Management (AWPM) program was funded (for FY2000) for management of fruit flies in Hawaii. The goal of the Fruit Fly AWPM program is to develop and integrate biologically based pest management approaches that will result in area-wide suppression and control of fruit flies throughout selected agricultural areas of Hawaii. The IPM program will integrate two or more technologies into a comprehensive package that is economically viable, environmentally acceptable and sustainable. The program will result in a reduction in the use of organophosphate insecticides, and further growth and development of diversified agriculture in Hawaii. The technologies include: 1) field sanitation, 2) protein bait sprays and/or traps, 3) male annihilation with male lures and attractants, 4

  8. Economic evaluation of an area-wide integrated pest management program to control the Asian tiger mosquito in New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aedes albopictus is the most invasive mosquito in the world, an important disease vector, and a biting nuisance that limits outdoor activities. Area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) is the recommended control strategy. We conducted an economic evaluation of the AW-IPM project in Mercer and ...

  9. Cost-benefit analysis of an area-wide pest management program to control Asian tiger mosquito in New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Area-wide pest management (AWPM) is recommended to control urban mosquitoes, such as Aedes albopictus (Asian tiger mosquito), which limit outdoor activities. We conducted a cost-benefit analysis for an AWPM in Mercer and Monmouth counties, New Jersey, as part of a controlled design with matched area...

  10. Economic evaluation of area-wide pest management program to control asian tiger mosquito in New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Area-wide pest management (AWPM) is recommended to control urban mosquitoes, such as Aedes albopictus, which limit outdoor activities. While several evaluations of effectiveness exist, information on costs is lacking. Economic evaluation of such a program is important to help inform policy makers an...

  11. New approach to Integrated Pest Management research with and for horticulture. A vision from and beyond economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buurma, J.S.; Velden, van der N.J.A.

    2017-01-01

    The main problem addressed in this paper is the low adoption rate of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) knowledge into practice. Many IPM research leaders believe this low adoption rate is due to bottlenecks in knowledge supply. Consequently, they have asked for research, education and extension

  12. Use of an Integrated Pest Management Assessment Administered through Turningpoint as an Educational, Needs Assessment, and Evaluation Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, Lizabeth A. B.; Behnken, Lisa M.; Breitenbach, Fritz R.; Miller, Ryan P.; Nicolai, David; Gunsolus, Jeffrey L.

    2016-01-01

    University of Minnesota educators use an integrated pest management (IPM) survey conducted during private pesticide applicator training as an educational, needs assessment, and evaluation tool. By incorporating the IPM Assessment, as the survey is called, into a widely attended program and using TurningPoint audience response devices, Extension…

  13. Principles and practices of integrated pest management on cotton in the lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sustainable agriculture is ecologically sound, economically viable, socially just, and humane. These four goals for sustainability can be applied to all aspects of any agricultural system, from production and marketing, to processing and consumption. Integrated Pest Management (IPM) may be conside...

  14. Influence of pesticide information sources on citrus farmer's knowledge, perception and practices in pest management, Mekong Delta, Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mele, van P.; Hai, T.V.; Thas, O.; Huis, van A.

    2002-01-01

    In 1998-99, about 150 citrus farmers and 120 pesticide sellers were interviewed in Can Tho and Dong Thap province, Mekong Delta, Vietnam. Media, pesticide sellers and extension staff had different influences on farmers' pest perception and management practices depending on the region and intensity

  15. Reducing the Incidence of Acute Pesticide Poisoning by Educating Farmers on Integrated Pest Management in South India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mancini, F.; Jiggins, J.L.S.; O'Malley, M.

    2009-01-01

    Sixty-five farmers reported on pesticide use and the signs and symptoms of acute pesticide poisoning when using two different plant protection strategies: in 2003 using chemical controls and in 2004 using an approach to Integrated Pest Management (IPM) based on an ecological analysis of the field

  16. The IUPAC International Congresses of Pesticide Chemistry (1963-2014) and Pest Management Science: a half-century of progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Gerald T

    2014-08-01

    As we approach the 2014 San Francisco IUPAC Pesticide Chemistry Congress, we reflect on the 51 years of such congresses every 4 years since 1963. Meanwhile, our journal, Pesticide Science/Pest Management Science, has in parallel continually published relevant science for nearly as long (44 years from 1970). © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Pest risk assessment of Monilinia fructicola for the EU territory and identification and evaluation of risk management options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, R.; Candresse, T.; Dormannsné Simon, E.

    2011-01-01

    The EFSA Panel on Plant Health has delivered a pest risk assessment on the risk posed by Monilinia fructicola to the EU territory and has identified risk management options and evaluated their effectiveness in reducing the risk to plant health posed by this organism. The Panel has also analysed...... the effectiveness of the special requirements presently listed in Annex IV, Part A, Section I of Council Directive 2000/29/EC, in reducing the risk of introduction of this pest into the EU territory. The Panel concluded that the main pathways for entry into the EU territory are plant material for propagation...... of the risk assessment area. Cultural practices and control measures currently applied and competition with other Monilinia species cannot prevent the establishment of M. fructicola. The probability of spread is very likely because of the multiple ways of dispersal of the pest. The overall impact...

  18. Efficacy of silk channel injections with insecticides for management of Lepidopteran pests of sweet corn

    Science.gov (United States)

    The primary Lepidopteran pests of sweet corn in Georgia are the corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), and the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith). Control of these pests typically requires multiple insecticide applications from first silking until harvest, with commercial growers fre...

  19. Intensive olive orchards on sloping land: good water and pest management are essential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzidakis, I; Martinez-Vilela, A; Castro Nieto, G; Basso, B

    2008-11-01

    There is intensive cultivation of olives on sloping land in Jaen-Granada (Spain), Basilicata (Italy) and Western Crete (Greece). The intensive olive groves here are characterised by a tree density of about 250treesha(-1), yearly fertilisation and pruning, several chemical sprays for pest control, soil tillage once to thrice per year and irrigation up to 2700m3ha(-1)yr(-1). Intensive management results in high yields of 3600-6500kgha(-1) but also higher labour costs of 1154-1590euroha(-1)yr(-1), varying per area. The major environmental concerns in this system are related to chemical residues in the fruit, the extinction of useful insects, the depletion of groundwater resources, the pollution of soil and water and the erosion of soil. This paper describes the impact of intensive orchard management on natural resources and gives recommendations for soil and water conservation, reduction of chemicals use and biodiversity enhancement. The specific recommendations for the relevant stakeholders--farmers, technicians, agricultural services and policy makers--are based on the experimental evaluation of different agricultural practices and a socio-economic analysis of local and global production and markets.

  20. Training Childcare Center Administrators about Integrated Pest Management through Greener Environmental Communication Venues and Collecting Pesticide Use Data in the Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Marcia

    2014-01-01

    Many people assume that schools and childcare centers are environmentally safe places for children to learn. However, adverse health effects from pest allergy related illnesses or pesticide exposure incidents can demonstrate the need for safer and more effective pest management strategies. The goal of this research is to measure the efficacy of…

  1. Guidelines for the use of mathematics in operational area-wide integrated pest management programs using the sterile insect technique with a special focus on Tephritid Fruit Flies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pest control managers can benefit from using mathematical approaches, particularly models, when implementing area-wide pest control programs that include sterile insect technique (SIT), especially when these are used to calculate required rates of sterile releases to result in suppression or eradica...

  2. Preparing the way for coming area wide integrated pest management projects against the new world screwworm, Cochliomyia hominivorax, in MERCOSUR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mastrangelo, Thiago; Fernandes, Thiago; Walder, Julio, E-mail: piaui@cena.usp.br [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Bezerra, Fernando [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia do Sertao Pernambucano (IFSERTAO-PE), Petrolina, PE (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The New World Screwworm (NWS), Cochliomyia hominivorax, was eradicated from the USA, Central America to Panama, but in most tropical regions of Latin America, the NWS is still a serious threat to livestock, provoking estimated annual losses of US$ 1.8 billion in Brazil. Between January and May 2009, a pilot-project was performed at the Brazil-Uruguay border. As the results were positive, novel regional Area-Wide Integrated Pest Management projects are being planned. To set a mass-rearing center based in South America is strategic when considering long-term programs. In partnership with CENA/USP and the Biofactory MOSCAMED Brazil, a project to produce sterile NWS started on 2009. The project aimed to maintain a colony of a regional NWS strain, to develop a mass-rearing system and a sterilization protocol by X rays, and to study the sterility induction in regional strains. A colony was successfully established. The adults were kept in cages and fed on a diet (honey and spray dried egg). The larvae were reared in a medium made of spray dried blood, spray dried egg, milk, water, formalin and Ecogel. Egg hatch has been of 80 {+-} 10%. From F{sub 1} to F{sub 22}, the total amount of pupae produced was about 38 L ({approx} 315,400 pupae). The mean adult emergence and sex ratio were 86.7 {+-} 3% and 0.59 {+-} 0.08 respectively. The mean pupal weight was 47.1 {+-} 1.7 mg. The estimated X ray doses to induce 99% sterility in males and females were 43.7 Gy and 47.5 Gy, respectively. To produce 1.5 L of pupae, the current cost is about US$ 15.00. (author)

  3. Preparing the way for coming area wide integrated pest management projects against the new world screwworm, Cochliomyia hominivorax, in MERCOSUR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mastrangelo, Thiago; Fernandes, Thiago; Walder, Julio; Bezerra, Fernando

    2011-01-01

    The New World Screwworm (NWS), Cochliomyia hominivorax, was eradicated from the USA, Central America to Panama, but in most tropical regions of Latin America, the NWS is still a serious threat to livestock, provoking estimated annual losses of US$ 1.8 billion in Brazil. Between January and May 2009, a pilot-project was performed at the Brazil-Uruguay border. As the results were positive, novel regional Area-Wide Integrated Pest Management projects are being planned. To set a mass-rearing center based in South America is strategic when considering long-term programs. In partnership with CENA/USP and the Biofactory MOSCAMED Brazil, a project to produce sterile NWS started on 2009. The project aimed to maintain a colony of a regional NWS strain, to develop a mass-rearing system and a sterilization protocol by X rays, and to study the sterility induction in regional strains. A colony was successfully established. The adults were kept in cages and fed on a diet (honey and spray dried egg). The larvae were reared in a medium made of spray dried blood, spray dried egg, milk, water, formalin and Ecogel. Egg hatch has been of 80 ± 10%. From F 1 to F 22 , the total amount of pupae produced was about 38 L (∼ 315,400 pupae). The mean adult emergence and sex ratio were 86.7 ± 3% and 0.59 ± 0.08 respectively. The mean pupal weight was 47.1 ± 1.7 mg. The estimated X ray doses to induce 99% sterility in males and females were 43.7 Gy and 47.5 Gy, respectively. To produce 1.5 L of pupae, the current cost is about US$ 15.00. (author)

  4. Projection matrices as a forest management tool: an invasive tree case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ian J. Renne; Benjamin F. Tracy; Timothy P. Spira

    2003-01-01

    Life history parameters of many forest-dwelling species are affected by native and non-native pests. In turn, these pests alter forest processes and cost the United States billions of dollars annually. Population projection matrices can aid ecologists and managers in evaluating the impact of pests on forest species as well as devising effective strategies for pest...

  5. Effectiveness of an Integrated Pest Management Intervention in Controlling Cockroaches, Mice, and Allergens in New York City Public Housing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kass, Daniel; McKelvey, Wendy; Carlton, Elizabeth; Hernandez, Marta; Chew, Ginger; Nagle, Sean; Garfinkel, Robin; Clarke, Brian; Tiven, Julius; Espino, Christian; Evans, David

    2009-01-01

    Background Cockroaches and mice, which are common in urban homes, are sources of allergens capable of triggering asthma symptoms. Traditional pest control involves the use of scheduled applications of pesticides by professionals as well as pesticide use by residents. In contrast, integrated pest management (IPM) involves sanitation, building maintenance, and limited use of least toxic pesticides. Objectives We implemented and evaluated IPM compared with traditional practice for its impact on pests, allergens, pesticide use, and resident satisfaction in a large urban public housing authority. Methods We assigned IPM or control status to 13 buildings in five housing developments, and evaluated conditions at baseline, 3 months, and 6 months in 280 apartments in Brooklyn and Manhattan, in New York City (New York). We measured cockroach and mouse populations, collected cockroach and mouse urinary protein allergens in dust, and interviewed residents. All statistical models controlled for baseline levels of pests or allergens. Results Compared with controls, apartments receiving IPM had significantly lower counts of cockroaches at 3 months and greater success in reducing or sustaining low counts of cockroaches at both 3 and 6 months. IPM was associated with lower cockroach allergen levels in kitchens at 3 months and in beds and kitchens at 6 months. Pesticide use was reduced in IPM relative to control apartments. Residents of IPM apartments also rated building services more positively. Conclusions In contrast to previous IPM studies, which involved extensive cleaning, repeat visits, and often extensive resident education, we found that an easily replicable single IPM visit was more effective than the regular application of pesticides alone in managing pests and their consequences. PMID:19672400

  6. Effectiveness of an integrated pest management intervention in controlling cockroaches, mice, and allergens in New York City public housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kass, Daniel; McKelvey, Wendy; Carlton, Elizabeth; Hernandez, Marta; Chew, Ginger; Nagle, Sean; Garfinkel, Robin; Clarke, Brian; Tiven, Julius; Espino, Christian; Evans, David

    2009-08-01

    Cockroaches and mice, which are common in urban homes, are sources of allergens capable of triggering asthma symptoms. Traditional pest control involves the use of scheduled applications of pesticides by professionals as well as pesticide use by residents. In contrast, integrated pest management (IPM) involves sanitation, building maintenance, and limited use of least toxic pesticides. We implemented and evaluated IPM compared with traditional practice for its impact on pests, allergens, pesticide use, and resident satisfaction in a large urban public housing authority. We assigned IPM or control status to 13 buildings in five housing developments, and evaluated conditions at baseline, 3 months, and 6 months in 280 apartments in Brooklyn and Manhattan, in New York City (New York). We measured cockroach and mouse populations, collected cockroach and mouse urinary protein allergens in dust, and interviewed residents. All statistical models controlled for baseline levels of pests or allergens. Compared with controls, apartments receiving IPM had significantly lower counts of cockroaches at 3 months and greater success in reducing or sustaining low counts of cockroaches at both 3 and 6 months. IPM was associated with lower cockroach allergen levels in kitchens at 3 months and in beds and kitchens at 6 months. Pesticide use was reduced in IPM relative to control apartments. Residents of IPM apartments also rated building services more positively. In contrast to previous IPM studies, which involved extensive cleaning, repeat visits, and often extensive resident education, we found that an easily replicable single IPM visit was more effective than the regular application of pesticides alone in managing pests and their consequences.

  7. Sandia National Laboratories, California Waste Management Program annual report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brynildson, Mark E.

    2010-02-01

    The annual program report provides detailed information about all aspects of the Sandia National Laboratories, California (SNL/CA) Waste Management Program. It functions as supporting documentation to the SNL/CA Environmental Management System Program Manual. This annual program report describes the activities undertaken during the past year, and activities planned in future years to implement the Waste Management (WM) Program, one of six programs that supports environmental management at SNL/CA.

  8. Sandia National Laboratories, California Hazardous Materials Management Program annual report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brynildson, Mark E.

    2011-02-01

    The annual program report provides detailed information about all aspects of the Sandia National Laboratories, California (SNL/CA) Hazardous Materials Management Program. It functions as supporting documentation to the SNL/CA Environmental Management System Program Manual. This program annual report describes the activities undertaken during the calender past year, and activities planned in future years to implement the Hazardous Materials Management Program, one of six programs that supports environmental management at SNL/CA.

  9. The Role of Pest Control Advisers in Preventative Management of Grapevine Trunk Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillis, Vicken; Lubell, Mark; Kaplan, Jonathan; Doll, David; Baumgartner, Kendra

    2016-04-01

    Vineyards with trunk diseases (Botryosphaeria dieback, Esca, Eutypa dieback, and Phomopsis dieback) can have negative returns in the long run. Minimizing economic impacts depends on effective management, but adopting a preventative practice after infection occurs may not improve yields. Pest control advisers may reduce grower uncertainty about the efficacy of and need for prevention, which often entails future and unobservable benefits. Here, we surveyed advisers in California to examine their influence over grower decision-making, in the context of trunk diseases, which significantly limit grape production and for which curative practices are unavailable. Our online survey revealed adviser awareness of high disease incidence, and reduced yields and vineyard lifespan. Advisers rated both preventative and postinfection practices positively. Despite higher cost estimates given to postinfection practices, advisers did not recommend preventative practices at higher rates. High recommendation rates were instead correlated with high disease incidence for both preventative and postinfection practices. Recommendation rates declined with increasing cost for preventative, but not for postinfection, practices. Our findings suggest that even when advisers acknowledge the risks of trunk diseases, they may not recommend preventative practices before infection occurs. This underscores the importance of clear outreach, emphasizing both the need for prevention and its long-term cost efficacy.

  10. Tsetse flies: their biology and control using area-wide integrated pest management approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vreysen, Marc J B; Seck, Momar Talla; Sall, Baba; Bouyer, Jérémy

    2013-03-01

    Tsetse flies are the cyclical vectors of trypanosomes, the causative agents of 'sleeping sickness' or human African trypanosomosis (HAT) in humans and 'nagana' or African animal trypanosomosis (AAT) in livestock in Sub-saharan Africa. Many consider HAT as one of the major neglected tropical diseases and AAT as the single greatest health constraint to increased livestock production. This review provides some background information on the taxonomy of tsetse flies, their unique way of reproduction (adenotrophic viviparity) making the adult stage the only one easily accessible for control, and how their ecological affinities, their distribution and population dynamics influence and dictate control efforts. The paper likewise reviews four control tactics (sequential aerosol technique, stationary attractive devices, live bait technique and the sterile insect technique) that are currently accepted as friendly to the environment, and describes their limitations and advantages and how they can best be put to practise in an IPM context. The paper discusses the different strategies for tsetse control i.e. localised versus area-wide and focusses thereafter on the principles of area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) and the phased-conditional approach with the tsetse project in Senegal as a recent example. We argue that sustainable tsetse-free zones can be created on Africa mainland provided certain managerial and technical prerequisites are in place. Copyright © 2012 International Atomic Energy Agency. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The Rhizosphere Bacterial Microbiota of Vitis vinifera cv. Pinot Noir in an Integrated Pest Management Vineyard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novello, Giorgia; Gamalero, Elisa; Bona, Elisa; Boatti, Lara; Mignone, Flavio; Massa, Nadia; Cesaro, Patrizia; Lingua, Guido; Berta, Graziella

    2017-01-01

    Microorganisms associated with Vitis vinifera (grapevine) can affect its growth, health and grape quality. The aim of this study was to unravel the biodiversity of the bacterial rhizosphere microbiota of grapevine in an integrated pest management vineyard located in Piedmont, Italy. Comparison between the microbial community structure in the bulk and rhizosphere soil (variable: space) were performed. Moreover, the possible shifts of the bulk and rhizosphere soil microbiota according to two phenological stages such as flowering and early fruit development (variable: time) were characterized. The grapevine microbiota was identified using metagenomics and next-generation sequencing. Biodiversity was higher in the rhizosphere than in the bulk soil, independent of the phenological stage. Actinobacteria were the dominant class with frequencies ≥ 50% in all the soil samples, followed by Proteobacteria, Gemmatimonadetes, and Bacteroidetes. While Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria are well-known as being dominant in soil, this is the first time the presence of Gemmatimonadetes has been observed in vineyard soils. Gaiella was the dominant genus of Actinobacteria in all the samples. Finally, the microbiota associated with grapevine differed from the bulk soil microbiota and these variations were independent of the phenological stage of the plant.

  12. The Rhizosphere Bacterial Microbiota of Vitis vinifera cv. Pinot Noir in an Integrated Pest Management Vineyard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgia Novello

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Microorganisms associated with Vitis vinifera (grapevine can affect its growth, health and grape quality. The aim of this study was to unravel the biodiversity of the bacterial rhizosphere microbiota of grapevine in an integrated pest management vineyard located in Piedmont, Italy. Comparison between the microbial community structure in the bulk and rhizosphere soil (variable: space were performed. Moreover, the possible shifts of the bulk and rhizosphere soil microbiota according to two phenological stages such as flowering and early fruit development (variable: time were characterized. The grapevine microbiota was identified using metagenomics and next-generation sequencing. Biodiversity was higher in the rhizosphere than in the bulk soil, independent of the phenological stage. Actinobacteria were the dominant class with frequencies ≥ 50% in all the soil samples, followed by Proteobacteria, Gemmatimonadetes, and Bacteroidetes. While Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria are well-known as being dominant in soil, this is the first time the presence of Gemmatimonadetes has been observed in vineyard soils. Gaiella was the dominant genus of Actinobacteria in all the samples. Finally, the microbiota associated with grapevine differed from the bulk soil microbiota and these variations were independent of the phenological stage of the plant.

  13. Organochlorine pesticide residues in strawberries from integrated pest management and organic farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Virginia C; Domingues, Valentina F; Mateus, Nuno; Delerue-Matos, Cristina

    2011-07-27

    A rapid, specific, and sensitive method based on the Quick Easy Cheap Effective Rugged and Safe (QuEChERS) method and a cleanup using dispersive solid-phase extraction with MgSO(4), PSA, and C18 sorbents has been developed for the routine analysis of 14 pesticides in strawberries. The analyses were performed by three different analytical methodologies: gas chromatography (GC) with electron capture detection (ECD), mass spectrometry (MS), and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). The recoveries for all the pesticides studied were from 46 to 128%, with relative standard deviation of residue limits (MRL) accepted in Portugal for organochlorine pesticides (OCP). A survey study of strawberries produced in Portugal in the years 2009-2010 obtained from organic farming (OF) and integrated pest management (IPM) was developed. Lindane and β-endosulfan were detected above the MRL in OF and IPM. Other OCP (aldrin, o,p'-DDT and their metabolites, and methoxychlor) were found below the MRL. The OCP residues detected decreased from 2009 to 2010. The QuEChERS method was successfully applied to the analysis of strawberry samples.

  14. Aggression in Tephritidae Flies: Where, When, Why? Future Directions for Research in Integrated Pest Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Benelli

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available True fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae include over 4000 species, many of which constitute enormous threats to fruit and vegetable production worldwide. A number of Tephritidae are lekking species, forming aggregations in which males fight to defend a small territory where they court females and mate. Male-male contests also occur in non-lekking species, characterized by resource defense polygyny. Tephritidae females display agonistic behavior to maintain single oviposition sites and reduce larval competition for food. Here, how, where, when and why aggressive interactions occur in Tephritidae flies is reviewed. A number of neglected issues deserving further research are highlighted, with a special focus on diel periodicity of aggression, cues evoking aggressive behavior, the role of previous experience on fighting success and the evolution of behavioral lateralization of aggressive displays. In the final section, future directions to exploit this knowledge in Integrated Pest Management, with particular emphasis on enhancement of Sterile Insect Technique and interspecific competitive displacement in the field are suggested.

  15. Management of pest mole crickets in Florida and Puerto Rico with a nematode and parasitic wasp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leppla, N.C.; Frank, J.H.; Adjei, M.B.; Vicente, N.E.

    2007-01-01

    Non-indigenous invasive mole crickets, Scapteriscus vicinus Scudder (Orthoptera: Gryllotalpidae) in Florida and S. didactylus (Latreille) (the 'changa') in Puerto Rico, are being managed with an entomopathogenic nematode, Steinernema scapterisci (Nguyen and Smart) (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae), and a parasitic wasp, Larra bicolor L. (Hymenoptera: Sphecidae). Pest mole cricket populations have declined by 95% in north central Florida since these specialist natural enemies were released and established in the 1980s. Commercial production of the nematode was initiated, nearly 70 billion were applied in 34 Florida counties, and their establishment, spread, and impact on mole crickets were monitored. The infected mole crickets dispersed the nematode rapidly, so that within 6 months these parasites were present in most of the insects trapped in experimental pastures. Three years later, mole cricket populations were reduced to acceptable levels and the bahiagrass had recovered. The nematode was released for the first time in Puerto Rico during 2001 and has persisted; the wasp was introduced in the late 1930s. The geographical distribution of the wasp is being expanded in Florida and Puerto Rico by planting plots of Spermacoce verticillata (L.), a wildflower indigenous to Puerto Rico and widely distributed in southern Florida. Pastures, sod farms, golf courses, landscapes, and vegetable farms in Florida and Puerto Rico are benefiting from biological control of invasive mole crickets. (author) [es

  16. Scavenging by spiders (Araneae) and its relationship to pest management of the brown recluse spider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetter, Richard S

    2011-06-01

    Experiments reported in Sandidge (2003; Nature 426: 30) indicated that the brown recluse spider, Loxosceles reclusa Gertsch & Mulaik, preferred to scavenge dead prey over live prey and that the spiders were not detrimentally affected when fed insecticide-killed crickets. Extrapolations made in subsequent media coverage disseminating the results of this research made counter-intuitive statements that pesticide treatment in houses would increase brown recluse populations in homes. This information was presented as if the scavenging behavior was specialized in the brown recluse; however, it was more likely that this behavior has not been well studied in other species. To provide a comparison, the current laboratory study examined the likelihood of non-Loxosceles spiders to scavenge dead prey. Of 100 non-Loxosceles spiders that were tested (from 11 families, 24 genera, and at least 29 species from a variety of spider hunting guilds), 99 scavenged dead crickets when offered in petri dishes. Some of the spiders were webspinners in which real-world scavenging of dead prey is virtually impossible, yet they scavenge when given the opportunity. Therefore, scavenging is a flexible opportunistic predatory behavior that is spread across a variety of taxa and is not a unique behavior in brown recluses. These findings are discussed in relation to pest management practices.

  17. Relative toxicity and residual activity of insecticides used in blueberry pest management: mortality of natural enemies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roubos, Craig R; Rodriguez-Saona, Cesar; Holdcraft, Robert; Mason, Keith S; Isaacs, Rufus

    2014-02-01

    A series of bioassays were conducted to determine the relative toxicities and residual activities of insecticides labeled for use in blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) on natural enemies, to identify products with low toxicity or short duration effects on biological control agents. In total, 14 insecticides were evaluated using treated petri dishes and four commercially available natural enemies (Aphidius colemani Viereck, Orius insidiosus [Say], Chrysoperla rufilabris [Burmeister], and Hippodamia convergens [Guérin-Menéville]). Dishes were aged under greenhouse conditions for 0, 3, 7, or 14 d before introducing insects to test residual activity. Acute effects (combined mortality and knockdown) varied by insecticide, residue age, and natural enemy species. Broad-spectrum insecticides caused high mortality to all biocontrol agents, whereas products approved for use in organic agriculture had little effect. The reduced-risk insecticide acetamiprid consistently caused significant acute effects, even after aging for 14 d. Methoxyfenozide, novaluron, and chlorantraniliprole, which also are classified as reduced-risk insecticides, had low toxicity, and along with the organic products could be compatible with biological control. This study provides information to guide blueberry growers in their selection of insecticides. Further research will be needed to determine whether adoption of a pest management program based on the use of more selective insecticides will result in higher levels of biological control in blueberry.

  18. Evaluation of Pest Management Practices of Almond Growers in Adıyaman Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oktay Erdoğan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the problems about pest management practices of almond growers in Adıyaman province, in 2016. For this purpose, according to simple random sampling method as chosen randomly 96 farmers were obtained with survey method in a total of 24 villages, randomly selected 6 villages from each of Kahta, Besni, Gölbaşı and Merkez districts and results evaluated as percent ratio. Almond growers were found to have a high level of education, mostly non-agricultural income, and their income levels above the hunger limit level. Almond growers were determined that they received support from pesticide markets and provincial directorate of agriculture in selecting pesticides and determining the dose of pesticide; pesticide brand and effective substance is an important factor in the selection of pesticides; they are not used the same pesticide for the same disease and insect; they are spraying without seeing disease and insect; they are applying exactly recommended dose; used pesticides leave residues on the product; they are careful to the waiting period between the spraying and the harvest; they are using protective clothing or mask during spraying; they have not put empty pesticide boxes on the field or roadside; they are cleaning the spraying tank, but they use the sprayer without calibrating; they are mixing the pesticides; they prefer cultural control other than chemical control and do not know the concept of biopesticide.

  19. Theoretical study and control optimization of an integrated pest management predator-prey model with power growth rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Kaibiao; Zhang, Tonghua; Tian, Yuan

    2016-09-01

    This work presents a pest control predator-prey model, where rate of change in prey density follows a scaling law with exponent less than one and the control is by an integrated management strategy. The aim is to investigate the change in system dynamics and determine a pest control level with minimum control price. First, the dynamics of the proposed model without control is investigated by taking the exponent as an index parameter. And then, to determine the frequency of spraying chemical pesticide and yield releases of the predator, the existence of the order-1 periodic orbit of the control system is discussed in cases. Furthermore, to ensure a certain robustness of the adopted control, i.e., for an inaccurately detected species density or a deviation, the control system could be stabilized at the order-1 periodic orbit, the stability of the order-1 periodic orbit is verified by an stability criterion for a general semi-continuous dynamical system. In addition, to minimize the total cost input in pest control, an optimization problem is formulated and the optimum pest control level is obtained. At last, the numerical simulations with a specific model are carried out to complement the theoretical results. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The impact of phosphate fertilizer as a pest management tactic in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2009-12-15

    Dec 15, 2009 ... Key words: Cowpea, grain yield, insect pests, pod evaluation index, phosphate fertilizer. ... We also know that it interacts with other soil nutrients such as nitrogen ... grazing of leftover crop residues by animals (IITA, 1998;.

  1. 1978 Insect Pest Management Guide: Home, Yard, and Garden. Circular 900.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illinois Univ., Urbana. Cooperative Extension Service.

    This publication lists certain insecticides to control insect pests of food, fabrics, structures, man and animals, lawns, shrubs, trees, flowers and vegetables. Suggestions are given for selection, dosage and application of insecticides to combat infestation. (CS)

  2. Otiorhynchus spp. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) as pests in horticulture: genetics and management options with entomopathogenic fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Hirsch, Jacqueline

    2012-01-01

    Worldwide, weevils of the genus Otiorhynchus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) cause damage with detrimental economic effects to many horticultural crops due to the root feeding of their larvae as well as foliage feeding of their adults. Aside from the black vine weevil Otiorhynchus sulcatus, which is the best-known pest within this genus, numerous other Otiorhynchus species have been increasingly recognized as pests in recent years. Nocturnal adult weevils and soil-inhibiting larvae are in princip...

  3. Understanding the Success of an Environmental Policy: The case of the 1989-1999 Integrated Pest Management Program in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Budy P Resosudarmo

    2010-01-01

    The fact that most environmental degradation occurs in developing countries shows that they face difficulties in implementing environmental policies. It is hence extremely valuable to take lessons from any instances of the successful implementation of an environmental policy in a developing country. This paper aims to show, from a political economy perspective, why the 1989–1999 Integrated Pest Management program, is an environmentally-friendly policy, worked in Indonesia. It concludes that t...

  4. United States Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service research in application technology for pest management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, L A; Thomson, S J

    2003-01-01

    A research summary is presented that emphasizes ARS achievements in application technology over the past 2-3 years. Research focused on the improvement of agricultural pesticide application is important from the standpoint of crop protection as well as environmental safety. Application technology research is being actively pursued within the ARS, with a primary focus on application system development, drift management, efficacy enhancement and remote sensing. Research on application systems has included sensor-controlled hooded sprayers, new approaches to direct chemical injection, and aerial electrostatic sprayers. For aerial application, great improvements in on-board flow controllers permit accurate field application of chemicals. Aircraft parameters such as boom position and spray release height are being altered to determine their effect on drift. Other drift management research has focused on testing of low-drift nozzles, evaluation of pulsed spray technologies and evaluation of drift control adjuvants. Research on the use of air curtain sprayers in orchards, air-assist sprayers for row crops and vegetables, and air deflectors on aircraft has documented improvements in application efficacy. Research has shown that the fate of applied chemicals is influenced by soil properties, and this has implications for herbicide efficacy and dissipation in the environment. Remote sensing systems are being used to target areas in the field where pests are present so that spray can be directed to only those areas. Soil and crop conditions influence propensity for weeds and insects to proliferate in any given field area. Research has indicated distinct field patterns favorable for weed growth and insect concentration, which can provide further assistance for targeted spraying.

  5. Annual report of the Management Research Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    Research on the management of new forms of automation; industrial management; the definition of a new product range; economic management; personnel management; and management of cultural enterprises is presented [fr

  6. The impact of restrictions on neonicotinoid and fipronil insecticides on pest management in maize, oilseed rape and sunflower in eight European Union regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathage, Jonas; Castañera, Pedro; Alonso-Prados, José Luis; Gómez-Barbero, Manuel; Rodríguez-Cerezo, Emilio

    2018-01-01

    In 2013, the European Commission restricted the use of three neonicotinoids (clothianidin, imidacloprid and thiamethoxam) and the pyrazole fipronil, which are widely used to control early-season pests. Here, we used original farm survey data to examine the impact of the restrictions on pest management practices in eight regional case studies including maize, oilseed rape and sunflower in seven European Union (EU) countries. In four case studies, farmers switched to using untreated seeds as no alternative seed treatments were available. In three case studies, farmers switched to using unrestricted neonicotinoid- or pyrethroid-treated seeds. In five case studies, farmers increased the use of soil or foliar treatments, with pyrethroids as the principal insecticide class. Other changes in pest management practices ranged from increased sowing density to more frequent scouting for pests. Many farmers perceived that the time, cost and amount of insecticides required to protect crops increased, along with pest pressure. Alternative seed treatments were mostly perceived as being less effective than the restricted seed treatments. Farmers generally relied on alternative seed treatments or more soil/foliar treatments in the first growing season after the restrictions took effect. Further study is required to assess the effectiveness and sustainability of these alternatives compared with the restricted insecticides. © 2017 The Authors. Pest Management Science published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 The Authors. Pest Management Science published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Demystifying farmers' entomological and pest management knowledge: A methodology for assessing the impacts on knowledge from IPM-FFS and NES interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Price, L.

    2001-01-01

    Enhancing the environmental soundness of agricultural practices, particularly in high input systems, is of increasing concern to those involved in agricultural research and development. The Integrated Pest Management Farmer Field School, which is based on farmer participatory environmental

  8. Farmers′ perceptions, believes, knowledge and management practices of potato pests in South-Kivu Province, eastern of Democratic Republic of Congo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munyuli Théodore

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Based on previous complaints and reports from farmers to researchers about potato (Solanum tuberosum L. problems in South-Kivu Province, eastern Democratic Republic of Congo (RDCongo, there was a need to understand farmers′ knowledge of existing insect pest problems and current management practice challenges. Such information is important for designing a suitable intervention and successful integrated pest management (IPM strategy for the Province. Hence, using a semi-structured questionnaire, a farm household survey was conducted among 300 potato farmers in six sites belonging to 2 territories (Kabare, Kalehe of South- Kivu Province from June to August 2015. Insect pests, diseases and price fluctuations were among the highest ranked constraints in potato production by farmers. Cutworms (Agrotis spp., aphids (Myzus persicae Sulzer, and potato tuber moth (Phthorimaea operculella Zeller were the most severe insect pests in medium altitude zones (1600-1950m. Ants (Dorylis orantalis Westwood, whiteflies (Bemisia tabaci Gennadius, and leafminer flies (Liriomyza huidobrensis Blanchard were the pests of high importance reported from sites of very high altitude (2000-2600m. Major yield losses were mostly attributed to late blight (Phytophthora infestans Mont. de Bary and or insect pests and reached 65-90% without chemical control in most study sites. On average, farmers had little knowledge about pest characteristics (bio-ecology, behavior,…. Most (71.5% farmers were not able to correctly identify insect pest species names. Sometimes, two or more species had the same local name. There was a great confusion between damages (attacks due to pests, diseases and environmental stresses (rains, soil nutrient deficiency among farmers. Very few (18.5% farmers interviewed knew with precision some insect pests. Most (80% farmers did not know what natural enemies of insect pests and IPM were. Seasonal pest outbreak and emerging new pests were phenomenon related

  9. Management of a stage-structured insect pest: an application of approximate optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackett, Sean C; Bonsall, Michael B

    2018-06-01

    Ecological decision problems frequently require the optimization of a sequence of actions over time where actions may have both immediate and downstream effects. Dynamic programming can solve such problems only if the dimensionality is sufficiently low. Approximate dynamic programming (ADP) provides a suite of methods applicable to problems of arbitrary complexity at the expense of guaranteed optimality. The most easily generalized method is the look-ahead policy: a brute-force algorithm that identifies reasonable actions by constructing and solving a series of temporally truncated approximations of the full problem over a defined planning horizon. We develop and apply this approach to a pest management problem inspired by the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata. The model aims to minimize the cumulative costs of management actions and medfly-induced losses over a single 16-week season. The medfly population is stage-structured and grows continuously while management decisions are made at discrete, weekly intervals. For each week, the model chooses between inaction, insecticide application, or one of six sterile insect release ratios. Look-ahead policy performance is evaluated over a range of planning horizons, two levels of crop susceptibility to medfly and three levels of pesticide persistence. In all cases, the actions proposed by the look-ahead policy are contrasted to those of a myopic policy that minimizes costs over only the current week. We find that look-ahead policies always out-performed a myopic policy and decision quality is sensitive to the temporal distribution of costs relative to the planning horizon: it is beneficial to extend the planning horizon when it excludes pertinent costs. However, longer planning horizons may reduce decision quality when major costs are resolved imminently. ADP methods such as the look-ahead-policy-based approach developed here render questions intractable to dynamic programming amenable to inference but should be

  10. The Red Queen in a potato field: integrated pest management versus chemical dependency in Colorado potato beetle control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alyokhin, Andrei; Mota-Sanchez, David; Baker, Mitchell; Snyder, William E; Menasha, Sandra; Whalon, Mark; Dively, Galen; Moarsi, Wassem F

    2015-03-01

    Originally designed to reconcile insecticide applications with biological control, the concept of integrated pest management (IPM) developed into the systems-based judicious and coordinated use of multiple control techniques aimed at reducing pest damage to economically tolerable levels. Chemical control, with scheduled treatments, was the starting point for most management systems in the 1950s. Although chemical control is philosophically compatible with IPM practices as a whole, reduction in pesticide use has been historically one of the main goals of IPM practitioners. In the absence of IPM, excessive reliance on pesticides has led to repeated control failures due to the evolution of resistance by pest populations. This creates the need for constant replacement of failed chemicals with new compounds, known as the 'insecticide treadmill'. In evolutionary biology, a similar phenomenon is known as the Red Queen principle - continuing change is needed for a population to persevere because its competitors undergo constant evolutionary adaptation. The Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say), is an insect defoliator of potatoes that is notorious for its ability to develop insecticide resistance. In the present article, a review is given of four case studies from across the United States to demonstrate the importance of using IPM for sustainable management of a highly adaptable insect pest. Excessive reliance on often indiscriminate insecticide applications and inadequate use of alternative control methods, such as crop rotation, appear to expedite evolution of insecticide resistance in its populations. Resistance to IPM would involve synchronized adaptations to multiple unfavorable factors, requiring statistically unlikely genetic changes. Therefore, integrating different techniques is likely to reduce the need for constant replacement of failed chemicals with new ones. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Agricultural pest control programmes, food security and safety | Eze ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Agricultural pest management control strategies are primarily concerned with food security and safety. Popular pest control methods include application of synthetic pesticides, biopesticides (plant extracts), non-chemical pest management and integrated pest management (IPM). The resistance of some of the pests to the ...

  12. Assessing the value and pest management window provided by neonicotinoid seed treatments for management of soybean aphid (Aphis glycines Matsumura) in the Upper Midwestern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupke, Christian H; Alford, Adam M; Cullen, Eileen M; Hodgson, Erin W; Knodel, Janet J; McCornack, Brian; Potter, Bruce D; Spigler, Madeline I; Tilmon, Kelley; Welch, Kelton

    2017-10-01

    A 2-year, multi-state study was conducted to assess the benefits of using soybean seed treated with the neonicotinoid thiamethoxam to manage soybean aphid in the upper Midwestern USA and compare this approach with an integrated pest management (IPM) approach that included monitoring soybean aphids and treating with foliar-applied insecticide only when the economic threshold was reached. Concentrations of thiamethoxam in soybean foliage were also quantified throughout the growing season to estimate the pest management window afforded by insecticidal seed treatments. Both the IPM treatment and thiamethoxam-treated seed resulted in significant reductions in cumulative aphid days when soybean aphid populations reached threshold levels. However, only the IPM treatment resulted in significant yield increases. Analysis of soybean foliage from thiamethoxam-treated seeds indicated that tissue concentrations of thiamethoxam were statistically similar to plants grown from untreated seeds beginning at the V2 growth stage, indicating that the period of pest suppression for soybean aphid is likely to be relatively short. These data demonstrate that an IPM approach, combining scouting and foliar-applied insecticide where necessary, remains the best option for treatment of soybean aphids, both in terms of protecting the yield potential of the crop and of break-even probability for producers. Furthermore, we found that thiamethoxam concentrations in foliage are unlikely to effectively manage soybean aphids for most of the pests' activity period across the region. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Dynamic complexities for prey-dependent consumption integrated pest management models with impulsive effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hui Jing; Zhu Deming

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the prey-dependent consumption predator-prey (natural enemy-pest) models with age structure for the predator, immature and mature natural enemies are released and pesticide is applied impulsively. We prove that, when the impulsive period is no longer than some threshold, the pest-eradication solution is globally asymptotically stable, or say, the pest population can be eradicated totally. But from the point of ecological balance and saving resources, we only need to control the pest population under the economic threshold level instead of eradicating it totally, so we further prove that, when the impulsive period is longer than the threshold, pest population and natural enemy population can coexist, i.e., the system is uniformly permanent. Considering population communities always are imbedded in periodically varying environments, and the parameters in ecosystem models may oscillate simultaneously with the periodically varying environments, we add a forcing term into the prey population's intrinsic growth rate. From two aspects, i.e., when the period of forcing term is same as the impulsive period and when the two periods are different, we illustrate that, the dynamical behaviors of corresponding impulsive system are very complex

  14. Pest management in traditional maize stores in West Africa: a farmer's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meikle, W G; Markham, R H; Nansen, C; Holst, N; Degbey, P; Azoma, K; Korie, S

    2002-10-01

    Farmers in the Republic of Benin have few resources to invest in protection of stored maize, and prophylactic pesticide application is often recommended by extension and development agencies. Neither the efficacy nor profitability of such an application in traditional maize storage facilities has been addressed quantitatively. In this study, existing management options for stored maize were evaluated monthly over 6 mo in central and southern Benin with respect to their effects on grain injury and on densities of Prostephanus truncatus (Horn) and Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky. P. truncatus infested 54% of the experimental stores in the study even though Teretrius nigrescens (Lewis), a natural enemy introduced against P. truncatus, was well established in the region. S. zeamais was the most common pest, found in 85% of the experimental storage facilities. Prophylactically treated maize was, on average, worth more than untreated maize for month 1 through 5 in southern Benin, after taking into account market price, pesticide costs, percentage grain damage and weight loss, but maize storage was not profitable overall. No difference was observed between treatments in central Benin. After 6 mo treated storage facilities were not significantly different from untreated storage facilities in terms of either percentage damage or profit in either region. A rapid scouting plan intended to provide farmers with a means for identifying storage facilities at greatest risk of severe P. truncatus infestation was field validated. Given that unsafe pesticide use is prevalent in Benin, research and extension services should clearly state the limitations to prophylactic treatment and increase the effort to educate farmers on appropriate pesticide use, store monitoring and marketing.

  15. Pathogen and biological contamination management in plant tissue culture: phytopathogens, vitro pathogens, and vitro pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassells, Alan C

    2012-01-01

    The ability to establish and grow plant cell, organ, and tissue cultures has been widely exploited for basic and applied research, and for the commercial production of plants (micro-propagation). Regardless of whether the application is for research or commerce, it is essential that the cultures be established in vitro free of biological contamination and be maintained as aseptic cultures during manipulation, growth, and storage. The risks from microbial contamination are spurious experimental results due to the effects of latent contaminants or losses of valuable experimental or commercial cultures. Much of the emphasis in culture contamination management historically focussed on the elimination of phytopathogens and the maintenance of cultures free from laboratory contamination by environmental bacteria, fungi (collectively referred to as "vitro pathogens", i.e. pathogens or environmental micro-organisms which cause culture losses), and micro-arthropods ("vitro pests"). Microbial contamination of plant tissue cultures is due to the high nutrient availability in the almost universally used Murashige and Skoog (Physiol Plant 15:473-497, 1962) basal medium or variants of it. In recent years, it has been shown that many plants, especially perennials, are at least locally endophytically colonized intercellularly by bacteria. The latter, and intracellular pathogenic bacteria and viruses/viroids, may pass latently into culture and be spread horizontally and vertically in cultures. Growth of some potentially cultivable endophytes may be suppressed by the high salt and sugar content of the Murashige and Skoog basal medium and suboptimal temperatures for their growth in plant tissue growth rooms. The management of contamination in tissue culture involves three stages: disease screening (syn. disease indexing) of the stock plants with disease and endophyte elimination where detected; establishment and pathogen and contaminant screening of established initial cultures

  16. Direct and indirect impacts of integrated pest management on pesticide use: a case of rice agriculture in Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariyono, Joko

    2008-10-01

    Integrated pest management (IPM) technology has been disseminated since 1989 in Indonesia to cut down pesticide use, but the adoption and diffusion of the technology are still debated. This study aims to estimate the models of demand for pesticides and to analyse the impact of IPM technology on pesticide use. Aggregate cross-section time series data from 1990-1998 are used. The results show that IPM technology reduces the use of pesticides by improving the process of rice production, such that pesticides are more efficiently used. In this case, the IPM technology is not a pest control technique. CONCLUSION There is an indication that IPM technology has been adopted by farmers. This is evidence that the IPM programme in Indonesia was successful in this area.

  17. Development of a model forecasting Dermanyssus gallinae's population dynamics for advancing Integrated Pest Management in laying hen facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mul, Monique F; van Riel, Johan W; Roy, Lise; Zoons, Johan; André, Geert; George, David R; Meerburg, Bastiaan G; Dicke, Marcel; van Mourik, Simon; Groot Koerkamp, Peter W G

    2017-10-15

    The poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae, is the most significant pest of egg laying hens in many parts of the world. Control of D. gallinae could be greatly improved with advanced Integrated Pest Management (IPM) for D. gallinae in laying hen facilities. The development of a model forecasting the pests' population dynamics in laying hen facilities without and post-treatment will contribute to this advanced IPM and could consequently improve implementation of IPM by farmers. The current work describes the development and demonstration of a model which can follow and forecast the population dynamics of D. gallinae in laying hen facilities given the variation of the population growth of D. gallinae within and between flocks. This high variation could partly be explained by house temperature, flock age, treatment, and hen house. The total population growth variation within and between flocks, however, was in part explained by temporal variation. For a substantial part this variation was unexplained. A dynamic adaptive model (DAP) was consequently developed, as models of this type are able to handle such temporal variations. The developed DAP model can forecast the population dynamics of D. gallinae, requiring only current flock population monitoring data, temperature data and information of the dates of any D. gallinae treatment. Importantly, the DAP model forecasted treatment effects, while compensating for location and time specific interactions, handling the variability of these parameters. The characteristics of this DAP model, and its compatibility with different mite monitoring methods, represent progression from existing approaches for forecasting D. gallinae that could contribute to advancing improved Integrated Pest Management (IPM) for D. gallinae in laying hen facilities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Nuclear techniques as efficient methods in entomology and pest management: potential and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seth, R.K.; Sethi, G.R.

    1996-01-01

    Major economic loss to crop and other agricultural commodities occurs due to insects, which has been a serious concern to entomologists. In this context, the possible uses and perspectives of the utilization of nuclear energy in entomological research studies and pest control tactics have been highlighted. (author). 100 refs., 1 fig

  19. Improved quality management to enhance the efficacy of the sterile insect technique for lepidopteran pests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepidoptera are among the most severe pests of food and fibre crops in the world and are mainly controlled using broad spectrum insecticides. This does not lead to sustainable control and farmers are demanding alternative control tools which are both effective and friendly to the environment. The st...

  20. Radiation induced F1 sterility in the management of lepidopterous pests: concept, overview and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harwalkar, M.R.

    1994-01-01

    The phenomenon of F1 or inherited sterility has been observed in a number of important pests which include Heliothis virescens, H. Zea, Trichoplusia ni etc.. Key findings that have advanced in the development of radiation sterilization technique are reviewed. 2 refs

  1. PsOr1, a potential target for RNA interference-based pest management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Y Y; Liu, F; Yang, G; You, M S

    2011-02-01

    Insect pests cause billions of dollars in agricultural losses, and attempts to kill them have resulted in growing threats from insecticide resistance, dietary pesticide pollution and environmental destruction. New approaches to control refractory insect pests are therefore needed. The host-plant preferences of insect pests rely on olfaction and are mediated via a seven transmembrane-domain odorant receptor (Or) family. The present study reports the cloning and characterization of PsOr1, the first candidate member of the Or gene family from Phyllotreta striolata, a devastating beetle pest that causes damage worldwide. PsOr1 is remarkably well conserved with respect to other insect orthologues, including DmOr83b from Drosophila melanogaster. These insect orthologues form an essential non-conventional Or sub-family and may play an important and generalized role in insect olfaction. We designed double-stranded (ds) RNA directly against the PsOr1 gene and exploited RNA interference (RNAi) to control P. striolata. The chemotactic behavioural measurements showed that adult beetles were unable to sense the attractant or repellent odour stimulus after microinjection of dsRNA against PsOr1. Reverse Transcription (RT)-PCR analysis showed specific down-regulation of mRNA transcript levels for this gene. Furthermore, host-plant preference experiments confirmed that silencing PsOr1 by RNAi treatment impaired the host-plant preferences of P. striolata for cruciferous vegetables. These results demonstrate that this insect control approach of using RNAi to target PsOr1 and its orthologues might be effective in blocking host-plant-seeking behaviours in diverse insect pests. The results also support the theory that this unique receptor type plays an essential general role in insect olfaction. © 2010 Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University. Insect Molecular Biology © 2010 The Royal Entomological Society.

  2. Quaternary IPM (integrated pest management)--concept for the control of powdery mildew in sugar beets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, P F J; Verreet, A

    2008-01-01

    Powdery mildew, caused by Erysiphe betae (Vanha) Weltzien, may be assumed as an important leaf disease in sugar beet growing areas of central Europe. Although the causal agent is mainly adapted to arid climatic zones, the disease is appearing every year, where the extent of infection is mainly dependent on weather conditions and susceptibility of cultivar. The losses caused by powdery mildew seldom exceed 10% of sugar yield; moreover, losses are likely only under the condition that the epidemic onset occurs before end-August. Nevertheless, the epidemic onset varies in a wide range, as there are years with high incidence followed by growing periods without severe infection. Therefore, in order to have a flexible control of the disease, where the use of fungicides could be minimised to an essential amount, a quaternary IPM (Integrated Pest Management) -concept was developed. The development is based on epidemiological field studies (Germany, 1993-2004, n = 76) of sugar beet leaf diseases under variation of year, site and cultivar. Efficacy of fungicide treatment timing was assessed in relation to the epidemic development. Comparison of treatments comprised fungicide sprays carried out from disease initiation till later stages of the epidemic. Additionally, the assessments were performed in relation to an untreated and a healthy control--the latter was three times treated according to a treatment regime with three to four week intervals. The effect of different application timings was measured by the potential of disease and yield loss control. The quaternary concept combines the advantages of four elements in order to compensate the constraints of the single tools: The period without disease risk is determined by a so-called negative-prognosis (i). First symptoms appear in the period from mid-July till the beginning of September. If disease initiation cannot be excluded, field observations by a sample of 100 leaves are advised. The disease scores enable the appliance

  3. Impact of Training Bolivian Farmers on Integrated Pest Management and Diffusion of Knowledge to Neighboring Farmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørs, Erik; Konradsen, Flemming; Huici, Omar; Morant, Rafael C; Volk, Julie; Lander, Flemming

    2016-01-01

    Teaching farmers integrated pest management (IPM) in farmer field schools (FFS) has led to reduced pesticide use and safer handling. This article evaluates the long-term impact of training farmers on IPM and the diffusion of knowledge from trained farmers to neighboring farmers, a subject of importance to justify training costs and to promote a healthy and sustainable agriculture. Training on IPM of farmers took place from 2002 to 2004 in their villages in La Paz County, Bolivia, whereas dissemination of knowledge from trained farmer to neighboring farmer took place until 2009. To evaluate the impact of the intervention, self-reported knowledge and practice on pesticide handling and IPM among trained farmers (n = 23) and their neighboring farmers (n = 47) were analyzed in a follow-up study and compared in a cross-sectional analysis with a control group of farmers (n = 138) introduced in 2009. Variables were analyzed using χ2 test and analysis of variance (ANOVA). Trained farmers improved and performed significantly better in all tested variables than their neighboring farmers, although the latter also improved their performance from 2002 to 2009. Including a control group showed an increasing trend in all variables, with the control farmers having the poorest performance and trained farmers the best. The same was seen in an aggregated variable where trained farmers had a mean score of 16.55 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 15.45-17.65), neighboring farmers a mean score of 11.97 (95% CI: 10.56-13.38), and control farmers a mean score of 9.18 (95% CI: 8.55-9.80). Controlling for age and living altitude did not change these results. Trained farmers and their neighboring farmers improved and maintained knowledge and practice on IPM and pesticide handling. Diffusion of knowledge from trained farmers might explain the better performance of the neighboring farmers compared with the control farmers. Dissemination of knowledge can contribute to justify the cost and convince

  4. Multiscale approach to pest insect monitoring: random walks, pattern formation, synchronization, and networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrovskii, Sergei; Petrovskaya, Natalia; Bearup, Daniel

    2014-09-01

    Pest insects pose a significant threat to food production worldwide resulting in annual losses worth hundreds of billions of dollars. Pest control attempts to prevent pest outbreaks that could otherwise destroy a sward. It is good practice in integrated pest management to recommend control actions (usually pesticides application) only when the pest density exceeds a certain threshold. Accurate estimation of pest population density in ecosystems, especially in agro-ecosystems, is therefore very important, and this is the overall goal of the pest insect monitoring. However, this is a complex and challenging task; providing accurate information about pest abundance is hardly possible without taking into account the complexity of ecosystems' dynamics, in particular, the existence of multiple scales. In the case of pest insects, monitoring has three different spatial scales, each of them having their own scale-specific goal and their own approaches to data collection and interpretation. In this paper, we review recent progress in mathematical models and methods applied at each of these scales and show how it helps to improve the accuracy and robustness of pest population density estimation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Habitat eradication and cropland intensification may reduce parasitoid diversity and natural pest control services in annual crop fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah K. Letourneau

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract California’s central coast differs from many agricultural areas in the U.S., which feature large tracts of monoculture production fields and relatively simple landscapes. Known as the nations salad bowl, and producing up to 90% of U.S. production of lettuces, broccoli and Brussels sprouts, this region is a mosaic of fresh vegetable fields, coastal meadow, chaparral shrubs, riparian and woodland habitat. We tested for relationships between the percent cover of crops, riparian and other natural landscape vegetation and the species richness of parasitic wasps and flies foraging in crops, such as broccoli, kale and cauliflower, and interpreted our results with respect to the decrease in natural habitat and increase in cropland cover prompted by a local microbial contamination event in 2006. Our key results are that: (1 as cropland cover in the landscape increased, fewer species of parasitoids were captured in the crop field, (2 parasitoid richness overall was positively associated with the amount of riparian and other natural vegetation in the surrounding 500m, (3 different groups of parasitoids were associated with unique types of natural vegetation, and (4 parasitism rates of sentinel cabbage aphid and cabbage looper pests were correlated with landscape vegetation features according to which parasitoids caused the mortality. Although individual species of parasitoids may thrive in landscapes that are predominantly short season crops, the robust associations found in this study across specialist and generalist parasitoids and different taxa (tachinid flies, ichneumon wasps, braconid wasps shows that recent food safety practices targeting removal of natural vegetation around vegetable fields in an attempt to eliminate wildlife may harm natural enemy communities and reduce ecosystem services. We argue that enhancing biological diversity is a key goal for transforming agroecosystems for future productivity, sustainability and public health.

  6. Integrated pest management and entomopathogenic fungal biotechnology in the Latin Americas: II key research and development prerequisites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khachatourians, George G; Valencia, Edison

    1999-01-01

    In the first part of this review article (Valencia and Khachatourians, 1998) we presented the special opportunity that entomopathogenic fungi (EPF) offer for integrated pest management (IPM) in the Latin Americas. As expected, along with the opportunities, there are challenges for the use of EPF. First that there are only two fungi, Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae, for which some prerequisite knowledge of basic and applied mycology for industrial research and development (R and D) are in place. Because of precedent setting leadership in the development of certain EPF, e.g., B. bassiana in IPM, Latin America stands to contribute to and gain from future

  7. Mosquitocidal carbamates with low toxicity to agricultural pests: an advantageous property for insecticide resistance management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swale, Daniel R; Carlier, Paul R; Hartsel, Joshua A; Ma, Ming; Bloomquist, Jeffrey R

    2015-08-01

    Insecticide resistance in the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae is well documented, and widespread agricultural use of pyrethroids may exacerbate development of resistance when pyrethroids are used in vector control. We have developed carbamate anticholinesterases that possess a high degree of An. gambiae:human selectivity for enzyme inhibition. The purpose of this study was to assess the spectrum of activity of these carbamates against other mosquitoes and agricultural pests. Experimental carbamates were potent inhibitors of mosquito acetylcholinesterases, with IC50 values in the nanomolar range. Similar potencies were observed for Musca domestica and Drosophila melanogaster enzymes. Although meta-substituted carbamates were potent inhibitors, two ortho-substituted carbamates displayed poor enzyme inhibition (IC50 ≥ 10(-6)  M) in honey bee (Apis mellifera), Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri) and lepidopteran agricultural pests (Plutella xylostella and Ostrinia nubilalis). Enzyme inhibition results were confirmed by toxicity studies in caterpillars, where the new carbamates were 2-3-fold less toxic than propoxur and up to tenfold less active than bendiocarb, indicating little utility of these compounds for crop protection. The experimental carbamates were broadly active against mosquito species but not agricultural pests, which should mitigate selection for mosquito insecticide resistance by reducing agricultural uses of these compounds. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Population Dynamics of Lepidoptera Pests in Eucalyptus urophylla Plantations in the Brazilian Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Cola Zanuncio

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Forestry companies study the population dynamics of insect pests in Integrated Pest Management for cost effectiveness. The objective of this study was to obtain qualitative and quantitative information on population fluctuation of the Lepidopteran defoliators of Eucalyptus urophylla plants in the Brazilian Amazon rainforest. In all, 402 species were collected, of which 10 were primary pests, nine were secondary pests, and the remaining bore no definite relevance to eucalyptus. Primary pests formed a low percentage of the total species, although they recorded a high percentage of the total number of individuals. The abundance of secondary pests, except in Caracuru, was less than 150 specimens annually. Primary pests showed higher population peaks during periods of low precipitation. The small number of species and the high abundance of primary and secondary pests could be due to the availability of food, or a deficiency in natural biological control. This suggests the possibilities of population outbreaks in the eucalyptus plantations. The period of highest occurrence for insect species in these crops must be identified so that suitable strategies can be developed for Integrated Pest Management.

  9. Challenges and opportunities for integrated pest management in Europe: A telling example of minor uses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lamichhane, Jay Ram; Arendse, Wilma; Dachbrodt-Saaydeh, Silke

    2015-01-01

    years. This is mainly due to the lack of pesticides in certain crops, as a number of previously authorized pesticides has not been re-authorized due to a stricter regulation. Also the introduction of tropical or sub-tropical crops and their pests into Europe has contributed to the problem of minor crops......Minor crops include mostly vegetables, fruits, nursery stock and ornamentals. These crops account for an EU production value of over € 60 billion per year, representing more than 20% of the value of EU's total agricultural production. The sustainable production of such crops, from an economic point...

  10. Comparison between Seed and Foliar Treatment as a Tool in Integrated Pest Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matyjaszczyk, Ewa

    2017-08-02

    A study into doses of seed treatments and foliar plant protection products containing an identical active substance registered to control the same pest in the same crops was carried out in the European Union. The results show that, for fungicides, the use of seed treatment is often connected with a significantly lower release of active substance per hectare when compared to foliar treatments. In 11 of 13 cases, the difference was 8-fold or higher. For insecticides, in most of the cases, the consumption of an active substance was several times higher for seed treatment, in one case for foliar application.

  11. Integrated Pest Management, Preliminary. Curriculum Guide and Instructional Materials for a Secondary School Vo-Ag Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grady County Board of Education, Cairo, GA.

    This curriculum guide presents methods to disseminate information to students interested in dealing with pests, or who have concerns about the environmental impacts of modern pest control methods. Options are encouraged for pest control methods using a combination of natural, biological, cultural, and chemical means of control. Specifically…

  12. Conflictive management of small mammals considered as pests: A long way to evidence-based policy making

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Catarina FERREIRA; Miguel DELIBES-MATEOS

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the controversial management decisions made by policy-makers worldwide regarding poisoning campaigns aimed to control small mammal populations,often considered harmful economic pests.Aside from considerations regarding the biological consequences of these campaigns,we argue that when society rejects all values of science and expertise then only badly supported and negligent decisions will be made about conservation and management issues.The extermination of small mammal species,some of which play crucial ecological roles in several regions of the world,is just an example of such discredit and misinformation.Without a strong commitment towards evidence-based policy-making,economic investments in research and development could be entirely compromised [Current Zoology 58 (2):353-357,2012].

  13. KIT safety management. Annual report 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, Gerhard

    2013-01-01

    The KIT Safety Management Service Unit (KSM) guarantees radiological and conventional technical safety and security of Karlsruhe Institute of Technology and controls the implementation and observation of legal environmental protection requirements. KSM is responsible for - licensing procedures, - industrial safety organization, - control of environmental protection measures, - planning and implementation of emergency preparedness and response, - operation of radiological laboratories and measurement stations, - extensive radiation protection support and the - the execution of security tasks in and for all organizational units of KIT. Moreover, KSM is in charge of wastewater and environmental monitoring for all facilities and nuclear installations all over the KIT campus. KSM is headed by the Safety Commissioner of KIT, who is appointed by the Presidential Committee. Within his scope of procedure for KIT, the Safety Commissioner controls the implementation of and compliance with safety-relevant requirements. The KIT Safety Management is certified according to DIN EN ISO 9001, its industrial safety management is certified by the VBG as ''AMS-Arbeitsschutz mit System'' and, hence, fulfills the requirements of NLF / ISO-OSH 2001. KSM laboratories are accredited according to DIN EN ISO/IEC 17025. To the extent possible, KSM is committed to maintaining competence in radiation protection and to supporting research and teaching activities. The present reports lists the individual tasks of the KIT Safety Management and informs about the results achieved in 2012. Status figures in principle reflect the status at the end of the year 2012. The processes described cover the areas of competence of KSM.

  14. Perceptions of risk, risk aversion, and barriers to adoption of decision support systems and integrated pest management: an introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gent, David H; De Wolf, Erick; Pethybridge, Sarah J

    2011-06-01

    Rational management of plant diseases, both economically and environmentally, involves assessing risks and the costs associated with both correct and incorrect tactical management decisions to determine when control measures are warranted. Decision support systems can help to inform users of plant disease risk and thus assist in accurately targeting events critical for management. However, in many instances adoption of these systems for use in routine disease management has been perceived as slow. The under-utilization of some decision support systems is likely due to both technical and perception constraints that have not been addressed adequately during development and implementation phases. Growers' perceptions of risk and their aversion to these perceived risks can be reasons for the "slow" uptake of decision support systems and, more broadly, integrated pest management (IPM). Decision theory provides some tools that may assist in quantifying and incorporating subjective and/or measured probabilities of disease occurrence or crop loss into decision support systems. Incorporation of subjective probabilities into IPM recommendations may be one means to reduce grower uncertainty and improve trust of these systems because management recommendations could be explicitly informed by growers' perceptions of risk and economic utility. Ultimately though, we suggest that an appropriate measure of the value and impact of decision support systems is grower education that enables more skillful and informed management decisions independent of consultation of the support tool outputs.

  15. Enhancing the effectiveness of biological control programs of invasive species through a more comprehensive pest management approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiTomaso, Joseph M; Van Steenwyk, Robert A; Nowierski, Robert M; Vollmer, Jennifer L; Lane, Eric; Chilton, Earl; Burch, Patrick L; Cowan, Phil E; Zimmerman, Kenneth; Dionigi, Christopher P

    2017-01-01

    Invasive species are one of the greatest economic and ecological threats to agriculture and natural areas in the US and the world. Among the available management tools, biological control provides one of the most economical and long-term effective strategies for managing widespread and damaging invasive species populations of nearly all taxa. However, integrating biological control programs in a more complete integrated pest management approach that utilizes increased information and communication, post-release monitoring, adaptive management practices, long-term stewardship strategies, and new and innovative ecological and genetic technologies can greatly improve the effectiveness of biological control. In addition, expanding partnerships among relevant national, regional, and local agencies, as well as academic scientists and land managers, offers far greater opportunities for long-term success in the suppression of established invasive species. In this paper we direct our recommendations to federal agencies that oversee, fund, conduct research, and develop classical biological control programs for invasive species. By incorporating these recommendations into adaptive management strategies, private and public land managers will have far greater opportunities for long-term success in suppression of established invasive species. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Area-wide approaches to insect pest management: history and lessons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klassen, Waldemar

    2000-01-01

    World agriculture is now entering a very trying era because currently our numbers are expanding by more than 90 million additional people per year. Demographers project that our growth will not drop below 90 million people per year until about 2020 (United Nations 1993, Nygaard 1998). The challenge is to increase food production every three or four years sufficiently to feed an additional population equivalent to that of Western Europe or North America. The land available for agriculture on a per capita basis is becoming progressively more limited so than in 2010, on average, 1 hectare in developing countries will have to feed 5 people, and in South Asia, 1 hectare will have to feed 8 people (Alexandratos 1995, Klassen 1995). On an average, 66 percent of the additional food must come from increased yields, and in South Asia, fully 80 percent must come from increased yields. The balance will come from expanding the area cultivated and use of intensified cropping systems. However, this is not a simple matter since pest populations tend to be favoured by yield-boosting measures. Since population growth rates recede as people overcome poverty, and since increasing food production is the principal means of overcoming poverty in many countries, it is imperative that in the decades immediately ahead major improvements be made in reducing losses to pests and in other yield enhancing measures

  17. The integrated control concept and its relevance to current integrated pest management in California fresh market grapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, Walter J

    2009-12-01

    The foundation of an integrated pest management program involves valid treatment thresholds, accurate and simple monitoring methods, effective natural controls, selective pesticides and trained individuals who can implement the concept. The Integrated Control Concept written by Stern, Smith, van den Bosch and Hagen elucidated each of these points in an alfalfa ecosystem. Alfalfa hay (Medicago sativa L.) has a low per acre value, requires little hand labor and is primarily marketed in the USA. In contrast, fresh market table grape (Vitis vinifera L.) has a high per acre value, requires frequent hand labor operations, suffers unacceptable cosmetic damage and is marketed throughout both the USA and the world. Each of the components of a working IPM program is present in table grape production. Marketing grapes to foreign countries presents special problems with pests considered invasive and where residue tolerances for some selective insecticides are lacking. However, fresh market grape farmers are still able to deal with these special problems and utilize an IPM program that has resulted in a 42% reduction in broad-spectrum insecticide use from 1995 to 2007. (c) 2009 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Impact of integrated pest management on the population of leafminers, fruit borers, and natural enemies in tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miranda Moacyr Mascarenhas Motta

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the impact of integrated pest management (IPM in the productivity of the tomato and in the populations of leafminers, fruit borers, and natural enemies in tomato crops. The treatments were calendar (spraying twice weekly with insecticides and fungicides, IPM (spraying when action thresholds were achieved, and control (no pesticide was applied. IPM was the most efficient system of pest control due to presenting similar productivity and 65.6% less pesticide applications than in the calendar. The attack of Tuta absoluta (Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae and Liriomyza spp. (Diptera: Agromyzidae to the leaves only achieved the action threshold in the final phase of the cultivation. The main fruit borer was Neoleucinoides elegantalis (Guen. (Lepidoptera: Crambidae, followed by T. absoluta and Spodoptera eridania (Cr. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae. The natural enemy populations were severely reduced by excessive pesticide applications. Predators were more abundant than parasitoids. The most abundant predators were Araneidae, Anthicus sp. (Coleoptera: Anthicidae, Cycloneda sanguinea larva (L. (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae, Staphylinidae adults (Coleoptera, Orius sp. and Xylocoris sp. (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae, Formicidae (Hymenoptera, and Phlaeothripidae (Thysanoptera. The most abundant parasitoids were Hymenoptera of the families Eulophidae, Braconidae (Bracon sp. and Chelonus sp., Trichogrammatidae [Trichogramma pretiosum (Riley] and Bethylidae (Goniozus nigrifemur Ashmead, besides Tachinidae (Diptera.

  19. 1998 Environmental Management Science Program Annual Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The Environmental Management Science Program (EMSP) is a collaborative partnership between the DOE Office of Environmental Management (EM), Office of Science (DOE-SC), and the Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID) to sponsor basic environmental and waste management related research. Results are expected to lead to reduction of the costs, schedule, and risks associated with cleaning up the nation's nuclear complex. The EMSP research portfolio addresses the most challenging technical problems of the EM program related to high level waste, spent nuclear fuel, mixed waste, nuclear materials, remedial action, decontamination and decommissioning, and health, ecology, or risk. The EMSP was established in response to a mandate from Congress in the fiscal year 1996 Energy and Water Development Appropriations Act. Congress directed the Department to ''provide sufficient attention and resources to longer-term basic science research which needs to be done to ultimately reduce cleanup costs, develop a program that takes advantage of laboratory and university expertise, and seek new and innovative cleanup methods to replace current conventional approaches which are often costly and ineffective''. This mandate followed similar recommendations from the Galvin Commission to the Secretary of Energy Advisory Board. The EMSP also responds to needs identified by National Academy of Sciences experts, regulators, citizen advisory groups, and other stakeholders

  20. Nevada Test Site Resource Management Plan: Annual summary, January 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The Nevada Test Site Resource Management Plan published in December of 1998 (DOE/NV--518) describes the Nevada Test Site stewardship mission and how its accomplishment will preserve the resources of the ecoregion while accomplishing the objectives of the mission. As part of the Nevada Test Site Resource Management Plan, DOE Nevada Operations Office has committed to perform and publish an annual summary review of DOE Nevada Operations' stewardship of the Nevada Test Site. This annual summary includes a description of progress made toward the goals of the Nevada Test Site Resource Management Plan, pertinent monitoring data, actions that were taken to adapt to changing conditions, and any other changes to the Nevada Test Site Resource Management Plan

  1. Nevada Test Site Resource Management Plan: Annual summary, January 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-01-01

    The Nevada Test Site Resource Management Plan published in December of 1998 (DOE/NV--518) describes the Nevada Test Site stewardship mission and how its accomplishment will preserve the resources of the ecoregion while accomplishing the objectives of the mission. As part of the Nevada Test Site Resource Management Plan, DOE Nevada Operations Office has committed to perform and publish an annual summary review of DOE Nevada Operations' stewardship of the Nevada Test Site. This annual summary includes a description of progress made toward the goals of the Nevada Test Site Resource Management Plan, pertinent monitoring data, actions that were taken to adapt to changing conditions, and any other changes to the Nevada Test Site Resource Management Plan.

  2. A method for reducing environmental pollution by using essential oils in rodent pest management program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokić, Goran; Blažić, Tanja; Đurović-Pejčev, Rada; Đorđević, Tijana; Đedović, Suzana; Vukša, Marina

    2017-08-01

    Strong-smelling plant extracts, such as essential oils, have a variety of feeding effects on mammals. Considering current concerns over long-term health issues and environmental effects of chemicals, plant-based products with repellent or antifungal activities may represent good solutions for improvement of rodent pest control programs. The present study was therefore focused on examining the effects of bergamot, lavender, and thyme essential oils as additional bait components on daily intakes of cereal-based baits by wild house mice. Lavender essential oil, containing linalool and linalyl acetate as main components, and thyme essential oil with a prevailing thymol component had no effects on house mice diet. Bergamot essential oil, whose main components were linalool, limonene, and linalyl acetate, showed a repellent effect on house mouse diet.

  3. Interacting Agricultural Pests and Their Effect on Crop Yield: Application of a Bayesian Decision Theory Approach to the Joint Management of Bromus tectorum and Cephus cinctus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keren, Ilai N.; Menalled, Fabian D.; Weaver, David K.; Robison-Cox, James F.

    2015-01-01

    Worldwide, the landscape homogeneity of extensive monocultures that characterizes conventional agriculture has resulted in the development of specialized and interacting multitrophic pest complexes. While integrated pest management emphasizes the need to consider the ecological context where multiple species coexist, management recommendations are often based on single-species tactics. This approach may not provide satisfactory solutions when confronted with the complex interactions occurring between organisms at the same or different trophic levels. Replacement of the single-species management model with more sophisticated, multi-species programs requires an understanding of the direct and indirect interactions occurring between the crop and all categories of pests. We evaluated a modeling framework to make multi-pest management decisions taking into account direct and indirect interactions among species belonging to different trophic levels. We adopted a Bayesian decision theory approach in combination with path analysis to evaluate interactions between Bromus tectorum (downy brome, cheatgrass) and Cephus cinctus (wheat stem sawfly) in wheat (Triticum aestivum) systems. We assessed their joint responses to weed management tactics, seeding rates, and cultivar tolerance to insect stem boring or competition. Our results indicated that C. cinctus oviposition behavior varied as a function of B. tectorum pressure. Crop responses were more readily explained by the joint effects of management tactics on both categories of pests and their interactions than just by the direct impact of any particular management scheme on yield. In accordance, a C. cinctus tolerant variety should be planted at a low seeding rate under high insect pressure. However as B. tectorum levels increase, the C. cinctus tolerant variety should be replaced by a competitive and drought tolerant cultivar at high seeding rates despite C. cinctus infestation. This study exemplifies the necessity of

  4. Interacting agricultural pests and their effect on crop yield: application of a Bayesian decision theory approach to the joint management of Bromus tectorum and Cephus cinctus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keren, Ilai N; Menalled, Fabian D; Weaver, David K; Robison-Cox, James F

    2015-01-01

    Worldwide, the landscape homogeneity of extensive monocultures that characterizes conventional agriculture has resulted in the development of specialized and interacting multitrophic pest complexes. While integrated pest management emphasizes the need to consider the ecological context where multiple species coexist, management recommendations are often based on single-species tactics. This approach may not provide satisfactory solutions when confronted with the complex interactions occurring between organisms at the same or different trophic levels. Replacement of the single-species management model with more sophisticated, multi-species programs requires an understanding of the direct and indirect interactions occurring between the crop and all categories of pests. We evaluated a modeling framework to make multi-pest management decisions taking into account direct and indirect interactions among species belonging to different trophic levels. We adopted a Bayesian decision theory approach in combination with path analysis to evaluate interactions between Bromus tectorum (downy brome, cheatgrass) and Cephus cinctus (wheat stem sawfly) in wheat (Triticum aestivum) systems. We assessed their joint responses to weed management tactics, seeding rates, and cultivar tolerance to insect stem boring or competition. Our results indicated that C. cinctus oviposition behavior varied as a function of B. tectorum pressure. Crop responses were more readily explained by the joint effects of management tactics on both categories of pests and their interactions than just by the direct impact of any particular management scheme on yield. In accordance, a C. cinctus tolerant variety should be planted at a low seeding rate under high insect pressure. However as B. tectorum levels increase, the C. cinctus tolerant variety should be replaced by a competitive and drought tolerant cultivar at high seeding rates despite C. cinctus infestation. This study exemplifies the necessity of

  5. Interacting agricultural pests and their effect on crop yield: application of a Bayesian decision theory approach to the joint management of Bromus tectorum and Cephus cinctus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilai N Keren

    Full Text Available Worldwide, the landscape homogeneity of extensive monocultures that characterizes conventional agriculture has resulted in the development of specialized and interacting multitrophic pest complexes. While integrated pest management emphasizes the need to consider the ecological context where multiple species coexist, management recommendations are often based on single-species tactics. This approach may not provide satisfactory solutions when confronted with the complex interactions occurring between organisms at the same or different trophic levels. Replacement of the single-species management model with more sophisticated, multi-species programs requires an understanding of the direct and indirect interactions occurring between the crop and all categories of pests. We evaluated a modeling framework to make multi-pest management decisions taking into account direct and indirect interactions among species belonging to different trophic levels. We adopted a Bayesian decision theory approach in combination with path analysis to evaluate interactions between Bromus tectorum (downy brome, cheatgrass and Cephus cinctus (wheat stem sawfly in wheat (Triticum aestivum systems. We assessed their joint responses to weed management tactics, seeding rates, and cultivar tolerance to insect stem boring or competition. Our results indicated that C. cinctus oviposition behavior varied as a function of B. tectorum pressure. Crop responses were more readily explained by the joint effects of management tactics on both categories of pests and their interactions than just by the direct impact of any particular management scheme on yield. In accordance, a C. cinctus tolerant variety should be planted at a low seeding rate under high insect pressure. However as B. tectorum levels increase, the C. cinctus tolerant variety should be replaced by a competitive and drought tolerant cultivar at high seeding rates despite C. cinctus infestation. This study exemplifies the

  6. Recent trends on sterile insect technique and area-wide integrated pest management. Economic feasibility, control projects, farmer organization and Bactrocera dorsalis complex control study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-03-01

    We have invited professional papers from over the world, including Okinawa, for compilation of recent trends on Sterile Insect Techniques and Area-Wide Integrated Pest Management to further pursue environment friendly pest insects control measures in agricultural production in the Asia-Pacific region. Pest insects such as the tephritid fruit flies have long been and are still today causing serious damage to agricultural products in the Asia-Pacific region and farmers in the region apply such insecticides that are no longer allowed or being subjected to strict usage control in Japan. This, in return, may endanger the health of the very farmers, food safety and the ecosystem itself. The purpose of this report is, therefore, to clarify keys for technology transfer of so called SIT/AWIPM to potential recipients engaged in agricultural production in the region. This report focused on several topics, which make up important parts for the effective Sterile Insect Technique and Area-Wide Integrated Pest Management: economic feasibility; pest insects control projects; farmers' education; research progress in Bactrocera dorsalis complex issues specific to the Asia-Pacific region. The 12 of the papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  7. Chirosurveillance: The use of native bats to detect invasive agricultural pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslo, Brooke; Valentin, Rafael; Leu, Karen; Kerwin, Kathleen; Hamilton, George C; Bevan, Amanda; Fefferman, Nina H; Fonseca, Dina M

    2017-01-01

    Invasive insect pests cost the agricultural industry billions of dollars annually in crop losses. Timely detection of pests is critical for management efficiency. Innovative pest detection strategies, such as environmental DNA (eDNA) techniques, combined with efficient predators, maximize sampling resolution across space and time and may improve surveillance. We tested the hypothesis that temperate insectivorous bats can be important sentinels of agricultural insect pest surveillance. Specifically, we used a new high-sensitivity molecular assay for invasive brown marmorated stink bugs (Halyomorpha halys) to examine the extent to which big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) detect agricultural pests in the landscape. We documented consistent seasonal predation of stink bugs by big brown bats. Importantly, bats detected brown marmorated stink bugs 3-4 weeks earlier than the current standard monitoring tool, blacklight traps, across all sites. We highlight here the previously unrecognized potential ecosystem service of bats as agents of pest surveillance (or chirosurveillance). Additional studies examining interactions between other bat and insect pest species, coupled with comparisons of detectability among various conventional monitoring methods, are needed to verify the patterns extracted from this study. Ultimately, robust economic analyses will be needed to assess the cost-effectiveness of chirosurveillance as a standard strategy for integrated pest management.

  8. Chirosurveillance: The use of native bats to detect invasive agricultural pests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brooke Maslo

    Full Text Available Invasive insect pests cost the agricultural industry billions of dollars annually in crop losses. Timely detection of pests is critical for management efficiency. Innovative pest detection strategies, such as environmental DNA (eDNA techniques, combined with efficient predators, maximize sampling resolution across space and time and may improve surveillance. We tested the hypothesis that temperate insectivorous bats can be important sentinels of agricultural insect pest surveillance. Specifically, we used a new high-sensitivity molecular assay for invasive brown marmorated stink bugs (Halyomorpha halys to examine the extent to which big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus detect agricultural pests in the landscape. We documented consistent seasonal predation of stink bugs by big brown bats. Importantly, bats detected brown marmorated stink bugs 3-4 weeks earlier than the current standard monitoring tool, blacklight traps, across all sites. We highlight here the previously unrecognized potential ecosystem service of bats as agents of pest surveillance (or chirosurveillance. Additional studies examining interactions between other bat and insect pest species, coupled with comparisons of detectability among various conventional monitoring methods, are needed to verify the patterns extracted from this study. Ultimately, robust economic analyses will be needed to assess the cost-effectiveness of chirosurveillance as a standard strategy for integrated pest management.

  9. Perspectives on why digital ecologies matter: combining population genetics and ecologically informed agent-based models with GIS for managing dipteran livestock pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, Steven L

    2014-10-01

    It is becoming clear that handling the inherent complexity found in ecological systems is an essential task for finding ways to control insect pests of tropical livestock such as tsetse flies, and old and new world screwworms. In particular, challenging multivalent management programs, such as Area Wide Integrated Pest Management (AW-IPM), face daunting problems of complexity at multiple spatial scales, ranging from landscape level processes to those of smaller scales such as the parasite loads of individual animals. Daunting temporal challenges also await resolution, such as matching management time frames to those found on ecological and even evolutionary temporal scales. How does one deal with representing processes with models that involve multiple spatial and temporal scales? Agent-based models (ABM), combined with geographic information systems (GIS), may allow for understanding, predicting and managing pest control efforts in livestock pests. This paper argues that by incorporating digital ecologies in our management efforts clearer and more informed decisions can be made. I also point out the power of these models in making better predictions in order to anticipate the range of outcomes possible or likely. Copyright © 2014 International Atomic Energy Agency 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Public relations and political support in area-wide integrated pest management programmes that integrate the sterile insect technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyck, V.A.; Regidor Fernandez, E.E.; Reyes Flores, J.; Teruya, T.; Barnes, B.; Gomez Riera, P.; Lindquist, D.; Reuben, R.

    2005-01-01

    The public relations component of area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) programmes that integrate the sterile insect technique (SIT) has a large impact on programme success. Full-time professionals should direct public relations activities and secure vital political support from governments and community organizations. Good communication among programme staff, and between programme staff and the public, is required to maintain participation and support, and to keep the work goal-oriented even when some programme activities are controversial. The media can be valuable and effective partners by informing the public about the real facts and activities of a programme, especially if this is done in a non-technical and straightforward way. Ongoing research support improves the programme technology, provides technical credibility on contentious issues, and solves operational problems. Programme failure can result from poor public relations and inadequate public support. (author)

  11. Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) transgenic crop: an environment friendly insect-pest management strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Suresh; Chandra, Amaresh; Pandey, K C

    2008-09-01

    Introduction of DDT (dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane) and following move towards indiscriminate use of synthetic chemical insecticides led to the contamination of water and food sources, poisoning of non-target beneficial insects and development of insect-pests resistant to the chemical insecticides. Increased public concems about the adverse environmental effects of indiscriminate use of chemical insecticides prompted search of altemative methods for insect-pest control. One of the promising alternatives has been the use of biological control agents. There is well-documented history of safe application of Bt (B. thuringiensis, a gram positive soil bacterium) as effective biopesticides and a number of reports of expression of delta-endotoxin gene(s) in crop plants are available. Only a few insecticidal sprays are required on Bt transgenic crops, which not only save cost and time, but also reduce health risks. Insects exhibit remarkable ability to develop resistance to different insecticidal compounds, which raises concern about the unsystematic use of Bt transgenic technology also. Though resistance to Bt products among insect species under field conditions has been rare, laboratory studies show that insects are capable of developing high levels of resistance to one ormore Cry proteins. Now it is generally agreed that 'high-dose/refuge strategy' is the most promising and practical approach to prolong the effectiveness of Bt toxins. Although manybiosafety concerns, ethical and moral issues exist, area under Bt transgenic crops is rapidly increasing and they are cultivated on more than 32 million hectares world over Even after reservation of European Union (EU) for acceptance of geneticaly modified (GM) crops, 6 out of 25 countries have already adopted Bt crops and many otherindustrial countries will adopt Bt transgenic crops in near future. While the modem biotechnology has been recognized to have a great potential for the promotion of human well-being, adoption

  12. Effectiveness of the Area-wide Pest Management Program to Control Asian Tiger Mosquito in New Jersey: Evidence from a Household Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Households’ behaviors can both mitigate and measure the spread of urban mosquitos. Beginning in 2009, a comprehensive area-wide pest management (AWPM) project to control Aedes albopictus was implemented in 4 areas in Monmouth and Mercer Counties, New Jersey. Including other activities, the project f...

  13. Effectiveness of the area wide pest management program to control asian tiger mosquito in New Jersey: evidence from a household survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Households’ behaviors can both mitigate and measure the spread of urban mosquito species. Beginning in 2009, an area-wide pest management (AWPM) project to control Ae. Albopictus was implemented in 6 areas in Monmouth and Mercer counties, NJ. Including other activities, the project focused on increa...

  14. On-farm evaluation of integrated pest management of thrips and whiteflies in herb cuttings in Ethiopia : report to the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belder, den E.; Elings, A.

    2010-01-01

    Integrated Pest Management reduces the use of chemicals and therewith the impact of greenhouse horticulture on the environment. It improves working conditions and enables access of Ethiopian products on the world market. In response to such concerns the Ethiopian Horticulture Producers and Exporters

  15. Willingness-to-pay for an area-wide integrated Pest Managment Program to control the Asian Tiger Mosquito in New Jersey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Using contingent valuation, the perceived value of an area-wide, integrated pest management program for the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, implemented in Monmouth and Mercer Counties, New Jersey, was estimated. The residents’ maximum willingness-to-pay (WTP) and payment modality was estimat...

  16. The Learning Facilitation Role of Agricultural Extension Workers in the Adoption of Integrated Pest Management by Tropical Fruit Growers in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsey, Barry; Sirichoti, Kittipong

    2002-01-01

    A sample of 120 Thai fruit growers reported that agricultural extension workers were influential in their adoption of integrated pest management, which balances cultural tradition and progressive practice. Extension workers used discussion and reflection on practical experience, a participatory and collaborative approach to the adoption of…

  17. Identifying obstacles and ranking common biological control research priorities for Europe to manage most economically important pests in arable, vegetable and perennial crops

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamichhane, Jay Ram; Bischoff-Schaefer, Monika; Bluemel, Sylvia; Dachbrodt-Saaydeh, Silke; Dreux, Laure; Jansen, Jean Pierre; Kiss, Jozsef; Kohl, Jurgen; Kudsk, Per; Malausa, Thibaut; Messéan, Antoine; Nicot, Philippe C.; Ricci, Pierre; Thibierge, Jérôme; Villeneuve, François

    2017-01-01

    EU agriculture is currently in transition from conventional crop protection to integrated pest management (IPM). Because biocontrol is a key component of IPM, many European countries recently have intensified their national efforts on biocontrol research and innovation (R&I), although such

  18. Ozone-mist spray sterilization for pest control in agricultural management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebihara, Kenji; Mitsugi, Fumiaki; Ikegami, Tomoaki; Nakamura, Norihito; Hashimoto, Yukio; Yamashita, Yoshitaka; Baba, Seiji; Stryczewska, Henryka D.; Pawlat, Joanna; Teii, Shinriki; Sung, Ta-Lun

    2013-02-01

    We developed a portable ozone-mist sterilization system to exterminate pests (harmful insects) in agricultural field and greenhouse. The system is composed of an ozone generator, an ozone-mist spray and a small container of ozone gas. The ozone generator can supply highly concentrated ozone using the surface dielectric barrier discharge. Ozone-mist is produced using a developed nozzle system. We studied the effects of ozone-mist spray sterilization on insects and agricultural plants. The sterilization conditions are estimated by monitoring the behavior of aphids and observing the damage of the plants. It was shown that aphids were exterminated in 30 s without noticeable damages of the plant leaves. The reactive radicals with strong oxidation potential such as hydroxyl radical (*OH), hydroperoxide radical (*HO2), the superoxide ion radical (*O2‒) and ozonide radical ion (*O3‒) can increase the sterilization rate for aphids. Contribution to the Topical Issue "13th International Symposium on High Pressure Low Temperature Plasma Chemistry (Hakone XIII)", Edited by Nicolas Gherardi, Henryca Danuta Stryczewska and Yvan Ségui.

  19. Laurel leaf extracts for honeybee pest and disease management: antimicrobial, microsporicidal, and acaricidal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damiani, Natalia; Fernández, Natalia J; Porrini, Martín P; Gende, Liesel B; Álvarez, Estefanía; Buffa, Franco; Brasesco, Constanza; Maggi, Matías D; Marcangeli, Jorge A; Eguaras, Martín J

    2014-02-01

    A diverse set of parasites and pathogens affects productivity and survival of Apis mellifera honeybees. In beekeeping, traditional control by antibiotics and molecules of synthesis has caused problems with contamination and resistant pathogens. In this research, different Laurus nobilis extracts are tested against the main honeybee pests through an integrated point of view. In vivo effects on bee survival are also evaluated. The ethanol extract showed minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of 208 to 416 μg/mL, having the best antimicrobial effect on Paenibacillus larvae among all substances tested. Similarly, this leaf extract showed a significant antiparasitic activity on Varroa destructor, killing 50 % of mites 24 h after a 30-s exposure, and on Nosema ceranae, inhibiting the spore development in the midgut of adult bees ingesting 1 × 10(4) μg/mL of extract solution. Both ethanol extract and volatile extracts (essential oil, hydrolate, and its main component) did not cause lethal effects on adult honeybees. Thus, the absence of topical and oral toxicity of the ethanol extract on bees and the strong antimicrobial, microsporicidal, and miticidal effects registered in this study place this laurel extract as a promising integrated treatment of bee diseases and stimulates the search for other bioactive phytochemicals from plants.

  20. Induced plant resistance as a pest management tactic on piercing sucking insects of sesame crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. F. Mahmoud

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Sesame, Sesamum indicum L. is the most oil seed crop of the world and also a major oil seed crop of Egypt. One of the major constraints in its production the damage caused by insect pests, particularly sucking insects which suck the cell sap from leaves, flowers and capsules. Impact of three levels of potassin-F, salicylic acid and combination between them on reduction infestation of Stink bug Nezara viridula L., Mirid bug Creontiades sp., Green peach aphid Myzus persicae (Sulzer, Leafhopper Empoasca lybica de Berg and Whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius of sesame crop cultivar Shandawil 3 was carried out during 2010-2011 crop season at Experimental farm, Faculty of Agriculture, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, Egypt. Also, the impacts of potassin-F and salicylic acid on yield production of sesame were studied. Results indicated that percent of reduction of infestation by N. viridula, M. persicae, Creontiades sp., E. lybicae, B. tabaci and phyllody disease were significantly higher at Level 2 (Potassin-F= 2.5 cm/l, Salicylic acid= 0.001 M and Potassin + Salicylic= 2.5 cm/l + 0.001 M and consequently higher seed yield per plant were obtained.

  1. Eighteenth annual report of: The Radioactive Waste Management Advisory Committee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-07-01

    This annual report reviews the RWMAC's work programme and progress made in 1997-1998; discusses operational and administrative matters including financial management and policy review; and presents the 1998 RWMAC work programme. Particular chapters are devoted to the management of intermediate and high level radioactive waste and spent fuel; the Dounreay Nuclear Establishment; the radioactive waste discharge authorisations. The document presents the RWMAC's review of the Ministry of Defence's radioactive waste management practices. A separate chapter is devoted to the study of radioactive waste management practices in Spain. Annexes to the report include terms of reference and membership of the Radioactive Waste Management Advisory Committee; RWMAC financial statement; declaration and register of member's interests; the RWMAC's 1998 work programme; the RWMAC's response to the Government on Proposals for the control and remediation of radioactively contaminated land

  2. Soil nitrate testing supports nitrogen management in irrigated annual crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia A. Lazicki

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Soil nitrate (NO3− tests are an integral part of nutrient management in annual crops. They help growers make field-specific nitrogen (N fertilization decisions, use N more efficiently and, if necessary, comply with California's Irrigated Lands Regulatory Program, which requires an N management plan and an estimate of soil NO3− from most growers. As NO3− is easily leached into deeper soil layers and groundwater by rain and excess irrigation water, precipitation and irrigation schedules need to be taken into account when sampling soil and interpreting test results. We reviewed current knowledge on best practices for taking and using soil NO3− tests in California irrigated annual crops, including how sampling for soil NO3− differs from sampling for other nutrients, how tests performed at different times of the year are interpreted and some of the special challenges associated with NO3− testing in organic systems.

  3. Twelfth annual US DOE low-level waste management conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The papers in this document comprise the proceedings of the Department of Energy's Twelfth Annual Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Conference, which was held in Chicago, Illinois, on August 28 and 29, 1990. General subjects addressed during the conference included: mixed waste, low-level radioactive waste tracking and transportation, public involvement, performance assessment, waste stabilization, financial assurance, waste minimization, licensing and environmental documentation, below-regulatory-concern waste, low-level radioactive waste temporary storage, current challenges, and challenges beyond 1990

  4. From local to central: a network analysis of who manages plant pest and disease outbreaks across scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan R. J. McAllister

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the key determinants of success in managing natural resources is "institutional fit," i.e., how well the suite of required actions collectively match the scale of the environmental problem. The effective management of pest and pathogen threats to plants is a natural resource problem of particular economic, social, and environmental importance. Responses to incursions are managed by a network of decision makers and managers acting at different spatial and temporal scales. We applied novel network theoretical methods to assess the propensity of growers, local industry, local state government, and state and national government head offices to foster either within- or across-scale coordination during the successful 2001 Australian response to the outbreak of the fungal pathogen black sigatoka (Mycosphaerella fijiensis. We also reconstructed the response network to proxy what that network would look like today under the Australian government's revised response system. We illustrate a structural move in the plant biosecurity response system from one that was locally driven to the current top-down system, in which the national government leads coordination of a highly partitioned engagement process. For biological incursions that spread widely across regions, nationally rather than locally managed responses may improve coordination of diverse tasks. However, in dealing with such challenges of institutional fit, local engagement will always be critical in deploying flexible and adaptive local responses based on a national system. The methods we propose detect where and how network structures foster cross-scale interactions, which will contribute to stronger empirical studies of cross-scale environmental governance.

  5. Potato cyst nematodes: pests of national importance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potato cyst nematodes (PCN; G. rostochiensis and G. pallida) are internationally-recognized quarantine pests and considered the most devastating pests of potatoes due to annual worldwide yield losses estimated at 12.2%. PCNs continue to spread throughout North America and were recently detected in I...

  6. Control of invasive marine invertebrates: an experimental evaluation of the use of low salinity for managing pest corals (Tubastraea spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Patrícia L; Ribeiro, Felipe V; Creed, Joel C

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the use of low salinity as a killing agent for the invasive pest corals Tubastraea coccinea and Tubastraea tagusensis (Dendrophylliidae). Experiments investigated the efficacy of different salinities, the effect of colony size on susceptibility and the influence of length of exposure. Experimental treatments of colonies were carried out in aquaria. Colonies were then fixed onto experimental plates and monitored in the field periodically over a period of four weeks. The killing effectiveness of low salinity depended on the test salinity and the target species, but was independent of colony size. Low salinity was fast acting and prejudicial to survival: discoloration, necrosis, fragmenting and sloughing, exposure of the skeleton and cover by biofoulers occurred post treatment. For T. tagusensis, 50% mortality (LC50) after three days occurred at eight practical salinity units (PSU); for T. coccinea the LC50 was 2 PSU. Exposure to freshwater for 45-120 min resulted in 100% mortality for T. tagusensis, but only the 120 min period was 100% effective in killing T. coccinea. Freshwater is now routinely used for the post-border management of Tubastraea spp. This study also provides insights as to how freshwater may be used as a routine biosecurity management tool when applied pre-border to shipping vectors potentially transporting non-indigenous marine biofouling species.

  7. Sandia National Laboratories, California Chemical Management Program annual report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brynildson, Mark E.

    2012-02-01

    The annual program report provides detailed information about all aspects of the Sandia National Laboratories, California (SNL/CA) Chemical Management Program. It functions as supporting documentation to the SNL/CA Environmental Management System Program Manual. This program annual report describes the activities undertaken during the calender past year, and activities planned in future years to implement the Chemical Management Program, one of six programs that supports environmental management at SNL/CA. SNL/CA is responsible for tracking chemicals (chemical and biological materials), providing Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) and for regulatory compliance reporting according to a variety of chemical regulations. The principal regulations for chemical tracking are the Emergency Planning Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA) and the California Right-to-Know regulations. The regulations, the Hazard Communication/Lab Standard of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) are also key to the CM Program. The CM Program is also responsible for supporting chemical safety and information requirements for a variety of Integrated Enabling Services (IMS) programs primarily the Industrial Hygiene, Waste Management, Fire Protection, Air Quality, Emergency Management, Environmental Monitoring and Pollution Prevention programs. The principal program tool is the Chemical Information System (CIS). The system contains two key elements: the MSDS library and the chemical container-tracking database that is readily accessible to all Members of the Sandia Workforce. The primary goal of the CM Program is to ensure safe and effective chemical management at Sandia/CA. This is done by efficiently collecting and managing chemical information for our customers who include Line, regulators, DOE and ES and H programs to ensure compliance with regulations and to streamline customer business processes that require chemical information.

  8. Pennsylvania: Penn State University Integrated Pest Management Project (A Former EPA CARE Project)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penn State University (PSU) is the recipient of a Level II CARE cooperative agreement targeting environmental risks in Philadelphia communities. PSU is involved in developing IPM management practices recommendations and policies.

  9. Dispersal of the invasive pasture pest Heteronychus arator into areas of low population density: effects of sex and season, and implications for pest management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Mansfield

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available African black beetle, Heteronychus arator (Scarabaeidae, is an exotic pest of pastures in northern New Zealand. Both adults and larvae feed on pasture grasses. Adults disperse by walking (short range or flying (long range. Dispersal flights are triggered by warm night temperatures in spring and autumn. Short range adult dispersal in search of mates, food or oviposition sites is poorly understood. This study investigated walking activity of H. arator adults over three seasons in New Zealand pastures. Adult walking activity was monitored using pitfall traps along fence lines and in pasture plots on a dairy farm in Waikato, New Zealand, in spring 2013, spring 2014 and autumn 2015. Beetle populations were reduced by application of a biopesticide bait to compare walking activity between treated and control plots for up to 26 days post-treatment. Marked beetles were released into the pasture plots to measure the distance travelled by recaptured individuals. Trap catches along the fence lines were correlated with air temperatures in 2013. Trap catches were male biased in spring 2014 compared with autumn 2015. Trap numbers in the control plots were nearly double that of treated plots in both seasons. More beetles were caught in the pitfall traps at the edges of the treated plots than in the centre. Trap catches were consistent throughout the control plot in spring 2014, but in autumn 2015 more beetles were caught in the centre of the control plot than at the edges. Few marked beetles were recaptured with dispersal rates estimated as <0.5m per day. Warmer temperatures encouraged short range dispersal in H. arator. Males were more active than females during the spring mating season. Edge effects were strong and should be considered in the design of field experiments.

  10. Emerging pests and diseases of South-east Asian cassava: a comprehensive evaluation of geographic priorities, management options and research needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graziosi, Ignazio; Minato, Nami; Alvarez, Elizabeth; Ngo, Dung Tien; Hoat, Trinh Xuan; Aye, Tin Maung; Pardo, Juan Manuel; Wongtiem, Prapit; Wyckhuys, Kris Ag

    2016-06-01

    Cassava is a major staple, bio-energy and industrial crop in many parts of the developing world. In Southeast Asia, cassava is grown on >4 million ha by nearly 8 million (small-scale) farming households, under (climatic, biophysical) conditions that often prove unsuitable for many other crops. While SE Asian cassava has been virtually free of phytosanitary constraints for most of its history, a complex of invasive arthropod pests and plant diseases has recently come to affect local crops. We describe results from a region-wide monitoring effort in the 2014 dry season, covering 429 fields across five countries. We present geographic distribution and field-level incidence of the most prominent pest and disease invaders, introduce readily-available management options and research needs. Monitoring work reveals that several exotic mealybug and (red) mite species have effectively colonised SE Asia's main cassava-growing areas, occurring in respectively 70% and 54% of fields, at average field-level incidence of 27 ± 2% and 16 ± 2%. Cassava witches broom (CWB), a systemic phytoplasma disease, was reported from 64% of plots, at incidence levels of 32 ± 2%. Although all main pests and diseases are non-natives, we hypothesise that accelerating intensification of cropping systems, increased climate change and variability, and deficient crop husbandry are aggravating both organism activity and crop susceptibility. Future efforts need to consolidate local capacity to tackle current (and future) pest invaders, boost detection capacity, devise locally-appropriate integrated pest management (IPM) tactics, and transfer key concepts and technologies to SE Asia's cassava growers. Urgent action is needed to mobilise regional as well as international scientific support, to effectively tackle this phytosanitary emergency and thus safeguard the sustainability and profitability of one of Asia's key agricultural commodities. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016

  11. Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management annual report to Congress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-03-01

    This is the third annual report on the activities and expenditures of the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) and covers the period from October 1, 1984 through September 30, 1985. The following were among the most significant accomplishments during FY 1985: publication of the mission plan; creation of a systems integration capability; publication of draft environmental assessments; development of a program management system and implementation of a comprehensive approach of ''managing for quality'' in all program activities; and development of new initiatives and more consistent interactions in the area of institutional relationships. The Office's financial statements for fiscal years 1984 and 1985 are included, and a concluding chapter updates the report with a brief summary of highlights of accomplishments following the end of fiscal year 1985. 96 refs., 10 figs., 5 tabs

  12. Silvicultural and integrated pest management strategies for restoring eastern hemlock to degraded southern Appalachian mountain ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    W.A. Whittier; A.E. Mayfield III; R.M. Jetton

    2017-01-01

    The ecologically foundational species eastern hemlock, Tsuga canadensis, is being functionally eliminated from southern Appalachian forests by the hemlock woolly adelgid (HWA, Adelges tsugae). The management of HWA has focused on chemical and biological control, conservation of hemlock genetic resources, and host resistance...

  13. Comparative assessment of pest management practices in potato production at farmer field schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer field schools (FFS) and other participatory approaches are useful methods for rapid delivery of agricultural technologies in resource-constrained agro-ecosystems. Cultivar selection, weekly fungicide applications and integrated disease management (IDM) based on a disease monitoring strategy w...

  14. Considerations in developing an integrated pest management programme for control of sea lice on farmed salmon in Pacific Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, K M

    2009-01-01

    In the development of integrated pest management (IPM) plans for the control of sea lice there are some components that are common to many areas. However, effective plans must be tailored to regionally varying environmental and biological factors affecting the severity of sea lice infections. This paper describes factors that would be involved in the development of an IPM plan for sea lice in the Broughton Archipelago, British Columbia. Temperature, salinity and currents affect the production, dispersion and competence of larvae of sea lice, Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Krøyer), as they develop to the infective copepodid stage. This information can be coupled with oceanographic conditions in the Broughton Archipelago and emerging computer models to define zones of infection where infections of new hosts are most likely. Salinity and temperature depend, in part, on river discharge in estuarine systems. River discharge depends on precipitation, snow pack and ambient temperatures, which can be monitored to help forecast the intensity of sea lice infections associated with both farmed and wild hosts. One of the goals of IPM planning is to reduce reliance on pesticides to avoid development of resistance in targeted parasites and to minimize environmental residues. Recommendations for developing an IPM plan specific to the Broughton Archipelago are provided along with a discussion of the additional information needed to refine IPM plans in this and other areas.

  15. Controlled-release of Bacillus thurigiensis formulations encapsulated in light-resistant colloidosomal microcapsules for the management of lepidopteran pests of Brassica crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashir, Oumar; Claverie, Jerome P; Lemoyne, Pierre; Vincent, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis ( B. t. ) based formulations have been widely used to control lepidopteran pests in agriculture and forestry. One of their weaknesses is their short residual activity when sprayed in the field. Using Pickering emulsions, mixtures of spores and crystals from three B. t. serovars were successfully encapsulated in colloïdosomal microparticles (50 μm) using innocuous chemicals (acrylic particles, sunflower oil, iron oxide nanoparticles, ethanol and water). A pH trigger mechanism was incorporated within the particles so that B. t. release occurred only at pH > 8.5 which corresponds to the midgut pH of the target pests. Laboratory assays performed on Trichoplusia ni ( T. ni ) larvae demonstrated that the microencapsulation process did not impair B. t. bioactivity. The best formulations were field-tested on three key lepidopteran pests that attack Brassica crops, i.e., the imported cabbageworm, the cabbage looper and the diamondback moth. After 12 days, the mean number of larvae was significantly lower in microencapsulated formulations than in a commercial B. t. formulation, and the effect of microencapsulated formulations was comparable to a chemical pesticide (lambda-cyhalothrin). Therefore, colloïdosomal microcapsule formulations successfully extend the bioactivity of B. t. for the management of lepidopteran pests of Brassica crops.

  16. Controlled-release of Bacillus thurigiensis formulations encapsulated in light-resistant colloidosomal microcapsules for the management of lepidopteran pests of Brassica crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oumar Bashir

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus thuringiensis (B. t. based formulations have been widely used to control lepidopteran pests in agriculture and forestry. One of their weaknesses is their short residual activity when sprayed in the field. Using Pickering emulsions, mixtures of spores and crystals from three B. t. serovars were successfully encapsulated in colloïdosomal microparticles (50 μm using innocuous chemicals (acrylic particles, sunflower oil, iron oxide nanoparticles, ethanol and water. A pH trigger mechanism was incorporated within the particles so that B. t. release occurred only at pH > 8.5 which corresponds to the midgut pH of the target pests. Laboratory assays performed on Trichoplusia ni (T. ni larvae demonstrated that the microencapsulation process did not impair B. t. bioactivity. The best formulations were field-tested on three key lepidopteran pests that attack Brassica crops, i.e., the imported cabbageworm, the cabbage looper and the diamondback moth. After 12 days, the mean number of larvae was significantly lower in microencapsulated formulations than in a commercial B. t. formulation, and the effect of microencapsulated formulations was comparable to a chemical pesticide (lambda-cyhalothrin. Therefore, colloïdosomal microcapsule formulations successfully extend the bioactivity of B. t. for the management of lepidopteran pests of Brassica crops.

  17. Twelfth annual US DOE low-level waste management conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    The papers in this document comprise the proceedings of the Department of Energy's Twelfth Annual Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Conference, which was held in Chicago, Illinois, on August 28 and 29, 1990. General subjects addressed during the conference included: mixed waste, low-level radioactive waste tracking and transportation, public involvement, performance assessment, waste stabilization, financial assurance, waste minimization, licensing and environmental documentation, below-regulatory-concern waste, low-level radioactive waste temporary storage, current challenges, and challenges beyond 1990.

  18. Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management annual report to Congress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-05-01

    This is the second Annual Report on the activities and expenditures of the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) and covers the fiscal year ending September 30, 1984. Research over the past 30 years has shown that high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel can be safely disposed of in geologic repositories. This report provides an overview of the OCRWM organization. The specific accomplishments of the Office are presented. The Office's financial statements for fiscal years 1983 and 1984 are included, and a concluding chapter updates the report with a brief summary of key accomplishments since the end of fiscal year 1984. 9 figs., 5 tabs

  19. Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management: Annual capacity report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-06-01

    The system configuration used as the basis for this report is defined in the Mission Plan Amendment. It includes a Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) facility as an integral system component. During the first 10 years of WMS operation, the total quantity of spent fuel that could be accepted is 18,600 metric tons uranium (MTU). By starting WMS operations in 1998, the MRS facility could accept 6000 MTU of spent fuel by the time repository operations are projected to begin in 2003. The allocation of acceptance right is currently based on the projected annual capacity of the waste management system to receive SNF and the age of permanently discharged spent fuel. The allocations are based on the oldest fuel having the highest priority. Section 1.0 provides a discussion of the requirement for the (ACR) and the role the ACR will play in DOE's interaction with the Purchasers in implementing the provisions of the Standard Disposal Contract. The currently projected annual acceptance capacity to be allocated is discussed and presented in Section 2.0. Section 3.0 discusses the procedure and basis for allocation of this capacity (acceptance rights). Allocation will be based on the chronological listing of spent fuel assemblies and equivalent MTU. Some of the contingencies which may have an impact on Contract implementation and system operation considerations which could affect the projected annual capacity and its allocation are identified in Section 4.0. 4 refs., 11 tabs

  20. Sequential sampling and biorational chemistries for management of lepidopteran pests of vegetable amaranth in the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke-Harris, Dionne; Fleischer, Shelby J

    2003-06-01

    Although vegetable amaranth, Amaranthus viridis L. and A. dubius Mart. ex Thell., production and economic importance is increasing in diversified peri-urban farms in Jamaica, lepidopteran herbivory is common even during weekly pyrethroid applications. We developed and validated a sampling plan, and investigated insecticides with new modes of action, for a complex of five species (Pyralidae: Spoladea recurvalis (F.), Herpetogramma bipunctalis (F.), Noctuidae: Spodoptera exigua (Hubner), S. frugiperda (J. E. Smith), and S. eridania Stoll). Significant within-plant variation occurred with H. bipunctalis, and a six-leaf sample unit including leaves from the inner and outer whorl was selected to sample all species. Larval counts best fit a negative binomial distribution. We developed a sequential sampling plan using a threshold of one larva per sample unit and the fitted distribution with a k(c) of 0.645. When compared with a fixed plan of 25 plants, sequential sampling recommended the same management decision on 87.5%, additional samples on 9.4%, and gave inaccurate recommendations on 3.1% of 32 farms, while reducing sample size by 46%. Insecticide frequency was reduced 33-60% when management decisions were based on sampled data compared with grower-standards, with no effect on crop damage. Damage remained high or variable (10-46%) with pyrethroid applications. Lepidopteran control was dramatically improved with ecdysone agonists (tebufenozide) or microbial metabolites (spinosyns and emamectin benzoate). This work facilitates resistance management efforts concurrent with the introduction of newer modes of action for lepidopteran control in leafy vegetable production in the Caribbean.

  1. MANAGING NEWLY ESTABLISHED PESTS: Growers, scientists and regulators collaborate on European grapevine moth program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Cooper

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The first detection of the European grapevine moth in North America triggered the establishment of federal and state regulatory programs that (1 identified the insect's geographic range in California, (2 developed and implemented detection and management programs, (3 regulated the movement of plant material and equipment to minimize the threat of dispersal, (4 incorporated research-based information developed by subject-matter experts into policy decisions and (5 promoted a wide-reaching educational program for grape growers, the public and local officials. The action plan, developed and carried out through a coordinated program that included multiple government agencies, university scientists and the agricultural community, drastically reduced insect populations and limited the distribution in California vineyards such that some previously infested areas were removed from quarantine regulation.

  2. Metabarcoding improves detection of eukaryotes from early biofouling communities: implications for pest monitoring and pathway management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaiko, Anastasija; Schimanski, Kate; Pochon, Xavier; Hopkins, Grant A; Goldstien, Sharyn; Floerl, Oliver; Wood, Susanna A

    2016-07-01

    In this experimental study the patterns in early marine biofouling communities and possible implications for surveillance and environmental management were explored using metabarcoding, viz. 18S ribosomal RNA gene barcoding in combination with high-throughput sequencing. The community structure of eukaryotic assemblages and the patterns of initial succession were assessed from settlement plates deployed in a busy port for one, five and 15 days. The metabarcoding results were verified with traditional morphological identification of taxa from selected experimental plates. Metabarcoding analysis identified > 400 taxa at a comparatively low taxonomic level and morphological analysis resulted in the detection of 25 taxa at varying levels of resolution. Despite the differences in resolution, data from both methods were consistent at high taxonomic levels and similar patterns in community shifts were observed. A high percentage of sequences belonging to genera known to contain non-indigenous species (NIS) were detected after exposure for only one day.

  3. Idaho National Laboratory Cultural Resource Management Annual Report FY 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clayton F. Marler; Julie Braun; Hollie Gilbert; Dino Lowrey; Brenda Ringe Pace

    2007-04-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory Site is home to vast numbers and a wide variety of important cultural resources representing at least a 13,500-year span of human occupation in the region. As a federal agency, the Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office has legal responsibility for the management and protection of those resources and has delegated these responsibilities to its primary contractor, Battelle Energy Alliance (BEA). The INL Cultural Resource Management Office, staffed by BEA professionals, is committed to maintaining a cultural resource management program that accepts these challenges in a manner reflecting the resources’ importance in local, regional, and national history. This annual report summarizes activities performed by the INL Cultural Resource Management Office staff during Fiscal Year 2006. This work is diverse, far-reaching and though generally confined to INL cultural resource compliance, also includes a myriad of professional and voluntary community activities. This document is intended to be both informative to internal and external stakeholders, and to serve as a planning tool for future cultural resource management work to be conducted on the INL.

  4. Integrated Fruit Production and Pest Management in Europe: The Apple Case Study and How Far We Are From the Original Concept?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damos, Petros; Escudero Colomar, Lucía-Adriana; Ioriatti, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    This review focuses on the process of adapting the original concept of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) to the wider conception of the Integrated Fruit Production (IFP) implemented in Europe. Even though most of the pest management strategies still rely on the use of synthetic pesticides, a wide array of innovative and environmentally friendly tools are now available as possible alternative to the pesticides within the modern apple production system. We also highlight how recent pest management strategies and tools have created an opening for research towards IPM improvement, including the use of biorational pesticides, semiochemicals and biological control. Forecasting models, new tree training systems and innovative spray equipment have also been developed to improve treatment coverage, to mitigate pesticide drift and to reduce chemical residues on fruits. The possible threats that jeopardize the effective implementation of IPM and particularly the risks related to the development of the pesticide resistance and the introduction of new invasive pests are also reviewed. With the directive 128/09, the European legislation recognizes IPM as a strategic approach for the sustainable use of pesticides. Within this context, IPM and related guidelines is called to meet different areas of concern in relation to the worker and bystander safety. Beside the traditional economic criteria of the market-oriented agriculture, sustainable agriculture includes the assessment of the environmental impact of the agronomic practices within the societal context where they take place. As a consequence of the raising consumer concerns about environmental impacts generated by the fruit production, IFP certification over product standards, including process aspects, are frequently required by consumers and supermarket chains. PMID:26463407

  5. Integrated Fruit Production and Pest Management in Europe: The Apple Case Study and How Far We Are From the Original Concept?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damos, Petros; Colomar, Lucía-Adriana Escudero; Ioriatti, Claudio

    2015-06-26

    This review focuses on the process of adapting the original concept of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) to the wider conception of the Integrated Fruit Production (IFP) implemented in Europe. Even though most of the pest management strategies still rely on the use of synthetic pesticides, a wide array of innovative and environmentally friendly tools are now available as possible alternative to the pesticides within the modern apple production system. We also highlight how recent pest management strategies and tools have created an opening for research towards IPM improvement, including the use of biorational pesticides, semiochemicals and biological control. Forecasting models, new tree training systems and innovative spray equipment have also been developed to improve treatment coverage, to mitigate pesticide drift and to reduce chemical residues on fruits. The possible threats that jeopardize the effective implementation of IPM and particularly the risks related to the development of the pesticide resistance and the introduction of new invasive pests are also reviewed. With the directive 128/09, the European legislation recognizes IPM as a strategic approach for the sustainable use of pesticides. Within this context, IPM and related guidelines is called to meet different areas of concern in relation to the worker and bystander safety. Beside the traditional economic criteria of the market-oriented agriculture, sustainable agriculture includes the assessment of the environmental impact of the agronomic practices within the societal context where they take place. As a consequence of the raising consumer concerns about environmental impacts generated by the fruit production, IFP certification over product standards, including process aspects, are frequently required by consumers and supermarket chains.

  6. Integrated Fruit Production and Pest Management in Europe: The Apple Case Study and How Far We Are From the Original Concept?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petros Damos

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This review focuses on the process of adapting the original concept of Integrated Pest Management (IPM to the wider conception of the Integrated Fruit Production (IFP implemented in Europe. Even though most of the pest management strategies still rely on the use of synthetic pesticides, a wide array of innovative and environmentally friendly tools are now available as possible alternative to the pesticides within the modern apple production system. We also highlight how recent pest management strategies and tools have created an opening for research towards IPM improvement, including the use of biorational pesticides, semiochemicals and biological control. Forecasting models, new tree training systems and innovative spray equipment have also been developed to improve treatment coverage, to mitigate pesticide drift and to reduce chemical residues on fruits. The possible threats that jeopardize the effective implementation of IPM and particularly the risks related to the development of the pesticide resistance and the introduction of new invasive pests are also reviewed. With the directive 128/09, the European legislation recognizes IPM as a strategic approach for the sustainable use of pesticides. Within this context, IPM and related guidelines is called to meet different areas of concern in relation to the worker and bystander safety. Beside the traditional economic criteria of the market-oriented agriculture, sustainable agriculture includes the assessment of the environmental impact of the agronomic practices within the societal context where they take place. As a consequence of the raising consumer concerns about environmental impacts generated by the fruit production, IFP certification over product standards, including process aspects, are frequently required by consumers and supermarket chains.

  7. Guidance on a harmonised framework for pest risk assessment and the identification and evaluation of pest risk management options by EFSA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, R.; Candresse, T.; Dormannsné Simon, E.

    2010-01-01

    The Scientific Panel on Plant Health was requested by EFSA to develop a guidance document on a harmonised framework for risk assessment of organisms harmful to plants and plant products and the identification and evaluation of risk management options. The document provides guiding principles on a...

  8. Area-wide pest management of locusts and grasshoppers: The striking similarities of problems and solutions in Africa and the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lockwood, Jeffrey A.

    2000-01-01

    Grasshoppers and locusts are among the most devastating pests of human agriculture. These insects cause serious damage to crops and forage on every arable continent, and their depredations have become the basis for legends, myths, and (in recent times) complex political and economic programmes. No pest problem spans such immense areas, with up to 8 million ha treated for rangeland grasshoppers during outbreaks in the US and 16 million km 2 prone to outbreaks of the Desert locust, Schistocerca gregaria Forskal, alone. The traditional management approach has involved extensive, regionalised control programmes, but recent trends suggest a decentralised future for grasshopper and locust management. Hence, we have a dynamic situation that presents the opportunity for a comparative analysis of the costs and benefits of an area-wide approach to pest management at different scales. As political, cultural, and communication barriers between scientists dissolve, the possibility of learning from one another's experiences (both failures and successes) promises to dramatically accelerate the rate of innovation, progress and discovery in pest management. For example, the recent advances in Reduced Agent-Area Treatments (RAAT, in which insecticide is applied to swaths, separated by untreated swaths or buffers) for management of rangeland grasshoppers in the US (Lockwood and Schell 1997) are based on the adaptation of tactics developed by African, Australian, Asian, and European scientists (Rachadi and Foucart 1996, Musuna and Mugisha 1997, Scherer and Celestin 1997, Wilps and Diop 1997, Launois and Rachadi 1997). The key to successful adaptation of management methods must begin with intellectual modesty and nationalistic humility so that the insights of non-scientists and experts from outside one's country are given respect and serious consideration. It is subsequently necessary to recognise the essential similarities and differences between land use systems and understand the

  9. The Biology and Ecology of Cat Fleas and Advancements in Their Pest Management: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael K. Rust

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The cat flea Ctenocephalides felis felis (Bouché is the most important ectoparasite of domestic cats and dogs worldwide. It has been two decades since the last comprehensive review concerning the biology and ecology of C. f. felis and its management. Since then there have been major advances in our understanding of the diseases associated with C. f. felis and their implications for humans and their pets. Two rickettsial diseases, flea-borne spotted fever and murine typhus, have been identified in domestic animal populations and cat fleas. Cat fleas are the primary vector of Bartonella henselae (cat scratch fever with the spread of the bacteria when flea feces are scratched in to bites or wounds. Flea allergic dermatitis (FAD common in dogs and cats has been successfully treated and tapeworm infestations prevented with a number of new products being used to control fleas. There has been a continuous development of new products with novel chemistries that have focused on increased convenience and the control of fleas and other arthropod ectoparasites. The possibility of feral animals serving as potential reservoirs for flea infestations has taken on additional importance because of the lack of effective environmental controls in recent years. Physiological insecticide resistance in C. f. felis continues to be of concern, especially because pyrethroid resistance now appears to be more widespread. In spite of their broad use since 1994, there is little evidence that resistance has developed to many of the on-animal or oral treatments such as fipronil, imidacloprid or lufenuron. Reports of the perceived lack of performance of some of the new on-animal therapies have been attributed to compliance issues and their misuse. Consequentially, there is a continuing need for consumer awareness of products registered for cats and dogs and their safety.

  10. Pest and disease management of soilless culture [vegetable and ornamental crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilfried Schnitzler, H.

    2005-01-01

    Any soilless cropping system requires a continuous supply of water and nutrient solution in open or closed circulation. Technical set-up of open systems is simple and spread of root infesting pathogens is limited, but excessive nutrient solution run-off causes environmental hazards. Recirculating nutrient solution has ecological benefits but asks for exact crop management. Under certain conditions, pathogens can spread to endanger the crop. Nevertheless, today only closed systems should be considered. There are quite a number of different technologies available with more or less risks of plant root system damage due to pathogens. The choice of substrates for soilless cultivation is extensive, but they have always to be free of pathogens when applied first. When reused, they must be disinfected. Most destructive are phytopathogenic fungi, such as Pythium, Phytophthora and Olpidium, followed by viruses, bacteria and nematodes. Early on, the grower should take care to transplant healthy seedlings to avoid problems from the start. Also greenhouse structures can serve as infection sources as well as surface water for irrigation. Soilless cultivation has the huge advantage to optimize growing factors like temperature, water, pH and nutrients according to the plant need to reduce stress. Large operations with monocrops may choose sterilization of irrigation water. A number of practical options is available, chemicals (ozone, hydrogen peroxide, chlorine, iodine), UV irradiation, heating, membrane and slow- or bio-filtration. Biological control of root infesting pathogens offers very interesting new approaches, e.g. Bacillus subtilis strains, Streptomyces, Trichoderma, non-pathogenic Fusarium and V-micorrhiza strains besides fluorescent pseudomonads [it

  11. The Biology and Ecology of Cat Fleas and Advancements in Their Pest Management: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The cat flea Ctenocephalides felis felis (Bouché) is the most important ectoparasite of domestic cats and dogs worldwide. It has been two decades since the last comprehensive review concerning the biology and ecology of C. f. felis and its management. Since then there have been major advances in our understanding of the diseases associated with C. f. felis and their implications for humans and their pets. Two rickettsial diseases, flea-borne spotted fever and murine typhus, have been identified in domestic animal populations and cat fleas. Cat fleas are the primary vector of Bartonella henselae (cat scratch fever) with the spread of the bacteria when flea feces are scratched in to bites or wounds. Flea allergic dermatitis (FAD) common in dogs and cats has been successfully treated and tapeworm infestations prevented with a number of new products being used to control fleas. There has been a continuous development of new products with novel chemistries that have focused on increased convenience and the control of fleas and other arthropod ectoparasites. The possibility of feral animals serving as potential reservoirs for flea infestations has taken on additional importance because of the lack of effective environmental controls in recent years. Physiological insecticide resistance in C. f. felis continues to be of concern, especially because pyrethroid resistance now appears to be more widespread. In spite of their broad use since 1994, there is little evidence that resistance has developed to many of the on-animal or oral treatments such as fipronil, imidacloprid or lufenuron. Reports of the perceived lack of performance of some of the new on-animal therapies have been attributed to compliance issues and their misuse. Consequentially, there is a continuing need for consumer awareness of products registered for cats and dogs and their safety. PMID:29077073

  12. 75 FR 22680 - Financial Management Service; Proposed Collection of Information: Annual Financial Statement of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Fiscal Service Financial Management Service; Proposed Collection of Information: Annual Financial Statement of Surety Companies--Schedule F AGENCY: Financial Management Service, Fiscal Service, Treasury. ACTION: Notice and Request for comments. SUMMARY: The Financial Management...

  13. 77 FR 37959 - Financial Management Service; Proposed Collection of Information: Pools and Associations-Annual...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Fiscal Service Financial Management Service; Proposed Collection of Information: Pools and Associations--Annual Letter AGENCY: Financial Management Service, Fiscal Service, Treasury. ACTION: Notice and request for comments. SUMMARY: The Financial Management Service, as part of...

  14. Idaho National Laboratory Cultural Resource Management Annual Report FY 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Julie Braun; Hollie Gilbert; Dino Lowrey; Clayton Marler; Brenda Pace

    2008-03-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Site is home to vast numbers and a wide variety of important cultural resources representing at least a 13,500-year span of human land use in the region. As a federal agency, the Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office has legal responsibility for the management and protection of those resources and has delegated these responsibilities to its primary contractor, Battelle Energy Alliance (BEA). The BEA professional staff is committed to maintaining a cultural resource management program that accepts these challenges in a manner reflecting the resources’ importance in local, regional, and national history. This annual report summarizes activities performed by the INL Cultural Resource Management Office (CRMO) staff during fiscal year 2007. This work is diverse, far-reaching and though generally confined to INL cultural resource compliance, also includes a myriad of professional and voluntary community activities. This document is intended to be both informative to internal and external stakeholders, and to serve as a planning tool for future cultural resource management work to be conducted on the INL.

  15. Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management annual report to Congress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-12-01

    This seventh Annual Report to Congress by the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) describes activities and expenditures of the Office during fiscal years (FY) 1989 and 1990. In November 1989, OCRWM is responsible for disposing of the Nation's spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste in a manner that protects the health and safety of the public and the quality of the environment. To direct the implementation of its mission, OCRWM has established the following objectives: (1) Safe and timely disposal: to establish as soon as practicable the ability to dispose of radioactive waste in a geologic repository licensed by the NRC. (2) Timely and adequate waste acceptance: to begin the operation of the waste management system as soon as practicable in order to obtain the system development and operational benefits that have been identified for the MRS facility. (3) Schedule confidence: to establish confidence in the schedule for waste acceptance and disposal such that the management of radioactive waste is not an obstacle to the nuclear energy option. (4) System flexibility: to ensure that the program has the flexibility necessary for adapting to future circumstances while fulfilling established commitments. To achieve these objectives, OCRWM is developing a waste management system consisting of a geologic repository for permanent disposed deep beneath the surface of the earth, a facility for MRS, and a system for transporting the waste

  16. MicroRNA and dsRNA targeting chitin synthase A reveal a great potential for pest management of the hemipteran insect Nilaparvata lugens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tengchao; Chen, Jie; Fan, Xiaobin; Chen, Weiwen; Zhang, Wenqing

    2017-07-01

    Two RNA silencing pathways in insects are known to exist that are mediated by short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and microRNAs (miRNAs), which have been hypothesised to be promising methods for insect pest control. However, a comparison between miRNA and siRNA in pest control is still unavailable, particularly in targeting chitin synthase gene A (CHSA). The dsRNA for Nilaparvata lugens CHSA (dsNlCHSA) and the microR-2703 (miR-2703) mimic targeting NlCHSA delivered via feeding affected the development of nymphs, reduced their chitin content and led to lethal phenotypes. The protein level of NlCHSA was downregulated after female adults were injected with dsNlCHSA or the miR-2703 mimic, but there were no significant differences in vitellogenin (NlVg) expression or in total oviposition relative to the control group. However, 90.68 and 46.13% of the eggs laid by the females injected with dsNlCHSA and miR-2703 mimic were unable to hatch, respectively. In addition, a second-generation miRNA and RNAi effect on N. lugens was observed. Ingested miR-2703 seems to be a good option for killing N. lugens nymphs, while NlCHSA may be a promising target for RNAi-based pest management. These findings provide important evidence for applications of small non-coding RNAs (snRNAs) in insect pest management. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Classical biological control of an invasive forest pest: a world perspective of the management of Sirex noctilio using the parasitoid Ibalia leucospoides (Hymenoptera: Ibaliidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischbein, D; Corley, J C

    2015-02-01

    Classical biological control is a key method for managing populations of pests in long-lived crops such as plantation forestry. The execution of biological control programmes in general, as the evaluation of potential natural enemies remains, to a large extent, an empirical endeavour. Thus, characterizing specific cases to determine patterns that may lead to more accurate predictions of success is an important goal of the much applied ecological research. We review the history of introduction, ecology and behaviour of the parasitoid Ibalia leucospoides. The species is a natural enemy of Sirex noctilio, one of the most important pests of pine afforestation worldwide. We use an invasion ecology perspective given the analogy between the main stages involved in classical biological control and the biological invasion processes. We conclude that success in the establishment, a common reason of failure in biocontrol, is not a limiting factor of success by I. leucospoides. A mismatch between the spread capacity of the parasitoid and that of its host could nevertheless affect control at a regional scale. In addition, we suggest that given its known life history traits, this natural enemy may be a better regulator than suppressor of the host population. Moreover, spatial and temporal refuges of the host population that may favour the local persistence of the interaction probably reduce the degree to which S. noctilio population is suppressed by the parasitoid. We emphasize the fact that some of the biological attributes that promote establishment may negatively affect suppression levels achieved. Studies on established non-native pest-parasitoid interactions may contribute to defining selection criteria for classical biological control which may prove especially useful in integrated pest management IPM programmes of invasive forest insects.

  18. Exploring the Macrostructure of Management Forewords of Corporate Annual Reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atefeh Mobasher

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Management foreword is an unedited qualitative section of Corporate Annual Reports (CARs. It is also considered as the most widely read section of CARs which may reveal the financial condition of the company. So far, only few language studies have embarked on analysis of this section and they have mainly focused on the genre content of management foreword rather than its genre structure. Nevertheless, the few genre studies conducted had several shortcomings in the model proposed. Besides, none of the previously move analysis studies on management foreword have considered corpus analysis tools in their procedure of analysis. Accordingly, the present study is aimed to bridge the gap in previous studies by describing the genre structure of management forewords. To that aim, a qualitative genre analysis study was conducted on 64 samples of management forewords of Asian companies using AntConc software. The analysis revealed six moves and nineteen move-strategy combinations. Most of the identified moves and strategies were also identified in previous move analysis studies on management forewords and other types of business reports and hence verified. The proposed move analysis model defined move boundaries and provided the most frequent words and verbs that represent each move. Additionally, the proposed moves consist of predictable strategies which are bound to their moves and do not appear within the boundary of more than one move. The findings of the present study could be useful for ESP practitioners as teaching material and raise awareness among business ESP students about the genre conventions of this genre.

  19. Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management annual capacity report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-12-01

    The Standard Contract for Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel and/or High-Level Radioactive Waste (10 CRF 961) requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to issue and Annual Capacity Report (ACR) for planning purposes. This report is currently scheduled to be the last in the series of ACRs to be published by DOE. The Standard Disposal Contract states that beginning in April 1991, DOE will publish the first annual Acceptance Priority Ranking report which will formally set forth the acceptance queue in which Purchasers will receive priority for allocation of the Waste Management System (WMS) acceptance capacity. This 1990 issue of the ACR utilizes two projected WMS waste acceptance schedules as the bases for allocation of acceptance capacity to the Purchasers for a 10-year period following the projected commencement of facility operations. The acceptance schedules were selected to be representative of upper and lower boundaries for a WMS which includes a Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) facility capable of receiving and storing SNF starting in 1998. 6 refs., 4 tabs

  20. The introduction of integrated pest management in the Ethiopian horticultural sector : Bacillus thuringiensis strains and its toxicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belder, den E.; Elderson, J.

    2012-01-01

    1 Introduction As hazards of conventional broad acting pesticides are documented, researchers, poli cymakers and growers look for pesticides that are toxic only to the target pest, have no impact on other such as beneficial species, and have fewer environmental effects. Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt)

  1. Large-scale deployment of seed treatments has driven rapid increase in use of neonicotinoid insecticides and preemptive pest management in US field crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Margaret R; Tooker, John F

    2015-04-21

    Neonicotinoids are the most widely used class of insecticides worldwide, but patterns of their use in the U.S. are poorly documented, constraining attempts to understand their role in pest management and potential nontarget effects. We synthesized publicly available data to estimate and interpret trends in neonicotinoid use since their introduction in 1994, with a special focus on seed treatments, a major use not captured by the national pesticide-use survey. Neonicotinoid use increased rapidly between 2003 and 2011, as seed-applied products were introduced in field crops, marking an unprecedented shift toward large-scale, preemptive insecticide use: 34-44% of soybeans and 79-100% of maize hectares were treated in 2011. This finding contradicts recent analyses, which concluded that insecticides are used today on fewer maize hectares than a decade or two ago. If current trends continue, neonicotinoid use will increase further through application to more hectares of soybean and other crop species and escalation of per-seed rates. Alternatively, our results, and other recent analyses, suggest that carefully targeted efforts could considerably reduce neonicotinoid use in field crops without yield declines or economic harm to farmers, reducing the potential for pest resistance, nontarget pest outbreaks, environmental contamination, and harm to wildlife, including pollinator species.

  2. Identifying obstacles and ranking common biological control research priorities for Europe to manage most economically important pests in arable, vegetable and perennial crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamichhane, Jay Ram; Bischoff-Schaefer, Monika; Bluemel, Sylvia; Dachbrodt-Saaydeh, Silke; Dreux, Laure; Jansen, Jean-Pierre; Kiss, Jozsef; Köhl, Jürgen; Kudsk, Per; Malausa, Thibaut; Messéan, Antoine; Nicot, Philippe C; Ricci, Pierre; Thibierge, Jérôme; Villeneuve, François

    2017-01-01

    EU agriculture is currently in transition from conventional crop protection to integrated pest management (IPM). Because biocontrol is a key component of IPM, many European countries recently have intensified their national efforts on biocontrol research and innovation (R&I), although such initiatives are often fragmented. The operational outputs of national efforts would benefit from closer collaboration among stakeholders via transnationally coordinated approaches, as most economically important pests are similar across Europe. This paper proposes a common European framework on biocontrol R&I. It identifies generic R&I bottlenecks and needs as well as priorities for three crop types (arable, vegetable and perennial crops). The existing gap between the market offers of biocontrol solutions and the demand of growers, the lengthy and expensive registration process for biocontrol solutions and their varying effectiveness due to variable climatic conditions and site-specific factors across Europe are key obstacles hindering the development and adoption of biocontrol solutions in Europe. Considering arable, vegetable and perennial crops, a dozen common target pests are identified for each type of crop and ranked by order of importance at European level. Such a ranked list indicates numerous topics on which future joint transnational efforts would be justified. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. INEEL Cultural Resource Management Program Annual Report - 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clayton F. Marler

    2005-01-01

    As a federal agency, the U.S. Department of Energy has been directed by Congress, the U.S. president, and the American public to provide leadership in the preservation of prehistoric, historic, and other cultural resources on the lands it administers. This mandate to preserve cultural resources in a spirit of stewardship for the future is outlined in various federal preservation laws, regulations, and guidelines such as the National Historic Preservation Act, the Archaeological Resources Protection Act, and the National Environmental Policy Act. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory Site is located in southeastern Idaho, and is home to vast numbers and a wide variety of important cultural resources representing at least 13,000-year span of human occupation in the region. These resources are nonrenewable, bear valuable physical and intangible legacies, and yield important information about the past, present, and perhaps the future. There are special challenges associated with balancing the preservation of these resources with the management and ongoing operation of an active scientific laboratory, while also cleaning up the waste left by past programs and processes. The Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office has administrative responsibility for most of the Site, excluding lands and resources managed by the Naval Reactors Facility and (in 2004) Argonne National Laboratory-West. The Department of Energy is committed to a cultural resource program that accepts these challenges in a manner reflecting both the spirit and intent of the legislative requirements. This annual report is an overview of Cultural Resource Management Program activities conducted during Fiscal Year 2004 and is intended to be both informative to external stakeholders and to serve as a planning tool for future cultural resource management work to be conducted on the Site.

  4. INEEL Cultural Resource Management Program Annual Report - 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clayton F. Marler

    2005-01-01

    As a federal agency, the U.S. Department of Energy has been directed by Congress, the U.S. president, and the American public to provide leadership in the preservation of prehistoric, historic, and other cultural resources on the lands it administers. This mandate to preserve cultural resources in a spirit of stewardship for the future is outlined in various federal preservation laws, regulations, and guidelines such as the National Historic Preservation Act, the Archaeological Resources Protection Act, and the National Environmental Policy Act. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory Site is located in southeastern Idaho, and is home to vast numbers and a wide variety of important cultural resources representing at least 13,000-year span of human occupation in the region. These resources are nonrenewable, bear valuable physical and intangible legacies, and yield important information about the past, present, and perhaps the future. There are special challenges associated with balancing the preservation of these resources with the management and ongoing operation of an active scientific laboratory, while also cleaning up the waste left by past programs and processes. The Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office has administrative responsibility for most of the Site, excluding lands and resources managed by the Naval Reactors Facility and (in 2004) Argonne National Laboratory-West. The Department of Energy is committed to a cultural resource program that accepts these challenges in a manner reflecting both the spirit and intent of the legislative requirements. This annual report is an overview of Cultural Resource Management Program activities conducted during Fiscal Year 2004 and is intended to be both informative to external stakeholders and to serve as a planning tool for future cultural resource management work to be conducted on the Site

  5. Investigations on pests, diseases and present early warning system ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-02-08

    Feb 8, 2010 ... where selective pesticides were used. Apple scab ... taken more attention and integrated pest management. (IPM), gained ... 2004 years and samples were taken (Figure 1). Pests ..... ground in the previous year. So, there is a ...

  6. Economic evaluation of an area-wide integrated pest management program to control the Asian tiger mosquito in New Jersey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepard, Donald S; Halasa, Yara A; Fonseca, Dina M; Farajollahi, Ary; Healy, Sean P; Gaugler, Randy; Bartlett-Healy, Kristen; Strickman, Daniel A; Clark, Gary G

    2014-01-01

    Aedes albopictus is the most invasive mosquito in the world, an important disease vector, and a biting nuisance that limits outdoor activities. Area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) is the recommended control strategy. We conducted an economic evaluation of the AW-IPM project in Mercer and Monmouth Counties, New Jersey with a controlled design (AW-IPM vs. control) from 2009 through 2011. The study analyzed financial documents and staff time for AW-IPM and surveyed an average of 415 randomly chosen households in AW-IPM and control areas each fall from 2008 through 2011. Hours lost from yard and porch activities were calculated as differences between actual and potential hours of these activities in an average summer week if there had been no mosquito concerns. Net estimated benefits of AW-IPM were based on cross-over and difference-in-difference analyses. Reductions in hours lost were valued based on respondents' willingness to pay for a hypothetical extra hour free of mosquitoes spent on yard or porch activities and literature on valuation of a quality adjusted life year (QALY). The incremental cost of AW-IPM per adult was $41.18 per year. Number of hours lost due to mosquitoes in AW-IPM areas between the base year (2008) and the intervention years (2009-2011) declined by 3.30 hours per summer week in AW-IPM areas compared to control areas. Survey respondents valued this improvement at $27.37 per adult per summer week. Over the 13-week summer, an average adult resident gained 42.96 hours of yard and porch time, worth $355.82. The net benefit over the summer was $314.63. With an average of 0.0027 QALYs gained per adult per year, AW-IPM was cost effective at $15,300 per QALY gained. The benefit-cost ratio from hours gained was 8.64, indicating that each $1 spent on AW-IPM gave adults additional porch and yard time worth over $8.

  7. Economic evaluation of an area-wide integrated pest management program to control the Asian tiger mosquito in New Jersey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald S Shepard

    Full Text Available Aedes albopictus is the most invasive mosquito in the world, an important disease vector, and a biting nuisance that limits outdoor activities. Area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM is the recommended control strategy. We conducted an economic evaluation of the AW-IPM project in Mercer and Monmouth Counties, New Jersey with a controlled design (AW-IPM vs. control from 2009 through 2011. The study analyzed financial documents and staff time for AW-IPM and surveyed an average of 415 randomly chosen households in AW-IPM and control areas each fall from 2008 through 2011. Hours lost from yard and porch activities were calculated as differences between actual and potential hours of these activities in an average summer week if there had been no mosquito concerns. Net estimated benefits of AW-IPM were based on cross-over and difference-in-difference analyses. Reductions in hours lost were valued based on respondents' willingness to pay for a hypothetical extra hour free of mosquitoes spent on yard or porch activities and literature on valuation of a quality adjusted life year (QALY. The incremental cost of AW-IPM per adult was $41.18 per year. Number of hours lost due to mosquitoes in AW-IPM areas between the base year (2008 and the intervention years (2009-2011 declined by 3.30 hours per summer week in AW-IPM areas compared to control areas. Survey respondents valued this improvement at $27.37 per adult per summer week. Over the 13-week summer, an average adult resident gained 42.96 hours of yard and porch time, worth $355.82. The net benefit over the summer was $314.63. With an average of 0.0027 QALYs gained per adult per year, AW-IPM was cost effective at $15,300 per QALY gained. The benefit-cost ratio from hours gained was 8.64, indicating that each $1 spent on AW-IPM gave adults additional porch and yard time worth over $8.

  8. Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management annual report to Congress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-08-01

    This is the fifth Annual Report to Congress by the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM). The report covers the activities and expenditures of OCRWM during fiscal year 1987, which ended on September 30, 1987. The activities and accomplishments of OCRWM during fiscal year 1987 are discussed in chapters 1 through 9 of this report. The audited financial statements of the Nuclear Waste Fund are provided in chapter 10. Since the close of the fiscal year, a number of significant events have occurred. Foremost among them was the passage of the Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1987 (Amendments Act) on December 21, 1987, nearly 3 months after the end of the fiscal year covered by this report. As a result, some of the plans and activities discussed in chapters 1 through 9 are currently undergoing significant change or are being discontinued. Most prominent among the provisions of the Amendments Act is the designation of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, as the only candidate first repository site to be characterized. Therefore, the site characterization plans for Deaf Smith, Texas, and Hanford, Washington, discussed in chapter 3, will not be issued. The refocusing of the waste management program under the Amendments Act is highlighted in the epilogue, chapter 11. 68 refs., 7 figs., 7 tabs

  9. [Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management] 1992 annual capacity report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-03-01

    The Standard Contract for Disposal of Spent Nuclear Radioactive Waste (10 CFR Part 961) requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to issue an Annual Capacity Report (ACR) for planning purposes. This report is the fifth in the series published by DOE. In March 1993, DOE published the 1992 Acceptance Priority Ranking (APR) that established the order in which DOE will allocate projected acceptance capacity. As required by the Standard Contract, the acceptance priority ranking is based on the date the spent nuclear fuel (SNF) was permanently discharged, with the owners of the oldest SNF, on an industry-wide basis, given thehighest priority. The 1992 ACR applies the projected waste acceptance rates in Table 2.1 to the 1992 APR, resulting in individual allocations for the owners and generators of the SNF. These allocations art, listed in detail in the Appendix, and summarized in Table 3.1. The projected waste acceptance rates for SNF presented in Table 2.1 assume a site for a Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) facility will tic obtained; the facility will initiate operations in 1998; and the statutory linkages between the MRS facility and the repository set forth in the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, as amended (NWPA), will be modified. During the first ten years following projected commencement of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS) operation, the total quantity of SNF that could be accepted is projected to be 8200 metric tons of uranium (MTU). This is consistent with the storage capacity licensing conditions imposed on an MRS facility by the NWPA. The annual acceptance rates provide an approximation of the system throughput and are subject to change as the program progresses

  10. Efficacy of Intercropping as a Management Tool for the Control on Insect Pests of Cabbage in Ghana 1H m 2m

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timbilla, JA.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of intercropping cabbage with other vegetables and herbs as a management tool in migitating insect pests problems of cabbage was investigated in the field at Kwadaso, Kumasi during a three season period in the forest region of Ghana. The results showed that Plutella xylostella could be effectively controlled when cabbage is intercropped with onion, spearmint and tomato. However, there is the need to control Hellula undalis in endemie areas with pesticides up to six weeks after transplanting. Both Karate (cyhalothrin and Dipel 2X (the biopesticide Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. Kurstaki were effective in mitigating the problem of H. undalis in the intercropping experiments and both are recommended.

  11. Traditional knowledge on integrated pest and weed management in chayote (Sechium edule (Jacq. Sw. crops from localities of Chiapas, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Alfredo Rodríguez-Larramendi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This research was carried out in Villaflores and Villa Corzo, located in Chiapas State of Mexico. Specifically, throughout an ethno-agronomical approach, semi-structured interviews were designed and applied to the chayote producers who were selected by random routes. The results indicate the 57.89% of chayote producers in both municipalities, have allowed to control weeds in their crops, and being a higher proportion represented by Villaflores. Given these concerns, they prefer to control weeds throughout traditional methods, basically using mattocks with frequencies of 15 to 30 days after sowing or two to four times per cycle of crop production. Both pest and diseases are mainly controlled throughout chemical methods application. A preference to perform control among periods of higher rainfall or drought is not distinguished. A considerable percentage, which reaches 44% of the interviewed population among both municipalities, report they do not need to control pests and crop diseases.

  12. Biological control of livestock pests: Pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interest in biological methods for livestock and poultry pest management is largely motivated by the development of resistance to most of the available synthetic pesticides by the major pests. There also has been a marked increase in organic systems, and those that promote animal welfare by reducing...

  13. Sandia National Laboratories California Waste Management Program Annual Report April 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brynildson, Mark E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2011-04-01

    The annual program report provides detailed information about all aspects of the Sandia National Laboratories, California (SNL/CA) Waste Management Program. It functions as supporting documentation to the SNL/CA Environmental Management System Program Manual. This annual program report describes the activities undertaken during the past year, and activities planned in future years to implement the Waste Management (WM) Program, one of six programs that supports environmental management at SNL/CA.

  14. Sandia National Laboratories, California Waste Management Program annual report : February 2009.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brynildson, Mark E.

    2009-02-01

    The annual program report provides detailed information about all aspects of the Sandia National Laboratories, California (SNL/CA) Waste Management Program. It functions as supporting documentation to the SNL/CA Environmental Management System rogram Manual. This annual program report describes the activities undertaken during the past year, and activities planned in future years to implement the Waste Management (WM) Program, one of six programs that supports environmental management at SNL/CA.

  15. Implementing reduced-risk integrated pest management in fresh-market cabbage: improved net returns via scouting and timing of effective control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkness, Eric C; Hutchison, W D

    2008-04-01

    During 1998-2001, field studies were done to assess the efficacy of an integrated pest management (IPM) program using an action threshold and "reduced-risk" insecticides. The IPM program was compared with a conventional grower-based program. Program performance was evaluated based on management of Trichoplusia ni (Hiibner), Pieris (=Artogeia) rapae (L.), and Plutella xylostella (L.), as well as the economic impact of each program on net returns. The action threshold used in the IPM program consisted of 10% plants infested with T. ni larvae, based on previous small-plot experiment station trials. In all years of the study, the IPM program resulted in significantly lower percentages of plants infested than the conventional program or untreated check. The mean reduction in insecticide applications for the IPM program compared with the conventional program was 23.5%, whereas, on average, the costs of the IPM program were 46.0% higher than the conventional program. Pest reduction in the IPM program resulted in an average of 10.5% higher marketable yields than the conventional program. Percentages of marketable heads in the IPM program ranged from 82 to 99% and from 63 to 96% in the conventional program. Mean net returns for the IPM program exceeded the conventional program by $984.20/ha. These results indicated that the IPM program reduced insecticide use overall, even though costs of the IPM program, with either spinosad or indoxacarb, were sometimes higher. Overall, net returns of the IPM program were higher due to active pest scouting, improved application timing, and increases in marketable yield. Given the potential decrease in insecticide applications and increases in net profit resulting from this IPM program, additional analyses should be conducted to quantify the economic risk, or consistency of the results, to fully evaluate the benefits of the IPM program compared with a conventional program.

  16. Forrest Ranch Management and Implementation, Annual Report 2002-2003.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Brent

    2004-01-01

    Through their John Day Basin Office, the Confederated Tribes of Warm Springs Reservation of Oregon (Tribes) acquired the Forrest Ranch during July of 2002. The property consists of two parcels located in the John Day subbasin within the Columbia basin. The mainstem parcel consists of 3,503 acres and is located 1/2 mile to the east of Prairie City, Oregon on the mainstem of the John Day River. The middle fork parcel consists of 820 acres and is located one mile to the west of the town of Austin, OR on the middle fork John Day River. The Forrest Ranch Project is under a memorandum of agreement with the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) to provide an annual written report generally describing the real property interests of the project and management activities undertaken or in progress. The Forrest Ranch acquisition was funded by BPA as part of their program to protect, mitigate, and enhance fish and wildlife habitat affected by the operation of their hydroelectric facilities on the Columbia River and its tributaries. Following lengthy negotiations with the BPA and property owner, the Tribes were able to conclude the acquisition of the Forrest Ranch in July of 2002. The intent of the acquisition project was to partially mitigate fish and wildlife impacts for the John Day Dam on the Columbia River as outlined in the Northwest Power Planning Council's Wildlife Program (NPPC 1994, section 11.1, section 7.6). While the Tribes hold fee-title to the property, the BPA has assured a level of program funding through a memorandum of agreement and annual statement of work. As early as 1997, the Tribes identified this property as a priority for restoration in the John Day basin. In 2000, the Tribes arranged an agreement with the landowner to seek funds for the acquisition of both the Middle Fork and upper Mainstem John Day River holdings of Mr. John Forrest. This property had been a priority of not only the Tribes, but of many other basin natural resource agencies. The

  17. Annual report of the Management Research Center, 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    Research on the management of new forms of automation; industrial management; the definition of a new product range; economic management; personnel management; and management of cultural enterprises is presented [fr

  18. Toxins for Transgenic Resistance to Hemipteran Pests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chougule, Nanasaheb P.; Bonning, Bryony C.

    2012-01-01

    The sap sucking insects (Hemiptera), which include aphids, whiteflies, plant bugs and stink bugs, have emerged as major agricultural pests. The Hemiptera cause direct damage by feeding on crops, and in some cases indirect damage by transmission of plant viruses. Current management relies almost exclusively on application of classical chemical insecticides. While the development of transgenic crops expressing toxins derived from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) has provided effective plant protection against some insect pests, Bt toxins exhibit little toxicity against sap sucking insects. Indeed, the pest status of some Hemiptera on Bt-transgenic plants has increased in the absence of pesticide application. The increased pest status of numerous hemipteran species, combined with increased prevalence of resistance to chemical insecticides, provides impetus for the development of biologically based, alternative management strategies. Here, we provide an overview of approaches toward transgenic resistance to hemipteran pests. PMID:22822455

  19. Converting pest insects into food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Offenberg, Hans Joachim; Wiwatwittaya, Decha

    2010-01-01

    Canopy dwelling weaver ants (Oecophylla spp.) are used to control a variety of pests in a number of tropical tree crops. What is less familiar is the existence of commercial markets where these ants and their brood are sold for (i) human consumption, (ii) pet food or (iii) traditional medicine...... on management, 32-115 kg ant brood (mainly new queens) was harvested per ha per year without detrimental effect on colony survival and worker ant densities. This suggest that ant biocontrol and ant harvest can be sustainable integrated in plantations and double benefits derived. As ant production is fuelled...... by pest insects, problematic pests are converted into food and additional earnings. To assess the profitability of providing additional food for the ants, O. smaragdina food conversion efficiency (ECI) was estimated in the laboratory. This estimate suggests the feeding of weaver ants in ant farms...

  20. Sandia National Laboratories, California Hazardous Materials Management Program annual report : February 2009.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brynildson, Mark E.

    2009-02-01

    The annual program report provides detailed information about all aspects of the Sandia National Laboratories, California (SNL/CA) Hazardous Materials Management Program. It functions as supporting documentation to the SNL/CA Environmental anagement ystem Program Manual. This program annual report describes the activities undertaken during the past year, and activities planned in future years to implement the Hazardous Materials Management Program, one of six programs that supports environmental management at SNL/CA.

  1. Towards a Collaborative Research: A Case Study on Linking Science to Farmers’ Perceptions and Knowledge on Arabica Coffee Pests and Diseases and Its Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebig, Theresa; Läderach, Peter; Poehling, Hans-Michael; Kucel, Patrick; Van Asten, Piet; Avelino, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    The scientific community has recognized the importance of integrating farmer’s perceptions and knowledge (FPK) for the development of sustainable pest and disease management strategies. However, the knowledge gap between indigenous and scientific knowledge still contributes to misidentification of plant health constraints and poor adoption of management solutions. This is particularly the case in the context of smallholder farming in developing countries. In this paper, we present a case study on coffee production in Uganda, a sector depending mostly on smallholder farming facing a simultaneous and increasing number of socio-ecological pressures. The objectives of this study were (i) to examine and relate FPK on Arabica Coffee Pests and Diseases (CPaD) to altitude and the vegetation structure of the production systems; (ii) to contrast results with perceptions from experts and (iii) to compare results with field observations, in order to identify constraints for improving the information flow between scientists and farmers. Data were acquired by means of interviews and workshops. One hundred and fifty farmer households managing coffee either at sun exposure, under shade trees or inter-cropped with bananas and spread across an altitudinal gradient were selected. Field sampling of the two most important CPaD was conducted on a subset of 34 plots. The study revealed the following findings: (i) Perceptions on CPaD with respect to their distribution across altitudes and perceived impact are partially concordant among farmers, experts and field observations (ii) There are discrepancies among farmers and experts regarding management practices and the development of CPaD issues of the previous years. (iii) Field observations comparing CPaD in different altitudes and production systems indicate ambiguity of the role of shade trees. According to the locality-specific variability in CPaD pressure as well as in FPK, the importance of developing spatially variable and

  2. Towards a Collaborative Research: A Case Study on Linking Science to Farmers' Perceptions and Knowledge on Arabica Coffee Pests and Diseases and Its Management.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa Liebig

    Full Text Available The scientific community has recognized the importance of integrating farmer's perceptions and knowledge (FPK for the development of sustainable pest and disease management strategies. However, the knowledge gap between indigenous and scientific knowledge still contributes to misidentification of plant health constraints and poor adoption of management solutions. This is particularly the case in the context of smallholder farming in developing countries. In this paper, we present a case study on coffee production in Uganda, a sector depending mostly on smallholder farming facing a simultaneous and increasing number of socio-ecological pressures. The objectives of this study were (i to examine and relate FPK on Arabica Coffee Pests and Diseases (CPaD to altitude and the vegetation structure of the production systems; (ii to contrast results with perceptions from experts and (iii to compare results with field observations, in order to identify constraints for improving the information flow between scientists and farmers. Data were acquired by means of interviews and workshops. One hundred and fifty farmer households managing coffee either at sun exposure, under shade trees or inter-cropped with bananas and spread across an altitudinal gradient were selected. Field sampling of the two most important CPaD was conducted on a subset of 34 plots. The study revealed the following findings: (i Perceptions on CPaD with respect to their distribution across altitudes and perceived impact are partially concordant among farmers, experts and field observations (ii There are discrepancies among farmers and experts regarding management practices and the development of CPaD issues of the previous years. (iii Field observations comparing CPaD in different altitudes and production systems indicate ambiguity of the role of shade trees. According to the locality-specific variability in CPaD pressure as well as in FPK, the importance of developing spatially variable

  3. Towards a Collaborative Research: A Case Study on Linking Science to Farmers' Perceptions and Knowledge on Arabica Coffee Pests and Diseases and Its Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebig, Theresa; Jassogne, Laurence; Rahn, Eric; Läderach, Peter; Poehling, Hans-Michael; Kucel, Patrick; Van Asten, Piet; Avelino, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    The scientific community has recognized the importance of integrating farmer's perceptions and knowledge (FPK) for the development of sustainable pest and disease management strategies. However, the knowledge gap between indigenous and scientific knowledge still contributes to misidentification of plant health constraints and poor adoption of management solutions. This is particularly the case in the context of smallholder farming in developing countries. In this paper, we present a case study on coffee production in Uganda, a sector depending mostly on smallholder farming facing a simultaneous and increasing number of socio-ecological pressures. The objectives of this study were (i) to examine and relate FPK on Arabica Coffee Pests and Diseases (CPaD) to altitude and the vegetation structure of the production systems; (ii) to contrast results with perceptions from experts and (iii) to compare results with field observations, in order to identify constraints for improving the information flow between scientists and farmers. Data were acquired by means of interviews and workshops. One hundred and fifty farmer households managing coffee either at sun exposure, under shade trees or inter-cropped with bananas and spread across an altitudinal gradient were selected. Field sampling of the two most important CPaD was conducted on a subset of 34 plots. The study revealed the following findings: (i) Perceptions on CPaD with respect to their distribution across altitudes and perceived impact are partially concordant among farmers, experts and field observations (ii) There are discrepancies among farmers and experts regarding management practices and the development of CPaD issues of the previous years. (iii) Field observations comparing CPaD in different altitudes and production systems indicate ambiguity of the role of shade trees. According to the locality-specific variability in CPaD pressure as well as in FPK, the importance of developing spatially variable and relevant

  4. Pest repellent properties of ant pheromones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Offenberg, Joachim

    2012-01-01

    of ant pheromones may be sufficient to repel pest insects from ant territories. The study of ant semiochemicals is in its infancy, yet, evidence for their potential use in pest management is starting to build up. Pheromones from four of five tested ant species have been shown to deter herbivorous insect...... prey and competing ant species are also deterred by ant deposits, whereas ant symbionts may be attracted to them. Based on these promising initial findings, it seems advisable to further elucidate the signaling properties of ant pheromones and to test and develop their use in future pest management....

  5. Stratified Entomological Sampling in Preparation for an Area-Wide Integrated Pest Management Program: The Example of Glossina palpalis gambiensis (Diptera: Glossinidae) in the Niayes of Senegal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouyer, Jeremy; Seck, Momar Talla; Guerrini, Laure; Sall, Baba; Ndiaye, Elhadji Youssou; Vreysen, Marc J.B.

    2010-01-01

    The riverine tsetse species Glossina palpalis gambiensis Vanderplank 1949 (Diptera: Glossinidae) inhabits riparian forests along river systems in West Africa. The government of Senegal has embarked on a project to eliminate this tsetse species, and African animal trypanosomoses, from the Niayes are using an area-wide integrated pest management approach. A stratified entomological sampling strategy was therefore developed using spatial analytical tools and mathematical modeling. A preliminary phytosociological census identified eight types of suitable habitat, which could be discriminated from LandSat 7ETM satellite images and denominated wet areas. At the end of March 2009, 683 unbaited Vavoua traps had been deployed, and the observed infested area in the Niayes was 525 km2. In the remaining area, a mathematical model was used to assess the risk that flies were present despite a sequence of zero catches. The analysis showed that this risk was above 0.05 in19% of this area that will be considered as infested during the control operations.The remote sensing analysis that identifed the wet areas allowed a restriction of the area to be surveyed to 4% of the total surface area (7,150km2), whereas the mathematical model provided an efficient method to improve the accuracy and the robustness of the sampling protocol. The final size of the control area will be decided based on the entomological collection data.This entomological sampling procedure might be used for other vector or pest control scenarios. (Authors)

  6. Diseases and pests in biomass production systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Royle, D.J.; Hunter, Tom; McNabb, H.S. Jr.

    1998-01-01

    The current status of disease and pest problems in willow and poplar biomass systems for energy within Canada, Sweden, the United Kingdom and the United States is described. The IEA Disease and Pest Activities within the recent Task XII (1995-1997), and previous Tasks since 1987, have provided outstanding opportunities for international co-operation which has served substantially to augment national research programmes. Work is described on recognizing different forms of an insect pest or pathogen and understanding the genetic basis of its variability, which is of fundamental importance in developing pest management strategies that exclude inputs of energy-rich materials such as pesticides. Options for more natural pest control are considered including breeding for resistance, plantation designs based on host genotype diversity and biological control 16 refs, 2 figs

  7. Guidelines for the Use of Mathematics in Operational Area-Wide Integrated Pest Management Programmes Using the Sterile Insect Technique with a Special Focus on Tephritid Fruit Flies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barclay, H.L.; Enkerlin, W.R.; Manoukis, N.C.; Reyes-Flores, J.

    2016-01-01

    This guideline attempts to assist managers in the use of mathematics in area-wide Integrated Pest Management (AW-IPM) programmes using the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT). It describes mathematical tools that can be used at different stages of suppression/eradication programmes. For instance, it provides simple methods for calculating the various quantities of sterile insects required in the intervention area so that more realistic sterile: fertile rates to suppress pest populations can be achieved. The calculations, for the most part, only involve high school mathematics and can be done easily with small portable computers or calculators. The guideline is intended to be a reference book, to be consulted when necessary. As such, any particular AW-IPM programme using the SIT will probably only need certain sections, and much of the book can be ignored if that is the case. For example, if the intervention area is relatively small and well isolated, then the section on dispersal can safely be ignored, as the boundedness of the area means that dispersal should not be a problem, and so the section on diffusion equations can be ignored. An overview is given in each chapter to try to let the programme manager make a decision about where to put the programme efforts. On the other hand, most SIT programmes have an information system (many of them based on GIS) that produces reliable profiles of historic information. Based on the results of past activities they describe what has happened in the last days or weeks but usually do not explain, or barely explain, what is expected in the following days or weeks. Current AW-IPM progammes using the SIT have produced over many years a vast amount of every-day data from the field operations and from the mass rearing facility and packing and sterile insect releasing centres. With the help of this guideline, that information can be used to develop predictive models for their particular conditions to better plan control measures.

  8. The utility of microsatellite DNA markers for the evaluation of area-wide integrated pest management using SIT for the fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), control programs in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aketarawong, Nidchaya; Chinvinijkul, Suksom; Orankanok, Watchreeporn; Guglielmino, Carmela Rosalba; Franz, Gerald; Malacrida, Anna Rodolfa; Thanaphum, Sujinda

    2011-01-01

    The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), is a key pest that causes reduction of the crop yield within the international fruit market. Fruit flies have been suppressed by two Area-Wide Integrated Pest Management programs in Thailand using Sterile Insect Technique (AW-IPM-SIT) since the late 1980s and the early 2000s. The projects' planning and evaluation usually rely on information from pest status, distribution, and fruit infestation. However, the collected data sometimes does not provide enough detail to answer management queries and public concerns, such as the long term sterilization efficacy of the released fruit fly, skepticism about insect migration or gene flow across the buffer zone, and the re-colonisation possibility of the fruit fly population within the core area. Established microsatellite DNA markers were used to generate population genetic data for the analysis of the fruit fly sampling from several control areas, and non-target areas, as well as the mass-rearing facility. The results suggested limited gene flow (m flies in the control areas and flies captured outside. In addition, no genetic admixture was revealed from the mass-reared colony flies from the flies within the control area, which supports the effectiveness of SIT. The control pests were suppressed to low density and showed weak bottleneck footprints although they still acquired a high degree of genetic variation. Potential pest resurgence from fragmented micro-habitats in mixed fruit orchards rather than pest incursion across the buffer zone has been proposed. Therefore, a suitable pest control effort, such as the SIT program, should concentrate on the hidden refuges within the target area.

  9. Before and after Silent Spring: from chemical pesticides to biological control and integrated pest management--Britain, 1945-1980.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, Hannah

    2012-07-01

    The use of chemical pesticides increased considerably after World War II, and ecological damage was noticeable by the late 1940s. This paper outlines some ecological problems experienced during the post-war period in the UK, and in parts of what is now Malaysia. Also discussed is the government's response. Although Rachel Carson's book, Silent Spring (1962), was important in bringing the problems to a wider public, she was not alone in sounding the alarm. Pressure from the public and from British scientists led, among other things, to the founding of the Natural Environment Research Council in 1965. By the 1970s, environmentalism was an important movement, and funding for ecological and environmental research was forthcoming even during the economic recession. Some of the recipients were ecologists working at Imperial College London. Moved by the political climate, and by the evidence of ecological damage, they carried out research on the biological control of insect pests.

  10. Economics of area-wide pest control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mumford, J.D.

    2000-01-01

    pest management options: 1) annual comparisons (for example, pheromone disruption), 2) initial capital costs with delayed projected benefits (SIT eradication), 3) initial costs with delayed and uncertain future benefits (quarantine, pesticide resistance management). In any of these cases, the two basic principles governing the selection of area-wide management over individual local pest management are effectiveness and efficiency. Quarantine and eradication can only be achieved on an area-wide basis; they are unlikely to be effective otherwise. In both cases, total effectiveness is required and this must be the paramount indicator. Questions of efficiency subsequently arise in deciding which area-wide techniques to employ, not in comparing them to uncoordinated local control. However, economic efficiency should be considered at an early stage to decide whether total control, as epitomised by quarantine or eradication, is a viable option. In suppression campaigns it is quite possible to choose a less effective control if it is much less expensive or more practical to use. Suppression may or may not be more effective by area-wide management, but the main issue is one of cost efficiency. Is area-wide suppression more cost efficient than the sum of local management? This is in fact quite a challenge because, in many areas of local pest management, private returns of 4:1 are commonly obtained, or at least perceived (Pimentel and Lehman 1993). A basic conflict can arise between technical analyses of pest management and economic analyses because of their respective emphases on effectiveness and efficiency. Technical leaders of programmes naturally strive for the ultimate effect, such as eradication, while economists may point out that a less ambitious goal with lower technology and costs may give a greater return and pose less risk of financial loss. To this, the technologist can argue that technological development requires risk taking and a greater good could be found by

  11. Annual Water Management Program Report Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge 1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the results of Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge’s 1996 annual water management program and describes plans for 1997. The main objective of...

  12. 76 FR 23859 - Financial Management Service Proposed Collection of Information: CMIA Annual Report and Direct...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Fiscal Service Financial Management Service Proposed Collection of Information: CMIA Annual Report and Direct Cost Claims AGENCY: Financial Management Service, Fiscal Service, Treasury. ACTION: Notice and request for comments. SUMMARY: The Financial Management Service, as part of...

  13. An Overview of Pest Species of Bactrocera Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae and the Integration of Biopesticides with Other Biological Approaches for Their Management with a Focus on the Pacific Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger I. Vargas

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae are among the most economically important pest species in the world, attacking a wide range of fruits and fleshy vegetables throughout tropical and sub-tropical areas. These species are such devastating crop pests that major control and eradication programs have been developed in various parts of the world to combat them. The array of control methods includes insecticide sprays to foliage and soil, bait-sprays, male annihilation techniques, releases of sterilized flies and parasitoids, and cultural controls. During the twenty first century there has been a trend to move away from control with organophosphate insecticides (e.g., malathion, diazinon, and naled and towards reduced risk insecticide treatments. In this article we present an overview of 73 pest species in the genus Bactrocera, examine recent developments of reduced risk technologies for their control and explore Integrated Pest Management (IPM Programs that integrate multiple components to manage these pests in tropical and sub-tropical areas.

  14. Use of Nuclear Techniques in Biological Control: Managing Pests, Facilitating Trade and Protecting the Environment. Report of a Consultants Group Meeting. Working Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    High-priority opportunities are proposed for use of nuclear techniques to effect improved production and shipping of augmentative biological control agents. Proposed subprojects include use of ionizing radiation to improve the production of insect natural enemies on natural hosts/prey or on artificial diets. Other subprojects pertain to improving the ability to move beneficial organisms in international trade, and in using them in the field. Additional high priority activities were identified proposing use of nuclear techniques to produce sterile and/or substerile F-1 weed biological control agents to help evaluate potential impact on non-target species in the pre-release phase, integration of augmentative releases and F-1 sterility in IPM and area-wide pest management programmes, and utilization of by-products from SIT mass-rearing facilities in augmentative biological control programmes. (author)

  15. Use of geographic information systems and spatial analysis in area-wide integrated pest management programmes that integrate the sterile insect technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, J.St.H.; Vreysen, M.J.B.

    2005-01-01

    The advantages that geographic information systems (GIS) and associated technologies can offer, in terms of the design and implementation of area-wide programmes of insect and/or disease suppression, are becoming increasingly recognised, even if the realization of this potential has not been fully exploited and for some area-wide programmes adoption appears to be progressing slowly. This chapter provides a basic introduction to the science of GIS, Global Positioning System (GPS), and satellite remote sensing (RS), and reviews the principal ways in which these technologies can be used to assist various stages of development of the sterile insect technique (SIT) as part of area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) programmes - from the selection of project sites, and feasibility assessments and planning of pre-intervention surveys, to the monitoring and analysis of insect suppression programmes, and the release of sterile insects. Potential barriers to the successful deployment of GIS tools are also discussed. (author)

  16. Integrated pest management of two-spotted mite Tetranychus urticae on greenhouse roses using petroleum spray oil and the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicetic; Watson, D M; Beattie, G A; Meats, A; Zheng, J

    2001-01-01

    From 1995 to 1999, four experiments were conducted on greenhouse roses to assess the effectiveness of the nC24 petroleum spray oil (PSO), D-C-Tron Plus, against two-spotted mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acarina: Tetranychidae), and to determine how the oil could be most efficiently and effectively used in combination with the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot (Acarina: Phytoseiidae) in an integrated pest management program. The results showed that 0.5% PSO applied fortnightly to roses gave excellent protection from T urticae infestation when the mite population was not already established. However, PSO applied after roses were infested with T. urticae above the economic threshold only stabilised populations without reducing them below that threshold. Populations of P. persimilis in the upper and lower canopies were unchanged after two sprays of PSO at 7-day intervals, and application of PSO to the upper canopy was as effective in controlling T. urticae in the presence of P persimilis as spraying the entire plant. Combining PSO with P. persimilis gave better control of T. urticae than using P. persimilis alone. The most cost-effective use of PSO in the presence of P. persimilis is, therefore, to apply spray only to the upper canopy. This will not affect control of powdery mildew with PSO. Comparison of a control program for T urticae based on the monitored use of synthetic miticides with that based on calendar application of PSO revealed that both gave equally effective control. The benefits of combining PSO and P. persimilis in an integrated pest management program for T. urticae on roses over a program based on synthetic fungicides are discussed.

  17. Thrips advisor: exploiting thrips-induced defences to combat pests on crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenbergen, Merel; Abd-El-Haliem, Ahmed; Bleeker, Petra; Dicke, Marcel; Escobar-Bravo, Rocio; Cheng, Gang; Haring, Michel A; Kant, Merijn R; Kappers, Iris; Klinkhamer, Peter G L; Leiss, Kirsten A; Legarrea, Saioa; Macel, Mirka; Mouden, Sanae; Pieterse, Corné M J; Sarde, Sandeep J; Schuurink, Robert C; De Vos, Martin; Van Wees, Saskia C M; Broekgaarden, Colette

    2018-04-09

    Plants have developed diverse defence mechanisms to ward off herbivorous pests. However, agriculture still faces estimated crop yield losses ranging from 25% to 40% annually. These losses arise not only because of direct feeding damage, but also because many pests serve as vectors of plant viruses. Herbivorous thrips (Thysanoptera) are important pests of vegetable and ornamental crops worldwide, and encompass virtually all general problems of pests: they are highly polyphagous, hard to control because of their complex lifestyle, and they are vectors of destructive viruses. Currently, control management of thrips mainly relies on the use of chemical pesticides. However, thrips rapidly develop resistance to these pesticides. With the rising demand for more sustainable, safer, and healthier food production systems, we urgently need to pinpoint the gaps in knowledge of plant defences against thrips to enable the future development of novel control methods. In this review, we summarize the current, rather scarce, knowledge of thrips-induced plant responses and the role of phytohormonal signalling and chemical defences in these responses. We describe concrete opportunities for breeding resistance against pests such as thrips as a prototype approach for next-generation resistance breeding.

  18. Test Methods for Vertebrate Pest Control and Management Materials. A Symposium Sponsored by ASTM Committee E-35 on Pesticides, American Society for Testing and Materials, Monterey, California, March 8, 1976.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, W. B., Ed.; Marsh, R. E., Ed.

    The first symposium on "Test Methods for Vertebrate Pest Management" was held in March, 1976. Much of the thrust was toward explaining and defining the "state of the art." Concerns included rodents and rabbits, predators, scavengers, and large game animals, and a variety of bird species. Environments were as restricted as a…

  19. Analysis of pesticide residues in strawberries and soils by GC-MS/MS, LC-MS/MS and two-dimensional GC– time-of-flight MS comparing organic and integrated pest management farming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernandes, V.C.; Lehotay, S.J.; Geis-Asteggiantec, L.; Kwon, H.; Mol, J.G.J.; Kamp, van der H.J.; Mateus, N.; Domingues, V.F.; Delerue-Matos, C.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we analyzed 22 strawberry and soil samples after their collection over the course of 2 years to compare the residue profiles from organic farming to integrated pest management practices in Portugal. For sample preparation, we used the citrate-buffered version of the quick, easy,

  20. Life management/aging 1995 annual report. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindsay, D.C.

    1995-01-01

    This report provides the 1995 status of the Life Management/Aging Management Program and the activities over the current fiscal year. It relates to the Tank Waste Remediation System and to the double shell tanks

  1. Recent advancement on chemical arsenal of Bt toxin and its application in pest management system in agricultural field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Pritam; Banerjee, Goutam

    2018-04-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis ( Bt ) is a Gram-positive, spore-forming, soil bacterium, which is very popular bio-control agent in agricultural and forestry. In general, B. thuringiensis secretes an array of insecticidal proteins including toxins produced during vegetative growth phase (such as secreted insecticidal protein, Sip; vegetative insecticidal proteins, Vip), parasporal crystalline δ-endotoxins produced during vegetative stationary phase (such as cytolytic toxin, Cyt; and crystal toxin, Cry), and β-exotoxins. Till date, a wide spectrum of Cry proteins has been reported and most of them belong to three-domain-Cry toxins, Bin-like toxin, and Etx_Mtx2-like toxins. To the best of our knowledge, neither Bt insecticidal toxins are exclusive to Bt nor all the strains of Bt are capable of producing insecticidal Bt toxins. The lacuna in their latest classification has also been discussed. In this review, the updated information regarding the insecticidal Bt toxins and their different mode of actions were summarized. Before applying the Bt toxins on agricultural field, the non-specific effects of toxins should be investigated. We also have summarized the problem of insect resistance and the strategies to combat with this problem. We strongly believe that this information will help a lot to the budding researchers in the field of modern pest control biotechnology.

  2. 37. annual meeting of the Institute of Nuclear Materials Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    The following subjects were covered in this meeting: waste management; nuclear materials management -- safety and health; international safeguards; measurement control and statistics for nuclear materials management; material control and accountability; packaging and transportation; nonproliferation and arms control; and physical protection. Separate papers were prepared for 74 items of this meeting

  3. EBIPM | Finding the Tools to Manage Invasive Annual Grasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    management decisions for a given landscape based on ecological principles. Take a look at our video " Grass Management How much could prevention save you? Guidelines to Implement EBIPM Weed Prevention Areas Grass Facts/ID The EBIPM Model Crooked River Weed Management Area Guide Tools for Educators EBIPM High

  4. Validating spatiotemporal predictions of an important pest of small grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Scott C; Holtzer, Thomas O; Peairs, Frank B; Lester, Philip J

    2015-01-01

    Arthropod pests are typically managed using tactics applied uniformly to the whole field. Precision pest management applies tactics under the assumption that within-field pest pressure differences exist. This approach allows for more precise and judicious use of scouting resources and management tactics. For example, a portion of a field delineated as attractive to pests may be selected to receive extra monitoring attention. Likely because of the high variability in pest dynamics, little attention has been given to developing precision pest prediction models. Here, multimodel synthesis was used to develop a spatiotemporal model predicting the density of a key pest of wheat, the Russian wheat aphid, Diuraphis noxia (Kurdjumov). Spatially implicit and spatially explicit models were synthesized to generate spatiotemporal pest pressure predictions. Cross-validation and field validation were used to confirm model efficacy. A strong within-field signal depicting aphid density was confirmed with low prediction errors. Results show that the within-field model predictions will provide higher-quality information than would be provided by traditional field scouting. With improvements to the broad-scale model component, the model synthesis approach and resulting tool could improve pest management strategy and provide a template for the development of spatially explicit pest pressure models. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Structural Pest Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, M. S.; Hoffman, W. M.

    This manual is designed for those who seek certification as pesticide applicators for industrial, institutional, structural, and health-related pest control. It is divided into six sections covering general pest control, wood-destroying organisms, bird control, fumigation, rodent control, and industrial weed control. The manual gives information…

  6. A Pest of Importance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potato cyst nematodes (PCN), G. rostochiensis and G. pallida, are internationally-recognized quarantine pests and considered the most devastating pests of potatoes worldwide. PCNs continue to spread throughout North America and were recently detected in Idaho (G. pallida) and Quebec and Alberta, Can...

  7. Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management: Annual capacity report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-06-01

    The system configuration used as the basis for this year's report is the authorized system defined in the Mission Plan Amendment. It includes a Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) facility as an integral system component. The illustrative waste acceptance schedule for this WMS configuration reflects the amended first repository schedule and a proposed schedule for the MRS facility. This schedule provides only an approximation of when and how the system may operate and is subject to changes as recognized in the draft Mission Plan Amendment. During the first 10 years of WMS operation, the total quantity of spent fuel that could be accepted is projected to be 24,100 metric tons uranium (MTU). The allocation of acceptance rights is currently based on the projected annual capacity of the WMS to receive SNF and the age of permanently discharged spent fuel as determined from 1986 data provided by the Purchasers of waste disposal services on the 1987 Nuclear Fuel Data Form, RW-859. The allocations are based on assigning the highest priority to the oldest fuel on an industry-wide basis. The Annual Capacity Report (ACR) provides a discussion of the requirement for the ACR and the role it plays in DOE's interaction with the Purchasers in implementing the provisions of the Standard Disposal Contract. The currently projected annual acceptance capacity to be allocated and a discussion of some of the impacts the Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1987 may have on the Purchasers, DOE, and the Contract are presented. The basis and procedure for allocating this capacity (acceptance rights) are discussed. The status of the ACR Issue Resolution Process and DOE responses to comments on the 1987 ACR are discussed. 7 refs

  8. 1980 Annual status report: fissile materials control and management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The R and D activities of the JRC in the field of Fissile Material Control and Management are oriented to the development of safeguards systems in the European Community nuclear fuel cycle and to provide means for a more efficient nuclear material management within the nuclear industry

  9. UTILITY OF ANNUAL FINANCIAL STATEMENTS IN THE MANAGEMENT PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PUICAN LILIANA

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Process knowledge of the financial situation of the economic entity presupposes the use of analysis and synthesis, as indispensable tools of investigation. Financial management of the economic entity have to belong to the basic role in strategic financial decisions that would solve the problem of effective management of the process optimal growth, balanced and proportionate entity. That is why it becomes necessary and imperative objective analysis of the implications of the current financial management in economic entities familiarize managers with the basic tools with which they operate, acquiring knowledge about planning and financial control, evaluation techniques of investment projects, about how to conduct financial and economic diagnosis and management control of the entity, the key issues in its orientation towards performance.

  10. An overview of tropical pest species of bactrocera fruit flies (Diptera:Tephritidae) and the integration of biopesticides with other biological approaches for their management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruit flies (Diptera:Tephritidae) are among the most economically important pest species in the world, attacking a wide range of fruits and fleshy vegetables throughout tropical and sub-tropical areas of the world. These species are such devastating crop pests that major control and eradication prog...

  11. Assessing and Managing the Current and Future Pest Risk from Water Hyacinth, (Eichhornia crassipes), an Invasive Aquatic Plant Threatening the Environment and Water Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriticos, Darren J; Brunel, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Understanding and managing the biological invasion threats posed by aquatic plants under current and future climates is a growing challenge for biosecurity and land management agencies worldwide. Eichhornia crassipes is one of the world's worst aquatic weeds. Presently, it threatens aquatic ecosystems, and hinders the management and delivery of freshwater services in both developed and developing parts of the world. A niche model was fitted using CLIMEX, to estimate the potential distribution of E. crassipes under historical and future climate scenarios. Under two future greenhouse gas emission scenarios for 2080 simulated with three Global Climate Models, the area with a favourable temperature regime appears set to shift polewards. The greatest potential for future range expansion lies in Europe. Elsewhere in the northern hemisphere temperature gradients are too steep for significant geographical range expansion under the climate scenarios explored here. In the Southern Hemisphere, the southern range boundary for E. crassipes is set to expand southwards in Argentina, Australia and New Zealand; under current climate conditions it is already able to invade the southern limits of Africa. The opportunity exists to prevent its spread into the islands of Tasmania in Australia and the South Island of New Zealand, both of which depend upon hydroelectric facilities that would be threatened by the presence of E. crassipes. In Europe, efforts to slow or stop the spread of E. crassipes will face the challenge of limited internal biosecurity capacity. The modelling technique demonstrated here is the first application of niche modelling for an aquatic weed under historical and projected future climates. It provides biosecurity agencies with a spatial tool to foresee and manage the emerging invasion threats in a manner that can be included in the international standard for pest risk assessments. It should also support more detailed local and regional management.

  12. Assessing and Managing the Current and Future Pest Risk from Water Hyacinth, (Eichhornia crassipes, an Invasive Aquatic Plant Threatening the Environment and Water Security.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darren J Kriticos

    Full Text Available Understanding and managing the biological invasion threats posed by aquatic plants under current and future climates is a growing challenge for biosecurity and land management agencies worldwide. Eichhornia crassipes is one of the world's worst aquatic weeds. Presently, it threatens aquatic ecosystems, and hinders the management and delivery of freshwater services in both developed and developing parts of the world. A niche model was fitted using CLIMEX, to estimate the potential distribution of E. crassipes under historical and future climate scenarios. Under two future greenhouse gas emission scenarios for 2080 simulated with three Global Climate Models, the area with a favourable temperature regime appears set to shift polewards. The greatest potential for future range expansion lies in Europe. Elsewhere in the northern hemisphere temperature gradients are too steep for significant geographical range expansion under the climate scenarios explored here. In the Southern Hemisphere, the southern range boundary for E. crassipes is set to expand southwards in Argentina, Australia and New Zealand; under current climate conditions it is already able to invade the southern limits of Africa. The opportunity exists to prevent its spread into the islands of Tasmania in Australia and the South Island of New Zealand, both of which depend upon hydroelectric facilities that would be threatened by the presence of E. crassipes. In Europe, efforts to slow or stop the spread of E. crassipes will face the challenge of limited internal biosecurity capacity. The modelling technique demonstrated here is the first application of niche modelling for an aquatic weed under historical and projected future climates. It provides biosecurity agencies with a spatial tool to foresee and manage the emerging invasion threats in a manner that can be included in the international standard for pest risk assessments. It should also support more detailed local and regional

  13. Perceptions of risk, risk aversion, and barriers to adoption of decision support systems and integrated pest management: An introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rational management of plant diseases, both economically and environmentally, involves assessing risks and the costs associated with both correct and incorrect management decisions to determine when control measures are warranted. Decision support systems can help to inform users of plant disease r...

  14. A Qualitative Study of Urban and Suburban Elementary Student Understandings of Pest-Related Science and Agricultural Education Benchmarks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trexler, Cary J.

    2000-01-01

    Clinical interviews with nine fifth graders revealed that experiences play a pivotal role in their understanding of pests. They lack well-developed schema and language to discuss pest management. A foundation of core biological concepts was necessary for understanding pests and pest management. (Conatains 34 references.) (SK)

  15. Aiding pest control management of long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis fascicularis) in Malaysia by using molecular markers of mitochondrial DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul-Latiff, M. A. B.; Abdul-Patah, P.; Yaakop, S.; Md-Zain, B. M.

    2017-10-01

    The long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis fascicularis) has been the center of human wildlife conflict in Malaysia since 1970s. This well-adapted and opportunistic primates have been dominating wide range of habitat in Malaysia such as primary and secondary forest, mangrove, as well as human settlements. The conventional practices of translocation by the authorities are threatening the uniqueness of gene pool for this species and ironically contradicting with the ultimate purpose of genetic conservation of this species. The objectives of this study is to determine the level of genetic separation between populations of long-tailed macaques, primarily focusing on populations distributed in northern Peninsular Malaysia. A total of 954 base pairs of control regions mtDNA was sequenced and analyzed from 27 samples of M. fascicularis. The results exhibited a highly homogenous state of populations for long-tailed macaques genetically and this ultimately indicate unsuitable management and planning in terms of pest control management of the species. Authorities are suggested to translocate the species at least within the state boundaries to avoid homogeneity of gene pools for the particular species.

  16. Parasitism performance and fitness of Cotesia vestalis (Hymenoptera: Braconidae infected with Nosema sp. (Microsporidia: Nosematidae: implications in integrated pest management strategy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Kermani

    Full Text Available The diamondback moth (DBM Plutella xylostella (L. has traditionally been managed using synthetic insecticides. However, the increasing resistance of DBM to insecticides offers an impetus to practice integrated pest management (IPM strategies by exploiting its natural enemies such as pathogens, parasitoids, and predators. Nevertheless, the interactions between pathogens and parasitoids and/or predators might affect the effectiveness of the parasitoids in regulating the host population. Thus, the parasitism rate of Nosema-infected DBM by Cotesia vestalis (Haliday (Hym., Braconidae can be negatively influenced by such interactions. In this study, we investigated the effects of Nosema infection in DBM on the parasitism performance of C. vestalis. The results of no-choice test showed that C. vestalis had a higher parasitism rate on non-infected host larvae than on Nosema-treated host larvae. The C. vestalis individuals that emerged from Nosema-infected DBM (F1 and their progeny (F2 had smaller pupae, a decreased rate of emergence, lowered fecundity, and a prolonged development period compared to those of the control group. DBM infection by Nosema sp. also negatively affected the morphometrics of C. vestalis. The eggs of female C. vestalis that developed in Nosema-infected DBM were larger than those of females that developed in non-infected DBM. These detrimental effects on the F1 and F2 generations of C. vestalis might severely impact the effectiveness of combining pathogens and parasitoids as parts of an IPM strategy for DBM control.

  17. Interactive effects of pests increase seed yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagic, Vesna; Riggi, Laura Ga; Ekbom, Barbara; Malsher, Gerard; Rusch, Adrien; Bommarco, Riccardo

    2016-04-01

    Loss in seed yield and therefore decrease in plant fitness due to simultaneous attacks by multiple herbivores is not necessarily additive, as demonstrated in evolutionary studies on wild plants. However, it is not clear how this transfers to crop plants that grow in very different conditions compared to wild plants. Nevertheless, loss in crop seed yield caused by any single pest is most often studied in isolation although crop plants are attacked by many pests that can cause substantial yield losses. This is especially important for crops able to compensate and even overcompensate for the damage. We investigated the interactive impacts on crop yield of four insect pests attacking different plant parts at different times during the cropping season. In 15 oilseed rape fields in Sweden, we estimated the damage caused by seed and stem weevils, pollen beetles, and pod midges. Pest pressure varied drastically among fields with very low correlation among pests, allowing us to explore interactive impacts on yield from attacks by multiple species. The plant damage caused by each pest species individually had, as expected, either no, or a negative impact on seed yield and the strongest negative effect was caused by pollen beetles. However, seed yield increased when plant damage caused by both seed and stem weevils was high, presumably due to the joint plant compensatory reaction to insect attack leading to overcompensation. Hence, attacks by several pests can change the impact on yield of individual pest species. Economic thresholds based on single species, on which pest management decisions currently rely, may therefore result in economically suboptimal choices being made and unnecessary excessive use of insecticides.

  18. Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management: Annual report to Congress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-04-01

    This document summarizes the activities of the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management for FY 1986. Topics include public interaction between the states and affected Indian Tribes, planning for a waste management system, site selection and site characterization of potential geologic repositories, participation in international repository projects, proposal development for a monitored retrievable storage system, demonstrations of spent fuel storage, and development of quality assurance and safety plans. 59 refs., 10 figs., 6 tabs

  19. 76 FR 12959 - Promoting Community Integrated Pest Management To Prevent Tick-Borne Diseases; Notice of Public...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-09

    ...; practitioners involved in managing tick populations in parks, residential areas and military installations... children are especially at risk because of the time they spend outdoors. It is important that the Federal...

  20. Electric Motor Thermal Management R&D. Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennion, Kevin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-04-01

    With the push to reduce component volumes, lower costs, and reduce weight without sacrificing performance or reliability, the challenges associated with thermal management increase for power electronics and electric motors. Thermal management for electric motors will become more important as the automotive industry continues the transition to more electrically dominant vehicle propulsion systems. The transition to more electrically dominant propulsion systems leads to higher-power duty cycles for electric drive systems. Thermal constraints place significant limitations on how electric motors ultimately perform, and as thermal management improves, there will be a direct trade-off between motor performance, efficiency, cost, and the sizing of electric motors to operate within the thermal constraints. The goal of this research project is to support broad industry demand for data, analysis methods, and experimental techniques to improve and better understand motor thermal management. Work in FY15 focused on two areas related to motor thermal management: passive thermal performance and active convective cooling. Passive thermal performance emphasized the thermal impact of materials and thermal interfaces among materials within an assembled motor. The research tasks supported the publication of test methods and data for thermal contact resistances and direction-dependent thermal conductivity within an electric motor. Active convective cooling focused on measuring convective heat-transfer coefficients using automatic transmission fluid (ATF). Data for average convective heat transfer coefficients for direct impingement of ATF jets was published. Also, experimental hardware for mapping local-scale and stator-scale convective heat transfer coefficients for ATF jet impingement were developed.

  1. Perceived damage and areas of needed research for wildlife pests of California agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Roger A; Salmon, Terrell P; Schmidt, Robert H; Timm, Robert M

    2014-06-01

    Many wildlife species cause extensive damage to a variety of agricultural commodities in California, with estimates of damage in the hundreds of millions annually. Given the limited availability of resources to solve all human-wildlife conflicts, we should focus management efforts on issues that provide the greatest benefit to agricultural commodities in California. This survey provides quantitative data on research needs to better guide future efforts in developing more effective, practical and appropriate methods for managing these species. We found that ground squirrels, pocket gophers, birds, wild pigs, coyotes and voles were the most common agricultural wildlife pest species in California. The damage caused by these species could be quite high, but varied by agricultural commodity. For most species, common forms of damage included loss of crop production and direct death of the plant, although livestock depredation was the greatest concern for coyotes. Control methods used most frequently and those deemed most effective varied by pest species, although greater advancements in control methods were listed as a top research priority for all species. Collectively, the use of toxicants, biocontrol and trapping were the most preferred methods for control, but this varied by species. In general, integrated pest management practices were used to control wildlife pests, with a special preference for those approaches that were efficacious and quick and inexpensive to apply. This information and survey design should be useful in establishing research and management priorities for wildlife pest species in California and other similar regions. © 2013 International Society of Zoological Sciences, Institute of Zoology/Chinese Academy of Sciences and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  2. Power Electronics Thermal Management Research: Annual Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno, Gilberto [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-10-19

    The objective for this project is to develop thermal management strategies to enable efficient and high-temperature wide-bandgap (WBG)-based power electronic systems (e.g., emerging inverter and DC-DC converter). Reliable WBG devices are capable of operating at elevated temperatures (≥ 175 °Celsius). However, packaging WBG devices within an automotive inverter and operating them at higher junction temperatures will expose other system components (e.g., capacitors and electrical boards) to temperatures that may exceed their safe operating limits. This creates challenges for thermal management and reliability. In this project, system-level thermal analyses are conducted to determine the effect of elevated device temperatures on inverter components. Thermal modeling work is then conducted to evaluate various thermal management strategies that will enable the use of highly efficient WBG devices with automotive power electronic systems.

  3. Connecting scales: achieving in-field pest control from areawide and landscape ecology studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellhorn, Nancy A; Parry, Hazel R; Macfadyen, Sarina; Wang, Yongmo; Zalucki, Myron P

    2015-02-01

    Areawide management has a long history of achieving solutions that target pests, however, there has been little focus on the areawide management of arthropod natural enemies. Landscape ecology studies that show a positive relationship between natural enemy abundance and habitat diversity demonstrate landscape-dependent pest suppression, but have not yet clearly linked their findings to pest management or to the suite of pests associated with crops that require control. Instead the focus has often been on model systems of single pest species and their natural enemies. We suggest that management actions to capture pest control from natural enemies may be forth coming if: (i) the suite of response and predictor variables focus on pest complexes and specific management actions; (ii) the contribution of "the landscape" is identified by assessing the timing and numbers of natural enemies immigrating and emigrating to and from the target crop, as well as pests; and (iii) pest control thresholds aligned with crop development stages are the benchmark to measure impact of natural enemies on pests, in turn allowing for comparison between study regions, and generalizations. To achieve pest control we will need to incorporate what has been learned from an ecological understanding of model pest and natural enemy systems and integrate areawide landscape management with in-field pest management. © 2014 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  4. Annual report on nuclear power station operational management, 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-09-01

    As of the end of fiscal year 1984, 28 nuclear power plants were in operation in Japan, the total power output of which was 20.56 million kW, equivalent to 22.9 % of the total generated electric power in Japan. Now nuclear power generation bears a very important role in the stable supply and cost stabilization of electric power. The result of the capacity factor in fiscal year 1984 was 73.9 %, which showed that the nuclear power generation and safety management technologies in Japan are at the top level in the world. However, in order that nuclear power generation accomplishes the role as main power source sufficiently hereafter by increasing the number of plants, the reliability and economical efficiency must be further improved, and especially the safety management and operational management become important. For the purpose, the operational experience accumulated so far must be effectively utilized. In this book, the outline of the administration on the safety regulation of nuclear power generation, the state of operation of nuclear power plants, the state of accidents and failures, the state of regular inspections and so on are summarized. Also the state of radioactive waste management and the radiation control for workers are reported. (Kako, I.)

  5. Northeast Waste Management Enterprise (NEWME) 1996 annual/final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goland, A.; Kaplan, E.; Palmedo, P. Wortman, J.

    1997-01-01

    The Northeast Waste Management Enterprise was created in response to Dr. Clyde Frank's vision of a new partnership between research, industrial, and financial sectors, with the goal of speeding development and use (particularly at U.S. Department of Energy [DOE] facilities) of environmental remediation technologies. It was anticipated that this partnership would also strengthen the international competitiveness of the U.S. environmental industry. Brookhaven National Laboratory's (BNL) response to Dr. Frank was a proposal to create the Northeast Waste Management Alliance, later renamed the Northeast Waste Management Enterprise (NEWME). Recognizing the need to supplement its own technical expertise with acumen in business, financial management, and venture capital development, BNL joined forces with the Long Island Research Institute (LIRI). Since its inception at the end of FY 1993, NEWME has achieved several significant accomplishments in pursuing its original business and strategic plans. However, its successes have been constrained by a fundamental mismatch between the time scales required for technology commercialization, and the immediate need for available environmental technologies of those involved with ongoing environmental remediations at DOE facilities

  6. Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management annual capacity report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-12-01

    The Standard Contract for Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel and/or High-Level Radioactive Waste (10 CFR Part 961) requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to issue an Annual Capacity Report (ACR) for planning purposes. This report is the fourth in the series published by DOE. In December 1991, the Department published the 1991 Acceptance Priority Ranking (APR) that established the order in which the Department will allocate acceptance capacity. As required by the Standard Contract, the priority ranking for acceptance capacity is based on the date the spent nuclear fuel (SNF) was permanently discharged, with the owners of the oldest SNF, on an industry-wide basis, given the highest priority. The 1991 ACR applies the waste acceptance rates in the 1991 APR, resulting in individual Purchaser allocations. These allocations are listed and summarized. The projected waste acceptance rates for SNF presented assume: a site for a Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) facility will be obtained and the facility will be obtained and the facility will initiate operations in 1998; and the statutory schedule linkages between the MRS facility and the repository set forth in the Nuclear Waste Policy of 1982, as amended (NWPA) will be modified

  7. Pest control services

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2018-04-27

    Apr 27, 2018 ... for Pest Control Services” addressed to the Purchase In-charge / Executive Secretary,. Indian Academy of ... shall be evaluated on two stage evaluation process. After evaluating ... decision of IASc is final and unquestionable.

  8. Power Electronics Thermal Management R&D: Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno, Gilbert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-04-08

    The objective for this project is to develop thermal management strategies to enable efficient and high-temperature wide-bandgap (WBG)-based power electronic systems (e.g., emerging inverter and DC-DC converter). Device- and system-level thermal analyses are conducted to determine the thermal limitations of current automotive power modules under elevated device temperature conditions. Additionally, novel cooling concepts and material selection will be evaluated to enable high-temperature silicon and WBG devices in power electronics components. WBG devices (silicon carbide [SiC], gallium nitride [GaN]) promise to increase efficiency, but will be driven as hard as possible. This creates challenges for thermal management and reliability.

  9. Annual Report: Turbine Thermal Management (30 September 2013)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvin, Mary Anne; Richards, George

    2014-04-10

    The FY13 NETL-RUA Turbine Thermal Management effort supported the Department of Energy’s (DOE) Hydrogen Turbine Program through conduct of novel, fundamental, basic, and applied research in the areas of aerothermal heat transfer, coatings development, and secondary flow control. This research project utilized the extensive expertise and facilities readily available at NETL and the participating universities. The research approach included explorative studies based on scaled models and prototype coupon tests conducted under realistic high-temperature, pressurized, turbine operating conditions. This research is expected to render measurable outcomes that will meet DOE’s advanced turbine development goals of a 3- to 5-point increase in power island efficiency and a 30 percent power increase above the hydrogen-fired combined cycle baseline. In addition, knowledge gained from this project will further advance the aerothermal cooling and TBC technologies in the general turbine community. This project has been structured to address: • Development and design of aerothermal and materials concepts in FY12-13. • Design and manufacturing of these advanced concepts in FY13. • Bench-scale/proof-of-concept testing of these concepts in FY13-14 and beyond. In addition to a Project Management task, the Turbine Thermal Management project consists of four tasks that focus on a critical technology development in the areas of heat transfer, materials development, and secondary flow control. These include: • Aerothermal and Heat Transfer • Coatings and Materials Development • Design Integration and Testing • Secondary Flow Rotating Rig.

  10. Integrated pest control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kassem, A.R.

    2009-01-01

    The hazards induced by pests are responsible for about 50% of the agricultural production. There are two types of methods for pest control. The traditional methods including chemical, biological, mechanical and physical methods. The modern methods depending on germs, phermones, hormones and genetic methods. The sterile insect technique is the most recent one and the more effective. It depends on the use of insect to destroy itself.

  11. PEST Analysis of Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Ivan Stosic; Drasko Nikolic; Aleksandar Zdravkovic

    2012-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of the current Serbian macro-environment on the businesses through the implementation of PEST analysis as a framework for assessing general or macro environment in which companies are operating. The authors argue the elements in presented PEST analysis indicate that the current macro-environment is characterized by the dominance of threats and weaknesses with few opportunities and strengths. Consequently, there is a strong need for faste...

  12. Area-wide management of Aedes albopictus. Part 2: gauging the efficacy of traditional integrated pest control measures against urban container mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Dina M; Unlu, Isik; Crepeau, Taryn; Farajollahi, Ary; Healy, Sean P; Bartlett-Healy, Kristen; Strickman, Daniel; Gaugler, Randy; Hamilton, George; Kline, Daniel; Clark, Gary G

    2013-12-01

    Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Skuse) is an important disease vector and biting nuisance. During the 2009 active season, six ∼1000-parcel sites were studied, three in urban and three in suburban areas of New Jersey, United States, to examine the efficacy of standard integrated urban mosquito control strategies applied area wide. Active source reduction, larviciding, adulticiding and public education (source reduction through education) were implemented in one site in each county, an education-only approach was developed in a second site and a third site was used as an untreated experimental control. Populations were surveyed weekly with BG-Sentinel traps and ovitraps. A substantial reduction in Ae. albopictus populations was achieved in urban sites, but only modest reductions in suburban sites. Education alone achieved significant reductions in urban adult Ae. albopictus. Egg catches echoed adult catches only in suburban sites. There are significant socioeconomic and climatic differences between urban and suburban sites that impact upon Ae. albopictus populations and the efficacy of the control methods tested. An integrated pest management approach can affect abundances, but labor-intensive, costly source reduction was not enough to maintain Ae. albopictus counts below a nuisance threshold. Nighttime adult population suppression using truck-mounted adulticides can be effective. Area-wide cost-effective strategies are necessary. Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  13. Revisão sobre alguns grupos de inseticidas utilizados no manejo integrado de pragas florestais / A review of some insecticide groups used in forest pest integrated management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Boson de Castro Faria

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available ResumoMuito embora os princípios, critérios e indicadores da certificação florestal exijam das empresas a valorização do controle biológico e a diminuição do uso de pesticidas, atualmente podemos nos valer de estratégias químicas que permitem minimizar os impactos sobre organismos não alvo, em que, respeitadas as devidas autorizações e disposições legais, são utilizadas como estratégias dos programas de controle e manejo integrados. Este trabalho tem como objetivo apresentar uma revisão bibliográfica a qual se estabeleceu um grau de evolução entre os inseticidas no controle de pragas florestais. O desenvolvimento classifica os grupos químicos de defensivos em quatro gerações: na primeira, os produtos inorgânicos; na segunda, os organoclorados, os organofosforados, os carbamatos e os piretróides; na terceira geração, os reguladores de crescimento e os fagos-inibidores; e na quarta, a biotecnologia e os produtos neonicotinóides, seu modo de ação e seus métodos de aplicação. As técnicas precisam ter como meta o aumento das produtividades ao ponto em que, simultaneamente, preservem o meio ambiente no seu sentido mais amplo, inclusive, considerando o ser humano como parte deste sistema.AbstractThe principles, criteria and forest certification indicators demand from companies more use of biological control and instead of esticides use. However, nowadays it’s common to see the use chemical strategies that allow minimizing impacts on non-target organisms. Respecting the due authorizations and legal dispositions, these strategies is used in the integrated pest management (IPM programs. This paper presents a revision of literature, establishing a degree of evolution amongst the insecticides used in forest pest control. The chemical groups are classified in four generations: in the first, the non-organics; in the second, the organochlorides, organophosphate, carbamates and piretroids; in the third, the insect growth

  14. Ethnobotanicals for Storage Pest Management: Effect of powdered leaves of Olax zeylanica in suppressing infestations of rice weevil Sitophilus oryzae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachini Dinusha Fernando

    2012-05-01

    a lower amount of leaf powder such as 3.0g, when the adults were either directly exposed to the leaf powder or to its fumes. Moreover, LD50 values of 2.55g and 2.08g for leaf powders obtained after 12 hours of exposure to insects in contact/feeding toxicity test and fumigation test respectively indicated that leaf powder is more toxic to weevils when they were in direct contact with it. Findings of the present study bears out the exceptionally high efficacy of O. zeylanica leaves applied directly mixed with the food material or introduced as a fumigant to suppress weevil infestations in stored grains and strengthen the possibility of using this plant as an alternative to synthetic chemicals in storage pest management. Keywords: Olax zeylanica, Sitophilus oryzae, Direct Contact/Feeding Toxicity, Direct Fumigation Toxicity

  15. Design and Development of Countylevel Information Management System for Diseases and Pests of Hebei Province on GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Xiaoli; Xie, Fangyi

    To get a more convenience work in forest application, GIS and information system is used in forestry. GIS technology is used to build an informational management system of forest disease. For the practical requirement, the system is implemented by PDA which works outside to help completing the data collection. The major function of the system is input and output of the forest disease data and processing the report which is based on the criteria report and the assistant function of GIS. This article is aim to discuss about the theory, the process and the critical points of the information system. Besides the general information management system, GIS and PDA is introduced into the diseases system, which could combine the map and the attribute information and realize inventory data reform by PDA. The system is developed with VB and SuperMap Object (SuperMap Company).

  16. Companion Cropping as Integrated Pest Management (IPM) Component for Management of Flower Thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in French Beans (Phasealous Vulgaris L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasina, J.

    2002-01-01

    Six companion crops, (Tagetes spp L. (African marigold), Daucus carota L. (carrot), Coriandrum sativum L. (coriander), Brassica spp. L. kale), capsicum spp L. (chilli) and Zea mays (maize) were evaluated for their efficacy in suppressing field populations of the French bean flower thrips, (Frankliniella occidentals (Pergande), Frankliniella schultzei (Trybom) and Megalurothrips sjostedti (trybom). The companion crops were compared to two insecticides, Labda cyhalothrin (Karate 1.75% EC) and Methiocarb (Mesurol 500 SC) and untreated mono-crop of French beans. Three of the treatments, coriander, maize and African marigold were found to be effective in that order, by repelling the pest away from the crop. It is concluded that these crops could be recommended to farmers for use and therefore are able to minimise the high use of chemical insecticides

  17. New York State Forum for Information Resource Management: 1998-1999 Annual Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York State Forum for Information Resource Management.

    This annual report of the New York State Forum for Information Resource Management begins with a section that summarizes key activities for 1998-99, including partnerships with other organizations, sessions on the use of information in government and information security, programs on the challenges of electronic commerce for government,…

  18. The behavior, ecology and control of legume flower thrips, #Megalurothrips sjostedti# (Trybom) in cowpea #Vigna unguiculata# (L.) towards the development of an integrated pest management (IPM) program in Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Abtew, Andnet Bayleyegn

    2015-01-01

    The overarching aim of this thesis is to investigate the behaviour and ecology of the legume flower thrips Megalurothrips sjostedti Trybom and develop alternative control method. Its specific goals are to: (1) assess pest problems and management methods practiced by grain legume producers, and identifying the cropping systems in the study areas in Kenya; (2) study the impact of climate change on the geographic distribution of legume flower thrips on cowpea growing regions of Sub Saharn Africa...

  19. incidence and distribution of insect pests in rain-fed wheat in eastern

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    Insect pests are some of the major constraints limiting yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in East Africa. The objective of this ... control measure applied, type of variety grown and agronomic .... development of an integrated pest management.

  20. A promising biotechnical approach to pest management of Diabrotica virgifera virgifera in Illinois maize fields under kairomonal shielding with the new MSD technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummel, H E; Shaw, J T; Hein, D F

    2005-01-01

    Environmentally compatible and sustainable plant protection requires novel approaches to pest management characterized by minimal emphasis on toxicants. Classical toxicants traditionally dominated economic entomology for half a century. But worldwide problems with environmental pollution and with increasing resistance levels in all major pesticide classes and in many key insect species including Diabrotica virgifera virgifera (D.v.v.) strongly advocate a rethinking and a change in management paradigms used. Soft, minimally invasive, biological, biotechnical and cultural approaches should replace hard pesticides which are in favor up to now. Fortunately, pheromones, kairomones, plant attractants, better traps, new plant varieties and cultural methods like crop rotation, in short more sophisticated methods are now available as pressure for finding and exploring novel strategies increases. Facing this situation, a new biotechnical approach of population reduction of D.v.v., called "MSD" technique, is introduced. MSD is characterized as an approach combining mass trapping, shielding and deflecting of adult insects along an invisible odor barrier of synthetic kairomone which diminishes the flux of insects across a high capacity trap line baited with kairomone, thus reducing both the population fluctuation and number and its reproductive success within the shielded area. In the case of D.v.v. in Zea mays fields, effects realized by the MSD technique have been measured simultaneously by a number of independent criteria during the summers of 2003 and 2004 at 2 different locations in Illinois maize fields of up to one half hectare size. Results observed are statistically significant and cannot be explained by mass trapping alone. There is also an additional shielding and deflection, in short "diversion" effect whose basic sensory and behavioral mechanisms call for future exploration.

  1. 1995 annual epidemiologic surveillance report for Fernald Environmental Management Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The US Department of Energy's (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. During the past several years, a number of DOE sites have participated in the Epidemiologic Surveillance Program. This program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of five or more consecutive workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers. This report provides a summary of epidemiologic surveillance data collected from the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) from January 1, 1995 through December 31, 1995. The data were collected by a coordinator at FEMP and submitted to the Epidemiologic Surveillance Data Center, located at Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, where quality control procedures and data analyses were carried out

  2. 1995 annual epidemiologic surveillance report for Fernald Environmental Management Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    The US Department of Energy's (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. During the past several years, a number of DOE sites have participated in the Epidemiologic Surveillance Program. This program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of five or more consecutive workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers. This report provides a summary of epidemiologic surveillance data collected from the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) from January 1, 1995 through December 31, 1995. The data were collected by a coordinator at FEMP and submitted to the Epidemiologic Surveillance Data Center, located at Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, where quality control procedures and data analyses were carried out.

  3. Optimal Application Timing of Pest Control Tactics in Nonautonomous Pest Growth Model

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Shujuan; Liang, Juhua; Tang, Sanyi

    2014-01-01

    Considering the effects of the living environment on growth of populations, it is unrealistic to assume that the growth rates of predator and prey are all constants in the models with integrated pest management (IPM) strategies. Therefore, a nonautonomous predator-prey system with impulsive effect is developed and investigated in the present work. In order to determine the optimal application timing of IPM tactics, the threshold value which guarantees the stability of pest-free periodic solut...

  4. Lepidopteran larva consumption of soybean foliage: basis for developing multiple-species economic thresholds for pest management decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno, Regiane Cristina Oliveira de Freitas; Bueno, Adeney de Freitas; Moscardi, Flávio; Parra, José Roberto Postali; Hoffmann-Campo, Clara Beatriz

    2011-02-01

    Defoliation by Anticarsia gemmatalis (Hübner), Pseudoplusia includens (Walker), Spodoptera eridania (Cramer), S. cosmioides (Walker) and S. frugiperda (JE Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) was evaluated in four soybean genotypes. A multiple-species economic threshold (ET), based upon the species' feeding capacity, is proposed with the aim of improving growers' management decisions on when to initiate control measures for the species complex. Consumption by A. gemmatalis, S. cosmioides or S. eridania on different genotypes was similar. The highest consumption of P. includens was 92.7 cm(2) on Codetec 219RR; that of S. frugiperda was 118 cm(2) on Codetec 219RR and 115.1 cm(2) on MSoy 8787RR. The insect injury equivalent for S. cosmoides, calculated on the basis of insect consumption, was double the standard consumption by A. gemmatalis, and statistically different from the other species tested, which were similar to each other. As S. cosmioides always defoliated nearly twice the leaf area of the other species, the injury equivalent would be 2 for this lepidopteran species and 1 for the other species. The recommended multiple-species ET to trigger the beginning of insect control would then be 20 insect equivalents per linear metre. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Electric Motor Thermal Management Research: Annual Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennion, Kevin S. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-10-19

    Past work in the area of active convective cooling provided data on the average convective heat transfer coefficients of circular orifice automatic transmission fluid (ATF) jets impinging on stationary targets intended to represent the wire bundle surface of the motor end-winding. Work during FY16 focused on the impact of alternative jet geometries that could lead to improved cooling over a larger surface of the motor winding. Results show that the planar jet heat transfer coefficients over a small (12.7-mm-diameter) target surface are not too much lower than for the circular orifice jet in which all of the ATF from the jet impinges on the target surface. The planar jet has the potential to achieve higher heat transfer over a larger area of the motor end winding. A new test apparatus was constructed to measure the spatial dependence of the heat transfer relative to the jet nozzle over a larger area representative of a motor end-winding. The tested planar flow geometry has the potential to provide more uniform cooling over the full end-winding surface versus the conventional jet configuration. The data will be used by motor designers to develop thermal management strategies to improve motor power density. Work on passive thermal design in collaboration with Oak Ridge National Laboratory to measure the thermal conductivity of wire bundle samples representative of end-winding and slot-winding materials was completed. Multiple measurement techniques were compared to determine which was most suitable for measuring composite wire bundle samples. NREL used a steady-state thermal resistance technique to measure the direction-dependent thermal conductivity. The work supported new interactions with industry to test new materials and reduce passive-stack thermal resistance in motors, leading to motors with increased power density. NREL collaborated with Ames Laboratory in the area of material characterization. The work focused on measuring the transverse rupture strength of

  6. Vegetation indices as indicators of damage by the sunn pest ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-01-18

    Jan 18, 2008 ... nylon cloth cage experiments were conducted to determine the feasibility of using remote sensing techniques to ... conventionally used method for the sunn pest manage- ... Study area and sunn pest experiment design ... graphy is nearly flat. .... for determination of indices showed an increasing pattern.

  7. Avocado pests in Florida: Not what you expected

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avocado, Persea americana Mill., is Florida's second most important fruit crop after citrus. Until recently, the complex of spider mite and insect pests that affected avocado in south Florida was under a 20 year Integrated Pest Management (IPM) program. The recent invasion of avocado orchards by a...

  8. XXVI Annual Conference of the European Academy of Management and Business Economics (AEDEM)

    CERN Document Server

    Gil-Lafuente, Jaime; Merigó-Lindahl, José; Soft Computing in Management and Business Economics

    2012-01-01

    This book is a collection of selected papers presented at the Annual Meeting of the European Academy of Management and Business Economics (AEDEM), held at the Faculty of Economics and Business of the University of Barcelona, 05 – 07 June, 2012. This edition of the conference has been presented with the slogan “Creating new opportunities in an uncertain environment”. There are different ways for assessing uncertainty in management but this book mainly focused on soft computing theories and their role in assessing uncertainty in a complex world. The present book gives a comprehensive overview of general management topics and discusses some of the most recent developments in all the areas of business and management including management, marketing, business statistics, innovation and technology, finance, sports and tourism. This book might be of great interest for anyone working in the area of management and business economics and might be especially useful for scientists and graduate students doing researc...

  9. Habitat functionality for the ecosystem service of pest control: reproduction and feeding sites of pests and natural enemies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bianchi, F.J.J.A.; Schellhorn, N.A.; Cunningham, S.A.

    2013-01-01

    1 Landscape management for enhanced natural pest control requires knowledge of the ecological function of the habitats present in the landscape mosaic. However, little is known about which habitat types in agricultural landscapes function as reproduction habitats for arthropod pests and predators

  10. Insect pests in asparagus; IPM perspectives!

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rozen, van K.; Huiting, H.F.

    2016-01-01

    Resulting from Directive 2009/128/EC, all EU Member States have to comply with stricter guidelines regarding Integrated Pest Management before 2023. As implementation of IPM measures and strategies has a high perceived risk, demonstration of and discussion on possibilities may be a key element in

  11. 17 CFR 270.30b1-1 - Semi-annual report for registered management investment companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... registered management investment companies. 270.30b1-1 Section 270.30b1-1 Commodity and Securities Exchanges....30b1-1 Semi-annual report for registered management investment companies. Every registered management... management investment company that has filed a registration statement with the Commission registering its...

  12. The last "pest". The fox in the Italian law and in the actual hunting management / L'ultimo "nocivo". La Volpe nella legislazione italiana e nella pratica venatoria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Cassola

    1991-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In the general mentality as well as in the actual hunting management of the Italian territory, the fox Vulpes vulpes has largely replaced the wolf Canis lupus as the target of abnormal and injustified destructive efforts. By exagerating its predatory pressure on domestic and game animals, and more recently as an asserted anti-rabies measure, the control of fox populations still continue to be heady practised in most regions, even where (such as in Tuscany, central Italy the rabies desease did not arrive. Some official data are given about foxes killed and rewards paid in several areas in the Eighties, for a total amount of several tens of thousands foxes (nearly 2,000 in the Siena province alone yearly and some milliards lira. The absurdity of such management policy and the damage indirectly caused to the agriculture are emphasized, as well as the need of stopping at last any persecution of predatory or so-called "pest" animals. Riassunto Nella mentalità popolare e nella quotidiana gestione venatoria del territorio, la Volpe Vulpes vulpes sembra aver ormai sostituito il Lupo Canis lupus come oggetto catalizzatore di abnormi e ingiustificati sforzi distruttivi. Esagerandone l'entità della predazione su animali domestici e selvatici, e più recentemente con il pretesto di diradarne le popolazioni come asserita misura di profilassi antirabbica, si continua assurdamente in molte regioni italiane a condurre operazioni di "controllo" della Volpe che perpetuano nei fatti l'anti-ecologica e ormai inaccettabile "lotta ai nocivi". Vengono in particolare qui riferiti alcuni dati ufficiali, provenienti anche da regioni, come la Toscana, mai toccate dall'epidemia di rabbia silvestre degli anni 1977-1986, relativi agli abbattimenti di volpi e ai premi pagati nel corso dell'ultimo decennio, per un totale di parecchie decine di migliaia di volpi uccise (quasi 2000 ogni anno nella

  13. Forest nursery pests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelle M. Cram; Michelle S. Frank; Katy M. Mallams

    2012-01-01

    This edition of Forest Nursery Pests, Agriculture Handbook No. 680, was made possible by the work of many people from around the country. Contributing authors include U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service and Agricultural Research Service entomologists and pathologists, university professors and researchers, State extension specialists, consultants, and plant...

  14. Microbial control of arthropod pests of tropical tree fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolinski, Claudia; Lacey, Lawrence A

    2007-01-01

    A multitude of insects and mites attack fruit crops throughout the tropics. The traditional method for controlling most of these pests is the application of chemical pesticides. Growing concern on the negative environmental effects has encouraged the development of alternatives. Inundatively and inoculatively applied microbial control agents (virus, bacteria, fungi, and entomopathogenic nematodes) have been developed as alternative control methods of a wide variety of arthropods including tropical fruit pests. The majority of the research and applications in tropical fruit agroecosystems has been conducted in citrus, banana, coconut, and mango. Successful microbial control initiatives of citrus pests and mites have been reported. Microbial control of arthropod pests of banana includes banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus Germar (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) (with EPNs and fungi) among others Oryctes rhinoceros (L.) is one of the most important pests of coconut and one of the most successful uses of non-occluded virus for classical biological control. Key pests of mango that have been controlled with microbial control agents include fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) (with EPNs and fungi), and other pests. Also successful is the microbial control of arthropod pests of guava, papaya and pineapple. The challenge towards a broader application of entomopathogens is the development of successful combinations of entomopathogens, predators, and parasitoids along with other interventions to produce effective and sustainable pest management.

  15. Fourth annual report of the Canadian nuclear fuel waste management program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosinger, E.L.J.; Dixon, R.S.

    1982-12-01

    This report, the fourth of a series of annual reports, reviews the progress that has been made in the research and development program for the safe management and disposal of Canada's nuclear fuel waste. The report summarizes activities over the past year in the following areas: public interaction, used fuel storage and transportation, immobilization of used fuel and fuel recycle waste, geoscience research associated with deep underground disposal, environmental research, environmental and safety assessment

  16. Third annual report of the Canadian nuclear fuel waste management program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, R.S.; Rosinger, E.L.J.

    1981-12-01

    This report, the third of a series of annual reports, reviews the progress that has been made in the research and development program for the safe management and disposal of Canada's nuclear fuel wastes. The report summarizes activities over the past year, in the areas of public interaction, irradiated fuel storage and transportation, immobilization of irradiated fuel and fuel recycle wastes, research and development associated with deep underground disposal, and environmental and safety assessment

  17. 2003 Fernald Environmental Management Project Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report, Revised September 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2007-10-04

    Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Program report for 2003 for the Fernald Environmental Management Project. The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The IISP monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  18. The Contribution of Multiple Use Forest Management to Small Farmers’ Annual Incomes in the Eastern Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plinio Sist

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Small-scale farmers in the Brazilian Amazon collectively hold tenure over more than 12 million ha of permanent forest reserves, as required by the Forest Code. The trade-off between forest conservation and other land uses entails opportunity costs for them and for the country, which have not been sufficiently studied. We assessed the potential income generated by multiple use forest management for farmers and compared it to the income potentially derived from six other agricultural land uses. Income from the forest was from (i logging, carried out by a logging company in partnership with farmers’ associations; and (ii harvesting the seeds of Carapa guianensis (local name andiroba for the production of oil. We then compared the income generated by multiple-use forest management with the income from different types of agrarian systems. According to our calculations in this study, the mean annual economic benefits from multiple forest use are the same as the least productive agrarian system, but only 25% of the annual income generated by the most productive system. Although the income generated by logging may be considered low when calculated on an annual basis and compared to incomes generated by agriculture, the one-time payment after logging is significant (US$5,800 to US$33,508 and could be used to implement more intensive and productive cropping systems such as planting black pepper. The income from forest management could also be used to establish permanent fields in deforested areas for highly productive annual crops using conservation agriculture techniques. These techniques are alternatives to the traditional land use based on periodic clearing of the forest. Nevertheless, the shift in current practices towards adoption of more sustainable conservation agriculture techniques will also require the technical and legal support of the State to help small farmers apply these alternatives, which aim to integrate forest management in

  19. OCRWM annual report to Congress FY 1999 [USDOE Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    None

    2000-01-01

    During Fiscal Year 1999, the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) continued to make significant progress in its characterization of the Yucca Mountain, Nevada, candidate geologic repository site. Although OCRWM's appropriation for Fiscal Year 1999 was lower than requested, the Program accomplished all three success measures in the Secretary's Fiscal Year 1999 Performance Agreement with the President and completed important work in many other areas. This Annual Report reviews this work and looks toward future activities

  20. OCRWM annual report to Congress FY 1999 [USDOE Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2000-05-01

    During Fiscal Year 1999, the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) continued to make significant progress in its characterization of the Yucca Mountain, Nevada, candidate geologic repository site. Although OCRWM's appropriation for Fiscal Year 1999 was lower than requested, the Program accomplished all three success measures in the Secretary's Fiscal Year 1999 Performance Agreement with the President and completed important work in many other areas. This Annual Report reviews this work and looks toward future activities.

  1. Unwelcome Guests: Extoic Forest Pests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun Jiang-Hua

    2002-01-01

    Exotic forest pests cost China and the United States billions of dollars each year. Current regulatory systems worldwide are over-whelmed with the increasing volume of international trade. Trade in nursery stock, wood products, pallets and dunnage have proven the most common means of transport for exotic forest pests. Despite our best efforts, pests such as chestnut...

  2. Vegetable Crop Pests. MEP 311.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantzes, James G.; And Others

    As part of a cooperative extension service series by the University of Maryland, this publication introduces the identification and control of common agricultural pests of vegetable crops. The first of the five sections defines "pest" and "weed" and generally introduces different kinds of pests in the categories of insects,…

  3. Fruit Crop Pests. MEP 312.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Leslie O.; And Others

    As part of a cooperative extension service series by the University of Maryland this publication introduces the identification and control of common agricultural pests of fruit crops. The first of the five sections defines "pest" and "weed" and generally introduces different kinds of pests in the categories of insects, weeds,…

  4. Biopesticides: pest management and regulation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bailey, Alastair

    2010-01-01

    ... and others in the food supply chain need to be able to make a fair living from agriculture without damaging the economic, social and environmental prospects of future generations. The scale of the challenge cannot be overstated. Agriculture needs to meet the food requirements of a rapidly expanding global population without placing furt...

  5. 50 CFR 35.7 - Control of wildfires, insects, pest plants, and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Control of wildfires, insects, pest plants... MANAGEMENT General Rules § 35.7 Control of wildfires, insects, pest plants, and disease. To the extent necessary, the Director shall prescribe measures to control wildfires, insects, pest plants, and disease to...

  6. Pest risk maps for invasive alien species: a roadmap for improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert C. Venette; Darren J. Kriticos; Roger D. Magarey; Frank H. Koch; Richard H.A. Baker; Susan P. Worner; Nadilia N. Gomez Raboteaux; Daniel W. McKenney; Erhard J. Dobesberger; Denys Yemshanov; Paul J. De Barro; William D. Hutchison; Glenn Fowler; Tom M. Kalaris; John. Pedlar

    2010-01-01

    Pest risk maps are powerful visual communication tools to describe where invasive alien species might arrive, establish, spread, or cause harmful impacts. These maps inform strategic and tactical pest management decisions, such as potential restrictions on international trade or the design of pest surveys and domestic quarantines. Diverse methods are available to...

  7. Pest risk maps for invasive alien species: a roadmap for improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert C. Venette; Darren J. Kriticos; Roger D. Magarey; Frank H. Koch; Richard H. A. Baker; Susan P. Worner; Nadila N. Gomez Raboteaux; Daniel W. McKenney; Erhard J. Dobesberger; Denys Yemshanov; Paul J. De Barro; William D. Hutchinson; Glenn Fowler; Tom M. Kalaris; John. Pedlar

    2010-01-01

    Pest risk maps are powerful visual communication tools to describe where invasive alien species might arrive, establish, spread, or cause harmful impacts. These maps inform strategic and tactical pest management decisions, such as potential restrictions on international trade or the design of pest surveys and domestic quarantines. Diverse methods are available to...

  8. Management of plant pathogens and pests using microbial biological control agents. In: Trigiano, R.N. and Ownley, B.H., editors. Plant Pathology Concepts and Laboratory Exercises

    Science.gov (United States)

    All parts of plants face continual attack by plant pathogens and insects. Some insects are vectors of pathogens. Plant pests can be controlled by a variety of methods including application of pesticides but one of the most stainable and environmentally friendly approaches is biological control. Mic...

  9. Direct and indirect influences of the weaver ant Oecophylla smaragdina on citrus farmers pest perceptions and management practices in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mele, van P.; Cuc, N.T.T.; Huis, van A.

    2002-01-01

    In the Mekong Delta, Vietnam, the predatory weaver ant Oecophylla smaragdina was abundant in about 75␘f the sweet orange and 25␘f the Tieu mandarin orchards. With a three-level scale (low, moderate, high), farmers assessed the incidence, severity and yield loss of fruit caused by major pests. With

  10. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) in pest management: Progress in the development of a UAV-deployed mating disruption system for Wisconsin cranberries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) represent a powerful new tool for agriculture. Currently, UAVs are used almost exclusively as crop reconnaissance devices (“eyes in the sky”), not as pest control delivery systems. Research in Wisconsin cranberries is taking UAVs in a new direction. The Steffan and Lu...

  11. Local Community's Knowledge on Onion Production, Pests and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tanzania Journal of Agricultural Sciences (2014) Vol. 13 No. 2, 18-26 ... Pests Management in Kilosa and Kilolo Districts, Tanzania. D. P. Mamiro1*, A. P. ..... were advantaged for adoption of farm innovations in their ..... European Journal of.

  12. Atoms for pest control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindquist, D.A.

    1984-01-01

    Insects cause losses estimated at between 8% and 20% of total production of crops and livestock throughout the world. With the aim of developing technologies which can reduce such losses, the Insect and Pest Control Section of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division actively sponsors projects and conducts research through the Entomology Section of the Agricultural Biotechnology Laboratory at Seibersdorf. In its work, the Section has placed considerable emphasis on the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT). This technique involves the sterilization and release of large numbers of insects of the target species into the area where control is to be achieved. There, the sterile insects mate with the fertile wild insects, which produce no progeny: the technique is thus a highly specific form of ''birth control''. It is being used against a number of pest species in several countries

  13. 41 CFR 102-192.100 - How do we submit our annual mail management report to GSA?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... management report to GSA? If your agency is a large agency, as defined in § 102-192.35, you must submit... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How do we submit our annual mail management report to GSA? 102-192.100 Section 102-192.100 Public Contracts and Property...

  14. ENTOMOLOGY - INSECTS AND OTHER PESTS IN FIELD CROPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Ivezić

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The academic textbook Entomology - Insects and other pests in field crops, describes the most important pests of field crops supported by many photographs. The textbook encompasses 15 chapters. Importance of entomology in intensive plant production is discussed in introductory chapter, in terms of increased threat of insects and other pests. Morphology, anatomy and physiology are given in the second and third chapter, while ways and phases of insect development are elaborated in the fourth chapter. The fifth chapter, overview of insect systematic is given. Polyphagous insects are described from the sixth to fourteenth chapter, as follows: pests of cereals, maize, sugar beet, sunflower, oil seed rape, soybean, forage crops and stored products. In the last chapter, principles of integrated pest management are described due to proper application of all control measures to obtain healthier food production.

  15. Insect pest control newsletter. No. 65

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-07-01

    The concept of Area-wide Integrated Pest Management (AW-IPM) is defined as IPM applied against an entire pest population within a delimited geographic area. Area-wide intervention strategies require more planning and ecological understanding, longer-term commitment, a minimum infrastructure and a coordinated implementation by farmers and all other stakeholders. The spatial distribution of the pest population has to be considered not only in surrounding cultivated areas, but also in non-cultivated areas. It also involves considering the temporal distribution of the pest to determine the periods when the pest is most susceptible to preventive, rather than remedial, interventions. In 1998 FAO and the Agency sponsored the First International Conference on 'Area-Wide Control of Insect Pests, Integrating the Sterile Insect and Related Nuclear and other Techniques' in Penang, Malaysia. This Conference greatly increased the interest and awareness concerning the AW-IPM approach to insect pest control. Since then, many new technical innovations have been introduced; a better regulatory framework is being developed to encourage the involvement of the private sector, and more FAO and Agency Member States are integrating insect pest control methods on an areawide basis. Over the past months we have been heavily involved in preparing for the Second FAO/IAEA International Conference on 'Area-Wide Control of Insect Pests: Integrating the Sterile Insect and Related Nuclear and Other Techniques', which was held from 9-13 May in Vienna. The response and interest of scientists and governments, as well as the private sector and sponsors were once more very encouraging. The conference took place with the participation of over 300 delegates from 86 countries, nine international organization, and eight exhibitors. It covered the area-wide approach again in a very broad sense, including the development and integration of many non-SIT technologies, as well as genetic research on cytoplasmic

  16. Insect pest control newsletter. No. 65

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    The concept of Area-wide Integrated Pest Management (AW-IPM) is defined as IPM applied against an entire pest population within a delimited geographic area. Area-wide intervention strategies require more planning and ecological understanding, longer-term commitment, a minimum infrastructure and a coordinated implementation by farmers and all other stakeholders. The spatial distribution of the pest population has to be considered not only in surrounding cultivated areas, but also in non-cultivated areas. It also involves considering the temporal distribution of the pest to determine the periods when the pest is most susceptible to preventive, rather than remedial, interventions. In 1998 FAO and the Agency sponsored the First International Conference on 'Area-Wide Control of Insect Pests, Integrating the Sterile Insect and Related Nuclear and other Techniques' in Penang, Malaysia. This Conference greatly increased the interest and awareness concerning the AW-IPM approach to insect pest control. Since then, many new technical innovations have been introduced; a better regulatory framework is being developed to encourage the involvement of the private sector, and more FAO and Agency Member States are integrating insect pest control methods on an areawide basis. Over the past months we have been heavily involved in preparing for the Second FAO/IAEA International Conference on 'Area-Wide Control of Insect Pests: Integrating the Sterile Insect and Related Nuclear and Other Techniques', which was held from 9-13 May in Vienna. The response and interest of scientists and governments, as well as the private sector and sponsors were once more very encouraging. The conference took place with the participation of over 300 delegates from 86 countries, nine international organization, and eight exhibitors. It covered the area-wide approach again in a very broad sense, including the development and integration of many non-SIT technologies, as well as genetic research on cytoplasmic

  17. Proceedings of the Third Annual Information Meeting DOE Low-Level Waste-Management Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Large, D.E.; Lowrie, R.S.; Stratton, L.E.; Jacobs, D.G. (comps.)

    1981-12-01

    The Third Annual Participants Information Meeting of the Low-Level Waste Management Program was held in New Orleans, Louisiana, November 4-6, 1981 The specific purpose was to bring together appropriate representatives of industry, USNRC, program management, participating field offices, and contractors to: (1) exchange information and analyze program needs, and (2) involve participants in planning, developing and implementing technology for low-level waste management. One hundred seven registrants participated in the meeting. Presentation and workshop findings are included in these proceedings under the following headings: low-level waste activities; waste treatment; shallow land burial; remedial action; greater confinement; ORNL reports; panel workshops; and summary. Forty-six papers have been abstracted and indexed for the data base.

  18. Proceedings of the Third Annual Information Meeting DOE Low-Level Waste-Management Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Large, D.E.; Lowrie, R.S.; Stratton, L.E.; Jacobs, D.G.

    1981-12-01

    The Third Annual Participants Information Meeting of the Low-Level Waste Management Program was held in New Orleans, Louisiana, November 4-6, 1981 The specific purpose was to bring together appropriate representatives of industry, USNRC, program management, participating field offices, and contractors to: (1) exchange information and analyze program needs, and (2) involve participants in planning, developing and implementing technology for low-level waste management. One hundred seven registrants participated in the meeting. Presentation and workshop findings are included in these proceedings under the following headings: low-level waste activities; waste treatment; shallow land burial; remedial action; greater confinement; ORNL reports; panel workshops; and summary. Forty-six papers have been abstracted and indexed for the data base

  19. Empirical models of monthly and annual surface albedo in managed boreal forests of Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright, Ryan M.; Astrup, Rasmus; Strømman, Anders H.

    2013-04-01

    As forest management activities play an increasingly important role in climate change mitigation strategies of Nordic regions such as Norway, Sweden, and Finland -- the need for a more comprehensive understanding of the types and magnitude of biogeophysical climate effects and their various tradeoffs with the global carbon cycle becomes essential to avoid implementation of sub-optimal policy. Forest harvest in these regions reduces the albedo "masking effect" and impacts Earth's radiation budget in opposing ways to that of concomitant carbon cycle perturbations; thus, policies based solely on biogeochemical considerations in these regions risk being counterproductive. There is therefore a need to better understand how human disturbances (i.e., forest management activities) affect important biophysical factors like surface albedo. An 11-year remotely sensed surface albedo dataset coupled with stand-level forest management data for a variety of stands in Norway's most productive logging region are used to develop regression models describing temporal changes in monthly and annual forest albedo following clear-cut harvest disturbance events. Datasets are grouped by dominant tree species and site indices (productivity), and two alternate multiple regression models are developed and tested following a potential plus modifier approach. This resulted in an annual albedo model with statistically significant parameters that explains a large proportion of the observed variation, requiring as few as two predictor variables: i) average stand age - a canopy modifier predictor of albedo, and ii) stand elevation - a local climate predictor of a forest's potential albedo. The same model structure is used to derive monthly albedo models, with models for winter months generally found superior to summer models, and conifer models generally outperforming deciduous. We demonstrate how these statistical models can be applied to routine forest inventory data to predict the albedo

  20. Environmental surveillance for the INEL radioactive waste management complex. Annual report, 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wickham, L.E.; Janke, D.H.

    1980-12-01

    This document is the 1979 annual environmental surveillance report for the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Included are tabulated data from and discussions about routine radiological monitoring of atmospheric, hydrologic, geologic, and biotic environments of the RWMC. Also included are discussions of selected nonradiological pollutants (e.g., sodium, etc.). It is concluded that (a) RWMC operations have not adversely affected local, existing environments; (b) environmental conditions within the Transuranic Storage Area are not corrosive enough to adversely affect transuranic waste storage containers, and (c) the addition of lakebed soil to pit, trench, and soil test plot areas has altered the moisture cycle characteristic of RWMC soil

  1. 11. annual report of the technical advisory committee on the nuclear fuel waste management program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-10-01

    The Eleventh Annual Report of the Technical Advisory Committee (TAC) assesses the scientific and technical progress made within the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program (NFWMP) during the period July 1989 to June 1990. The Committee notes that the general concept of a multibarrier system involving geologic media and engineered systems is based on known technologies and current scientific knowledge, and has gained strong international scientific and engineering support as currently the most feasible and practical. TAC continues to endorse the full investigation of the concept of nuclear waste disposal deep in plutonic formations, such as those in the Canadian Shield

  2. Thirteenth annual U.S. DOE low-level radioactive waste management conference: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-12-31

    The 40 papers in this document comprise the proceedings of the Department of Energy`s Thirteenth Annual Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Conference that was held in Atlanta, Georgia, on November 19--21, 1991. General subjects addressed during the conference included: disposal facility design; greater-than-class C low-level waste; public acceptance considerations; waste certification; site characterization; performance assessment; licensing and documentation; emerging low-level waste technologies; waste minimization; mixed waste; tracking and transportation; storage; and regulatory changes. Papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  3. Analysis of pesticide residues in strawberries and soils by GC-MS/MS, LC-MS/MS and two-dimensional GC-time-of-flight MS comparing organic and integrated pest management farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Virgínia C; Lehotay, Steven J; Geis-Asteggiante, Lucía; Kwon, Hyeyoung; Mol, Hans G J; van der Kamp, Henk; Mateus, Nuno; Domingues, Valentina F; Delerue-Matos, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    This study analysed 22 strawberry and soil samples after their collection over the course of 2 years to compare the residue profiles from organic farming with integrated pest management practices in Portugal. For sample preparation, we used the citrate-buffered version of the quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) method. We applied three different methods for analysis: (1) 27 pesticides were targeted using LC-MS/MS; (2) 143 were targeted using low pressure GC-tandem mass spectrometry (LP-GC-MS/MS); and (3) more than 600 pesticides were screened in a targeted and untargeted approach using comprehensive, two-dimensional gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC × GC-TOF-MS). Comparison was made of the analyses using the different methods for the shared samples. The results were similar, thereby providing satisfactory confirmation of both similarly positive and negative findings. No pesticides were found in the organic-farmed samples. In samples from integrated pest management practices, nine pesticides were determined and confirmed to be present, ranging from 2 µg kg(-1) for fluazifop-p-butyl to 50 µg kg(-1) for fenpropathrin. Concentrations of residues in strawberries were less than European maximum residue limits.

  4. Alternatives to neonicotinoid insecticides for pest control: case studies in agriculture and forestry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlan, Lorenzo; Kreutzweiser, David

    2015-01-01

    Neonicotinoid insecticides are widely used for control of insect pests around the world and are especially pervasive in agricultural pest management. There is a growing body of evidence indicating that the broad-scale and prophylactic uses of neonicotinoids pose serious risks of harm to beneficial organisms and their ecological function. This provides the impetus for exploring alternatives to neonicotinoid insecticides for controlling insect pests. We draw from examples of alternative pest control options in Italian maize production and Canadian forestry to illustrate the principles of applying alternatives to neonicotinoids under an integrated pest management (IPM) strategy. An IPM approach considers all relevant and available information to make informed management decisions, providing pest control options based on actual need. We explore the benefits and challenges of several options for management of three insect pests in maize crops and an invasive insect pest in forests, including diversifying crop rotations, altering the timing of planting, tillage and irrigation, using less sensitive crops in infested areas, applying biological control agents, and turning to alternative reduced risk insecticides. Continued research into alternatives is warranted, but equally pressing is the need for information transfer and training for farmers and pest managers and the need for policies and regulations to encourage the adoption of IPM strategies and their alternative pest control options.

  5. An evaluation of multi-annual management strategies for ICES roundfish stocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kell, L.T.; Pilling, G.M.; Kirkwood, G.P.

    2006-01-01

    to observe, monitor, assess, and control them. Strategies were evaluated in terms of risk (measured as the probability of spawning-stock biomass falling below a biomass threshold for the stock) and cumulative yield. In general, bounds on interannual TAC change of 10% and 20% affected the ability to achieve......Current scientific management objectives for ICES roundfish stocks are to ensure conservation of the biological resource and do not explicitly consider economic or social objectives. For example, there are currently no objectives to maximize the sustainable yield or to reduce variability in total...... allowable catches (TACs). This is despite the fact that the current system can result in wide annual fluctuations in TAC, limiting the ability of the fishing industry to plan for the future. Therefore, this study evaluated management strategies that stabilized catches by setting bounds on the interannual...

  6. Fourteenth annual U.S. Department of Energy low-level radioactive waste management conference: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-03-01

    This document contains 69 papers that were presented at the Fourteenth Annual U.S. Department of Energy Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Conference, November 18--20, 1992, in Phoenix, Arizona. The papers address the following general topics: (a) Performance Management Track: risk assessment; waste characterization; site characterization; facility design; groundwater modeling; monitoring and modeling; and regulatory requirements; (b) Technical Track: waste minimization; new technologies; international perspectives; licensing issues; hot topics; commercial storage; DOE storage; treatment technologies; and mixed waste; and (c) Institutional Track: status report; changes in orders, regulations, and guidance; regulatory compliance issues; communicating risk; hot topics; and storage impacts. Papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  7. Review of major sweetpotato pests in Japan, with information on resistance breeding programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Yoshihiro; Kobayashi, Akira; Tabuchi, Hiroaki; Kuranouchi, Toshikazu

    2017-01-01

    Sweetpotato ( Ipomoeae batatas (L.) Lam.) is an important food crop affected by several pests throughout the world, especially in tropical, subtropical, and temperate regions. Although Japan is relatively free from many serious sweetpotato pests, some pests, especially soil-borne pathogens, viruses, and insects such as plant-parasitic nematodes and weevils, cause severe damage in Japan. In this review, we describe the current status and management options for sweetpotato pests and diseases in Japan and review research related to sweetpotato breeding that can promote resistance to these problems. Furthermore, we describe methods to evaluate resistance to pests and disease used in sweetpotato breeding at the National Agriculture and Food Research Organization (NARO).

  8. Proceedings of the seventh annual participants' information meeting. DOE Low-Level Waste Management Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-02-01

    The Seventh Annual Department of Energy (DOE) Low-Level Waste Management Program (LLWMP) Participants' Information Meeting was held September 10-13, 1985 in Las Vegas, Nevada. The purpose of the meeting was to provide a forum for exchange of information on low-level radioactive waste management activities, requirements, and plans. Attendees included representatives from the DOE Nuclear Energy and Defense Low-Level Waste Management Programs, interim operations offices and their contractor operators; representatives from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, US Environmental Protection Agency, US Geological Survey, and their contractors; representatives of states and regions responsible for development of new commercial low-level waste disposal facilities; representatives of Great Britain, France, and Canada; representatives of utilities, private contractors, and parties concerned with low-level waste management issues. The meeting was organized by topical areas to allow for the exchange of information and the promotion of discussion on specific aspects of low-level waste management. Plenary sessions were held at the start and conclusion of the meeting while seven concurrent topical sessions were held during the intervening day and a half. Session chairmen from each of these concurrent sessions presented a summary of the discussion and conclusions resulting from their respective sessions at the final plenary session

  9. Estimation of the annual flow and stock of marine debris in South Korea for management purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Yong Chang; Lee, Jongmyoung; Hong, Sunwook; Mok, Jin Yong; Kim, Kyoung Shin; Lee, Yun Jeong; Choi, Hyun-Woo; Kang, Hongmook; Lee, Sukhui

    2014-09-15

    The annual flow and stock of marine debris in the Sea of Korea was estimated by summarizing previous survey results and integrating them with other relevant information to underpin the national marine debris management plan. The annual inflow of marine debris was estimated to be 91,195 tons [32,825 tons (36% of the total) from sources on land and 58,370 tons (64%) from ocean sources]. As of the end of 2012, the total stock of marine debris on all South Korean coasts (12,029 tons), the seabed (137,761 tons), and in the water column (2451 tons) was estimated to be 152,241 tons. In 2012, 42,595 tons of marine debris was collected from coasts, seabeds, and the water column. This is a very rare case study that estimated the amount of marine debris at a national level, the results of which provide essential information for the development of efficient marine debris management policies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Vertebrate Pest Control. Sale Publication 4077.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stimmann, M. W.; Clark, Dell O.

    This guide gives descriptions of common vertebrate pests and guidelines for using some common pesticides. The pests discussed are rats, mice, bats, moles, muskrats, ground squirrels, and gophers. Information is given for each pest on the type of damage the pest can do, the habitat and biology of the pest, and the most effective control methods.…

  11. Crop domestication, global human-mediated migration, and the unresolved role of geography in pest control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda H. Chen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Ecological pest management seeks to improve pest control through the manipulation of ecological processes that promote natural enemies and suppress pests. These approaches can involve cultural practices such as reduced tillage, increased use of non-crop plants that provide food and shelter for natural enemies, and intercropping to enhance the abundance and diversity of natural enemies. A major assumption of ecological pest management is that these activities can be equally effective for all insect herbivores. Here, I propose that these strategies may only be effective for a subset of pests and geographic regions because most insect pests have complex evolutionary histories that make them difficult to manage. I discuss how crop domestication and human-mediated migration are major evolutionary events that shape the geography of interactions between plants, herbivores, and natural enemies. Insect herbivores can evolve to be pests through three major modes: 1 herbivores associated with the crop wild ancestor may shift onto the domesticated crop, 2 herbivores may host-shift from native host plants onto an introduced crop, or 3 human-mediated migration can introduce insect pests into new cropping regions. The resulting geographic structure can influence the success of pest management by altering ecological factors such as: species distributions, patterns of biodiversity, community structure, and natural enemy attack rates. I discuss how the different modes of insect pest evolution structure a set of relevant questions and approaches for ecological pest management. By acknowledging how agricultural history and geography shape the ecology and evolution of insect pests, we may collectively develop a better capacity to identify where and how ecological pest management approaches can be most broadly effective.

  12. Annual Report for 2008 - 2009 Detection Monitoring at the Environmental Management Waste Management Facility, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker J.R.

    2010-03-01

    This annual Environmental Monitoring Report (EMR) presents results of environmental monitoring performed during fiscal year (FY) 2009 (October 1, 2008 - September 30, 2009) at the Environmental Management Waste Management Facility (EMWMF). The EMWMF is an operating state-of-the-art hazardous waste landfill located in Bear Creek Valley (BCV) west of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee (Appendix A, Fig. A.1). Opened in 2002 and operated by a DOE prime contractor, Bechtel Jacobs Company LLC (BJC), the EMWMF was built specifically to accommodate disposal of acceptable solid wastes generated from Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) remedial actions for former waste sites and buildings that have been impacted by past DOE operations on the ORR and at DOE sites off the ORR within the state of Tennessee. Environmental monitoring at the EMWMF is performed to detect and monitor the impact of facility operations on groundwater, surface water, stormwater, and air quality and to determine compliance with applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements (ARARs) specified in governing CERCLA decision documents. Annually, the EMR presents an evaluation of the groundwater, surface water, stormwater, and air monitoring data with respect to the applicable EMWMF performance standards. The purpose of the evaluation is to: (1) identify monitoring results that indicate evidence of a contaminant release from the EMWMF to groundwater, surface water, stormwater, or air, and (2) recommend appropriate changes to the associated sampling and analysis requirements, including sampling locations, methods, and frequencies; field measurements; or laboratory analytes that may be warranted in response to the monitoring data. Sect. 2 of this annual EMR provides background information relevant to environmental monitoring at the landfill, including

  13. Short-range movement of major agricultural pests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vansteenwyk, R.

    1979-01-01

    Visual observations of population fluctuations which cannot be accounted for by either mortality or natality are presented. Lygus bugs in the westside of the San Joaquin Valley of California are used as an example. The dispersal of most agricultural pests in one of the less known facets of their biology is discussed. Results indicate a better understanding of insect movement is needed to develop a sound pest management program.

  14. Web Application Development by Applying the MVC and Table Data Gateway in the Annual Program Budget Management System

    OpenAIRE

    A. Medina-Santiago; A. Cisneros-Gómez; E. M. Melgar-Paniagua; G. B. Nango-Sólis; E. A. Moreno-López; M. E. Castellanos-Morales; D. B. Cantoral-Díaz; L. M. Blanco-Gonzalez

    2017-01-01

    This paper is the result of the development of the Web application to register the Annual Work Program, in which goals and actions are assigned the financial resources to manage the annual work program identified. In this paper, we have identified five types of users: the first is the Administrator, in charge of monitoring the goals programmed in the period, as well as the resource assigned to reach those goals; the second corresponds to the purchasing department who is in charge of contactin...

  15. Feed Materials Production Center Waste Management: Annual report for fiscal year 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watts, R.E.; Kottner, S.A.

    1986-01-01

    During FY-1986, the Westinghouse Materials Company of Ohio (WMCO) and the Department of Energy focused on safe storage and disposition of all wastes at the Feed Materials Production Center (FMPC) in compliance with federal and state regulations concerning waste management and worker health and safety. The Waste Management Annual Report identifies the comprehensive programs developed to achieve WMCO goals at the FMPC. The programs address waste issues which concern worker and public health and safety. Among those programs discussed are the decontamination, safe storage, and disposition of low-level and mixed hazardous radioactive waste. Principal attention and resources were allocated to programs which identify the largest waste streams (both currently generated and inventory backlogged). The most voluminous waste streams include low-level waste approved for shipment to the Nevada Test Site (MgF 2 slag, slag leach filter cake, and neutralized raffinate); remedial action wastes (K-65, stormwater runoff/effluent, and waste pits); thorium; and contaminated construction rubble and soil. Goals were established and met for the Waste Management Section in the form of completed milestones. The completed milestones involved such activities as characterization studies for the waste pits, K-65 Silos and adjacent areas; issuance of the Waste Management Plan required by DOE; analysis of decontamination alternatives for copper scrap; and analysis of silo structural integrity and remedial action alternatives

  16. Trading biodiversity for pest problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent shifts in agricultural practices have resulted in increased pesticide use, land use intensification, and landscape simplification, all of which threaten biodiversity in and near farms. Pests are major challenges to food security, and responses to pests can represent unintended socioeconomic a...

  17. Analysis of 44 Cases before the Landlord and Tenant Board Involving Bed Bug Infestations in Ontario, Canada: Focus on Adjudicator Decisions Based on Entomological/Pest Management Evidence and Accountability under the Residential Tenancy Act and Other Applicable Legislation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryks, Sam

    2011-01-01

    The resurgence of bed bugs in major urban centres in North America has resulted in conflict between landlords and tenants. This is commonly focused on attribution of blame for source of infestation, on responsibility, on costs for preparation, treatment and losses, and for compensation as rent abatement and/or alternative temporary housing. In Ontario, Canada, these issues are often decided by adjudicators at the Landlord and Tenant Board hearing claims, counter-claims and defense by legal representation (lawyers and paralegals) as well as through mediation. Evidence in these hearings may include photographs, invoices for costs as well as testimony by tenants, landlords and “expert witnesses” who are most often pest control firms representing their landlord clients. A total of 44 Landlord and Tenant Board adjudicated cases available online were analyzed. The analysis included elements of the decisions such as adjudicator, claimant (landlord or tenant), basis of claim, review of evidence, amount of claim, amount awarded, and evaluation of the quality of the evidence. The results of the analysis of these findings are discussed. Recommendations for improvement of adjudicator decisions on the basis of knowledge of bed bug biology and Integrated Pest Management best practices are presented as well as the importance of education of tenants and landlords to a process of mutual trust, support and accountability. PMID:26467732

  18. Analysis of 44 Cases before the Landlord and Tenant Board Involving Bed Bug Infestations in Ontario, Canada: Focus on Adjudicator Decisions Based on Entomological/Pest Management Evidence and Accountability under the Residential Tenancy Act and Other Applicable Legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryks, Sam

    2011-07-19

    The resurgence of bed bugs in major urban centres in North America has resulted in conflict between landlords and tenants. This is commonly focused on attribution of blame for source of infestation, on responsibility, on costs for preparation, treatment and losses, and for compensation as rent abatement and/or alternative temporary housing. In Ontario, Canada, these issues are often decided by adjudicators at the Landlord and Tenant Board hearing claims, counter-claims and defense by legal representation (lawyers and paralegals) as well as through mediation. Evidence in these hearings may include photographs, invoices for costs as well as testimony by tenants, landlords and "expert witnesses" who are most often pest control firms representing their landlord clients. A total of 44 Landlord and Tenant Board adjudicated cases available online were analyzed. The analysis included elements of the decisions such as adjudicator, claimant (landlord or tenant), basis of claim, review of evidence, amount of claim, amount awarded, and evaluation of the quality of the evidence. The results of the analysis of these findings are discussed. Recommendations for improvement of adjudicator decisions on the basis of knowledge of bed bug biology and Integrated Pest Management best practices are presented as well as the importance of education of tenants and landlords to a process of mutual trust, support and accountability.

  19. Profilaxia da peste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato dos Santos Araújo

    1967-12-01

    Full Text Available O autor parte da premissa de que a profilaxia da doença infecciosa decorre do encadeamento epidemiológico: fonte de infecção-veículo transmissor - receptivel, para explicar a da peste, baseada no mesmo princípio. Depois de citar os 4 principais complexos epidemiológicos da peste e afirmar que tôda a profilaxia da doença consiste em atingir os dois primeiros elos dessas cadeias e proteger o último, passa a classificar os vários métodos profiláticos empregados em 2 grandes grupos: o das medidas destrutivas ou provisórias e o das medidas supressivas ou definitivas. Entre as primeiras arrola a desratização e a despulização, às quais acrescenta o tratamento e isolamento do doente e do portaãor, e entre as segundas inclui a anti-ratização e a imunização. A seguir, passa a explicar em que consistem essas várias medidas profiláticas e quais os agentes de que se tem lançado mão para executá-las, expendendo ao curso dessa exposição o conceito que formula a respeito de cada uma delas, à guisa de apreciação do seu valor relativo. Enaltece sobretudo as medidas supressivas ou definitivas, às quais empresta a maior significação na luta antipestosa, chamando a atenção, em especial, para a necessidade de estudos imunológicos para aperfeiçoamento do poder imunitário das vacinas de germes vivos avirulentos, que considera um grande recurso para a profilaxia da doença, sobretudo para a proteção do rurícola, cujo labor e modo de vida o expõem inevitavelmente a se infectar, por ocasião da ocorrência de epizootias de origem silvestre. Concluída essa primeira parte, passa a fazer o histórico de como se desenvolveu a campanha contra a peste, no Brasil, desde a época da sua invasão em 1899 pelo pôrto de Santos até os nossos dias. Nesse histórico, detem-se um pouco para expôr a atuação do extinto Serviço Nacional de Peste, o qual, criado em 1941, após a reorganização do Departamento Nacional de Saúde, passou

  20. A Holling Type II Pest and Natural Enemy Model with Density Dependent IPM Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Resource limitations and density dependent releasing of natural enemies during the pest control and integrated pest management will undoubtedly result in nonlinear impulsive control. In order to investigate the effects of those nonlinear control strategies on the successful pest control, we have proposed a pest-natural enemy system concerning integrated pest management with density dependent instant killing rate and releasing rate. In particular, the releasing rate depicts how the number of natural enemy populations released was guided by their current density at the fixed moment. The threshold condition which ensures the existence and global stability of pest-free periodic solution has been discussed first, and the effects of key parameters on the threshold condition reveal that reducing the pulse period does not always benefit pest control; that is, frequent releasing of natural enemies may not be beneficial to the eradication of pests when the density dependent releasing method has been implemented. Moreover, the forward and backward bifurcations could occur once the pest-free periodic solution becomes unstable, and the system could exist with very complex dynamics. All those results confirm that the control actions should be carefully designed once the nonlinear impulsive control measures have been taken for pest management.

  1. Farmers’ perceptions of crop pest severity in Nigeria are associated with landscape, agronomic and socio-economic factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Wei; Kato, Edward; Bianchi, Felix; Bhandary, Prapti; Gort, Gerrit; Werf, van der Wopke

    2018-01-01

    Insect pests are a major cause of crop yield losses around the world and pest management plays a critical role in providing food security and farming income. This study links Nigerian farmers’ perceptions of pest severity to the landscape, agronomic, biophysical, and socio-economic context in which

  2. Early-season movement dynamics of phytophagous pest and natural enemies across a native vegetation-crop ecotone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Macfadyen, S.; Hopkinson, J.; Parry, H.; Neave, M.J.; Bianchi, F.J.J.A.; Zalucki, M.P.; Schellhorn, N.A.

    2015-01-01

    There is limited understanding about how insect movement patterns are influenced by landscape features, and how landscapes can be managed to suppress pest phytophage populations in crops. Theory suggests that the relative timing of pest and natural enemy arrival in crops may influence pest

  3. Proceedings of the fourth annual participants' information meeting, DOE Low-Level Waste Management Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Large, D.E.; Mezga, L.J.; Stratton, L.E.; Rose, R.R.

    1982-10-01

    The Fourth Annual Participants' Information Meeting of the Department of Energy Low-Level Waste Management Program was held in Denver, Colorado, August 31 to September 2, 1982. The purpose of the meeting was to report and evaluate technology development funded by the program and to examine mechanisms for technology transfer. The meeting consisted of an introductory plenary session, followed by two concurrent overview sessions and then six concurrent technical sessions. There were two group meetings to review the findings of the technical sessions. The meeting concluded with a plenary summary session in which the major findings of the meeting were addressed. All papers have been abstracted and indexed for the Energy Data Base

  4. Fuel management for off-load annual refuelling of the D-HHT 600 MW(e) reference core

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, U

    1973-03-16

    The reference design for the Dragon-HHT reactor has been optimised for on-load continuous refuelling. The possiblity to operate the reactor on a discontinuous annual reloading schedule might prove of interest and/or necessity. In this paper the influence of an annual 4-batch fuel management scheme on the core physics and fuel cycle economics is investigated. The results of the present investigation give a good indication of the relative merits of the two fuel management schemes. Although a broader parameter survey and a more detailed scrutinising of special cases would be desirable, we feel that the main conclusions are correct and that the principle differences have been elicited.

  5. Review of nonchemical methods for controlling stored products pests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignatowicz, S.

    1996-01-01

    Fumigation of stored products with methyl bromide has been an important means of limiting the loss of quality and quantity of these commodities that are subject to attack by cosmopolitan stored product pests. Methyl bromide was identified as a substance depleting ozone, and is expected to be withdrawn from production, importation, and use in Poland and other countries soon after 2000. Based on the current knowledge, most of alternatives to methyl bromide (controlled atmospheres, heat, cold, irradiation, biotechnical methods, inert dusts, biological methods, sanitation) have researchable gaps or other constraints. None of these alternatives used alone will replace methyl bromide. Successful pest control in the absence of methyl bromide will require the development of sophisticated pest monitoring and decision support systems to enable the use of integrated pest management strategies. (author)

  6. RNAi technology: a new platform for crop pest control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamta, B; Rajam, M V

    2017-07-01

    The insect pests are big threat in meeting the food demands for future generation. The present pest control strategies, including the existing transgenic approaches show certain limitations and are not completely successful in limiting the insect pests. However, the sequence-specific gene silencing via RNA interference (RNAi) holds a great promise for effective management of agricultural pests. RNAi is naturally occurring conserved process responsible for gene regulation and defense against pathogens. The efficacy of RNAi varies among different insect orders and also depends upon various factors, including the target gene selection, method of dsRNAs delivery, expression of dsRNAs and presence of off-target effects. RNAi-mediated silencing of different insect genes involved in various physiological processes was found to be detrimental to insects growth, development and survival. In this article, we have reviewed the potential of RNAi-based strategies for effective management of insect pests. We have also discussed the various parameters, which are to be considered for host-induced RNAi-mediated control of insect pests without producing any effect on non-target organisms and environment.

  7. Pest Control Section Biochemical Group, Progress Report 1982-86

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    Reserch efforts in the Pest Control Section, BARC, a continuator of insect sterilization and pest control section of the erstwhile Biology and Agriculture Division, were continued to develop integrated management practices for the control of important insect pests of agricultural and medical importance. Insect pests chosen are, ubiquitous potato tuberworm, a serious pest of potatoes, cotton bollworms with particular reference to spotted bollworms and a mosquito (Culex fatigans), a vector of filariasis. Keeping these insects as targets, research activities have been concentrated in the fields of biological control with parasities, pathogens and sterile insects, sex pheromones and insect plant interaction with a view to integrate pest management programme. Besides, the research activity also encompasses investigations of basic nature in the fields of insect sex pheromones, insect pathology and insect plant interaction. Studies on insect pheromones relate to the modifying influence of abiotic and biotic factors of the environment on pheromone production and perception and the possibility of insect developing resistance to pheromones. Studies in the field of insect plant interaction are directed towards identifying weak links in the insect plant relationship with a view to exploit them for developing control. Basic studies in the field of insect pathology relate to isolation and identification of entomopathogens, source of their pathogenecity, improvement in their virulence and formulation of cheaper and potent microbial insecticides. This report pertains to the period 1982-86. (Orig.). 11 tables, 5 figures

  8. An integrated pest management program as a pests control strategy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phukubje, Justice

    and document analysis tools. The findings of the survey revealed a significant ..... equipment, materials and know- how, cockroach control can be a ... and birds. • They go through the four life cycle stages of egg, larva, pupa, and imago (adult). • Always do a thorough inspection of collection; fleas can hide under mats with fur.

  9. Annual Report on Federal Government Energy Management and Conservation Programs, Fiscal Year 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-03-01

    Annual reports on Federal energy management respond to section 548 of the National Energy Conservation Policy Act (NECPA, Pub. L. No. 95-619), as amended, and provide information on energy consumption in Federal buildings, operations, and vehicles. Compiled by the Federal Energy Management Program, these reports document activities conducted by Federal agencies under the: Energy management and energy consumption requirements of section 543 of NECPA, as amended (42 U.S.C. § 8253); Energy savings performance contract authority of section 801 of NECPA, Pub. L. No. 95-619, as amended (42 U.S.C. §§ 8287-8287d); Renewable energy purchase goal of section 203 of the Energy Policy Act (EPAct) of 2005, Pub. L. No. 109-58 (codified at 42 U.S.C. § 15852); Federal building performance standard requirements under Section 109 of EPAct 2005, Pub. L. No. 109-58 (codified at 42 U.S.C. § 6834(a)); Requirements on the procurement and identification of energy efficient products under section 161 of EPAct 1992, Pub. L. No. 102-486 (codified at 42 U.S.C. § 8262g); Sections 431, 432, and 434 of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA), Pub. L. No. 110-140 (42 U.S.C. § 8253) and section 527 of EISA (42 U.S.C. § 17143); Executive Order 13423, Strengthening Federal Environmental, Energy, and Transportation Management, 72 Fed. Reg. 3,919 (Jan. 26, 2007); Executive Order 13514, Federal Leadership in Environmental, Energy, and Economic Performance, 74 Fed. Reg. 52,117 (Oct. 5, 2009).

  10. Annual Report on Federal Government Energy Management and Conservation Programs, Fiscal Year 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-04-01

    Annual reports on Federal energy management respond to section 548 of the National Energy Conservation Policy Act (NECPA, Pub. L. No. 95-619), as amended, and provide information on energy consumption in Federal buildings, operations, and vehicles. Compiled by the Federal Energy Management Program, these reports document activities conducted by Federal agencies under the: Energy management and energy consumption requirements of section 543 of NECPA, as amended (42 U.S.C. § 8253); Energy savings performance contract authority of section 801 of NECPA, Pub. L. No. 95-619, as amended (42 U.S.C. §§ 8287-8287d); Renewable energy purchase goal of section 203 of the Energy Policy Act (EPAct) of 2005, Pub. L. No. 109-58 (codified at 42 U.S.C. § 15852); Federal building performance standard requirements under Section 109 of EPAct 2005, Pub. L. No. 109-58 (codified at 42 U.S.C. § 6834(a)); Requirements on the procurement and identification of energy efficient products under section 161 of EPAct 1992, Pub. L. No. 102-486 (codified at 42 U.S.C. § 8262g); Sections 431, 432, and 434 of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA), Pub. L. No. 110-140 (42 U.S.C. § 8253) and section 527 of EISA (42 U.S.C. § 17143); Executive Order 13423, Strengthening Federal Environmental, Energy, and Transportation Management, 72 Fed. Reg. 3,919 (Jan. 26, 2007); Executive Order 13514, Federal Leadership in Environmental, Energy, and Economic Performance, 74 Fed. Reg. 52,117 (Oct. 5, 2009).

  11. Annual Report on Federal Government Energy Management and Conservation Programs, Fiscal Year 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-03-01

    Annual reports on Federal energy management respond to section 548 of the National Energy Conservation Policy Act (NECPA, Pub. L. No. 95-619), as amended, and provide information on energy consumption in Federal buildings, operations, and vehicles. Compiled by the Federal Energy Management Program, these reports document activities conducted by Federal agencies under the: Energy management and energy consumption requirements of section 543 of NECPA, as amended (42 U.S.C. § 8253); Energy savings performance contract authority of section 801 of NECPA, Pub. L. No. 95-619, as amended (42 U.S.C. §§ 8287-8287d); Renewable energy purchase goal of section 203 of the Energy Policy Act (EPAct) of 2005, Pub. L. No. 109-58 (codified at 42 U.S.C. § 15852); Federal building performance standard requirements under Section 109 of EPAct 2005, Pub. L. No. 109-58 (codified at 42 U.S.C. § 6834(a)); Requirements on the procurement and identification of energy efficient products under section 161 of EPAct 1992, Pub. L. No. 102-486 (codified at 42 U.S.C. § 8262g); Sections 431, 432, and 434 of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA), Pub. L. No. 110-140 (42 U.S.C. § 8253) and section 527 of EISA (42 U.S.C. § 17143); Executive Order 13423, Strengthening Federal Environmental, Energy, and Transportation Management, 72 Fed. Reg. 3,919 (Jan. 26, 2007); Executive Order 13514, Federal Leadership in Environmental, Energy, and Economic Performance, 74 Fed. Reg. 52,117 (Oct. 5, 2009).

  12. US Department of Energy National Solid Waste Information Management System (NSWIMS): Annual report for calendar year 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, W.L.

    1988-07-01

    The Solid Waste Information Management System (SWIMS) is the database used to gather information for the US Department of Energy (DOE) on DOE and Department of Defense solid low-level radioactive waste (LLW). The National SWIMS Annual Report (NSWIMS) provides officials of the DOE with management information on the entire DOE/defense solid LLW cycle. The acronym for the annual report, NSWIMS, signifies that an improved format has been developed to make this document a more useful tool for assessing solid LLW management performance. Part I provides a composite summary of the DOE/defense solid LLW management. It includes data related to waste generation, forecasting, treatment, and disposal. Part II contains SWIMS computer-supplied information with discussions of the data presented, standardized and simplified data tables, and revised figures. All data are presented without interpretation and are potentially useful to users for evaluating trends, identifying possible problem areas, and defining future implications. 33 figs., 29 tabs.

  13. Overview of the cocoa pod borer, conopomorpha cramerella (Lepidoptera, Gracillariidae), a major pest for the cocoa industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conopomorpha cramerella is one of the most devastating pests of cocoa in Southeast Asia. This pest is currently responsible of a 40-60% loss of the cocoa production, which is worth about $500 million annually for the Indonesian cocoa industry alone. Because the cocoa industry in Indonesia is mainly ...

  14. High tunnels: protection for rather than from insect pests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingwell, Laura L; Thompson, Sarah L; Kaplan, Ian; Foster, Ricky E

    2017-12-01

    High tunnels are a season extension tool creating a hybrid of field and greenhouse growing conditions. High tunnels have recently increased in the USA and thus research on their management is lacking. One purported advantage of these structures is protection from common field pests, but evidence to support this claim is lacking. We compared insect pest populations in high tunnels with field production over two years for three crops: tomato, broccoli and cucumber. Greenhouse pests (e.g. aphids, whiteflies) were more prevalent in high tunnels, compared to field plots. Hornworms (tobacco (Manduca sexta L.) and tomato (M. quinquemaculata Haworth)), a common field pest on tomato, were also more abundant in high tunnels, requiring chemical control while field populations were low. The crucifer caterpillar complex (imported cabbageworm (Pieris rapae L.), diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella L.) and cabbage looper (Trichoplusia ni Hübner)) was also more abundant in high tunnels in 2010. Cucumber beetle (striped (Acalymma vittatum F.) and spotted (Diabrotica undecimpunctata Mannerheim)) densities were higher in high tunnels in 2010 and field plots in 2011. The common assumption that high tunnels offer protection from field pests was not supported. Instead, high tunnel growing conditions may facilitate higher pest populations. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. 17 CFR 270.30b1-2 - Semi-annual report for totally-owned registered management investment company subsidiary of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...-owned registered management investment company subsidiary of registered management investment company...-owned registered management investment company subsidiary of registered management investment company... subsidiary of a registered management investment company need not file a semi-annual report on Form N-SAR if...

  16. Insect Pest Control Newsletter, No. 75, July 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-07-01

    In our last newsletter we reported that the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture is experiencing important changes as part of a major reform process that is ongoing at FAO since 2009, and which will be fully implemented by 2013, resulting in a more responsive and modern organization. Also at IAEA restructuring is taking place as a result of IAEA's new leadership and external reviews that made positive recommendations. These changes directly affect the operations of the Joint Division. Up to the end of 2009, the IAEA Laboratories in Seibersdorf and Monaco were administratively under separate management, although programmatically they always have been part of their respective Divisions at headquarters. This double leadership in the management structure was a source of inefficiencies in what should be seamless programme operations. As of 1 January 2010, in order to streamline, simplify and harmonize lines of authority and accountability, laboratory activities and staff have been aligned with their respective programmes. In the case of the FAO/IAEA Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratories in Seibersdorf, this means that its five units (including the Entomology Unit) have been fully integrated into the respective subprogrammes under the Director of the Joint Division, who was given full authority and accountability for all programmatic and administrative functions regarding the management of the activities of the FAO/IAEA Laboratories. It is expected that this streamlining will lead to more opportunities for Seibersdorf staff to play a greater role in programme development and will result in improved programme delivery to our Member States. You will notice in this newsletter that, as part of the streamlining, the name of the Entomology Unit, which has been in use since the 1960s, has been officially changed to Insect Pest Control Laboratory (IPCL). Aside from the name change we do not anticipate any real changes in the implementation

  17. Insect Pest Control Newsletter, No. 75, July 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-15

    In our last newsletter we reported that the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture is experiencing important changes as part of a major reform process that is ongoing at FAO since 2009, and which will be fully implemented by 2013, resulting in a more responsive and modern organization. Also at IAEA restructuring is taking place as a result of IAEA's new leadership and external reviews that made positive recommendations. These changes directly affect the operations of the Joint Division. Up to the end of 2009, the IAEA Laboratories in Seibersdorf and Monaco were administratively under separate management, although programmatically they always have been part of their respective Divisions at headquarters. This double leadership in the management structure was a source of inefficiencies in what should be seamless programme operations. As of 1 January 2010, in order to streamline, simplify and harmonize lines of authority and accountability, laboratory activities and staff have been aligned with their respective programmes. In the case of the FAO/IAEA Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratories in Seibersdorf, this means that its five units (including the Entomology Unit) have been fully integrated into the respective subprogrammes under the Director of the Joint Division, who was given full authority and accountability for all programmatic and administrative functions regarding the management of the activities of the FAO/IAEA Laboratories. It is expected that this streamlining will lead to more opportunities for Seibersdorf staff to play a greater role in programme development and will result in improved programme delivery to our Member States. You will notice in this newsletter that, as part of the streamlining, the name of the Entomology Unit, which has been in use since the 1960s, has been officially changed to Insect Pest Control Laboratory (IPCL). Aside from the name change we do not anticipate any real changes in the implementation

  18. Ran Involved in the Development and Reproduction Is a Potential Target for RNA-Interference-Based Pest Management in Nilaparvata lugens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai-Long Li

    Full Text Available Ran (RanGTPase in insects participates in the 20-hydroxyecdysone signal transduction pathway in which downstream genes, FTZ-F1, Krüppel-homolog 1 (Kr-h1 and vitellogenin, are involved. A putative Ran gene (NlRan was cloned from Nilaparvata lugens, a destructive phloem-feeding pest of rice. NlRan has the typical Ran primary structure features that are conserved in insects. NlRan showed higher mRNA abundance immediately after molting and peaked in newly emerged female adults. Among the examined tissues ovary had the highest transcript level, followed by fat body, midgut and integument, and legs. Three days after dsNlRan injection the NlRan mRNA abundance in the third-, fourth-, and fifth-instar nymphs was decreased by 94.3%, 98.4% and 97.0%, respectively. NlFTZ-F1 expression levels in treated third- and fourth-instar nymphs were reduced by 89.3% and 23.8%, respectively. In contrast, NlKr-h1 mRNA levels were up-regulated by 67.5 and 1.5 folds, respectively. NlRan knockdown significantly decreased the body weights, delayed development, and killed >85% of the nymphs at day seven. Two apparent phenotypic defects were observed: (1 Extended body form, and failed to molt; (2 The cuticle at the notum was split open but cannot completely shed off. The newly emerged female adults from dsNlRan injected fifth-instar nymphs showed lower levels of NlRan and vitellogenin, lower weight gain and honeydew excretion comparing with the blank control, and no offspring. Those results suggest that NlRan encodes a functional protein that was involved in development and reproduction. The study established proof of concept that NlRan could serve as a target for dsRNA-based pesticides for N. lugens control.

  19. Dynamic complexities in a pest control model with birth pulse and harvesting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goel, A., E-mail: goelanju23@gmail.com; Gakkhar, S., E-mail: sungkfma@iitr.ernet.in [Department of Mathematics, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee, Uttarakhand 247667 (India)

    2016-04-06

    In this paper, an impulsive model is discussed for an integrated pest management approach comprising of chemical and mechanical controls. The pesticides and harvesting are used to control the stage-structured pest population. The mature pest give birth to immature pest in pulses at regular intervals. The pest is controlled by spraying chemical pesticides affecting immature as well as mature pest. The harvesting of both immature and mature pest further reduce the pest population. The discrete dynamical system obtained from stroboscopic map is analyzed. The threshold conditions for stability of pest-free state as well as non-trivial period-1 solution is obtained. The effect of pesticide spray timing and harvesting on immature as well as mature pest are shown. Finally, by numerical simulation with MATLAB, the dynamical behaviors of the model is found to be complex. Above the threshold level there is a characteristic sequence of bifurcations leading to chaotic dynamics. Route to chaos is found to be period-doubling. Period halving bifurcations are also observed.

  20. Dynamic complexities in a pest control model with birth pulse and harvesting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goel, A.; Gakkhar, S.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, an impulsive model is discussed for an integrated pest management approach comprising of chemical and mechanical controls. The pesticides and harvesting are used to control the stage-structured pest population. The mature pest give birth to immature pest in pulses at regular intervals. The pest is controlled by spraying chemical pesticides affecting immature as well as mature pest. The harvesting of both immature and mature pest further reduce the pest population. The discrete dynamical system obtained from stroboscopic map is analyzed. The threshold conditions for stability of pest-free state as well as non-trivial period-1 solution is obtained. The effect of pesticide spray timing and harvesting on immature as well as mature pest are shown. Finally, by numerical simulation with MATLAB, the dynamical behaviors of the model is found to be complex. Above the threshold level there is a characteristic sequence of bifurcations leading to chaotic dynamics. Route to chaos is found to be period-doubling. Period halving bifurcations are also observed.